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Sample records for acute mood episodes

  1. Perinatal episodes across the mood disorder spectrum.

    PubMed

    Di Florio, Arianna; Forty, Liz; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Heron, Jess; Jones, Lisa; Craddock, Nicholas; Jones, Ian

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Affective disorders are common in women, with many episodes having an onset in pregnancy or during the postpartum period. OBJECTIVE To investigate the occurrence and timing of perinatal mood episodes in women with bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and recurrent major depression (RMD). SETTING AND PATIENTS Women were recruited in our ongoing research on the genetic and nongenetic determinants of major affective disorders. Participants were interviewed and case notes were reviewed. Best-estimate diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV criteria. The 1785 parous women identified included 1212 women with bipolar disorder (980 with type I and 232 with type II) and 573 with RMD. Data were available on 3017 live births. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We report the lifetime occurrence of perinatal mood episodes, the rates of perinatal episodes per pregnancy/postpartum period, and the timing of the onset of episodes in relation to delivery. RESULTS More than two-thirds of all diagnostic groups reported at least 1 lifetime episode of illness during pregnancy or the postpartum period. Women with bipolar I disorder reported an approximately 50% risk of a perinatal major affective episode per pregnancy/postpartum period. Risks were lower in women with RMD or bipolar II disorder, at approximately 40% per pregnancy/postpartum period. Mood episodes were significantly more common in the postpartum period in bipolar I disorder and RMD. Most perinatal episodes occurred within the first postpartum month, with mania or psychosis having an earlier onset than depression. CONCLUSIONS Although episodes of postpartum mood disorder are more common in bipolar I disorder and manic and psychotic presentations occur earlier in the postpartum period, perinatal episodes are highly prevalent across the mood disorder spectrum. PMID:23247604

  2. Empirical typology of bipolar I mood episodes*

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, David A.; Leon, Andrew C.; Endicott, Jean; Coryell, William H.; Li, Chunshan; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Keller, Martin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Much remains unknown about the phenomenology of bipolar I disorder. Aims To determine the type of bipolar I mood episodes that occur over time, and their relative frequency. Method A total of 219 individuals with Research Diagnostic Criteria bipolar I disorder were prospectively followed for up to 25 years (median 20 years). Psychopathology was assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. Results Overall, 1208 mood episodes were prospectively observed. The episodes were empirically classified as follows: major depression, 30.9% (n = 373); minor depression, 13.0% (n = 157); mania, 20.4% (n = 246); hypomania, 10.4% (n = 126); cycling, 17.3% (n = 210); cycling plus mixed state, 7.8% (n = 94); and mixed, 0.2% (n = 2). Conclusions Cycling episodes constituted 25% of all episodes. Work groups revising ICD–10 and DSM–IV should add a category for bipolar I cycling episode. PMID:19949203

  3. Episodic Mood Changes Preceding an Exacerbation of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priya; Morrow, Sarah A.; Owen, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a neurologic inflammatory disease that can manifest with psychiatric symptoms. Although depression is the most common psychiatric diagnosis in patients with multiple sclerosis, how depression develops is not fully understood. We present the case of an individual who displayed episodic mood changes preceding an exacerbation of multiple sclerosis symptoms. The clinical and research implications of this association are discussed. PMID:26835163

  4. Longitudinal associations between interpersonal relationship functioning and mood episode severity in youth with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Rebecca S; Hoeppner, Bettina; Yen, Shirley; Stout, Robert L; Weinstock, Lauren M; Hower, Heather M; Birmaher, Boris; Goldstein, Tina R; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Hunt, Jeffrey I; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David A; Gill, Mary Kay; Keller, Martin B

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between mood episode severity and relationships in youth with bipolar (BP) disorder. Participants were 413 Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study youth, aged 12.6 ± 3.3 years. Monthly ratings of relationships (parents, siblings, and friends) and mood episode severity were assessed by the Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation Psychosocial Functioning Schedule and Psychiatric Rating Scales, on average, every 8.2 months over 5.1 years. Correlations examined whether participants with increased episode severity also reported poorer relationships and whether fluctuations in episode severity predicted fluctuations in relationships, and vice versa. Results indicated that participants with greater mood episode severity also had worse relationships. Longitudinally, participants had largely stable relationships. To the extent that there were associations, changes in parental relationships may precede changes in episode severity, although the magnitude of this finding was small. Findings have implications for relationship interventions in BP youth. PMID:25668652

  5. Longitudinal Associations Between Interpersonal Relationship Functioning and Mood Episode Severity in Youth with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Rebecca S.; Hoeppner, Bettina; Yen, Shirley; Stout, Robert L; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Hower, Heather M.; Birmaher, Boris; Goldstein, Tina R.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David A.; Gill, Mary Kay; Keller, Martin B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between mood episode severity and relationships in BP youth. Participants were 413 Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study youth, aged 12.6 ± 3.3 years. Monthly ratings of relationships (parents, siblings, and friends) and mood episode severity were assessed by the Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation (ALIFE) Psychosocial Functioning Schedule (PFS) and Psychiatric Rating Scales (PSR) on average every 8.2 months over 5.1 years. Correlations examined whether participants with increased episode severity also reported poorer relationships, and also examined whether fluctuations in episode severity predicted fluctuations in relationships, and vice versa. Results indicated that participants with greater mood episode severity also had worse relationships. Longitudinally, participants had largely stable relationships. To the extent that there were associations, changes in parental relationships may precede changes in episode severity, although the magnitude of this finding was small. Findings have implications for relationship interventions in BP youth. PMID:25668652

  6. Lateralized differences in tympanic membrane temperature, but not induced mood, are related to episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Propper, Ruth E; Barr, Taylor D; Brunyé, Tad T

    2015-03-01

    The present research examined the effects of pre-encoding and pre-recall induced mood on episodic memory. It was hypothesized that happy and/or angry mood prior to encoding (increasing left hemisphere activity), in tandem with fearful mood prior to recall (increasing right hemisphere activity) would be associated with superior episodic memory. It was also hypothesized that tympanic membrane measures (TMT), indicative of hemispheric activity, would change as a function of induced mood. Although subjectively-experienced mood induction was successful, pre-encoding and pre-recall mood did not alter memory, and only altered TMT in the pre-encoding fear and pre-recall angry mood induction conditions. Interestingly, baseline absolute difference between left and right TMT, a measure of differential hemispheric activity, regardless of the direction of that activity, was significantly positively related to number of total words written, number of correctly recalled words, and corrected recall score. This same TMT measure pre-encoding, regardless of specific mood, was significantly negatively related to false recall. Results are discussed in terms the HERA model of episodic memory, and in the nature of interhemispheric interaction involved in episodic recall. PMID:25647603

  7. The effects of an acute psychosocial stressor on episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2009-01-01

    Although stressors are believed to impair memory, experimental studies with humans have provided inconsistent support for this conclusion. The current study was designed to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stressor, and subsequent reactivity, on episodic memory. One hundred participants completed a list-recall task before and after random assignment into a stressor or nonstressor condition. Participants assigned to the stressor condition exhibited both impaired delayed and immediate recall, and also exhibited increasesin the commission of intrusions and perseverations. The experience of off-task thoughts and intentional suppression of such thoughts, were associated with greater impairment of immediate recall. Changes in state anxiety, negative mood, and heart rate were unrelated to changes in memory. These data indicate that exposure to a stressor impaired the recall of previously learned information, and compromised the recall of newly acquired information. Furthermore, cognitive interference is an important factor regarding stress-related impairments of episodic memory. memory. PMID:19727439

  8. Anabolic steroids and acute schizophrenic episode.

    PubMed

    Annitto, W J; Layman, W A

    1980-04-01

    The use of anabolic steroids by athletes to increase physical performance has vastly increased over the last 10 years. A case is described which temporally relates the use of these organic compounds with the development of an acute schizophreniform illness. The dearth of literature on this particular "side-effect" is noted, as are the diagnostic implications vis-a-vis anabolic steroids and the anamnestic interview in an athlete who presents with an acute schizophrenic mental status examination. Recommendation is made to consider this "side-effect" in differential diagnosis of schizophrenic episode. PMID:7364737

  9. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations. PMID:24172303

  10. Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and short-lived episodes of mania like symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with short (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or short-lived episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations. PMID:22569307

  11. Respiratory symptoms and acute painful episodes in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Eufemia; Sockrider, Marianna M; Dinu, Marlen; Acosta, Monica; Mueller, Brigitta U

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and determined whether respiratory symptoms were associated with prevalence of chest pain and number of acute painful episodes in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Participants (N = 93; 44 females, 49 males; mean age 9.8 +/- 4.3 years) reported coughing in the morning (21.5%), at night (31.2%), and during exercise (30.1%). Wheezing occurred both when they had a cold or infection (29.0%) and when they did not have (23.7%) a cold or infection. Sleep was disturbed by wheezing in 20.4%. Among the 76 patients who were school-age (>5 years), 19.7% of patients missed more than 4 days of school because of respiratory symptoms. The majority of patients reported having acute painful episodes (82.8%), and most (66.7%) reported having chest pain during acute painful episodes in the previous 12 months. Participants with acute pain episodes greater than 3 during the previous 12 months had significantly higher reports of breathing difficulties (P = .01) and chest pain (P = .002). The high number of respiratory symptoms (cough and wheeze) among patients with sickle cell disease may trigger acute painful episodes. Early screening and recognition, ongoing monitoring, and proactive management of respiratory symptoms may minimize the number of acute painful episodes. PMID:20038672

  12. Episode-Specific Drinking-to-Cope Motivation, Daily Mood, and Fatigue-Related Symptoms Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Armeli, Stephen; O’Hara, Ross E; Ehrenberg, Ethan; Sullivan, Tami P; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study was to examine whether within-person, episode-specific changes in drinking-to-cope (DTC) motivation from the previous evening were associated with concurrent daily mood and fatigue-related symptoms among college student drinkers (N = 1,421; 54% female). Method: We conducted an Internet-based daily diary study in which students reported over 30 days on their previous night’s drinking level and motivation and their current mood (i.e., sadness, anxiety, anger/hostility, and positive mood) and fatigue-related symptoms. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear models in which the current day’s outcome was predicted by last night’s levels of DTC motivation and drinking, controlling for drinking to enhance motivation, sex, current day’s physical symptoms and drinking, and yesterday’s level of the outcome. Subsequent models also predicted outcomes 2 days following the drinking event. Results: Relative increases in previous night’s DTC motivation were associated with higher levels of current day negative mood and fatigue-related symptoms and lower levels of positive mood. Also, the association between episode-specific DTC motivation and negative mood was stronger in the positive direction when individuals reported higher levels of nonsocial drinking from the previous night. Last, episode-specific DTC showed similar associations with sadness and anger/hostility 2 days after the drinking event. Conclusions: The results are generally consistent with the posited attention allocation and ego-depletion mechanisms. Findings suggest that the deleterious effects of repeated episodes of DTC, over time, could help to explain the increased likelihood of alcohol-related problems seen in prior studies PMID:25208194

  13. Pycnogenol treatment of acute hemorrhoidal episodes.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Errichi, Bruno; Di Renzo, Andrea; Grossi, Maria Giovanna; Ricci, Andrea; Dugall, Mark; Cornelli, Umberto; Cacchio, Marisa; Rohdewald, Peter

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the efficacy of orally and topically applied Pycnogenol for the management of acute hemorrhoidal attacks in a controlled, randomized study with 84 subjects. Within less than 48 h of onset of an acute attack, patients were enrolled and signs and symptoms were scored. This evaluation was repeated after seven days' treatment and again seven days following treatment cessation. The decrease in scores was significantly more pronounced in the Pycnogenol-treated groups than in the control group given placebo (p < 0.05), showing the efficacy of Pycnogenol for relieving signs and symptoms of acute external hemorrhoids. In a group of patients given topical (0.5%) Pycnogenol in addition to oral Pycnogenol the improvement in symptoms set in significantly faster and was more pronounced. The most prominent symptom, hemorrhoidal bleeding, was completely absent in all patients treated with Pycnogenol for seven days and also at the 14 days follow-up. In contrast, bleedings were still observed in the control group during the two weeks follow-up. This study indicates that Pycnogenol, both in oral and in topical form, is effective for controlling this common, disabling health problem. The application of Pycnogenol eases the management of acute hemorrhoidal attacks and help avoid bleedings. PMID:20041428

  14. Mood variability predicts the course of suicidal ideation in individuals with first and second episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Shryane, Nick; Taylor, Peter; Lewis, Shôn; Drake, Richard

    2013-04-30

    Suicide risk is high in early psychosis. Recent research has suggested that mood variability may be associated with levels of suicidal thoughts and behaviour. This has not been investigated in individuals during and following a first or second episode of non-affective psychosis. Repeated-measures data over 18 months from a large randomised controlled trial for cognitive behaviour therapy (N=309) were analysed using latent growth curve modelling, whereby both the variability and the level of depression, anxiety and guilt were entered as predictors of suicidality. The variability of depression, but not guilt and anxiety, predicted the course of suicidality even when controlling for a large range of potential confounders. The level of depression, anxiety and guilt for each participant also strongly predicted the development of suicidality. The findings support the theory that variability in depression may contribute to the formation of suicidal ideation and related behaviour. More variable depression may be harder to predict and intervene against, and therefore increase the likelihood that suicidality escalates. The levels of emotions may also be an important determinant. This has implications for the treatment and assessment of suicidality in early psychosis. PMID:23234757

  15. Meteorological parameters and severity of acute pulmonary embolism episodes.

    PubMed

    Staśkiewicz, Grzegorz; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Przegaliński, Jerzy; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pachowicz, Marcin; Drop, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of acute pulmonary embolism episodes has been previously shown to correlate significantly with meteorological factors in the period preceding their occurrence. The purpose of the study was to analyze the relation of meteorological factors and the severity of acute pulmonary embolism, expressed by the CT-based pulmonary obstruction score. A retrospective analysis of medical data of 182 consecutive patients with acute pulmonary embolism diagnosed with CT pulmonary angiography was performed. Severity of pulmonary obstruction was assessed by analysis of CT pulmonary angiography examinations, and defined with pulmonary obstruction score by Qanadli et al. The study group was divided into low (L group, 95 patients) and high PE severity (H group, 87 patients), with a cutoff value of 50% of maximum pulmonary obstruction score. Meteorological data collected for the relevant time period were: air temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, visibility, wind speed and precipitation. No significant differences in seasonal distribution of pulmonary embolism episodes were observed. Episodes of more severe pulmonary embolism were preceded by periods of lower atmospheric pressure (1,016.35 hPA for group H, vs. 1,016.35 hPa for group L, p = 0.022). No significant relations between other meteorological factors and severity of PE were observed. The reported finding shows the need of further research on the nature of meteorological factors influence on the course of pulmonary embolism, which should be analyzed not ony regarding the frequency, but also severity of PE episodes. PMID:21736277

  16. Acute and medium term effects of a 10-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Katrin; von Haaren, Birte; Löffler, Simone; Härtel, Sascha; Jansen, Carl-Philipp; Werner, Christian; Stumpp, Jürgen; Bös, Klaus; Hey, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants' physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can impact results. In addition the transition from mood enhancement induced by acute exercise to medium or long-term effects due to regular exercise is not yet determined. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effects of an aerobic running training on mood and trends in medium term changes of mood in everyday life of young adults. We conducted a 10-week aerobic endurance training with frequent mood assessments and continuous activity monitoring. 23 apprentices, separated into experimental and control group, were monitored over 12 weeks. To control the effectiveness of the aerobic exercise program, participants completed a progressive treadmill test pre and post the intervention period. The three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness were assessed via electronic diaries. Participants had to rate their mood state frequently on 3 days a week at five times of measurement within 12 weeks. Participants' physical activity was assessed with accelerometers. All mood dimensions increased immediately after acute endurance exercise but results were not significant. The highest acute mood change could be observed in valence (p = 0.07; η2 = 0.27). However, no medium term effects in mood states could be observed after a few weeks of endurance training. Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the development of

  17. Macrolides for Acute Wheezing Episodes in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program's Expert Panel Report 3, Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma does not recommend antibiotics for the management of acute episodes of asthma exacerbation. Macrolides seem to have some potential effect beyond or in addition to their antibacterial effect. It has been reported that macrolides may potentially benefit patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases due to their antibacterial, antiviral, and/or anti-inflammatory effects. This review presents recent data on use of azithromycin in prevention and management of acute exacerbation of respiratory symptoms in infants and young children. PMID:27458539

  18. Optimal duration of risperidone or olanzapine adjunctive therapy to mood stabilizer following remission of a manic episode: A CANMAT randomized double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Yatham, L N; Beaulieu, S; Schaffer, A; Kauer-Sant'Anna, M; Kapczinski, F; Lafer, B; Sharma, V; Parikh, S V; Daigneault, A; Qian, H; Bond, D J; Silverstone, P H; Walji, N; Milev, R; Baruch, P; da Cunha, A; Quevedo, J; Dias, R; Kunz, M; Young, L T; Lam, R W; Wong, H

    2016-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate is effective in treating acute mania. Although continuation of atypical antipsychotic adjunctive therapy after mania remission reduces relapse of mood episodes, the optimal duration is unknown. As many atypical antipsychotics cause weight gain and metabolic syndrome, they should not be continued unless the benefits outweigh the risks. This 52-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial recruited patients with bipolar I disorder (n=159) who recently remitted from a manic episode during treatment with risperidone or olanzapine adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate. Patients were randomized to one of three conditions: discontinuation of risperidone or olanzapine and substitution with placebo at (i) entry (‘0-weeks' group) or (ii) at 24 weeks after entry (‘24-weeks' group) or (iii) continuation of risperidone or olanzapine for the full duration of the study (‘52-weeks' group). The primary outcome measure was time to relapse of any mood episode. Compared with the 0-weeks group, the time to any mood episode was significantly longer in the 24-weeks group (hazard ratio (HR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33, 0.86) and nearly so in the 52-weeks group (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.02). The relapse rate was similar in the 52-weeks group compared with the 24-weeks group (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.99); however, sub-group analysis showed discordant results between the two antipsychotics (HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.17; 1.32 olanzapine patients; HR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.41 risperidone patients). Average weight gain was 3.2 kg in the 52-weeks group compared with a weight loss of 0.2 kg in the 0-weeks and 0.1 kg in the 24-weeks groups. These findings suggest that risperidone or olanzapine adjunctive therapy for 24 weeks is beneficial but continuation of risperidone beyond this period does not reduce the risk of relapse. Whether continuation of olanzapine beyond this period reduces relapse risk remains

  19. Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder: from acute episode to remission.

    PubMed

    Volkert, J; Schiele, M A; Kazmaier, Julia; Glaser, Friederike; Zierhut, K C; Kopf, J; Kittel-Schneider, S; Reif, A

    2016-04-01

    Considerable evidence demonstrates that neuropsychological deficits are prevalent in bipolar disorder during both acute episodes and euthymia. However, it is less clear whether these cognitive disturbances are state- or trait-related. We here present the first longitudinal study employing a within-subject pre- and post-testing examining acutely admitted bipolar patients (BP) in depression or mania and during euthymia, aiming to identify cognitive performance from acute illness to remission. Cognitive performance was measured during acute episodes and repeated after at least 3 months of remission. To do so, 55 BP (35 depressed, 20 hypo-/manic) and 55 healthy controls (HC) were tested with a neuropsychological test battery (attention, working memory, verbal memory, executive functioning). The results showed global impairments in acutely ill BP compared to HC: depressed patients showed a characteristic psychomotor slowing, while manic patients had severe deficits in executive functioning. Twenty-nine remitted BP could be measured in the follow-up (dropout rate 48 %), whose cognitive functions partially recovered, whereas working memory and verbal memory were still impaired. However, we found that subthreshold depressive symptoms and persisting sleep disturbances in euthymic BP were associated with reduced speed, deficits in attention and verbal memory, while working memory was correlated with psychotic symptoms (lifetime). This result indicates working memory as trait related for a subgroup of BP with psychotic symptoms. In contrast, attention and verbal memory are negatively influenced by state factors like residual symptoms, which should be more considered as possible confounders in the search of cognitive endophenotypes in remitted BP. PMID:26611783

  20. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    PubMed

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time. PMID:26522742

  1. Temperament and Character in Euthymic Major Depressive Disorder Patients: The Effect of Previous Suicide Attempts and Psychotic Mood Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Yakup; Ekinci, Aslı Erkan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine personality traits of patients with major depressive disorder and explore the possible connections between personality and clinical and sociodemographic variables. Methods The sociodemographic and clinical properties of 80 patients with major depression, who were euthymic according to Hamilton Depression Scale scores, were recorded. Their personality was evaluated by using Temperament and Character Inventory and results were compared with 80 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We used general linear model analysis to evaluate the manner in which the variables contributed to TCI scores. Results Remitted depressive patients scored significantly lower on on self-directedness and higher on harm avoidance than HC. Previous suicide attempts had a main effect only on harm avoidance while previous psychotic mood episodes were significantly associated with novelty seeking, self-directedness and cooperativeness. With respect to numeric clinical variables, only duration of illness was significantly and negatively correlated with NS and RD scores. Conclusion Patients with euthymic major depressive disorder may have significantly different personality traits than the normal population, and patients with different clinical and sociodemographic characteristics may show different personality patterns. In addition, assessment of major depressed patients by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory may be helpful to get a deeper insight into those personality traits underlying suicidality and the emergence of psychotic mood episode. PMID:22707961

  2. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder versus Severe Mood Dysregulation: Risk for Manic Episodes on Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringaris, Argyris; Baroni, Argelinda; Haimm, Caroline; Brotman, Melissa; Lowe, Catherine H.; Myers, Frances; Rustgi, Eileen; Wheeler, Wanda; Kayser, Reilly; Towbin, Kenneth; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: An important question in pediatric bipolar research is whether marked nonepisodic irritability is a manifestation of bipolar disorder in youth. This study tests the hypothesis that youth with severe mood dysregulation (SMD), a category created for the purpose of studying children presenting with severe nonepisodic irritability, will be…

  3. The acute and preventative treatment of episodic migraine

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Episodic migraine is a common debilitating condition with significant worldwide impact. An effective management plan must include acute treatment to relieve the pain and potential disability associated with the attacks and may also include preventative treatments with an aim of decreasing attack frequency and severity in the longer term. Acute treatments must be limited to a maximum of 2-3 days a week to prevent medication overuse headache and focus on simple analgesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and triptans. Preventative treatments are numerous and should be considered when migraine attacks are frequent and or disabling, acute medication is failing, in special circumstances such as hemiplegic migraines or if the patient requests them. All preventative medications must be given at therapeutic doses for at least 6-8 weeks before an adequate trial can be judged ineffective. The most important factor in choosing drugs is the patient and the clinical features of their attack and treatment should be tailored to these. Relative co-morbidities will influence drug choice, as will the side effect profile and the efficacy of the drug. First line preventative drugs include ß-blockers, amitriptyline and anti-epileptic drugs such as topiramate and valproate. Drugs with lower efficacy or poorer side effect profiles include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), calcium channel antagonists, gabapentin and herbal medicines. PMID:23024562

  4. The Burden of Repeated Mood Episodes in Bipolar I Disorder: Results From the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Amy T; West, Amy E; Eisner, Lori; Baek, Jihyun; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between previous mood episodes and clinical course/functioning in a community sample (National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions [NESARC]). Subjects (n = 909) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, criteria for bipolar I disorder and provided data on number of previous episode recurrences. Number of previous mood episodes was used to predict outcomes at wave 1 and wave 2 of the NESARC. Previous mood episodes accounted for small but unique variance in outcomes. Recurrence was associated with poorer functioning, psychiatric and medical comorbidity, and increased odds of suicidality, disability, unemployment, and hospitalization at wave 1. Recurrences were associated with greater risk for new onset suicidality, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, unemployment, and poor functioning by wave 2. The course of bipolar disorder does worsen with progressive mood episodes but is attenuated in community, relative to clinical samples. Interventions to prevent future relapse may be particularly important to implement early in the course of illness. PMID:26588078

  5. Cortisol response to acute stress in asthma: Moderation by depressive mood.

    PubMed

    Trueba, Ana F; Simon, Erica; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Both individuals with asthma and depression show signs of a dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, little is known about the cortisol response to stress in the context of co-occurring asthma and depressive mood. Thirty-nine individuals with asthma and 41 healthy controls underwent a combined speech and mental arithmetic stressor. During the course of the laboratory session, salivary cortisol was collected 5 times, with 1 sample at 0min before the stressor and 4 samples at 0, 15, 30 and 45min after the stressor. Depressive mood in the past week was assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the beginning of the session. Depressive symptoms moderated cortisol response to the acute stressor, but only among asthmatic patients. Higher depressive mood was associated with a significant increase in cortisol, whereas low depressive mood was associated with no cortisol response. In healthy participants, depressive mood had no substantial effect on cortisol response to the stressor. These findings suggest that depressive mood and chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma can interact to augment cortisol response to stress. PMID:26965527

  6. Mood stabilizer psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Todd D.; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K.

    2012-01-01

    Mood stabilizers represent a class of drugs that are efficacious in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The most established medications in this class are lithium, valproic acid, and carbamazepine. In addition to their therapeutic effects for treatment of acute manic episodes, these medications often are useful as prophylaxis against future episodes and as adjunctive antidepressant medications. While important extracellular effects have not been excluded, most available evidence suggests that the therapeutically relevant targets of this class of medications are in the interior of cells. Herein we give a prospective of a rapidly evolving field, discussing common effects of mood stabilizers as well as effects that are unique to individual medications. Mood stabilizers have been shown to modulate the activity of enzymes, ion channels, arachidonic acid turnover, G protein coupled receptors and intracellular pathways involved in synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. Understanding the therapeutic targets of mood stabilizers will undoubtedly lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and to the development of improved therapeutics for the treatment of this disease. Furthermore, the involvement of mood stabilizers in pathways operative in neuroprotection suggests that they may have utility in the treatment of classical neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22707923

  7. Acute Hepatic Phenotype of Wilson Disease: Clinical Features of Acute Episodes and Chronic Lesions Remaining in Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hisao; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Yahata, Shinsuke; Hayashi, Hiroki; Momose, Kenji; Isaji, Ryohei; Sasaki, Youji; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Wakusawa, Shinya; Goto, Hidemi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Wilson disease (WD) is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism, and an international group for the study of WD (IGSW) has proposed three phenotypes for its initial presentation: acute hepatic, chronic hepatic, and neurologic phenotypes. Characterization of the acute hepatic phenotype may improve our understanding of the disease. Methods: Clinical features of 10 WD patients with the acute hepatic phenotype and characteristics of chronic lesions remaining in survivors were assessed by the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines. Results: All six patients younger than 30 years had survived an acute episode of hemolytic anemia with residual liver disease of cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. The acute episode was self-limiting in two of the four patients over the age of 30 years and progressed to acute liver failure in the other two patients. One of the two survivors had residual liver disease of chronic hepatitis, while the other had chronic hepatitis and neurologic disease. Neurologic disease remained in a patient who successfully received a liver transplantation. During acute episodes, serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) changed rapidly along with anemia. Liver-specific ALT levels were age-dependently correlated with hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Enzyme reduction was milder for AST than ALT, which resulted in a high AST/ALT ratio in the anemic stage. The anemic stage in two patients transformed to acute liver failure. Conclusions: All survivors of an acute episode of the acute hepatic phenotype had residual liver disease or both liver and neurologic diseases. The rapid changes in liver enzymes during the acute episode and the liver and neurologic diseases remaining in survivors may provide a better understanding of WD. PMID:26807378

  8. An Investigation of the Acute Effects of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Subjective Wellbeing, Mood and Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew P.; Sutherland, David; Hewlett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Inulin is a natural food component found in many plants that are part of the human diet (e.g., leeks, onions, wheat, garlic, chicory and artichokes). It is added to many foods and is used to increase dietary fibre, replace fats or carbohydrates, and as a prebiotic (a stimulant of beneficial bacteria in the colon). Oligofructose, which is also present in these foods, produces similar effects and most research has used a combination of these products. A previous study (Smith, 2005) investigated the effects of regular consumption of oligofructose-enriched inulin on wellbeing, mood, and cognitive performance in humans. The results showed that oligofructose-enriched inulin had no negative effects but that it did not improve wellbeing, mood, or performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin (5 g) over a 4 h period during which the participants remained in the laboratory. A double blind placebo (maltodextrin) controlled study (N = 47) was carried out with the order of conditions being counterbalanced and the two sessions a week apart. On each test day mood and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline (at 8:00) and then following inulin or placebo (at 11:00). Prior to the second test session (at 10:30) participants completed a questionnaire assessing their physical symptoms and mental health during the test morning. The inulin and placebo were provided in powder form in 5 g sachets. Volunteers consumed one sachet in decaffeinated tea or decaffeinated coffee with breakfast (9:00). Questionnaire results showed that on the day that the inulin was consumed, participants felt happier, had less indigestion and were less hungry than when they consumed the placebo. As for performance and mood tasks, the most consistent effects were on the episodic memory tasks where consumption of inulin was associated with greater accuracy on a recognition memory task, and improved recall performance (immediate and delayed

  9. An Investigation of the Acute Effects of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Subjective Wellbeing, Mood and Cognitive Performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew P; Sutherland, David; Hewlett, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Inulin is a natural food component found in many plants that are part of the human diet (e.g., leeks, onions, wheat, garlic, chicory and artichokes). It is added to many foods and is used to increase dietary fibre, replace fats or carbohydrates, and as a prebiotic (a stimulant of beneficial bacteria in the colon). Oligofructose, which is also present in these foods, produces similar effects and most research has used a combination of these products. A previous study (Smith, 2005) investigated the effects of regular consumption of oligofructose-enriched inulin on wellbeing, mood, and cognitive performance in humans. The results showed that oligofructose-enriched inulin had no negative effects but that it did not improve wellbeing, mood, or performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin (5 g) over a 4 h period during which the participants remained in the laboratory. A double blind placebo (maltodextrin) controlled study (N = 47) was carried out with the order of conditions being counterbalanced and the two sessions a week apart. On each test day mood and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline (at 8:00) and then following inulin or placebo (at 11:00). Prior to the second test session (at 10:30) participants completed a questionnaire assessing their physical symptoms and mental health during the test morning. The inulin and placebo were provided in powder form in 5 g sachets. Volunteers consumed one sachet in decaffeinated tea or decaffeinated coffee with breakfast (9:00). Questionnaire results showed that on the day that the inulin was consumed, participants felt happier, had less indigestion and were less hungry than when they consumed the placebo. As for performance and mood tasks, the most consistent effects were on the episodic memory tasks where consumption of inulin was associated with greater accuracy on a recognition memory task, and improved recall performance (immediate and delayed

  10. Psychosocial Acute Treatment in Early-Episode Schizophrenia Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bola, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews evidence on the treatment of early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders that contradicts, in some cases, the American Psychiatric Association's generic recommendation of antipsychotic medication treatment for at least a year. Method: Evidence on lack of diagnostic validity, absence of demonstrated long-term…

  11. A multinational health professional perspective of the prevalence of mood disorders in patients with acute and chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Upton, Dominic; Solowiej, Kazia; Woo, Kevin Y

    2014-12-01

    Recent research has started to identify mood disorders and problems associated with acute and chronic wounds, which have been shown to contribute to delayed healing, poor patient well-being and a reduced quality of life. Furthermore, mood disorders have been shown to have a negative impact on financial costs for service providers and the wider society in terms of treatment and sickness absence. This study aimed to survey a multinational sample of health professionals to explore their perspective and awareness of mood disorders amongst acute and chronic wound patients. Responses were received from n = 908 health professionals working in Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe, North America and South America. A strong awareness of the prevalence of mood disorders appeared to be widespread among the health professionals across the world, in addition to a view on the potential factors contributing to these problems with mood. Despite this, it was thought that few patients were actually receiving treatment for their mood disorders. Implications for clinical practice include the need for health professionals to engage actively with their patients to enable them to learn from their experiences. Studies that explore the benefits of treatments and techniques appropriate for minimising mood disorders in patients with wounds would provide empirical evidence for health professionals to make recommendations for patients with acute and chronic wounds. PMID:23289905

  12. Effects of Single Bouts of Walking Exercise and Yoga on Acute Mood Symptoms in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ensari, Ipek; Sandroff, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the acute or immediate effects of walking exercise and yoga on mood in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Such an examination is important for identifying an exercise modality for inclusion in exercise-training interventions that yields mood benefits in MS. We examined the effects of single bouts of treadmill walking and yoga compared with a quiet, seated-rest control condition on acute mood symptoms in MS. Methods: Twenty-four participants with MS completed 20 minutes of treadmill walking, yoga, or quiet rest in a randomized, counterbalanced order with 1 week between sessions. Participants completed the Profile of Mood States questionnaire before and immediately after each condition. Total mood disturbance (TMD) and the six subscales of the Profile of Mood States were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired-samples t tests. Results: There was a significant condition × time interaction on TMD scores (ηp2 = 0.13). Walking and yoga conditions yielded comparable reductions in TMD scores. There was a significant condition × time interaction on vigor (ηp2 = 0.23) whereby walking but not yoga yielded an improvement in vigor. There was a significant main effect of time on anger, confusion, depression, and tension (P < .05) but not on fatigue. Conclusions: Walking and yoga yielded similar improvements in overall acute mood symptoms, and walking improved feelings of vigor. These effects should be further investigated in long-term exercise-training studies. PMID:26917992

  13. The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, P T; Lane, J; Moore, K L; Aspen, J; Rycroft, J A; O'Brien, D C

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine level in tea and coffee on acute physiological responses and mood. Randomised full crossover design in subjects after overnight caffeine abstention was studied. In study 1 (n = 17) the caffeine level was manipulated naturalistically by preparing tea and coffee at different strengths (1 or 2 cups equivalent). Caffeine levels were 37.5 and 75 mg in tea, 75 and 150 mg in coffee, with water and no-drink controls. In study 2 (n = 15) caffeine level alone was manipulated (water, decaffeinated tea, plus 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg caffeine). Beverage volume and temperature (55 degrees C) were constant. SBP, DBP, heart rate, skin temperature, skin conductance, and mood were monitored over each 3-h study session. In study 1, tea and coffee produced mild autonomic stimulation and an elevation in mood. There were no effects of tea vs. coffee or caffeine dose, despite a fourfold variation in the latter. Increasing beverage strength was associated with greater increases in DBP and energetic arousal. In study 2, caffeinated beverages increased SBP, DBP, and skin conductance and lowered heart rate and skin temperature compared to water. Significant dose-response relationships to caffeine were seen only for SBP, heart rate, and skin temperature. There were significant effects of caffeine on energetic arousal but no consistent dose-response effects. Caffeinated beverages acutely stimulate the autonomic nervous system and increase alertness. Although caffeine can exert dose-dependent effects on a number of acute autonomic responses, caffeine level is not an important factor. Factors besides caffeine may contribute to these acute effects. PMID:10837840

  14. Creating learning momentum through overt teaching interactions during real acute care episodes.

    PubMed

    Piquette, Dominique; Moulton, Carol-Anne; LeBlanc, Vicki R

    2015-10-01

    Clinical supervisors fulfill a dual responsibility towards patient care and learning during clinical activities. Assuming such roles in today's clinical environments may be challenging. Acute care environments present unique learning opportunities for medical trainees, as well as specific challenges. The goal of this paper was to better understand the specific contexts in which overt teaching interactions occurred in acute care environments. We conducted a naturalistic observational study based on constructivist grounded theory methodology. Using participant observation, we collected data on the teaching interactions occurring between clinical supervisors and medical trainees during 74 acute care episodes in the critical care unit of two academic centers, in Toronto, Canada. Three themes contributed to a better understanding of the conditions in which overt teaching interactions among trainees and clinical supervisors occurred during acute care episodes: seizing emergent learning opportunities, coming up against challenging conditions, and creating learning momentum. Our findings illustrate how overt learning opportunities emerged from certain clinical situations and how clinical supervisors and trainees could purposefully modify unfavorable learning conditions. None of the acute care episodes encountered in the critical care environment represented ideal conditions for learning. Yet, clinical supervisors and trainees succeeded in engaging in overt teaching interactions during many episodes. The educational value of these overt teaching interactions should be further explored, as well as the impact of interventions aimed at increasing their use in acute care environments. PMID:25476262

  15. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Acute Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms: Associations With Mood, Motives, and Use on Planned Drinking Days

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Day, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one’s mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes within subjects. The current study used EMA with 74 moderate drinkers who responded to fixed and random mood, motive, alcohol use, and AUD criteria prompts over a 21-day assessment period. A temporal pattern of daytime mood, evening drinking motivation, and nighttime alcohol use and acute AUD symptoms on planned drinking days was modeled to examine how these associations unfold throughout the day. The results suggest considerable heterogeneity in drinking motivation across drinking days. Additionally, an affect regulation model of drinking to cope with negative mood was observed. Specifically, on planned drinking days, the temporal association between daytime negative mood and the experience of acute AUD symptoms was mediated via coping motives and alcohol use. The current study found that motives are dynamic, and that changes in motives may predict differential drinking patterns across days. Further, the study provides evidence that emotion-regulation-driven alcohol involvement may need to be examined at the event level to fully capture the ebb and flow of negative affect motivated drinking. PMID:24932896

  16. Ecological momentary assessment of acute alcohol use disorder symptoms: associations with mood, motives, and use on planned drinking days.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Day, Anne M

    2014-08-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one's mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes within subjects. The current study used EMA with 74 moderate drinkers who responded to fixed and random mood, motive, alcohol use, and AUD criteria prompts over a 21-day assessment period. A temporal pattern of daytime mood, evening drinking motivation, and nighttime alcohol use and acute AUD symptoms on planned drinking days was modeled to examine how these associations unfold throughout the day. The results suggest considerable heterogeneity in drinking motivation across drinking days. Additionally, an affect regulation model of drinking to cope with negative mood was observed. Specifically, on planned drinking days, the temporal association between daytime negative mood and the experience of acute AUD symptoms was mediated via coping motives and alcohol use. The current study found that motives are dynamic, and that changes in motives may predict differential drinking patterns across days. Further, the study provides evidence that emotion-regulation-driven alcohol involvement may need to be examined at the event level to fully capture the ebb and flow of negative affect motivated drinking. PMID:24932896

  17. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    PubMed

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress. PMID:23064870

  18. Acute effects of a winter air pollution episode on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of children

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. )

    1993-09-01

    The acute respiratory effects of a wintertime air pollution episode were studied in a general population sample of 112 children who were 7-12 y of age and who lived in a nonurban community. Spirometry was performed on 6 d, with a fixed interval of 3 wk between successive tests. During an air pollution episode, an additional pulmonary function test was made. Acute respiratory symptoms of the children were noted in a diary. Ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns, and nitrogen dioxide were considered as exposure variables. The association of air pollution with pulmonary function and prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms was assessed by individual linear regression analysis and time series analysis, respectively. In February 1991, an air pollution episode occurred during which daily average sulfur dioxide concentrations were slightly above 100 micrograms/m3, and particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns) concentrations reached 174 micrograms/m3. During the episode, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and maximal mid-expiratory flow were lower than on baseline tests. Significant negative associations were found between the concentration of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns. No association between prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms and the concentration of these compounds was found.

  19. Two episodes of acute illness in a machine shop

    SciTech Connect

    Sinks, T.; Kerndt, P.R.; Wallingford, K.M.

    1989-08-01

    Following an explosion in a machine shop and temporary plant closure, on the day the plant returned to full operations a degreaser malfunctioned. Workers in the assembly room were exposed to trichloroethylene levels later estimated to have exceeded 220 ppm (OSHA PEL 100 ppm). The plant was evacuated and the degreaser taken out of operation. Blood testing for carbon monoxide (CO) on five employees found carboxyhemoglobin levels in excess of normal. The plant reopened the following morning. Over the next two weeks, 15 employees were seen by the plant nurses for similar complaints; although all returned to work, their carboxyhemoglobin levels, later found to be inaccurate, were reported by a local medical clinic to range from 13.7 to 20.0 percent. At the end of the second week, another outbreak of illness occurred, but carboxyhemoglobin, trichloroethylene, fluorocarbons, and methylene chloride were not elevated in all 17 persons tested; plant-wide monitoring for CO found no elevated levels. During the first outbreak of illness, cases were 2.26 times as likely to have entered the assembly room as noncases. During the second outbreak, cases were no more likely than noncases to have entered the assembly room. We believe the explosion, earlier toxic exposures and illness, and the misleading blood test results led to plant-wide anxiety which culminated in a collective stress reaction and the second outbreak. An open meeting with all employees, informing them of our findings, provided reassurance and no further episodes of illness occurred in this workforce.

  20. Criterion Validity of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for Depressive Episodes in Clinic and Non-Clinic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Birmaher, Boris; Melhem, Nadine A.; Axelson, David A.; Michaels, Shana M.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Previous measures of pediatric depression have shown inconsistent validity in groups with differing demographics, comorbid diagnoses, and clinic or non-clinic origins. The current study re-examines the criterion validity of child- and parent-versions of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ-C, MFQ-P) in a heterogeneous sample of…

  1. Impact of acute tryptophan depletion on mood and eating-related urges in bulimic and nonbulimic women

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Kenneth R.; Steiger, Howard; Young, Simon N.; Kin, N.M.K. Ng Ying; Israël, Mimi; Lévesque, Mélissa

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that many people experience a temporary worsening of mood following acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) and that concurrent use of serotonergic medications may influence such mood responses. We investigated mood and other consequences of ATD in women with bulimia nervosa who were or were not using concurrent serotonergic medications compared with women without bulimia. Methods Women self-referred for treatment of bulimia who were either not currently using psychoactive medications (n = 26) or who were using serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications exclusively (n = 13), as well as medication-free normal-eater control women (n = 25) completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating and comorbid psychopathology and then participated in an ATD procedure involving balanced and tryptophan-depleted conditions. Results In the tryptophan-depleted condition, the groups displayed similar and significant decrements in plasma tryptophan levels and mood. Women with bulimia who were using serotonin reuptake inhibitors, but not the other groups, also reported an increased urge to binge eat in the tryptophan-depleted condition. Limitations Application of medication in participants with bulimia was not random. Conclusion Acute reductions in serotonin availability produced similar mood-reducing effects in bulimic and nonbulimic women. To the extent that ATD affected subjective experiences pertinent to eating (i.e., urge to binge eat), such effects appeared to depend upon ATD-induced competition with the therapeutic effects of serotonergic medications. PMID:19721848

  2. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: a clinical study of 12 episodes in 11 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H; Sandoval, L; Wainstein, A; Ribalta, J; Donoso, S; Smok, G; Rosenberg, H; Meneses, M

    1994-01-01

    Twelve episodes of acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) were diagnosed in 11 patients during the past 18 years in a general hospital in Santiago, Chile, with a prevalence of 1 per 15,900 deliveries. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy started between the 31st and 38th weeks of pregnancy, with malaise, vomiting, jaundice, and lethargy as the main clinical manifestations. Polydipsia (in nine episodes) and skin pruritus (in seven episodes) were unusual clinical findings. In two patients, pruritus started two and four weeks before AFLP, suggesting that an intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy preceded AFLP in those patients. Considering the current prevalence of both diseases in Chile, their association should be considered fortuitous. In another patient, two consecutive pregnancies were affected by AFLP, raising to three the number of reported patients with recurrent AFLP. In 11 episodes, liver biopsies supported the diagnosis of AFLP by showing small and midsized vacuolar cytoplasmic transformation as the most prominent histopathological feature. Positive intracellular fat staining was found in the four samples analysed. Studies by electron microscopy showed megamitochondria with paracrystalline inclusions in four samples. All the mothers survived, but fetal mortality was 58.3%. Several extrahepatic complications delayed maternal recovery for up to four weeks after delivery. This study confirms an improvement in maternal prognosis in AFLP, discusses the possibility of an epidemiological association with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and increases the number of patients reported with recurrent AFLP. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8307428

  3. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis. PMID:16164756

  4. Acute stress and episodic memory retrieval: neurobiological mechanisms and behavioral consequences.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Stephanie A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Episodic retrieval allows people to access memories from the past to guide current thoughts and decisions. In many real-world situations, retrieval occurs under conditions of acute stress, either elicited by the retrieval task or driven by other, unrelated concerns. Memory under such conditions may be hindered, as acute stress initiates a cascade of neuromodulatory changes that can impair episodic retrieval. Here, we review emerging evidence showing that dissociable stress systems interact over time, influencing neural function. In addition to the adverse effects of stress on hippocampal-dependent retrieval, we consider how stress biases attention and prefrontal cortical function, which could further affect controlled retrieval processes. Finally, we consider recent data indicating that stress at retrieval increases activity in a network of brain regions that enable reflexive, rapid responding to upcoming threats, while transiently taking offline regions supporting flexible, goal-directed thinking. Given the ubiquity of episodic memory retrieval in everyday life, it is critical to understand the theoretical and applied implications of acute stress. The present review highlights the progress that has been made, along with important open questions. PMID:26799371

  5. Pharmacotherapy of acute mania: monotherapy or combination therapy with mood stabilizers and antipsychotics?

    PubMed

    Grande, Iria; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-03-01

    The use of combination therapy with mood stabilizers and antipsychotics in acute mania in bipolar disorder (BD) is widespread, although most treatment guidelines recommend monotherapy as the first option, and reserve combination therapy, which is associated with more frequent and more severe side effects, for when patients do not respond to the former treatment option. Reasons to prescribe combination therapy include the lack of efficacy of the current treatment (either real or due to undisclosed poor adherence), psychiatric comorbidities, severe previous course of illness, slow cross-tapering during treatment switching, and potential benefits from particular combinations. The decision to start with monotherapy or combination therapy may depend on the patient characteristics, and is still under debate. Clinical trials designed to ascertain whether combination therapy or monotherapy is more advantageous for patients in acute mania and beyond, according to illness severity, are urgently needed. Adding a third monotherapy arm to the conventional two-arm, adjunctive-design trials or initiating combination therapy from the beginning may help to shed some light on the issue. PMID:25711483

  6. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    PubMed Central

    Nakimuli-Mpungu, E; Mutamba, B; Nshemerirwe, S; Kiwuwa, MS; Musisi, S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania. Methods We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals and HIV-negative individuals. Results Median survival time was one week for HIV-positive individuals and more than four weeks for HIV-negative individuals (χ2 = 18.4, P value = 0.000). HIV infection was the only marginally significant independent predictor of survival probability on the acute admission ward (hazards ratio 2.87, P = 0.06). Conclusion Acute mania in HIV-infected persons responds faster to psychotropic drugs compared with that in HIV-negative persons. PMID:22096397

  7. Clinical significance of automatic warning function of cardiac remote monitoring systems in preventing acute cardiac episodes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shou-Qiang; Xing, Shan-Shan; Gao, Hai-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In addition to ambulatory Holter electrocardiographic recording and transtelephonic electrocardiographic monitoring (TTM), a cardiac remote monitoring system can provide an automatic warning function through the general packet radio service (GPRS) network, enabling earlier diagnosis, treatment and improved outcome of cardiac diseases. The purpose of this study was to estimate its clinical significance in preventing acute cardiac episodes. Methods: Using 2 leads (V1 and V5 leads) and the automatic warning mode, 7160 patients were tested with a cardiac remote monitoring system from October 2004 to September 2007. If malignant arrhythmias or obvious ST-T changes appeared in the electrocardiogram records was automatically transferred to the monitoring center, the patient and his family members were informed, and the corresponding precautionary or therapeutic measures were implemented immediately. Results: In our study, 274 cases of malignant arrhythmia, including sinus standstill and ventricular tachycardia, and 43 cases of obvious ST-segment elevation were detected and treated. Because of early detection, there was no death or deformity. Conclusions: A cardiac remote monitoring system providing an automatic warning function can play an important role in preventing acute cardiac episodes. PMID:25674124

  8. Baseline Delta Sleep Ratio Predicts Acute Ketamine Mood Response in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Wallace C.; Selter, Jessica; Brutsche, Nancy; Sarasso, Simone; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep slow wave activity (SWA; EEG power between 0.6–4 Hz) has been proposed as a marker of central synaptic plasticity. Decreased generation of sleep slow waves—a core feature of sleep in depression—indicates underlying plasticity changes in the disease. Various measures of SWA have previously been used to predict antidepressant treatment response. This study examined the relationship between baseline patterns of SWA in the first two NREM episodes and antidepressant response to an acute infusion of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist ketamine. Methods Thirty patients (20M, 10F, 18–65) fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) who had been drug-free for two weeks received a single open-label infusion of ketamine hydrochloride (.5 mg/kg) over 40 minutes. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) before and after ketamine infusion. Sleep recordings were obtained the night before the infusion and were visually scored. SWA was computed for individual artifact-free NREM sleep epochs, and averaged for each NREM episode. Delta sleep ratio (DSR) was calculated as SWANREM1 / SWANREM2. Results A significant positive correlation was observed between baseline DSR and reduced MADRS scores from baseline to Day 1 (r=.414, p=.02). Limitations The sample size was relatively small (N=30) and all subjects had treatment-resistant MDD, which may limit the generalizability of the findings. Further studies are needed to replicate and extend this observation to other patient groups. Conclusions DSR may be a useful baseline predictor of ketamine response in individuals with treatment-resistant MDD. PMID:22871531

  9. Validation of the Chinese version of the "Mood Disorder Questionnaire" for screening bipolar disorder among patients with a current depressive episode

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a well-recognized screening tool for bipolar disorder, but its Chinese version needs further validation. This study aims to measure the accuracy of the Chinese version of the MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder (BPD) in a group of patients with a current major depressive episode. Methods 142 consecutive patients with an initial DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of a major depressive episode were screened for BPD using the Chinese translation of the MDQ and followed up for one year. The final diagnosis, determined by a special committee consisting of three trained senior psychiatrists, was used as a 'gold standard' and ROC was plotted to evaluate the performance of the MDQ. The optimal cut-off was chosen by maximizing the Younden's index. Results Of the 142 patients, 122 (85.9%) finished the one year follow-up. On the basis of a semi-structured clinical interview 48.4% (59/122) received a diagnosis of unipolar depression (UPD), 36.9% (45/122) BPDII and 14.8% (18/122) BPDI. At the end of the one year follow-up,9 moved from UPD to BPD, 2 from BPDII to UPD, 1 from BPDII to BPDI, the overall rate of initial misdiagnosis was 16.4%. MDQ showed a good accuracy for BPD: the optimal cut-off was 4, with a sensitivity of 0.72 and a specificity of 0.73. When BPDII and BPDI were calculated independently, the optimal cut-off for BPDII was 4, with a sensitivity of 0.70 and a specificity of 0.73; while the optimal cut-off for BPDI was 5, with a sensitivity of 0.67 and a specificity of 0.86. Conclusions Our results show that the Chinese version of MDQ is a valid tool for screening BPD in a group of patients with current depressive episode on the Chinese mainland. PMID:22293033

  10. Ineffective acute treatment of episodic migraine is associated with new-onset chronic migraine

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, Richard B.; Fanning, Kristina M.; Serrano, Daniel; Reed, Michael L.; Cady, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that ineffective acute treatment of episodic migraine (EM) is associated with an increased risk for the subsequent onset of chronic migraine (CM). Methods: In the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study, respondents with EM in 2006 who completed the Migraine Treatment Optimization Questionnaire (mTOQ-4) and provided outcome data in 2007 were eligible for analyses. The mTOQ-4 is a validated questionnaire that assesses treatment efficacy based on 4 aspects of response to acute treatment. Total mTOQ-4 scores were used to define categories of acute treatment response: very poor, poor, moderate, and maximum treatment efficacy. Logistic regression models were used to examine the dichotomous outcome of transition from EM in 2006 to CM in 2007 as a function of mTOQ-4 category, adjusting for covariates. Results: Among 5,681 eligible study respondents with EM in 2006, 3.1% progressed to CM in 2007. Only 1.9% of the group with maximum treatment efficacy developed CM. Rates of new-onset CM increased in the moderate treatment efficacy (2.7%), poor treatment efficacy (4.4%), and very poor treatment efficacy (6.8%) groups. In the fully adjusted model, the very poor treatment efficacy group had a more than 2-fold increased risk of new-onset CM (odds ratio = 2.55, 95% confidence interval 1.42–4.61) compared to the maximum treatment efficacy group. Conclusion: Inadequate acute treatment efficacy was associated with an increased risk of new-onset CM over the course of 1 year. Improving acute treatment outcomes might prevent new-onset CM, although reverse causality cannot be excluded. PMID:25609757

  11. Mood-management dynamics: the interrelationship between moods and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Hess, James D; Kacen, Jacqueline J; Kim, Junyong

    2006-11-01

    People actively attempt to create and maintain positive moods and to escape from negative moods by engaging in various activities. The principle of homeostasis explains the essence of the mood-management system: adjustments of individuals' moods and activities help maintain constant their conditions of life. We model the dynamics of mood and mood-management behaviour through a pair of interdependent, linear differential equations and estimate the equations using mood and behaviour data collected from an adult panel. Because empirically fitting continuous-time differential equations to intermittent observations is uncommon in the literature, we show how to transform differential equations into equations that can be estimated using simultaneous-equation regression methods. Our adult panel shows strong homeostasis in mood management with mood episodes of several hours and no evidence of endogenous mood cycles. PMID:17067416

  12. Influence of acute tryptophan depletion on verbal declarative episodic memory in young adult females.

    PubMed

    Helmbold, K; Bubenzer, S; Dahmen, B; Eisert, A; Gaber, T J; Habel, U; Konrad, K; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Zepf, F D

    2013-11-01

    Diminished synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the brain has been linked to disturbed memory processes. The present study investigated the effects of diminished central nervous 5-HT synthesis as achieved by an acute dietary tryptophan depletion (ATD) on verbal declarative episodic memory in young women while controlling for the effects of female sex hormones. Eighteen healthy females (aged 20-31 years) participated in a within-subject repeated measures study, with two separate days of assessment spaced at least one individual menstrual cycle apart. On one day, participants were subjected to ATD, thus lowering central nervous 5-HT synthesis. The other day participants received a tryptophan-balanced amino acid load (BAL = control condition). The study was randomized, counterbalanced and double blind in terms of ATD/BAL administration. Measurements took place in the early follicular phase of the participants' menstrual cycle. Estrogen, FSH and LH levels were assessed at baseline. Verbal declarative episodic memory was assessed using a structured word-learning task. Short-term memory, as indexed by immediate recall, was reduced after ATD intake, whereas delayed recall and recognition after a 25-min delay did not show any differences after intake of ATD or BAL. In young women, verbal short-term memory function was more vulnerable to ATD than consolidation processes. In light of the possible interplay between female sex hormones and 5-HT, further studies comparing different menstrual cycle phases are needed. PMID:24072504

  13. Influence of acute tryptophan depletion on mood and immune measures in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, A V; Griffiths, J; Merali, Z; Knott, V J; Anisman, H

    1999-01-01

    Depressive illness has been associated with variations of several aspects of immune functioning, as well as alterations of cytokine production in stimulated lymphocytes. In the present investigation we sought to determine whether pharmacologically-induced reductions of mood in healthy, male subjects would be associated with alterations in the levels of circulating IL-1 beta or IL-6 or to in vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to T cell mitogens, PHA and Con A. Lowering tryptophan levels by means of a tryptophan-deficient amino acid mixture, which reduced plasma tryptophan and serotonin (5-HT) levels, produced a lowering of mood in a subset of male subjects (that had no personal or family history of depression) relative to subjects that received a balanced amino acid mixture. Correlational analyses revealed that the change of mood (particularly depression and anger) in subjects that received the tryptophan-free mixture was related to the extent of the tryptophan or 5-HT reductions. However, while fenfluramine administration resulted in recovery of tryptophan and 5-HT levels, this was not accompanied by recovery of mood. Furthermore, it was observed that the lowering of tryptophan levels and the reduced mood were not accompanied by variations of the cytokine levels or cell proliferation. Evidently, transient and modest alterations of 5-HT or mood induced by a tryptophan-free amino acid mixture were insufficient to promote variations of immune activity or circulating IL-1 beta or IL-6 levels. Even if depression were related to immune disturbances, the mood and 5-HT alterations associated with this type of manipulation may be too brief to promote immune changes comparable with those ordinarily associated with severe or chronic depressive illness. PMID:10098222

  14. Acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite, energy intake and mood. Is there a time of day effect?

    PubMed

    Maraki, M; Tsofliou, F; Pitsiladis, Y P; Malkova, D; Mutrie, N; Higgins, S

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite sensations, energy intake and mood, and to determine if there was a time of day effect. Twelve healthy, young, normal weight females, who were non-regular exercisers, participated in four trials: morning control, morning exercise, evening control and evening exercise. Exercise trials were a one-hour class of aerobic and muscle conditioning exercise of varying intensities, to music. Control trials were a one-hour rest. Ratings of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the warm-up and muscle conditioning parts of the morning exercise trial compared to those of the evening exercise trial. Although both exercise trials, compared to control trials, produced an increase in appetite sensations, they did not alter energy intake and produced a decrease in 'relative' energy intake. In relation to mood, both exercise trials increased positive affect and decreased negative affect. These results suggest that a single exercise class, representative of that offered by many sports centres, regardless of whether it is performed in the morning or evening produces a short-term negative energy balance and improves mood in normal weight women. However, when this type of exercise was performed in the morning it was perceived to require more effort. PMID:16157416

  15. Reduced Sleep Acutely Influences Sedentary Behavior and Mood But Not Total Energy Intake in Normal-Weight and Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Romney, Lora; Larson, Michael J; Clark, Tyler; Tucker, Larry A; Bailey, Bruce W; LeCheminant, James D

    2016-01-01

    Using a crossover design, 22 normal-weight and 22 obese women completed two free-living sleep conditions: (a) Normal Sleep: night of ~8 hr time in bed; and (b) Reduced Sleep: night of < 5 hr time in bed). Outcome measures were energy intake, physical activity and sedentary time, and mood. Sleep time was 7.7 ± 0.3 and 4.8 ± 0.2 hrs during the Normal Sleep and Reduced Sleep conditions, respectively (F = 1791.94; p < 0.0001). Energy intake did not differ between groups or as a function of sleep condition (F = 2.46; p = 0.1244). Sedentary time was ~ 30 min higher after the Reduced Sleep condition (F = 4.98; p = 0.0318); other physical activity outcomes were not different by condition (p > 0.05). Total mood score, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, and confusion were worse after Reduced Sleep (p < 0.05). Reducing sleep acutely and negatively influenced sedentary time and mood in normal-weight and obese women. PMID:26485109

  16. Acute effects of exercise on mood and EEG activity in healthy young subjects: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo; Moraes, Helena; Machado, Sérgio; Santos, Tony M; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography has been used to establish the relationship among cortical activity, exercise and mood, such as asymmetry, absolute and relative power. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the influence of cortical activity on mood state induced by exercise. The Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was followed in this study. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SciELO. Search was conducted in all databases using the following terms: EEG asymmetry, sLORETA, exercise, with affect, mood and emotions. Based on the defined criteria, a total of 727 articles were found in the search conducted in the literature (666 in Pubmed, 54 in ISI Web of Science, 2 in SciELO and 5 in other data sources). Total of 11 studies were selected which properly met the criteria for this review. Nine out of 11 studies used the frontal asymmetry, four used absolute and relative power and one used sLORETA. With regard to changes in cortical activity and mood induced by exercise, six studies attributed this result to different intensities, one to duration, one to type of exercise and one to fitness level. In general, EEG measures showed contradictory evidence of its ability to predict or modulate psychological mood states through exercise intervention. PMID:24923350

  17. Diagnostic pitfalls in a young Romanian ranger with an acute psychotic episode

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Előd Ernő; Rácz, Attila; Urbán, Edit; Terhes, Gabriella; Berki, Timea; Horváth, Emőke; Georgescu, Anca M; Zaharia-Kézdi, Iringó E

    2016-01-01

    basis of the putative occupational risk, acute psychotic episode, and the success of antibiotic therapy, we registered this case as a late neuroborreliosis with atypical appearance. PMID:27217753

  18. Diagnostic pitfalls in a young Romanian ranger with an acute psychotic episode.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Előd Ernő; Rácz, Attila; Urbán, Edit; Terhes, Gabriella; Berki, Timea; Horváth, Emőke; Georgescu, Anca M; Zaharia-Kézdi, Iringó E

    2016-01-01

    of the putative occupational risk, acute psychotic episode, and the success of antibiotic therapy, we registered this case as a late neuroborreliosis with atypical appearance. PMID:27217753

  19. Autonomic nervous system reactivity to positive and negative mood induction: The role of acute psychological responses and frontal electrocortical activity

    PubMed Central

    Kop, Willem J.; Synowski, Stephen J.; Newell, Miranda E.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Waldstein, Shari R.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    The differential effects of positive versus negative emotions on autonomic nervous system activity are insufficiently understood. This study examined the role of acute mood responses and central nervous system activity on heart rate variability (HRV) using 5-min event recall tasks (happiness and anger recall) and a 5-min Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) in 20 healthy individuals (mean age 25±4 years, 55% female). HRV was measured in high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) domains, and frontal brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG) in the alpha frequency band in F3 and F4. Happiness Recall resulted in increased LF-HRV (p=0.005) but not HF-HRV (p=0.71). Anger Recall did not change HRV (p-values>0.10). The SCWT produced decreases in HF-HRV (p=0.001) as well as LF-HRV (p=0.001). The magnitude of feeling “happy” during Happiness Recall was positively correlated with ΔHF-HRV (p=0.050), whereas an incongruent mood state (“frustrated”) was associated with smaller ΔHF-HRV (p=0.070). Associations between frontal EEG activation and HRV responses were mostly non-significant, except for increased right frontal activation during Happiness Recall which was associated with a decrease in LF/HF ratio (p = 0.009), It is concluded that positive and negative mood induction result in differential HRV responses, which is related to both task valence and the intensity of task-induced emotions. PMID:21182891

  20. Autonomic nervous system reactivity to positive and negative mood induction: the role of acute psychological responses and frontal electrocortical activity.

    PubMed

    Kop, Willem J; Synowski, Stephen J; Newell, Miranda E; Schmidt, Louis A; Waldstein, Shari R; Fox, Nathan A

    2011-03-01

    The differential effects of positive versus negative emotions on autonomic nervous system activity are insufficiently understood. This study examined the role of acute mood responses and central nervous system activity on heart rate variability (HRV) using 5-min event recall tasks (happiness and anger recall) and a 5-min Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) in 20 healthy individuals (mean age 25 ± 4 years, 55% female). HRV was measured in high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) domains, and frontal brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG) in the alpha frequency band in F3 and F4. Happiness Recall resulted in increased LF-HRV (p = 0.005) but not HF-HRV (p=0.71). Anger Recall did not change HRV (p-values > 0.10). The SCWT produced decreases in HF-HRV (p = 0.001) as well as LF-HRV (p = 0.001). The magnitude of feeling "happy" during Happiness Recall was positively correlated with ΔHF-HRV (p = 0.050), whereas an incongruent mood state ("frustrated") was associated with smaller ΔHF-HRV (p = 0.070). Associations between frontal EEG activation and HRV responses were mostly non-significant, except for increased right frontal activation during Happiness Recall which was associated with a decrease in LF/HF ratio (p = 0.009). It is concluded that positive and negative mood induction result in differential HRV responses, which is related to both task valence and the intensity of task-induced emotions. PMID:21182891

  1. Mood disturbance and depression in Arab women following hospitalisation from acute cardiac conditions: a cross-sectional study from Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim Mohd; Al-Qahtani, Awad; Asaad, Nidal; Fung, Tak; Singh, Rajvir; Qader, Najlaa Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Depression is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates among cardiovascular patients. Depressed patients have three times higher risk of death than those who are not. We sought to determine the presence of depressive symptoms, and whether gender and age are associated with depression among Arab patients hospitalised with cardiac conditions in a Middle Eastern country. Setting Using a non-probability convenient sampling technique, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1000 Arab patients ≥20 years who were admitted to cardiology units between 2013 and 2014 at the Heart Hospital in Qatar. Patients were interviewed 3 days after admission following the cardiac event. Surveys included demographic and clinical characteristics, and the Arabic version of the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II). Depression was assessed by BDI-II clinical classification scale. Results 15% of the patients had mild mood disturbance and 5% had symptoms of clinical depression. Twice as many females than males suffered from mild mood disturbance and clinical depression symptoms, the majority of females were in the age group 50 years and above, whereas males were in the age group 40–49 years. χ2 Tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that gender and age were statistically significantly related to depression (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions Older Arab women are more likely to develop mood disturbance and depression after being hospitalised with acute cardiac condition. Gender and age differences approach, and routine screening for depression should be conducted with all cardiovascular patients, especially for females in the older age groups. Mental health counselling should be available for all cardiovascular patients who exhibit depressive symptoms. PMID:27388362

  2. Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: a case series.

    PubMed

    Holmes, E A; Bonsall, M B; Hales, S A; Mitchell, H; Renner, F; Blackwell, S E; Watson, P; Goodwin, G M; Di Simplicio, M

    2016-01-01

    Treatment innovation for bipolar disorder has been hampered by a lack of techniques to capture a hallmark symptom: ongoing mood instability. Mood swings persist during remission from acute mood episodes and impair daily functioning. The last significant treatment advance remains Lithium (in the 1970s), which aids only the minority of patients. There is no accepted way to establish proof of concept for a new mood-stabilizing treatment. We suggest that combining insights from mood measurement with applied mathematics may provide a step change: repeated daily mood measurement (depression) over a short time frame (1 month) can create individual bipolar mood instability profiles. A time-series approach allows comparison of mood instability pre- and post-treatment. We test a new imagery-focused cognitive therapy treatment approach (MAPP; Mood Action Psychology Programme) targeting a driver of mood instability, and apply these measurement methods in a non-concurrent multiple baseline design case series of 14 patients with bipolar disorder. Weekly mood monitoring and treatment target data improved for the whole sample combined. Time-series analyses of daily mood data, sampled remotely (mobile phone/Internet) for 28 days pre- and post-treatment, demonstrated improvements in individuals' mood stability for 11 of 14 patients. Thus the findings offer preliminary support for a new imagery-focused treatment approach. They also indicate a step in treatment innovation without the requirement for trials in illness episodes or relapse prevention. Importantly, daily measurement offers a description of mood instability at the individual patient level in a clinically meaningful time frame. This costly, chronic and disabling mental illness demands innovation in both treatment approaches (whether pharmacological or psychological) and measurement tool: this work indicates that daily measurements can be used to detect improvement in individual mood stability for treatment innovation (MAPP

  3. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  4. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  5. Changes in sleep, food intake, and activity levels during acute painful episodes in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Eufemia; Miaskowski, Christine; Savedra, Marilyn; Beyer, Judith E; Treadwell, Marsha; Styles, Lori

    2006-02-01

    As part of a larger study that examined pain experience, pain management, and pain outcomes among children with sickle cell disease, functional status (sleep, food intake, and activity levels) was examined during hospitalization for acute painful episodes. Children were asked to rate the amount of pain they experienced as well as the amount of time they slept, the amount of food they ate, and the amount of activity they had everyday. Children reported high levels of pain, which showed only a small decrease throughout hospitalization, and had disrupted sleep and wake patterns, decreased food intake, and decreased activity levels. Nurses need to routinely monitor functional status during acute painful episodes so that strategies to promote adequate sleep, food intake, and activity may be incorporated to minimize long-term negative outcomes in children with sickle cell disease. PMID:16428011

  6. Acute mood but not cognitive improvements following administration of a single multivitamin and mineral supplement in healthy women aged 50 and above: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, H; Rowsell, R; Cox, K H M; Scholey, A; Pipingas, A

    2015-06-01

    A number of randomised controlled trials have indicated that multivitamin/mineral supplementation for a period of 4 weeks or greater can enhance mood and cognition. To date, no studies have investigated whether a single multivitamin dose can benefit mental function in older adults. This study investigated the acute effects of a single multivitamin and mineral and herbal (MVMH) supplement versus placebo on self ratings of mood and the performance of an effortful computerised cognitive battery in a sample of 76 healthy women aged 50-75 years. Mood was assessed using the depression anxiety stress scale (DASS), state trait anxiety inventory-state anxiety scale and visual analogue scales (VAS). Mood was rated at 1 h post supplementation and again after the competition of the cognitive assessments at 2 h post supplementation. It was demonstrated that the MVMH supplement improved overall DASS mood ratings; however, the most prominent effects appeared to be a reduction in ratings of perceived mental stress. These findings were confirmed using visual analogue scales, with these measures also demonstrating MVMH-related increased ratings of calmness. There were no benefits of the MVMH to mood ratings of depression and performance was not enhanced on the cognitive battery. Supplementation with a single multivitamin, mineral and herbal supplement reduces stress several hours after intake in healthy older people. PMID:25903286

  7. A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial to Differentiate the Acute Cognitive and Mood Effects of Chlorogenic Acid from Decaffeinated Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Camfield, David A.; Silber, Beata Y.; Scholey, Andrew B.; Nolidin, Karen; Goh, Antionette; Stough, Con

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, sixty healthy older adults aged 50 years or older, and who were light to moderate coffee drinkers, were administered 6g of a decaffeinated green coffee blend (NESCAFÉ Green Blend coffee; GB) or 540mg pure chlorogenic acids (CGA) or placebo in a double-blind acute cross-over design, with cognitive and mood assessments pre-dose, 40-mins and 120-mins post-dose. The primary outcome measure was accuracy in Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP). Secondary cognitive outcome measures included RVIP reaction time as well as Inspection time (IT), Jensen Box decision/reaction times, serial subtraction and N-Back working memory. Secondary mood measures included Bond-Lader and caffeine Research visual analogue scales (VAS). No significant treatment effects were found for the primary outcome measure, although significant effects were found amongst secondary measures. Overall, CGA in isolation was not found to significantly improve cognitive function relative to placebo whereas the GB was found to improve sustained attention as measured by the N-Back task in comparison to placebo overall (t=2.45,p=.05), as well as decision time on a 2-choice reaction time task (Jensen box) in comparison to placebo at 40 minutes post-dose (t=2.45,p=.05). Similarly, GB was found to improve alertness on both the Bond-Lader at 120 minutes relative to CGA (t=2.86, p=0.02) and the caffeine Research VAS relative to CGA (t=3.09, p=0.009) and placebo (t=2.75,p=0.02) at 120 minutes post-dose. Both the GB and CGA were also found to significantly improve symptoms of headache at 120 minutes relative to placebo (t=2.51,p=0.03 and t=2.43,p=.04 respectively), whilst there was a trend towards a reduction in jitteriness with GB and CGA in comparison to placebo at 40 minutes post-dose (t=2.24,p=0.06 and t=2.20,p=0.06 respectively). These findings suggest that the improvements in mood observed with GB, but not the improvements in cognitive function, are likely to some extent to be

  8. Aetiology of Acute Febrile Episodes in Children Attending Korogwe District Hospital in North-Eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mahende, Coline; Ngasala, Billy; Lusingu, John; Butichi, Allvan; Lushino, Paminus; Lemnge, Martha; Premji, Zul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although the burden of malaria in many parts of Tanzania has declined, the proportion of children with fever has not changed. This situation underscores the need to explore the possible causes of febrile episodes in patients presenting with symptoms at the Korogwe District Hospital (KDH). Methods A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted at KDH, north-eastern Tanzania. Patients aged 2 to 59 months presenting at the outpatient department with an acute medical condition and fever (measured axillary temperature ≥37.5°C) were enrolled. Blood samples were examined for malaria parasites, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and bacterial infections. A urine culture was performed in selected cases to test for bacterial infection and a chest radiograph was requested if pneumonia was suspected. Diagnosis was based on both clinical and laboratory investigations. Results A total of 867 patients with a median age of 15.1 months (Interquartile range 8.6–29.9) were enrolled from January 2013 to October 2013. Respiratory tract infections were the leading clinical diagnosis with 406/867 (46.8%) of patients diagnosed with upper respiratory tract infection and 130/867 (15.0%) with pneumonia. Gastroenteritis was diagnosed in 184/867 (21.2%) of patients. Malaria infection was confirmed in 72/867 (8.3%) of patients. Bacterial infection in blood and urine accounted for 26/808 (3.2%) infections in the former, and 66/373 (17.7%) infections in the latter. HIV infection was confirmed in 10/824 (1.2%) of patients. Respiratory tract infections and gastroenteritis were frequent in patients under 36 months of age (87.3% and 91.3% respectively). Co-infections were seen in 221/867 (25.5%) of patients. The cause of fever was not identified in 65/867 (7.5%) of these patients. Conclusions The different proportions of infections found among febrile children reflect the causes of fever in the study area. These findings indicate the need to optimise patient management by

  9. Effects of antipsychotics on insight in schizophrenia: results from independent samples of first-episode and acutely relapsed patients.

    PubMed

    Misiak, Błażej; Frydecka, Dorota; Beszłej, Jan A; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Tybura, Piotr; Kucharska-Mazur, Jolanta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate whether antipsychotics differentially impact insight and whether these effects appear because of improvement in psychopathological manifestation in 132 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 201 acutely relapsed schizophrenic patients, who were followed up for 12 weeks. Olanzapine and risperidone were administered to first-episode schizophrenia patients, whereas acutely relapsed schizophrenic patients were treated with olanzapine, perazine and ziprasidone. The Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess psychopathology. Insight was assessed using the G12 item of PANSS. Unadjusted mixed-model regression analysis indicated a significant improvement in the PANSS G12 item score in both groups. There were no significant differences between distinct treatment subgroups of patients in terms of improvement in the PANSS G12 item score. After adjustment for the trajectories of changes in symptom dimensions, a decrease in the PANSS G12 item score was because of an improvement in positive, negative and excitement symptoms. A decrease in the PANSS G12 item score was also related to an increase in the severity of depressive symptomatology. Our results indicate that antipsychotics exert similar effects on insight in acute psychosis. These effects are likely because of an improvement in psychopathological manifestation. The improvement in insight might be related to the development of depressive symptoms. PMID:26836264

  10. Acute haemolytic episodes & fava bean consumption in G6PD deficient Iraqis.

    PubMed

    Yahya, H I; al-Allawi, N A

    1993-12-01

    The relation between fava bean ingestion and the occurrence of a haemolytic episode was studied in 102 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenate (G6PD) deficient Iraqi patients. None of the patients (mean age 12.8 yr) had a documented similar illness earlier, although all of them gave history of reported regular fava bean ingestion in the past. Further, none of the three patients who were rechallenged (2-3 months later) by the beans developed any clinical or laboratory evidence of haemolysis. The incidence of the haemolytic episodes was found to peak in April, while the fava bean season extends from February to June. This study thus does not support a causal relation between the bean ingestion and the haemolytic episodes in G6PD deficient Iraqis. Possibly, some other factor such as a viral infection may be involved. PMID:8132232

  11. Effects of an acute alpha-lactalbumin manipulation on mood and food hedonics in high- and low-trait anxiety individuals.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Ellen; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John; Markus, C Rob; King, Neil A

    2010-08-01

    Serotonergic hypofunction is associated with a depressive mood state, an increased drive to eat and preference for sweet (SW) foods. High-trait anxiety individuals are characterised by a functional shortage of serotonin during stress, which in turn increases their susceptibility to experience a negative mood and an increased drive for SW foods. The present study examined whether an acute dietary manipulation, intended to increase circulating serotonin levels, alleviated the detrimental effects of a stress-inducing task on subjective appetite and mood sensations, and preference for SW foods in high-trait anxiety individuals. Thirteen high- (eleven females and two males; anxiety scores 45.5 (sd 5.9); BMI 22.9 (sd 3.0)kg/m(2)) and twelve low- (ten females and two males; anxiety scores 30.4 (sd 4.8); BMI 23.4 (sd 2.5) kg/m(2)) trait anxiety individuals participated in a placebo-controlled, two-way crossover design. Participants were provided with 40 g alpha-lactalbumin (LAC; l-tryptophan (Trp):large neutral amino acids (LNAA) ratio of 7.6) and 40 g casein (placebo) (Trp:LNAA ratio of 4.0) in the form of a snack and lunch on two test days. On both the test days, participants completed a stress-inducing task 2 h after the lunch. Mood and appetite were assessed using visual analogue scales. Changes in food hedonics for different taste and nutrient combinations were assessed using a computer task. The results demonstrated that the LAC manipulation did not exert any immediate effects on mood or appetite. However, LAC did have an effect on food hedonics in individuals with high-trait anxiety after acute stress. These individuals expressed a lower liking (P = 0.012) and SW food preference (P = 0.014) after the stressful task when supplemented with LAC. PMID:20307355

  12. Acute Psychophysiological Relationships Between Mood, Inflammatory and Cortisol Changes in Response to Simulated Physical Firefighting Work and Sleep Restriction.

    PubMed

    Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad; Reynolds, John; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2016-06-01

    This study examined how changes in wildland firefighters' mood relate to cytokine and cortisol levels in response to simulated physical firefighting work and sleep restriction. Firefighters completed 3 days of simulated wildfire suppression work separated by an 8-h (control condition; n = 18) or 4-h sleep opportunity (sleep restriction condition; n = 17) each night. Firefighters' mood was assessed daily using the Mood Scale II and Samn-Perelli fatigue scale. Participants also provided samples for the determination of salivary cortisol and pro- (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokine levels. An increase in the positive mood dimension Happiness was related to a rise in IL-8 and TNF-α in the sleep restriction condition. A rise in the positive mood dimension Activation among sleep restricted firefighters was also related to higher IL-6 levels. An increase in the negative mood dimension Fatigue in the sleep restriction condition was associated with increased IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and cortisol levels. In addition, an increase in Fear among sleep restricted firefighters was associated with a rise in TNF-α. Elevated positive mood and immune activation may reflect an appropriate response by the firefighters to these stressors. To further understand this relationship, subsequent firefighting-based research is needed that investigates whether immune changes are a function of affective arousal linked to the expression of positive moods. Positive associations between negative mood and inflammatory and cortisol levels to physical work and restricted sleep provide useful information to fire agencies about subjective fire-ground indicators of physiological changes. PMID:26698865

  13. Creating Learning Momentum through Overt Teaching Interactions during Real Acute Care Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquette, Dominique; Moulton, Carol-Anne; LeBlanc, Vicki R.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical supervisors fulfill a dual responsibility towards patient care and learning during clinical activities. Assuming such roles in today's clinical environments may be challenging. Acute care environments present unique learning opportunities for medical trainees, as well as specific challenges. The goal of this paper was to better understand…

  14. [Post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders: from the acute episode to chronicity].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Balboa, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) form a major part of gastroenterology practice. Several studies have reported the development of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) after acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Non-gastrointestinal (GI) infections may increase the risk of developing IBS. There are also data showing that a GI infection may trigger functional dyspepsia (PI-FD). The possible development of PI-IBS or PI-FD depends on factors related to both the infection and the host. Microinflammation has been found in patients with post-infectious FGID. Studies performed in animal models show that infection and acute inflammation permanently change gastrointestinal motility and sensitivity. The role of AGE in the development of FGID is important not only because this entity provides an excellent natural model for pathogenic study but also because it provides an opportunity for preventive action. PMID:21641686

  15. Positive modulation of mood and cognitive performance following administration of acute doses of Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil to healthy young volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tildesley, N T J; Kennedy, D O; Perry, E K; Ballard, C G; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2005-01-17

    Members of the Sage family, such as Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia, have a long history of use as memory-enhancing agents coupled with cholinergic properties that may potentially be relevant to the amelioration of the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. The current study utilised a placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover design in order to comprehensively assess any mood and cognition modulation by S. lavandulaefolia. Twenty-four participants received single doses of placebo, 25 microl and 50 microl of a standardised essential oil of S. lavandulaefolia in an order dictated by a Latin square. Doses were separated by a 7-day washout period. Cognitive performance was assessed prior to the day's treatment and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery. Subjective mood ratings were measured using Bond-Lader visual analogue scales. The primary outcome measures were scores on the five cognitive factors that can be derived by factor analysis of the task outcomes from the CDR battery. The results showed that administration of S. lavandulaefolia resulted in a consistent improvement for both the 25- and 50-microl dose on the 'Speed of Memory' factor. There was also an improvement on the 'Secondary Memory' factor for the 25-microl dose. Mood was consistently enhanced, with increases in self-rated 'alertness', 'calmness' and 'contentedness' following the 50-microl dose and elevated 'calmness' following 25 microl. These results represent further evidence that Salvia is capable of acute modulation of mood and cognition in healthy young adults. The data also suggest that previous reports of memory enhancement by Salvia may be due to more efficient retrieval of target material. PMID:15639154

  16. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and subchronic episodic ozone exposures in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Snow, Samantha J; Gordon, Christopher J; Bass, Virginia L; Schladweiler, Mette C; Ledbetter, Allen D; Jarema, Kimberly A; Phillips, Pamela M; Johnstone, Andrew F; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2016-06-01

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this study, we examined age-related susceptibility to O3 using 1 mo (adolescent), 4 mo (young adult), 12 mo (adult) and 24 mo (senescent) male Brown Norway rats exposed to filtered air or O3 (0.25 and 1.00 ppm), 6 h/day, two days/week for 1 week (acute) or 13 weeks (subchronic). Ventilatory function, assessed by whole-body plethysmography, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biomarkers of injury and inflammation were used to examine O3-induced pulmonary effects. Relaxation time declined in all ages following the weekly exposures; however, this effect persisted only in the 24 mo rats following a five days recovery, demonstrating an inability to induce adaptation commonly seen with repeated O3 exposures. PenH was increased in all groups with an augmented response in the 4 mo rats following the subchronic O3 exposures. O3 led to increased breathing frequency and minute volume in the 1 and 4 mo animals. Markers of pulmonary permeability were increased in all age groups. Elevations in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity and lung inflammation following an acute O3 exposure were noted in only the 1 and 4 mo rats, which likely received an increased effective O3 dose. These data demonstrate that adolescent and young adult animals are more susceptible to changes in ventilation and pulmonary injury/inflammation caused by acute and episodic O3 exposure. PMID:27097751

  17. Increased risk of severe vaso-occlusive episodes after initial acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell anemia less than 4 years old: Sleep and asthma cohort.

    PubMed

    Vance, Leah D; Rodeghier, Mark; Cohen, Robyn T; Rosen, Carol L; Kirkham, Fenella J; Strunk, Robert C; DeBaun, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that the highest incidence of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease occurs in children <4 years old, and a history of ACS at this age is a risk factor for future ACS episodes. However, the interval associated with the highest risk of subsequent ACS or severe pain is not known. Through this mixed retrospective-prospective observational study, the Sleep and Asthma Cohort, we sought to determine the interval after an initial ACS episode during which the majority of children <4 years old are rehospitalized for ACS or severe pain. The cumulative prevalence of rehospitalization for ACS or severe pain within 6 months, 1 years, and 2 years was calculated for children with an initial ACS episode <4 years old and compared to children with an initial ACS episode ≥4 years old. A total of 44.8% and 55.2% of participants had an initial ACS episode <4 years and ≥4 years old (Range: 4-17.7 years), respectively. At 1 year following the initial ACS episode, children <4 years old had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of rehospitalizations for ACS or pain as compared to children ≥4 years of age, 62.5 and 39.1%, respectively (P = 0.009). After initial ACS episodes, the majority of children <4 years old will be rehospitalized for ACS or severe pain within one year, suggesting the need for a therapeutic intervention for this high-risk group. PMID:25619382

  18. Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder. PMID

  19. Acute effects of different multivitamin mineral preparations with and without Guaraná on mood, cognitive performance and functional brain activation.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Andrew; Bauer, Isabelle; Neale, Chris; Savage, Karen; Camfield, David; White, David; Maggini, Silvia; Pipingas, Andrew; Stough, Con; Hughes, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Previous work has identified the positive effects of the acute administration of a multivitamin-guaraná preparation during an effortful executive/working memory task. Here, we aimed to differentiate the effects of multivitamins with and without guaraná and to examine the neural substrates of such effects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, balanced crossover design, 20 participants (mean age 29 ± 5.54 years) consumed multivitamin preparations with or without guaraná (Berocca® Performance and Boost, respectively) and a placebo. Thirty minutes post-treatment, they underwent neurocognitive assessment, consisting of a 10 min Cognitive Demand Battery, with mood ratings taken immediately before and after the battery. Five additional participants underwent post-treatment fMRI scanning during Rapid Visual Information Processing and Inspection Time activation tasks. The multivitamin with guaraná treatment was associated with significantly enhanced Serial Threes performance and self-rated contentment. fMRI revealed that both multivitamin treatments increased activation in areas associated with working memory and attentional processing, with the effect being greater in the multivitamin with guaraná condition. These data confirm the acute benefits of multivitamins with guaraná on mood and cognitive performance. Furthermore, they demonstrate for the first time increased brain activation from multivitamin preparations both with and without guaraná, as measured using fMRI. PMID:24067387

  20. Parasite Specific Antibody Increase Induced by an Episode of Acute P. falciparum Uncomplicated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Kaddumukasa, Mark; Lwanira, Catherine; Lugaajju, Allan; Katabira, Elly; Persson, Kristina E. M.; Wahlgren, Mats; Kironde, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is no approved vaccine for malaria, and precisely how human antibody responses to malaria parasite components and potential vaccine molecules are developed and maintained remains poorly defined. In this study, antibody anamnestic or memory response elicited by a single episode of P. falciparum infection was investigated. Methods This study involved 362 malaria patients aged between 6 months to 60 years, of whom 19% were early-diagnosed people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). On the day malaria was diagnosed and 42 days later, blood specimens were collected. Parasite density, CD4+ cells, and antibodies specific to synthetic peptides representing antigenic regions of the P. falciparum proteins GLURP, MSP3 and HRPII were measured. Results On the day of malaria diagnosis, Immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies against GLURP, MSP3 and HRP II peptides were present in the blood of 75%, 41% and 60% of patients, respectively. 42 days later, the majority of patients had boosted their serum IgG antibody more than 1.2 fold. The increase in level of IgG antibody against the peptides was not affected by parasite density at diagnosis. The median CD4+ cell counts of PLWHAs and HIV negative individuals were not statistically different, and median post-infection increases in anti-peptide IgG were similar in both groups of patients. Conclusion In the majority (70%) of individuals, an infection of P. falciparum elicits at least 20% increase in level of anti-parasite IgG. This boost in anti-P. falciparum IgG is not affected by parasite density on the day of malaria diagnosis, or by HIV status. PMID:25906165

  1. A Pilot Study of Citalopram Treatment in Preventing Relapse of Depressive Episode after Acute Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Amy; Levitt, Anthony; Cheng, Michael; Santor, Darcy; Kutcher, Stan; Dubo, Elyse; Jane Garland, E.; Weiss, Margaret; Kiss, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the benefit of continuation treatment with citalopram in adolescents 13 to 18 years of age with major depression using a multi-site randomized placebo controlled discontinuation design. Methods: Subjects with depression who responded to open label treatment with citalopram in 12-week acute phase were randomized to continued treatment with citalopram or placebo for 24 weeks. Results: Twenty five subjects were randomized to either continued treatment with citalopram (n = 12) versus placebo (n = 13). Seventy-five percent of subjects on citalopram (75%) remained well as compared to placebo (62%). Time to relapse was compared between groups using the log rank test and was not found to be significantly different (χ2(1) = 0.35, P = 0.55). A Cox proportional hazards model including drug assignment (hazard ratio (HR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.11 to 2.36, P = 0.39), gender (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.14 to 2.37, P = 0.44), or HAM-score at entry to continuation phase (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.95, P = 0.95) was not significant. Conclusion: Although we did not find statistically significant differences between citalopram and placebo, the findings suggest a possible benefit of continued treatment with citalopram over placebo. A larger clinical trial with adequate power is required to confirm or disconfirm these findings. PMID:27047552

  2. Role of the Cannabinoid System in Pain Control and Therapeutic Implications for the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Manzanares, J; Julian, MD; Carrascosa, A

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids are still widely considered illegal substances. Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that they may result useful to treat diverse diseases, including those related with acute or chronic pain. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the machinery for the synthesis, transport, and degradation of these retrograde messengers, has equipped us with neurochemical tools for novel drug design. Agonist-activated cannabinoid receptors, modulate nociceptive thresholds, inhibit release of pro-inflammatory molecules, and display synergistic effects with other systems that influence analgesia, especially the endogenous opioid system. Cannabinoid receptor agonists have shown therapeutic value against inflammatory and neuropathic pains, conditions that are often refractory to therapy. Although the psychoactive effects of these substances have limited clinical progress to study cannabinoid actions in pain mechanisms, preclinical research is progressing rapidly. For example, CB1mediated suppression of mast cell activation responses, CB2-mediated indirect stimulation of opioid receptors located in primary afferent pathways, and the discovery of inhibitors for either the transporters or the enzymes degrading endocannabinoids, are recent findings that suggest new therapeutic approaches to avoid central nervous system side effects. In this review, we will examine promising indications of cannabinoid receptor agonists to alleviate acute and chronic pain episodes. Recently, Cannabis sativa extracts, containing known doses of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, have granted approval in Canada for the relief of neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. Further double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the potential therapeutic effectiveness of various cannabinoid agonists-based medications for controlling different types of pain. PMID:18615144

  3. Episode of Familial Mediterranean Fever-Related Peritonitis in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy Followed by Acute Cholecystitis: Dilemmas and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Kosmidis, Christophoros; Anthimidis, Georgios; Varsamis, Nikolaos; Makedou, Fotini; Georgakoudi, Eleni; Efthimiadis, Christophoros

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 33 Final Diagnosis: Acute cholecystitis after Familial Mediterranean Fever-related peritonitis Symptoms: Acute abdomen • fever Medication: Colchicine Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and adhesiolysis in the second trimester of pregnancy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in pregnant patients is one of the greatest challenges for the clinician. Occurrence of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) paroxysm of peritonitis and acute cholecystitis during pregnancy is a unique clinical entity that leads to serious diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Case Report: We present the case of a 33-year-old Armenian patient at 16 weeks’ gestational age with a history of FMF, who was admitted twice within 1 month with acute abdomen. The first episode was attributed to FMF and successfully treated conservatively with colchicine. The second episode was diagnosed as acute cholecystitis and led to emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and lysis of peritoneal adhesions from previous FMF attacks. The patient presented an uneventful postoperative clinical course and had a normal delivery of a healthy infant at the 39th week of gestation. Conclusions: Pregnant patients with acute abdomen should be evaluated with open mind. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published report of the coexistence of 2 different causes of acute abdomen during pregnancy. Meticulous history and thorough physical, laboratory, and radiologic examination are the keys to reach a correct diagnosis. Treatment of pregnant patients with acute abdomen should be individualized. Administration of colchicine should be continued during conception, pregnancy, and lactation in patients with FMF history. Laparoscopic intervention in pregnant patients with surgical abdomen such as acute cholecystitis is the optimal method of treatment. PMID:26907752

  4. Lead concentrations in blood and milk from periparturient dairy heifers seven months after an episode of acute lead toxicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Galey, F.D.; Slenning, B.D.; Anderson, M.L.; Breneman, P.C.; Littlefield, E.S.; Melton, L.A.; Tracy, M.L. )

    1990-07-01

    In September 1988, 100 of 300 yearling dairy heifers developed blindness, tachypnea, foaming at the mouth, chewing, and facial fasciculations. Twenty-five animals died. Lead toxicosis was diagnosed based on the clinical signs and the presence of excessive concentrations of lead in whole blood, liver, kidney, and rumen contents of affected animals. The source of the lead was sudan grass silage that had been contaminated by soil that contained up to 77,000 mg/kg of lead. Lead concentrations were determined approximately 7 months after the acute episode of lead toxicosis. Whole blood and milk samples were obtained from heifers and a group of control cows 2 weeks prior to (blood only), at the time of, and 2 and 4 weeks after freshening. No lead was found in any of the milk samples (detection limit = 0.055 mg/liter). Animals that had been severely affected by lead toxicosis experienced a transient increase in whole blood lead concentrations at freshening that was not high enough to be considered toxic. No similar increases in blood lead were observed for control cows or heifers that had experienced milder toxicosis. These findings suggest that at parturition lead is mobilized into the blood of cattle previously exposed to excessive lead.

  5. Acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine, caffeine, and epigallocatechin gallate on cognitive function and mood: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Camfield, David A; Stough, Con; Farrimond, Jonathon; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on 11 randomized placebo-controlled human studies of acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate, administered alone or in combination with caffeine, on cognitive function and mood. The outcome measures of mood were alertness, calmness, and contentedness, derived from the Bond-Lader scales, and state anxiety, from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Cognitive measures assessed were attentional switch, intersensory attention, and rapid visual information processing. Standardized mean differences between placebo and treatment groups are presented for each study and outcome measure. Meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted when data were available for three or more studies. Evidence of moderate effect sizes in favor of combined caffeine and L-theanine in the first 2 hours postdose were found for outcome measures Bond-Lader alertness, attentional switching accuracy, and, to a lesser extent, some unisensory and multisensory attentional outcomes. Moderator analysis of caffeine and L-theanine doses revealed trends toward greater change in effect size for caffeine dose than for L-theanine dose, particularly during the first hour postdose. PMID:24946991

  6. Long-term non-invasive ventilation reduces readmissions in COPD patients with two or more episodes of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Ankjærgaard, Kasper Linde; Maibom, Sophia Liff; Wilcke, Jon Torgny

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients who have had an episode of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) have a large 1-year risk of death or readmission. Acute non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be an effective treatment of AHRF; and long-term NIV (LTNIV) has been shown to be an effective treatment of chronic respiratory failure in stable hypercapnic COPD. We investigated the effects of LTNIV in a group of patients with severe, unstable COPD: frequent admissions and multiple previous episodes of AHRF treated with NIV. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 20 COPD patients treated with LTNIV after two or more episodes of AHRF during 1 year. Results The mean number of AHRF episodes decreased from 2.44 in the year prior to LTNIV initiation to 0.44 in the year following (p<0.0001). The median number of admissions decreased from 5.19 to 1.88 (p=0.0092). Four patients (20%) died in 1 year. LTNIV tended to reduce arterial CO2. No changes were found in lung function. Conclusions LTNIV seems effective in reducing recurrent AHRF and readmissions in a highly select group of patients with severe, unstable COPD and frequent AHRF. PMID:27036658

  7. Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... include depression and bipolar disorder (also called manic depression). Mood disorders can increase a person's risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other diseases. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. With treatment, most ...

  8. Increased risk of severe vaso-occlusive episodes after initial acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell anemia less than 4 years old: Sleep and Asthma Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Leah D; Rodeghier, Mark; Cohen, Robyn T.; Rosen, Carol L.; Kirham, Fenella J.; Strunk, Robert C.; DeBaun, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the highest incidence of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease (SCD) occurs in children less than 4 years old, and a history of ACS at this age is a risk factor for future ACS episodes. However, the interval associated with the highest risk of subsequent ACS or severe pain is not known. Through this mixed retrospective-prospective observational study, the Sleep and Asthma Cohort, we sought to determine the interval after an initial ACS episode during which the majority of children <4 years old are re-hospitalized for ACS or severe pain. The cumulative prevalence of re-hospitalization for ACS or severe pain within 6 months, 1 years, and 2 years was calculated for children with an initial ACS episode <4 years old and compared to children with an initial ACS episode ≥4 years old. A total of 44.8% and 55.2% of participants had an initial ACS episode <4 years and ≥4 years old (Range: 4-17.7 years), respectively. At 1 year following the initial ACS episode, children <4 years old had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of re-hospitalizations for ACS or pain as compared to children ≥4 years of age, 62.5% and 39.1%, respectively (P = 0.009). After initial ACS episodes, the majority of children <4 years old will be re-hospitalized for ACS or severe pain within one year, suggesting the need for a therapeutic intervention for this high-risk group. PMID:25619382

  9. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable and unpredictable time-courses of the depressive episodes. The main supporting observations are: (1) mood transitions within minutes or days have been reported during deep brain stimulation, naps after sleep deprivation and bipolar mood disorders; (2) sleep deprivation, electroconvulsive treatment and experimental drugs (e.g., ketamine) may facilitate mood transitions in major depressive disorder within hours or a few days; (3) epidemiological and clinical studies show that the time-to-recovery from major depressive disorder can be described with decay models implying very short depressive episodes; (4) lack of relationship between the length of depression and recovery episodes in recurrent depression; (5) mood fluctuations predict later therapeutic success in major depressive disorder. We discuss some recent models aimed to describe random mood transitions. The observations together suggest that the mood transitions have a wide variety of apparently unrelated causes. We suggest that the mechanism of mood transition is compromised in major depressive disorder, which has to be recognized in diagnostic systems. PMID:24613736

  10. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker after endoscopic gastric variceal obturation for first acute episode of gastric variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moon Han; Kim, Sang Gyune; Lee, Yun Nah; Seo, Yu Ri; Kim, Min Jin; Lee, Sae Hwan; Jeong, Soung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The most appropriate treatment for acute gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is currently endoscopic gastric variceal obturation (GVO) using Histoacryl®. However, the secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker (BB) after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB has not yet been established. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of BB after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB was evaluated in this study. Methods Ninety-three patients at Soonchunhyang University Hospital with acute GVB who received GVO using Histoacryl® were enrolled between June 2001 and March 2010. Among these, 42 patients underwent GVO alone (GVO group) and 51 patients underwent GVO with adjuvant BB therapy (GVO+BB group). This study was intended for patients in whom a desired heart rate was reached. The rates of rebleeding-free survival and overall survival were calculated for the two study groups using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Cox's proportional-hazards model. Results The follow-up period after the initial eradication of gastric varices was 18.14±25.22 months (mean±SD). During the follow-up period, rebleeding occurred in 10 (23.8%) and 21 (41.2%) GVO and GVO+BB patients, respectively, and 39 patients died [23 (54.8%) in the GVO group and 16 (31.4%) in the GVO+BB group]. The mean rebleeding-free survival time did not differ significantly between the GVO and GVO+BB groups (65.40 and 37.40 months, respectively; P=0.774), whereas the mean overall survival time did differ (52.54 and 72.65 months, respectively; P=0.036). Conclusions Adjuvant BB therapy after GVO using Histoacryl® for the first acute episode of GVB could decrease the mortality rate relative to GVO alone. However, adjuvant BB therapy afforded no benefit for the secondary prevention of rebleeding in GV. PMID:24133666

  11. EFFECTS OF ACUTE AND WEEKLY EPISODIC EXPOSURES TO ANATOXIN-A ON THE MOTOR ACTIVITY OF RATS: COMPARISON WITH NICOTINE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anatoxin-a is a potent nicotinic cholinergic agonist, that is produced by many genera of cyanobacteria, and has caused several poisoning episodes of wildlife, livestock, and domestic animals. Cyanobacterial blooms and toxin exposures are likely to occur episodically as environmen...

  12. Mood-congruent cognitions constitute mood experience.

    PubMed

    Siemer, Matthias

    2005-09-01

    Three studies tested the assumption of a dispositional theory of moods that mood-related cognitions constitute essential parts of the phenomenal mood experience. In Study 1, after a hot- versus a cold-, sad-, or angry-mood induction, participants reported their momentary moods and their momentary mood-related cognitions. Self-reported moods and mood-related cognitions changed in a strictly parallel fashion in all mood induction groups. A mediation analysis showed that the influences of distraction on moods were completely mediated by changes in mood-related cognitions. Study 2 replicated the central findings of Study 1 with a musical mood induction procedure. Study 3 showed that the findings do not depend on the explicit manipulation of moods. The results support the tested assumption. PMID:16187865

  13. The acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa flavanols on mood, cognitive and cardiovascular health in young healthy adults: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Massee, Laura A.; Ried, Karin; Pase, Matthew; Travica, Nikolaj; Yoganathan, Jaesshanth; Scholey, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Kennedy, Greg; Sali, Avni; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa supplementation has been associated with benefits to cardiovascular health. However, cocoa's effects on cognition are less clear. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial (n = 40, age M = 24.13 years, SD = 4.47 years) was conducted to investigate the effects of both acute (same-day) and sub-chronic (daily for four-weeks) 250 mg cocoa supplementation on mood and mental fatigue, cognitive performance and cardiovascular functioning in young, healthy adults. Assessment involved repeated 10-min cycles of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) encompassing two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing task, and a mental fatigue scale over the course of half an hour. The Swinburne University Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery (SUCCAB) was also completed to evaluate cognition. Cardiovascular function included measuring both peripheral and central blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. At the acute time point, consumption of cocoa significantly improved self-reported mental fatigue and performance on the Serial Sevens task in cycle one of the CDB. No other significant effects were found. This trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12613000626763). Accessible via http://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx?searchTxt=ACTRN12613000626763&ddlSearch=Registered. PMID:26042037

  14. Episodic ozone exposure in adult and Senescent Brown Norway rats: Acute and delayed cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Setting exposure standards for environmental pollutants may consider the aged as a susceptible population but the few published studies assessing susceptibility of the aged to air pollutants are inconsistent. Episodic ozone (O(3)) is more reflective of potential exposures occurri...

  15. Outpatient utilization patterns and quality outcomes after first acute episode of mental health hospitalization. Is some better than none, and is more service associated with better outcomes?

    PubMed

    Huff, E D

    2000-12-01

    Access to outpatient services within the first 30 days after an inpatient mental health episode may influence relapse risk. A retrospective cohort of 3,755 adult Medicaid mental health inpatients discharged from their first managed care acute episode of care from July 1, 1996, through May 20, 1998, were studied. Results showed patients' utilization of any psychotherapy (OR = .43), medication management (OR = .41), or diagnostic evaluation services (OR = .61), relative to no utilization, was associated with significantly lower 30-day readmission rates, and longer times in remission. However, patients receiving above the median total number of ambulatory services, or having contact with more providers showed significantly greater likelihood of 30-day readmission, and shorter time in remission. Findings heighten the need for the availability of timely risk-reducing mental health outpatient services, the continuity and risk of fragmentation of therapeutic relationships, as well as crisis planning before an inpatient discharge. PMID:11139870

  16. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

  17. Duration of Untreated Psychosis Is Associated with More Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms after Acute Treatment for First-Episode Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grano, Niklas; Lindsberg, Jenni; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Gronroos, Peter; Blomberg, Ari-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients is inconsistent in the recent literature. In the present study, DUP, schizophrenia symptoms, duration of medication, and diagnosis were obtained from hospital archives in a sample of FEP patients.…

  18. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  19. Acute and longer-term effects of risperidone in a case of first-episode catatonic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kopala, L C; Caudle, C

    1998-01-01

    This case report documents the response of a young, first-episode, neuroleptic naive male with severe catatonic schizophrenia to the novel antipsychotic, risperidone. Initial assessments included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales, Global Assessment of Function and the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale. These were repeated at discharge from hospital and during a 3.5 year outpatient follow-up. Neuroimaging (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and single photon emission tomography) along with electroencephalogram and laboratory examinations were completed. Response to risperidone was prompt, dramatic and sustained over the follow-up period. Possible neurochemical brain mechanisms resulting in catatonia and the role of serotonin/dopamine antagonists such as risperidone are discussed. No other literature on the effect of risperidone in the treatment of severe catatonic schizophrenia in a first-episode patient has been reported. PMID:10958259

  20. Episodic ozone exposure in adult and senescent Brown Norway rats: acute and delayed effect on heart rate, core temperature and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Johnstone, A F; Aydin, C; Phillips, P M; MacPhail, R C; Kodavanti, U P; Ledbetter, A D; Jarema, K A

    2014-06-01

    Setting exposure standards for environmental pollutants may consider the aged as a susceptible population but the few published studies assessing susceptibility of the aged to air pollutants are inconsistent. Episodic ozone (O₃) is more reflective of potential exposures occurring in human populations and could be more harmful to the aged. This study used radiotelemetry to monitor heart rate (HR), core temperature (T(c)) and motor activity (MA) in adult (9-12 months) and senescent (20-24 months) male, Brown Norway rats exposed to episodic O₃ (6 h/day of 1 ppm O₃ for 2 consecutive days/week for 13 weeks). Acute O₃ initially led to marked drops in HR and T(c). As exposures progressed each week, there was diminution in the hypothermic and bradycardic effects of O₃. Senescent rats were less affected than adults. Acute responses were exacerbated on the second day of O₃ exposure with adults exhibiting greater sensitivity. During recovery following 2 d of O₃, adult and senescent rats exhibited an elevated T(c) and HR during the day but not at night, an effect that persisted for at least 48 h after O₃ exposure. MA was elevated in adults but not senescent rats during recovery from O₃. Overall, acute effects of O₃, including reductions in HR and T(c), were attenuated in senescent rats. Autonomic responses during recovery, included an elevation in T(c) with a pattern akin to that of a fever and rise in HR that were independent of age. An attenuated inflammatory response to O₃ in senescent rats may explain the relatively heightened physiological response to O₃ in younger rats. PMID:24779854

  1. Mood and affect disorders.

    PubMed

    Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G

    2015-02-01

    Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians. PMID:25646309

  2. A Pilot RCT of Psychodynamic Group Art Therapy for Patients in Acute Psychotic Episodes: Feasibility, Impact on Symptoms and Mentalising Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Christiane; Haase, Laura; Seidel, Dorothea; Bayerl, Martin; Gallinat, Jürgen; Herrmann, Uwe; Dannecker, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic episodes and justify

  3. Acute renal failure induced by markedly decreased appetite secondary to a depressive episode after discontinuation of long-term lithium therapy in an elderly patient with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Some elderly patients on chronic lithium therapy for bipolar disorder and their doctors may be faced with a therapeutic dilemma over whether or not to continue prescribing/taking lithium given their increased risk of reduced renal function. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman with bipolar disorder who discontinued lithium therapy due to increased risk factors for renal injury. After discontinuation, she experienced markedly decreased appetite secondary to a depressive episode, and developed acute renal failure, which subsequently progressed to a more advanced stage of chronic kidney disease. This case suggests that extreme care must be taken to prevent the recurrence of depression in elderly patients with bipolar disorder who discontinue lithium therapy, even when they had been emotionally stable for a long time while receiving lithium. Medications other than lithium for bipolar disorder may be needed at the time lithium therapy is discontinued. PMID:24835805

  4. Occurrence and predictors of recurrence after a first episode of acute venous thromboembolism: population-based Worcester Venous Thromboembolism Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Goldberg, Robert J; Anderson, Frederick A; Cohen, Alexander T; Spencer, Frederick A

    2016-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has multiple risk factors and tends to recur. Despite the benefits of anticoagulation, the prevalence of, and case-fatality rate associated with, recurrent VTE remains a concern after an acute episode; it is particularly high during the acute treatment phase. We sought to quantify the magnitude, identify predictors, and develop risk score calculator of recurrence within 3 years after first-time VTE. This was a population-based surveillance study among residents of central Massachusetts (MA), USA, diagnosed with an acute first-time pulmonary embolism and/or lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis from 1999 to 2009 in hospital and ambulatory settings in all 12 central MA hospitals. Medical records were reviewed and validated. The 2989 study patients were followed for 5836 person-years [mean follow-up 23.4 (median 30) months]. Mean age was 64.3 years, 44 % were men, and 94 % were white. The cumulative incidence rate of recurrent VTE within 3 years after an index VTE was 15 % overall, and 25, 13, and 13 % among patients with active cancer, provoked, or unprovoked VTE, respectively. Multivariable regression indicated that active cancer, varicose vein stripping, and inferior vena cava filter placement were independent predictors of recurrence during both 3-month and 3-year follow-up. A risk score calculator was developed based on the 3-month prognostic model. In conclusion, the rate of VTE recurrence over 3 years of follow-up remained high. The risk score calculator may assist clinicians at the index encounter in determining the frequency of clinical surveillance and appropriate outpatient treatment of VTE during the acute treatment phase. PMID:26847621

  5. Changes in brain regions associated with food-intake regulation, body mass and metabolic profiles during acute antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Emsley, Robin; Asmal, Laila; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; du Plessis, Stefan; Carr, Jonathan; Kidd, Martin; Malhotra, Anil K; Vink, Matthijs; Kahn, Rene S

    2015-08-30

    We investigated whether morphological brain changes occurred in brain regions associated with body-weight homeostasis during acute antipsychotic treatment, and if so, whether they were related to changes in body mass and metabolic profile. Twenty-two antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia received either risperidone long acting injection or flupenthixol decanoate over 13 weeks and were compared by structural MRI with 23 matched healthy volunteers at weeks 0, 4 and 13. Images were reconstructed using freesurfer fully-automated whole brain segmentation. The ventral diencephalon and prefrontal cortex were selected to represent the homeostatic and hedonic food intake regulatory systems respectively. Body mass was measured at weeks 0, 7 and 13 and fasting glucose and lipid profiles at weeks 0 and 13. Linear mixed effect models indicated significant group(⁎)time interactions for the ventral diencephalon volumes bilaterally. Ventral diencephalon volume reduction was strongly correlated bilaterally with body mass increase and HDL-cholesterol reductions, and unilaterally with blood glucose elevation. There were no significant changes in prefrontal cortical thickness. These findings implicate the ventral diencephalon, of which the hypothalamus is the main component, in the acute adipogenic and dyslipidaemic effects of antipsychotic medication. PMID:26184461

  6. Sensitization to Acute Procedural Pain in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease: Modulation by Painful Vaso-occlusive Episodes, Age, and Endothelin-1

    PubMed Central

    Schlenz, Alyssa M.; McClellan, Catherine B.; Mark, Teresa R.M.; McKelvy, Alvin D.; Puffer, Eve; Roberts, Carla W.; Sweitzer, Sarah M.; Schatz, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of pain early in life is a salient issue for sickle cell disease (SCD), a genetic condition characterized by painful vaso-occlusive episodes (VOEs) that can begin in the first year of life and persist into adulthood. This study examined the effects of age and pain history (age of onset and frequency of recent VOEs) on acute procedural pain in children with SCD. Endothelin-1, a vaso-active peptide released during VOEs and acute tissue injury, and its precursor, Big Endothelin, were explored as markers of pain sensitization and vaso-occlusion. Sixty-one children with SCD (ages 2 to 18) underwent venipuncture at routine health visits. Procedural pain was assessed via child- and caregiver-reports and observational distress. Pain history was assessed using retrospective chart review. Three primary results were found: 1) younger age was associated with greater procedural pain across pain outcomes, 2) higher frequency of VOEs was associated with greater procedural pain based on observational distress (regardless of age), and 3) age was found to moderate the relationship between VOEs and procedural pain for child-reported pain and observational distress for children five years of age and older. Associations between the endothelin variables and pain prior to venipuncture were also observed. PMID:22633685

  7. A randomised, feasibility trial of a tele-health intervention for Acute Coronary Syndrome patients with depression ('MoodCare'): Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression are leading causes of disease burden globally and the two often co-exist. Depression is common after Myocardial Infarction (MI) and it has been estimated that 15-35% of patients experience depressive symptoms. Co-morbid depression can impair health related quality of life (HRQOL), decrease medication adherence and appropriate utilisation of health services, lead to increased morbidity and suicide risk, and is associated with poorer CHD risk factor profiles and reduced survival. We aim to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised, multi-centre trial designed to compare a tele-health program (MoodCare) for depression and CHD secondary prevention, with Usual Care (UC). Methods Over 1600 patients admitted after index admission for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) are being screened for depression at six metropolitan hospitals in the Australian states of Victoria and Queensland. Consenting participants are then contacted at two weeks post-discharge for baseline assessment. One hundred eligible participants are to be randomised to an intervention or a usual medical care control group (50 per group). The intervention consists of up to 10 × 30-40 minute structured telephone sessions, delivered by registered psychologists, commencing within two weeks of baseline screening. The intervention focuses on depression management, lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy eating, smoking cessation, alcohol intake), medication adherence and managing co-morbidities. Data collection occurs at baseline (Time 1), 6 months (post-intervention) (Time 2), 12 months (Time 3) and 24 months follow-up for longer term effects (Time 4). We are comparing depression (Cardiac Depression Scale [CDS]) and HRQOL (Short Form-12 [SF-12]) scores between treatment and UC groups, assessing the feasibility of the program through patient acceptability and exploring long term maintenance effects. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the costs and

  8. Detecting Mood-Dependent Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Bower, Gordon H.

    The mood-dependent retrieval hypothesis states that mood will enhance recall by acting as a recall cue if the stimuli have been learned initially in the same mood. Material learned in a happy mood will be best recalled when the person returns to a happy mood; the same holds for a sad mood. Mood-dependent retrieval effect has been regulary…

  9. Does mood influence the realism of confidence judgments?

    PubMed

    Allwood, Carl Martin; Granhag, Pär Anders; Jonsson, Anna-Carin

    2002-07-01

    Previous research has shown that mood affects cognition, but the extent to which mood affects meta-cognitive judgments is a relatively over-looked issue. In the current study we investigated how mood influences the degree of realism in participants' confidence judgments (based on an episodic memory task). Using music and film in combination, we successfully induced an elated mood in half of the participants, but failed to induce a sad mood in the other half. In line with previous research, the participants in both conditions were overconfident in their judgments. However, and contrary to our prediction, our data indicated that there was no difference in the realism of the confidence between the conditions. When relating this result to previous research, our conclusion is that there is no, or very little, influence of mood of moderate intensity on the realism of confidence judgments. PMID:12184480

  10. Effect of a Simple Information Booklet on Pain Persistence after an Acute Episode of Low Back Pain: A Non-Randomized Trial in a Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Coudeyre, Emmanuel; Baron, Gabriel; Coriat, Fernand; Brin, Sylvie; Revel, Michel; Poiraudeau, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Objective Mass-media campaigns have been known to modify the outcome of low back pain (LBP). We assessed the impact on outcome of standardized written information on LBP given to patients with acute LBP. Methods Design: A 3-month pragmatic, multicenter controlled trial with geographic stratification. Setting: Primary care practice in France. Participants: 2752 patients with acute LBP. Intervention: An advice book on LBP (the “back book”). Main outcome measures: The main outcome measure was persistence of LBP three months after baseline evaluation. Results 2337 (85%) patients were assessed at follow-up and 12.4% of participants reported persistent LBP. The absolute risk reduction of reporting persistent back pain in the intervention group was 3.6% lower than in the control group (10.5% vs. 14.1%; 95% confidence interval [−6.3% ; −1.0%]; p value adjusted for cluster effect = 0.01). Patients in the intervention group were more satisfied than those in the control group with the information they received about physical activities, when to consult their physician, and how to prevent a new episode of LBP. However, the number of patients who had taken sick leave was similar, as was the mean sick-leave duration, in both arms, and, among patients with persistent pain at follow-up, the intervention and control groups did not differ in disability or fear-avoidance beliefs. Conclusions The level of improvement of an information booklet is modest, but the cost and complexity of the intervention is minimal. Therefore, the implications and generalizability of this intervention are substantial. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00343057 PMID:17684553

  11. Acute experimental changes in mood state regulate immune function in relation to central opioid neurotransmission: a model of human CNS-peripheral inflammatory interaction.

    PubMed

    Prossin, A R; Koch, A E; Campbell, P L; Barichello, T; Zalcman, S S; Zubieta, J-K

    2016-02-01

    Although evidence shows depressed moods enhance risk for somatic diseases, molecular mechanisms underlying enhanced somatic susceptibility are ill-defined. Knowledge of these molecular mechanisms will inform development of treatment and prevention strategies across comorbid depressive and somatic illnesses. Existing evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18; an IL-1 family cytokine) is elevated in depression and implicated in pathophysiology underlying comorbid medical illnesses. We previously identified strong associations between baseline IL-18 and μ-opioid receptor availability in major depressive disorder (MDD) volunteers. Combined with the evidence in animal models, we hypothesized that experimental mood induction would change IL-18, the extent proportional to opioid neurotransmitter release. Using the Velten technique in a [(11)C]carfentanil positron emission tomography neuroimaging study, we examined the impact of experimentally induced mood (sad, neutral) on plasma IL-18 and relationships with concurrent changes in the central opioid neurotransmission in 28 volunteers (healthy, MDD). Results showed mood induction impacted IL-18 (F2,25=12.2, P<0.001), sadness increasing IL-18 (T27=2.6, P=0.01) and neutral mood reducing IL-18 (T27=-4.1, P<0.001). In depressed volunteers, changes in IL-18 were more pronounced (F2,25=3.6, P=0.03) and linearly proportional to sadness-induced μ-opioid activation (left ventral pallidum, bilateral anterior cingulate cortices, right hypothalamus and bilateral amygdala). These data demonstrate that dynamic changes of a pro-inflammatory IL-1 superfamily cytokine, IL-18, and its relationship to μ-opioid neurotransmission in response to experimentally induced sadness. Further testing is warranted to delineate the role of neuroimmune interactions involving IL-18 in enhancing susceptibility to medical illness (that is, diabetes, heart disease and persistent pain states) in depressed individuals. PMID:26283642

  12. Oak Forest Responses to Episodic-Seasonal-Drought, Chronic Multi-year Precipitation Change and Acute Drought Manipulations in a Region With Deep Soils and High Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Paul J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Todd, Donald E.; Auge, Robert M.; Froberg, Mats; Johnson, Dale W.

    2010-05-01

    Implications of episodic-seasonal drought (extremely dry late summers), chronic multi-year precipitation manipulations (±33 percent over 12 years) and acute drought (-100 percent over 3 years) were evaluated for the response of vegetation and biogeochemical cycles for an upland-oak forest. The Quercus-Acer forest is located in eastern Tennessee on deep acidic soils with mean annual temperatures of 14.2 °C and abundant precipitation (1352 mm y-1). The multi-year observations and chronic manipulations were conducted from 1993 through 2005 using understory throughfall collection troughs and redistribution gutters and pipes. Acute manipulations of dominant canopy trees (Quercus prinus; Liriodendron tulipifera) were conducted from 2003 through 2005 using full understory tents. Regional and severe late-summer droughts were produced reduced stand water use and photosynthetic carbon gain as expected. Likewise, seedlings and saplings exhibited reduced survival and cumulative growth reductions. Conversely, multi-year chronic increases or decreases in precipitation and associated soil water deficits did not reduce large tree basal area growth for the tree species present. The resilience of canopy trees to chronic-change was the result of a disconnect between carbon allocation to tree growth (an early-season phenomenon) and late-season drought occurrence. Acute precipitation exclusion from the largest canopy trees also produced limited physiological responses and minimal cumulative growth reductions. Lateral root water sources were removed through trenching and could not explain the lack of response to extreme soil drying. Therefore, deep rooting the primary mechanism for large-tree resilience to severe drought. Extensive trench-based assessments of rooting depth suggested that ‘deep' water supplies were being obtained from limited numbers of deep fine roots. Observations of carbon stocks in organic horizons demonstrated accumulation with precipitation reductions and

  13. Corticostriatal pathways contribute to the natural time course of positive mood

    PubMed Central

    Admon, Roee; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    The natural time course of mood includes both acute responses to stimuli and spontaneous fluctuations. To date, neuroimaging studies have focused on either acute affective responses or spontaneous neural fluctuations at rest but no prior study has concurrently probed both components, or how mood disorders might modulate these processes. Here, using fMRI, we capture the acute affective and neural responses to naturalistic positive mood induction, as well as their spontaneous fluctuations during resting states. In both healthy controls and individuals with a history of depression, our manipulation acutely elevates positive mood and ventral striatum activation. Only controls, however, sustain positive mood over time, and this effect is accompanied by the emergence of a reciprocal relationship between the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex during ensuing rest. Findings suggest that corticostriatal pathways contribute to the natural time course of positive mood fluctuations, while disturbances of those neural interactions may characterize mood disorder. PMID:26638823

  14. Corticostriatal pathways contribute to the natural time course of positive mood.

    PubMed

    Admon, Roee; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-01-01

    The natural time course of mood includes both acute responses to stimuli and spontaneous fluctuations. To date, neuroimaging studies have focused on either acute affective responses or spontaneous neural fluctuations at rest but no prior study has concurrently probed both components, or how mood disorders might modulate these processes. Here, using fMRI, we capture the acute affective and neural responses to naturalistic positive mood induction, as well as their spontaneous fluctuations during resting states. In both healthy controls and individuals with a history of depression, our manipulation acutely elevates positive mood and ventral striatum activation. Only controls, however, sustain positive mood over time, and this effect is accompanied by the emergence of a reciprocal relationship between the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex during ensuing rest. Findings suggest that corticostriatal pathways contribute to the natural time course of positive mood fluctuations, while disturbances of those neural interactions may characterize mood disorder. PMID:26638823

  15. Yoga in Public School Improves Adolescent Mood and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felver, Joshua C.; Butzer, Bethany; Olson, Katherine J.; Smith, Iona M.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the acute effects of participating in a single yoga class versus a single standard physical education (PE) class on student mood. Forty-seven high school students completed self-report questionnaires assessing mood and affect immediately before and after participating in a single yoga class…

  16. Progression of Nicotine Dependence, Mood Level, and Mood Variability in Adolescent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Piasecki, Thomas M.; Hedeker, Donald; Dierker, Lisa C.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Mood processes are theorized to play a role in the initiation and progression of smoking behavior. Available work using real-time assessments in samples of young smokers, including several reports from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns (SECASP) study, has indicated that smoking events acutely improve mood and that escalating smoking frequency may stabilize mood. However, prior analyses have not specifically evaluated within-person change in nicotine dependence, which is conceptually distinguishable from frequent smoking and may be associated with unique mood consequences. The current investigation addressed this question using data from 329 adolescent SECASP participants (9th or 10th grade at recruitment) who contributed mood reports via ecological momentary assessment in up to four 1-week bursts over the course of 24 months. Mixed-effects location-scale analyses revealed that within-person increases in scores on the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale were associated with elevations in negative mood level and increased variability of both positive and negative moods. These effects remained when within-person changes in smoking frequency were covaried and were not fully attributable to a subgroup of youth who rapidly escalated their smoking frequency over time. The findings indicate that adolescents tend to show increasing levels of positive mood states, decreasing levels of negative mood, and diminishing mood variability between ages 16 to 18, but progression of nicotine dependence may counteract some of these developmental gains. Emergence of withdrawal symptoms is a likely explanation for the adverse mood effects associated with dependence progression. PMID:26974687

  17. Olanzapine approved for the acute treatment of schizophrenia or manic/mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in adolescent patients

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Ann E; Sikich, Linmarie

    2010-01-01

    Background Severe and persistent mental illnesses in children and adolescents, such as early- onset schizophrenia spectrum (EOSS) disorders and pediatric bipolar disorder (pedBP), are increasingly recognized. Few treatments have demonstrated efficacy in rigorous clinical trials. Enduring response to current medications appears limited. Recently, olanzapine was approved for the treatment of adolescents with schizophrenia or acute manic/mixed episodes in pedBP. Methods PubMed searches were conducted for olanzapine combined with pharmacology, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder. Searches related to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were limited to children and adolescents. The bibliographies of the retrieved articles were hand-checked for additional relevant studies. The epidemiology, phenomenology, and treatment of EOSS and pedBP, and olanzapine’s pharmacology are reviewed. Studies of olanzapine treatment in youth with EOSS and pedBP are examined. Results Olanzapine is efficacious for EOSS and pedBP. However, olanzapine is not more efficacious than risperidone, molindone, or haloperidol in EOSS and is less efficacious than clozapine in treatment-resistant EOSS. No comparative trials have been done in pedBP. Olanzapine is associated with weight gain, dyslipidemia, and transaminase elevations in youth. Extrapyramidal symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and blood dyscrasias have also been reported but appear rare. Conclusions The authors conclude that olanzapine should be considered a second-line agent in EOSS and pedBP due to its risks for significant weight gain and lipid dysregulation. Awareness of the consistent weight and metabolic changes observed in olanzapine-treated youth focused attention on the potential long-term risks of atypical antipsychotics in youth. PMID:21127693

  18. Cannabis use, cognitive performance and mood in a sample of workers.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, E J K; Moss, S C; Simpson, S A; Smith, A P

    2006-01-01

    There are well documented acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on mental functioning. However, less is known about any effects on cognition within the context of work and everyday life. The aim of the study was to examine any association between cannabis use and cognitive performance, mood and human error at work. Cannabis users and controls completed a battery of laboratory based computer tasks measuring mood and cognitive function pre- and post-work at the start and end of a working week. They also completed daily diaries reporting their work performance. Cannabis use was associated with impairment in both cognitive function and mood, though cannabis users reported no more workplace errors than controls. Cannabis use was associated with lower alertness and slower response organization. In addition, users experienced working memory problems at the start, and psychomotor slowing and poorer episodic recall at the end of the working week. This pattern of results suggests two possible effects. First a 'hangover'-type effect which may increase with frequency of use. Second a subtle effect on cognitive function, perhaps more apparent under cognitive load and/or fatigue, which may increase with more prolonged use. The results also highlight the importance of the timing of testing within the context and routine of everyday life. PMID:16204329

  19. Effect of Home-Based Telemonitoring Using Mobile Phone Technology on the Outcome of Heart Failure Patients After an Episode of Acute Decompensation: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scherr, Daniel; Kastner, Peter; Kollmann, Alexander; Hallas, Andreas; Auer, Johann; Krappinger, Heinz; Schuchlenz, Herwig; Stark, Gerhard; Grander, Wilhelm; Jakl, Gabriele; Schreier, Guenter

    2009-01-01

    Background Telemonitoring of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is an emerging concept to detect early warning signs of impending acute decompensation in order to prevent hospitalization. Objective The goal of the MOBIle TELemonitoring in Heart Failure Patients Study (MOBITEL) was to evaluate the impact of home-based telemonitoring using Internet and mobile phone technology on the outcome of heart failure patients after an episode of acute decompensation. Methods Patients were randomly allocated to pharmacological treatment (control group) or to pharmacological treatment with telemedical surveillance for 6 months (tele group). Patients randomized into the tele group were equipped with mobile phone–based patient terminals for data acquisition and data transmission to the monitoring center. Study physicians had continuous access to the data via a secure Web portal. If transmitted values went outside individually adjustable borders, study physicians were sent an email alert. Primary endpoint was hospitalization for worsening CHF or death from cardiovascular cause. Results The study was stopped after randomization of 120 patients (85 male, 35 female); median age was 66 years (IQR 62-72). The control group comprised 54 patients (39 male, 15 female) with a median age of 67 years (IQR 61-72), and the tele group included 54 patients (40 male, 14 female) with a median age of 65 years (IQR 62-72). There was no significant difference between groups with regard to baseline characteristics. Twelve tele group patients were unable to begin data transmission due to the inability of these patients to properly operate the mobile phone (“never beginners”). Four patients did not finish the study due to personal reasons. Intention-to-treat analysis at study end indicated that 18 control group patients (33%) reached the primary endpoint (1 death, 17 hospitalizations), compared with 11 tele group patients (17%, 0 deaths, 11 hospitalizations; relative risk reduction 50%, 95

  20. The bacterial lysate Lantigen B reduces the number of acute episodes in patients with recurrent infections of the respiratory tract: the results of a double blind, placebo controlled, multicenter clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Braido, Fulvio; Melioli, Giovanni; Candoli, Piero; Cavalot, Andrea; Di Gioacchino, Mario; Ferrero, Vittorio; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mereu, Carlo; Ridolo, Erminia; Rolla, Giovanni; Rossi, Oliviero; Savi, Eleonora; Tubino, Libero; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Baiardini, Ilaria; di Marco, Eddi; Rinaldi, Gilberto; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Accorsi, Carlo; Bossilino, Claudia; Bonzano, Laura; DiLizia, Michela; Fedrighini, Barbara; Garelli, Valentina; Gerace, Vincenzo; Maniscalco, Sara; Massaro, Ilaria; Messi, Alessandro; Milanese, Manlio; Peveri, Silvia; Penno, Arminio; Pizzimenti, Stefano; Pozzo, Tiziana; Raie, Alberto; Regina, Sergio; Sclifò, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Studies in the 1970s and 1980s reported that bacterial lysates (BL) had a prophylactic effect on recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTI). However, controlled clinical study procedures have evolved substantially since then. We performed a trial using updated methods to evaluate the efficacy of Lantigen B®, a chemical BL. This double blind, placebo controlled, multi-center clinical trial had the primary objective of assessing the capacity of Lantigen B to significantly reduce the total number of infectious episodes in patients with RRTI. Secondary aims were the RRTI duration, the frequency and the severity of the acute episodes, the use of drugs and the number of missed workdays. In the subgroup of allergic patients with RRTI, the number of allergic episodes (AE) and the use of anti-allergic drugs were also evaluated. One hundred and sixty patients, 79 allocated to the treated group (TG) and 81 to the placebo group (PG), were enrolled; 30 were lost during the study and 120 (79 females and 38 males) were evaluated. The PG had 1.43 episodes in the 8-months of follow-up while the TG had 0.86 episodes (p=0.036). A similar result was observed in the allergic patients (1.80 and 0.86 episodes for the PG and the TG, respectively, p=0.047). The use of antibiotics was reduced (mean 1.24 and 2.83 days of treatment for the TG and the PG). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the estimated risk of needing antibiotics and NSAIDs was reduced by 52.1 and 30.6%, respectively. With regard to the number of AE, no significant difference was observed between the two groups, but bronchodilators, antihistamines and local corticosteroids were reduced by 25.7%, 56.2% and 41.6%, respectively, in the TG. Lantigen B significantly reduced the number of infectious episodes in patients with RRTI. This finding suggests a first line use of this drug for the prophylaxis of infectious episodes in these patients. PMID:25445613

  1. Mood and helping.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B; Smith, R J

    1975-11-01

    In order to test (a) whether helping someone puts the helper in a better mood and (b) whether people in a good mood are more likely than controls to help with a task maintaining their positive mood but no more likely to help with a task leading to a negative mood, 80 female undergraduates participated in a study in which they (a) had an interaction with a confederate (C) designed to put them in a good or neutral mood, (b) rated their mood, (c) rated some neutral pictures, and (d) were requested to rate some potentially elating or depressing pictures. Ss who were induced to help C or who were given candy by her rated themselves as feeling nicer than these having a more neutral interaction. Neither their interaction with C, the type of pictures they were ased to rate, nor their self-reported mood, with the exception of happiness, was significantly associated with number of pictures rated or time spent helping. Those rating the depressing pictures became more depressed than those rating the cheerful pictures. It was suggested that the lack of significant findings might be due either to the fact that the effect of a good mood on helping declines over time or to the fact that rating pictures was so enjoyable that it was not considered altruistic. PMID:1206614

  2. Mood, hormones and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Mazza, M; Bria, P; Taranto, C; Janiri, L; Mazza, S

    2008-01-01

    In the last years, together with progress of research in psychoneuroendocrinology, there has been growing interest in the psychological aspects of clinical care in endocrine disease. In particular, some issues such as life events preceding disease onset, psychological distress associated with acute illness and convalescence, abnormal illness behaviour and several other aspects of quality of life in endocrinology and mood disorders have received more and more attention. Clinical data on pharmacologic and non pharmacologic interventions that are effective at improving the quality of life for patients with mood disorders and endocrine disturbances is emerging. With the development of more effective treatment options many more patients with mood disorders and endocrine disturbances will achieve healthy levels of functioning and quality of life, which will alleviate the burden that the illness imposes on patients, their families, and caregivers. PMID:18463769

  3. The Velten Mood Induction Procedure: Effects on Mood and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskind, John H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that the self-devaluative aspects of the Velton Mood Induction Procedure (VMIP) do not lower mood but that the depression-related somatic states of the VMIP do lower mood. Found that both aspects of the VMIP have a powerful impact on mood. (Author/RC)

  4. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  5. [Categorical and dimensional diagnostic approach to acute psychosis in view of operational diagnostic criteria].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    "Acute psychosis" is the tentative diagnosis made for the patients presenting acute onset of delusion, hallucination, confusion and emotional instability. "Acute psychosis" was focused in view of operational diagnostic criteria, ie, DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. The diagnostic categories in the DSM-IV-TR corresponding to "acute psychosis" were brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizo-affective disorder and mood disorder with psychotic features. Although brief psychotic disorder is representative of "acute psychosis" in the DSM-TR, it lacks in clinical usefulness, because its diagnostic criteria, based on no historical background, lack clinical validity in terms of symptom definition and duration (1 month>). On the other hand, in the ICD-10, a diagnostic category of acute transient psychotic disorder was based on the traditional "acute psychosis" concept that has been bred in the European Psychiatry. Among the acute transient psychotic disorders, acute polymorphic psychotic disorder is the diagnostic category made according to traditional concept of "bouffées délirantes" and cycloid psychosis. It is a clinically useful diagnostic category, because it could predict favorable episode outcome, if a person with fairly good premorbid social adaptation presents acute onset of polymorphic psychotic symptoms. One of the most prominent points of the revision of DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 is the adoption of dimensional approach evaluation (diagnosis) in a disorder-crossing fashion. In addition to insomnia, depressive mood and anxiety, symptomatic domain such as acute onset, bipolarity, polymorphism of psychotic symptoms, and furthermore such domain as premorbid social adaptation, life event and episode outcome should be evaluated in the course of treatment, contributing to the clinical practice of the patients with acute psychosis. PMID:22352007

  6. Music feels like moods feel

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Kris

    2014-01-01

    While it is widely accepted that music evokes moods, there is disagreement over whether music-induced moods are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music as such. The arguments against the aesthetic relevance of music-induced moods are: (1) moods cannot be intentionally directed at the music and (2) music-induced moods are highly subjective experiences and are therefore a kind of mind-wandering. This paper presents a novel account of musical moods that avoids these objections. It is correct to say that a listener’s entire mood is not relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music. However, the experience of mood consists of having different feelings. Music induces feelings that are intentionally directed at the music and clusters of these feelings can be recognized as typical of a specific mood. Therefore, mood-feelings are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music. PMID:24795677

  7. Music feels like moods feel.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Kris

    2014-01-01

    While it is widely accepted that music evokes moods, there is disagreement over whether music-induced moods are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music as such. The arguments against the aesthetic relevance of music-induced moods are: (1) moods cannot be intentionally directed at the music and (2) music-induced moods are highly subjective experiences and are therefore a kind of mind-wandering. This paper presents a novel account of musical moods that avoids these objections. It is correct to say that a listener's entire mood is not relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music. However, the experience of mood consists of having different feelings. Music induces feelings that are intentionally directed at the music and clusters of these feelings can be recognized as typical of a specific mood. Therefore, mood-feelings are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music. PMID:24795677

  8. Epilepsy and Mood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Epilepsy and mood Update Steven Karceski, MD In their ... important and worrisome topic for peo- ple with epilepsy. In short, a patient may wonder, “ Will the ...

  9. The relationship between creativity and mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Andreasen, Nancy C.

    2008-01-01

    Research designed to examine the relationship between creativity and mental illnesses must confront multiple challenges. What is the optimal sample to study? How should creativity be defined? What is the most appropriate comparison group? Only a limited number of studies have examined highly creative individuals using personal interviews and a noncreative comparison group. The majority of these have examined writers. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that in these creative individuals the rate of mood disorder is high, and that both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression are quite common. Clinicians who treat creative individuals with mood disorders must also confronta variety of challenges, including the fear that treatment may diminish creativity, in the case of bipolar disorder, hovt/ever, it is likely that reducing severe manic episodes may actually enhance creativity in many individuals. PMID:18689294

  10. Nociception, pain, negative moods and behavior selection

    PubMed Central

    Baliki, Marwan N.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the brain adapts with pain, as well as imparts risk for developing chronic pain. Within this context we revisit the concepts for nociception, acute and chronic pain, and negative moods relative to behavior selection. We redefine nociception as the mechanism protecting the organism from injury; while acute pain as failure of avoidant behavior; and a mesolimbic threshold process that gates the transformation of nociceptive activity to conscious pain. Adaptations in this threshold process are envisioned to be critical for development of chronic pain. We deconstruct chronic pain into four distinct phases, each with specific mechanisms; and outline current state of knowledge regarding these mechanisms: The limbic brain imparting risk, while mesolimbic learning processes reorganizing the neocortex into a chronic pain state. Moreover, pain and negative moods are envisioned as a continuum of aversive behavioral learning, which enhance survival by protecting against threats. PMID:26247858

  11. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. PMID:26600106

  12. The Prevalence and Diagnostic Validity of Short-Duration Hypomanic Episodes and Major Depressive Episodes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shefali; Dennehy, Ellen B; Suppes, Trisha

    2016-03-01

    Current diagnostic criteria for a hypomanic episode, as outlined in both the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV and DSM-5), require a minimum duration of four consecutive days of symptoms of mood elevation. The 4-day criterion for duration of hypomania has been challenged as arbitrary and lacking empirical support, with many arguing that shorter-duration hypomanic episodes are highly prevalent and that those experiencing these episodes are clinically more similar to patients with bipolar disorder than to those with unipolar major depressive disorder. We review the current evidence regarding the prevalence, diagnostic validity, and longitudinal illness correlates of shorter-duration hypomanic episodes and summarize the arguments for and against broadening the diagnostic criteria for hypomania to include shorter-duration variants. Accumulating findings suggest that patients with major depressive episodes and shorter-duration hypomanic episodes represent a complex clinical phenotype, perhaps best conceptualized as being on the continuum between those with unipolar depressive episodes alone and those with DSM-5-defined bipolar II disorder. Further investigation is warranted, ideally involving large prospective, controlled studies, to elucidate the diagnostic and treatment implications of depression with shorter-duration hypomanic episodes. PMID:26830885

  13. Moods as spotlights: the influence of mood on accessibility effects.

    PubMed

    Avramova, Yana R; Stapel, Diederik A

    2008-09-01

    Three studies explore the manner in which one's mood may affect the use and impact of accessible information on judgments. Specifically, the authors demonstrated that positive and negative moods differentially influence the direction of accessibility effects (assimilation, contrast) by determining whether abstract traits or concrete actor-trait links are primed. Study 1 investigated the impact of positive versus negative mood on the judgmental impact of trait-implying behaviors and found that positive moods lead to assimilation and negative moods to contrast. In Study 2, this effect was replicated in a subliminal priming paradigm. In Study 3, it was demonstrated that the type of information activated by trait-implying behaviors is indeed mood dependent, such that abstract trait information is activated in a positive mood, whereas specific actor-trait links are activated in a negative mood. PMID:18729693

  14. Association of urodynamic findings in new onset multiple sclerosis with subsequent occurrence of urinary symptoms and acute episode of disease in females

    PubMed Central

    Tadayyon, Farhad; Etemadifar, Masoud; Bzeih, Hussein; Zargham, Mahtab; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kia; Akbari, Mojtaba; Tadayyon, Borna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine the relative frequency of abnormal urodynamic findings in new multiple sclerosis (MS) cases without micturition complaints and to find its correlation with the number of MS plaques on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urinary tract involvement and the number of disease episodes. Methods: In this prospective study, 50 new female case of multiple sclerosis were enrolled. Age, urodynamic findings, micturition complaints and number of plaques on MRI were recorded on admission. Occurrence of urinary symptoms and number of episodes of the disease were recorded every three months during one-year follow-up. Results: The mean patients’ age was 32.4 ± 7.2 years and all patients were female. Of the 50 patients, 19 (38%) had a normal urodynamic test and 31 (62%) had abnormal urodynamic findings at the beginning of the study. The occurrence of micturition complaints during follow-up in patients with abnormal urodynamic findings (94%) was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than patients with normal urodynamic findings (37%). In addition, the number of plaques on MRI at the beginning of the study in patients with abnormal urodynamic finding was significantly higher (p < 0.004) compared to patients with a normal urodynamic study. The number of episodes during follow-up was not statistically different between patients with normal and abnormal urodynamic findings (p = 0.46). Conclusions: According to this study, 62% of all new MS patients had an abnormal urodynamic test. This is a considerable proportion of patients and it seems urodynamic studies can be used when MS is first diagnosed. PMID:23267402

  15. Episodic repetitive thought: dimensions, correlates, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Stanton, Annette L; Flynn, Sarah McQueary; Roach, Abbey R; Testa, Jamie J; Hardy, Jaime K

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive thought (RT) - attentive, prolonged, or frequent thought about oneself and one's world - plays an important role in many models of psychological and physical ill health (e.g., rumination and worry), as well as models of recovery and well-being (e.g., processing and reminiscing). In these models, repetitive thought is typically treated as stable or trait-like. In contrast, episodic RT reflects what people have "on their minds" at a particular point in time. In four studies, young women (N=94), college students (N=166), first-year law students (N=73), and older adults (N=174) described their episodic RT, which was then rated for qualities including valence, purpose, and theme. Episodic RT valence was associated with mood and depressive symptoms both between (Studies 1-4) and within people (Studies 3-4), and it mediated the effects of dispositional coping through emotional approach (Study 1). The effect of episodic RT valence in turn was moderated by other properties of episodic RT, including purpose, "trait" valence, and theme (Studies 1-4). The study of episodic RT complements that of trait RT and allows for observations of how RT and psychological adjustment change in concert and in context, as well as examining how the RT qualities that are not reflected in trait measures affect adjustment. PMID:21861772

  16. Episodic Repetitive Thought: Dimensions, Correlates, and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Stanton, Annette L.; Flynn, Sarah McQueary; Roach, Abbey R.; Testa, Jamie J.; Hardy, Jaime K.

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive thought (RT) – attentive, prolonged, or frequent thought about oneself and one’s world – plays an important role in many models of psychological and physical ill health (e.g., rumination and worry), as well as models of recovery and well-being (e.g., processing and reminiscing). In these models, repetitive thought is typically treated as stable or trait-like. In contrast, episodic RT reflects what people have “on their minds” at a particular point in time. In four studies, young women (N = 94), college students (N = 166), first-year law students (N = 73), and older adults (N = 174) described their episodic RT, which was then rated for qualities including valence, purpose, and theme. Episodic RT valence was associated with mood and depressive symptoms both between (Studies 1–4) and within people (Studies 3–4), and it mediated the effects of dispositional coping through emotional approach (Study 1). The effect of episodic RT valence in turn was moderated by other properties of episodic RT, including purpose, “trait” valence, and theme (Studies 1–4). The study of episodic RT complements that of trait RT and allows for observations of how RT and psychological adjustment change in concert and in context, as well as examining the RT qualities that are not reflected in trait measures affecting adjustment. PMID:21861772

  17. Mood Disorders after TBI

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Ricardo E.; Arciniegas, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis In this article, we will examine the epidemiology and risk factors for the development of the most common mood disorders observed in the aftermath of TBI: depressive disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. We will describe the classification approach and diagnostic criteria proposed in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-V). We will also examine the differential diagnosis of post-TBI mood disorders and describe the mainstay of the evaluation process. Finally, we will place a special emphasis on the analysis of the different therapeutic options and provide guidelines for the appropriate management of these conditions. PMID:24529421

  18. Mood-Congruent Memory and Natural Mood: New Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents new evidence that everyday mood does bring about a hypothesized effect on memory, termed mood-congruent memory (MCM). Results of three studies provided evidence for MCM among normal individuals (n=614). Findings support prior studies and bolster notions that mood and memory constantly covary in everyday experience. (RJM)

  19. Episodic disorders of behaviour and affect after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Eames, Peter Eames; Wood, Rodger Ll

    2003-01-01

    Psychological disorders that follow traumatic brain injury are possibly more complex and diverse than those associated with other forms of "brain damage". These may include organic aggressive, or organic affective syndromes that are episodic in nature and therefore require a more specific diagnosis, a different classification, and a different approach to treatment. Consequently, it is necessary for clinicians to learn to distinguish between "primary" psychiatric illnesses and those disorders of behavioural control and mood that stem specifically from brain injury. There is relatively little in the clinical literature that explains the relationship between variable states of behaviour, mood or temperament, and clinical disorders that may have long-term implications for patient management. This concept paper therefore addresses abnormalities of mood and behaviour that are episodic in character and are not recognisably included in the DSM and ICD classifications of psychological or psychiatric disorders. PMID:21854336

  20. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease dissociates mood and motor circuits: a functional MRI case study.

    PubMed

    Stefurak, Taresa; Mikulis, David; Mayberg, Helen; Lang, Anthony E; Hevenor, Stephanie; Pahapill, Peter; Saint-Cyr, Jean; Lozano, Andres

    2003-12-01

    Behavioral disturbances have been reported with subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). We report correlative functional imaging (fMRI) of mood and motor responses induced by successive right and left DBS. A 36-year-old woman with medically refractory PD and a history of clinically remitted depression underwent uncomplicated implantation of bilateral STN DBS. High-frequency stimulation of the left electrode improved motor symptoms. Unexpectedly, right DBS alone elicited several reproducible episodes of acute depressive dysphoria. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) imaging was carried out with sequential individual electrode stimulation. The electrode on the left was within the inferior STN, whereas the right electrode was marginally superior and lateral to the intended STN target within the Fields of Forel/zona incerta. fMRI image analysis (Analysis of Functional NeuroImages, AFNI) contrasting OFF versus ON stimulation identified significant lateralized blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes with DBS (P < 0.001). Left DBS primarily showed changes in motor regions: increases in premotor and motor cortex, ventrolateral thalamus, putamen, and cerebellum as well as decreases in sensorimotor/supplementary motor cortex. Right DBS showed similar but less extensive change in motor regions. More prominent were the unique increases in superior prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate (Brodmann's area [BA] 24), anterior thalamus, caudate, and brainstem, and marked widespread decreases in medial prefrontal cortex (BA 9/10). The mood disturbance resolved spontaneously in 4 weeks despite identical stimulation parameters. Transient depressive mood induced by subcortical DBS stimulation was correlated with changes in mesolimbic cortical structures. This case provides new evidence supporting cortical segregation of motor and nonmotor cortico-basal ganglionic systems that may converge in close proximity

  1. Mood, food, and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  2. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  3. Mood, food, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  4. Management of adverse effects of mood stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Murru, Andrea; Popovic, Dina; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Hidalgo, Diego; León-Caballero, Jordi; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Mood stabilizers such as lithium and anticonvulsants are still standard-of-care for the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence of their adverse effects (AEs) and to provide recommendations on their clinical management. We performed a systematic research for studies reporting the prevalence of AEs with lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine. Management recommendations were then developed. Mood stabilizers have different tolerability profiles and are eventually associated to cognitive, dermatological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, immunological, metabolic, nephrogenic, neurologic, sexual, and teratogenic AEs. Most of those can be transient or dose-related and can be managed by optimizing drug doses to the lowest effective dose. Some rare AEs can be serious and potentially lethal, and require abrupt discontinuation of medication. Integrated medical attention is warranted for complex somatic AEs. Functional remediation and psychoeducation may help to promote awareness on BD and better medication management. PMID:26084665

  5. Seeking Insights About Cycling Mood Disorders via Anonymized Search Logs

    PubMed Central

    White, Ryen W; Horvitz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background Mood disorders affect a significant portion of the general population. Cycling mood disorders are characterized by intermittent episodes (or events) of the disease. Objective Using anonymized Web search logs, we identify a population of people with significant interest in mood stabilizing drugs (MSD) and seek evidence of mood swings in this population. Methods We extracted queries to the Microsoft Bing search engine made by 20,046 Web searchers over six months, separately explored searcher demographics using data from a large external panel of users, and sought supporting information from people with mood disorders via a survey. We analyzed changes in information needs over time relative to searches on MSD. Results Queries for MSD focused on side effects and their relation to the disease. We found evidence of significant changes in search behavior and interests coinciding with days that MSD queries are made. These include large increases (>100%) in the access of nutrition information, commercial information, and adult materials. A survey of patients diagnosed with mood disorders provided evidence that repeated queries on MSD may come with exacerbations of mood disorder. A classifier predicting the occurrence of such queries one day before they are observed obtains strong performance (AUC=0.78). Conclusions Observed patterns in search behavior align with known behaviors and those highlighted by survey respondents. These observations suggest that searchers showing intensive interest in MSD may be patients who have been prescribed these drugs. Given behavioral dynamics, we surmise that the days on which MSD queries are made may coincide with commencement of mania or depression. Although we do not have data on mood changes and whether users have been diagnosed with bipolar illness, we see evidence of cycling in people who show interest in MSD and further show that we can predict impending shifts in behavior and interest. PMID:24568936

  6. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this chapter, we will review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders. We will discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. This is not carry out a comprehensive review; rather we selectively discuss existing evidence in building an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders. PMID:25377605

  7. Primary hypothyroidism associated with acute mania: case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Khemka, D; Ali, J A; Koch, C A

    2011-09-01

    In the evaluation of patients presenting with altered mental function searching for underlying medical conditions is necessary. Abnormal thyroid function has long been implicated in mood changes with the classic associations of depression occurring together with hypothyroidism and of mania along with hyperthyroidism. We here report 3 patients who presented with symptoms consistent with acute manic episode diagnosed using DSM IV-TR criteria and who were found to have primary hypothyroidism biochemically. This led to a review of the literature on this phenomenon resulting in the identification of 10 reports of mania and associated thyroid profiles consistent with primary hypothyroidism. All 3 of our patients improved clinically after use of levothyroxine and psychotropic medications, consistent with the literature reports. This illustrates that thyroid function abnormalities including primary hypothyroidism should be considered and screened for when evaluating patients with acute manic episodes. PMID:21553358

  8. Acute and Long-Term Response of Dopamine Nigrostriatal Synapses to a Single Low Dose Episode of 3-Nitropropionic Acid-Mediated Chemical Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Cynthia A.; Akopian, Garnik; Ring, Justin; Jakowec, Michael W.; Petzinger, Giselle M.; Andersen, Julie K.; Vittozzi-Wong, Philip; Wang, Kristie; Farley, Cristal M.; Charntikov, Sergios; Mitroi, Danut; Beal, M. Flint; Chow, Robert; Walsh, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation was to determine the persistence of striatal dopaminergic dysfunction after a mild chemically-induced hypoxic event in Fisher 344 rats. To this end, we gave a single injection of the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP; 16.5 mg/kg, i.p.) to 2 month old male F344 rats and measured various indices of striatal dopaminergic functioning and lipid peroxidation over a 3 month span. Separate groups of rats were used to measure rod walking, evoked dopamine (DA) release, DA content, MDA accumulation, DA receptor binding, and tyrosine hydroxylase activity. The results showed that 3-NP exposure reduced most measures of DA functioning including motoric ability, DA release, and D2 receptor densities for 1 to 3 months post drug administration. Interestingly, DA content was reduced 1 week after 3-NP exposure, but rose to 147% of control values 1 month after 3-NP treatment. MDA accumulation, a measure of lipid peroxidation activity, was increased 24 hr and 1 month after 3-NP treatment. 3-NP did not affect tyrosine hydroxylase activity, suggesting that alterations in DA functioning were not the result of nigrostriatal terminal loss. These data demonstrate that a brief mild hypoxic episode caused by 3-NP exposure has long-term detrimental effects on the functioning of the nigrostriatal DA system. PMID:20730800

  9. Mood states and sleepiness in college students: influences of age, sex, habitual sleep, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Jean-Louis, G; von Gizycki, H; Zizi, F; Nunes, J

    1998-10-01

    Survey and laboratory evidence suggests several factors affecting sleep-wake patterns of college students. These factors include social and academic demands, diminution of parental guidance, reduction of total sleep time, delayed bedtime, and increased nap episodes. In this study, we examined the problem of falling asleep in school as a correlate of negative moods in this population (N = 294). A multivariate analysis showed significant main effects of sleepiness on mood states based on the Profile of Mood States. Students who fell asleep in school reported higher negative mood states. Significant interactions were observed among sleepiness and age, sex, race, and duration of sleep. Specifically, younger men reported higher negative moods. No interactions were noted for alcohol and marijuana consumption; however, students who fell asleep in school consumed more alcoholic beverages and smoked more than those who did not. Perhaps falling asleep in school could be used as an index that characterizes students who manifest adaptive or psychological difficulty. PMID:9842593

  10. Adolescents coping with mood disorder: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Meadus, R J

    2007-04-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to explore the phenomenon of coping as experienced by adolescents with a mood disorder. Mood disorders among children and adolescents are more persistent than previously thought and have numerous negative associated features, including further episodes of depression, impaired social, academic and vocational relationships, use of alcohol and other drugs, and an increased risk of suicide. Current literature offered little awareness of how adolescents cope with a mood disorder, as well as their perspective of how such an illness impacts their lives. A substantive theory regarding the process of coping for adolescents with a mood disorder was generated from the data collected from one male and eight female adolescents. Using grounded theory coding procedures, a four-phase coping theory identified by the categories feeling different, cutting off connections, facing the challenge/reconnecting, and learning from the experience was developed. The core category identified in this research was An Unplanned Journey: Coping Through Connections. Implications identified for nursing practice, research and education included greater attention on the prevention of adolescent mood disorder, and the education of adolescents about the development and enhancement of healthy coping skills. PMID:17352785

  11. Circulating anti-brain autoantibodies in schizophrenia and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Mianulli, Rossana; Campa, Maria Gloria; Pastore, Adriana; Tampoia, Marilina

    2015-12-15

    In recent years, an inflammatory autoimmune process, autoantibodies mediated, has been porposed as having a role in the development of different psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to assay organ-specific and non organ-specific circulating autoantibodies in schizophrenia, mood disorders and healthy controls; among organ-specific autoantibodies we focused on different fluorescence patterns of anti-brain autoantibodies against rat and monkey's sections of hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum. Serum samples from 50 acutelly ill patients (30 schizophrenia and 20 mood disorders) and from 20 healthy controls were collected. Autoantibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and chemiluminescence immunoassay. We found a significant difference for circulating autoantibodies to hypothalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum and for anti-nuclear autoantibodies in both schizophrenia and mood disorders when compared to the control group. Referring to the two groups of patients only, circulating antibodies anti-hypothalamus were found significant higher in mood disorders rather than in schizophrenia, with specific regard to nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of the neurons. These data suggest an aspecific diffuse brain involvement of anti-brain autoantibodies in acute phases of schizophrenia and mood disorders. The greater involvement of the hypothalamus in mood disorders highlights the close relationship between autoimmunity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and affective disorders. PMID:26548982

  12. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Major Depressive Episodes.

    PubMed

    Eljamel, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of the left vagus nerve is a novel antidepressive therapy that relies upon the vagal projections to the brain stem to modulate brain circuits involved in mood regulation. There is cumulative evidence from prospective and long-term studies that has demonstrated tolerability and effectiveness of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in major depressive episodes (MDE). VNS in MDE has the following advantages: symptomatic response (defined as at least a 50% improvement in MDE severity) occurs in at least 15-17% of patients after 10 weeks of VNS treatment and in at least 22-37% of patients after 12 months of VNS treatment, remissions are observed in at least 15-17% of patients after 12 months of treatment, there is a sustained response in 13-27% of patients during 12 months of VNS, and successful maintenance of the initial improvement is observed in a high percentage of patients (73-77% of patients who had meaningful or greater benefit after 3 months of treatment maintained at least meaningful benefit after 12 months of treatment). VNS is a well-tolerated treatment as indicated by the high continuation rates of VNS therapy in the D01 and D02 studies after 12 months of therapy (90-98%) and the low rate of adverse event-related study discontinuations through 12 months or more in these studies (3%). Adverse effects are characterized by the absence of systemic effects associated with drug therapy and are primarily limited to those related to stimulation of the vagus nerve; many of the common adverse effects only occurred when VNS was on with the ability to stop acute stimulation-related adverse effects immediately through the use of magnet deactivation of the VNS device. More importantly, there were no adverse cognitive and psychomotor effects observed with antidepressant drugs and electroconvulsive therapy, no overdose toxicity observed with antidepressant drugs, favorable findings in animal reproductive studies, and an ability to add VNS therapy to antidepressant drug

  13. Family Functioning and Mood Disorders: A Comparison between Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Lauren M.; Keitner, Gabor I.; Ryan, Christine E.; Solomon, David A.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2006-01-01

    Within a sample of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 121) and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD; n = 69), the authors examined (a) diagnostic differences in family functioning at acute episode, (b) diagnostic differences in family functioning at episode recovery, (c) within-group changes in family functioning from acute episode to…

  14. Successful multiple-step management of intravenous leiomyomatosis diagnosed after episode of acute abdominal pain: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Efthimiadis, Christoforos; Petousis, Stamatios; Grigoriou, Marios; Ioannidis, Aristeidis; Tzouveleki, Ioanna; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present the case of a 37-year old woman diagnosed with intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) that was managed uneventfully with multiple-step management. Presentation of case A 37-year-old woman was admitted because of acute abdominal pain. Emergency Computed Tomography demonstrated a big pelvic mass 5 × 15 cm of heterogenous composition intaking the contrast agent. Total hysterectomy with salpingoophorectomy was proposed to patient, however, patient expressed her will for fertility preservation and gave consent only for the resection of a single ovary. Laparotomy revealed the presence of myoma, multiple lesions of potential adenomyosis and cordon-shaped formations arising from uterus and extending mainly to left ovary. Final histological diagnosis was intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL). MRI angiography revealed the presence of residual lesions in inferior vena cava. Laparoscopic resection was performed one month after laparotomy and left ovary was resected without complications. Venovenous bypass was finally performed three months later from initial surgery. The process was significantly labored, resulted in the successful resection of intravenous lesions but was complicated intraoperatively by right kidney rupture. After a follow-up of 33 months, case remains uncomplicated without signs or symptoms of potential recurrence. Discussion Intravenous leiomyomatosis represents a rare clinical entity histologically bening but clinically aggressive. No consensus exists regarding the optimal management, especially in cases with initial will for fertility preservation. Conclusion IVL represents a rare clinical entity often presenting difficulties in diagnosis and optimal treatment. Large case-series studies should be encouraged to assess the optimal management. PMID:26282558

  15. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Mood Disorders and Mood Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.; Trull, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we discuss ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies on mood disorders and mood dysregulation, illustrating 6 major benefits of the EMA approach to clinical assessment: (a) Real-time assessments increase accuracy and minimize retrospective bias; (b) repeated assessments can reveal dynamic processes; (c) multimodal assessments…

  16. Sex Role and Depressive Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Arnold; And Others

    Research has suggested that an association exists between sex role identity and typing and affective states. The relationship of sex role type and depressive mood was explored through the direct manipulation of affect in a mood induction procedure. Female (N=208) and male (N=131) subjects, classified as either androgynous, masculine, feminine, or…

  17. The epidemiology of mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Merikangas, Kathleen Ries; Low, Nancy C P

    2004-12-01

    This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, risk factors, and genetic epidemiology of mood disorders in adults and children. The magnitude and impact of mood disorders in the community outweighs that of most other chronic diseases. Although there is substantial knowledge regarding the sociodemographic risk factors for mood disorders, our understanding of the pathogenesis and classification still is evolving. Comorbidity of mood disorders with anxiety disorders and substance abuse has been documented widely. Whereas substance abuse and mood disorders seem to be independent etiologically, anxiety and mood disorders result from partially common etiologic factors. The results of family, twin, and adoption studies reveal that a positive family history is the most potent risk factor for mood disorders, particularly bipolar disorder. However, the specific factors that are transmitted in families still are unknown. The two areas that will inform future genetic research include phenomenologic studies that refine the validity of the current phenotypic classification of mood disorders, and application of study designs to elucidate specific factors that may explain the familial transmission of these disorders. PMID:15538988

  18. Mood as Representation of Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Eldar, Eran; Rutledge, Robb B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Niv, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Experiences affect mood, which in turn affects subsequent experiences. Recent studies suggest two specific principles. First, mood depends on how recent reward outcomes differ from expectations. Second, mood biases the way we perceive outcomes (e.g., rewards), and this bias affects learning about those outcomes. We propose that this two-way interaction serves to mitigate inefficiencies in the application of reinforcement learning to real-world problems. Specifically, we propose that mood represents the overall momentum of recent outcomes, and its biasing influence on the perception of outcomes ‘corrects’ learning to account for environmental dependencies. We describe potential dysfunctions of this adaptive mechanism that might contribute to the symptoms of mood disorders. PMID:26545853

  19. Age of onset of mood disorders and complexity of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Ostacoli, L; Zuffranieri, M; Cavallo, M; Zennaro, A; Rainero, I; Pinessi, L; Pacchiana Parravicini, M V; Ladisa, E; Furlan, P M; Picci, R L

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the link between the age of onset of mood disorders and the complexity of the personality traits. Methods. 209 patients with major depressive or manic/hypomanic episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I diagnoses and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. 17.2% of the patients had no elevated MCMI-III scores, 45.9% had one peak, and 36.9% had a complex personality disorder with two or more elevated scores. Mood disorders onset of 29 years or less was the variable most related to the complexity of personality disorders as indicated from a recursive partitioning analysis. Conclusions. The relationship between mood disorders and personality traits differ in reference to age of onset of the mood disorder. In younger patients, maladaptive personality traits can evolve both in a mood disorder onset and in a complex personality disorder, while the later development of a severe mood disorder can increase the personality symptomatology. Our results suggest a threshold of mood disorder onset higher compared to previous studies. Maladaptive personality traits should be assessed not only during adolescence but also in young adults to identify and treat potential severe mood disorders. PMID:23738216

  20. Age of Onset of Mood Disorders and Complexity of Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ostacoli, L.; Zuffranieri, M.; Cavallo, M.; Zennaro, A.; Rainero, I.; Pinessi, L.; Pacchiana Parravicini, M. V.; Ladisa, E.; Furlan, P. M.; Picci, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the link between the age of onset of mood disorders and the complexity of the personality traits. Methods. 209 patients with major depressive or manic/hypomanic episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I diagnoses and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. 17.2% of the patients had no elevated MCMI-III scores, 45.9% had one peak, and 36.9% had a complex personality disorder with two or more elevated scores. Mood disorders onset of 29 years or less was the variable most related to the complexity of personality disorders as indicated from a recursive partitioning analysis. Conclusions. The relationship between mood disorders and personality traits differ in reference to age of onset of the mood disorder. In younger patients, maladaptive personality traits can evolve both in a mood disorder onset and in a complex personality disorder, while the later development of a severe mood disorder can increase the personality symptomatology. Our results suggest a threshold of mood disorder onset higher compared to previous studies. Maladaptive personality traits should be assessed not only during adolescence but also in young adults to identify and treat potential severe mood disorders. PMID:23738216

  1. Negative mood effects on craving to smoke in women versus men.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Giedgowd, Grace E; Conklin, Cynthia A

    2013-02-01

    Negative mood situations increase craving to smoke, even in the absence of any tobacco deprivation (e.g. "stressors"). Individual differences in effects of negative mood situations on craving have received relatively little attention but may include variability between men and women. Across two separate within-subjects studies, we examined sex differences in craving (via the QSU-brief) as functions of brief smoking abstinence (versus satiation; Study 1) and acute induction of negative mood (versus neutral mood; Study 2). Subjective ratings of negative affect (via the Mood Form) were also assessed. In Study 1, we compared the effects of overnight (>12h) abstinence versus non-abstinence on craving and affect in adult male (n=63) and female (n=42) smokers. In Study 2, these responses to negative versus neutral mood induction (via pictorial slides and music) were examined in male (n=85) and female (n=78) satiated smokers. Results from each study were similar in showing that craving during the abstinence and negative mood induction conditions was greater in women than men, as hypothesized, although the sex difference in craving due to abstinence was only marginal after controlling for dependence. Craving was strongly associated with negative affect in both studies. These results suggest that very acute negative mood situations (e.g. just a few minutes in Study 2), and perhaps overnight abstinence, may increase craving to smoke to a greater extent in women relative to men. PMID:22726579

  2. Talking about Teaching Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; DiMattia, Cara; Ribeiro, Branca; Lara-Meloy, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines two types of discourse in which teachers engage when discussing case studies based on classroom episodes, and the ways in which the availability of video data of these episodes may motivate a shift in the mode of discourse used. We interviewed two pairs of secondary school mathematics teachers after they had read a case study…

  3. A review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults

    PubMed Central

    Hollon, Steven D.; Ponniah, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Background The mood disorders are prevalent and problematic. We review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials to find those that are empirically supported with respect to acute symptom reduction and the prevention of subsequent relapse and recurrence. Methods We searched the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to identify appropriate articles. Results One hundred twenty-five studies were found evaluating treatment efficacy for the various mood disorders. With respect to the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and behavior therapy (BT) are efficacious and specific and brief dynamic therapy (BDT) and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are possibly efficacious. CBT is efficacious and specific, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficacious, and BDT and EFT possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence following treatment termination and IPT and CBT are each possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence if continued or maintained. IPT is possibly efficacious in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. With respect to bipolar disorder, CBT and family-focused therapy (FFT) are efficacious and interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) possibly efficacious as adjuncts to medication in the treatment of depression. Psycho-education (PE) is efficacious in the prevention of mania/hypomania (and possibly depression) and FFT is efficacious and IPSRT and CBT possibly efficacious in preventing bipolar episodes. Conclusions The newer psychological interventions are as efficacious as and more enduring than medications in the treatment of MDD and may enhance the efficacy of medications in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:20830696

  4. Neural Correlates of Reversal Learning in Severe Mood Dysregulation and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adleman, Nancy E.; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel; Blair, R. James R.; Pine, Daniel; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Outcome and family history data differentiate children with severe mood dysregulation (SMD), a syndrome characterized by chronic irritability, from children with "classic" episodic bipolar disorder (BD). Nevertheless, the presence of cognitive inflexibility in SMD and BD highlights the need to delineate neurophysiologic similarities and…

  5. Attention Difficulties and Mood-Related Ruminative Response Style in Adolescents with Unipolar Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Paul O.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Depressed adults may show impairment in switching attention from one task to another. Rumination on negative thoughts is associated with the onset and persistence of depressive episodes. It is unclear if such mood-related ruminations are specifically associated with slowed ability in switching attention from one task to another.…

  6. Management of bipolar depression with lamotrigine: an antiepileptic mood stabilizer

    PubMed Central

    Prabhavalkar, Kedar S.; Poovanpallil, Nimmy B.; Bhatt, Lokesh K.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of lamotrigine in the treatment of focal epilepsies have already been reported in several case reports and open studies, which is thought to act by inhibiting glutamate release through voltage-sensitive sodium channels blockade and neuronal membrane stabilization. However, recent findings have also illustrated the importance of lamotrigine in alleviating the depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder, without causing mood destabilization or precipitating mania. Currently, no mood stabilizers are available having equal efficacy in the treatment of both mania and depression, two of which forms the extreme sides of the bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine, a well established anticonvulsant has received regulatory approval for the treatment and prevention of bipolar depression in more than 30 countries worldwide. Lamotrigine, acts through several molecular targets and overcomes the major limitation of other conventional antidepressants by stabilizing mood from “below baseline” thereby preventing switches to mania or episode acceleration, thus being effective for bipolar I disorder. Recent studies have also suggested that these observations could also be extended to patients with bipolar II disorder. Thus, lamotrigine may supposedly fulfill the unmet requirement for an effective depression mood stabilizer. PMID:26557090

  7. Anhedonia Predicts Major Adverse Cardiac Events and Mortality in Patients 1 Year After Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Karina W.; Burg, Matthew M.; Kronish, Ian M.; Shimbo, Daichi; Dettenborn, Lucia; Mehran, Roxana; Vorchheimer, David; Clemow, Lynn; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Lespérance, Francois; Rieckmann, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Context Depression is a consistent predictor of recurrent events and mortality in ACS patients, but it has 2 core diagnostic criteria with distinct biological correlates—depressed mood and anhedonia. Objective To determine if depressed mood and/or anhedonia (loss of pleasure or interest) predict 1-year medical outcomes for patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). Design Observational cohort study of post-ACS patients hospitalized between May 2003 and June 2005. Within one week of admission, patients underwent a structured psychiatric interview to assess clinically impairing depressed mood, anhedonia, and major depressive episode (MDE); also assessed were the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score, Charlson comorbidity index, left ventricular ejection fraction, antidepressant use, and depressive symptom severity. Setting Coronary care and cardiac care step-down units of 3 university hospitals in New York and Connecticut. Participants Consecutive sample of 453 ACS patients (aged 25–93 years; 42% women). Main Outcomes Measures All-cause mortality (ACM) and documented major adverse cardiac events (MACE; myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or urgent revascularization) were actively surveyed for 1 year after admission. Results There were 67 events (16 deaths and 51 MACE; 14.8%). 108 (24%) and 77 (17%) patients with anhedonia and depressed mood, respectively. After controlling for sex, age, and medical covariates, anhedonia (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–2.14; P<.01) and MDE (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–2.04; P=.02) were significant predictors of combined MACE/ACM, but depressed mood was not. Anhedonia continued to significantly predict outcomes controlling for MDE diagnosis and depressive symptom severity, each of which were no longer significant. Conclusions Anhedonia identifies risk for MACE/ACM beyond that of established medical prognostic indicators

  8. The Effect of Mental Progression on Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Malia F.; Bar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Mood affects the way people think. But can the way people think affect their mood? In the present investigation, we examined this promising link by testing whether mood is influenced by the presence or absence of associative progression by manipulating the scope of participants' information processing and measuring their subsequent mood. In…

  9. The Effect of Bipolar Mood Disorder on Sadegh Hedayat's Letters.

    PubMed

    Esmaeelpour, Elmira; Sasani, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies linguistic characteristics of bipolar mood disorder in Sadegh Hedayat's letters. It attempts to explore the possibility of diagnosing bipolar disorder through qualitative analysis of text. The personal letters of Iranian author Sadegh Hedayat addressed to Shahid Nouraie are studied. The addressee is fixed to reduce effective factors, including linguistic differences among different registers and styles. Therefore, interpersonal variation is also neutralized. Letters are chosen to reduce the potential effects of aesthetic manipulation used in the author's narratives and published works. To analyze the data, semantic fields used in the letters are studied, and to find any instance of pressured speech and poverty of speech, topical shifts and moves are analyzed as well. Linguistic study of each letter reveals that different types of bipolar mood episodes (i.e., hypomanic, depressed, euthymic and mixed) can be diagnosed with this methodology. Other semantic criteria are explored, including themes of humiliation and ridicule. PMID:25708966

  10. The relationship between chronotype and mood fluctuation in the general population.

    PubMed

    Jeong Jeong, Hee; Moon, Eunsoo; Min Park, Je; Dae Lee, Byung; Min Lee, Young; Choi, Yoonmi; In Chung, Young

    2015-10-30

    There is a lack of evidence for the relationship between chronotype and subthreshold mood fluctuation. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between chronotypes and mood fluctuation in the general population. Participants (n=302) who have had no experience of major mood episodes were included. The Korean version of the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) was used to classify participants according to three chronotypes. Mood fluctuation was measured using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and the Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS). Mean scores achieved by the three chronotype groups on the MDQ and the BSDS were compared. There were no significant differences in the frequency of positive responses on the MDQ for the three chronotype groups. However, there was a significant group difference in total BSDS scores. The eveningness group had significantly higher BSDS-D scores than did either the morningness or the intermediate group have. In addition, the eveningness group had significantly higher BSDS-M scores than the morningness group. After adjusting for age by the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), there were still significant group differences in total BSDS scores. The present results suggest that eveningness may be more related to mood fluctuation than morningness. The eveningness may be an important factor related to soft bipolarity or mood fluctuation. PMID:26260565

  11. Mood Spectrum Model: Evidence reconsidered in the light of DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Benvenuti, Antonella; Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Giorgi Mariani, Michela; Mauri, Mauro; Dell’Osso, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    somatic diseases; and (3) Higher scores on the MOODS-SR factors assessing “psychomotor disturbances”, “mixed instability” and “suicidality” delineate subtypes of patients characterized by the more severe forms of mood disorders, the higher risk for psychotic symptoms, and the lower quality of life after the remission of the full-blown-episode. CONCLUSION: The mood spectrum model help researchers and clinicians in the systematic assessment of those areas of psychopathology that are still neglected by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 classification. PMID:25815262

  12. How to measure mood in nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Hammersley, Richard; Reid, Marie; Atkin, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    Mood is widely assessed in nutrition research, usually with rating scales. A core assumption is that positive mood reinforces ingestion, so it is important to measure mood well. Four relevant theoretical issues are reviewed: (i) the distinction between protracted and transient mood; (ii) the distinction between mood and emotion; (iii) the phenomenology of mood as an unstable tint to consciousness rather than a distinct state of consciousness; (iv) moods can be caused by social and cognitive processes as well as physiological ones. Consequently, mood is difficult to measure and mood rating is easily influenced by non-nutritive aspects of feeding, the psychological, social and physical environment where feeding occurs, and the nature of the rating system employed. Some of the difficulties are illustrated by reviewing experiments looking at the impact of food on mood. The mood-rating systems in common use in nutrition research are then reviewed, the requirements of a better mood-rating system are described, and guidelines are provided for a considered choice of mood-rating system including that assessment should: have two main dimensions; be brief; balance simplicity and comprehensiveness; be easy to use repeatedly. Also mood should be assessed only under conditions where cognitive biases have been considered and controlled. PMID:25472005

  13. Episodic coronal heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Dixon, W. W.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Antiochos, S. K.

    1990-06-01

    A study is made of the observational consequences of the hypothesis that there is no steady coronal heating, the solar corona instead being heated episodically, such that each short burst of heating is followed by a long period of radiative cooling. The form of the resulting contribution to the differential emission measure (DEM), and to a convenient related function (the differential energy flux, DEF) is calculated. Observational data for the quiet solar atmosphere indicate that the upper branch of the DEM, corresponding to temperatures above 100,000 K, can be interpreted in terms of episodic energy injection at coronal temperatures.

  14. Episodic coronal heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Dixon, W. W.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Antiochos, S. K.

    1990-01-01

    A study is made of the observational consequences of the hypothesis that there is no steady coronal heating, the solar corona instead being heated episodically, such that each short burst of heating is followed by a long period of radiative cooling. The form of the resulting contribution to the differential emission measure (DEM), and to a convenient related function (the differential energy flux, DEF) is calculated. Observational data for the quiet solar atmosphere indicate that the upper branch of the DEM, corresponding to temperatures above 100,000 K, can be interpreted in terms of episodic energy injection at coronal temperatures.

  15. Mood regulation in bipolar disorders viewed through the pendulum dynamics concept.

    PubMed

    Koutsoukos, Elias; Angelopoulos, Elias

    2014-12-01

    Bipolar disorders have been characterized by powerful fluctuations of energy, mood, and thinking patterns. Mood episodes (manic or depressive) could be considered as deviations of a psycho-physiological index above or below a conventionally defined value called 'normothymia'. In the present study, we analyzed the feedback techniques used to suppress the oscillatory activity exhibited on an inverted pendulum device. Subsequently, we examine the degree that this multimodal feedback design could be considered on a hypothetical pendulum where the mood plays the role of the suspended mass, and the force balance compensation circuitry is substituted by drug-specific therapeutic interventions. The study does not concern a model of bipolar illness that could simulate numerically various phases of mood episodes but focuses on the functional similarities regarding the correction treatments applied on the two different oscillating systems giving a potential perspective of how techniques of feedback control may enhance the conceptualization of the treatment schemes followed in recent guidelines for biological treatment of bipolar disorders. Our theoretical consideration, along with observations on clinical level, gives support to the concept that the compensation of the mood oscillations should be adaptive with selective therapeutic interventions that compensate the excited system in different time scales. PMID:26092396

  16. Mood Changes After Indoor Tanning Among College Women: Associations with Psychiatric/Addictive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Indoor tanning (IT) has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction). The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview) via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid) and positive (feeling interested) mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables. PMID:27403462

  17. Neural Correlates of Automatic Mood Regulation in Girls at High Risk for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Joormann, Jutta; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Henry, Melissa L.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Daughters of depressed mothers are at significantly elevated risk for developing a depressive disorder themselves. We have little understanding, however, of the specific factors that contribute to this risk. The ability to regulate negative affect effectively is critical to emotional and physical health and may play an important role in influencing risk for depression. We examined whether never-disordered daughters whose mothers have experienced recurrent episodes of depression during their daughters’ lifetime differ from never-disordered daughters of never-disordered mothers in their patterns of neural activation during a negative mood induction and during automatic mood regulation. Sad mood was induced in daughters through the use of film clips; daughters then recalled positive autobiographical memories, a procedure shown previously to repair negative affect. During the mood induction, high-risk girls exhibited greater activation than did low-risk daughters in brain areas that have frequently been implicated in the experience of negative affect, including the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during automatic mood regulation, low-risk daughters exhibited greater activation than did their high-risk counterparts in brain areas that have frequently been associated with top-down regulation of emotion, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These findings indicate that girls at high and low risk for depression differ in their patterns of neural activation both while experiencing, and while repairing negative affect, and suggest that anomalies in neural functioning precede the onset of a depressive episode. PMID:21895344

  18. Mood Changes After Indoor Tanning Among College Women: Associations with Psychiatric/Addictive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Carolyn; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline

    2016-06-23

    Indoor tanning (IT) has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction). The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview) via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid) and positive (feeling interested) mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables. PMID:27403462

  19. Suicidal Behavior in Mood Disorders: Response to Pharmacological Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tondo, Leonardo; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2016-09-01

    Suicidal behavior is strongly associated with depression, especially if accompanied by behavioral activation, dysphoria, or agitation. It may respond to some treatments, but the design of scientifically sound, ethical trials to test for therapeutic effects on suicidal behavior is highly challenging. In bipolar disorder, and possibly also unipolar major depression, an underprescribed medical intervention with substantial evidence of preventive effects on suicidal behavior is long-term treatment with lithium. It is unclear whether this effect is specifically antisuicidal or reflects beneficial effects of lithium on depression, mood instability, and perhaps aggression and impulsivity. Antisuicidal effects of anticonvulsant mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproate) appear to be less than with lithium. Further evaluation is needed for potential antisuicidal effects of atypical antipsychotics with growing evidence of efficacy in depression, particularly acute bipolar depression, while generally lacking risk of inducing agitation, mania, or mood instability. Short-term and long-term value and safety of antidepressants are relatively secure for unipolar depression but uncertain and poorly tested for bipolar depression; their effects on suicidal risk in unipolar depression may be age-dependent. Sedative anxiolytics are virtually unstudied as regards suicidal risks. Adequate management of suicidal risks in mood disorder patients requires comprehensive, clinically skillful monitoring and timely interventions. PMID:27542851

  20. The Effect of Poor Sleep Quality on Mood Outcome Differs Between Men and Women: A Longitudinal Study of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Erika F.H.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Kamali, Masoud; Assari, Shervin; McInnis, Melvin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is bi-directionally related to mood de-stabilization in bipolar disorder (BD), and sleep quality differs in men and women. We aimed to determine whether perception of poor sleep quality would have a different effect on mood outcome in men versus women. Methods We assessed association between sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) at study intake and mood outcome over 2 years in subjects from the Prechter Longitudinal Study of Bipolar Disorder (N=216; 29.6% males). The main outcome measure was the severity, variability, and frequency of mood episodes measured by self-report over 2 years of follow-up. Multivariable linear regression models stratified by sex examined the relationship between PSQI with mood outcomes, while age, stressful life events, mood state and neuroticism at baseline were controlled. Results In women, poor sleep quality at baseline predicted increased severity (B=0.28, p<0.001) and frequency of episodes (B=0.32, p<0.001) of depression, and poor sleep quality was a stronger predictor than baseline depression; poor sleep quality predicted increased severity (B=0.19, p<0.05) and variability (B=0.20, p<0.05) of mania, and frequency of mixed episodes (B=0.27, p<0.01). In men, baseline depression and neuroticism were stronger predictors of mood outcome compared to poor sleep quality. Limitations We measured perception of sleep quality, but not objective changes in sleep. Conclusions In a longitudinal study of BD, women reported poorer perceived sleep quality than men, and poor sleep quality predicted worse mood outcome in BD. Clinicians should be sensitive to addressing sleep complaints in women with BD early in treatment to improve outcome in BD. PMID:25885066

  1. The Natural History of Insomnia: Acute Insomnia and First-onset Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jason G.; Perlis, Michael L.; Bastien, Célyne H.; Gardani, Maria; Espie, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: While many studies have examined the association between insomnia and depression, no studies have evaluated these associations (1) within a narrow time frame, (2) with specific reference to acute and chronic insomnia, and (3) using polysomnography. In the present study, the association between insomnia and first-onset depression was evaluated taking into account these considerations. Design: A mixed-model inception design. Setting: Academic research laboratory. Participants: Fifty-four individuals (acute insomnia [n = 33], normal sleepers [n = 21]) with no reported history of a sleep disorder, chronic medical condition, or psychiatric illness. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants were assessed at baseline (2 nights of polysomnography and psychometric measures of stress and mood) and insomnia and depression status were reassessed at 3 months. Individuals with acute insomnia exhibited more stress, poorer mood, worse subjective sleep continuity, increased N2 sleep, and decreased N3 sleep. Individuals who transitioned to chronic insomnia exhibited (at baseline) shorter REM latencies and reduced N3 sleep. Individuals who exhibited this pattern in the transition from acute to chronic insomnia were also more likely to develop first-onset depression (9.26%) as compared to those who remitted from insomnia (1.85%) or were normal sleepers (1.85%). Conclusion: The transition from acute to chronic insomnia is presaged by baseline differences in sleep architecture that have, in the past, been ascribed to Major Depression, either as heritable traits or as acquired traits from prior episodes of depression. The present findings suggest that the “sleep architecture stigmata” of depression may actually develop over the course transitioning from acute to chronic insomnia. Citation: Ellis JG; Perlis ML; Bastien CH; Gardani M; Espie CA. The natural history of insomnia: acute insomnia and first-onset depression. SLEEP 2014;37(1):97-106. PMID

  2. Assessment and treatment of mood disorders in the context of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Anton, Raymond F

    2015-06-01

    Recognition and management of mood symptoms in individuals using alcohol and/or other drugs represent a daily challenge for clinicians in both inpatient and outpatient treatment settings. Diagnosis of underlying mood disorders in the context of ongoing substance abuse requires careful collection of psychiatric history, and is often critical for optimal treatment planning and outcomes. Failure to recognize major depression or bipolar disorders in these patients can result in increased relapse rates, recurrence of mood episodes, and elevated risk of completed suicide. Over the past decade, epidemiologic research has clarified the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders in substance-dependent individuals, overturning previous assumptions that depression in these patients is simply an artifact of intoxication and/or withdrawal, therefore requiring no treatment. However, our understanding of the bidirectional relationships between mood and substance use disorders in terms of their course(s) of illness and prognoses remains limited. Like-wise, strikingly little treatment research exists to guide clinical decision making in co-occurring mood and substance use disorders, given their high prevalence and public health burden. Here we overview what is known and the salient gaps of knowledge where data might enhance diagnosis and treatment of these complicated patients. PMID:26246792

  3. Influences of Mood on Academic Course Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumbach, Joerg; Funke, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    In two subsequent experiments, the influence of mood on academic course evaluation is examined. By means of facial feedback, either a positive or a negative mood was induced while students were completing a course evaluation questionnaire during lectures. Results from both studies reveal that a positive mood leads to better ratings of different…

  4. Social Interest, Life Changes and Mood States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarski, John J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explored the relationship between social interest, life changes, and individual mood states. Social interest was positively correlated with number of recent life changes and negatively correlated with total mood disturbance. High social interest individuals reported less subjective mood disturbances associated with perceived stress. (Author)

  5. Causal Attribution of Mood in the Climacterium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Bernadette M.

    1985-01-01

    Examined attributions used by pre- and postmenopausal women (N=105) to explain mood. After reading a diary written by a middle-aged woman, participants rated menopausal symptoms, environment, and age as likely causes of the woman's mood. Menopausal symptoms were rated as a salient source of attribution for negative mood. (NRB)

  6. Mood Changes during the Internship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uliana, Regina L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A prospective study using two standardized psychological tests, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), was conducted to quantify the emotional changes experienced by internal medicine house staff during the internship. (Author/MLW)

  7. To Illustrate a Mood, Creatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Muriel E.

    1969-01-01

    Individually and in small groups, superior senior high school students in Belmont, Massachusetts, produced multimedia projects illustrating themes or moods through the synchronization of poems, original scripts, drawings, photographs, slides, and music. Projects ranged from a personal photographic interpretation of Delany's poem, "Solace," to…

  8. Episodes, events, and models.

    PubMed

    Khemlani, Sangeet S; Harrison, Anthony M; Trafton, J Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning. PMID:26578934

  9. Episodes, events, and models

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Harrison, Anthony M.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning. PMID:26578934

  10. The Role of Episodic and Semantic Memory in Episodic Foresight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Louw, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a special form of future thinking, termed "episodic foresight" and its relation with episodic and semantic memory. We outline the methodologies that have largely been developed in the last five years to assess this capacity in young children and non-human animals. Drawing on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic…

  11. Perspectives on Episodic-Like and Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Pause, Bettina M.; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Dere, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Furthermore, impaired episodic memory function is also observed in a variety of other neuropsychiatric diseases including dissociative disorders, schizophrenia, and Parkinson disease. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to induce and measure episodic memories in the laboratory and it is even more difficult to measure it in clinical populations. Presently, the tests used to assess episodic memory function do not comply with even down-sized definitions of episodic-like memory as a memory for what happened, where, and when. They also require sophisticated verbal competences and are difficult to apply to patient populations. In this review, we will summarize the progress made in defining behavioral criteria of episodic-like memory in animals (and humans) as well as the perspectives in developing novel tests of human episodic memory which can also account for phenomenological aspects of episodic memory such as autonoetic awareness. We will also define basic behavioral, procedural, and phenomenological criteria which might be helpful for the development of a valid and reliable clinical test of human episodic memory. PMID:23616754

  12. Pattern of pharmacotherapy by episode types for patients with bipolar disorders and its concordance with treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Ha, Kyooseob; Yatham, Lakshimi N; Chang, Jae Seung; Ha, Tae Hyon; Jeon, Hong Jin; Hong, Kyung Sue; Chang, Sung Man; Ahn, Yong Min; Cho, Hyun Sang; Moon, Eunsoo; Cha, Boseok; Choi, Jung Eun; Joo, Yeon Ho; Joo, Eun Jeong; Lee, Se Young; Park, Yunseong

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall prescription pattern for patients with bipolar disorders in Korea and its relevance to the practice guidelines. Prescription records from all patients with bipolar I and II disorders who have been admitted or who started the outpatient treatment during the year of 2009 in 10 academic setting hospitals were reviewed. A total of 1447 patients with bipolar I and II disorders were included in this study. Longitudinal prescription patterns of inpatients and outpatients were analyzed by episode types and compared with the clinical practice guideline algorithms. In all phases, polypharmacy was chosen as an initial treatment strategy (>80%). The combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotics was the most favored. Antipsychotics were prescribed in more than 80% of subjects across all phases. The rate of antidepressant use ranged from 15% to 40%, and it was more frequently used in acute treatment and bipolar II subjects. The concordance rate of prescriptions for manic inpatients to the guidelines was higher and relatively more consistent (43.8%-48.7%) compared with that for depressive inpatients (18.6%-46.9%). Polypharmacy was the most common reason for nonconcordance. In Korean psychiatric academic setting, polypharmacy and atypical antipsychotics were prominently favored in the treatment of bipolar disorder, even with the lack of evidence of its superiority. More evidence is needed to establish suitable treatment strategies. In particular, the treatment strategy for acute bipolar depression awaits more consensuses. PMID:25006813

  13. Mood and selective attention in the cold: the effect of interval versus continuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Muller, Matthew D; Muller, Sarah M; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J; Gunstad, John; Glickman, Ellen L

    2011-07-01

    Both mood and cognitive function are altered in cold environments. Body warming through exercise may improve Stroop interference score and lessen total negative mood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of equal caloric bouts of interval (INT) and continuous (CONT) exercise on mood and selective attention in the cold. Eleven young men underwent two experimental trials in 5°C air. Both trials consisted of 90 min acute cold exposure (ACE), 30 min exercise (INT vs. CONT), and 60 min recovery (REC). The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) were administered at four time points. Mean body temperature decreased during ACE, increased during exercise, and decreased during REC. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect for time for several of the POMS sub scores. In particular, negative mood was significantly decreased after exercise relative to ACE and then significantly increased during REC. Further, CONT appears to be more effective than INT at decreasing negative mood. Components of the SCWT supported both the arousal and distraction theories for simple perception, but no significant effects were shown for the interference score. In the cold, exercise decreases negative mood but does not appear to affect selective attention. Further mechanistic studies could determine the best mode and intensity of exercise for improving cognitive function in the cold. PMID:21152931

  14. Mood and processing of proattitudinal and counterattitudinal messages.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Rene

    2013-04-01

    Existing research has established the effects of mood on processing of clearly mood-elevating proattitudinal messages and clearly mood-threatening counterattitudinal messages (i.e., mood-relevant messages). Little is known, however, about mood effects on processing of less mood-elevating proattitudinal messages and less mood-threatening counterattitudinal messages (i.e., mood-irrelevant messages). The present research tested hypotheses regarding processing of mood-irrelevant messages based on a mood-congruent expectancies approach. Specifically, two studies were conducted in which prior attitudes were measured (Study 1) or manipulated (Study 2). As predicted, results showed higher scrutiny in negative mood given a proattitudinal message and in positive mood given a counterattitudinal message than in negative mood given a counterattitudinal message and in positive mood given a proattitudinal message. Discussion focuses on implications regarding the accumulated literature, different accounts proposed to understand mood effects on processing effort, and further research. PMID:23436770

  15. Genetics Home Reference: episodic ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ebers GC. A genome-wide screen and linkage mapping for a large pedigree with episodic ataxia. Neurology. ... investigators. Primary episodic ataxias: diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. Brain. 2007 Oct;130(Pt 10):2484-93. Epub ...

  16. Pharmacotherapy of Acute Bipolar Depression in Adults: An Evidence Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-05-01

    In the majority of cases of bipolar disorder, manic episodes are usually brief and typically responsive to currently available psychopharmacological agents. In contrast, depressive manifestations are more prevalent and persistent, and can present as major depressive/mixed episodes or residual interepisode symptoms. The depressive phase is often associated with other neuropsychiatric conditions, such as anxiety spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, stressor-related disorders, and eating disorders. It is viewed as a systemic disease with associated ailments such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. There is an increased rate of mortality not only from suicide, but also from concomitant physical illness. This scenario is made worse by the fact that depressive symptoms, which represent the main disease burden, are often refractory to existing psychotropic drugs. As such, there is a pressing need for novel agents that are efficacious in acute depressive exacerbations, and also have applicable value in preventing recurrent episodes. The rationale of the present review is to delineate the pharmacotherapy of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder with medications for which there is evidence in the form of observational, open-label, or double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the treatment of acute bipolar depression in adults, a comprehensive appraisal of the extant literature reveals that among mood stabilizers, the most robust proof of efficacy exists for divalproex sodium; while atypical antipsychotics, which include olanzapine, quetiapine, lurasidone, and cariprazine, are also effective, as demonstrated in controlled trials. PMID:27274384

  17. Pharmacotherapy of Acute Bipolar Depression in Adults: An Evidence Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the majority of cases of bipolar disorder, manic episodes are usually brief and typically responsive to currently available psychopharmacological agents. In contrast, depressive manifestations are more prevalent and persistent, and can present as major depressive/mixed episodes or residual interepisode symptoms. The depressive phase is often associated with other neuropsychiatric conditions, such as anxiety spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, stressor-related disorders, and eating disorders. It is viewed as a systemic disease with associated ailments such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. There is an increased rate of mortality not only from suicide, but also from concomitant physical illness. This scenario is made worse by the fact that depressive symptoms, which represent the main disease burden, are often refractory to existing psychotropic drugs. As such, there is a pressing need for novel agents that are efficacious in acute depressive exacerbations, and also have applicable value in preventing recurrent episodes. The rationale of the present review is to delineate the pharmacotherapy of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder with medications for which there is evidence in the form of observational, open-label, or double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the treatment of acute bipolar depression in adults, a comprehensive appraisal of the extant literature reveals that among mood stabilizers, the most robust proof of efficacy exists for divalproex sodium; while atypical antipsychotics, which include olanzapine, quetiapine, lurasidone, and cariprazine, are also effective, as demonstrated in controlled trials. PMID:27274384

  18. The Composition of Episodic Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

    This study examined the interrelationships among a number of episodic memory tasks and among various attributes of memory. A sample of 200 college students was tested for ten sessions; 28 different measures of episodic memory were obtained. In addition, five measures of semantic memory were available. Results indicated that episodic and semantic…

  19. Attentional Episodes in Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods…

  20. Habitual total water intake and dimensions of mood in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Colleen X; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Graverholt, Gitte; Casa, Douglas J; Maresh, Carl M; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2015-09-01

    Acute negative and positive mood states have been linked with the development of undesirable and desirable health outcomes, respectively. Numerous factors acutely influence mood state, including exercise, caffeine ingestion, and macronutrient intake, but the influence of habitual total water intake remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe relationships between habitual water intake and mood. One hundred twenty healthy females (mean ± SD; age = 20 ± 2 y, BMI = 22.9 ± 3.5 kg⋅m(-2) ) recorded all food and fluids consumed for 5 consecutive days. Investigators utilized dietary analysis software to determine Total Water Intake (TWI; total water content in foods and fluids), caffeine, and macronutrient consumption (i.e. protein, carbohydrate, fat). On days 3 and 4, participants completed the Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire, which examined tension, depression, anger, vigor, and confusion, plus an aggregate measure of Total Mood Disturbance (TMD). For comparison of mood, data were separated into three even groups (n = 40 each) based on TWI: low (LOW; 1.51 ± 0.27 L/d), moderate (MOD; 2.25 ± 0.19 L/d), and high (HIGH; 3.13 ± 0.54 L/d). Regression analysis was performed to determine continuous relationships between measured variables. Group differences (p < 0.05) were observed for tension (MOD = 7.2 ± 5.4, HIGH = 4.4 ± 2.9), depression (LOW = 4.5 ± 5.9, HIGH = 1.7 ± 2.3), confusion (MOD = 5.9 ± 3.4, HIGH = 4.0 ± 2.1), and TMD (LOW=19.0 ± 21.8, HIGH=8.2 ± 14.2). After accounting for other mood influencers, TWI predicted TMD (r(2) = 0.104; p = 0.050). The above relationships suggest the amount of water a woman consumes is associated with mood state. PMID:25963107

  1. Sensitivity to Change and Predictive Validity of the MOODS-SR Questionnaire, Last-Month Version

    PubMed Central

    Miniati, Mario; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen; Oppo, Annalisa; Kupfer, David J.; Fagiolini, Andrea; Cassano, Giovanni B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Instruments that are intended to measure change over time need to emphasize sensitivity to change as a central property. The aims of this report are to test whether the MOODS-SR, a measure of mood spectrum symptomatology, is sensitive to changes during acute and continuation treatment of depression and whether residual mood spectrum symptoms predict relapse in the subsequent 6 months. Methods The study sample includes 316 patients with nonpsychotic depression participating in the protocol ‘Depression: the search for treatment-relevant phenotypes’. Patients were initially randomized to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or interpersonal psychotherapy and then treated for 9 months using an algorithm-based protocol. Measures of mood symptomatology included the self-report version of the structured clinical interview for mood spectrum (MOODS-SR), the Quick Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Results Repeated-measures ANOVA indicates that during the acute phase MOODS scores decrease significantly from baseline to weeks 6 and 12. This decrease was significantly different (p < 0.001) between those who remitted and those who did not remit on the depressive, the rhythmicity component and the total score. Nonrelapsing subjects had stable scores across the continuation phase, while among relapsing subjects, a significant increase was found in the depressive component (p < 0.001), the rhythmicity component (p = 0.024) and the total score (p < 0.001), at 2 months, followed by a decrease from 2 to 6 months. Scores on the depressive component at the entry into continuation predicted relapse in the subsequent 6 months. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the MOODS-SR is sensitive to change in depression status and may help the clinician to detect symptoms and signs not considered by established symptom severity scales. PMID:19218830

  2. The Role of Muscarinic Receptors in the Pathophysiology of Mood Disorders: A Potential Novel Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Won Je; Dean, Brian; Scarr, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The central cholinergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. An imbalance in central cholinergic neurotransmitter activity has been proposed to contribute to the manic and depressive episodes typical of these disorders. Neuropharmacological studies into the effects of cholinergic agonists and antagonists on mood state have provided considerable support for this hypothesis. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have shown that the pan-CHRM antagonist, scopolamine, produces rapid-acting antidepressant effects in individuals with either major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BPD), such as bipolar depression, contrasting the delayed therapeutic response of conventional mood stabilisers and antidepressants. This review presents recent data from neuroimaging, post-mortem and genetic studies supporting the involvement of muscarinic cholinergic receptors (CHRMs), particularly CHRM2, in the pathophysiology of MDD and BPD. Thus, novel drugs that selectively target CHRMs with negligible effects in the peripheral nervous system might produce more rapid and robust clinical improvement in patients with BPD and MDD. PMID:26630954

  3. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome and the onset of a manic episode.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, Phillip; Tau, Michael; Robertson, David

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a rare, recently described, clinically diagnosed condition that is characterised by a chronic history of cannabis use, cyclic nausea and vomiting, symptomatic relief with hot water bathing, and resolution with cessation of use. We present a case of this syndrome concurrent in a patient with bipolar mania. We suggest that a 3-week period of vomiting in the context of this syndrome contributed to the precipitation of a manic episode by lowering mood stabiliser serum levels, and that this syndrome will have significant consequences for the patient's mental health. PMID:27122104

  4. Chronobiological Therapy for Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Suzuki, Masahiro; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Chronobiological therapies for mood disorders include manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle such as sleep deprivation and sleep phase advance and the controlled exposure to light and darkness. Their antidepressant efficacy can overcome drug resistance and targets the core depressive symptoms including suicide, thus making them treatment options to be tried either alone or as adjunctive treatments combined with common psychopharmacological interventions. The specific pattern of mood change observed with chronobiological therapies is characterized by rapid and sustained effects, when used among themselves or combined with drugs. Effects sizes are the same reported for the most effective psychiatric treatments, but side effects are usually marginal or absent. New treatment protocols are developed to adapt them in different clinical settings. This review deals with the general principles of clinical chronobiology and the latest findings in this rapidly developing field. PMID:26478195

  5. Reading problems and depressed mood.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Barbara; Rowe, Richard; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2003-04-01

    Although reading difficulties show well-established overlaps with disruptive behavior disorders in childhood, much less is known about reading-disabled children's vulnerability to emotional difficulties. Using longitudinal data from 6 assessments of boys in the Pittsburgh Youth Study, we found robust links between severe, persistent reading problems and increased risk for depressed mood in a community sample of boys aged 7 and 10 years at initial assessment, though not in those who had already entered their teens. These associations could not be accounted for in terms of selected family risks or comorbid disruptive behaviors; instead, the pattern of the findings pointed to the existence of more direct causal processes whereby reading problems influence younger boys' risk of depressed mood. PMID:12735404

  6. Effects of acute postexercise chocolate milk consumption during intensive judo training on the recovery of salivary hormones, salivary SIgA, mood state, muscle soreness, and judo-related performance.

    PubMed

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of postexercise chocolate milk (CM) or water (W) consumption during 5 days of intensive judo training with concomitant weight loss on salivary cortisol and testosterone, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and judo-related performance. Twelve trained male judo athletes engaged in 5 days of intensive judo training followed by a simulated judo competition, on 2 separate training weeks 14 days apart. The athletes consumed 1000 mL of W (week 1) or CM (week 2) immediately post-training. During both weeks, athletes were instructed to "make weight" for the upcoming competition. Performance in timed push-ups and the Special Judo Fitness Test improved by 14.6% and 6.8%, respectively, at the end of the training week with CM consumption (both p < 0.001). Decreased salivary cortisol (p < 0.01) and a trend for an increased salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.07) were also observed midweek in the CM condition. Saliva flow rate was higher during the week with CM intake compared with W intake (p < 0.001). DOMS (p < 0.001) and mood disturbance (p < 0.0001) increased after the first day of training in the W condition but not in the CM condition. Salivary testosterone and SIgA responses were similar between treatments (p > 0.05). Body mass decreased by 1.9% in the W condition and by 1.1% in the CM condition, with no significant difference between treatments. This study indicates that postexercise CM consumption during short-term intensive judo training enhances aspects of recovery without affecting intentional weight loss. PMID:26513005

  7. Recurrent Episodes of Dissociative Fugue

    PubMed Central

    Angothu, Hareesh; Pabbathi, Lokeswar Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is rare entity to encounter with possible differentials of epilepsy and malingering. It is one of the dissociative disorders rarely seen in clinical practice more often because of the short lasting nature of this condition. This might also be because of organized travel of the individuals during the episodes and return to their families after the recovery from episodes. This is a case description of a patient who has experienced total three episodes of dissociative fugue. The patient has presented during the third episode and two prior episodes were diagnosed as fugue episodes retrospectively based on the history. Planned travel in this case by the patient to a distant location was prevented because of early diagnosis and constant vigilance till the recovery. As in this case, it may be more likely that persons with Dissociative fugue may develop similar episodes if they encounter exceptional perceived stress. However, such conclusions may require follow-up studies. PMID:27114633

  8. Seasonality and Sleep: A Clinical Study on Euthymic Mood Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brambilla, Chiara; Gavinelli, Chiara; Delmonte, Dario; Fulgosi, Mara Cigala; Barbini, Barbara; Colombo, Cristina; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Background. Research on mood disorders has progressively focused on the study of seasons and on the mood in association with them during depressive or manic episodes yet few studies have focused on the seasonal fluctuation that characterizes the patient's clinical course both during an illness episode and during euthymic periods. Methods. 113 euthymic outpatients 46 affected by major recurrent depression and 67 affected by bipolar disorder were recruited. We evaluated the impact of clinical “rhythmical” factors: seasonality, sleep disturbance, and chronotype. Patients completed the SPAQ+ questionnaire, the MEQ questionnaire, and the medical outcomes study (MOS) sleep scale. We used t-test analyses to compare differences of clinical “rhythmical” and sociodemographic variables and of differences in the assessment scales among the diagnostic groups. Results. Patients reporting a family history for mood disorders have higher fluctuations throughout seasons. Sleep disturbance is more problematic in unipolars when compared to bipolars. Conclusions. Sleep, light, and seasonality seem to be three interconnected features that lie at the basis of chronobiology that, when altered, have an important effect both on the psychopathology and on the treatment of mood disorders. PMID:22203895

  9. [The trends of mood disorders in ICD-11: bipolar and depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Kurumaji, Akeo

    2013-01-01

    The international classification of diseases 11th (ICD-11) revision is due by 2015. The ICD-11 beta draft has recently been released, which includes a prospective change in the content of mood disorders. The ICD-11 may separate the disorders into bipolar and depressive disorders as a consequence of an evaluation for the feasibility of a meta-structure for mental and behavioral disorders. In addition, the bipolar disorders may be divided into type I and II disorders. The depressive disorders may include new diseases, i. e., disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, mixed depressive anxiety, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Our epidemiological data from patients with mood disorders diagnosed using the ICD-10 or DSM-IV have proven their utility in clinical use, and suggested a required revision for the criteria of the diagnosis. A part of persistent mood disorders, such as cyclothymia and dysthymia, seem to be the prodromal state of bipolar disorders. For an accurate assessment of manic and hypomanic episodes, a precise estimation of the physiological effects of antidepressants as well as a sufficient review of clinical information from family members of patients are mandatory. The mixed affective episode may be deleted in the new version, because our data also indicate that this episode is a very rare clinical state. Moreover, it appears that inpatients with bipolar II disorder diagnosed by the DSM-IV in our hospital showed heterogeneous clinical properties, such as the onset age and interval between the first depressive and first hypomanic episode. After a worldwide and intensive discussion, it appears that the newly revised ICD-11 will be an advanced scientific tool for psychiatry. PMID:23691796

  10. Effects of noise on a computational model for disease states of mood disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias Huber, Martin; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Braun, Hans Albert; Moss, Frank

    2000-03-01

    Nonlinear dynamics are currently proposed to explain the progressive course of recurrent mood disorders starting with isolated episodes and ending with accelerated irregular (``chaotic") mood fluctuations. Such a low-dimensional disease model is attractive because of its principal accordance with biological disease models, i.e. the kindling and biological rhythms model. However, most natural systems are nonlinear and noisy and several studies in the neuro- and physical sciences have demonstrated interesting cooperative behaviors arising from interacting random and deterministic dynamics. Here, we consider the effects of noise on a recent neurodynamical model for the timecourse of affective disorders (Huber et al.: Biological Psychiatry 1999;46:256-262). We describe noise effects on temporal patterns and mean episode frequencies of various in computo disease states. Our simulations demonstrate that noise can cause unstructured randomness or can maximize periodic order. The frequency of episode occurence can increase with noise but it can also remain unaffected or even can decrease. We show further that noise can make visible bifurcations before they would normally occur under deterministic conditions and we quantify this behavior with a recently developed statistical method. All these effects depend critically on both, the dynamic state and the noise intensity. Implications for neurobiology and course of mood disorders are discussed.

  11. Episodicity of Orogeny Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condie, K. C.; Aster, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    Although it is well established that orogeny is episodic, the duration, correlation and geographic distribution of orogenic episodes is not well constrained. Using large numbers of concordant U/Pb zircon ages from subduction-related granitoids (> 7000), it is now possible to better constrain these variables. Monte Carlo simulation probabilistic histograms of zircon age spectra remove questionable and spurious age peaks, yet allow resolution of peaks with >10 My duration with the data sets. Orogenic episodes with durations < 20 My, herein called pulses, are generally of regional geographic extent, whereas long-lived events (100-250 My), herein called periods, may be of regional or global extent. Orogenic periods comprise several to many pulses. Most orogenic pulses reflect geographic variations in intensity of subduction or/and plate collisions as for instance recorded around the perimeter of the Pacific basin in the last 100 My. Neither of the widely recognized pulses at 2.7 nor 1.9 Ga is global in extent. Orogenic pulses at 2700 and 2680 Ma occur on four continents each (2700: Superior, Hearne-Rae, Nain, North China; 2680: Yilgarn, Africa, Slave, Wyoming). Likewise, an orogenic pulse at 1880 is found on four continents (Laurentia, Baltica, East Asia, South America), and another pulse at 1860 Ma occurs on three continents (Africa, Siberia, Australia). Some orogenic pulses track lateral continental growth, such as 2730, 2715, and 2700 Ma pulses in the Abitibi greenstone belt, and 850, 800 and 750 Ma pulses in the Arabian-Nubian shield. Major orogenic periods are recognized at 2750-2650, 1900-1650, and 1250-1000 Ma and each of these is associated with supercontinent formation. Orogenic periods at 2600-2500 (China and India) and 2150-2050 Ma (West Africa, Amazonia, Rio de la Plata) may be associated with the formation of small supercontinents. Our results suggest that orogenic periods with intervening gaps may not require sudden and short-lived changes in mantle

  12. Depressed mood and smoking experimentation among preteens.

    PubMed

    Polen, Michael R; Curry, Susan J; Grothaus, Louis C; Bush, Terry M; Hollis, Jack F; Ludman, Evette J; McAfee, Timothy A

    2004-06-01

    The authors examined children's depressed mood, parental depressed mood, and parental smoking in relation to children's smoking susceptibility and experimentation over 20 months in a cohort of 418 preteens (ages 10-12 at baseline) and their parents. Depressed mood in preteens was strongly related to experimentation but not to susceptibility. In cross-sectional analyses parental depressed mood was related to children's experimentation, but in longitudinal analyses parental depressed mood at baseline did not differentiate children who experimented from those who did not. Although parental smoking was strongly related to experimentation, it was not related to susceptibility either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Depressed mood among preteens and parents appeared to be more strongly related to children's smoking behaviors than to their intentions to smoke. PMID:15238063

  13. The effects of chronic treatment with mood stabilizers on the rat hippocampal postsynaptic density proteome

    PubMed Central

    Nanavati, Dhaval; Austin, Daniel R.; Catapano, Lisa A.; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Dosemeci, Ayse; Manji, Husseini K.; Chen, Guang; Markey, Sanford P.

    2011-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a devastating illness that is marked by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. There is growing evidence that the disease is correlated with disruptions in synaptic plasticity cascades involved in cognition and mood regulation. Alleviating the symptoms of bipolar disorder involves chronic treatment with mood stabilizers like lithium or valproate. These two structurally dissimilar drugs are known to alter prominent signaling cascades in the hippocampus, but their effects on the postsynaptic density complex remain undefined. In this work, we utilized mass spectrometry for quantitative profiling of the rat hippocampal postsynaptic proteome to investigate the effects of chronic mood stabilizer treatment. Our data shows that in response to chronic treatment of mood stabilizers there were not gross qualitative changes but rather subtle quantitative perturbations in PSD proteome linked to several key signaling pathways. Our data specifically support the changes in actin dynamics on valproate treatment. Using label free quantification methods, we report that lithium and valproate significantly altered the abundance of 21 and 43 proteins, respectively. Seven proteins were affected similarly by both lithium and valproate: Ank3, Grm3, Dyhc1, and four isoforms of the 14-3-3 family. Immunoblotting the same samples confirmed the changes in Ank3 and Grm3 abundance. Our findings support the hypotheses that BPD is a synaptic disorder and that mood stabilizers modulate the protein signaling complex in the hippocampal PSD. PMID:21838781

  14. Structural Imaging in Late Life Depression: Association with Mood and Cognitive Responses to Antidepressant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Christopher M.; Workman, Clifford I.; Lyman, Christopher H.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Kraut, Michael A.; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent positron emission tomography studies of cerebral glucose metabolism have identified the functional neural circuitry associated with mood and cognitive responses to antidepressant treatment in late life depression (LLD). The structural alterations in these networks are not well understood. The present study used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to evaluate the association between grey matter volumes and changes in mood symptoms and cognitive function with treatment with the antidepressant citalopram. Design Open label trial with baseline brain MR scan. Mood and cognitive assessments performed at baseline and during citalopram treatment. Setting Outpatient clinics of an academic medical center. Participants 17 previously unmedicated patients age 55 or older with a major depressive episode and 17 non-depressed comparison subjects. Intervention 12 week trial of flexibly dosed citalopram. Measurements Grey matter volumes, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, California Verbal Learning Test, Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System™. Results In LLD, higher grey matter volumes in the cingulate gyrus, superior and middle frontal gyri, middle temporal gyrus and precuneus was associated with greater mood improvement. Higher grey matter volumes in primarily frontal areas were associated with greater improvement in verbal memory and verbal fluency performance. Conclusions Associations with antidepressant induced improvements in mood and cognition were observed in several brain regions previously correlated with normalization of glucose metabolism after citalopram treatment in LLD. Future studies will investigate molecular mechanisms underlying these associations (e.g. beta-amyloid, inflammation, glutamate). PMID:24238925

  15. Daytime spikes in dopaminergic activity drive rapid mood-cycling in mice.

    PubMed

    Sidor, M M; Spencer, S M; Dzirasa, K; Parekh, P K; Tye, K M; Warden, M R; Arey, R N; Enwright, J F; Jacobsen, J P R; Kumar, S; Remillard, E M; Caron, M G; Deisseroth, K; McClung, C A

    2015-11-01

    Disruptions in circadian rhythms and dopaminergic activity are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, though their interaction remains unclear. Moreover, a lack of animal models that display spontaneous cycling between mood states has hindered our mechanistic understanding of mood switching. Here, we find that mice with a mutation in the circadian Clock gene (ClockΔ19) exhibit rapid mood-cycling, with a profound manic-like phenotype emerging during the day following a period of euthymia at night. Mood-cycling coincides with abnormal daytime spikes in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic activity, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels and dopamine synthesis. To determine the significance of daytime increases in VTA dopamine activity to manic behaviors, we developed a novel optogenetic stimulation paradigm that produces a sustained increase in dopamine neuronal activity and find that this induces a manic-like behavioral state. Time-dependent dampening of TH activity during the day reverses manic-related behaviors in ClockΔ19 mice. Finally, we show that CLOCK acts as a negative regulator of TH transcription, revealing a novel molecular mechanism underlying cyclic changes in mood-related behavior. Taken together, these studies have identified a mechanistic connection between circadian gene disruption and the precipitation of manic episodes in bipolar disorder. PMID:25560763

  16. Daytime spikes in dopaminergic activity drive rapid mood-cycling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sidor, Michelle M.; Spencer, Sade M.; Dzirasa, Kafui; Parekh, Puja K.; Tye, Kay M.; Warden, Melissa R.; Arey, Rachel N.; Enwright, John F; Jacobsen, Jacob PR; Kumar, Sunil; Remillard, Erin M; Caron, Marc G.; Deisseroth, Karl; McClung, Colleen A

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in circadian rhythms and dopaminergic activity are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, though their interaction remains unclear. Moreover, a lack of animal models that display spontaneous cycling between mood states has hindered our mechanistic understanding of mood switching. Here we find that mice with a mutation in the circadian Clock gene (ClockΔ19) exhibit rapid mood-cycling, with a profound manic-like phenotype emerging during the day following a period of euthymia at night. Mood cycling coincides with abnormal daytime spikes in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic activity, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, and dopamine synthesis. To determine the significance of daytime increases in VTA dopamine activity to manic behaviors, we developed a novel optogenetic stimulation paradigm that produces a sustained increase in dopamine neuronal activity and find that this induces a manic-like behavioral state. Time-dependent dampening of TH activity during the day reverses manic-related behaviours in ClockΔ19 mice. Finally, we show that CLOCK acts as a negative regulator of TH transcription, revealing a novel molecular mechanism underlying cyclic changes in mood-related behaviour. Taken together, these studies have identified a mechanistic connection between circadian gene disruption and the precipitation of manic episodes in bipolar disorder. PMID:25560763

  17. Hyperactivation balances sensory processing deficits during mood induction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Miriam; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Mathiak, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    While impairments in emotion recognition are consistently reported in schizophrenia, there is some debate on the experience of emotion. Only few studies investigated neural correlates of emotional experience in schizophrenia. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared a standard visual mood induction paradigm with an audiovisual method aimed at eliciting emotions more automatically. To investigate the interplay of sensory, cognitive and emotional mechanisms during emotion experience, we examined connectivity patterns between brain areas. Sixteen schizophrenia patients and sixteen healthy subjects participated in two different mood inductions (visual and audiovisual) that were administered for different emotions (happiness, sadness and neutral). Confirming the dissociation of behavioral and neural correlates of emotion experience, patients rated their mood similarly to healthy subjects but showed differences in neural activations. Sensory brain areas were activated less, increased activity emerged in higher cortical areas, particularly during audiovisual stimulation. Connectivity was increased between primary and secondary sensory processing areas in schizophrenia. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit in filtering and processing sensory information alongside increased higher-order cognitive effort compensating for perception deficits in the affective domain. This may suffice to recover emotion experience in ratings of clinically stable patients but may fail during acute psychosis. PMID:23051903

  18. Episodic Tremor at UPSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, J. B.; Spudich, P.; Baker, L. M.

    2008-12-01

    UPSAR (U.S. Geological Survey Parkfield Seismic Array) was modified to record continuously at 40 sps in January 2005 following reports that tremor near Cholame had been detected. During January and early February, numerous episodes of tremor were recorded including one on January 21 at 07.58 UTC, which was recorded with particularly high signal levels. Here we report on the azimuth and apparent velocity of the waves from tremor impinging on the array and what these array measurements suggest about the location, depth, and frequency of tremor on the Parkfield/Cholame segment of the San Andreas fault. 11 stations were used in the analysis. We used cross correlation of all pairs of stations to determine slowness of incoming rays to analyze tremor data. A number of checks were made on the method such as correctly locating micro- earthquakes on the San Andreas fault. The tremor sources were localized to a section of the San Andreas fault south of where Highway 46 crosses the Cholame valley close to previous estimates of tremor locations. Depths are in the 14-24km range, below the seismogenic zone, but above the Moho. Estimates of error do not preclude locations below the Moho, however. Apparent velocity diminish by 0.5 to 1 km/s as the tremor episode progresses for about 3/4 of the total duration, implying a change in depth of the source, but the effect is small and may not be statistically significant. Polarizations across the array appear to be affected by local topography and show significant scatter. Nonetheless a NE-SW trend is apparent at some stations. Polarizations of direct S-waves from an earthquake near Cholame are more consistent and again trend NE- SW. Early coda from the same earthquake display polarization patterns similar to that for tremor suggesting that tremor signals are scattered rather than direct S waves.

  19. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028169

  20. Memantine in the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar type II mood disorder and co-morbid eating disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Chiara, Lavinia; Serra, Giulia; Koukopoulos, Alexia Emilia; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Serra, Gino

    2014-01-01

    We have recently reported that memantine has a clinically relevant antimanic and long-lasting mood-stabilizing effect in treatment- resistant bipolar disorders, both as augmenting agent and as a monotherapy. Moreover, we observed an acute antimanic and sustained mood-stabilizing effect also in "naïve" bipolar type I disorder. Here we report a case history of a young woman suffering from bipolar type II mood disorder, associated with a very severe eating disorder, showing an acute antimanic and a long-term prophylactic effect of memantine on bipolar disorder and comorbid eating disorder. PMID:25174697

  1. Mood, memory, and social judgments in children.

    PubMed

    Forgas, J P; Burnham, D K; Trimboli, C

    1988-04-01

    The influence of positive and negative moods on children's recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments was investigated in a two-list experimental design. A total of 161 schoolchildren, 8 to 10 years old, were presented with audiovisual information containing positive and negative details about 2 target children. Each presentation was preceded by happy or sad mood manipulations. One day later, the children were again placed in a happy or sad mood, and their recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments were assessed. Results showed that memory was better when (a) the children felt happy during encoding, retrieval, or both; (b) the material was incongruent with learning mood; (c) the 2 target characters were encountered in contrasting rather than in matching mood states; and (d) recall mood matched encoding mood. A happy mood increased the extremity of both positive and negative impression-formation judgments. Results are contrasted with experimental data obtained with normal or depressed adults, and implications are considered for contemporary theories of mood effects on cognition and for social-developmental research. PMID:3367286

  2. The evolution of episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  3. Biological rhythms and mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Paola; Indic, Premananda; Murray, Greg; Baldessarini, Ross J.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of several approaches concerning time and temporality can enhance the pathophysiological study of major mood disorders of unknown etiology. We propose that these conditions might be interpreted as disturbances of temporal profile of biological rhythms, as well as alterations of time-consciousness. Useful approaches to study time and temporality include philological suggestions, phenomenological and psychopathological conceptualizatíons, clinical descriptions, and research on circadian and ultradían rhythms, as well as nonlinear dynamics approaches to their analysis. PMID:23393414

  4. The Episodic Nature of Episodic-Like Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Alexander; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Eacott, Madeline J.

    2012-01-01

    Studying episodic memory in nonhuman animals has proved difficult because definitions in humans require conscious recollection. Here, we assessed humans' experience of episodic-like recognition memory tasks that have been used with animals. It was found that tasks using contextual information to discriminate events could only be accurately…

  5. Assessment of mood state in patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy: the utility of visual analog mood scales developed for cognitively impaired patients.

    PubMed

    Arruda, J E; Stern, R A; Legendre, S A

    1996-12-01

    Reliable, valid, and brief measures of mood state are essential to the evaluation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) efficacy. However, existing measures of mood state may be inappropriate for patients with transient cognitive impairment. Stern and colleagues have recently developed a set of Visual Analog Mood Scales (VAMS) for use in neurologically impaired patients. These brief scales (including measures of sad, confused, afraid, happy, tired, angry, and energetic states) are easily administered and have documented reliability and validity in neurologically impaired patients and in healthy adult and geriatric samples. In the present study, we assessed the validity and sensitivity of the VAMS to detect ECT-related mood change. Twenty-five inpatients who were diagnosed with major depressive episode and referred for ECT were administered the VAMS and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) both pre- and post-ECT. Results indicate that the VAMS are as sensitive to the therapeutic effects of ECT as is the more lengthy and verbally demanding HDRS. In addition, the VAMS were highly correlated with the clinician's Clinical Global Improvement rating and the patient's self-report using a modified Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. The VAMS are brief, reliable scales that are sensitive to the treatment effects of ECT and that are appropriate for patients with transient cognitive impairment. PMID:9034694

  6. The management of mood disorders in pregnancy: alternatives to antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Richards, Erica M; Payne, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    The management of mood disorders during pregnancy is complex due to risks associated with medication use and risks associated with untreated depression. Antidepressant use during pregnancy is an exposure for the unborn child, and it currently remains unclear what long-term repercussions there might be from this exposure, though available data are reassuring. On the other hand, there are risks for both the mother and child of untreated depression during pregnancy. There is a real need for research into nonpharmacological strategies for the prevention of relapse of mood disorders in pregnant women who are off medications. We have reviewed a number of potential candidate interventions including psychotherapies, exercise, light box therapy (LBT), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), holistic strategies, and nutritional and herbal supplements. Currently there is a lack of evidence supporting the use of such strategies in the prevention of depressive relapse during pregnancy, though most of these strategies have at least some support for their use in the treatment of a major depressive episode. Carefully conducted research using one or more of these strategies in women who want to discontinue antidepressants for pregnancy is sorely needed. PMID:23570692

  7. Effects of Eating on Depressed Moods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenier, Victoria; And Others

    Research has found that depressed moods increase eating among persons who are dieting and among those characterized by high levels of weight fluctuation. To determine whether eating improves depressed moods among persons who score high on the weight fluctuation factor on the Restraint Scale (Herman, et al, 1978), 72 college women consumed either a…

  8. Variations in the Circumplex Structure of Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Lisa A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers have emphasized the similarity of the semantic and self-report mood circumplexes. Study investigated systematic differences in theses structures. Demonstrated that when making judgments of their mood, people weigh the arousal dimension less than the valence dimension. Dimensions are weighed equally in semantic structure. (JBJ)

  9. The dimensional structure of cycling mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Balbuena, Lloyd; Baetz, Marilyn; Bowen, Rudy C

    2015-08-30

    This study examines whether mood disorders differ fundamentally in terms of phase duration. Most clinically significant mood disorders are recurrent and cyclical. The phase duration of these cycles is part of the diagnostic criteria. Specifically, we determined whether a dimensional or taxonic latent structure better captures cycling mood disorders. 319 patients recruited from 5 psychiatrists and a psychoeducational program completed three questionnaires assessing aspects of mood cycling. These were the Affective Lability Scale-Short Form (ALS-SF), Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ), and the Eysenck Neuroticism scale. Patient scores on these instruments were submitted to three taxometric procedures (MAMBAC, MAXEIG, and L-Mode). Comparison curve fit indices (CCFIs) were calculated to distinguish taxonic versus dimensional latent structure. In addition, graphs were produced for each procedure and compared with those of categorical or dimensional prototypes. The CCFIs of the three procedures ranged from 0.25 to 0.27, consistent with dimensional structure. The graphs closely resembled dimensional prototypes. Mood instability and other types of cycling moods probably conform to a dimensional latent structure. Patients with disorders featuring mood cycling might benefit from common treatments. PMID:26144588

  10. Modeling Spanish Mood Choice in Belief Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a computational methodology new to linguistics that empirically evaluates competing linguistic theories on Spanish verbal mood choice through the use of computational techniques to learn mood and other hidden linguistic features from Spanish belief statements found in corpora. The machine learned probabilistic linguistic models…

  11. Exercise enhances creativity independently of mood

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Hannah; Sykes, Elizabeth A; Moss, Tim; Lowery, Susan; LeBoutillier, Nick; Dewey, Alison

    1997-01-01

    Objectives It has been widely accepted in the literature that various forms of physical exercise, even in a single session, enhance positive mood. It has also been shown that physical exercise may sometimes enhance creative thinking, but the evidence is inconclusive. Positive moods can favour creative thinking, but the opposite has also been reported and these relations are unclear. There is a large anecdotal literature suggesting that creative people sometimes use bodily movement to help overcome “blocks”. The aim of this study was to establish whether post-exercise creative thinking was attributable to improved mood. Methods The responses of 63 participants to an exercise (aerobic workout or aerobic dance) and a “neutral” video watching condition were compared. Mood was measured using an adjective list, and creative thinking was tested by three measures of the Torrance test. Results Analysis of variance showed a large and significant increase in positive mood after exercise (P<0.001) and a significant decrease in positive mood after video watching (P<0.001). A significant increase between the creative thinking scores of the two conditions was found on the flexibility (variety of responses) measure (P<0.05). A multifactorial analysis of all data failed to show a significant covariance of creative thinking with the two measures of mood (P>0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that mood and creativity were improved by physical exercise independently of each other. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:9298561

  12. The role of emotional engagement and mood valence in retrieval fluency of mood incongruent autobiographical memory

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jonathan; Meiran, Nachshon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Retrieval of opposite mood autobiographical memories serves emotion regulation, yet the factors influencing this ability are poorly understood. Methods: Three studies examined the effect of mood valence (sad vs. happy) and degree of emotional engagement on fluency of mood incongruent retrieval by manipulating emotional engagement and examining the effect of emotional film clips on the Fluency of Autobiographical Memory task. Results: Following both sad and happy film clips, participants who received emotionally engaging instructions exhibited a greater recall latency of the first opposite mood memory, and had generated less such memories than those receiving emotionally disengaging instructions (Studies 1 and 2). A happy mood induction resulted in recollection of fewer mood incongruent memories compared to a sad mood induction. Providing emotionally engaging instructions was found to specifically hinder mood incongruent retrieval, without impairing mood congruent retrieval (Study 3). Conclusion: High emotional engagement seems to impair the retrieval of mood incongruent memories. Being in a happy mood may also partially impair such retrieval. Implications regarding emotional regulation are discussed. PMID:24570671

  13. Review of Cohort Studies for Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592

  14. Review of Cohort Studies for Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592

  15. Inducing jet lag in the laboratory - Patterns of adjustment to an acute shift in routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Moline, Margaret L.; Graeber, R. Curtis

    1988-01-01

    Eight middle-aged males were studied in a temporal isolation experimental lasting 15 d. After 5 d and nights of entrainment to his own habitual routine, each subject experienced an acute unheralded 6-h phase advance in routine, accomplished by truncating his sixth sleep episode. For the remaining 10 d of the study, subjects were held to a routine 6-h phase advanced to the original. Significant symptoms of jet lag appeared in mood, performance efficiency, sleep, and circadian temperature rhythms. When plotted as a function to days postshift, some variables showed a fairly monotonic recovery to baseline levels, but other variables showed a zig-zag recovery pattern, suggesting the interaction of two competing processes, and reinforcing the need for greater sophistication in the development of jet-lag coping strategies.

  16. Sexual violence, mood disorders and suicide risk: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Jansen, Karen; Konradt, Caroline Elizabeth; Zaltron, Rosana Ferrazza; Behenck, Monalisa de Oliveira; de Mattos, Luciano Dias; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo

    2016-03-01

    This article seeks to analyze the association between sexual violence, manic and depressive episodes, and suicide risk among young adults. This is a cross-sectional population-based study carried out with young people between 18 and 24 years of age in a town in southern Brazil. The sample was selected through clusters. The prevalence of sexual violence, manic, depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk were evaluated, as well as the association between them. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used for statistical analysis. The study sample comprised 1,560 subjects. Among these, 3.1% had suffered sexual violence at some point in their life. The prevalence of depressive, mixed episodes, and (hypo)manic episodes were 10%, 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Suicide risk had a prevalence of 8.6% in the total sample. Young people who have suffered sexual violence are more likely to be subject to mood changes or suicide risk than those who have not (p < 0.05), except for the occurrence of (hypo)manic episodes. These results revealed a strong association between sexual violence and depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk. PMID:26960097

  17. Mood and Performance in Young Malaysian Karateka

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebecca S. K.; Thung, Jin Seng; Pieter, Willy

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1) to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2) to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years). The athletes were divided into winners (medalists) and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) was administered prior to the start of competition. MANOVA was employed to treat the data, while Pearson correlations were calculated for mood states in each depressed mood group and by gender. In terms of non-depressed and depressed mood, tension in the females was higher in the depressed group (5.61 ± 3.02 vs. 3.11 ± 1.90, p = 0.026, eta2 = 0.133), as was fatigue (3.64 ± 2.61 vs. 0.89 ± 1.69, p = 0.006, eta2 = 0.199). Tension in the males was higher in the depressed group (4.41 ± 2.52 vs. 1.50 ± 1.55, p < 0.001, eta2 = 0.215), as was anger (1.43 ± 1.88 vs. 0.25 ± 1.00, p = 0.019, eta2 = 0.076). The highest associations among mood subscales were between anger and depression (r = 0.57), and between depression and fatigue ( r = 0.55) in depressed males. The female winning karateka scored higher on anger (3.08 ± 2.96 vs. 1.29 ± 2.24, p = 0.046, eta2 = 0.109). The highest correlations between mood dimensions in depressed females were between depression and anger (r = 0.85) and between depression and confusion (r = 0.85). Contrary to previous research on the influence of depression on anger, only the female winners scored higher on anger. Several negative mood dimensions were higher in both male and female depressed groups, lending some support to the conceptual model advanced by Lane and Terry. Key Points To date, there is no information about the relationship between mood and martial arts performance in Malaysian athletes. There might be cultural differences in the way Malaysian athletes

  18. Mental energy: Assessing the mood dimension.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J

    2006-07-01

    Conceptualizing mental energy as a mood is impor tant, because these feelings are important to people and can influence behavior in the real world. If a person feels a lack of energy, for example, he or she is more likely to avoid physical or mental work if it is possible to do so. Alternatively, this person may seek to improve feelings of energy by eating, drinking, taking dietary supplements or drugs, sleeping, or engaging in other behaviors. Thus, the measurement of the mood of energy has importance in numerous ways, including public health, work productivity, and ultimately economic growth and productivity. Mood data have limitations, for example, self aware ness and literacy are necessary and faking is possible. The problem of faking is most salient in situations in which there is a strong motivation to fake, such as when psychological testing is used as part of an employment application. Despite these limitations, overwhelming evidence supports the validity for certain measures of the mood of energy such as the POMS vigor scale. This is not to say that mood measures are error free in all situations. Despite some error, however, validity evidence for mood measures is published in the scientific literature weekly. Future research aimed at determining the biological bases for the mood of energy, and its relationships to overlapping phenomena such as cognitive fatigue, should yield results that ultimately help us to understand how to optimize our feelings of energy. PMID:16910215

  19. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review].

    PubMed

    Gilet, A-L

    2008-06-01

    For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publi

  20. Stroke-like episodes in familial mitochondrial encephalomyopathy: clinical and biochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Damian, M S; Reichmann, H; Schütz, H J; Dorndorf, W; Schachenmayr, W

    1991-04-01

    Acute episodes of focal neurological dysfunction are a well-recognized complication of the mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Because of rapid remission, biochemical tests and other diagnostic procedures are mostly performed after the acute phase. We report the case of a patient suffering from mitochondrial disease manifesting primarily with seizures, progressive deafness and dementia, who experienced multiple stroke-like episodes. Other members of the family with evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction are presented briefly. EEG and biochemical findings in the acute stage are correlated with clinical symptoms, showing characteristics distinct from the chronic illness. The possible involvement of dietary factors in the provocation of stroke-like episodes is discussed and regulation of glucose intake suggested as a strategy in the prevention of stroke-like episodes. PMID:1906933

  1. Behind the Webb Episode 27

    NASA Video Gallery

    This episode of "Behind the Webb" explores the multi-tasking capabilities of one of the cameras on the Webb Space Telescope, the Near-Infrared Spectrograph. Newly designed technology known as "micr...

  2. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  3. Erythropoietin improves mood and modulates the cognitive and neural processing of emotion 3 days post administration.

    PubMed

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Inkster, Becky; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Wise, Richard; Goodwin, Guy M; Harmer, Catherine J

    2008-02-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects and is a promising candidate for treatment of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorder. Recently, we demonstrated that Epo modulates memory-relevant hippocampal response and fear processing in human models of antidepressant drug action 1 week post-administration, and improves self-reported mood for 3 days immediately following administration. The present study explored the effects of Epo (40 000 IU) vs saline on self-reported mood and on neural and cognitive function in healthy volunteers 3 days post-administration to test the reliability of the rapid mood improvement and its neuropsychological basis. Neuronal responses during the processing of happy and fearful faces were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); facial expression recognition performance was assessed after the fMRI scan. Daily ratings of mood were obtained for 3 days after Epo/saline administration. During faces processing Epo enhanced activation in the left amygdala and right precuneus to happy and fearful expressions. This was paired with improved recognition of all facial expressions, in particular of low intensity happiness and fear. This is similar to behavioral effects observed with acute administration of serotonergic antidepressants. Consistent with our previous finding, Epo improved self-reported mood for all 3 days post-administration. Together, these results suggest that characterization of the effects of Epo in a clinically depressed group is warranted. PMID:17473836

  4. Saharan dust episodes and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Basagaña, Xavier; Figueras, Francesc; Amoly, Elmira; Tobias, Aurelio; de Nazelle, Audrey; Querol, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    Desert dust is one of the natural contributors to atmospheric particulate matter worldwide. Although particulate pollution has been shown to adversely affect pregnancy, the available evidence on the impact of dust episodes on pregnancy is very scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Saharan dust episodes on pregnancy complications (preeclampsia and bacteriuria) and outcomes (birth weight and gestational age at delivery). This study was based on a cohort of births (N = 3565) that occurred in a major university hospital in Barcelona during 2003-2005. To determine Saharan dust episodes, we developed a two-stage approach based on meteorological evidence of the presence of Saharan dust cloud over the region and unusually high levels of particulate levels on the ground while taking account of traffic sources. The associations between the number of Saharan dust episodes during whole pregnancy as well as each pregnancy trimester and pregnancy complications and outcomes were analysed. There were 152 days (out of 838 days) with Saharan dust cloud over the region from which 45 days were determined as episodic days. We did not observe any statistically significant harmful effect of Saharan dust episodes on our included pregnancy complications and outcomes. However, we observed a small but statistically significant increase in gestational age at delivery in association with the number of episodic days during the third trimester and whole pregnancy (0.8 and 0.5 days respectively). Our findings were not suggestive for any adverse effect of Saharan dust episodes on our included pregnancy complications and outcomes. PMID:21964628

  5. Increased involvement of the parahippocampal gyri in a sad mood predicts future depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Huffziger, Silke; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Kuehner, Christine; Kirsch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest a relationship between autobiographical memory, rumination and depression. The objective of this study was to determine whether remitted depressed patients show alterations in connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, a node in the default mode network) with the parahippocampal gyri (PHG, a region associated with autobiographical memory) while intensively recalling negative memories and whether this is related to daily life symptoms and to the further course of depression. Sad mood was induced with keywords of personal negative life events in participants with remitted depression (n = 29) and matched healthy controls (n = 29) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, daily life assessments of mood and rumination and a 6-month follow-up were conducted. Remitted depressed participants showed greater connectivity than healthy controls of the PCC with the PHG, which was even stronger in patients with more previous episodes. Furthermore, patients with increased PCC–PHG connectivity showed a sadder mood and more rumination in daily life and a worsening of rumination and depression scores during follow-up. A relationship of negative autobiographical memory processing, rumination, sad mood and depression on a neural level seems likely. The identified increased connectivity probably indicates a ‘scar’ of recurrent depression and may represent a prognostic factor for future depression. PMID:24493842

  6. Mood and the market: can press reports of investors' mood predict stock prices?

    PubMed

    Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Scherbaum, Charles A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Staw, Barry M

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices. PMID:24015202

  7. Mood and the Market: Can Press Reports of Investors' Mood Predict Stock Prices?

    PubMed Central

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices. PMID:24015202

  8. Shifting moods, wandering minds: negative moods lead the mind to wander.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, Annamay; Miles, Lynden K; Phillips, Louise H

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the effect of mood states on mind wandering. Positive, neutral, and negative moods were induced in participants prior to them completing a sustained attention task. Mind wandering was measured by using the frequencies of both behavioral lapses and retrospective indices of subjective experience. Relative to a positive mood, induction of a negative mood led participants to make more lapses, report a greater frequency of task irrelevant thoughts, and become less inclined to reengage attentional resources following a lapse. Positive mood, by contrast, was associated with a better ability to adjust performance after a lapse. These results provide further support for the notion that a negative mood reduces the amount of attentional commitment to the task in hand and may do so by enhancing the focus on task irrelevant personal concerns. PMID:19348539

  9. Mood Effects of Alcohol and Expectancies during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesso, Vincent J.; Freitag, Wendy J.

    This research attempted to develop a profile of women's moods across the menstrual cycle and to determine alcohol's effects upon those moods. The Profile of Mood States was used to measure mood in 96 female college students who were heavy drinkers. Subjects were randomly assigned to the cells of the balanced placebo design with equal numbers in…

  10. Mood Fluctuations: Women Versus Men And Menstrual Versus Other Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Jessica; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied mood fluctuations and cyclic changes in 15 women using oral contraceptives, 12 normally cycling women, and 15 men. Found no evidence of mood fluctuations over lunar cycle and groups did not differ in mood stability. Women's moods fluctuated less over menstrual cycle than over days of week. Differences between concurrent and retrospective…

  11. Is liability to recurrent major depressive disorder present before first episode onset in adolescence or acquired after the initial episode?

    PubMed

    Pettit, Jeremy W; Hartley, Chelsey; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Seeley, John R; Klein, Daniel N

    2013-05-01

    Many individuals who experience a major depressive episode will subsequently develop recurrent episodes. Although numerous studies have investigated predictors of recurrent episodes, methodological limitations have made it difficult to determine the extent to which liability to recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) exists prior to first onset or develops after first onset. This study used a prospective design in a community sample of adolescents to examine variables before and after first onset MDD as predictors of rMDD over a 12-year follow-up. Among 59 adolescents who experienced first onset MDD, 72.88% developed rMDD during the follow-up period. Parental history of rMDD and lifetime history of minor depression prior to MDD onset significantly predicted rMDD. These two effects replicated in ancillary analyses in an expanded sample of N = 205. Following MDD onset, a higher number of major life events significantly predicted rMDD. Liability to rMDD exists prior to MDD onset in the form of familial risk and less severe mood disturbances, whereas liability to rMDD in the form of elevated stress may develop following a first onset in adolescence. PMID:23713498

  12. Mood-state-dependent retrieval: the effects of induced mood on memory reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Kenealy, P M

    1997-05-01

    Analysis of studies investigating mood-state-dependent retrieval identifies methodological problems that may have contributed to the controversy surrounding the reliability of the effect-in particular, the possible confounding of encoding and retrieval in previous studies. Five experiments are reported investigating the effects of mood on learning and recall. Mood-state-dependent retrieval was observed in Experiment 1a (using Velten's Mood Induction Procedure); Experiment 1b (using a music MIP); and Experiment lc (using Velten's MIP at encoding and a music MIP at retrieval). Subjects who learned and recalled in different moods had significantly greater decrements in recall than did subjects in the same moods. Experiments 2 and 3 investigated the effect of observable retrieval cues on mood-state-dependent retrieval. In Experiment 2, the presence of observable retrieval cues at recall overrode state-dependent retrieval. In Experiment 3, by manipulating the presence or absence of observable cues at recall, both the occurrence and the erasure of the mood-state dependency was demonstrated. Mood state during learning and cued recall was also shown to affect performance in a third session under conditions of free recall. PMID:9225625

  13. Gaze-fixation to happy faces predicts mood repair after a negative mood induction.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Vazquez, Carmelo; Gomez, Diego; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-02-01

    The present study tested the interplay between mood and attentional deployment by examining attention to positive (i.e., happy faces) and negative (i.e., angry and sad faces) stimuli in response to experimental inductions of sad and happy mood. Participants underwent a negative, neutral, or positive mood induction procedure (MIP) which was followed by an assessment of their attentional deployment to emotional faces using eye-tracking technology. Faces were selected from the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (KDEF) database (Lundqvist, Flykt, & Öhman, 1998). In the positive MIP condition, analyses revealed a mood-congruent relation between positive mood and greater attentional deployment to happy faces. In the negative MIP condition, however, analyses revealed a mood-incongruent relation between increased negative mood and greater attentional deployment to happy faces. Furthermore, attentional deployment to happy faces after the negative MIP predicted participants' mood recovery at the end of the experimental session. These results suggest that attentional processing of positive information may play a role in mood repair, which may have important clinical implications. PMID:24188064

  14. Does mood really influence comparative optimism? Tracking an elusive effect.

    PubMed

    Drace, Sasa; Desrichard, Olivier; Shepperd, James A; Hoorens, Vera

    2009-12-01

    Methodological limitations call into question prior evidence that positive moods are associated with greater comparative optimism. Experiments 1-4 tested if mood affects comparative optimism using a mood manipulation that minimized experimenter demand. While the procedure was successful in inducing mood, we found no evidence for a mood effect on comparative optimism. The absence of a mood effect was not due to participants correcting their judgments in response to a presumed mood bias (Experiments 2, 3 and 4) or to participants proactively regulating their mood (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 5 compared the mood manipulation of Experiments 1-4 with an autobiographical recall procedure. Although the two methods were equally effective in inducing mood, only autobiographical recall influenced participants' comparative optimism. Study 6 provides preliminary evidence that experimenter demand may be responsible for the effects of autobiographical recall on comparative judgments. PMID:19108749

  15. Coping with Mood Changes Later in Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of mood disorders. Could my illness be bipolar disorder (also known as manic-depression)? Have you had ... a relative or friend who has depression or bipolar disorder? Encourage your loved one to get help. Talk ...

  16. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W F; Schellenberg, E G; Husain, G

    2001-05-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on tbe spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood. PMID:11437309

  17. Feigning Acute Intermittent Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Elkhatib, Rania; Idowu, Modupe; Brown, Gregory S.; Jaber, Yasmeen M.; Reid, Matthew B.; Person, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant genetic defect in heme synthesis. Patients with this illness can have episodic life-threatening attacks characterized by abdominal pain, neurological deficits, and psychiatric symptoms. Feigning this illness has not been reported in the English language literature to date. Here, we report on a patient who presented to the hospital with an acute attack of porphyria requesting opiates. Diligent assessment of extensive prior treatment records revealed thirteen negative tests for AIP. PMID:25525547

  18. The effect of post-discharge educational intervention on patients in achieving objectives in modifiable risk factors six months after discharge following an episode of acute coronary syndrome, (CAM-2 Project): a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether an intervention mainly consisting of a signed agreement between patient and physician on the objectives to be reached, improves reaching these secondary prevention objectives in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors six-months after discharge following an acute coronary syndrome. Background There is room to improve mid-term adherence to clinical guidelines' recommendations in coronary heart disease secondary prevention, specially non-pharmacological ones, often neglected. Methods In CAM-2, patients discharged after an acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to the intervention or the usual care group. The primary outcome was reaching therapeutic objectives in various secondary prevention variables: smoking, obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure control, exercise and taking of medication. Results 1757 patients were recruited in 64 hospitals and 1510 (762 in the intervention and 748 in the control group) attended the six-months follow-up visit. After adjustment for potentially important variables, there were, between the intervention and control group, differences in the mean reduction of body mass index (0.5 vs. 0.2; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (1.6 cm vs. 0.6 cm; p = 0.05), proportion of patients who exercise regularly and those with total cholesterol below 175 mg/dl (64.7% vs. 56.5%; p = 0.001). The reported intake of medications was high in both groups for all the drugs considered with no differences except for statins (98.1% vs. 95.9%; p = 0.029). Conclusions At least in the short term, lifestyle changes among coronary heart disease patients are achievable by intensifying the responsibility of the patient himself by means of a simple and feasible intervention. PMID:21092191

  19. Pharmacotherapy for Mood Disorders in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Deligiannidis, Kristina M.; Byatt, Nancy; Freeman, Marlene P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pharmacotherapy for mood disorders during pregnancy is often complicated by pregnancy-related pharmacokinetic changes and the need for dose adjustments. The objectives of this review are to summarize the evidence for change in perinatal pharmacokinetics of commonly used pharmacotherapies for mood disorders, discuss the implications for clinical and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), and make clinical recommendations. Methods The English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE/PubMed was searched for original observational studies (controlled and uncontrolled, prospective and retrospective), case reports, and case series that evaluated or described pharmacokinetic changes or TDM during pregnancy or the postpartum period. Results Pregnancy-associated changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination may result in lowered psychotropic drug levels and possible treatment effects, particularly in late pregnancy. Mechanisms include changes in both phase 1 hepatic cytochrome P450 and phase 2 uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase enzyme activities, changes in hepatic and renal blood flow, and glomerular filtration rate. Therapeutic drug monitoring, in combination with clinical monitoring, is indicated for tricyclic antidepressants and mood stabilizers during the perinatal period. Conclusions Substantial pharmacokinetic changes can occur during pregnancy in a number of commonly used antidepressants and mood stabilizers. Dose increases may be indicated for antidepressants including citalopram, clomipramine, imipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, nortriptyline, paroxetine, and sertraline, especially late in pregnancy. Antenatal dose increases may also be needed for lithium, lamotrigine, and valproic acid because of perinatal changes in metabolism. Close clinical monitoring of perinatal mood disorders and TDM of tricyclic antidepressants and mood stabilizers are recommended. PMID:24525634

  20. The number of past manic episodes is the best predictor of antidepressant-emergent manic switch in a cohort of bipolar depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Gorwood, Philip; Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Sentissi, Othman; Le Strat, Yann; Olié, Jean Pierre

    2016-06-30

    The present study sought to identify factors associated with the onset of a manic or hypomanic episode during the month following a new antidepressant therapy in depressed bipolar patients. Patients receiving mood stabilizers for ≥3 months were screened from 400 French centers and were assessed for a 4-week period following prescription of a first or a new antidepressant. Of the 1242 included participants, 4.8% (n=60) experienced antidepressant-emergent manic switch (AEMS). AEMS was more frequently associated with lifetime manic, depressive, and total mood episodes, and with past AEMS. A higher score at two items of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (pessimistic and suicidal thoughts) were significantly associated with AEMS. Logistic regression analysis showed that the number of lifetime manic episodes and past AEMS were the two most factors associated with an AEMS. Having more than four past manic episodes was associated with a 2.84 fold increased risk of AEMS. Cumulative number of past mood episodes seems to be the most important factor for switching to a manic episode following antidepressants in patients with bipolar disorder. Longer-term studies are required to further delineate antidepressant causality from natural disease course. PMID:27138820

  1. Factitious psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes.

    PubMed

    Romano, Alissa; Alqahtani, Saeed; Griffith, James; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z

    2014-01-01

    Mistaking psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes (PNEPEs) for epileptic seizures (ES) is potentially dangerous, and certain features should alert physicians to a possible PNEPE diagnosis. Psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes due to factitious seizures carry particularly high risks of morbidity or mortality from nonindicated emergency treatment and, often, high costs in wasted medical treatment expenditures. We report a case of a 28-year-old man with PNEPEs that were misdiagnosed as ES. The patient had been on four antiseizure medications (ASMs) with therapeutic serum levels and had had multiple intubations in the past for uncontrolled episodes. He had no episodes for two days of continuous video-EEG monitoring. He then disconnected his EEG cables and had an episode of generalized stiffening and cyanosis, followed by jerking and profuse bleeding from the mouth. The manifestations were unusually similar to those of ES, except that he was clearly startled by spraying water on his face, while he was stiff in all extremities and unresponsive. There were indications that he had sucked blood from his central venous catheter to expel through his mouth during his PNEPEs while consciously holding his breath. Normal video-EEG monitoring; the patient's volitional and deceptive acts to fabricate the appearance of illness, despite pain and personal endangerment; and the absence of reward other than remaining in a sick role were all consistent with a diagnosis of factitious disorder. PMID:25667902

  2. Factitious psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Alissa; Alqahtani, Saeed; Griffith, James; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z.

    2014-01-01

    Mistaking psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes (PNEPEs) for epileptic seizures (ES) is potentially dangerous, and certain features should alert physicians to a possible PNEPE diagnosis. Psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes due to factitious seizures carry particularly high risks of morbidity or mortality from nonindicated emergency treatment and, often, high costs in wasted medical treatment expenditures. We report a case of a 28-year-old man with PNEPEs that were misdiagnosed as ES. The patient had been on four antiseizure medications (ASMs) with therapeutic serum levels and had had multiple intubations in the past for uncontrolled episodes. He had no episodes for two days of continuous video-EEG monitoring. He then disconnected his EEG cables and had an episode of generalized stiffening and cyanosis, followed by jerking and profuse bleeding from the mouth. The manifestations were unusually similar to those of ES, except that he was clearly startled by spraying water on his face, while he was stiff in all extremities and unresponsive. There were indications that he had sucked blood from his central venous catheter to expel through his mouth during his PNEPEs while consciously holding his breath. Normal video-EEG monitoring; the patient's volitional and deceptive acts to fabricate the appearance of illness, despite pain and personal endangerment; and the absence of reward other than remaining in a sick role were all consistent with a diagnosis of factitious disorder. PMID:25667902

  3. Cingulum bundle diffusivity and delusions of reference in first episode and chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Jennifer; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitford, Thomas J.; Swisher, Tali; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Pelavin, Paula E.; Terry, Douglas P.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Seidman, Larry J.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Kubicki, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess integrity of the cingulum bundle in patients diagnosed with first episode schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, and matched controls as well as to determine the relationship between diffusion measures of cingulum bundle integrity and severity of patients’ delusions of reference. Participants, who comprised 18 first episode patients, 20 chronic patients, and two groups of matched controls (20 subjects in each), underwent 3 Tesla MRI diffusion tensor imaging. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (chronic + first episode) showed decreased fractional anisotropy in the right cingulum bundle compared with controls. First episode patients exhibited higher trace bilaterally, compared with matched controls, and on the left compared with chronic patients. Axial diffusivity was increased in first episode patients, bilaterally, compared with matched controls and chronic patients. Radial diffusivity was also higher, bilaterally, in first episode patients compared with matched controls, and on the right compared with chronic patients. Trace diffusity and radial diffusivity in first episode patients were significantly correlated with increased severity of delusions of reference. Given that the abnormalities were present only in first episode patients and were not observed in chronic cases, it appears that they normalize over time. These abnormalities in first episode patients involved diffusivity measures in all directions (trace, radial and axial), suggesting a likely acute, partially reversible process in which there is an increase in brain water content, i.e., swelling, edema, or inflammation, that may reflect an early neuroinflammatory response in first episode patients. PMID:25174840

  4. Cingulum bundle diffusivity and delusions of reference in first episode and chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Jennifer; Schneiderman, Jason S; Whitford, Thomas J; Swisher, Tali; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A; Pelavin, Paula E; Terry, Douglas P; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Seidman, Larry J; Goldstein, Jill M; Kubicki, Marek

    2014-11-30

    The goal of this study was to assess integrity of the cingulum bundle in patients diagnosed with first episode schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, and matched controls as well as to determine the relationship between diffusion measures of cingulum bundle integrity and severity of patients' delusions of reference. Participants, who comprised 18 first episode patients, 20 chronic patients, and two groups of matched controls (20 subjects in each), underwent 3 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (chronic+first episode) showed decreased fractional anisotropy in the right cingulum bundle compared with controls. First episode patients exhibited higher trace bilaterally, compared with matched controls, and on the left compared with chronic patients. Axial diffusivity was increased in first episode patients, bilaterally, compared with matched controls and chronic patients. Radial diffusivity was also higher, bilaterally, in first episode patients compared with matched controls, and on the right compared with chronic patients. Trace diffusity and radial diffusivity in first episode patients were significantly correlated with increased severity of delusions of reference. Given that the abnormalities were present only in first episode patients and were not observed in chronic cases, it appears that they normalize over time. These abnormalities in first episode patients involved diffusivity measures in all directions (trace, radial and axial), suggesting a likely acute, partially reversible process in which there is an increase in brain water content, i.e., swelling, edema, or inflammation, that may reflect an early neuroinflammatory response in first episode patients. PMID:25174840

  5. [Effects of exercise on anxiety, depression and mood].

    PubMed

    Guszkowska, Monika

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the studies on the effects of physical activity on the emotional states--anxiety, depression and mood. The meta-analyses of correlational and experimental studies reveal positive effects of exercise, in healthy people and in clinical populations (also in patients with emotional disorders) regardless of gender and age. The benefits are significant especially in subjects with an elevated level of anxiety and depression because of more room for possible change. The most improvements are caused by rhythmic, aerobic exercises, using of large muscle groups (jogging, swimming, cycling, walking), of moderate and low intensity. They should be conducted for 15 to 30 minutes and performed a minimum of three times a week in programs of 10-weeks or longer. The results confirm the acute effect of exercise i.e. the reductions in anxiety and depression after single sessions of exercise. The changes in anxiety, depression and mood states after exercise are explained most frequently by the endorphin and monoamine hypotheses. Exercise may also increase body temperature, blood circulation in the brain and impact on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and physiological reactivity to stress. The possible psychological mechanisms include improvement of self-efficacy, distraction and cognitive dissonance. PMID:15518309

  6. Oseltamivir (tamiflu) induced depressive episode in a female adolescent.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sungho; Joung, Yoo Sook

    2010-12-01

    Oseltamivir was developed for prophylactic and therapeutic use against influenza, specifically targeting the viral enzyme's highly-conserved active site. In recent years, there have been case reports of neuropsychiatric events during or after oseltamivir treatment, in Japan and other countries. However, a search of the literature revealed no such cases in South Korea. We present the case of a 15-year-old female adolescent diagnosed with depressive episode after taking oseltamivir. Oseltamivir is generally well tolerated. Its most frequent adverse effects include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In influenza patients taking oseltamivir, neuropsychiatric adverse events include delirium, behavioral disturbance, suicide, delusion, panic attack, convulsion, depressed mood, loss of consciousness, etc. Reportedly, such neuropsychiatric adverse events were more common in children than in adults and generally occurred within 48 hours of administration. Here, we report a retrospective review case of an oseltamivir-related neuropsychiatric event in a female adolescent in South Korea. PMID:21253416

  7. Treating Insomnia Improves Mood State, Sleep, and Functioning in Bipolar Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Kaplan, Kate A.; Hein, Kerrie; Lee, Jason; Kanady, Jennifer; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Neylan, Thomas C.; Li, Descartes; Ketter, Terence A.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if a treatment for interepisode bipolar disorder I patients with insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning. Method Alongside psychiatric care, interepisode bipolar disorder I participants with insomnia were randomly allocated to a bipolar disorder–specific modification of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTI-BP; n = 30) or psychoeducation (PE; n = 28) as a comparison condition. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, the end of 8 sessions of treatment, and 6 months later. This pilot was conducted to determine initial feasibility and generate effect size estimates. Results During the 6-month follow-up, the CBTI-BP group had fewer days in a bipolar episode relative to the PE group (3.3 days vs. 25.5 days). The CBTI-BP group also experienced a significantly lower hypomania/mania relapse rate (4.6% vs. 31.6%) and a marginally lower overall mood episode relapse rate (13.6% vs. 42.1%) compared with the PE group. Relative to PE, CBTI-BP reduced insomnia severity and led to higher rates of insomnia remission at posttreatment and marginally higher rates at 6 months. Both CBTI-BP and PE showed statistically significant improvement on selected sleep and functional impairment measures. The effects of treatment were well sustained through follow-up for most outcomes, although some decline on secondary sleep benefits was observed. Conclusions CBTI-BP was associated with reduced risk of mood episode relapse and improved sleep and functioning on certain outcomes in bipolar disorder. Hence, sleep disturbance appears to be an important pathway contributing to bipolar disorder. The need to develop bipolar disorder–specific sleep diary scoring standards is highlighted. Public Health Significance This study suggests that an intervention to improve sleep and circadian functioning reduces risk of relapse and improves sleep and overall functioning among individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder. PMID:25622197

  8. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  9. The impact of phenomena El Niño and La Niña and other environmental factors on episodes of acute diarrhoea disease in the population of Aguascalientes, Mexico: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esthela Venegas-Pérez, Martha; Ramírez-López, Elsa Marcela; López-Santos, Armando; Orlando Magaña-Rueda, Víctor; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier

    2016-03-01

    Acute diarrhoea diseases (ADDs) are one of the major health problems in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Due to the risk of significant increases of ADDs in the hot season, it has been necessary to determine the weather conditions that might lead to escalating ADD events. The effects of El Niño and La Niña phenomena on the morbidity rate of ADD (MRADD) in the State of Aguascalientes were determined during the period of 2000-2010. The MRADD was calculated from cases reported by the State Health Department. The Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) was obtained from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The impact of El Niño and La Niña on the MRADD was determined using the Pearson correlation coefficient and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results gave a significant inverse correlation between El Niño phenomenon and MRADD (r = -0.55, P = 0.001), but a correlation was not observed on the La Niña phenomenon (r = -0.022, P = 0.888). Field data showed significant inverse influence of El Niño on MRADD for the years 2000-2010.

  10. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children. PMID:27613655

  11. Migration of objects and inferences across episodes.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, Sharon L; Reinitz, Mark Tippens

    2003-04-01

    Participants viewed episodes in the form of a series of photographs portraying ordinary routines (e.g., eating at a restaurant) and later received a recognition test. In Experiment 1, it was shown that objects (e.g., a vase of flowers, a pewter lantern) that appeared in a single episode during the study phase migrated between memories of episodes described by the same abstract schema (e.g., from Restaurant Episode A at study to Restaurant Episode B at test), and not between episodes anchored by different schemas. In Experiment 2, it was demonstrated that backward causal inferences from one study episode influenced memories of other episodes described by the same schema, and that high-schema-relevant items viewed in one episode were sometimes remembered as having occurred in another episode of the same schematic type. PMID:12795485

  12. Cognitive Performance, Sleepiness, and Mood in Partially Sleep Deprived Adolescents: The Need for Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Ong, Ju Lynn; Leong, Ruth L.F.; Gooley, Joshua J.; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of sleep restriction (7 nights of 5 h time in bed [TIB]) on cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood in adolescents. Methods: A parallel-group design was adopted in the Need for Sleep Study. Fifty-six healthy adolescents (25 males, age = 15–19 y) who studied in top high schools and were not habitual short sleepers were randomly assigned to Sleep Restriction (SR) or Control groups. Participants underwent a 2-w protocol consisting of 3 baseline nights (TIB = 9 h), 7 nights of sleep opportunity manipulation (TIB = 5 h for the SR and 9 h for the control groups), and 3 nights of recovery sleep (TIB = 9 h) at a boarding school. A cognitive test battery was administered three times each day. Results: During the manipulation period, the SR group demonstrated incremental deterioration in sustained attention, working memory and executive function, increase in subjective sleepiness, and decrease in positive mood. Subjective sleepiness and sustained attention did not return to baseline levels even after 2 recovery nights. In contrast, the control group maintained baseline levels of cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood throughout the study. Incremental improvement in speed of processing, as a result of repeated testing and learning, was observed in the control group but was attenuated in the sleep-restricted participants, who, despite two recovery sleep episodes, continued to perform worse than the control participants. Conclusions: A week of partial sleep deprivation impairs a wide range of cognitive functions, subjective alertness, and mood even in high-performing high school adolescents. Some measures do not recover fully even after 2 nights of recovery sleep. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 497. Citation: Lo JC, Ong JL, Leong RL, Gooley JJ, Chee MW. Cognitive performance, sleepiness, and mood in partially sleep deprived adolescents: the need for sleep study

  13. The Effects of Parental Mood on Reports of Their Children's Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Maoz, Hagai; Goldstein, Tina; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Axelson, David A.; Fan, Jieyu; Hickey, Mary Beth; Monk, Kelly; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim S.; Brent, David; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aim to assess whether current mood state (depressed or manic/hypomanic) among parents with a mood disorder affects their reports of their offspring's psychopathology. Method Sixty-five parents with current depression, 42 with current mania/hypomania, 181 with mood disorder in remission, and their offspring (n=479, ages 6-18) completed assessments of offspring IP psychopathology as part of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). We compared rates of offspring psychopathology assessed using the following: a clinician-administered semi-structured interview with parent and child using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS); parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL); offspring self-reported Youth Self Reports (YSR) for those 11 years and older (n=250); and teachers’ reports when available (n= 209). Results There were no between-group differences in rates of psychopathology yielded from the K-SADS, except for more depressive disorders in offspring of parents with current mania/hypomania compared to offspring of parents in remission. Conversely, using the CBCL and comparing with parents who were in remission, parents with current depression reported significantly more externalizing psychopathology in offspring, whereas parents with current mania/hypomania reported more externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in their offspring. On the YSR, offspring of parents with current mania/hypomania had more internalizing psychopathology compared to offspring of parents in remission. Teacher's reports showed no between-group differences in rates of any psychopathology. Conclusion Parental active mood symptomatology, especially during a manic/hypomanic episode, significantly affects their reports of their offspring's psychopathology. Trained interviewers reduce potential report bias. Clinicians and studies assessing children's psychopathology should take into account parental current

  14. Dopamine and light: dissecting effects on mood and motivational states in women with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Elizabeth I.; Park, Sarah; Rot, Marije aan het; Sancton, Kimberley; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.; Boivin, Diane B.; Leyton, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that bright light can improve mood, the neurobiology remains poorly understood. Some evidence implicates the catecholamines. In the present study, we measured the effects of transiently decreasing dopamine (DA) synthesis on mood and motivational states in healthy women with mild seasonal mood changes who were tested in either bright or dim light. Methods On 2 test days, participants slept overnight in a light-controlled room. On the morning of each session, half of the participants awoke to gradual increases of bright light, up to 3000 lux, and half to dim light (10 lux). For all participants, DA was reduced on 1 of the test days using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method; on the other day, they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture (BAL). Beginning 4 hours postingestion, participants completed subjective mood questionnaires, psychological tests and a progressive ratio breakpoint task during which they worked for successive units of $5. Results Thirty-two women participated in our study. The APTD lowered mood, agreeableness, energy and the willingness to work for monetary reward. The effects on energy and motivation were independent of light, while the effects on mood and agreeableness were seen in the dim condition only, being prevented by bright light. Limitations Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion might affect systems other than DA. The sample size was small. Conclusion These results suggest that increased DA function may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of light, while adding to the evidence that the neurobiology of mood and motivational states can be dissociated. PMID:23735584

  15. Mood, mileage and the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Cockerill, I M; Nevill, A M; Byrne, N C

    1992-01-01

    Forty women took part in a study to determine the effects of high-intensity training and the menstrual cycle on mood states. Half of the sample were competitive distance runners following a training load of between 50 km and 130 km running per week. Seven athletes were amenorrhoeic and 13 either eumenorrhoeic or oligomenorrhoeic. The remaining 20 subjects were inactive women who menstruated regularly. The mean age of all 40 subjects was 29 years. Each subject completed two identical Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaires. The 33 menstruating subjects completed both a premenstrual and a midcycle form and the amenorrhoeic athletes completed the questionnaires at a 3-week interval, which acted as a control for the potential effects of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) among the menstruating females. Results showed highly significant differences in mood profiles among amenorrhoeic athletes, non-amenorrhoeic athletes and inactive women. The greatest difference was between premenstrual and midcycle measures for the inactive group. PMS appears to cause marked negative mood swings among menstruating women which the POMS inventory is sensitive in detecting. While the lower-intensity-training runners appeared to benefit psychologically from a training distance of approximately 50 km week-1, high-intensity training had an adverse effect on mood. PMID:1422649

  16. RAGG - R EPISODIC AGGREGATION PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The RAGG package is an R implementation of the CMAQ episodic model aggregation method developed by Constella Group and the Environmental Protection Agency. RAGG is a tool to provide climatological seasonal and annual deposition of sulphur and nitrogen for multimedia management. ...

  17. Hypomania spectrum disorder in adolescence: a 15-year follow-up of non-mood morbidity in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated whether adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes have an excess risk of mental and physical morbidity in adulthood, as compared with adolescents exclusively reporting major depressive disorder (MDD) and controls without a history of adolescent mood disorders. Methods A community sample of adolescents (N = 2 300) in the town of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depressive symptoms. Both participants with positive screening and matched controls (in total 631) were diagnostically interviewed. Ninety participants reported hypomania spectrum episodes (40 full-syndromal, 18 with brief episode, and 32 subsyndromal), while another 197 fulfilled the criteria for MDD without a history of a hypomania spectrum episode. A follow up after 15 years included a blinded diagnostic interview, a self-assessment of personality disorders, and national register data on prescription drugs and health services use. The participation rate at the follow-up interview was 71% (64/90) for the hypomania spectrum group, and 65.9% (130/197) for the MDD group. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing data. Results The outcomes of the hypomania spectrum group and the MDD group were similar regarding subsequent non-mood Axis I disorders in adulthood (present in 53 vs. 57%). A personality disorder was reported by 29% of the hypomania spectrum group and by 20% of the MDD group, but a statistically significant difference was reached only for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (24 vs. 14%). In both groups, the risk of Axis I disorders and personality disorders in adulthood correlated with continuation of mood disorder. Prescription drugs and health service use in adulthood was similar in the two groups. Compared with adolescents without mood disorders, both groups had a higher subsequent risk of psychiatric morbidity, used more mental health care, and received more psychotropic drugs. Conclusions Although adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes and

  18. Depressive Mood Among Within-Country Migrants in Periurban Shantytowns of Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bennett, Ian M; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, migration to urban settings has reshaped the sprawl and socio demographic profiles of major cities. Depressive episodes make up a large portion of the burden of disease worldwide and are related to socio-demographic disruptions. As a result of terrorism, political upheaval, followed by economic development, Peru has undergone major demographic transitions over the previous three decades including large migrations within the country. We aimed to determine the prevalence of current depressive mood and its relationship with parameters of internal migration, i.e. region of origin, age at migration, and years since migration. A community-wide census was carried out between January and June 2010 within a shantytown immigrant receiving community in Lima, Peru. One male or female adult per household completed a survey. Depressive mood was assessed with a 2-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Migration-related variables included place of birth, duration of residence in Lima, and age at migration. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 8,551 out of 9,561 participants, response rate 89%, participated in the census. Of these, 8,091 records were analyzed: 71.8% were women [average age 39.4 (SD 13.9 years)] and 59.3% were immigrants. The overall prevalence of individuals with current depressive mood was 17.1% (95% CI 16.2-17.9%) and varied significantly by all socio-demographic and migration variables assessed. On unadjusted analyses, immigrants to Lima had higher prevalence of depressive mood if they originated in other costal or Andean areas, had lived in Lima for more than 20 years, or were <30 years of age when they out-migrated. When controlling for age, gender and socio-demographic variables the association was no longer significant, the only exception being a 20% lower prevalence of current depressive mood among those who out-migrated aged ≥30 years old (PR

  19. Mood Disorders in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, John G.; Su, Li; Urowitz, Murray B.; Romero-Diaz, Juanita; Gordon, Caroline; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Bernatsky, Sasha; Clarke, Ann E.; Wallace, Daniel J.; Merrill, Joan T.; Isenberg, David A.; Rahman, Anisur; Ginzler, Ellen M.; Petri, Michelle; Bruce, Ian N.; Dooley, M. A.; Fortin, Paul; Gladman, Dafna D.; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Steinsson, Kristjan; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Khamashta, Munther A.; Aranow, Cynthia; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Fessler, Barri J.; Manzi, Susan; Nived, Ola; Sturfelt, Gunnar K.; Zoma, Asad A.; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Lim, S. Sam; Kalunian, Kenneth C.; Inanc, Murat; Kamen, Diane L.; Peschken, Christine A.; Jacobsen, Soren; Askanase, Anca; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Farewell, Vernon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency, clinical and autoantibody associations and outcome of mood disorders in a multi-ethnic/racial, prospective, inception cohort of SLE patients. Methods Patients were assessed annually for mood disorders (4 types as per DSM-IV) and 18 other neuropsychiatric (NP) events. Global disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI) and SF-36 subscale, mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) component summary scores were collected. Time to event, linear and ordinal regressions and multi-state models were used as appropriate. Results Of 1,827 SLE patients, 88.9% were female, 48.9% Caucasian, mean ± SD age 35.1±13.3 years, disease duration 5.6±4.8 months and follow-up 4.73±3.45 years. Over the study 863 (47.2%) patients had 1,627 NP events. Mood disorders occurred in 232/1827 (12.7%) patients and 98/256 (38.3%) events were attributed to SLE. The estimated cumulative incidence of any mood disorder after 10 years was 17.7% (95%CI=[15.1%,20.2%]). There was a greater risk of mood disorder in patients with concurrent NP events (p ≤ 0.01) and lower risk with Asian race/ethnicity (p=0.01) and immunosuppressive drugs (p=0.003). Mood disorders were associated with lower mental health subscale and MCS scores but not with SLEDAI-2K, SDI scores or lupus autoantibodies. Antidepressants were used in 168/232 (72.4%) patients with depression. 126/256 (49.2%) mood disorders resolved in 117/232 (50.4%) patients. Conclusion Mood disorders, the second most frequent NP event in SLE patients, have a negative impact on HRQoL and improve over time. The lack of association with global SLE disease activity, cumulative organ damage and lupus autoantibodies emphasize their multifactorial etiology and a role for non-lupus specific therapies. PMID:25778456

  20. Dopaminergic dysfunction is associated with IL-1β-dependent mood alterations in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Antonietta; Fresegna, Diego; Federici, Mauro; Musella, Alessandra; Rizzo, Francesca Romana; Sepman, Helena; Bullitta, Silvia; De Vito, Francesca; Haji, Nabila; Rossi, Silvia; Mercuri, Nicola B; Usiello, Alessandro; Mandolesi, Georgia; Centonze, Diego

    2015-02-01

    Mood disturbances are frequent in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), even in non-disabled patients and in the remitting stages of the disease. It is still largely unknown how the pathophysiological process on MS causes anxiety and depression, but the dopaminergic system is likely involved. Aim of the present study was to investigate depressive-like behavior in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS, and its possible link to dopaminergic neurotransmission. Behavioral, amperometric and biochemical experiments were performed to determine the role of inflammation in mood control in EAE. First, we assessed the independence of mood alterations from motor disability during the acute phase of the disease, by showing a depressive-like behavior in EAE mice with mild clinical score and preserved motor skills (mild-EAE). Second, we linked such behavioral changes to the selective increased striatal expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in a context of mild inflammation and to dopaminergic system alterations. Indeed, in the striatum of EAE mice, we observed an impairment of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, since DA release was reduced and signaling through DA D1- and D2-like receptors was unbalanced. In conclusion, the present study provides first evidence of the link between the depressive-like behavior and the alteration of dopaminergic system in EAE mice, raising the possibility that IL-1β driven dysfunction of dopaminergic signaling might play a role in mood disturbances also in MS patients. PMID:25511803

  1. Allopregnanolone as a Mediator of Affective Switching in Reproductive Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Schmidt, Peter J.; Rubinow, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Reproductive mood disorders, including premenstrual dysphoria (PMD) and postpartum depression (PPD), are characterized by affective dysregulation that occurs during specific reproductive states. The occurrence of illness onset during changes in reproductive endocrine function has generated interest in the role of gonadal steroids in the pathophysiology of reproductive mood disorders, yet the mechanisms by which the changing hormone milieu triggers depression in susceptible women remain poorly understood. Objectives This review focuses on one of the neurosteroid metabolites of progesterone – allopregnanolone (ALLO) – that acutely regulates neuronal function and may mediate affective dysregulation that occurs concomitant with changes in reproductive endocrine function. We describe the role of the ‘neuroactive’ steroids estradiol and progesterone in reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders to highlight the potential mechanisms by which ALLO might contribute to their pathophysiology. Finally, using existing data, we test the hypothesis that changes in ALLO levels may trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women. Results Although there is no reliable evidence that basal ALLO levels distinguish those with PMD or PPD from those without, existing animal models suggest potential mechanisms by which specific reproductive states may unmask susceptibility to affective dysregulation. Consistent with these models, initially euthymic women with PMD and those with a history of PPD show a negative association between depressive symptoms and circulating ALLO levels following progesterone administration. Conclusions Existing animal models and our own preliminary data suggest that ALLO may play an important role in the pathophysiology of reproductive mood disorders by triggering affective dysregulation in susceptible women. PMID:24846476

  2. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance. PMID:26075253

  3. Continuation and Maintenance Electroconvulsive Therapy for Mood Disorders: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, Georgios; Tobias, Kristen G.; Kellner, Charles H.; Rudorfer, Matthew V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for mood disorders. Continuation ECT (C-ECT) and maintenance ECT (M-ECT) are required for many patients suffering from severe and recurrent forms of mood disorders. This is a review of the literature regarding C- and M-ECT. Methods We conducted a computerized search using the words continuation ECT, maintenance ECT, depression, mania, bipolar disorder and mood disorders. We report on all articles published in the English language from 1998 to 2009. Results We identified 32 reports. There were 24 case reports and retrospective reviews on 284 patients. Two of these reports included comparison groups, and 1 had a prospective follow-up in a subset of subjects. There were 6 prospective naturalistic studies and 2 randomized controlled trials. Conclusions C-ECT and M-ECT are valuable treatment modalities to prevent relapse and recurrence of mood disorders in patients who have responded to an index course of ECT. C-ECT and M-ECT are underused and insufficiently studied despite positive clinical experience of more than 70 years. Studies which are currently under way should allow more definitive recommendations regarding the choice, frequency and duration of C-ECT and M-ECT following acute ECT. PMID:21811083

  4. Mitigation of Inflammation-Induced Mood Dysregulation by Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that chronic elevations in immune-inflammatory signaling can precipitate mood symptoms in a subset of individuals, associated risk and resilience mechanisms remain poorly understood. Long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapentaenic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have anti-inflammatory and inflammation-resolving properties which maintain immune-inflammatory signaling homeostasis. Cross-sectional evidence suggests that the mood disorders major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are associated with low EPA and/or DHA biostatus, elevations in the LCn-6/LCn-3 fatty acid ratio, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, and acute-phase proteins. Medications that are effective for reducing depressive symptoms or stabilizing manic-depressive oscillations may act in part by down-regulating immune-inflammatory signaling and are augmented by anti-inflammatory medications. Recent prospective longitudinal evidence suggests that elevations in the LCn-6/LCn-3 fatty acid ratio are a modifiable risk factor for the development of mood symptoms, including depression and irritability, in response to immune-inflammatory signaling. Together these data suggest that increasing LCn-3 fatty acid intake and biostatus represents a feasible strategy to mitigate the negative impact of elevated immune-inflammatory signaling on mood stability. PMID:26400435

  5. Antipsychotic Prescribing Patterns in First-episode Schizophrenia: A Five-year Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Daeyoung; Chang, Jhin-Goo; Yoon, Sol; Kim, Chan-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Objective Early treatment choice is critical in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The purpose of this study was to describe prescribing trends of antipsychotics use in patients with first-episode schizophrenia in 2005 and 2010, respectively. Methods We reviewed the medical records of newly treated patients with schizophrenia from a university psychiatric hospital in 2005 (n=47) and 2010 (n=52). We defined patients as receiving a high antipsychotic dose if their ratio of prescribed daily dose (PDD) to defined daily dose (DDD) was greater than 1.5. Results The rates of high-dose antipsychotic prescription were 61.7% and 53.8% in 2005 and 2010, respectively. The rates of antipsychotic polypharmacy were 34.6% in 2005 and 34.0% in 2010. The most common first-prescribed antipsychotics were (in descending order of prescription frequency) olanzapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, and haloperidol in 2005 and risperidone, quetiapine, paliperidone, and olanzapine in 2010. High-dose antipsychotics were significantly associated with antipsychotic poly-pharmacy (odds ratio=23.97; p<0.01). More individuals were treated with mood stabilizers in 2010 than in 2005 (p=0.003). Conclusion The practice of prescribing high-dose antipsychotics and associated antipsychotic polypharmacy were common even for initial treatment of first-episode schizophrenia in 2005 and 2010. In 2010, the list of the most common first-prescribed antipsychotics changed, and the use of mood stabilizers increased in non-affective schizophrenia. PMID:26598586

  6. Therapeutic strategies in migraine patients with mood and anxiety disorders: clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Finocchi, Cinzia; Villani, Veronica; Casucci, Gerardo

    2010-06-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders are comorbid with migraine. The coexistence of a psychiatric disorder alters the quality of life, the total disability, the course of migraine and the final prognosis; it increases the probability of central sensitization, other chronic pain conditions and the evolution to chronic migraine. All patients presenting with frequent episodic and chronic migraine should be screened for depression and anxiety. When these conditions are present, drugs for migraine prevention that may worsen the psychiatric comorbid disorder have to be avoided. When it is possible, both conditions should be treated with a single agent. Amitriptiline can be used both in mood disorders and migraine prevention. Flunarizine and beta-blockers may help if anxiety is present. Pregabalin has demonstrated efficacy in anxiety disorders and fibromyalgia. Divalproex sodium, topiramate and lamotrigine that have demonstrated efficacy in mood stabilization are also indicated in migraine without aura (divalproex sodium and topiramate) and with aura (lamotrigine). When a specific treatment for the comorbid psychiatric disorder is needed, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are the drugs of choice both in depression and anxiety, and the cognitive behavioural therapy has good evidence of efficacy in anxiety disorders. Vagal nerve stimulation may be an option in patients with refractory chronic migraine and depression. PMID:20464594

  7. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies of Glutamate-Related Abnormalities in Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Cagri; Öngür, Dost

    2010-01-01

    In mood disorders there is growing evidence for glutamatergic abnormalities derived from peripheral measures of glutamatergic metabolites in patients, postmortem studies on glutamate related markers, and animal studies on the mechanism of action of available treatments. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has the potential to corroborate and extend these findings with the advantage of in vivo assessment of glutamate-related metabolites in different disease states, in response to treatment, and in relation with functional imaging data. In this article we first review the biological significance of glutamate, glutamine, and Glx (composed mainly of glutamate and glutamine). Next we review the MRS literature in mood disorders examining these glutamate-related metabolites. Here, we find a highly consistent pattern of Glx level reductions in major depressive disorder and elevations in bipolar disorder. In addition, studies of depression regardless of diagnosis provide suggestive evidence for reduced glutamine/glutamate ratio, and in mania for elevated glutamine/glutamate ratio. These patterns suggest that the glutamate-related metabolite pool (not all of it necessarily relevant to neurotransmission) is constricted in major depressive disorder and expanded in bipolar disorder. Depressive and manic episodes may be characterized by modulation of the glutamine/glutamate ratio in opposite directions, possibly suggesting reduced vs. elevated glutamate conversion to glutamine by glial cells, respectively. We discuss the implications of these results for the pathophysiology of mood disorders, and suggest future directions for MRS studies. PMID:20728076

  8. Face emotion labeling deficits in children with bipolar disorder and severe mood dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Rich, Brendan A; Grimley, Mary E; Schmajuk, Mariana; Blair, Karina S; Blair, R J R; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Children with narrow phenotype bipolar disorder (NP-BD; i.e., history of at least one hypomanic or manic episode with euphoric mood) are deficient when labeling face emotions. It is unknown if this deficit is specific to particular emotions, or if it extends to children with severe mood dysregulation (SMD; i.e., chronic irritability and hyperarousal without episodes of mania). Thirty-nine NP-BD, 31 SMD, and 36 control subjects completed the emotional expression multimorph task, which presents gradations of facial emotions from 100% neutrality to 100% emotional expression (happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, and disgust). Groups were compared in terms of intensity of emotion required before identification occurred and accuracy. Both NP-BD and SMD youth required significantly more morphs than controls to label correctly disgusted, surprised, fearful, and happy faces. Impaired face labeling correlated with deficient social reciprocity skills in NP-BD youth and dysfunctional family relationships in SMD youth. Compared to controls, patients with NP-BD or SMD require significantly more intense facial emotion before they are able to label the emotion correctly. These deficits are associated with psychosocial impairments. Understanding the neural circuitry associated with face-labeling deficits has the potential to clarify the pathophysiology of these disorders. PMID:18423093

  9. Episodic Volunteers: Reality for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macduff, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    Episodic volunteer opportunities allow for short-term services--either one-time or recurring. The organization using such volunteers must identify new jobs that can be performed on an episodic basis or redesign traditional volunteer jobs. (SK)

  10. Dispositional and Situational Autonomy as Moderators of Mood and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Fengqiu; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yinghe; Zheng, Zhiwei; Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that mood can influence creativity, the controversy about the effects of positive and negative moods has raged for years. This study investigated how the relationship between induced mood and creativity is moderated by dispositional and situational autonomy. It contrasted the different moderating effects of the…

  11. The Effects of Laughter on Humor and Humor on Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetola, Henry W.; Reno, Raymond R.

    Two experiments were conducted examining the mood altering effects of humor and the moderating effect of laughter on both humor appreciation and mood. The mood of the subjects in the first experiment was manipulated to make them feel slightly elated or slightly depressed. They then listened to either comedy routines or an interview. The comedy…

  12. Self-Discrepancies, Negative Mood States, and Compliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thein, Roman D.

    This study examined effects of accessible self-discrepancies on subjects' mood states and the effects of these mood states on compliance. Two affective states, agitation and dejection, were induced in 115 college students by priming their available self-discrepancies. After the subjects had received specific primes and their mood states had been…

  13. The Changing Mood in America. Eroding Commitment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Faustine Childress; And Others

    This book examines the current social climate in the United States to determine whether there is an eroding social commitment to equal opportunity for blacks and other minorities and the poor. It is concluded that there is a changing mood in the dominant society, in the black population, and in all three branches of the federal government, and it…

  14. Gut microbiota in autism and mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mangiola, Francesca; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franceschi, Francesco; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of an important role of gut microbiota in the maintenance of physiological state into the gastrointestinal (GI) system is supported by several studies that have shown a qualitative and quantitative alteration of the intestinal flora in a number of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In the last few years, the importance of gut microbiota impairment in the etiopathogenesis of pathology such as autism, dementia and mood disorder, has been raised. The evidence of the inflammatory state alteration, highlighted in disorders such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, strongly recalls the microbiota alteration, highly suggesting an important role of the alteration of GI system also in neuropsychiatric disorders. Up to now, available evidences display that the impairment of gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of autism and mood disorders. The application of therapeutic modulators of gut microbiota to autism and mood disorders has been experienced only in experimental settings to date, with few but promising results. A deeper assessment of the role of gut microbiota in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as the advancement of the therapeutic armamentarium for the modulation of gut microbiota is warranted for a better management of ASD and mood disorders. PMID:26755882

  15. Mobile Phone Mood Charting for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Mark; Doherty, Gavin; Sharry, John; Fitzpatrick, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Mobile phones may provide a useful and engaging platform for supporting therapeutic services working with adolescents. This paper examines the potential benefits of the mobile phone for self-charting moods in comparison to existing methods in current practice. The paper describes a mobile phone application designed by the authors which allows…

  16. Manic episode after ventricular-peritoneal shunt replacement in a patient with radiation-induced hydrocephalus: the role of lifetime subthreshold bipolar features.

    PubMed

    Callari, Antonio; Mantua, Valentina; Miniati, Mario; Benvenuti, Antonella; Mauri, Mauro; Dell'osso, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    We present a case report of a woman hospitalized for a ventricular-peritoneal shunting replacement, who developed a manic episode with psychotic symptoms after hydrocephalus resolution. We have no knowledge of cases of manic episodes due to hydrocephalus resolution by ventricular-peritoneal shunt replacement, although previous case reports have suggested that hydrocephalus might induce rapid-onset affective episodes or mood cycles. The patient's history revealed the lifetime presence of signs and features belonging to the subthreshold bipolar spectrum, in absence of previous full-blown episodes of a bipolar disorder. Our hypothesis is that such lifetime sub-threshold bipolar features represented precursors of the subsequent full-blown manic episode, triggered by an upregulated binding of striatum D2 receptors after the ventricular-peritoneal shunt replacement. PMID:24527253

  17. Manic Episode after Ventricular-Peritoneal Shunt Replacement in a Patient with Radiation-Induced Hydrocephalus: The Role of Lifetime Subthreshold Bipolar Features

    PubMed Central

    Callari, Antonio; Mantua, Valentina; Miniati, Mario; Benvenuti, Antonella; Mauri, Mauro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    We present a case report of a woman hospitalized for a ventricular-peritoneal shunting replacement, who developed a manic episode with psychotic symptoms after hydrocephalus resolution. We have no knowledge of cases of manic episodes due to hydrocephalus resolution by ventricular-peritoneal shunt replacement, although previous case reports have suggested that hydrocephalus might induce rapid-onset affective episodes or mood cycles. The patient's history revealed the lifetime presence of signs and features belonging to the subthreshold bipolar spectrum, in absence of previous full-blown episodes of a bipolar disorder. Our hypothesis is that such lifetime sub-threshold bipolar features represented precursors of the subsequent full-blown manic episode, triggered by an upregulated binding of striatum D2 receptors after the ventricular-peritoneal shunt replacement. PMID:24527253

  18. Episodic pain in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Ribeiro, Maria D C

    2002-01-01

    Episodic pain is a common problem for patients with advanced cancer and is often difficult to manage successfully. In this article, the daily variations in cancer-related episodic pain in a patient with metastatic lung cancer are described. The definition, etiology, prevalence, and pharmacological management of episodic pain are also reviewed PMID:12141792

  19. Planning Physical Education Lessons as Teaching "Episodes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoupis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    An "episode" is a unit of time within which teachers and students are working on the same objective and are engaged in the same teaching/learning style. The duration of each episode, as well as the number of them in a single lesson, may vary. Additionally, the multiple episodes of a lesson may have similar objectives, offer similar…

  20. Recreational music-making: an integrative group intervention for reducing burnout and improving mood states in first year associate degree nursing students: insights and economic impact.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Barry B; Snyder, Cherie; Bruhn, Karl T; Liebfreid, Fran; Stevens, Christine K; Westengard, James; Umbach, Paul O

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of providing exemplary undergraduate nursing education cannot be underestimated in an era when burnout and negative mood states predictably lead to alarming rates of academic as well as career attrition. While the multi-dimensional nature of this complex issue has been extensively elucidated, few rational strategies exist to reverse a disheartening trend recognizable early in the educational process that subsequently threatens to undermine the future viability of quality healthcare. This controlled prospective crossover study examined the impact of a 6-session Recreational Music-making (RMM) protocol on burnout and mood dimensions as well as Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in first year associate level nursing students. A total of 75 first year associate degree nursing students from Allegany College of Maryland (ACM) participated in a 6-session RMM protocol focusing on group support and stress reduction utilizing a specific group drumming protocol. Burnout and mood dimensions were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Profile of Mood States respectively. Statistically significant reductions of multiple burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD scores were noted. Potential annual cost savings for the typical associate degree nursing program (16,800 dollars) and acute care hospital (322,000 dollars) were projected by an independent economic analysis firm. A cost-effective 6-session RMM protocol reduces burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD in associate degree nursing students. PMID:16646877

  1. Adjustment in First-Time Mothers: Changes in Mood and Mood Content during the Early Postpartum Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Alison S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studied changes in content of mood and mood levels of 32 primiparous mothers interviewed during pregnancy and at 1, 3, and 16 months postpartum. Despite improvement in mood, mothers showed different temporal patterns in relation to feelings about infant, spouse, and self. (RH)

  2. Mood State-Dependent Retention Using Identical or Non-Identical Mood Inductions at Learning and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haaga, David A.

    State-dependent retention (SDR) refers to the tendency to recall something more easily when in the same state as when one first learned it. The most directly relevant evidence in favor of mood SDR has confounded matching of mood at learning and recall with matching of mood induction procedure. A study was conducted to test directly whether the use…

  3. A Compromise Circadian Phase Position for Permanent Night Work Improves Mood, Fatigue, and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark R.; Fogg, Louis F.; Eastman, Charmane I.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: To assess night shift improvements in mood, fatigue, and performance when the misalignment between circadian rhythms and a night shift, day sleep schedule is reduced. Design: Blocks of simulated night shifts alternated with days off. Experimental subjects had interventions to delay their circadian clocks to partially align with a night shift schedule. Control subjects had no interventions. Subjects were categorized according to the degree of circadian realignment independent of whether they were in the experimental or control groups. Twelve subjects were categorized as not re-entrained, 21 as partially re-entrained, and 6 as completely re-entrained. Setting: Home sleep and laboratory night shifts. Participants: Young healthy adults. Interventions: Experimental subjects had intermittent bright light pulses during night shifts, wore dark sunglasses outside, and had scheduled sleep episodes in darkness. Measurements and Results: A computerized test battery was administered every 2 hours during day and night shifts. After about one week on the night shift schedule, which included a weekend off, the partially and completely re-entrained groups had markedly improved mood, fatigue, and performance compared to the group that was not re-entrained. The completely and partially re-entrained groups were similar to each other and had levels of mood, fatigue, and performance that were close to daytime levels. Conclusions: Partial re-entrainment to a permanent night shift schedule, which can be produced by feasible, inexpensive interventions, is associated with greatly reduced impairments during night shifts. Citation: Smith MR; Fogg LF Eastman CI. A compromise circadian phase position for permanent night work improves mood, fatigue, and performance. SLEEP 2009;32(11):1481-1489. PMID:19928387

  4. Evidence for positive mood buffering among college student drinkers.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Cynthia D; Brannan, Debi; Mohr, Josh; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2008-09-01

    Positive experiences play an important role in buffering the effects of negative experiences. Although this process can play out in a myriad of contexts, the college context is one of particular importance because of significant concerns about student stress levels and alcohol abuse. Building on evidence that at least some students drink in response to negative experiences, we considered the possibility that positive moods would moderate college student negative mood-drinking relationships. Using a Web-based daily process study of 118 (57% women) undergraduate student drinkers, the authors reveal that positive moods indeed buffer the effects of negative moods on student drinking, depending on the mood and drinking context. Furthermore, the buffering of ashamed mood appears to explain the buffering of other negative moods. Implications of these findings are considered in terms of the relationship between negative self-awareness and drinking to cope. PMID:18550862

  5. Episodic Memories in Anxiety Disorders: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Machulska, Alla; Adolph, Dirk; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:24795583

  6. Mood disorders: regulation by metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Pilc, Andrzej; Chaki, Shigeyuki; Nowak, Gabriel; Witkin, Jeffrey M

    2008-03-01

    Medicinal therapies for mood disorders neither fully serve the efficacy needs of patients nor are they free of side-effect issues. Although monoamine-based therapies are the primary current treatment approaches, both preclinical and clinical findings have implicated the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorders. The present commentary focuses on the metabotropic glutamate receptors and their relationship to mood disorders. Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors regulate glutamate transmission by altering the release of neurotransmitter and/or modulating the post-synaptic responses to glutamate. Convergent biochemical, pharmacological, behavioral, and clinical data will be reviewed that establish glutamatergic neurotransmission via mGlu receptors as a biologically relevant process in the regulation of mood and that these receptors may serve as novel targets for the discovery of small molecule modulators with unique antidepressant properties. Specifically, compounds that antagonize mGlu2, mGlu3, and/or mGlu5 receptors (e.g. LY341495, MGS0039, MPEP, MTEP) exhibit biochemical effects indicative of antidepressant effects as well as in vivo activity in animal models predictive of antidepressant efficacy. Both preclinical and clinical data have previously been presented to define NMDA and AMPA receptors as important targets for the modulation of major depression. In the present review, we present a model suggesting how the interplay of glutamate at the mGlu and at the ionotropic AMPA and NMDA receptors might account for the antidepressant-like effects of glutamatergic- and monoaminergic-based drugs affecting mood in patients. The current data lead to the hypothesis that mGlu-based compounds and conventional antidepressants impact a network of interactive effects that converge upon a down regulation of NMDA receptor function and an enhancement in AMPA receptor signaling. PMID:18164691

  7. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  8. [Psychotic episode due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Nazou, M; Parlapani, E; Nazlidou, E-I; Athanasis, P; Bozikas, V P

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial in adult brain metabolic activity. As a result, abnormal thyroid gland function and in particular hypofunction, might cause principally depression and neurocognitive dysfunction. Psychosis, presented mainly with thought disorders and perceptual disturbances, is a much rarer manifestation of hypothyreoidism. A correlation between hypothyreoidism and psychosis has been described since 1888, especially in cases of advanced hypothyreoidism. A few years later (1949), Asher first added the terminology "myxedema madness" to the literature. Psychotic symptoms typically appear after the onset of physical symptoms, usually with a delay of months or years. The case of a female patient who presented a psychotic episode as a first manifestation of hypothyroidism will be described. NE, a 48 yearold female patient, was admitted for the first time to an inpatient mental health care unit due to delusions of persecution and reference, as well as auditory hallucinations that appeared a few weeks ago. After the patient admission, routine laboratory examination was conducted. In order to relieve the patient from her sense of discomfort and while awaiting laboratory results, olanzapine, 5 mg/day, was administered. Neurological examination and cranial computed tomography scan were unremarkable. Hormonal laboratory tests though revealed severe low thyroid hormone levels. Thyroid antibody testing certified Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Olanzapine was discontinued and the patient received thyroid hormone substitution, levothyroxine 75 μg/day, instead. The patient was discharged showing a significant improvement of psychotic symptoms after a 12-day hospitalization. A month later the patient was reevaluated. She had fully recovered from the psychotic episode. A year later, the patient continues to remain free from psychiatric symptoms, while thyroid hormone levels have been restored within normal range. The patient continues receiving only thyroid hormone substitution

  9. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Baweja, Raman; Mayes, Susan D; Hameed, Usman; Waxmonsky, James G

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) was introduced as a new diagnostic entity under the category of depressive disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). It was included in DSM-5 primarily to address concerns about the misdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. DMDD does provide a home for a large percentage of referred children with severe persistent irritability that did not fit well into any DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic category. However, it has been a controversial addition to the DSM-5 due to lack of published validity studies, leading to questions about its validity as a distinct disorder. In this article, the authors discuss the diagnostic criteria, assessment, epidemiology, criticism of the diagnosis, and pathophysiology, as well as treatment and future directions for DMDD. They also review the literature on severe mood dysregulation, as described by the National Institute of Mental Health, as the scientific support for DMDD is based primarily on studies of severe mood dysregulation. PMID:27601906

  10. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: Cognition and mood.

    PubMed

    Amato, Maria Pia; Krupp, Lauren B; Charvet, Leigh E; Penner, Iris; Till, Christine

    2016-08-30

    In comparison with the large body of evidence on cognitive functioning in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), there is limited information on cognition in pediatric-onset MS (POMS). Unique vulnerabilities in POMS can derive from having a disease that occurs during key periods of age-expected brain growth, active myelination in the CNS, and maturation of neural networks during the learning curve and key formative years in the academic career of the patient. Therefore, the consequences of MS on developing cognitive faculties can be assessed only in the pediatric population and cannot be simply extrapolated from studies carried on in the adult population. Until the last decade, research in the pediatric population was mainly represented by small clinical series, often limited by the narrow scope of neuropsychological assessment and lack of adequate control groups. Over the last decade, however, cognitive functioning and mood-related difficulties have become an increasing concern as awareness of this population has grown. A few specialized MS centers have begun performing more systematic research in the field in order to assess the prevalence of cognitive impairments and mood-related difficulties in patients with POMS, to better characterize the neuropsychological pattern and determine the functional consequences of these problems. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of cognitive and mood-related difficulties in POMS and highlights perceived gaps in knowledge and priorities for future research. PMID:27572867

  11. Reproductive Steroid Regulation of Mood and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Johnson, Sarah L; Abate, Anna C; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine evidence supporting the role of reproductive steroids in the regulation of mood and behavior in women and the nature of that role. In the first half of the article, we review evidence for the following: (i) the reproductive system is designed to regulate behavior; (ii) from the subcellular to cellular to circuit to behavior, reproductive steroids are powerful neuroregulators; (iii) affective disorders are disorders of behavioral state; and (iv) reproductive steroids affect virtually every system implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. In the second half of the article, we discuss the diagnosis of the three reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders (premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postpartum depression, and perimenopausal depression) and present evidence supporting the relevance of reproductive steroids to these conditions. Existing evidence suggests that changes in reproductive steroid levels during specific reproductive states (i.e., the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, parturition, and the menopause transition) trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women, thus suggesting the etiopathogenic relevance of these hormonal changes in reproductive mood disorders. Understanding the source of individual susceptibility is critical to both preventing the onset of illness and developing novel, individualized treatments for reproductive-related affective dysregulation. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1135-1160, 2016e. PMID:27347888

  12. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: current insights.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Raman; Mayes, Susan D; Hameed, Usman; Waxmonsky, James G

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) was introduced as a new diagnostic entity under the category of depressive disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). It was included in DSM-5 primarily to address concerns about the misdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. DMDD does provide a home for a large percentage of referred children with severe persistent irritability that did not fit well into any DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic category. However, it has been a controversial addition to the DSM-5 due to lack of published validity studies, leading to questions about its validity as a distinct disorder. In this article, the authors discuss the diagnostic criteria, assessment, epidemiology, criticism of the diagnosis, and pathophysiology, as well as treatment and future directions for DMDD. They also review the literature on severe mood dysregulation, as described by the National Institute of Mental Health, as the scientific support for DMDD is based primarily on studies of severe mood dysregulation. PMID:27601906

  13. Acute bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  14. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    PubMed

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress. PMID:17597253

  15. SENSITIZATION AND TOLERANCE WITH EPISODIC (WEEKLY) NICOTINE ON MOTOR ACTIVITY IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies grew out of an unexpected finding from investigations of the neurobehavioral toxicity of PCBs. This paper shows that episodic, or recurring intermittent acute exposures to nicotine produce dramatic and long-lasting changes in the motor activity of laboratory rats. ...

  16. Using arterial spin labeling to examine mood states in youth

    PubMed Central

    Mikita, Nina; Mehta, Mitul A; Zelaya, Fernando O; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the neural correlates of mood states and the specific physiological changes associated with their valence and duration, especially in young people. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging is particularly well-suited to study sustained cerebral states in young people, due to its robustness to low-frequency drift, excellent interscan reliability, and noninvasiveness. Yet, it has so far been underutilized for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying mood states in youth. Methods In this exploratory study, 21 healthy adolescents aged 16 to 18 took part in a mood induction experiment. Neutral, sad, and happy mood states were induced using film clips and explicit instructions. An ASL scan was obtained following presentation of each film clip. Results Mood induction led to robust changes in self-reported mood ratings. Compared to neutral, sad mood was associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left middle frontal gyrus and anterior prefrontal cortex, and decreased rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule. A decrease in self-reported mood from neutral to sad condition was associated with increased rCBF in the precuneus. Happy mood was associated with increased rCBF in medial frontal and cingulate gyri, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and ventral striatum, and decreased rCBF in the inferior parietal lobule. The level of current self-reported depressive symptoms was negatively associated with rCBF change in the cerebellum and lingual gyrus following both sad and happy mood inductions. Conclusions Arterial spin labeling is sensitive to experimentally induced mood changes in healthy young people. The effects of happy mood on rCBF patterns were generally stronger than the effects of sad mood. PMID:26085964

  17. The temporal attributes of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Raymond P; Hunsaker, Michael R

    2010-12-31

    From a temporal dynamic processing point of view, episodic memory can be divided into three critical time periods: short-term episodic memory with a duration of seconds, intermediate-term episodic memory with a duration from minutes to hours, and long-term or remote episodic memory with a duration from days to years. We propose that short-term episodic memory is mediated by the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus, intermediate-term episodic memory is mediated by the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus (in certain situations aided by the CA3 subregion), and that long-term or remote episodic memory may be mediated by the CA1 subregion. In support of the above mentioned proposal data are presented to support the short-term and intermediate episodic memory functions of CA3 and CA1 based on single item object, spatial location, and object-place association tasks. Additional data are presented for a role for CA3 in short-term episodic memory based on multiple sequential spatial locations, visual objects, and odors tasks. The same episodic memory model based on duration mentioned above cannot easily be applied to the functions of the CA3 (short-term episodic) and CA1 (intermediate-term episodic) for a multiple sequentially presented item, such as a places, objects or odors. The reason for this is that the CA1 region supports, in addition to intermediate episodic memory, temporal pattern separation processes which would reduce interference among sequentially experienced items. The consequence is that this temporal pattern separation process can result in CA1 involvement in short-term episodic tasks based on duration. Also, data are presented based on tasks that involved multiple-trials tested within a day and between days short-term and intermediate-term episodic memory. Furthermore, the mechanisms for understanding the interactions and dissociations between CA3 and CA1 are discussed. The DG appears to have a modulatory influence on the CA3 and CA1 mediation of short-term and

  18. Effect of on-call-related sleep deprivation on physicians’ mood and alertness

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Siraj O.; Qutah, Karimah; Abushanab, Lujain; Basamh, Roa’a; Abushanab, Jolanar; Krayem, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Physicians may experience periods of acute sleep deprivation while on-call, in addition to baseline chronic sleep deprivation which may affect physicians’ performance and patients’ safety. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acute sleep deprivation due to working long on-call shifts on mood and alertness, both of which may impair physicians’ performance. METHODS: Eighty-eight junior physicians working in one university hospital completed a questionnaire, before and after completion of a shift, that collected data regarding socio-demographic factors, patterns of work and sleep, Profile of Mood States (POMS), and Stanford Sleepiness Scale. Based on duration of sleep the physicians had during on-call in comparison to their usual average sleep, the participants were categorized into group 1 (those who slept many fewer hours), group 2 (those who slept fewer hours), or group 3 (those who slept the same number of hours). RESULTS: More than 87% of the participant slept 5 or fewer hours while working an on-call shift. Among all participants, the percentage of physicians who were alert post-on-call was significantly reduced compared to the percentage pre-on-call (P = 0.001). The post-on-call total POMS scores of groups 1 and 2 were significantly worse than their pre-on-call scores (P = 0.001 and 0.038, respectively), while there was no significant difference between the pre- and post-on-call POMS scores of group 3 (P = 0.165). CONCLUSION: Acute sleep loss due to working long on-call shifts significantly decreases daytime alertness and negatively affects the mood state of junior physicians. PMID:23439930

  19. Episodic Accretion in Young Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audard, M.; Ábrahám, P.; Dunham, M. M.; Green, J. D.; Grosso, N.; Hamaguchi, K.; Kastner, J. H.; Kóspál, Á.; Lodato, G.; Romanova, M. M.; Skinner, S. L.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Zhu, Z.

    In the last 20 years, the topic of episodic accretion has gained significant interest in the star-formation community. It is now viewed as a common, although still poorly understood, phenomenon in low-mass star formation. The FU Orionis objects (FUors) are long-studied examples of this phenomenon. FU Orionis objects are believed to undergo accretion outbursts during which the accretion rate rapidly increases from typically 10-7 to a few 10-4 M⊙ yr-1, and remains elevated over several decades or more. EXors, a loosely defined class of pre-main-sequence stars, exhibit shorter and repetitive outbursts, associated with lower accretion rates. The relationship between the two classes, and their connection to the standard pre-main-sequence evolutionary sequence, is an open question: Do they represent two distinct classes, are they triggered by the same physical mechanism, and do they occur in the same evolutionary phases? Over the past couple of decades, many theoretical and numerical models have been developed to explain the origin of FUor and EXor outbursts. In parallel, such accretion bursts have been detected at an increasing rate, and as observing techniques improve, each individual outburst is studied in increasing detail. We summarize key observations of pre-main-sequence star outbursts, and review the latest thinking on outburst triggering mechanisms, the propagation of outbursts from star/disk to disk/jet systems, the relation between classical EXors and FUors, and newly discovered outbursting sources — all of which shed new light on episodic accretion. We finally highlight some of the most promising directions for this field in the near- and long-term.

  20. Depression-like episodes in mice harboring mtDNA deletions in paraventricular thalamus.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, T; Takata, A; Kato, T M; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Sawada, T; Kakita, A; Mizukami, H; Kaneda, D; Ozawa, K; Kato, T

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common debilitating human disease whose etiology has defied decades of research. A critical bottleneck is the difficulty in modeling depressive episodes in animals. Here, we show that a transgenic mouse with chronic forebrain expression of a dominant negative mutant of Polg1, a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase, exhibits lethargic behavioral changes, which are associated with emotional, vegetative and psychomotor disturbances, and response to antidepression drug treatment. The results suggested a symptomatic similarity between the lethargic behavioral change that was recurrently and spontaneously experienced by the mutant mice and major depressive episode as defined by DSM-5. A comprehensive screen of mutant brain revealed a hotspot for mtDNA deletions and mitochondrial dysfunction in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) with similar defects observed in postmortem brains of patients with mitochondrial disease with mood symptoms. Remarkably, the genetic inhibition of PVT synaptic output by Cre-loxP-dependent expression of tetanus toxin triggered de novo depression-like episodes. These findings identify a novel preclinical mouse model and brain area for major depressive episodes with mitochondrial dysfunction as its cellular mechanism. PMID:26481320

  1. Neurometabolic correlates of depression and disability in episodic cluster headache

    PubMed Central

    Valet, Michael; Pfaffenrath, Volker; Boecker, Henning; Rüther, Katharina V.; Tölle, Thomas R.; Sprenger, Till

    2010-01-01

    A close association between pain, depression and disability has been shown. However, the neurometabolic correlates of this association have been barely investigated in disease states. Episodic cluster headache is a severe headache syndrome and represents a suitable disease model for the investigation of episodic pain. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between depression and disability as well as pain scores and brain metabolism in patients with cluster headache during the disease period with repetitive pain attacks, but outside an acute attack. Thirteen patients with cluster headache underwent 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission (FDG-PET) and completed questionnaires on depression and disability as well as a pain visual analogue rating scale (VAS). A positive correlation between the depression scores and glucose metabolism was observed in the insular cortex. A positive correlation between the pain disability scores and brain metabolism was detected in the amygdala. The same applied to the pain visual analogue rating scores. Our data underline the association between severe episodic pain, depression and disability. In addition to this clinical observation, our results stress the importance of the insula and amygdala in pain processing and suffering. PMID:20737158

  2. Extreme Cognitions in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Associations with Personality Disorder Characteristics and Risk for Episode Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Adams, Ashleigh Molz; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K.; Weiss, Rachel B.; Ong, Mian-Li; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are often characterized by cognitive inflexibility and affective extremities, including “extreme” or polarized thoughts and beliefs, which have been shown to predict a more severe course of illness. However, little research has evaluated factors that may be associated with extreme cognitions, such as personality disorders, which are often characterized by extreme, inflexible beliefs and also are associated with poor illness course in BSDs. The present study evaluated associations between BSDs, personality disorder characteristics, and extreme cognitions (polarized responses made on measures of attributional style and dysfunctional attitudes), as well as links between extreme cognitions and the occurrence of mood episodes, among euthymic young adults with BSDs (n = 83) and demographically-matched healthy controls (n = 89) followed prospectively for three years. The relationship between personality disorder characteristics and negative and positive extreme cognitions was stronger among BSD participants than among healthy controls, even after statistically accounting for general cognitive styles. Furthermore, extreme negative cognitions predicted the prospective onset of major depressive and hypomanic episodes. These results suggest that extreme cognitive styles are most common in individuals with BSDs and personality disorder characteristics, and they provide further evidence that extreme negative cognitions may confer risk for mood dysregulation. PMID:25645172

  3. Mood and audience effects on video lottery terminal gambling.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Morgan, Michael; Lalumière, Martin L; Williams, Robert J

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about the situational factors associated with gambling behavior. We induced 180 male participants (mean age: 21.6) into a positive, negative, or neutral mood prior to gambling on a video lottery terminal (VLT). While gambling, participants were observed by either a male peer, female peer, or no one. Induced mood had no effect on gambling behavior. Participants induced into a negative mood prior to gambling, however, reported more positive moods after gambling, whereas those with positive and neutral moods reported more negative moods after gambling. Participants observed by either a male or female peer spent less time gambling on the VLT compared to those not observed. Participants observed by a female peer lost less money relative to the other observer conditions. Degree of problem gambling in the last year had little influence on these effects. Some practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19921408

  4. Why People Are in a Generally Good Mood.

    PubMed

    Diener, Ed; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Suh, Eunkook M; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2015-08-01

    Evidence shows that people feel mild positive moods when no strong emotional events are occurring, a phenomenon known as positive mood offset. We offer an evolutionary explanation of this characteristic, showing that it improves fertility, fecundity, and health, and abets other characteristics that were critical to reproductive success. We review research showing that positive mood offset is virtually universal in the nations of the world, even among people who live in extremely difficult circumstances. Positive moods increase the likelihood of the types of adaptive behaviors that likely characterized our Paleolithic ancestors, such as creativity, planning, mating, and sociality. Because of the ubiquity and apparent advantages of positive moods, it is a reasonable hypothesis that humans were selected for positivity offset in our evolutionary past. We outline additional evidence that is needed to help confirm that positive mood offset is an evolutionary adaptation in humans and we explore the research questions that the hypothesis generates. PMID:25253069

  5. Misery loves company: mood-congruent emotional responding to music.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Patrick G; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Griffith, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    We examined emotional responding to music after mood induction. On each trial, listeners heard a 30-s music excerpt and rated how much they liked it, whether it sounded happy or sad, and how familiar it was. When the excerpts sounded unambiguously happy or sad (Experiment 1), the typical preference for happy-sounding music was eliminated after inducing a sad mood. When the excerpts sounded ambiguous with respect to happiness and sadness (Experiment 2), listeners perceived more sadness after inducing a sad mood. Sad moods had no influence on familiarity ratings (Experiments 1 and 2). These findings imply that "misery loves company." Listeners in a sad mood fail to show the typical preference for happy-sounding music, and they perceive more sadness in music that is ambiguous with respect to mood. PMID:21639629

  6. Relationship of residual mood and panic–agoraphobic spectrum phenomenology to quality of life and functional impairment in patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Benvenuti, Antonella; Rucci, Paola; Calugi, Simona; Cassano, Giovanni B.; Miniati, Mario; Frank, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of residual mood and panic–agoraphobic spectrum phenomenology to functional impairment and quality of life in 226 adult outpatients who had remitted from a major depressive episode. Quality of life and functioning were assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Residual symptoms were assessed using the Mood and Panic–Agoraphobic Spectrum Questionnaires. Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship of mood and panic–agoraphobic spectrum factors with quality of life and functioning. Poor quality of life was associated with the Mood Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire factors ‘depressive mood’ and ‘psychotic features’ and the Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire factors ‘separation anxiety’ and ‘loss sensitivity’. Functional impairment was associated with the Mood Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire factor ‘psychomotor retardation’ and the Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire factor ‘fear of losing control’. These relationships were held after controlling for the severity of depression at the entry in the continuation treatment phase. In conclusion, the spectrum assessment is a useful tool for clinicians to identify areas of residual symptomatology that can be targeted with focused and effective long-term treatment strategies. PMID:20061961

  7. Identifying patients at risk of perinatal mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Topiwala, Anya; Hothi, Gurjiven; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2012-05-01

    Perinatal mental illness influences obstetric outcomes, mother-baby interactions and longer term emotional and cognitive development of the child. Psychiatric disorders have consistently been found to be one of the leading causes of maternal deaths, often through suicide. Postnatal depression and puerperal psychosis are two disorders most commonly associated with the perinatal period. The most efficient strategy to identify patients at risk relies on focussing on clinically vulnerable subgroups: enquiries about depressive symptoms should be made at the usual screening visits. Attention should be paid to any sign of poor self-care, avoidance of eye contact, overactivity or underactivity, or abnormalities in the rate of speech. Particular care should be taken to ask about suicidal ideation and thoughts of harming others, including the baby. One of the most important risk factors is a previous history of depression. The degree of risk is directly correlated with severity of past episodes. Both antenatal and postnatal depression are being increasingly recognised in men. Puerperal psychosis is rare (1 to 2 per 1,000). Sixty per cent of women with puerperal psychosis already have a diagnosis of bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder. Women with a personal history of postpartum psychosis or bipolar affective disorder should be considered as high risk for postpartum psychosis. All pregnant women who are identified as being at high risk should have a shared care plan for their late pregnancy and early postnatal psychiatric management. Women with current mood disorder of mild or moderate severity who have a first-degree relative with a history of bipolar disorder or postpartum psychosis should be referred for psychiatric assessment. PMID:22774377

  8. Acute and dramatic saxophone penis.

    PubMed

    García-Rodrigo, Carlota Gutiérrez; Maroñas-Jiménez, Lidia; Menis, Diana; Larráin, Hugo; Martínez, Lara Angulo

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of intense genital swelling because of a hereditary angioedema. This rare disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute and asymptomatic genital edema, because it may prevent future potentially life-threatening episodes of visceral angioedema. PMID:26752411

  9. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Sara C.; Scott, Graham G.; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions—no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  10. Mood states during a successful world record underwater diving attempt.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Edwin J; Potgieter, Justus R

    2005-12-01

    The mood states of a diver were recorded over a period of almost 10 days of submersion. Scores on the Profile of Mood States obtained on the components of Depression, Anger, and Confusion suggested that there were no signs of psychological disintegration over this period. As expected, scores on Fatigue increased whereas perceived Vigor diminished over time. High Esteem remained consistent. It is proposed that profiling of mood states can be a useful monitoring tool of an acclimatization process. PMID:16491690

  11. The effect of music-induced mood on attentional networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Scolaro, Ashley J; Bailey, Kira; Chen, Antao

    2011-06-01

    Attention network theory suggests that there are three separate neural networks that execute the discrete functions of alerting, orienting, and executive attention. Previous research on the influence of mood on attention has shown subtle and inconsistent results. The attention network theory may aid in clarifying the influence of mood on attention. The present study investigated the influence of mood on attentional networks in a normal population. Participants performed the Attention Network Test (ANT), which provides functional measures of alerting, orienting, and executive attention. Positive or negative mood was induced by listening to music with a positive or negative valence, respectively; neutral mood was induced by reading a collection of basic facts about China. The results revealed that negative mood led to a significantly higher alerting efficiency relative to other moods, while there were no significant mood effects on orienting or executive attention efficiency. According to the algorithm underlying the ANT, the higher alerting efficiency in the negative mood condition can be attributed to relatively greater benefits of cueing effects. The findings are discussed in the context of the noradrenergic system and of evolutionary significance. Specifically, the increase in the alerting function during negative mood states may be due to the modulation effect of negative mood on the noradrenergic system, and/or to the survival benefit resulting from an increase in automatic vigilance towards negative information. The current results suggest that as the influence of negative mood on attention appears to specifically consist in an enhanced alerting function, it may not be found in studies where the three attentional networks are not dissociated. PMID:22044234

  12. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    PubMed

    Sereno, Sara C; Scott, Graham G; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J; O'Donnell, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions-no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  13. Capgras Syndrome in First-Episode Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Paola; Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Tohen, Mauricio; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K.; Maggini, Carlo; Baldessarini, Ross J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Misidentification phenomena, including the delusion of “imposters” named after Joseph Capgras, occur in various major psychiatric and neurological disorders but have rarely been studied systematically in broad samples of modern patients. This study investigated the prevalence and correlated clinical factors of Capgras phenomenon in a broad sample of patient-subjects with first-lifetime episodes of psychotic affective and non affective disorders. Methods We evaluated 517 initially hospitalized, first-episode psychotic-disorder patients for prevalence of Capgras phenomenon and its association with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses including schizophreniform, brief psychotic, unspecified psychotic, delusional, and schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar-I disorder and major depression with psychotic features, and with characteristics of interest including antecedent psychiatric and neurological morbidity, onset-type and presenting psychopathological phenomena, using standard bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results Capgras syndrome was identified in 73/517 (14.1%) patients (8.2%–50% across diagnoses). Risk was greatest with acute or brief psychotic disorders (schizophreniform [50%], brief [34.8%], or unspecified [23.9%] psychoses), intermediate in major depression (15%), schizophrenia (11.4%) and delusional disorder (11.1%), and lowest in bipolar-I (10.3%) and schizoaffective disorders (8.2%). Associated were somatosensory, olfactory and tactile hallucinations, Schneiderian (especially delusional perception), and cycloid features as described by Perris and Brockington including polymorphous psychotic phenomena, rapidly shifting psychomotor and affective symptoms, pan-anxiety, ecstasy, over-concern with death, and perplexity or confusion, as well as rapid-onset, but not sex, age, abuse-history, dissociative features, or indications of neurological disorders. Conclusions Capgras syndrome was prevalent across a broad spectrum of first-episode

  14. Standardized mood induction with happy and sad facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, F; Gur, R C; Gur, R E; Muenz, L R

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of applying ecologically valid and socially relevant emotional stimuli in a standardized fashion to obtain reliable mood changes in healthy subjects was examined. The stimuli consisted of happy and sad facial expressions varying in intensity. Two mood-induction procedures (happy and sad, each consisting of 40 slides) were administered to 24 young healthy subjects, who were instructed to look at each slide (self-paced) and try to feel the happy or sad mood expressed by the person in the picture. On an emotional self-rating scale, subjects rated themselves as relatively happier during the happy mood-induction condition and as relatively sadder during the sad mood-induction condition. Conversely, they reported that they were less happy during the sad mood-induction condition and less sad during the happy mood-induction condition. The effects were generalized to positive and negative affect as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. The intraindividual variability in the effect was very small. In a retest study after 1 month, the mood-induction effects showed good stability over time. The results encourage the use of this mood-induction procedure as a neurobehavioral probe in physiologic neuroimaging studies for investigating the neural substrates of emotional experience. PMID:8197269

  15. Psychological Characteristics of Problem Gamblers With and Without Mood Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Jamey J; Milosevic, Aleks; Ledgerwood, David M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Problem and pathological gamblers are significantly more likely to experience mood disorders, compared with the general population. Our study examined the relation of psychological characteristics (personality, trait impulsiveness, and gambling motives) to current co-occurring mood disorder (major depression and dysthymia) status among problem and pathological gamblers. Method: Problem and pathological gamblers (N = 150) underwent a clinical interview to assess current co-occurring mood disorders; participants completed measures of problem gambling severity, personality, impulsiveness, and gambling motives. Results: Problem and pathological gamblers with a current co-occurring mood disorder were more likely to be female, older, and to report higher lifetime and past-year gambling severity. A co-occurring mood disorder was associated with higher personality scores for alienation and stress reaction, lower scores for well-being, social closeness, and control, as well as higher impulsiveness scores for urgency and lack of premeditation, and lower sensation seeking scores. Participants with a co-occurring mood disorder also reported higher coping motives for gambling. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that personality factors (lower social closeness and higher alienation) contributed to the greatest likelihood of being diagnosed with a co-occurring mood disorder. Conclusions: Mood disorders frequently co-occur with problem and pathological gambling, and they are associated with greater gambling severity. These findings highlight that interpersonal facets of personality contribute substantially to co-occurring mood disorder status. Implications for treatment will be discussed. PMID:26454559

  16. Mood and flexibility in categorization: a conceptual replication.

    PubMed

    Göritz, Anja S; Moser, Klaus

    2003-08-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that positive mood facilitates cognitive flexibility in categorization, i.e., positive mood enhances the ability to categorize flexibly at broad and narrow levels contingent on task requirement. The study was a conceptual replication of the 1990 work by Murray, Sujan, Hirt, and Sujan. Unlike the original study, it was carried out on the WWW with some modifications in the procedure. Participants were 29 women and 132 men whose average age was 29 yr. They were put into a positive, negative, or neutral mood using the Velten technique. Mood was measured with standard mood scales. Subjects then listed similarities differences between two entertainment TV shows. Contrary to the prediction, participants in a positive mood did not list a higher number, more diverse, or more unusual similarities and differences between the shows, and they were not faster than participants with neutral or negative moods. It is concluded that the influence of mood on cognitive flexibility needs to be reconsidered. In research, temporal aspects of categorization performance as well as a wider range of mood valences should be taken into account. PMID:14604029

  17. Mood Variability and Cigarette Smoking Escalation among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Sally M.; Mermelstein, Robin; Shiffman, Saul; Flay, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined how affect dysregulation, as indexed via within-person negative mood variability, related to longitudinal patterns of smoking among adolescents. Eighth and 10th grade students (N = 517; 56% girls) provided data on cigarette use at baseline, six-, and twelve-month waves, and also provided ecological momentary assessments of negative moods via palmtop computers for one week at each wave. Mood variability was examined via the intraindividual standard deviations of negative mood reports at each wave. As predicted, high levels of negative mood variability at baseline significantly differentiated adolescents who escalated in their smoking behavior over time from those who never progressed beyond low levels of experimentation during the course of the study. Mixed-effects regression models revealed that adolescents who escalated in their smoking experienced a reduction in mood variability as smoking increased, whereas mood variability levels were more stable among those with consistently high or low levels of cigarette use. Results suggest that high negative mood variability is a risk factor for future smoking escalation, and mood stabilizing effects may reinforce and maintain daily cigarette use among youth. PMID:19071975

  18. Sleep and Mood During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Bei, Bei; Coo, Soledad; Trinder, John

    2015-03-01

    During the perinatal period, compromises in sleep duration and quality are commonly reported by women and confirmed by objective measurements of sleep. Self-reported poor sleep has been associated with concurrent mood disturbance and with increased risk for future mood problems during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Findings on the relationship between objectively measured sleep and mood in perinatal women have been mixed. This article reviews the literature on the nature of and contributing factors to perinatal sleep disturbance, the relationship between sleep and mood, and intervention studies that aim to improve maternal sleep. PMID:26055670

  19. Mood change and perception of workload in Australian midwives.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Jessica L; Dorrian, Jillian; Pincombe, Jan; Grech, Carol; Dawson, Drew

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of mood and workload in health care settings have focussed primarily on nurses and junior doctors. Given the critical shortfall in the Australian midwifery workforce, and the specialised nature of midwifery as an occupation, it is important to understand how mood and workload are experienced by midwives. Twenty midwives (18F, 2M) in an Australian metropolitan hospital completed logbooks assessing daily fluctuations in subjective mood and workload. Participants also provided information about history of psychopathology and sleep quality. Results revealed that midwives were relatively stable in terms of mood but did experience increased fear and decreased happiness when at work. Further, workload factors significantly predicted mood at work. Specifically, when participants felt that their work was more demanding and frustrating and required more effort, or when they felt that they could not accomplish all that was expected, mood was negatively influenced. This supports the connection between workload and negative mood change in healthcare. Given the potential for mood to influence a multitude of functions relevant to safety, performance and psychosocial wellbeing it is important to understand the factors which influence mood, particularly in light of the current shortfall in the Australian healthcare workforce. PMID:20720329

  20. Depending on My Mood: Mood-Driven Influences on Text Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Bohn-Gettler, Catherine M.; Rapp, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a critical component of success in educational settings. To date, research on text processing in educational and cognitive psychological domains has focused predominantly on cognitive influences on comprehension, and in particular, those influences that might be derived from particular tasks or strategies. However, there is growing interest in documenting the influences of emotional factors on the processes and products of text comprehension, because these factors are less likely to be associated with explicit reading strategies. The present study examines this issue by evaluating the degree to which mood can influence readers’ processing of text. Participants in control, happy-induced, or sad-induced groups thought aloud while reading expository texts. Happy, sad, and neutral moods influenced the degree to which readers engaged in particular types of coherence-building processes in the service of comprehension. Although reading strategies clearly influence processing, understudied factors that are less explicitly goal-driven, such as mood, can similarly impact comprehension activity. These findings have important implications for the role of mood on reading instruction and evaluation. PMID:21927504

  1. Postpartum Mood Disorders Screening in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Scheans, Patricia; Mischel, Rebecca; Munson, Margi; Bulaevskaya, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Maternal depression is increasingly recognized as the leading complication of childbearing. A mother's mental health impacts the well-being and long-term outcomes of her children. This column will discuss a systematic approach to screening for maternal postpartum mood disorders (PPMDs) and referring women to resources according to an established algorithm. This work was undertaken in a tertiary referral NICU and performed by dedicated NICU personnel with the goals of optimizing NICU infants' outcomes and supporting maternal and family health and well-being. PMID:27461203

  2. A Transactional Approach to Transfer Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jornet, Alfredo; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Krange, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present an analytical framework for approaching transfer episodes--episodes in which participants declare or can be declared to bring prior experience to bear on the current task organization. We build on Dewey's writings about the continuity of experience, Vygotsky's ideas of unit analysis, as well as more recent developments…

  3. Tracking the Construction of Episodic Future Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Mathy, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    The ability to mentally simulate possible futures ("episodic future thinking") is of fundamental importance for various aspects of human cognition and behavior, but precisely how humans construct mental representations of future events is still essentially unknown. We suggest that episodic future thoughts consist of transitory patterns of…

  4. Binding of episodic memories in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Smith, Alexandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary People remember an event as a coherent scene [1-4]. Memory of such an episode is thought to reflect binding of a fully integrated representation, rather than memory of unconnected features [4-7]. However, it is not known if rodents form bound representations. Here we show that rats remember episodes as bound representations. Rats were presented with multiple features of unique episodes at memory encoding: what (food flavor), where (maze location), source (self-generated food seeking–running to the food site– or experimenter-generated food seeking –placement by the experimenter at the food site), and context (spatial cues in the room where the event occurred). After a delay, the trial continued with a memory assessment in which one flavor replenished at the self-generated- but not at experimenter-generated-locations. We presented rats with multiple overlapping features, in rapid succession, to ensure that successful memory retrieval required them to disambiguate multiple study episodes (using two rooms). We found that binding is resistant to interference from highly similar episodes and survives long retention intervals (~1 week). Our results suggest that multiple episodic memories are each structured as bound representations, which suggests that nonhumans represent episodic memories using a structure similar to that of people. This finding enhances the translational potential for utilizing animal models of episodic memory to explore the biological mechanisms of memory and validate therapeutic approaches for treating disorders of memory. PMID:25466681

  5. Episodic plate tectonics on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Studies of impact craters on Venus from the Magellan images have placed important constraints on surface volcanism. Some 840 impact craters have been identified with diameters ranging from 2 to 280 km. Correlations of this impact flux with craters on the Moon, Earth, and Mars indicate a mean surface age of 0.5 +/- 0.3 Ga. Another important observation is that 52 percent of the craters are slightly fractured and only 4.5 percent are embayed by lava flows. These observations led researchers to hypothesize that a pervasive resurfacing event occurred about 500 m.y. ago and that relatively little surface volcanism has occurred since. Other researchers have pointed out that a global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 MYBP is consistent with the results given by a recent study. These authors carried out a series of numerical calculations of mantle convection in Venus yielding thermal evolution results. Their model considered crustal recycling and gave rapid planetary cooling. They, in fact, suggested that prior to 500 MYBP plate tectonics was active in Venus and since 500 MYBP the lithosphere has stabilized and only hot-spot volcanism has reached the surface. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the inferred cessation of surface volcanism on Venus. We hypothesize that plate tectonics on Venus is episodic. Periods of rapid plate tectonics result in high rates of subduction that cool the interior resulting in more sluggish mantle convection.

  6. Individual Differences in the Effects of Mood on Sexuality: The Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R)

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Erick; Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Mustanski, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Previous research using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ) has revealed substantial variability in how negative mood impacts sexual response and behavior. However, the MSQ does not address differences between desire for solo or partnered sexual activity, examine the effects of sexual activity on mood, or assess the effects of positive mood. This paper presents the development and factor structure of the Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R). An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women (N = 1983) produced 8 factors. Considerable variability was found in how moods influence sexual desire and arousal, in the effects of mood on sexual behavior, and in the reciprocal effects of sexual activity on mood. Among other findings, heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual and homosexual men to experience increased sexual desire and arousal when anxious or stressed, whereas homosexual men and heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men to experience increased desire when sad or depressed. Heterosexual men and women were more likely than homosexual men to report increased desire when in a positive mood. Intercorrelations and correlations with various sexual behaviors varied by group. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22963331

  7. Stress-related Clinical Pain and Mood in Women with Chronic Pain: Moderating Effects of Depression and Positive Mood Induction

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary C.; Thummala, Kirti; Zautra, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain with co-morbid depression is characterized by poor mood regulation and stress-related pain. Purpose Compare depressed and non-depressed pain patients in mood and pain stress reactivity and recovery, and test whether a post-stress positive mood induction moderates pain recovery. Methods Women with fibromyalgia and/or osteoarthritis (N=110) underwent interpersonal stress and were then randomly assigned by pain condition and depression status, assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, to positive versus neutral mood induction. Results Depression did not predict stress-related reactivity in despondency, joviality, or clinical pain. However, depression X mood condition predicted recovery in joviality and clinical pain; depressed women recovered only in the positive mood condition, whereas non-depressed women recovered in both mood conditions. Conclusions Depression does not alter pain and mood stress reactivity, but does impair recovery. Boosting post-stress jovial mood ameliorates pain recovery deficits in depressed patients, a finding relevant to chronic pain interventions. PMID:24532393

  8. Episodic-like memory in animals

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.

    2010-01-01

    Episodic memory consists of representations of unique past events. It has been argued that episodic memory is grounded in a temporal framework, meaning that we remember when an event occurred. The ability to model the temporal aspects of episodic memory in non-human animals has been challenging and controversial. This article briefly reviews the theoretical perspective in which temporal processing plays a prominent role in episodic memory. Next, the article reviews experimental attempts to identify temporal processes of episodic memory in animals. Recent studies suggest that, at the time of memory assessment, rats remember a unique earlier event, including when it occurred, what happened, and where it took place, referred to as what-where-when memory. PMID:20211205

  9. Pharmacotherapy of cancer-related episodic pain.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Ribeiro, Maria D C

    2003-04-01

    Episodic pain is a transient increase in pain intensity over background pain. Episodic pain occurs commonly in cancer patients; it is a heterogeneous phenomenon that is incapacitating, debilitating and can have a significant impact on quality of life. Episodic pain can be difficult to manage; it is often unpredictable, typically of fast onset, of short duration and feels similar to background pain except that it may be more severe. The successful management of episodic pain can only be achieved following a thorough assessment. The subsequent management usually involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies integrated into the overall care and appropriate for the stage of the patient's disease. Pharmacological management includes the implementation of primary therapies (e.g., chemotherapy for the underlying aetiology of the pain, optimising the scheduled medication (e.g., analgesics and adjuvant analgesics) and specific pharmacological interventions for the episodic pain (e.g., rescue medication). PMID:12667112

  10. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 hours later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. PMID:25262058

  11. The global burden of anxiety and mood disorders: Putting ESEMeD findings into perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper compares the preliminary descriptive ESEMeD findings reported in this issue with eight broad patterns of results found in previous psychiatric epidemiological surveys. Method Systematic review of the literature on community epidemiological surveys of anxiety and mood disorders. Results The review concludes that the ESEMeD findings are broadly consistent with the patterns found in previous surveys, but faults the preliminary ESEMeD analyses for failing to distinguish cases by severity and to consider the effects of severity on need for treatment. Conclusion The fact that the ESEMeD surveys collected much richer data than previous psychiatric epidemiological surveys on role impairment, symptom severity, and episode duration makes it possible to develop more useful classifications of clinical severity in future analyses. Elaborations that feature such distinctions have the potential substantially to increase the relevance of the ESEMeD findings for European health care policy. PMID:17288502

  12. Potential adverse effects of discontinuing psychotropic drugs. Part 3: Antipsychotic, dopaminergic, and mood-stabilizing drugs.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2010-08-01

    Abrupt discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier, and often more severe, illness episodes than are seen with gradual discontinuation. Antipsychotic drugs can cause various abnormal motor syndromes, but abruptly stopping them has been associated with the seemingly paradoxical development of similar motor syndromes, such as withdrawal dyskinesias, parkinsonian symptoms, dystonias, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Dopamine-releasing and dopamine-agonist drugs are used to treat some of the motor syndromes caused by antipsychotic drugs, but their abrupt discontinuation can also be associated with abnormal syndromes. When antipsychotic drugs, lithium, or certain anticonvulsant drugs are used for treatment of bipolar disorder, rapid versus gradual discontinuation is more likely to lead to greater mood instability and manic relapse. If necessary, these medications should be gradually tapered to minimize all types of adverse discontinuation effects. Patients should be educated about the possible adverse effects of abrupt medication discontinuation. PMID:20669865

  13. Psychological and immunological correlates of acute overtraining.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, R W; Grove, J R; Morton, A R; Zeroni, P M; Gaudieri, S; Keast, D

    1994-01-01

    Five men undertook two intensive interval training sessions per day for 10 days, followed by 5 days of active recovery. Subjects supplied a venous blood sample and completed a mood-state questionnaire on days 1, 6, 11 and 16 of the study. Performance capabilities were assessed on days 1, 11 and 16 using a timed treadmill test to exhaustion at 18 kmh-1 and 1% grade. These individuals became acutely overtrained as indicated by significant reductions in running performance from day 1 to day 11. The overtrained state was accompanied by severe fatigue, immune system deficits, mood disturbance, physical complaints, sleep difficulties, and reduced appetite. Mood states moved toward baseline during recovery, but feelings of fatigue and immune system deficits persisted throughout the study. PMID:7894955

  14. Dietary effects on mood and performance.

    PubMed

    Deijen, J B; Heemstra, M L; Orlebeke, J F

    1989-01-01

    Of 20 young students recruited at a college for nutrition, 10 followed a diet for a period of 3 weeks and 10 were assigned to a control condition. One subject in the control group dropped out. The diet consisted of approximately 70 g protein and 25 g carbohydrate at breakfast and 10 g protein and 100 g carbohydrate at dinner. In between, a protein luncheon was consumed. On the last day of the 3-week period repeated measurements of mood and performance were made, i.e. after breakfast and after dinner. Consequently, the same measurements were made 2 months later to serve as covariates in the analyses to control for base-line differences of the two groups. It was predicted that, in the morning, the performance and the vigour of the diet group would improve whereas, in the evening, performance would become worse and subjects would feel more sleepy. However, the diet group was found to have a higher anger score in the morning (probably due to the unattractive nature of the diet) and a tendency to have a higher fatigue score in the evening compared with the controls. In addition, the diet group performed better in the morning on finger tapping, compared with the control group. With respect to memory scanning, the diet group performed more slowly in the morning in comparison with the control group. From these conflicting results, it was concluded that dietary composition had no effect on mood and behaviour. PMID:2635224

  15. [Mood stabilisers and pregnancy outcomes - a review].

    PubMed

    Costoloni, Giulia; Pierantozzi, Elisa; Goracci, Arianna; Bolognesi, Simone; Fagiolini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to give useful information to guide clinicians when treating pregnant women affected by bipolar disorder. This review focuses on mood stabilizers including lithium, sodium valproate, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine and topiramate. Data have been extracted from a MEDLINE search. Data from prospective, retrospective and case-control studies as well as systematic reviews, meta-analysis and data from Pregnancy Registry were included. Major congenital malformations as well as specific malformations were reported for each drug. Preliminary findings seem to identify lamotrigine as one ofthe safest antiepileptic drugs to be used in pregnancy. Teratogenity risk oftopiramate is still largely unknown and there are not enough studies to draw even preliminary conclusions. Preliminary studies failed to report an increased risk for major congenital malformations among gabapentin or.oxcarbazepine exposed pregnancies. Even if raising less concern when compared to valproate, carbamazepine should be avoided for its documented teratogenity risk. Valproate seems to be the worst considering major congenital malformations, specific malformations as,well as its detrimental effects on neurodevelopment. On the other hand, lithium might be considered a good option when treating pregnant women affected by bipolar disorder. Given the limited research on mood stabilizers in pregnancy, clinicians need to be very careful when treating child bearing age women. Clinicians have to balance the potential teratogenityrisk against that of untreated mental illness considering individual circumstances such as severity of illness and risk of relapse. PMID:25639010

  16. How assess drugs in the treatment of acute bipolar mania?

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel; Thibaut, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder is a serious mental disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Good-quality research available to guide treatment strategies remains insufficient, particularly with regard to manic or hypomanic episodes. A critical review of the various stages of mania might be helpful for pharmaceutical companies and investigators as a prerequisite for the clinical evaluation of potential antimanic properties of medications. The main difficulty is with a comparison between anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers such as lithium (with equal efficacy in the acute phase and the prevention of recurrent manic episodes). No consensus has been reached with regard to the treatment of bouts of acute mania in various parts of the world. Controlled clinical trials have, at last, provided irrefutable evidence of the activity of lithium, which has long been used alone, as well as that of divalproate or its derivatives and, to a lesser extent, carbamazepine. The new antipsychotic agents have more recently established their efficacy, especially aripiprazole, asenapine, quetiapine; olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone (not sure where the paradox is). In Europe, haloperidol is still the reference substance used in clinical trials despite the fact that it is not officially indicated in the treatment of mania. In the USA, lithium, divalproate, or antipsychotics can be prescribed as first-line treatment. In Europe, lithium remains the first-line medication, whereas divalproate and atypical antipsychotic agents are used only as second-line therapy. Although both types of medication (antipsychotics, normothymic agents, and/or anticonvulsants) have proved to be clinically effective in the management of mania by reducing the mania scores overall, the same does not apply, however, to all symptoms of mania. Factorial approaches to mania have all shown that since there are several clinical forms of mania, several clusters of manic symptoms can

  17. Effect of oestrogen on the sleep, mood, and anxiety of menopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, J; Oswald, I

    1977-01-01

    A double-blind controlled study of the effect of piperazine oestrone sulphate on sleep, depression, anxiety, and hot flushes was performed in 34 perimenopausal women. Half of the patients were given six weeks' placebo followed by eight weeks' oestrogen, and half remained on placebo throughout. Sleep was recorded electrophysiologically every week, and mood and anxiety were rated daily by means of visual analogue scales. Hot flushes were counted daily. Observer rating scales of anxiety and depression were complete at intervals. During the first month of active treatment the amount of intervening wakefulness in the first six hours of sleep decreased significantly more in the oestrone group than in those on placebo. Between the baseline period and the second treatment month the oestrone group showed a significantly greater decrease in the total amount of intervening wakefulness and in the frequency of awakenings. Their total amount of rapid eye movement sleep increased. Mood and anxiety improved and the number of hot flushes decreased to a similar degree in both groups. Although oestrogen did reduce the number of episodes of wakefulness in perimenopausal women complaining of insomnia, its effects on their psychological symptoms were little different to those of placebo. PMID:338104

  18. Aerosol characteristics of different types of episode.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chung-Yih; Lin, Yan-Ruei; Chang, Shih-Yu; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Chou, Chun-Hung

    2013-12-01

    Daily and hourly average data from nine air-quality monitoring stations distributed across central Taiwan, which include ten items (i.e., PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, wind direction, wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, SO₂, NO₂, NO, and CO), were collected from 2005 to 2009. Four episode types: long-range transport with dust storms (DS), long-range transport with frontal pollution (FP), river dust (RD), and stagnant weather (SW), and one mixed type of episode were identified. Of these four episode types, the SW was the dominant type, averaging about 70%. The mean ratio of PM₂.₅/PM₁₀ was the lowest during the RD episodes (0.42), while the mean ratio of PM₂.₅/PM₁₀ was the highest during the SW episodes (0.64). Fine aerosol (PM₂.₅) and coarse aerosol (PM₁₀-₂.₅) samples were collected by high-volume samplers for chemical composition analysis, from only three stations (Douliou, Lunbei, and Siansi) during the days of SW, RD, DS, and FP. The concentrations of PM₂.₅ and three ionic species (NH₄⁺, NO₃⁻, and SO₄²⁻) all showed significant differences among the four episode types. The highest levels of NO₃⁻ (12.1 μg/m(3)) and SO₄²⁻ (20.5 μg/m(3)) were found during the SW and FP episodes, respectively. A comparison on the spatial similarity of aerosol compositions among the episodes and/or non-episodes (control) was characterized by the coefficient of divergence (CD). The results showed higher CD values in PM₁₀-₂.₅ than in PM₂.₅, and the CD values between RD episodes and the other three episodes were higher than those between two types of episode for the other three episodes. The ratios of SOR (sulfur oxidation ratio), SO₄²⁻/EC (elemental carbon), NOR (nitrogen oxidation ratio), and NO₃⁻/EC showed that sulfate formation was most rapid during the FP, while nitrate formation was most rapid during the SW. PMID:23761164

  19. How do episodic and semantic memory contribute to episodic foresight in young children?

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Caza, Julian S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving’s definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight. PMID:25071690

  20. The Magnitude of Premenstrual and Menstrual Mood Changes in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Sharon; Murphy, Denise

    Frequent mood changes in adolescents are often attributed to the influence of shifting hormone levels. The presence and magnitude of menstrual-related mood changes in adolescent women were examined in 10th and 11th grade females (N=158) who completed the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). Self-reports of the onset date for the next two…

  1. Maternal Recurrent Mood Disorders and High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ira L.; Tsiouris, John A.

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative examination was made of the association of parental mood and anxiety disorders with severity of disability within a large sample of young children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Maternal recurrent mood disorders were associated with elevated cognitive and adaptive functioning in their affected children, parent reports…

  2. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  3. Improving Music Mood Classification Using Lyrics, Audio and Social Tags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    The affective aspect of music (popularly known as music mood) is a newly emerging metadata type and access point to music information, but it has not been well studied in information science. There has yet to be developed a suitable set of mood categories that can reflect the reality of music listening and can be well adopted in the Music…

  4. Development and Initial Psychometrics of the Korean Mood State Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Kyoung-Suk; Puig, Ana; Cho, Eunsoo; Lee, Sun Young; Back, Sun Hee; Woo, Yeon Kyoung

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and psychometric properties of the Korean Mood State Inventory (KMSI), which is designed to measure the mood states of Korean college students. Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the KMSI scores are reported. Implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research are…

  5. Mood and Weight Loss in a Behavioral Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Rena R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Evaluated the relationship between mood and weight loss for 76 patients participating in two consecutive behavioral treatment programs. Weight losses averaged 12.2 pounds (5.55 kg) during the 10-week program. Positive changes in mood were reported during this interval, and these changes appeared to be related to changes in weight. (Author/RC)

  6. The Relationship among Leisure Interests, Personality Traits, Affect, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Todd J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between leisure interests and the Big Five personality traits, positive and negative affect, and moods. Regression analysis identified particular personality but not mood or affect variables as significant predictors of leisure factor scores. Further exploration through factor analysis revealed factor…

  7. Ups and Downs: Daily Cycles of Adolescent Moods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Bonnie L.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Miller, Kristelle E.; Petersen, Anne C.

    1998-01-01

    Examined diurnal patterns of adolescents' stress, affect, and arousal. Found that gender, depression risk status, and day of week influenced mean levels of adolescent moods but were not associated with differences in mood patterns throughout the day. Suggested that adolescents' emotional states follow a diurnal cycle stemming from endogenous…

  8. Dismantling the Built Drawing: Working with Mood in Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Randall

    2010-01-01

    From the late Middle Ages onward an emphasis on the rational and the technical aspects of design and design drawing gained hold of architectural practice. In this transformation, the phenomenon of mood has been frequently overlooked or seen as something to be added on to a design; yet the fundamental grounding of mood, as described in Martin…

  9. Hypnotizability as a Function of Repression, Adaptive Regression, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Maurice Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Forty male undergraduates were assessed in a personality assessment session and a hypnosis session. The personality traits studied were repressive style and adaptive regression, while the transitory variable was mood prior to hypnosis. Hypnotizability was a significant interactive function of repressive style and mood, but not of adaptive…

  10. Emotional Mood as a Context for Learning and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Gordon H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In experiments where hypnotized subjects learned one word list while happy or sad, retention proved to be surprisingly independent of the congruence of learning and testing moods. Learning mood provided a helpful retrieval cue and differentiating context only where subjects learned two word lists, one while happy, one while sad. (EJS)

  11. The Effects of Musical Mood Induction on Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adaman, Jill E.; Blaney, Paul H.

    1995-01-01

    A music mood-induction procedure was used to induce either elated, depressed, or neutral mood in 71 college undergraduates. Creativity measures revealed that the subjects in the elated and depressed groups showed significantly greater creativity than subjects in the neutral group. (Author/DB)

  12. Episodic acidification of small streams in the northeastern united states: ionic controls of episodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wigington, P.J., Jr.; DeWalle, David R.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Kretser, W.A.; Simonin, H.A.; Van Sickle, J.; Baker, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the Episodic Response Project (ERP), we intensively monitored discharge and stream chemistry of 13 streams located in the Northern Appalachian region of Pennsylvania and in the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York from fall 1988 to spring 1990. The ERP clearly documented the occurrence of acidic episodes with minimum episodic pH ??? 5 and inorganic monomeric Al (Alim) concentrations >150 ??g/L in at least two study streams in each region. Several streams consistently experienced episodes with maximum Alim concentrations >350 ??g/L. Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) depressions resulted from complex interactions of multiple ions. Base cation decreases often made the most important contributions to ANC depressions during episodes. Organic acid pulses were also important contributors to ANC depressions in the Adirondack streams, and to a lesser extent, in the Catskill and Pennsylvania streams. Nitrate concentrations were low in the Pennsylvania streams, whereas the Catskill and Adirondack study streams had high NO3- concentrations and large episodic pulses (???54 ??eq/L). Most of the Pennsylvania study streams also frequently experienced episodic pulses of SO42- (???78 ??eq/L), whereas the Adirondack and Catskill streams did not. High baseline concentrations of SO42- (all three study areas) and NO3- (Adirondacks and Catskills) reduced episodic minimum ANC, even when these ions did not change during episodes. The ion changes that controlled the most severe episodes (lowest minimum episodic ANC) differed from the ion changes most important to smaller, more frequent episodes. Pulses of NO3- (Catskills and Adirondacks), SO42- (Pennsylvania), or organic acids became more important during major episodes. Overall, the behavior of streamwater SO42- and NO4- is an indicator that acidic deposition has contributed to the severity of episodes in the study streams.

  13. Episodic Memories and Their Relevance for Psychoactive Drug Use and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of adult people in western societies regularly consume psychoactive drugs. While this consumption is integrated in everyday life activities and controlled in most consumers, it may escalate and result in drug addiction. Non-addicted drug use requires the systematic establishment of highly organized behaviors, such as drug-seeking and -taking. While a significant role for classical and instrumental learning processes is well established in drug use and abuse, declarative drug memories have largely been neglected in research. Episodic memories are an important part of the declarative memories. Here a role of episodic drug memories in the establishment of non-addicted drug use and its transition to addiction is suggested. In relation to psychoactive drug consumption, episodic drug memories are formed when a person prepares for consumption, when the drug is consumed and, most important, when acute effects, withdrawal, craving, and relapse are experienced. Episodic drug memories are one-trial memories with emotional components that can be much stronger than “normal” episodic memories. Their establishment coincides with drug-induced neuronal activation and plasticity. These memories may be highly extinction resistant and influence psychoactive drug consumption, in particular during initial establishment and at the transition to “drug instrumentalization.” In that, understanding how addictive drugs interact with episodic memory circuits in the brain may provide crucial information for how drug use and addiction are established. PMID:23734106

  14. Episodicity in back-arc tectonic regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Stuart R.; Stegman, Dave; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2008-12-01

    The evolution of back-arc basins is tied to the development of the dynamics of the subduction system they are a part of. We present a study of back-arc basins and model their development by implementing 3D time-dependant computer models of subduction including an overriding plate. We define three types of episodicity: pseudo-, quasi- and hyper-episodicity, and find evidence of these in nature. Observations of back-arc basin ages, histories of spreading, quiescence and compression in the overriding plate give us an understanding of the time-development of these subduction zones and back-arc basins. Across the globe today, a number of trenches are advancing—the Izu-Bonin Trench, the Mariana Trench, the Japan Trench, the Java-Sunda Trench and the central portion of the Peru-Chile Trench (the Andes subduction zone). The Izu-Bonin, Mariana and Japan all have established back-arc basins, while the others have documented episodes of spreading, quiescence, compression or a combination of these. The combination of advancing and retreating trench motion places these subduction zones in the category of hyper-episodicity. Quasi-episodicity, in which the back-arc shifts between phases of rifting, spreading and quiescence, is the dominant form of episodic back-arc development in the present. We find this type of episodicity in models for which the system is dynamically consistent—that we have allowed the subducting plate's velocity to be determined by the sinking slabs' buoyancy. Quasi- and hyper-episodicity are only found in subduction zones with relatively high subducting plate velocities, between 6 and 9 cm/year. Finally, those subduction zones for which the subducting plate is moving slowly, such as in the Mediterranean or the Scotia Sea, experience only pseudo-episodicity, where the spreading moves linearly towards the trench but often does so in discrete ridge-jump events.

  15. Aging, Estrogens, and Episodic Memory in Women

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Victor W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the relation in midlife and beyond between estrogen exposures and episodic memory in women. Background Episodic memory performance declines with usual aging, and impairments in episodic memory often portend the development of Alzheimer's disease. In the laboratory, estradiol influences hippocampal function and animal learning. However, it is controversial whether estrogens affect memory after a woman's reproductive years. Method Focused literature review, including a summary of a systematic search of clinical trials of estrogens in which outcomes included an objective measure of episodic memory. Results The natural menopause transition is not associated with objective changes in episodic memory. Strong clinical trial evidence indicates that initiating estrogen-containing hormone therapy after about age 60 years does not benefit episodic memory. Clinical trial findings in middle-age women before age 60 are limited by smaller sample sizes and shorter treatment durations, but these also do not indicate substantial memory effects. Limited short-term evidence, however, suggests that estrogens may improve verbal memory after surgical menopause. Although hormone therapy initiation in old age increases dementia risk, observational studies raise the question of an early critical window during which midlife estrogen therapy reduces late-life Alzheimer's disease. However, almost no data address whether midlife estrogen therapy affects episodic memory in old age. Conclusions Episodic memory is not substantially impacted by the natural menopause transition or improved by use of estrogen-containing hormone therapy after age 60. Further research is needed to determine whether outcomes differ after surgical menopause or whether episodic memory later in life is modified by midlife estrogenic exposures. PMID:19996872

  16. Mood and sex of participant in perception of happy faces.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Cupp, Derwin W

    2002-08-01

    The influences of mood-state and sex of subject were examined for ratings of the emotional intensity of videotaped facial expressions of happiness. 102 subjects who were classified by sex and their scores on the Beck Depression Inventory provided ratings of the faces. A significant sex by mood-state interaction indicated that ratings of intensity by men and women were influenced differently by mood-state, and these findings are interpreted within the framework of the Affect Infusion Model. The results support our hypothesis that men and women tend to rely preferentially on low and high affect infusion strategies, respectively. The findings further suggest that the cognitive effect of affect infusion on the magnitude of perceived intensity of facial affect could be influenced by mood-state via differences in cognitive effort subjects employ when in a dysphoric or nondysphoric mood. PMID:12365265

  17. Sleep and perinatal mood disorders: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lori E.; Murray, Brian J.; Steiner, Meir

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are recognized as times of vulnerability to mood disorders, including postpartum depression and psychosis. Recently, changes in sleep physiology and sleep deprivation have been proposed as having roles in perinatal psychiatric disorders. In this article we review what is known about changes in sleep physiology and behaviour during the perinatal period, with a focus on the relations between sleep and postpartum “blues,” depression and psychosis and on sleep-based interventions for the treatment and prevention of perinatal mood disorders. The interaction between sleep and perinatal mood disorders is significant, but evidence-based research in this field is limited. Studies that measure both sleep and mood during the perinatal period, particularly those that employ objective measurement tools such as polysomnography and actigraphy, will provide important information about the causes, prevention and treatment of perinatal mood disorders. PMID:16049568

  18. Affective instability, family history of mood disorders, and neurodevelopmental disturbance.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Howard; Bredemeier, Keith; Boden, M Tyler; Thompson, Renee J; Milanak, Melissa

    2011-07-01

    The association between affective instability and both family history of mood disorders and signs of neurodevelopmental disturbance was examined in a sample of 303 adults. Affective instability was measured using the borderline personality disorder "affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood" diagnostic criterion as assessed dimensionally using the Personality Disorder Interview--IV. Participants were interviewed concerning family history of mood disorders, with family history coded using the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria. Minor physical anomalies, inconsistent hand use, and dermatoglyphic asymmetries were used to index neurodevelopmental disturbance. Affective instability was associated with elevated rates of family history of mood disorders, particularly among individuals who exhibited inconsistent hand use and greater minor physical anomalies. These associations could not be accounted for by shared variance with age, gender, negative affect, or personal history of mood disorders. PMID:22448768

  19. Frequency and characteristics of isolated psychiatric episodes in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S.; Titulaer, Maarten J.; Gresa-Arribas, Núria; Dalmau, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Importance Patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis often develop prominent psychiatric manifestations. The frequency and type of isolated psychiatric episodes (pure psychiatric symptoms without neurological involvement) either as initial presentation of the disease or as relapse are unknown. Objective To determine the frequency, symptoms, and outcome of isolated psychiatric episodes in a cohort of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Design Observational cohort of patients diagnosed over a 5 year period (median follow-up 2 years). Patients and setting 571 patients with IgG antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR were included in the study. Antibody studies were performed at the Universities of Pennsylvania and Barcelona, and clinical information was obtained by the authors or referring physicians. Main Outcome Measures Frequency, type of symptoms, and outcome of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and isolated psychiatric manifestations. Results 23/571 patients (4%) developed isolated psychiatric episodes, 5 at disease onset and 18 during relapses. For all 23 patients, age (median 20 years), gender (91% female), and tumor association (43%, ovarian teratoma) were similar to the population at large. Predominant symptoms included, delusional thinking (74%), mood disturbances (70%, usually manic), and aggression (57%). Brain MRI was abnormal in 10/22 (45%) and CSF showed pleocytosis in 17/22 (77%). Eighty three percent of the patients had full/substantial recovery after immunotherapy and tumor resection when appropriate. After relapse, 17/18 (94%) patients returned to a similar or better pre-relapse functional level. Conclusions Isolated psychiatric episodes are rare but can occur as initial onset or relapse of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Recognition of these episodes is important because they respond to immunotherapy. In patients with new onset psychosis, history of encephalitis, subtle neurological symptoms, and/or abnormal

  20. Acute and chronic poisoning from residential exposures to elemental mercury--Michigan, 1989-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-14

    From May 1989 through November 1990, eight episodes of elemental mercury exposure in private residences or schools in the United States were reported to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). The case studies in this report document two of these episodes (both in Michigan) of residential mercury poisoning--one involving acute mercury exposure, and the other, chronic exposure to elemental mercury. These episodes illustrate the differing clinical and toxicologic manifestations of acute and chronic mercury poisoning.

  1. [Young person's first-episode psychosis].

    PubMed

    Mäki, Pirjo; Veijola, Juha

    2012-01-01

    Young person's first-episode psychosis may signify the onset of schizophrenia, psychotic depression or bipolar disorder. It can also be a brief condition resulting in full recovery. The psychosis may be caused by drugs. First-episode psychosis is usually preceded by a long period of nonspecific symptoms. Provision of close and active follow-up is important in the prodromal phase. Treatment of first-episode psychosis is individual. Usually it involves medication, individual discussions, psychotherapy or music therapy as well as family meetings. The therapy helps the young person become independent. PMID:22312825

  2. Acute pyelonephritis can have serious complications.

    PubMed

    Shields, Joanne; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2010-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) may predominantly involve the lower urinary tract, i.e. acute cystitis, or upper urinary tract consisting of the renal pelvis and kidney,, i.e. acute pyelonephritis The incidence of acute pyelonephritis is higher in young women than in men but the incidence in men over 65 is similar to that in older women. Women have up to a 10% risk of recurrent acute pyelonephritis in the year following a first acute episode. The equivalent risk in men is 6%. Acute pyelonephritis may be uncomplicated and resolve without serious sequelae. A minority of episodes may be complicated by acute kidney injury, papillary necrosis, renal or perinephric abscess or the development of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Acute pyelonephritis is generally caused by microorganisms ascending from the urethra via the bladder into the upper urinary tract. Rarely the kidney may be seeded by blood-borne infection. Ecoli is the most common uropathogen causing pyelonephritis accounting for 70-90% of infections. Species of Enterococci, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Staphylococci are responsible for the remaining infections. There is a rising incidence in the community of UTI with bacteria that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes. These ESBL bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporins and increasingly to quinolones. Risk factors for uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis include recent sexual intercourse, acute cystitis, stress incontinence and diabetes and for complicated acute pyelonephritis include pregnancy, diabetes, anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract and renal calculi. PMID:20486480

  3. How robust is the language architecture? The case of mood

    PubMed Central

    Van Berkum, Jos J. A.; De Goede, Dieuwke; Van Alphen, Petra M.; Mulder, Emma R.; Kerstholt, José H.

    2013-01-01

    In neurocognitive research on language, the processing principles of the system at hand are usually assumed to be relatively invariant. However, research on attention, memory, decision-making, and social judgment has shown that mood can substantially modulate how the brain processes information. For example, in a bad mood, people typically have a narrower focus of attention and rely less on heuristics. In the face of such pervasive mood effects elsewhere in the brain, it seems unlikely that language processing would remain untouched. In an EEG experiment, we manipulated the mood of participants just before they read texts that confirmed or disconfirmed verb-based expectations about who would be talked about next (e.g., that “David praised Linda because … ” would continue about Linda, not David), or that respected or violated a syntactic agreement rule (e.g., “The boys turns”). ERPs showed that mood had little effect on syntactic parsing, but did substantially affect referential anticipation: whereas readers anticipated information about a specific person when they were in a good mood, a bad mood completely abolished such anticipation. A behavioral follow-up experiment suggested that a bad mood did not interfere with verb-based expectations per se, but prevented readers from using that information rapidly enough to predict upcoming reference on the fly, as the sentence unfolds. In all, our results reveal that background mood, a rather unobtrusive affective state, selectively changes a crucial aspect of real-time language processing. This observation fits well with other observed interactions between language processing and affect (emotions, preferences, attitudes, mood), and more generally testifies to the importance of studying “cold” cognitive functions in relation to “hot” aspects of the brain. PMID:23986725

  4. How Do We Learn in a Negative Mood? Effects of a Negative Mood on Transfer and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Serge; Reimer, Torsten; Opwis, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Findings show that both positive and negative mood may hinder or promote information processing. In two experiments, we show that negative mood impairs transfer effects and learning. In the first experiment, N = 54 participants drawn from a training course for the Swiss Corps of Fortification Guards first learned to solve the three- and four-disk…

  5. Mood, stress and longevity: convergence on ANK3.

    PubMed

    Rangaraju, S; Levey, D F; Nho, K; Jain, N; Andrews, K D; Le-Niculescu, H; Salomon, D R; Saykin, A J; Petrascheck, M; Niculescu, A B

    2016-08-01

    effects in older worms. Thus, ANK3/unc-44 may represent an example of antagonistic pleiotropy, in which low-expression level in young animals are beneficial, but the age-associated increase becomes detrimental. Inactivating mutations in ANK3/unc-44 reverse this effect and cause detrimental effects in young animals (sensitivity to oxidative stress) and beneficial effect in old animals (increased survival). In humans, we studied if the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for depressive symptoms in ANK3 from our GWAS has a relationship to lifespan, and show a trend towards longer lifespan in individuals with the risk allele for depressive symptoms in men (odds ratio (OR) 1.41, P=0.031) but not in women (OR 1.08, P=0.33). We also examined whether ANK3, by itself or in a panel with other top CFG-prioritized genes, acts as a blood gene-expression biomarker for biological age, in two independent cohorts, one of live psychiatric patients (n=737), and one of suicide completers from the coroner's office (n=45). We show significantly lower levels of ANK3 expression in chronologically younger individuals than in middle age individuals, with a diminution of that effect in suicide completers, who presumably have been exposed to more severe and acute negative mood and stress. Of note, ANK3 was previously reported to be overexpressed in fibroblasts from patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, a form of accelerated aging. Taken together, these studies uncover ANK3 and other genes in our dataset as biological links between mood, stress and longevity/aging, that may be biomarkers as well as targets for preventive or therapeutic interventions. Drug repurposing bioinformatics analyses identified the relatively innocuous omega-3 fatty acid DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), piracetam, quercetin, vitamin D and resveratrol as potential longevity promoting compounds, along with a series of existing drugs, such as estrogen-like compounds, antidiabetics and sirolimus

  6. Acute recurrent appendicitis with appendicolith.

    PubMed

    Hollerman, J J; Bernstein, M A; Kottamasu, S R; Sirr, S A

    1988-11-01

    Appendiceal disease can be acute, acute recurrent, or chronic. Acute appendicitis is the most common form. Acute recurrent appendicitis is more common than chronic appendicitis. In children the clinical manifestations of appendicitis are variable. Patients who have an appendicolith usually develop appendicitis, often with perforation. A case is presented of 3-year follow-up of a patient with an appendicolith and acute recurrent appendicitis. The literature about appendicoliths is reviewed. In the appropriate clinical setting, a history of prior episodes of similar right lower quadrant pain does not preclude the diagnosis of appendiceal disease. Awareness of the less common forms of appendicitis is important so that appropriate treatment is not delayed. PMID:3052484

  7. Impact of REM sleep on distortions of self-concept, mood and memory in depressed/anxious participants

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Patrick; Auerbach, Sanford; Johnson, Patricia; Harris, Erica; Doros, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We tested the hypothesis that REM sleep contributes to core features of cognitive dysfunction of anxious depression including negative self-appraisals, biased memory processing and unpleasant dream content. Methods: After a habituation night in a sleep lab, a convenience sample of 35 healthy college students and 20 depressed/anxious students were awakened 10 minutes into a REM sleep episode and then 10 minutes into a NREM sleep episode. Awakenings were counterbalanced to control circadian effects. After each awakening participants reported a dream and then completed memory recall, mood and self-appraisal tasks. Results: Self-appraisals of depressed/anxious participants were significantly less positive and significantly more negative after awakenings from REM sleep vs NREM sleep. Appraisal of the REM sleep dream self was negative for depressed/anxious subjects only. Recall of negative memories was significantly more frequent after REM vs NREM sleep awakenings for both depress/anxious and healthy participants. REM sleep dreams were associated with greater frequencies of negative emotion, greater aggression and victimization rates than dreams in NREM sleep for depressed/anxious participants. Limitations: Depressed/anxious participants were classified as such on the basis of mood scales rather than clinical interview. All participants were drawn from a volunteer college student population and thus our results may not be applicable to some elderly clinical populations. Conclusions: REM appears to facilitate cognitive distortions of anxious depression. PMID:19631989

  8. Basal insulin regime change from Lantus to Toujeo resulted in fewer hypoglycaemic episodes in a 28-year-old man with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shields, Alexandra; Sankaranarayanan, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    An active 28-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus reported a reduced number of hypoglycaemic episodes following change in basal regime insulin glargine from U100 Lantus to U300 Toujeo. Consequently, an improved quality of life was also reported. Flash-based glucose monitoring was utilised to record 24-hour continuous glucose levels throughout two comparable 60-day periods before and after the change in regimen. Low blood glucose was most likely between 03:00 and 08:00. Nocturnal hypoglycaemic episodes (≤3.9 mmol/L) reduced by an average of 2.5 episodes per week. Severe hypoglycaemic episodes (≤2.9 mmol/L) reduced to an average of 0.4 per week, down from 1.5 per week. Nocturnal hypoglycaemic episodes reduced in frequency and severity. Furthermore, nocturnal hypoglycaemia episodes occurred in a more predictable time window. This was especially important in the reported reduction of impact on the patient's quality of life, as the episodes tended to be associated with anxiety and low mood. Patient education needed to facilitate this change was minimal, and benefits to the patient were great, including decreased sleep disturbances and reduced risk of associated anxiety symptoms. PMID:27307429

  9. Difference in the binocular rivalry rate between depressive episodes and remission.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ting; Ye, Xing; Wei, Qiang; Xie, Wen; Cai, Chunlan; Mu, Jingjing; Dong, Yi; Hu, Panpan; Hu, Xinglong; Tian, Yanghua; Wang, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Binocular rivalry refers to a phenomenon in which, when different images are presented to each eye simultaneously, perception alternates spontaneously between monocular views rather than being a superposition of the two images. Recently, the involvement of serotonin systems has been reported to be related to the phenomenon. There is abundant evidence for abnormalities of the serotonin systems in depression and the antidepressants that enhance 5-HT transmission, which in turn improves mood and behavior. However, the available data with respect to rivalry rates in depression are less clear. Therefore, we aimed to explore whether perceptual rivalry was affected by a dysfunctional serotonin system in patients with depression and whether there was a rivalry rate difference between episode and remission states in depression patients. Twenty-eight patients with depression and 30 healthy controls were recruited in the study. We assessed the rivalry rate and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with depression during clinical episode and remission states. The results suggested that alternation rates for patients during episodes were significantly slower than during remission and than in healthy controls. Also, alternation rates for patients during remission were slower than in healthy controls. These results may provide further clues to serotonergic neural systems contributing to the dynamics of perception rivalry and may foster enlightenment regarding the field of binocular rivalry in psychiatric disorders other than bipolar disorder. PMID:26247392

  10. The Brain Reward Circuitry in Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Scott J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders are common and debilitating conditions characterized in part by profound deficits in reward-related behavioral domains. A recent literature has identified important structural and functional alterations within the brain’s reward circuitry —particularly in the ventral tegmental area to nucleus accumbens pathway — that are associated with symptoms such as anhedonia and aberrant reward-associated perception and memory. This review synthesizes recent data from human and rodent studies from which emerges a circuit-level framework for understanding reward deficits in depression. We also discuss some of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of this framework, ranging from adaptations in glutamatergic synapses and neurotrophic factors to transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:23942470

  11. Attentional Biases and the Persistence of Sad Mood in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Clasen, Peter C.; Wells, Tony T.; Ellis, Alissa J.; Beevers, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether attentional biases for emotional information are associated with impaired mood recovery following a sad mood induction among individuals with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Attentional biases were assessed with an exogenous cuing task using emotional facial expressions as cues among adults with (n = 48) and without (n = 224) current MDD. Mood reactivity and recovery were measured following a sad mood induction. Mood reactivity strongly predicted mood recovery; however, this relationship was moderated by attentional biases for negative emotional stimuli. Biases for sad and fear stimuli were associated with diminished mood recovery following mood induction across the sample. However, biases for sad stimuli were associated with significantly greater impairments in mood recovery among individuals with MDD than healthy controls. Furthermore, within the MDD group, impaired mood recovery was positively associated with depression severity. These results suggest that attentional biases maintain depression, in part, by facilitating the persistence of sad mood. PMID:22867117

  12. The gastrointestinal tract microbiome, probiotics, and mood.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Bambling, Matthew; Alford, Hollie

    2014-12-01

    Mental health is closely linked to physical health. Depression (e.g., major depression) is highly prevalent worldwide and a major cause of disability. In a subgroup with treatment-resistant depression, standard pharmacotherapy interventions provide small if any incremental improvement in patient outcomes and may also require the application of an alternate approach. Therefore, in addition to the standard pharmacotherapies prescribed, patients will also be advised on the benefits of psychological counseling, electroconvulsive therapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation or increasing physical activity and reducing harmful substance consumption. Numerous nutraceuticals have a beneficial role in treatment-resistant depression and include, herbal medicines of which Hypericum perforatum is the best studied, omega-3 fatty acid preparations, S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), various mineral formulations (e.g., magnesium) and folate (singly or in combination with B group vitamins) are prescribed to a lesser extent. Furthermore, a largely neglected area of research activity has been the role of live probiotic cultures that contribute to repairing dysbiosis (a leaky gut barrier abnormality) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this commentary, we build a hypothesis that in addition suggests that GIT metabolites that are elaborated by the microbiome cohort may provide novel and significant avenues for efficacious therapeutic interventions for mood disorders. We posit that the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract is implicit as an important participant for the amelioration of adverse mood conditions via the diverse metabolic activities provided by live beneficial bacteria (probiotics) as an active adjuvant treatment. This activity is in part triggered by a controlled release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hence further questions the antioxidant/oxidative stress postulate. PMID:25266952

  13. Clinical care management and workflow by episodes.

    PubMed Central

    Claus, P. L.; Carpenter, P. C.; Chute, C. G.; Mohr, D. N.; Gibbons, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of clinically defined episodes of care and the introduction of an episode-based summary list of patient problems across Mayo Clinic Rochester in 1996 and 1997. Although Mayo's traditional paper-based system has always relied on a type of 'episode of care' (called the "registration") for patient and history management, a new, more clinically relevant definition of episode of care was put into practice in November 1996. This was done to improve care management and operational processes and to provide a basic construct for the electronic medical record. Also since November 1996, a computer-generated summary list of patient problems, the "Master Sheet Summary Report," organized by episode, has been placed in all patient histories. In the third quarter of 1997, the ability to view the episode-based problem summary online was made available to the 3000+ EMR-capable workstations deployed across the Mayo Rochester campus. In addition, the clinically oriented problem summarization process produces an improved basic "package" of clinical information expected to lead to improved analytic decision support, outcomes analysis and epidemiological research. PMID:9357595

  14. Sleep and adult neurogenesis: implications for cognition and mood.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Anka D; Meerlo, Peter; McGinty, Dennis; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a critical role in learning and memory throughout life, in part by the integration of adult-born neurons into existing circuits. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is regulated by numerous environmental, physiological, and behavioral factors known to affect learning and memory. Sleep is also important for learning and memory. Here we critically examine evidence from correlation, deprivation, and stimulation studies that sleep may be among those factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. There is mixed evidence for correlations between sleep variables and rates of hippocampal cell proliferation across the day, the year, and the lifespan. There is modest evidence that periods of increased sleep are associated with increased cell proliferation or survival. There is strong evidence that disruptions of sleep exceeding 24 h, by total deprivation, selective REM sleep deprivation, and chronic restriction or fragmentation, significantly inhibit cell proliferation and in some cases neurogenesis. The mechanisms by which sleep disruption inhibits neurogenesis are not fully understood. Although sleep disruption procedures are typically at least mildly stressful, elevated adrenal corticosterone secretion is not necessary for this effect. However, procedures that prevent both elevated corticosterone and interleukin 1β signaling have been found to block the effect of sleep deprivation on cell proliferation. This result suggests that sleep loss impairs hippocampal neurogenesis by the presence of wake-dependent factors, rather than by the absence of sleep-specific processes. This would weigh against a hypothesis that regulation of neurogenesis is a function of sleep. Nonetheless, impaired neurogenesis may underlie some of the memory and mood effects associated with acute and chronic sleep disruptions. PMID:24218292

  15. Mood states influence cognitive control: the case of conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Stefanie; Koch, Iring

    2015-09-01

    Conflict adaptation can be measured by the "congruency sequence effect", denoting the reduction of congruency effects after incongruent trials (where response conflict occurs) relative to congruent trials (without response conflict). Recently, it has been reported that conflict adaptation is larger in negative mood than in positive mood (van Steenbergen et al., Psychological Science 21:1629-1634, 2010). We conducted two experiments further investigating this important finding. Two different interference paradigms were applied to measure conflict adaptation: Experiment 1 was a Flanker task, Experiment 2 was a Stroop-like task. To get as pure a measure of conflict adaptation as possible, we minimized the influence of trial-to-trial priming effects by excluding all kinds of stimulus repetitions. Mood states were induced by presenting film clips with emotional content prior to the interference task. Three mood states were manipulated between subjects: amused, anxious, and sad. Across both interference paradigms, we consistently found conflict adaptation in negative, but not in positive mood. Taken together with van Steenbergen et al. (Psychological Science 21:1629-1634, 2010) findings, the results suggest that the negative-mood-triggered increase in conflict adaptation is a general phenomenon that occurs independently of the particular mood-induction procedure and interference paradigm involved. PMID:25100233

  16. Food-derived serotonergic modulators: effects on mood and cognition.

    PubMed

    Hulsken, Sjoerd; Märtin, Antje; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Homberg, Judith Regina

    2013-12-01

    The most frequently described drugs in the treatment of mood disorders are selective serotonin reuptake and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, enhancing serotonin levels in the brain. However, side-effects have been reported for these drugs. Because serotonin levels in the brain are dependent on the availability of the food-derived precursor tryptophan, foods such as chicken, soyabeans, cereals, tuna, nuts and bananas may serve as an alternative to improve mood and cognition. Here we discuss the effects of high- or low-tryptophan-containing food, as well as plant extracts with a modest monoamine reuptake and MAO-A inhibition functional profile, on mood and cognition in healthy and vulnerable human subjects and rodents. Together the studies suggest that there is an inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels, with low and too high tryptophan levels impairing cognition, and moderate to high tryptophan levels improving cognition. This relationship is found for both healthy and vulnerable subjects. Whereas this relationship may also exist for mood, the inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels and mood may be based on different tryptophan concentrations in healthy v. vulnerable individuals. Animal studies are emerging and allow further understanding of effects and the mode of action of food-derived serotonergic components on mood, cognition and mechanisms. Ultimately, insight into the concentrations of tryptophan and other serotonergic components in food having beneficial effects on mood and cognition in healthy, but particularly vulnerable, subjects may support well-being in our highly demanding society. PMID:24134856

  17. Preschoolers' Psychopathology and Temperament Predict Mothers' Later Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allmann, Anna E S; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Klein, Daniel N

    2016-04-01

    Considerable research exists documenting the relationship between maternal mood disorders, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD), and a variety of negative child outcomes. By contrast, research exploring the reverse pathway whereby child traits are associated with later maternal mood disorders is much more limited. We examined whether young children's temperament and psychopathology predicted maternal mood disorders approximately 6 years later. Child temperament and symptoms were assessed at age three using semi-structured diagnostic interviews and parent-report inventories. Maternal psychopathology was assessed with semi-structured interviews when children were 3 and 9 years old. Mothers also reported on their marital satisfaction when children were 3 and 6 years old. Child temperamental negative affectivity (NA), depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior problems significantly predicted maternal mood disorders over and above prior maternal mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. The link between children's early externalizing symptoms and maternal mood disorders 6 years later was mediated by maternal marital satisfaction 3 years after the initial assessment. These findings suggest that early child temperament and psychopathology contribute to risk for later maternal mood disorders both directly and through their impact on the marital system. Research indicates that effective treatment of maternal depression is associated with positive outcomes for children; however, this study suggests that treating early child problems may mitigate the risk of later maternal psychopathology. PMID:26219263

  18. Identifying blood biomarkers for mood disorders using convergent functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Le-Niculescu, H; Kurian, S M; Yehyawi, N; Dike, C; Patel, S D; Edenberg, H J; Tsuang, M T; Salomon, D R; Nurnberger, J I; Niculescu, A B

    2009-02-01

    There are to date no objective clinical laboratory blood tests for mood disorders. The current reliance on patient self-report of symptom severity and on the clinicians' impression is a rate-limiting step in effective treatment and new drug development. We propose, and provide proof of principle for, an approach to help identify blood biomarkers for mood state. We measured whole-genome gene expression differences in blood samples from subjects with bipolar disorder that had low mood vs those that had high mood at the time of the blood draw, and separately, changes in gene expression in brain and blood of a mouse pharmacogenomic model. We then integrated our human blood gene expression data with animal model gene expression data, human genetic linkage/association data and human postmortem brain data, an approach called convergent functional genomics, as a Bayesian strategy for cross-validating and prioritizing findings. Topping our list of candidate blood biomarker genes we have five genes involved in myelination (Mbp, Edg2, Mag, Pmp22 and Ugt8), and six genes involved in growth factor signaling (Fgfr1, Fzd3, Erbb3, Igfbp4, Igfbp6 and Ptprm). All of these genes have prior evidence of differential expression in human postmortem brains from mood disorder subjects. A predictive score developed based on a panel of 10 top candidate biomarkers (five for high mood and five for low mood) shows sensitivity and specificity for high mood and low mood states, in two independent cohorts. Our studies suggest that blood biomarkers may offer an unexpectedly informative window into brain functioning and disease state. PMID:18301394

  19. Formal thought disorder in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ayer, Ahmet; Yalınçetin, Berna; Aydınlı, Esra; Sevilmiş, Şilay; Ulaş, Halis; Binbay, Tolga; Akdede, Berna Binnur; Alptekin, Köksal

    2016-10-01

    Formal thought disorder (FTD) is one of the fundamental symptom clusters of schizophrenia and it was found to be the strongest predictor determining conversion from first-episode acute transient psychotic disorder to schizophrenia. Our goal in the present study was to compare a first-episode psychosis (FEP) sample to a healthy control group in relation to subtypes of FTD. Fifty six patients aged between 15 and 45years with FEP and forty five control subjects were included in the study. All the patients were under medication for less than six weeks or drug-naive. FTD was assessed using the Thought and Language Index (TLI), which is composed of impoverishment of thought and disorganization of thought subscales. FEP patients showed significantly higher scores on the items of poverty of speech, weakening of goal, perseveration, looseness, peculiar word use, peculiar sentence construction and peculiar logic compared to controls. Poverty of speech, perseveration and peculiar word use were the significant factors differentiating FEP patients from controls when controlling for years of education, family history of psychosis and drug abuse. PMID:27565775

  20. Pharmacologic Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nandhra, Harpal Sing; Singh, Swaran P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the evidence base for the efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotic medication for the treatment of the first episode of schizophrenia. Data Source: MEDLINE databases were searched for published articles in English over the last 25 years, from January 1986 to January 2011, on choice of antipsychotic treatment for the first episode of schizophrenia, with an emphasis on efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotic drugs in the acute phase of psychotic illness. Study Selection: The keywords antipsychotic drugs and schizophrenia were used in combination with drug treatment, pharmacologic treatment, efficacy, and tolerability in addition to atypical antipsychotics, first-generation antipsychotics, second-generation antipsychotics, first-episode psychosis, and acute psychotic episode. Data Synthesis: At present, there is no convincing evidence to guide clinicians in choosing a single first-line antipsychotic that is effective in treating the positive and negative symptoms of the first episode of schizophrenia. Even though second-generation antipsychotic drugs offer potential benefits in terms of less extrapyramidal side effects and some benefits in treating negative, affective, and cognitive symptoms, these drugs are not without their own side effects. Conclusions: With the introduction of a number of second-generation antipsychotic drugs there have been significant advances in antipsychotic drug treatment over the last decade. Despite these advances, there are still a number of limitations in continued use of some antipsychotic medications due to their efficacy and tolerability issues in the acute and early maintenance phases of psychosis. Active research in this area would provide more promising results of improved efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotic medication. PMID:22690369

  1. Attentional capture by emotional scenes across episodes in bipolar disorder: Evidence from a free-viewing task.

    PubMed

    García-Blanco, Ana; Salmerón, Ladislao; Perea, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether the initial orienting, subsequent engagement, and overall allocation of attention are determined exogenously (i.e. by the affective valence of the stimulus) or endogenously (i.e. by the participant's mood) in the manic, depressive and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Participants were asked to compare the affective valence of two pictures (happy/threatening/neutral [emotional] vs. neutral [control]) while their eye movements were recorded in a free-viewing task. Results revealed that the initial orienting was exogenously captured by emotional images relative to control images. Importantly, engagement and overall allocation were endogenously captured by threatening images relative to neutral images in BD patients, regardless of their episode--this effect did not occur in a group of healthy controls. The threat-related bias in BD, which occurs even at the early stages of information processing (i.e. attentional engagement), may reflect a vulnerability marker. PMID:25796341

  2. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    PubMed Central

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  3. What to Do When Your School's in a Bad Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Tschannen-Moran, Bob

    2014-01-01

    "We can think of morale as an organizational mood," the authors write, "and we can view a school with low morale as a school that's in a bad mood." School leaders can improve mood and raise morale by implementing three strategies that promote the kind of good mood that fosters student learning and success. School leaners…

  4. Understanding the Relationship between Mood and Creativity: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 62 experimental and 10 non-experimental studies was conducted to evaluate the positive-mood-enhances-creativity generalization. While the results demonstrate that positive mood enhances creativity, the strength of that effect is contingent upon the comparative or referent mood state (i.e., neutral or negative mood) as well as…

  5. Emotional Language Processing: How Mood Affects Integration Processes during Discourse Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egidi, Giovanna; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2012-01-01

    This research tests whether mood affects semantic processing during discourse comprehension by facilitating integration of information congruent with moods' valence. Participants in happy, sad, or neutral moods listened to stories with positive or negative endings during EEG recording. N400 peak amplitudes showed mood congruence for happy and sad…

  6. Able but Not Motivated? The Relative Effects of Happy and Sad Mood on Persuasive Message Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Monique M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of happy and sad moods on systematic processing among undergraduate students. Discusses how research has indicated that positive mood leads to less systematic processing, and negative mood heightens systematic processing. Indicates that persons in a positive mood do have the cognitive capacity to process systematically, but…

  7. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or though physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute ...

  8. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  9. Happiness as alchemy: Positive mood leads to self-serving responses to social comparisons.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Camille S; Stapel, Diederik A

    2011-06-01

    People in a positive mood process information in ways that reinforce and maintain this positive mood. The current studies examine how positive mood influences responses to social comparisons and demonstrates that people in a positive mood interpret ambiguous information about comparison others in self-benefitting ways. Specifically, four experiments demonstrate that compared to negative mood or neutral mood participants, participants in a positive mood engage in effortful re-interpretations of ambiguously similar comparison targets so that they may assimilate to upward comparison targets and contrast from downward comparison targets. PMID:21660089

  10. Correlates of Homeless Episodes among Indigenous People

    PubMed Central

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the correlates of homeless episodes among 873 Indigenous adults who are part of an ongoing longitudinal study on four reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves. Descriptive analyses depict differences between those who have and have not experienced an episode of homelessness in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses assess factors associated with a history of homeless episodes at the time of their first interview. Results show that individuals with a history of homeless episodes had significantly more individual and family health, mental health, and substance abuse problems. Periods of homelessness also were associated with financial problems. Among the female caretakers who experienced episodes of homelessness over the course of the study, the majority had been homeless at least once prior to the start of the study and approximately one–fifth met criteria for lifetime alcohol dependence, drug abuse, or major depression. Family adversity during childhood was also common for women experiencing homelessness during the study. PMID:21656303

  11. Glutamatergic Modulators: The Future of Treating Mood Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Carlos; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Henter, Ioline; Ibrahim, Lobna; Diazgranados, Nancy; Salvadore, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Mood disorders such as bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are common, chronic, and recurrent conditions affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Existing antidepressants and mood stabilizers used to treat these disorders are insufficient for many. Patients continue to have low remission rates, delayed onset of action, residual subsyndromal symptoms, and relapses. New therapeutic agents able to exert faster and sustained antidepressant or mood-stabilizing effects are urgently needed to treat these disorders. In this context, the glutamatergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders in unique clinical and neurobiological ways. In addition to evidence confirming the role of the glutamatergic modulators riluzole and ketamine as proof-of-concept agents in this system, trials with diverse glutamatergic modulators are under way. Overall, this system holds considerable promise for developing the next generation of novel therapeutics for the treatment of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. PMID:20825266

  12. Relationship of pregnanediol level to cognitive behavior and mood.

    PubMed

    Graham, E A; Glasser, M

    1985-01-01

    This work examines data secured from a larger study relating cognitive behavior and mood in women to variation in estrogen level. The larger study noted that performance tended to be better during the luteal phase. The present analysis looks at the relationship of urinary pregnanediol levels with mood and cognitive behaviors. Thirty women with non-oral contraceptive-controlled menstrual cycles were tested during the luteal phase on a battery of cognitive tests and a variation of the Clyde Mood Scale. The cognitive tests were selected based upon the automatization versus perceptual restructuring dimensions described by Broverman and colleagues. Pregnanediol levels were measured in 24-hour urine specimens collected on the same day. Results show a significant relationship of pregnanediol level with mental subtraction and with time estimation. Perceptual restructuring tasks in general (perceptual restructuring index) showed a significant positive relationship with pregnanediol levels. Mood, however, was not found to be related to pregnanediol levels. PMID:3975325

  13. The Brussels Mood Inductive Audio Stories (MIAS) database.

    PubMed

    Bertels, Julie; Deliens, Gaétane; Peigneux, Philippe; Destrebecqz, Arnaud

    2014-12-01

    Through this study, we aimed to validate a new tool for inducing moods in experimental contexts. Five audio stories with sad, joyful, frightening, erotic, or neutral content were presented to 60 participants (33 women, 27 men) in a within-subjects design, each for about 10 min. Participants were asked (1) to report their moods before and after listening to each story, (2) to assess the emotional content of the excerpts on various emotional scales, and (3) to rate their level of projection into the stories. The results confirmed our a priori emotional classification. The emotional stories were effective in inducing the desired mood, with no difference found between male and female participants. These stories therefore constitute a valuable corpus for inducing moods in French-speaking participants, and they are made freely available for use in scientific research. PMID:24519495

  14. Social support and depressed mood in isolated and confined environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.

    2004-05-01

    The influence of isolation and confinement on social support and depressed mood was examined in a study of 235 men and women who spent a year at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and a study of 77 men and women who spent a year at the Amundson-Scott South Pole Station. Although availability of support remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in reported satisfaction with support obtained, as well as a significant increase in depressed mood. Satisfaction with support was inversely associated with depressed mood at the beginning and end of isolation and confinement. At the end of winter, this association varied by source of support. High levels of tension-anxiety, depression and anger preceded an increase in advice seeking, but high levels of advice seeking also preceded an increase in tension-anxiety and depression. Results suggest a significant erosion of social support under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement, leading to an increase in depressed mood.

  15. [Somatic complaints, mood states, and emotional awareness in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rieffe, Carolien; Villanueva, Lidón; Adrián, Juan E; Górriz, Ana B

    2009-08-01

    Health complaints are a common problem in adolescents, but a medical cause can only be found in few cases. Therefore, increasing attention is paid to psychological factors that might be related. Two areas of emotional functioning are frequently referred to in this respect: negative mood and emotional awareness. In this study, we examined whether emotional awareness contributes uniquely to the prediction of somatic complaints over and above negative mood. Self-report questionnaires of somatic complaints, mood states, and emotional awareness were completed in class by 441 adolescents, between 13 and 15 years old. Results showed that emotional awareness only presents a limited unique contribution to the prediction of somatic complaints. This contribution is moderated by mood states, except for two aspects of emotional awareness: bodily awareness of emotions and attending to others' emotions. This strengthens the hypothesis that emotional awareness precedes affective states, which, in turn, have an effect on youngsters' health perceptions. PMID:19622329

  16. Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Major Ups and Downs Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings Most people feel happy ... Strike Out Stroke Wise Choices Links Dealing with Bipolar Disorder If you have bipolar disorder, get treatment and ...

  17. Clinical Trials: Information and Options for People with Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/Disorders Related ... for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies ...

  18. Current Neural and Behavioral Dimensional Constructs across Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Langenecker, Scott A.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Passarotti, Alessandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the underlying neurobiology for mood disorders is still limited. We present an integrated model for conceptualizing and understanding mood disorders drawing upon a broad literature pertinent to mood disorders. The integrated model of emotion processing and regulation incorporates the linguistic constructs of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. In particular, we focus on the Positive Valence domain/circuit (PVC), highlighting recent reward research and the Negative Valence domain/circuit (NVC), highlighting rumination. Furthermore, we also illustrate the Cognitive Control and Problem Solving (CCaPS) circuit, which is heavily involved in emotion regulation, as well as the default mode network (DMN) and interactions between circuits. We conclude by proposing methods for addressing challenges in the developmental study of mood disorders including using high-risk design that incorporates risk for many disorders. PMID:25147755

  19. Sleep Apnea May Take Toll on Your Mood, Thinking Skills

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157515.html Sleep Apnea May Take Toll on Your Mood, Thinking ... 29, 2016 MONDAY, Feb. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep apnea may have an impact on brain function, ...

  20. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  1. Acupuncture-brain interactions as hypothesized by mood scale recordings.

    PubMed

    Acker, Helmut; Schmidt-Rathjens, Claudia; Acker, Till; Fandrey, Joachim; Ehleben, Wilhelm

    2015-09-01

    Mood expressions encompassing positive scales like "activity, elation, contemplation, calmness" and negative scales like "anger, excitement, depression, fatigue" were applied for introducing a new tool to assess the effects of acupuncture on brain structures. Traditional acupuncture points defined in the literature for their effects on task negative and task positive brain structures were applied to chronic disease patients supposed to have dominant negative mood scales. Burn-out syndrome (n=10) and female chronic pain patients (n=22) showed a significant improvement on positive mood scales and a decline in negative mood scales after 10 acupuncture sessions. We observed a direct effect of acupuncture on brain structures in 5 burn-out syndrome patients showing an immediate, fast suppression of unusual slow high amplitude EEG waves in response to acupuncture needle rotation. These EEG waves described here for the first time in awake patients disappeared after 10 sessions but gradually returned after 1-1.5 years without acupuncture. This was accompanied with deterioration of positive mood scales and a return to negative mood scales. Both male (n=16) and female chronic pain patients reported a significant decrease of pain intensity after 10 sessions. Female patients only, however, showed a linear correlation between initial pain intensity and pain relief as well as a linear correlation between changes in pain intensity and mood scales accompanied by a drop of their heart rate during the acupuncture sessions. We hypothesized that mood scale recordings are a sensitive and specific new tool to reveal individual acupuncture-brain interaction. PMID:26025590

  2. A Derived Transfer of Mood Functions through Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Smeets, Paul M.; Luciano, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the transfer of induced happy and sad mood functions through equivalence relations. Sixteen subjects participated in a combined equivalence and mood induction procedure. In Phase 1, all subjects were trained in 2 conditional discriminations using a matching-to-sample format (i.e., A1-B1, A2-B2, A1-C1, A2-C2). In…

  3. Influence of the composition of a meal taken after physical exercise on mood, vigilance, performance.

    PubMed

    Verger, P; Lagarde, D; Batejat, D; Maitre, J F

    1998-06-01

    The metabolic and behavioral effects of nutrients after exercise on vigilance level, performance, and mood have been minimally studied and have given contradictory results. In order to increase the understanding of the relationships between nutrition, exercise and performance, this experiment compared the effects on mood and performance of a protein- rich meal and a protein- poor meal, eaten just after an acute session of exercise. Vigilance and mood were evaluated by visual analog scales, and memory was measured by memory search task from the AGARD STRES battery, based on the Sternberg paradigm. Forty-two subjects were involved in this experiment. All subjects participated in the study of the effect of exercise after two kinds of meals (protein and nonprotein). Two groups of fourteen subjects we used to evaluate the effect of the exercise and the effect of the delay of meal intake after exercise in the two kinds of diet. The results show no difference in memory performance between exercise and rest conditions, nor between "protein" and "no protein" meal groups. They do show, however, that subjects feel happier after a meal with protein than after a meal without protein. The effects of the "no protein" meal on drowsiness differ with the glucide content of the meal. Subjects are less drowsy when they eat between 125 and 150 g of glucide than when they eat more than 150 g. The rousing effect induced by physical exercise is counterbalanced when subjects eat more than 150 g of carbohydrate. The anxiolytic effect of glucide is re-established. PMID:9748099

  4. A momentary biomarker for depressive mood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhyuk; Nakamura, Toru; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-12-01

    Many biomarkers from genetic, neuroimaging, and biological/biochemical measures have been recently developed in order to make a shift toward the objective evaluation of psychiatric disorders. However, they have so far been less successful in capturing dynamical changes or transitions in pathological states, such as those occurring during the course of clinical treatments or pathogenic processes of disorders. A momentary biomarker is now required for objective monitoring of such dynamical changes. The development of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) allows the assessment of dynamical aspects of diurnal/daily clinical conditions and subjective symptoms. Furthermore, a variety of validation studies on momentary symptoms assessed by EMA using behavioral/physiological/biochemical measures have demonstrated the possibility of evaluating momentary symptoms from such external objective measures. In this review, we introduce physical activity as a candidate biobehavioral biomarker for psychiatric disorders. We also mention its potential as a momentary biomarker for depressive mood. Finally, we address the continuous monitoring of the pathogenic processes and pathological states of depressive disorders based on physical activity, as well as its application in pharmacological animal studies. PMID:26979449

  5. Mood stabilizers in pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Management of bipolar during pregnancy and postpartum is very challenging. The treating clinicians have to take into account various factors like current mental state, longitudinal history of the patient, past history of relapse while off medication, response to medication, time of pregnancy at which patient presents to the clinician, etc. The choice of drug should depend on the balance between safety and efficacy profile. Whenever patient is on psychotropic medication, close and intensive monitoring should be done. Among the various mood stabilizers, use of lithium during the second and third trimester appears to be safe. Use of valproate during first trimester is associated with major malformation and long-term sequalae in the form of developmental delay, lower intelligence quotient, and higher risk of development of autism spectrum disorder. Similarly use of carbamazepine in first trimester is associated with higher risk of major congenital malformation and its use in first trimester is contraindicated. Data for lamotrigine (LTG) appears to be more favorable than other antiepileptics. During lactation, use of valproate and LTG is reported to be safe. Use of typical and/atypical antipsychotic is a good option during pregnancy in women with bipolar disorder. PMID:26330649

  6. Situated navigational working memory: the role of positive mood.

    PubMed

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Rogolino, Carmelo; D'Amico, Simonetta; Piccardi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The perspective of situated cognition assumes that cognition is not separated from the context. In the present study, the issue if visuospatial memory and navigational working memory are situated was explored by manipulating participants' mood (positive, negative and neutral) while performing two different tasks. College students were randomly assigned to the group of positive, negative or neutral music. Participants filled out the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) before and after carrying out the Corsi Test and the Walking Corsi Test. Both tasks were performed forward and backward. Music was played throughout the memory tasks. Firstly, comparing pre-mood induction PANAS scores to post-mood induction PANAS scores, results showed that only positive affects were manipulated: After mood induction, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores, whereas the Negative Music Group produced lower scores than before mood induction; the Neutral Music Group produced no effect. Secondly, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores than Negative and Neutral Music Groups both at the Corsi Test and at the Walking Corsi Test. These results show that situational contexts that induce a specific mood can affect visuospatial memory and navigational working memory, and open to the idea that positive emotions may play a crucial role in enhancing navigational strategies. PMID:26216759

  7. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes.

    PubMed

    Netz, Yael; Lidor, Ronnie

    2003-09-01

    The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais, swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed. PMID:14629072

  8. On the Evolution and Optimality of Mood States

    PubMed Central

    Trimmer, Pete C.; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Mendl, Mike T.; McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.

    2013-01-01

    Moods can be regarded as fluctuating dispositions to make positive and negative evaluations. Developing an evolutionary approach to mood as an adaptive process, we consider the structure and function of such states in guiding behavioural decisions regarding the acquisition of resources and the avoidance of harm in different circumstances. We use a drift diffusion model of decision making to consider the information required by individuals to optimise decisions between two alternatives, such as whether to approach or withdraw from a stimulus that may be life enhancing or life threatening. We show that two dimensions of variation (expectation and preparedness) are sufficient for such optimal decisions to be made. These two dispositional dimensions enable individuals to maximize the overall benefits of behavioural decisions by modulating both the choice made (e.g., approach/withdraw) and decision speed. Such a structure is compatible with circumplex models of subjectively experienced mood and core affect, and provides testable hypotheses concerning the relationships that occur between valence and arousal components of mood in differing ecological niches. The paper is therefore a useful step toward being able to predict moods (and the effect of moods) using an optimality approach. PMID:25379252

  9. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks

    PubMed Central

    Hill, E. M.; Griffiths, F. E.; House, T.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6–12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. PMID:26290075

  10. Pre-flight safety briefings, mood and information retention.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Morteza; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2015-11-01

    Mood is a moderating factor that is known to affect performance. For airlines, the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing prior to a commercial flight is not only an opportunity to inform passengers about the safety features on-board the aircraft they are flying, but an opportunity to positively influence their mood, and hence performance in the unlikely event of an emergency. The present research examined whether indeed the pre-flight safety briefing could be used to positively impact passengers' mood. In addition, the present research examined whether the recall of key safety messages contained within the pre-flight safety briefing was influenced by the style of briefing. Eighty-two participants were recruited for the research and divided into three groups; each group exposed to a different pre-flight cabin safety briefing video (standard, humorous, movie theme). Mood was measured prior and post safety briefing. The results revealed that pre-flight safety briefing videos can be used to manipulate passengers' mood. Safety briefings that are humorous or use movie themes to model their briefing were found to positively affect mood. However, there was a trade-off between entertainment and education, the greater the entertainment value, the poorer the retention of key safety messages. The results of the research are discussed from both an applied and theoretical perspective. PMID:26154236

  11. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks.

    PubMed

    Hill, E M; Griffiths, F E; House, T

    2015-08-22

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6-12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. PMID:26290075

  12. Timing of spontaneous sleep-paralysis episodes.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Cheyne, J Allan

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this prospective naturalistic field study was to determine the distribution of naturally occurring sleep-paralysis (SP) episodes over the course of nocturnal sleep and their relation to bedtimes. Regular SP experiencers (N = 348) who had previously filled out a screening assessment for SP as well as a general sleep survey were recruited. Participants reported, online over the World Wide Web, using a standard reporting form, bedtimes and subsequent latencies of spontaneous episodes of SP occurring in their homes shortly after their occurrence. The distribution of SP episodes over nights was skewed to the first 2 h following bedtime. Just over one quarter of SP episodes occurred within 1 h of bedtime, although episodes were reported throughout the night with a minor mode around the time of normal waking. SP latencies following bedtimes were moderately consistent across episodes and independent of bedtimes. Additionally, profiles of SP latencies validated self-reported hypnagogic, hypnomesic, and hypnopompic SP categories, as occurring near the beginning, middle, and end of the night/sleep period respectively. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that SP timing is controlled by mechanisms initiated at or following sleep onset. These results also suggest that SP, rather than uniquely reflecting anomalous sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, may result from failure to maintain sleep during REM periods at any point during the sleep period. On this view, SP may sometimes reflect the maintenance of REM consciousness when waking and SP hallucinations the continuation of dream experiences into waking life. PMID:16704578

  13. Being a grump only makes things worse: a transactional account of acute stress on mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Vinski, Melaina T.; Watter, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high-stress or low-stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task as a measure of mind-wandering behavior. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high-stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind-wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter) immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood. PMID:24273520

  14. The Effect of Observers’ Mood on the Local Processing of Emotional Faces: Evidence from Short-Lived and Prolonged Mood States

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Setareh; Buttle, Heather

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of induced mood, varying in valence and longevity, on local processing of emotional faces. It was found that negative facial expression conveyed by the global level of the face interferes with efficient processing of the local features. The results also showed that the duration of involvement with a mood influenced the local processing. We observed that attending to the local level of faces is not different in short-lived happy and sad mood states. However, as the mood state is experienced for a longer period, local processing was impaired in happy mood compared to sad mood. Taken together, we concluded that both facial expressions and affective states influence processing of the local parts of faces. Moreover, we suggest that mediating factors like the duration of involvement with the mood play a role in the interrelation between mood, attention, and perception. PMID:25883696

  15. Evaluation of Risk Factors for Recurrent Wheezing Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Bozaykut, Abdulkadir; Paketci, Ahu; Sezer, Rabia Gonul; Paketci, Cem

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for recurrent wheezing in patients diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis. Method From 2009 to 2011, 500 patients from the pediatric clinics, with first attack of acute bronchiolitis were included in this prospective study. Each patient’s age, gender, birth weight, duration of breastfeeding, family history of atopy and asthma, smoking exposure, source of heating in the house, the presence of pets, any history of chronic disease have been questioned. The patients were followed for a duration of 12 - 24 months. Results In this study, 39% (n = 195) of the cases were female and 61% (n = 305) were male, with a median age of 3 months old. Male gender, low birth weight (< 2,500 g), low gestational age (< 37 weeks), breastfeeding of less than 6 months, congenital heart disease, family history of atopy, asthma, smoking exposure, stove warming, was found as significant risk factors for recurrent wheezing, however, presence of pets at home was found to be a protective factor. Conclusions Informing parents about the risk factors such as exposure to cigarette smoke, heating mode, duration of breastfeeding can significantly decrease recurrent episodes of wheezing. PMID:23976913

  16. Acute Gastric Dilatation in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, K. P.; Klidjian, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Two patients with anorexia nervosa were treated on a general surgical unit for acute gastric dilatation. In both cases the dilatation rapidly followed an increase in the usual low dietary intake of the patients, and the ingestion of extra food may have initiated the acute episode. Conservative treatment with parenteral fluids, nasogastric intubation, and then a gradual return to a normal diet proved a satisfactory method of management. In one patient the anorexia itself was improved. PMID:4834098

  17. A Pilot Study of Mood Ratings Captured by Mobile Phone Versus Paper-and-Pencil Mood Charts in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Depp, Colin A.; Kim, Daniel H.; de Dios, Laura Vergel; Wang, Vicki; Ceglowski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Objective Patient reported mood charts are frequently used in management of bipolar disorder. Although mood charts have recently been programmed in electronic devices such as mobile phones, little is known about the impact of the method of data capture on the psychometric properties and validity of these data. Methods In an ongoing pilot study, a sample of outpatients with bipolar disorder were randomized to either complete mood charts on a mobile phone or a standard paper-and-pencil mood chart as part of a 12 week-intervention (primary outcomes for the trial await study completion). We compared these conditions across single item rating of mood state, and we hypothesized that mobile phone based data capture would produce greater compliance to mood ratings, variability between and within participants, and concurrent validity with blinded clinician-rated affective symptom severity. Results A total of 56 participants were randomized and 40 participants were included in the analyses. There were no significant differences between conditions on demographic or clinical variables. The rate of compliance was significantly higher in paper-and-pencil versus mobile phone ratings. Ratings demonstrated significantly more variability within individuals in the mobile phone condition. Mobile phone mood ratings were significantly correlated with clinician-rated depressive symptom severity across the study and with manic symptom severity at the Week 6 assessment, whereas paper-and-pencil ratings were not significantly associated with clinician-rated depression or mania. Conclusions Although preliminary, our results suggest a lower rate of compliance with mobile phones compared to paper-and-pencil daily mood rating in bipolar disorder, yet a greater ability to capture variability and concurrent validity in quantifying affective symptoms. This clinical trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01670123. PMID:23646035

  18. The effects of allostatic load on neural systems subserving motivation, mood regulation, and social affiliation.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Neuhaus, Emily; Zalewski, Maureen; Crowell, Sheila E; Potapova, Natalia

    2011-11-01

    The term allostasis, which is defined as stability through change, has been invoked repeatedly by developmental psychopathologists to describe long-lasting and in some cases permanent functional alterations in limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responding following recurrent and/or prolonged exposure to stress. Increasingly, allostatic load models have also been invoked to describe psychological sequelae of abuse, neglect, and other forms of maltreatment. In contrast, neural adaptations to stress, including those incurred by monoamine systems implicated in (a) mood and emotion regulation, (b) behavioral approach, and (c) social affiliation and attachment, are usually not included in models of allostasis. Rather, structural and functional alterations in these systems, which are exquisitely sensitive to prolonged stress exposure, are usually explained as stress mediators, neural plasticity, and/or programming effects. Considering these mechanisms as distinct from allostasis is somewhat artificial given overlapping functions and intricate coregulation of monoamines and the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. It also fractionates literatures that should be mutually informative. In this article, we describe structural and functional alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic, and noradrenergic neural systems following both acute and prolonged exposure to stress. Through increases in behavioral impulsivity, trait anxiety, mood and emotion dysregulation, and asociality, alterations in monoamine functioning have profound effects on personality, attachment relationships, and the emergence of psychopathology. PMID:22018077

  19. Effects of serotonin and catecholamine depletion on interleukin-6 activation and mood in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ben J; Olver, James S; Norman, Trevor R; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2002-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that depression and related neurotic illnesses are associated with alterations in immune function that may contribute to their pathogenesis. For example, clinical and experimental studies have shown that abnormal HPA-axis activation and monoamine neurotransmission may be related to an increased release of proinflammatory cytokines from stimulated lymphocytes in the periphery and brain. In the present investigation, the effects of tryptophan depletion (TD) on unstimulated plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were investigated in order to determine whether acute changes in serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission would induce a proinflammatory response in healthy individuals. The effects of TD were compared with the analogous procedure of tyrosine depletion (TPD), which reduces catecholamine metabolism in humans. Thirteen female participants completed three experimental sessions: TD, TPD and a balanced-control condition (B). Mood-ratings and blood sampling were performed at baseline and 5 h after the administration of the mixtures. Analyses revealed that TD and TPD markedly reduced tryptophan and tyrosine/phenylalanine levels, respectively. No changes in plasma IL-6 production or ratings of lowered mood were observed, however, subjects did report feeling more fatigued after TD. These findings indicate that a transient disruption in global monoamine function does not stimulate a proinflammatory response of IL-6 in normal volunteers. PMID:12404674

  20. Prediction of Acute Respiratory Disease in Current and Former Smokers With and Without COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A. A.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Make, Barry J.; Lynch, David A.; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George R.; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J.; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K.; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J. Michael; Hersh, Craig P.; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P.; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Kazerooni, Ella; Hanania, Nicola; Alapat, Philip; Bandi, Venkata; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha; Guy, Elizabeth; Lunn, William; Mallampalli, Antara; Trinh, Charles; Atik, Mustafa; DeMeo, Dawn; Hersh, Craig; Jacobson, Francine; Graham Barr, R.; Thomashow, Byron; Austin, John; MacIntyre, Neil; Washington, Lacey; Page McAdams, H.; Rosiello, Richard; Bresnahan, Timothy; McEvoy, Charlene; Tashjian, Joseph; Wise, Robert; Hansel, Nadia; Brown, Robert; Casaburi, Richard; Porszasz, Janos; Fischer, Hans; Budoff, Matt; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Niewoehner, Dennis; Allen, Tadashi; Rice, Kathryn; Foreman, Marilyn; Westney, Gloria; Berkowitz, Eugene; Bowler, Russell; Friedlander, Adam; Meoni, Eleonora; Criner, Gerard; Kim, Victor; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Satti, Aditi; James Mamary, A.; Steiner, Robert; Dass, Chandra; Bailey, William; Dransfield, Mark; Gerald, Lynn; Nath, Hrudaya; Ramsdell, Joe; Ferguson, Paul; Friedman, Paul; McLennan, Geoffrey; van Beek, Edwin JR; Martinez, Fernando; Han, MeiLan; Thompson, Deborah; Kazerooni, Ella; Wendt, Christine; Allen, Tadashi; Sciurba, Frank; Weissfeld, Joel; Fuhrman, Carl; Bon, Jessica; Anzueto, Antonio; Adams, Sandra; Orozco, Carlos; Santiago Restrepo, C.; Mumbower, Amy; Crapo, James; Silverman, Edwin; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Samet, Jonathan; Willis, Amy; Stinson, Douglas; Beaty, Terri; Klanderman, Barbara; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Ionita, Iuliana; Santorico, Stephanie; Silverman, Edwin; Lynch, David; Schroeder, Joyce; Newell, John; Reilly, John; Coxson, Harvey; Judy, Philip; Hoffman, Eric; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George; Leek, Rebecca; Zach, Jordan; Kluiber, Alex; Rodionova, Anastasia; Mann, Tanya; Crapo, Robert; Jensen, Robert; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Murphy, James; Everett, Douglas; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. METHODS: Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. RESULTS: At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. PMID:24945159

  1. Acute small bowel obstruction due to chicken bone bezoar

    PubMed Central

    Vetpillai, Preadeepan; Oshowo, Ayo

    2012-01-01

    Acute intestinal obstruction due to foreign bodies, or bezoar, is a rare occurrence in an adult with a normal intestinal tract. We report an unusual case of a 43-year-old black man with no previous abdominal surgery and no significant medical history who presented with an acute episode of small bowel obstruction due to an impacted undigested chicken bone. PMID:23754931

  2. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Video Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    The transcripts of dialogues from videotape recordings were developed, along with accompanying language laboratory material, as part of a one-semester course in Spanish for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America. Included are 48 episodes covering such topics as: working with a local Spanish-speaking counterpart,…

  3. Autobiographical Thinking Interferes with Episodic Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Michael; Della Sala, Sergio; Dewar, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an ‘internal’ memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues. PMID:24736665

  4. Effects of Episodic Crowding: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, John R.

    The social, behavioral, and physiological effects of episodic crowding on children and elderly adults are reported in this paper. Children ranging in ages from 9 to 16 and elderly adults ranging in ages from 60 to 90 were grouped by age into small and large rooms. Each group sat silently for 30 minutes in the rooms while skin conductance equipment…

  5. Episodic Accretion among the Orion Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, William J.; Safron, Emily; Megeath, S. Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Episodic accretion, where a young stellar object undergoes stochastic spikes in its disk-to-star accretion rate one or more times over its formation period, may be a crucial process in the formation of low-mass stars. These spikes result in a factor of 10 to 100 increase in the source luminosity over the course of several months that may persist for years. Six years after the Spitzer survey of the Orion molecular clouds, the WISE telescope mapped Orion with similar wavelength coverage. Thus, the two surveys can be used to explore the mid-infrared variability of young stars on this timescale, which is suitable for discovering episodic accretion events. Out of 319 Orion protostars that were targets of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey, we identified two examples of episodic accretion with this method. One of them, HOPS 223, was previously known. The other, HOPS 383, is the first known example of episodic accretion in a Class 0 protostar (age < 0.2 Myr). With these and one other outburst that began early in the Spitzer mission, we estimate that the most likely interval between protostellar outbursts is 740 years, with a 90% confidence interval of 470 to 6200 years. These outbursts are weaker than the optically revealed FU Ori events. We will update the mid-infrared light curves of HOPS 223 and HOPS 383 with recent data from FORCAST aboard SOFIA; HOPS 223 shows signs of fading.

  6. Episodic neurological dysfunction in hereditary peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Mailankody, Pooja; Isnwara, Pawanraj Palu; Prasad, Chandrajit; Mustare, Veerendrakumar

    2015-01-01

    Episodic transient neurological symptoms are an important set of problems presenting to a neurologist in his routine practice. Occasionally, detailed clinical history including past and family history supplemented with focused examination can bring out a rare cause for such symptoms. We describe in this report in a young male presenting with episodic focal neurological dysfunction, with family history of similar episodes in mother and brother. Examination showed features of pes cavus and peripheral neuropathy for which patient was asymptomatic. Mother and brother were established cases of hereditary neuropathy. Imaging on multiple occasions showed reversible white matter abnormalities. Clinical suspicion of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1X) was confirmed with detection of mutation in Gap Junction B1 (GJB1) gene, which codes for connexin 32 protein (c.425G>A; p.R142Q hemizygous mutation). Though this mutation has been already reported in CMTX patients, it has not been associated with transient neurological dysfunctions. This is probably the first reported case of CMTX patient with transient neurological dysfunction from India, whose family members had similar episodes. PMID:25745327

  7. A Calendar Savant with Episodic Memory Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Ingrid R.; Berryhill, Marian E.; Drowos, David B.; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures as well as retaining some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient’s memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable. PMID:20104390

  8. The Interpersonal Conflict Episode: A Systems Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawski, Carl

    A detailed systems diagram elaborates the process of dealing with a single conflict episode between two parties or persons. Hypotheses are fully stated to lead the reader through the flow diagram. A concrete example illustrates its use. Detail is provided in an accounting scheme of virtually all possible variables to consider in analyzing a…

  9. Current status of the utilization of antiepileptic treatments in mood, anxiety and aggression: drugs and devices.

    PubMed

    Barry, John J; Lembke, Anna; Bullock, Kim D

    2004-01-01

    Interventions that have been utilized to control seizures in people with epilepsy have been employed by the psychiatric community to treat a variety of disorders. The purpose of this review will be to give an overview of the most prominent uses of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and devices like the Vagus Nerve Stimulator (VNS) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of psychiatric disease states. By far, the most prevalent use of these interventions is in the treatment of mood disorders. AEDs have become a mainstay in the effective treatment of Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of valproic acid for acute mania, and lamotrigine for BAD maintenance therapy. AEDs are also effectively employed in the treatment of anxiety and aggressive disorders. Finally, VNS and TMS are emerging as possibly useful tools in the treatment of more refractory depressive illness. PMID:15112459

  10. Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services and Illness Perceptions Among Adolescents with Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Floersch, Jerry E.; Townsend, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes how adolescents perceive their mood disorders (MD; e.g., acute vs. chronic) and their attitudes toward mental health services. The study also explores the relationships between demographics, clinical characteristics, perceptions of illness and attitudes. Finally, we examine the psychometric properties of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (Moss-Morris et al. in Psychology & Health 17(1):1–16, 2002). Seventy adolescents were recruited from the greater Cleveland area. Structured interviews were conducted utilizing standardized instruments. Results show that adolescents with MD have fairly positive attitudes, with Caucasian youth reporting more positive attitudes than their nonwhite ounterparts. Illness perceptions were related to psychological openness and indifference to stigma. Implications are discussed. PMID:19834581

  11. The use of mood stabilizers during breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Zachary N

    2007-01-01

    The literature and majority of professional organizations endorse breastfeeding as a means to provide a number of health benefits to both mother and child. Notably, the postpartum period heralds an increased vulnerability for both new onset and symptom worsening of neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly bipolar disorder in women. While pharmacologic treatment is important for these patients, many physicians have been hesitant to prescribe medication for women who choose to breast-feed, despite the fact that a variety of medical illnesses are routinely treated in breastfeeding women (e.g., epilepsy, infection, allergies, and migraine) and that nursing infants may also directly receive medications for colic and reflux. To date, all psychotropic medications studied enter human breast milk, and many of these medications have undergone detailed investigations. While breastfeeding may complicate pharmacotherapy, it does not preclude it. There are limited scientifically derived guidelines in the treatment of women who choose to breast-feed. The pharmacokinetic properties and potential impact of infant exposure to mood stabilizers must be considered in the decision to breast-feed infants born to mothers receiving pharmacologic treatment for bipolar disorder. Past practices and methodologies for determining continuation of treatment are discussed in this article, as well as the current data for newer categories of drugs being used to treat bipolar disorder and their indications during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Treating pregnant women with neuropsychiatric illnesses in their childbearing years who are breastfeeding involves a thorough risk:benefit analysis to determine the relative safety of pharmacologic therapy. Familiarity with the extant literature and its limitations and practical considerations will enable optimizing treatment plans that maintain maternal mental health, minimize nursing infant exposures, and provide infant monitoring. PMID:17764381

  12. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery. PMID:8139793

  13. Influence of Tryptophan and Serotonin on Mood and Cognition with a Possible Role of the Gut-Brain Axis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Trisha A; Nguyen, Jason C D; Polglaze, Kate E; Bertrand, Paul P

    2016-01-01

    The serotonergic system forms a diffuse network within the central nervous system and plays a significant role in the regulation of mood and cognition. Manipulation of tryptophan levels, acutely or chronically, by depletion or supplementation, is an experimental procedure for modifying peripheral and central serotonin levels. These studies have allowed us to establish the role of serotonin in higher order brain function in both preclinical and clinical situations and have precipitated the finding that low brain serotonin levels are associated with poor memory and depressed mood. The gut-brain axis is a bi-directional system between the brain and gastrointestinal tract, linking emotional and cognitive centres of the brain with peripheral functioning of the digestive tract. An influence of gut microbiota on behaviour is becoming increasingly evident, as is the extension to tryptophan and serotonin, producing a possibility that alterations in the gut may be important in the pathophysiology of human central nervous system disorders. In this review we will discuss the effect of manipulating tryptophan on mood and cognition, and discuss a possible influence of the gut-brain axis. PMID:26805875

  14. Influence of Tryptophan and Serotonin on Mood and Cognition with a Possible Role of the Gut-Brain Axis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Trisha A.; Nguyen, Jason C. D.; Polglaze, Kate E.; Bertrand, Paul P.

    2016-01-01

    The serotonergic system forms a diffuse network within the central nervous system and plays a significant role in the regulation of mood and cognition. Manipulation of tryptophan levels, acutely or chronically, by depletion or supplementation, is an experimental procedure for modifying peripheral and central serotonin levels. These studies have allowed us to establish the role of serotonin in higher order brain function in both preclinical and clinical situations and have precipitated the finding that low brain serotonin levels are associated with poor memory and depressed mood. The gut-brain axis is a bi-directional system between the brain and gastrointestinal tract, linking emotional and cognitive centres of the brain with peripheral functioning of the digestive tract. An influence of gut microbiota on behaviour is becoming increasingly evident, as is the extension to tryptophan and serotonin, producing a possibility that alterations in the gut may be important in the pathophysiology of human central nervous system disorders. In this review we will discuss the effect of manipulating tryptophan on mood and cognition, and discuss a possible influence of the gut-brain axis. PMID:26805875

  15. A Meta-Analysis of 25 Years of Mood-Creativity Research: Hedonic Tone, Activation, or Regulatory Focus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baas, Matthijs; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r = 0.15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral controls (r = -0.03) or between positive and negative…

  16. Facial Emotion Recognition in First-Episode Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Daros, Alexander R.; Ruocco, Anthony C.; Reilly, James L.; Harris, Margret S. H.; Sweeney, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have difficulties recognizing facial expressions of emotion. Differences in deficits between these disorders and the effects of treating acute symptoms of illness with antipsychotic medication on these deficits are not well characterized. First-episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 24) and psychotic bipolar I disorder (n = 16) were compared to a healthy control group (n = 32) on the Penn Emotional Acuity Test. Patients were studied during an acute psychotic episode and after seven weeks of treatment with antipsychotic medication. During acute psychosis, bipolar patients showed deficits recognizing subtle facial expressions of happiness and sadness, and this deficit did not resolve with treatment. Schizophrenia patients similarly had difficulty recognizing subtle happy faces during acute illness that also did not resolve with treatment. In addition, problems recognizing subtle expressions of sadness among schizophrenia patients were apparent after treatment. Poorer emotion recognition at follow-up was related to negative symptom severity for schizophrenia patients. These findings highlight the severity and persistence of emotion recognition deficits early in the course of psychotic bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and demonstrate an association of emotion processing deficits to negative symptoms in schizophrenia during periods of relative clinical stability. PMID:24457036

  17. Facial emotion recognition in first-episode schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Daros, Alexander R; Ruocco, Anthony C; Reilly, James L; Harris, Margret S H; Sweeney, John A

    2014-03-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have difficulties recognizing facial expressions of emotion. Differences in deficits between these disorders and the effects of treating acute symptoms of illness with antipsychotic medication on these deficits are not well characterized. First-episode patients with schizophrenia (n=24) and psychotic bipolar I disorder (n=16) were compared to a healthy control group (n=32) on the Penn Emotional Acuity Test. Patients were studied during an acute psychotic episode and after seven weeks of treatment with antipsychotic medication. During acute psychosis, bipolar patients showed deficits recognizing subtle facial expressions of happiness and sadness, and this deficit did not resolve with treatment. Schizophrenia patients similarly had difficulty recognizing subtle happy faces during acute illness that also did not resolve with treatment. In addition, problems recognizing subtle expressions of sadness among schizophrenia patients were apparent after treatment. Poorer emotion recognition at follow-up was related to negative symptom severity for schizophrenia patients. These findings highlight the severity and persistence of emotion recognition deficits early in the course of psychotic bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and demonstrate an association of emotion processing deficits to negative symptoms in schizophrenia during periods of relative clinical stability. PMID:24457036

  18. [Acute heart failure: precipitating factors and prevention].

    PubMed

    Aramburu Bodas, Oscar; Conde Martel, Alicia; Salamanca Bautista, Prado

    2014-03-01

    Acute heart failure episodes, whether onset or decompensation of a chronic form, are most often precipitated by a concurrent process or disease, described as precipitating factors of heart failure. In this article, we review these precipitating factors, their proportions and clinical relevance in general and in subgroups of patients, their relationship with prognosis, and their possible prevention. PMID:24930077

  19. Acute transient deafness representing a negative epileptic phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Eli; Ravid, Sarit; Genizi, Jacob; Schif, Aharon

    2010-07-01

    We report herein 2 children who presented with acute deafness heralding an epileptic event manifesting thereafter by loss of consciousness and tonic generalized posturing, possibly reflecting a negative epileptic phenomenon. The first previously healthy male had 2 paroxysmal episodes 7 months apart, starting with acute deafness lasting for a few minutes followed by loss of consciousness and generalized tonic posturing for 10 minutes. Electroencephalography (EEG) during the second episodes demonstrated generalized epileptiform discharges. The second with previously controlled partial complex seizures presented with episodes of complete deafness lasting for a few minutes followed by loss of consciousness and focal tonic posturing lasting 10 minutes. Such acute deafness represented an aura of a focal seizure substantiated by right focal temporal epileptic discharges within the region of the primary auditory cortex. Therefore, EEG should be performed in any case of acute transient deafness, even in the absence of accompanying overt clinical seizures. PMID:20042694

  20. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on neural correlates of attention and inhibition in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, A W S; MacIntosh, B J; Scavone, A; Ou, X; Korczak, D; Goldstein, B I

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction is common during and between mood episodes in bipolar disorder (BD), causing social and functional impairment. This study investigated the effect of acute exercise on adolescents with BD and healthy control subjects (HC) to test for positive or negative consequences on neural response during an executive task. Fifty adolescents (mean age 16.54±1.47 years, 56% female, 30 with BD) completed an attention and response inhibition task before and after 20 min of recumbent cycling at ~70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate. 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed in a whole brain voxel-wise analysis and as regions of interest (ROI), examining Go and NoGo response events. In the whole brain analysis of Go trials, exercise had larger effect in BD vs HC throughout ventral prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus; the profile of these effects was of greater disengagement after exercise. Pre-exercise ROI analysis confirmed this 'deficit in deactivation' for BDs in rostral ACC and found an activation deficit on NoGo errors in accumbens. Pre-exercise accumbens NoGo error activity correlated with depression symptoms and Go activity with mania symptoms; no correlations were present after exercise. Performance was matched to controls and results survived a series of covariate analyses. This study provides evidence that acute aerobic exercise transiently changes neural response during an executive task among adolescents with BD, and that pre-exercise relationships between symptoms and neural response are absent after exercise. Acute aerobic exercise constitutes a biological probe that may provide insights regarding pathophysiology and treatment of BD. PMID:27187236

  1. The mood stabilizer valproic acid opposes the effects of dopamine on circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Dominic; Joiner, William J; McCarthy, Michael J; Kiessling, Silke; Barandas, Rita; Young, Jared W; Cermakian, Nicolas; Welsh, David K

    2016-08-01

    Endogenous circadian (∼24 h) clocks regulate key physiological and cognitive processes via rhythmic expression of clock genes. The main circadian pacemaker is the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Mood disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD), are commonly associated with disturbed circadian rhythms. Dopamine (DA) contributes to mania in BD and has direct impact on clock gene expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that high levels of DA during episodes of mania contribute to disturbed circadian rhythms in BD. The mood stabilizer valproic acid (VPA) also affects circadian rhythms. Thus, we further hypothesized that VPA normalizes circadian disturbances caused by elevated levels of DA. To test these hypotheses, we examined locomotor rhythms and circadian gene cycling in mice with reduced expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT-KD mice), which results in elevated DA levels and mania-like behavior. We found that elevated DA signaling lengthened the circadian period of behavioral rhythms in DAT-KD mice and clock gene expression rhythms in SCN explants. In contrast, we found that VPA shortened circadian period of behavioral rhythms in DAT-KD mice and clock gene expression rhythms in SCN explants, hippocampal cell lines, and human fibroblasts from BD patients. Thus, DA and VPA have opposing effects on circadian period. To test whether the impact of VPA on circadian rhythms contributes to its behavioral effects, we fed VPA to DAT-deficient Drosophila with and without functioning circadian clocks. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that VPA had potent activity-suppressing effects in hyperactive DAT-deficient flies with intact circadian clocks. However, these effects were attenuated in DAT-deficient flies in which circadian clocks were disrupted, suggesting that VPA functions partly through the circadian clock to suppress activity. Here, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence across species that elevated DA signaling lengthens the circadian

  2. Episodic stress associated with writing a graduation thesis and free cortisol secretion after awakening.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Sugaya, Nagisa; Ogawa, Namiko; Nagano, Yuichiro; Nakano, Masako; Nakase, Emiko; Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Yamada, Kosuke Chris; Machida, Kazuhiko; Kodama, Masahisa; Nomura, Shinobu

    2007-05-01

    Cortisol secretion after awakening, an index of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, appears to be related to psychosocial stressors, or to symptoms caused by psychosocial stressors. The relationship between the quality, duration, and magnitude of psychosocial factors and cortisol secretion is however, unclear. Therefore, the effect of episodic stress associated with writing a graduation thesis on cortisol secretion after awakening was investigated. Saliva samples were collected from 10 undergraduate students at awakening, and 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening 1 month, 2 weeks, and a few days before the thesis submission and 1 week after the submission. They also completed the Short form of Profile of Moods Scale (POMS-S) on the night before each sampling. Results indicated that cortisol levels were higher a few days before the thesis submission compared to 1 month before submission. Scores of "Fatigue" and "Tension-Anxiety" in POMS-S were also higher a few days before submission. These results suggest that episodic stress associated with writing a graduation thesis caused an increase in cortisol levels after awakening. PMID:17316855

  3. Baldness : A Diagnostic Physical Trait In Mood Disorders - Sarvada Sign

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, S.C.; Singh, Sarvesh

    2004-01-01

    Physical traits and features, i.e., body build, colour of eye etc. are often utilized in making diagnosis of psychiatric and physical disorders. A study was carried out to investigate the relationship between baldness and mood disorders on psychiatric out patients, Department of Psychiatry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, and their available first degree relatives. In this study, 371 psychiatric patients and their first degree relatives were assessed and evaluated. 56.6% male bald patients were found to be suffering from mood disorders. In comparison to male patients of other psychiatric disorders, the relationship between baldness and mood disorders was found to be statistically significant (P< 0.001). Though higher percentage of female patients with mood disorders (10.9%) were observed to have baldness in comparison to a single patient with other psychiatric disorder (1.1%), the studied sample of bald female patients was too small to provide meaningful leads. When baldness was studied in selected group of first degree relatives of the index male patients, baldness was observed to be significantly more common in the first degree relatives of mood disorder patients than the first degree relatives of other psychiatric disorder patients. Baldness is being designated as “Sarvada Sign”. PMID:21206793

  4. Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories following a negative mood induction.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Cecilia Au; Dalgleish, Tim; Golden, Ann-Marie; Schartau, Patricia

    2006-10-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) to emotional and neutral cue words appears to be a stable cognitive marker of clinical depression. For example, reduced AMS is present in remitted/recovered depressed patients and shows no reliable relationship with current levels of depressed mood in correlational studies. The present study examined whether reduced AMS could be induced in healthy volunteers with no history of depression, using a negative mood manipulation and whether levels of AMS and induced mood were positively correlated. Results showed a reduction in AMS following negative mood induction, compared to a neutral induction, whereas positive mood induction had no effects on AMS. Furthermore, lower happiness following the induction phase correlated positively with reduced AMS, and the extent of happiness reduction from pre- to post-induction correlated positively with reduction in AMS. These results suggest that AMS is, at least in part, a function of current emotion state. The implications for the literature on AMS as a stable marker of clinical depression are discussed. PMID:16356472

  5. [The impact of mood on the intrinsic functional connectivity].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zicong; Song, Sen; Wang, Lihong

    2014-04-01

    Although a great number of studies have investigated the changes of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in patients with mental disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia etc, little is known how stable the changes are, and whether temporal sad or happy mood can modulate the intrinsic rsFC. In our experiments, happy and sad video clips were used to induce temporally happy and sad mood states in 20 healthy young adults. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants were watching happy or sad video clips, which were administrated in two consecutive days. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were conducted using the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and amygdala as seeds to investigate neural network related to executive function, attention, and emotion. We also investigated the association of the rsFC changes with emotional arousability level to understand individual differences. There is significantly stronger functional connectivity between the left DLPFC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) under sad mood than that under happy mood. The increased connectivity strength was positively correlated with subjects' emotional arousability. The increased positive correlation between the left DLPFC and PCC under sad relative to happy mood might reflect an increased processing of negative emotion-relevant stimuli. The easier one was induced by strong negative emotion (higher emotional arousability), the greater the left DLPFC-PCC connectivity was indicated, the greater the instability of the intrinsic rsFC was shown. PMID:25039124

  6. [Latest advances in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The present article analyses the main presentations on acute pancreatitis at Digestive Disease Week 2015. Arterial pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis (incidence 0.7%) and mortality from this cause is currently anecdotal. Diabetes mellitus has little impact on the clinical course of acute pancreatitis, unlike cirrhosis, which doubles the risk of mortality. Intake of unsaturated fat could be associated with an increased severity of acute pancreatitis and is a confounding factor in studies evaluating the relationship between obesity and morbidity and mortality. PET-CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) could be a non-invasive tool to detect infection of collections in acute pancreatitis. Peripancreatic fat necrosis is less frequent than pancreatic fat necrosis and is associated with a better clinical course. If the clinical course is poor, increasing the calibre of the percutaneous drains used in the treatment of infected necrosis can avoid surgery in 20% of patients. The use of low molecular-weight heparin in moderate or severe pancreatitis could be associated with a better clinical course, specifically with a lower incidence of necrosis. In acute recurrent pancreatitis, simvastatin is a promising drug for prophylaxis of new episodes of acute pancreatitis. Nutritional support through a nasogastric tube does not improve clinical course compared with oral nutrition. PMID:26520203

  7. Mood Response to Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Meghan C.; Black, Kevin J.; Weaver, Patrick M.; Lugar, Heather M.; Videen, Tom O.; Tabbal, Samer D.; Karimi, Morvarid; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Hershey, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) improves motor function but has variable effects on mood. Little is known about the relationship between electrode contact location and mood response. We identified the anatomical location of electrode contacts and measured mood response to stimulation with the Visual Analog Scale in 24 STN DBS PD patients. Participants reported greater positive mood, decreased anxiety and apathy with bilateral and unilateral stimulation. Left DBS improved mood more than right DBS. Right DBS-induced increase in positive mood was related to more medial and dorsal contact locations. These results highlight the functional heterogeneity of the STN. PMID:22450611

  8. Vomiting as the main presenting symptom of acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Osundwa, V M; Dawod, S T

    1989-11-01

    Vomiting as a dominant symptom in a patient with acute asthma is reported. The traditionally recognized triad of cough, tachypnea and wheezing were absent or trivial whenever this patient presented with persistent vomiting. A careful history, laboratory evaluation and a course of bronchodilators eventually ascertained that the episodes of vomiting were due to attacks of acute asthma. It is suggested that acute asthma be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent and/or severe vomiting in children. PMID:2603727

  9. Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes complicated by an episode of severe hypertriglyceridaemia-induced pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Denecker, Nathalie; Decochez, Katelijn

    2013-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman with a history of type 2 diabetes and non-compliance presented to the emergency department with abdominal epigastric pain and nausea. Laboratory examination revealed a mild ketoacidosis while an abdominal CT scan performed the following day demonstrated a severe acute pancreatitis of the body and tail (Balthazar grade E) despite normal amylase serum levels on admission. The presence of a lactescent serum was the clue to an extremely high triglyceride level (>10 000 mg/dl) causing the pancreatitis. The hypertriglyceridaemia itself was attributed mainly to the diabetic ketoacidosis. There was no family history of hypertriglyceridaemia. The triad consisting of diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridaemia and acute pancreatitis is an unusual presentation of poorly controlled diabetes which can occur in type 1 as well as type 2 diabetic adults and children. Treatment with intravenous insulin and hydration successfully resolved the ketoacidosis and hypertriglyceridaemia and reversed the episode of acute pancreatitis. PMID:23632173

  10. How and when peers' positive mood influences employees' voice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; Lam, Wing; Chen, Ziguang; Jia, Rongwen Tina; Huang, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Employees often assess whether the social context is favorable for them to speak out, yet little research has investigated how the target's mood might influence the actor's voice behavior. From an affect-as-social-information perspective, we explored such potential effects of the target's mood on the actor's promotive voice in 2 empirical studies. In a scenario-based study with 142 MBA students (Study 1), the target's positive mood was positively associated with the actor's intentions to engage in promotive voice toward that target, mediated by the actor's perceived psychological safety. This mediated relationship was stronger when (a) the quality of the relationship between the actor and the target was poor or (b) the actor had a lower social status than the target. We replicated these results in Study 2, a correlational field study with 572 dyads nested within 142 members of 30 teams, where the actor's promotive voice behaviors (rather than intentions) were measured. PMID:25365730

  11. Effects of melody and lyrics on mood and memory.

    PubMed

    Sousou, S D

    1997-08-01

    137 undergraduate Le Moyne College students volunteered in a study on music and its effects on mood and memory. In a 2 x 3 between-subjects design, there were 2 lyric conditions (Happy and Sad Lyrics) and 3 music conditions (No Music, Happy Music, and Sad Music). Participants were asked to listen to instrumental music or mentally to create a melody as they read lyrics to themselves. The study tested cued-recall, self-reported mood state and psychological arousal. Analysis suggested that mood of participants was influenced by the music played, not the lyrics. Results also showed those exposed to No Music had the highest score on the recall test. Personal relevance to the lyrics was not correlated with memory. PMID:9293553

  12. Optimizing the treatment of mood disorders in the perinatal period

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Jones, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal period is a time of high risk for women with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. We discuss treatment considerations for perinatal mood disorders, including unipolar and bipolar depression as well as postpartum psychosis. We further explore the unique issues faced by women and their families across the full trajectory of the perinatal period from preconception planning through pregnancy and following childbirth. Treatment of perinatal mood disorders requires a collaborative care approach between obstetrics practitioners and mental health providers, to ensure that a thoughtful risk : benefit analysis is conducted. It is vital to consider the risks of the underlying illness versus risks of medication exposure during pregnancy or lactation. When considering medication treatment, attention must be paid to prior medication trials that were most efficacious and best tolerated. Lastly, it is important to assess the impact of individual psychosocial stressors and lifestyle factors on treatment response. PMID:26246794

  13. Total sleep deprivation decreases flow experience and mood status

    PubMed Central

    Kaida, Kosuke; Niki, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sleep deprivation on flow experience. Methods Sixteen healthy male volunteers of mean age 21.4±1.59 (21–24) years participated in two experimental conditions, ie, sleep-deprivation and normal sleep. In the sleep-deprived condition, participants stayed awake at home for 36 hours (from 8 am until 10 pm the next day) beginning on the day prior to an experimental day. In both conditions, participants carried out a simple reaction time (psychomotor vigilance) task and responded to a questionnaire measuring flow experience and mood status. Results Flow experience was reduced after one night of total sleep deprivation. Sleep loss also decreased positive mood, increased negative mood, and decreased psychomotor performance. Conclusion Sleep deprivation has a strong impact on mental and behavioral states associated with the maintenance of flow, namely subjective well-being. PMID:24376356

  14. Interaction between emotional state and learning underlies mood instability.

    PubMed

    Eldar, Eran; Niv, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Intuitively, good and bad outcomes affect our emotional state, but whether the emotional state feeds back onto the perception of outcomes remains unknown. Here, we use behaviour and functional neuroimaging of human participants to investigate this bidirectional interaction, by comparing the evaluation of slot machines played before and after an emotion-impacting wheel-of-fortune draw. Results indicate that self-reported mood instability is associated with a positive-feedback effect of emotional state on the perception of outcomes. We then use theoretical simulations to demonstrate that such positive feedback would result in mood destabilization. Taken together, our results suggest that the interaction between emotional state and learning may play a significant role in the emergence of mood instability. PMID:25608088

  15. Studies on central nervous system serotonin receptors in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Young, A; Goodwin, G M

    1991-01-01

    The evidence from studies of central nervous system serotonin (5-HT) receptors is reviewed and the role of these in the pathogenesis of mood disorders is discussed. Clinical evidence indicates that 5-HT function is abnormal in mood disorders. 5-HT precursors and selective inhibitors of 5-HT uptake are effective antidepressives and inhibition of 5-HT synthesis can block the action of antidepressives. Studies of 5-HT in experimental animals after chronic administration of antidepressive treatments suggest that intact 5-HT neurons are necessary for the action of these treatments. Multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes have recently been identified and the effects of chronic antidepressive treatment on some receptor subtypes function in experimental animals have been established. The increasing availability of powerful new in vivo imaging techniques like single photon emission tomography (SPET), and positron emission tomography (PET) may make possible a more direct examination of 5-HT receptor function in patients suffering from mood disorders. PMID:2029163

  16. Controversies about a common etiology for eating and mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Clara; Halfon, Olivier; Boutrel, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and depression represent a growing health concern worldwide. For many years, basic science and medicine have considered obesity as a metabolic illness, while depression was classified a psychiatric disorder. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that obesity and depression may share commonalities, the causal link between eating and mood disorders remains to be fully understood. This etiology is highly complex, consisting of multiple environmental and genetic risk factors that interact with each other. In this review, we sought to summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a common etiology for eating and mood disorders, with a particular emphasis on signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of energy balance and mood stability, among which orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides, metabolic factors, stress responsive hormones, cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. PMID:25386150

  17. Mood effects of weather conditions of the Zagreb population, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Momirović, Aleksandar; Resanović, Branislava; Culig, Josip; Herljević, Ivona

    2005-12-01

    The level of information on biometeorologic reports and mood effects of weather conditions on the Zagreb population were assessed in a sample of 782 subjects. Only 103 (13.2%) study subjects had not been informed on biometeorologic reports. Mood effects of weather conditions were reported by more than 76% of study subjects, 18.3% of them reporting meteorosensitivity. Meteorosensitivity showed a female predominance, and increased with age and level of education. 88% of chronic patients reported discomforts caused by changes in atmospheric conditions. Apathy and sleepiness were the most common mood changes associated with weather changes, whereas humid weather was indicated as a weather type that caused most discomforts in study subjects. PMID:16417154

  18. Controversies about a common etiology for eating and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Clara; Halfon, Olivier; Boutrel, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and depression represent a growing health concern worldwide. For many years, basic science and medicine have considered obesity as a metabolic illness, while depression was classified a psychiatric disorder. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that obesity and depression may share commonalities, the causal link between eating and mood disorders remains to be fully understood. This etiology is highly complex, consisting of multiple environmental and genetic risk factors that interact with each other. In this review, we sought to summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a common etiology for eating and mood disorders, with a particular emphasis on signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of energy balance and mood stability, among which orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides, metabolic factors, stress responsive hormones, cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. PMID:25386150

  19. Safe sex and first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mason, S E; Miller, R

    2001-01-01

    The need for educating patients about the dangers of unprotected sexual activity is well documented in the literature. Using clinical examples, the authors describe safe-sex strategies for patients experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia. Interventions are based on a 2-year experience of working in a hospital-based treatment and research project with 68 patients. Strategies that begin in the healing phase of schizophrenia take place in both individual and group sessions. First-episode patients are encouraged to speak explicitly about their sex-related behaviors, and HIV testing is suggested when needed. The goal of this approach is to emphasize safe-sex/HIV prevention strategies within a framework of good clinical practice. PMID:11407142

  20. Episodic future thinking in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jade Q; Szpunar, Karl K; Godovich, Sheina A; Schacter, Daniel L; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2015-12-01

    Research on future-oriented cognition in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has primarily focused on worry, while less is known about the role of episodic future thinking (EFT), an imagery-based cognitive process. To characterize EFT in this disorder, we used the experimental recombination procedure, in which 21 GAD and 19 healthy participants simulated positive, neutral and negative novel future events either once or repeatedly, and rated their phenomenological experience of EFT. Results showed that healthy controls spontaneously generated more detailed EFT over repeated simulations. Both groups found EFT easier to generate after repeated simulations, except when GAD participants simulated positive events. They also perceived higher plausibility of negative-not positive or neutral-future events than did controls. These results demonstrate a negativity bias in GAD individuals' episodic future cognition, and suggest their relative deficit in generating vivid EFT. We discuss implications for the theory and treatment of GAD. PMID:26398003

  1. Antipsychotic medication for early episode schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bola, John; Kao, Dennis; Soydan, Haluk; Adams, Clive E

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications in early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders is common, but both short and long-term effects on the illness are unclear. There have been numerous suggestions that people with early episodes of schizophrenia appear to respond differently than those with multiple prior episodes. The number of episodes may moderate response to drug treatment. Objectives To assess the effects of antipsychotic medication treatment on people with early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group register (July 2007) as well as references of included studies. We contacted authors of studies for further data. Selection criteria Studies with a majority of first and second episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders comparing initial antipsychotic medication treatment with placebo, milieu, or psychosocial treatment. Data collection and analysis Working independently, we critically appraised records from 681 studies, of which five studies met inclusion criteria. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) where possible. For continuous data, we calculated mean difference (MD). We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. Main results Five studies (combined total n=998) met inclusion criteria. Four studies (n=724) provided leaving the study early data and results suggested that individuals treated with a typical antipsychotic medication are less likely to leave the study early than those treated with placebo (Chlorpromazine: 3 RCTs n=353, RR 0.4 CI 0.3 to 0.5, NNT 3.2, Fluphenaxine: 1 RCT n=240, RR 0.5 CI 0.3 to 0.8, NNT 5; Thioridazine: 1 RCT n=236, RR 0.44 CI 0.3 to 0.7, NNT 4.3, Trifulperazine: 1 RCT n=94, RR 0.96 CI 0.3 to 3.6). Two studies contributed data to assessment of adverse effects and present a general pattern of more frequent side effects among individuals treated with typical antipsychotic medications

  2. Internet-Based Motivation Program for Women With Eating Disorders: Eating Disorder Pathology and Depressive Mood Predict Dropout

    PubMed Central

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Rieger, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kosfelder, Joachim; Hechler, Tanja; Schulte, Dietmar; Vocks, Silja

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the main problems of Internet-delivered interventions for a range of disorders is the high dropout rate, yet little is known about the factors associated with this. We recently developed and tested a Web-based 6-session program to enhance motivation to change for women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or related subthreshold eating pathology. Objective The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of dropout from this Web program. Methods A total of 179 women took part in the study. We used survival analyses (Cox regression) to investigate the predictive effect of eating disorder pathology (assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q), depressive mood (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale; URICA), and participants’ age at dropout. To identify predictors, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. Results The dropout rate was 50.8% (91/179) and was equally distributed across the 6 treatment sessions. The LASSO analysis revealed that higher scores on the Shape Concerns subscale of the EDE-Q, a higher frequency of binge eating episodes and vomiting, as well as higher depression scores significantly increased the probability of dropout. However, we did not find any effect of the URICA or age on dropout. Conclusions Women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood had a higher likelihood of dropping out from a Web-based motivational enhancement program. Interventions such as ours need to address the specific needs of women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood and offer them additional support to prevent them from prematurely discontinuing treatment. PMID:24686856

  3. Saharan dust outbreaks and iberulite episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Hernandez, Jose L.; Sanchez-Navas, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Mineral dust aerosols coming from the arid and semiarid regions of the world can aggregate and form microspherulites under special atmospheric conditions. This is the case for iberulites, formed in the atmosphere from Saharan dust intrusions into the southern Iberian Peninsula during the summer, prompting a noteworthy case of dust accretion unique in the world. This study consists of a long-term monitoring of Saharan dust outbreaks producing haze that reaches the southern Iberian Peninsula. Aerosol concentration, relative humidity, and temperature time series available at the ground stations in this area indicate sharp variations of these atmospheric variables during the iberulite-forming events. Most of these events occurred during the summer (60%), with 65 episodes for the period 2005-2013, in which 107 plumes reached the Iberian Peninsula. Iberulite episodes lasted 5 days on average, during which an initial increase of particulate matter (PM) levels and temperature, accompanied by a decrease in relative humidity, was registered until the third day. These trends reversed when the plume began to abate. Our data also indicate that iberulites form during dusty episodes when a minimum threshold in the content of large aerosol particles (PM10) reached concentrations above 15 µg × m-3. Surface evaporation due to the sharply rising air temperatures give rise to clouds associated with the plume, where the water droplets that formed from condensation capture large amounts of aerosols as they fall. In this sense, muddy raindrop impacts with variable water:dust ratios recorded during red-rain episodes are interpreted as the precursor of the iberulites. A singular process of dust aggregation is here proposed for the formation of iberulites.

  4. Metabolic syndrome among psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have simultaneously compared the impacts of pharmacotherapy and mental diagnoses on metabolic syndrome (MetS) among psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of pharmacotherapy and mental diagnoses on MetS and the prevalence of MetS among these patients. Methods Two-hundred and twenty-nine outpatients (men/women = 85/144) were enrolled from 1147 outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders by systematic sampling. Psychiatric disorders and MetS were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR and the new International Diabetics Federation definition, respectively. The numbers of antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants being taken were recorded. Logistic regression was used to investigate the impacts of pharmacotherapy and psychiatric diagnoses on MetS. Results Among 229 subjects, 51 (22.3%) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. The prevalence of MetS was highest in the bipolar I disorder (46.7%) patients, followed by bipolar II disorder (25.0%), major depressive disorder (22.0%), anxiety-only disorders (16.7%), and no mood and/or anxiety disorders (14.3%). The percentages of MetS among the five categories were correlated with those of the patients being treated with antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Use of antipsychotics and/or mood stabilizers independently predicted a higher risk of MetS after controlling for demographic variables and psychiatric diagnoses. When adding body mass index (BMI) as an independent variable in the regression model, BMI became the most significant factor to predict MetS. Conclusion BMI was found to be an important factor related to MetS. Pharmacotherapy might be one of underlying causes of elevated BMI. The interactions among MetS, BMI, pharmacotherapy, and psychiatric diagnoses might need further research. PMID:24952586

  5. Statins, Mood, Sleep, and Physical Function: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Swiger, Kristopher J.; Manalac, Raoul J.; Blaha, Michael J.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Martin, Seth S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the effects of statins on mood, sleep, and physical function. Methods We performed a systematic computer-aided search of MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register and augmented this search by scrutinizing reference lists, and making inquiries among colleagues and experts in the field. All patient populations and study types were considered. We selected studies of statin therapy compared with no statin or placebo. Outcome measures included mood, sleep, and physical function. Results Thirty four studies were included in qualitative synthesis. Seven of 8 (88%) observational studies, 4/6 (66%) randomized trials with mood as a primary endpoint (487 total participants; exposure 4 weeks to 1 year), and 3/3 (100%) randomized trials with mood as a secondary endpoint (2,851 total participants; exposure 1–4 years) were not compatible with a negative mood effect of statins. Comparatively fewer studies examined statin effects on sleep and physical function. Studies reporting negative effects contained potential sources of bias, including multiple testing or lack of adjustment for confounders in observational studies, and failure to pre-specify outcomes or report blinding in trials. Conclusions A limited body of available evidence is most compatible with no adverse effect of statins on quality of life measures, namely mood, sleep, and physical function. Studies suggesting such effects suffer from an increased risk of bias. High-quality, prospective, and adequately powered studies are needed, especially in the domains of sleep and physical function, with careful attention to patients who may be most vulnerable to adverse effects. PMID:25291991

  6. Sleep restriction worsens mood and emotion regulation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Katherine T.; Desai, Anjali; Field, Julie; Miller, Lauren E.; Rausch, Joseph; Beebe, Dean W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between inadequate sleep and mood has been well-established in adults and is supported primarily by correlational data in younger populations. Given that adolescents often experience shortened sleep on school nights, we sought to better understand the effect of experimentally-induced chronic sleep restriction on adolescents’ mood and mood regulation. Methods Fifty healthy adolescents, ages 14 to 17, completed a three-week sleep manipulation protocol involving a baseline week, followed by a sleep restriction (SR) condition (6.5 hours in bed per night for five nights) and healthy sleep duration (HS) condition (10 hours in bed per night for five nights). The study used a randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over experimental design. Participants’ sleep was monitored at home via self-report and actigraphy. At the end of each condition, participants and their parents completed questionnaires of mood and mood regulation. To assess for expectancy effects, we also analyzed parent and teen ratings of hyperactivity/impulsivity, which prior research suggests is not sensitive to SR in adolescents. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests compared questionnaire outcomes across the two conditions. Results Participants averaged 2.5 more hours of sleep per night during HS relative to SR. Compared to HS, adolescents rated themselves as significantly more tense/anxious, angry/hostile, confused, and fatigued, and as less vigorous (p = .001–.01) during SR. Parents and adolescents also reported greater oppositionality/irritability and poorer emotional regulation during SR compared to HS (p < .05). There were no cross condition differences in depression or hyperactivity/impulsivity (p > .05). Conclusions Findings complement prior correlational study results to show that after only a few days of shortened sleep, at a level of severity that is experienced regularly by millions of adolescents on school nights, adolescents have worsened mood and decreased ability to

  7. Botanicals for mood disorders with a focus on epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ketcha Wanda, Germain Jean Magloire; Ngitedem, Steve Guemnang; Njamen, Dieudonné

    2015-11-01

    Mood disorders are among the major health problems that exist worldwide. They are highly prevalent in the general population and cause significant disturbance of life quality and social functioning of the affected persons. The two major classes of mood disorders are bipolar disorders and depression. The latter is assumed to be the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy. Studies published during the second half of the 20th century recognized that certain patients with epilepsy present a depressed mood. Synthesized pharmaceuticals have been in use for decades to treat both mood disorders and epilepsy, but despite their efficiency, their use is limited by numerous side effects. On the other hand, animal models have been developed to deeply study potential botanicals which have an effect on mood disorders. Studies to investigate the potential effects of medicinal plants acting on the nervous system and used to treat seizures and anxiety are increasingly growing. However, these studies discuss the two conditions separately without association. In this review, we present animal models of depression and investigative models (methods of assessing depression) of depression and anxiety in animals. Other classical test models for prediction of clinical antidepressant activity are presented. Finally, this review also highlights antidepressant activities of herbals focusing specially on depression-like behaviors associated with epilepsy. The pharmacological properties and active principles of cited medicinal plants are emphasized. This review, therefore, provides an overview of the work done on botanicals for mood disorders, potential mechanisms of action of botanicals, and the major compounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy". PMID:26409901

  8. Impairment in episodic and chronic cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Tim P; Gaul, Charly; Lindwurm, Andrea; Dresler, Thomas; Paelecke-Habermann, Yvonne; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Lürding, Ralf; Henkel, Karsten; Leinisch, Elke

    2011-04-01

    Despite being an excruciating headache, little is known about the burden of cluster headache (CH) regarding its various subtypes. In a multicentre, prospective study, patients with chronic CH (n = 27), with episodic CH in the active (n = 26) and outside the active period (n = 22), migraine patients (n = 24) and healthy controls (n = 31) were included. Epidemiological data, the German version of the Headache Disability Inventory (HDI) and a screening for psychiatric complaints were applied. About 25% of chronic CH patients in our study received invalidity allowance due to CH. HDI scores (total and subscales emotion and function) indicated a severe headache-specific disability (one-way ANOVA: P < 0.01). Patients with chronic and active episodic CH were significantly more affected than patients with inactive CH and migraine. Healthy volunteers were significantly less affected than all headache patients. Symptoms suggestive of psychiatric co-morbidity were found predominantly in chronic CH: depressive symptoms (56%), signs of agoraphobia (33%) and suicidal tendencies (25%) were frequently reported. Patients with chronic and active episodic CH were severely impaired in non-economic and economic domains such as disability, working life and psychiatric complaints. Remarkably, psychiatric co-morbidity was highest in chronic CH. Thus, especially chronic CH warrants special medical and further supportive care. PMID:21123629

  9. Semantic generation can cause episodic forgetting.

    PubMed

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz

    2002-07-01

    The repeated retrieval of a subset of previously learned items can cause forgetting of the nonretrieved items. The study reported here investigated whether retrieval-induced forgetting generalizes to a situation in which the retrieved and nonretrieved items are not part of the same experiential episode and task. Subjects learned an item list that they had to recall later in the experiment. In a separate intermediate phase, they repeatedly generated related items from semantic memory, or were presented the same items intact for study. Only the semantic generation of items, and not their presentation for study, induced forgetting of the initially learned items. This result indicates that, first, semantic generation can cause recall-specific episodic forgetting and, second, retrieval-induced forgetting can occur even if the retrieved and nonretrieved items belong to different experiential episodes and tasks. Connections of the present results to other memory phenomena, such as part-set cuing and the generation effect, social cognition, and eyewitness memory, are discussed. PMID:12137139

  10. The neural basis of involuntary episodic memories.

    PubMed

    Hall, Shana A; Rubin, David C; Miles, Amanda; Davis, Simon W; Wing, Erik A; Cabeza, Roberto; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-10-01

    Voluntary episodic memories require an intentional memory search, whereas involuntary episodic memories come to mind spontaneously without conscious effort. Cognitive neuroscience has largely focused on voluntary memory, leaving the neural mechanisms of involuntary memory largely unknown. We hypothesized that, because the main difference between voluntary and involuntary memory is the controlled retrieval processes required by the former, there would be greater frontal activity for voluntary than involuntary memories. Conversely, we predicted that other components of the episodic retrieval network would be similarly engaged in the two types of memory. During encoding, all participants heard sounds, half paired with pictures of complex scenes and half presented alone. During retrieval, paired and unpaired sounds were presented, panned to the left or to the right. Participants in the involuntary group were instructed to indicate the spatial location of the sound, whereas participants in the voluntary group were asked to additionally recall the pictures that had been paired with the sounds. All participants reported the incidence of their memories in a postscan session. Consistent with our predictions, voluntary memories elicited greater activity in dorsal frontal regions than involuntary memories, whereas other components of the retrieval network, including medial-temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and ventral parietal regions were similarly engaged by both types of memories. These results clarify the distinct role of dorsal frontal and ventral occipitotemporal regions in predicting strategic retrieval and recalled information, respectively, and suggest that, although there are neural differences in retrieval, involuntary memories share neural components with established voluntary memory systems. PMID:24702453

  11. Serum BDNF levels before and after the development of mood disorders: a case-control study in a population cohort.

    PubMed

    Ihara, K; Yoshida, H; Jones, P B; Hashizume, M; Suzuki, Y; Ishijima, H; Kim, H K; Suzuki, T; Hachisu, M

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are low in major depressive disorder (MDD), and were recently shown to decrease in chronic depression, but whether this is a trait or state marker of MDD remains unclear. We investigated whether serum BDNF levels decrease before or after the developments of MDD and other mood disorders through a case-control study nested in a cohort of 1276 women aged 75-84 years in 2008. Psychiatrists using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV identified incident cases of mood disorders at follow-up surveys in 2010 and 2012: 28 of MDDs, 39 of minor depressive disorders (minDDs) and 8 of minor depressive episodes with a history of major depressive episodes (minDEs with MDE history). A total of 106 representative non-depressed controls were also identified in the 2012 follow-up. We assayed BDNF levels in preserved sera of cases and controls at baseline and at follow-up. Serum BDNF levels at baseline in cases of MDD, minDD or minDE with MDE history were no lower than those in controls. The decrease in the serum BDNF level from baseline to follow-up was greater in cases of MDD or minDE with MDE history than in controls or cases of minDD. These results show that serum BDNF levels are not a trait marker of MDD in old women but appeared to be a state marker. The different changes in BDNF levels among diagnostic groups suggest that MDD has a pathophysiologic relation to minDE with MDE history, rather than to minDD. PMID:27070410

  12. Serum BDNF levels before and after the development of mood disorders: a case–control study in a population cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ihara, K; Yoshida, H; Jones, P B; Hashizume, M; Suzuki, Y; Ishijima, H; Kim, H K; Suzuki, T; Hachisu, M

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are low in major depressive disorder (MDD), and were recently shown to decrease in chronic depression, but whether this is a trait or state marker of MDD remains unclear. We investigated whether serum BDNF levels decrease before or after the developments of MDD and other mood disorders through a case–control study nested in a cohort of 1276 women aged 75–84 years in 2008. Psychiatrists using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV identified incident cases of mood disorders at follow-up surveys in 2010 and 2012: 28 of MDDs, 39 of minor depressive disorders (minDDs) and 8 of minor depressive episodes with a history of major depressive episodes (minDEs with MDE history). A total of 106 representative non-depressed controls were also identified in the 2012 follow-up. We assayed BDNF levels in preserved sera of cases and controls at baseline and at follow-up. Serum BDNF levels at baseline in cases of MDD, minDD or minDE with MDE history were no lower than those in controls. The decrease in the serum BDNF level from baseline to follow-up was greater in cases of MDD or minDE with MDE history than in controls or cases of minDD. These results show that serum BDNF levels are not a trait marker of MDD in old women but appeared to be a state marker. The different changes in BDNF levels among diagnostic groups suggest that MDD has a pathophysiologic relation to minDE with MDE history, rather than to minDD. PMID:27070410

  13. Hypersomnia in Mood Disorders: a Rapidly Changing Landscape

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hypersomnia is commonly comorbid with depressive illness and is associated with treatment resistance, symptomatic relapse, and functional impairment. This review highlights recent changes in nosological classifications of hypersomnia. In addition, emergent findings regarding the neurobiologic underpinnings, assessment, and treatment of hypersomnia in mood disorders are reviewed, as well as the effects of hypersomnolence on illness course. Future strategies for research are proposed that may elucidate the causes of hypersomnia in mood disorders and lead to the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26258003

  14. The effect of simulated weightlessness on performance and mood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Bonnie

    1988-01-01

    The performance results of the bedrest study at Ames were not what were expected. The Air Combat Maneuvering performance test was tested to assure its reliability. However, the results from this study show a continued increase in performance. One would assume that scores would become constant if not decrease by the first days of bedrest because an inverted position would affect performance. It is also interesting to observe that while the subject's moods deteriorated, their performance improved. Although the performance results were surprising, the mood results were as expected.

  15. A Pharmacovigilance Study in First Episode of Psychosis: Psychopharmacological Interventions and Safety Profiles in the PEPs Project

    PubMed Central

    Bioque, Miquel; Llerena, Adrián; Cabrera, Bibiana; Mezquida, Gisela; Lobo, Antonio; González-Pinto, Ana; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M.; Corripio, Iluminada; Aguilar, Eduardo J.; Bulbena, Antoni; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Vieta, Eduard; Lafuente, Amàlia; Mas, Sergi; Parellada, Mara; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The characterization of the first episode of psychosis and how it should be treated are principal issues in actual research. Realistic, naturalistic studies are necessary to represent the entire population of first episode of psychosis attended in daily practice. Methods: Sixteen participating centers from the PEPs project recruited 335 first episode of psychosis patients, aged 7 to 35 years. This article describes and discusses the psychopharmacological interventions and safety profiles at baseline and during a 60-day pharmacovigilance period. Results: The majority of first episode of psychosis patients received a second-generation antipsychotic (96.3%), orally (95%), and in adjusted doses according to the product specifications (87.2%). A total of 24% were receiving an antipsychotic polytherapy pattern at baseline, frequently associated with lower or higher doses of antipsychotics than the recommended ones. Eight patients were taking clozapine, all in monotherapy. Males received higher doses of antipsychotic (P=.043). A total of 5.2% of the patients were being treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics; 12.2% of the patients received anticholinergic drugs, 12.2% antidepressants, and 13.7% mood stabilizers, while almost 40% received benzodiazepines; and 35.52% reported at least one adverse drug reaction during the pharmacovigilance period, more frequently associated with higher antipsychotic doses and antipsychotic polytherapy (85.2% vs 45.5%, P<.001). Conclusions: These data indicate that the overall pharmacologic prescription for treating a first episode of psychosis in Spain follows the clinical practice guideline recommendations, and, together with security issues, support future research of determinate pharmacological strategies for the treatment of early phases of psychosis, such as the role of clozapine, long-acting injectable antipsychotics, antipsychotic combination, and the use of benzodiazepines. PMID:26506856

  16. Depressive Episode May Not Always Follow Mania in Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depressive Episode May Not Always Follow Mania in Bipolar Disorder New study finds anxiety could be a third ... 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- While many may associate bipolar disorder with episodes of mania followed by periods of ...

  17. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  18. The intersection between asthma and acute chest syndrome in children with sickle-cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    DeBaun, Michael R; Strunk, Robert C

    2016-06-18

    Acute chest syndrome is a frequent cause of acute lung disease in children with sickle-cell disease. Asthma is common in children with sickle-cell disease and is associated with increased incidence of vaso-occlusive pain events, acute chest syndrome episodes, and earlier death. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation and an acute chest syndrome episode are similar, and both can present with shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and wheezing. Despite overlapping risk factors and symptoms, an acute exacerbation of asthma or an episode of acute chest syndrome are two distinct entities that need disease-specific management strategies. Although understanding has increased about asthma as a comorbidity in sickle-cell disease and its effects on morbidity, substantial gaps remain in knowledge about best management. PMID:27353685

  19. How to Assess Drugs in the Treatment of Acute Bipolar Mania?

    PubMed Central

    Bourin, Michel; Thibaut, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder is a serious mental disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Good-quality research available to guide treatment strategies remains insufficient, particularly with regard to manic or hypomanic episodes. A critical review of the various stages of mania might be helpful for pharmaceutical companies and investigators as a prerequisite for the clinical evaluation of potential antimanic properties of medications. The main difficulty is with a comparison between anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers such as lithium (with equal efficacy in the acute phase and the prevention of recurrent manic episodes). No consensus has been reached with regard to the treatment of bouts of acute mania in various parts of the world. Controlled clinical trials have, at last, provided irrefutable evidence of the activity of lithium, which has long been used alone, as well as that of divalproate or its derivatives and, to a lesser extent, carbamazepine. The new antipsychotic agents have more recently established their efficacy, especially aripiprazole, asenapine, quetiapine; olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone (not sure where the paradox is). In Europe, haloperidol is still the reference substance used in clinical trials despite the fact that it is not officially indicated in the treatment of mania. In the USA, lithium, divalproate, or antipsychotics can be prescribed as first-line treatment. In Europe, lithium remains the first-line medication, whereas divalproate and atypical antipsychotic agents are used only as second-line therapy. Although both types of medication (antipsychotics, normothymic agents, and/or anticonvulsants) have proved to be clinically effective in the management of mania by reducing the mania scores overall, the same does not apply, however, to all symptoms of mania. Factorial approaches to mania have all shown that since there are several clinical forms of mania, several clusters of manic symptoms can

  20. Even Non-Obese Report Better Mood, Sex Drive After Dieting

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158604.html Even Non-Obese Report Better Mood, Sex Drive After Dieting Calorie cutters said their sleep ... News) -- Dieting might help improve your health, mood, sex drive and stress levels even if you're ...