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Sample records for acute mood episodes

  1. Longitudinal Associations Between Interpersonal Relationship Functioning and Mood Episode Severity in Youth with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Rebecca S.; Hoeppner, Bettina; Yen, Shirley; Stout, Robert L; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Hower, Heather M.; Birmaher, Boris; Goldstein, Tina R.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David A.; Gill, Mary Kay; Keller, Martin B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between mood episode severity and relationships in BP youth. Participants were 413 Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study youth, aged 12.6 ± 3.3 years. Monthly ratings of relationships (parents, siblings, and friends) and mood episode severity were assessed by the Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation (ALIFE) Psychosocial Functioning Schedule (PFS) and Psychiatric Rating Scales (PSR) on average every 8.2 months over 5.1 years. Correlations examined whether participants with increased episode severity also reported poorer relationships, and also examined whether fluctuations in episode severity predicted fluctuations in relationships, and vice versa. Results indicated that participants with greater mood episode severity also had worse relationships. Longitudinally, participants had largely stable relationships. To the extent that there were associations, changes in parental relationships may precede changes in episode severity, although the magnitude of this finding was small. Findings have implications for relationship interventions in BP youth. PMID:25668652

  2. The influence of episodic mood disorders on length of stay among patients admitted to private and non-profit hospitals with alcohol dependence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Justin B

    2011-02-22

    Episodic mood disorders are often associated with alcohol dependence. Few studies have explored the contribution of episodic mood disorders to length of stay among those hospitalized with alcohol dependence syndrome. Filling this research gap could improve care for patients while minimizing hospital utilization costs. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Hospital Discharge Survey. ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify those admitted to a private or non-profit hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome, and a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (n=358). Descriptive statistics were used to highlight differences in key demographic and hospital variables between those with and without episodic mood disorders. Negative binomial regression was used to associate episodic mood disorders with hospital length of stay. Incidence rate ratios were calculated. Co-morbid episodic mood disorders (β=0.31, P=0.001), referral to a hospital by a physician (β=0.35, P=0.014), and increasing age (β= 0.01, P=0.001) were associated with longer hospital stays. Hospital patients with an admitting diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome were 36% more likely to have a longer hospital stay if they also had a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (IRR=1.36, CI=1.14-1.62). Patients admitted to a hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome should be routinely screened for episodic mood disorders. Opportunities exist for enhanced transitional care between acute, ambulatory, and community-based care settings to lower hospital utilization.

  3. Lateralized differences in tympanic membrane temperature, but not induced mood, are related to episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Propper, Ruth E; Barr, Taylor D; Brunyé, Tad T

    2015-03-01

    The present research examined the effects of pre-encoding and pre-recall induced mood on episodic memory. It was hypothesized that happy and/or angry mood prior to encoding (increasing left hemisphere activity), in tandem with fearful mood prior to recall (increasing right hemisphere activity) would be associated with superior episodic memory. It was also hypothesized that tympanic membrane measures (TMT), indicative of hemispheric activity, would change as a function of induced mood. Although subjectively-experienced mood induction was successful, pre-encoding and pre-recall mood did not alter memory, and only altered TMT in the pre-encoding fear and pre-recall angry mood induction conditions. Interestingly, baseline absolute difference between left and right TMT, a measure of differential hemispheric activity, regardless of the direction of that activity, was significantly positively related to number of total words written, number of correctly recalled words, and corrected recall score. This same TMT measure pre-encoding, regardless of specific mood, was significantly negatively related to false recall. Results are discussed in terms the HERA model of episodic memory, and in the nature of interhemispheric interaction involved in episodic recall.

  4. The effect of negative mood and major depressive episode on working memory and implicit learning.

    PubMed

    Borbély-Ipkovich, Emőke; Janacsek, Karolina; Németh, Dezső; Gonda, Xenia

    2014-03-01

    Major depressive episode (MDE) is one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses and it has long-term mental and physiological consequences. The status of cognitive functions is of specific importance in case of affective disorders, due to their influence not only on patients' behaviour, but to a certain extent also on the success of psychotherapy. In addition, examining the impact of mood and affective disorders on cognitive functions also helps us understand the relationship between brain plasticity and neurocognitive networks. While the relationship between explicit, conscious memory and mood are relatively well-explored, the effect of mood and affective disorders on working memory and implicit sequence learning received less attention. The present review aims to overview available results in these less-explored areas. Research suggests that while working memory performance shows impairments in MDE and in some specific mood conditions, effects of affective disorders and mood on implicit sequence learning are more contradictory, highlighting the need for further studies in this field.

  5. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations.

  6. Mood alterations in older adults following acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Pierce, E F; Pate, D W

    1994-08-01

    Limited research indicates positive affective change following acute bouts of exercise, but whether this improved affect among younger subjects may be generalized to older individuals is not known. The present study, then, examined the effects of a single bout of physical activity among older participants. 16 trained women (Mage = 64.5 +/- 7.6 yr.) completed an abbreviated Profile of Mood States prior to and immediately following a 75-min. session of aerobic line dancing. A series of one-way analyses of variance with repeated measures were used to examine differences between pre- and posttest subscores on mood states. Significant decreases following exercise in scores on Tension, Depression, Fatigue, and Anger and a significant increase in scores on Vigor relative to preexercise (control) scores were found. Global mood was significantly improved after the exercise session. No significant difference was found between pre- and postexercise measures of Confusion. Previous findings of significant improvements in affect immediately after an acute bout of exercise may be generalized to older adults. Repetition with a nonexercised control group is desirable.

  7. Episode-Specific Drinking-to-Cope Motivation, Daily Mood, and Fatigue-Related Symptoms Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Armeli, Stephen; O’Hara, Ross E; Ehrenberg, Ethan; Sullivan, Tami P; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study was to examine whether within-person, episode-specific changes in drinking-to-cope (DTC) motivation from the previous evening were associated with concurrent daily mood and fatigue-related symptoms among college student drinkers (N = 1,421; 54% female). Method: We conducted an Internet-based daily diary study in which students reported over 30 days on their previous night’s drinking level and motivation and their current mood (i.e., sadness, anxiety, anger/hostility, and positive mood) and fatigue-related symptoms. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear models in which the current day’s outcome was predicted by last night’s levels of DTC motivation and drinking, controlling for drinking to enhance motivation, sex, current day’s physical symptoms and drinking, and yesterday’s level of the outcome. Subsequent models also predicted outcomes 2 days following the drinking event. Results: Relative increases in previous night’s DTC motivation were associated with higher levels of current day negative mood and fatigue-related symptoms and lower levels of positive mood. Also, the association between episode-specific DTC motivation and negative mood was stronger in the positive direction when individuals reported higher levels of nonsocial drinking from the previous night. Last, episode-specific DTC showed similar associations with sadness and anger/hostility 2 days after the drinking event. Conclusions: The results are generally consistent with the posited attention allocation and ego-depletion mechanisms. Findings suggest that the deleterious effects of repeated episodes of DTC, over time, could help to explain the increased likelihood of alcohol-related problems seen in prior studies PMID:25208194

  8. Bright light exposure during acute tryptophan depletion prevents a lowering of mood in mildly seasonal women.

    PubMed

    aan het Rot, Marije; Benkelfat, Chawki; Boivin, Diane B; Young, Simon N

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the influence of bright light exposure on the mood-lowering effect of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD). Mildly seasonal healthy young women without a personal or family history of psychiatric disorders remained in either dim or bright light during two test days. Tryptophan-deficient and nutritionally balanced amino acid mixtures were administered in counterbalanced order. Mood state was assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). In dim light, ATD decreased POMS scores across most subscales, indicating a worsening of mood. In bright light, mood was unaffected by ATD. Thus, bright light blocked the worsening of mood caused by ATD. This was also observed on the positive mood VAS. These results indicate a direct, immediate interaction between bright light and serotonin function. Bright light might help protect against ATD-induced mood change by increasing serotonin above the threshold level below which there is a lowering of mood.

  9. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Islambulchilar, Mina; Asvadi, Iraj; Sanaat, Zohreh; Esfahani, Ali; Sattari, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally). Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years). The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05) increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05) lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes. PMID:25789226

  10. A Conceptual Model for Episodes of Acute, Unscheduled Care.

    PubMed

    Pines, Jesse M; Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Zocchi, Mark S; Lazar, Danielle; Leedekerken, Jacob B; Margolis, Gregg S; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-10-01

    We engaged in a 1-year process to develop a conceptual model representing an episode of acute, unscheduled care. Acute, unscheduled care includes acute illnesses (eg, nausea and vomiting), injuries, or exacerbations of chronic conditions (eg, worsening dyspnea in congestive heart failure) and is delivered in emergency departments, urgent care centers, and physicians' offices, as well as through telemedicine. We began with a literature search to define an acute episode of care and to identify existing conceptual models used in health care. In accordance with this information, we then drafted a preliminary conceptual model and collected stakeholder feedback, using online focus groups and concept mapping. Two technical expert panels reviewed the draft model, examined the stakeholder feedback, and discussed ways the model could be improved. After integrating the experts' comments, we solicited public comment on the model and made final revisions. The final conceptual model includes social and individual determinants of health that influence the incidence of acute illness and injury, factors that affect care-seeking decisions, specific delivery settings where acute care is provided, and outcomes and costs associated with the acute care system. We end with recommendations for how researchers, policymakers, payers, patients, and providers can use the model to identify and prioritize ways to improve acute care delivery. PMID:27397857

  11. Meteorological parameters and severity of acute pulmonary embolism episodes.

    PubMed

    Staśkiewicz, Grzegorz; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Przegaliński, Jerzy; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pachowicz, Marcin; Drop, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of acute pulmonary embolism episodes has been previously shown to correlate significantly with meteorological factors in the period preceding their occurrence. The purpose of the study was to analyze the relation of meteorological factors and the severity of acute pulmonary embolism, expressed by the CT-based pulmonary obstruction score. A retrospective analysis of medical data of 182 consecutive patients with acute pulmonary embolism diagnosed with CT pulmonary angiography was performed. Severity of pulmonary obstruction was assessed by analysis of CT pulmonary angiography examinations, and defined with pulmonary obstruction score by Qanadli et al. The study group was divided into low (L group, 95 patients) and high PE severity (H group, 87 patients), with a cutoff value of 50% of maximum pulmonary obstruction score. Meteorological data collected for the relevant time period were: air temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, visibility, wind speed and precipitation. No significant differences in seasonal distribution of pulmonary embolism episodes were observed. Episodes of more severe pulmonary embolism were preceded by periods of lower atmospheric pressure (1,016.35 hPA for group H, vs. 1,016.35 hPa for group L, p = 0.022). No significant relations between other meteorological factors and severity of PE were observed. The reported finding shows the need of further research on the nature of meteorological factors influence on the course of pulmonary embolism, which should be analyzed not ony regarding the frequency, but also severity of PE episodes.

  12. Continuing decline in acute asthma episodes in the community

    PubMed Central

    Sunderland, R; Fleming, D

    2004-01-01

    Aims and Methods: To report on trends in the incidence of asthma episodes in children reported to the WRS over the period 1980–2002. Results: Data confirm the steady upward trend from 1980 to 1993. The downward trend since 1993 was consistent in both male and female preschool and school age children, in all regions of the country simultaneously, and during all seasons until 1999 since when it has stabilised. No causative factor has been identified and no temporal association found between factors previously postulated as causing the increase in acute asthma. The decline in acute asthma episodes in children is consistent with observed declines in all other respiratory infections in this community. PMID:14977715

  13. Optimal duration of risperidone or olanzapine adjunctive therapy to mood stabilizer following remission of a manic episode: A CANMAT randomized double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Yatham, L N; Beaulieu, S; Schaffer, A; Kauer-Sant'Anna, M; Kapczinski, F; Lafer, B; Sharma, V; Parikh, S V; Daigneault, A; Qian, H; Bond, D J; Silverstone, P H; Walji, N; Milev, R; Baruch, P; da Cunha, A; Quevedo, J; Dias, R; Kunz, M; Young, L T; Lam, R W; Wong, H

    2016-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate is effective in treating acute mania. Although continuation of atypical antipsychotic adjunctive therapy after mania remission reduces relapse of mood episodes, the optimal duration is unknown. As many atypical antipsychotics cause weight gain and metabolic syndrome, they should not be continued unless the benefits outweigh the risks. This 52-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial recruited patients with bipolar I disorder (n=159) who recently remitted from a manic episode during treatment with risperidone or olanzapine adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate. Patients were randomized to one of three conditions: discontinuation of risperidone or olanzapine and substitution with placebo at (i) entry (‘0-weeks' group) or (ii) at 24 weeks after entry (‘24-weeks' group) or (iii) continuation of risperidone or olanzapine for the full duration of the study (‘52-weeks' group). The primary outcome measure was time to relapse of any mood episode. Compared with the 0-weeks group, the time to any mood episode was significantly longer in the 24-weeks group (hazard ratio (HR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33, 0.86) and nearly so in the 52-weeks group (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.02). The relapse rate was similar in the 52-weeks group compared with the 24-weeks group (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.99); however, sub-group analysis showed discordant results between the two antipsychotics (HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.17; 1.32 olanzapine patients; HR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.41 risperidone patients). Average weight gain was 3.2 kg in the 52-weeks group compared with a weight loss of 0.2 kg in the 0-weeks and 0.1 kg in the 24-weeks groups. These findings suggest that risperidone or olanzapine adjunctive therapy for 24 weeks is beneficial but continuation of risperidone beyond this period does not reduce the risk of relapse. Whether continuation of olanzapine beyond this period reduces relapse risk remains

  14. [Mood stabilizers].

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Within recent years the diagnostic concept of bipolar disorders has profoundly changed. The original view of one manic-depressive illness has become more and more a spectrum disorder ranging from personality traits to the full clinical feature of manic-depressive illness. Therefore, prevalence has increased in the general population. However, for differential treatment approaches with mood stabilisers the clinical distinction between bipolar I and bipolar II disorders becomes more and more relevant and, importantly, rapid cycling is a critical criterion for a differential indication of mood stabilisers. In acute treatment the psychopathological features such as euphoric versus dysphoric mania, the severity and the frequency of episodes play an important role for the choice of the mood stabiliser. According to international guidelines Lithium and Valproat are first-line treatment options. In addition, Lamotrigin has become a first-line treatment in special issues such as long-term treatment of bipolar depression. Carbamazepin, however, has lost its first-line place due to the evidence-based data situation and due to the side-effect profile. Within recent years the atypical anti-psychotics were investigated in bipolar disorder. Meanwhile, most of them have an indication for the treatment of acute mania, some of them for bipolar depression. Some studies also point to an efficacy in long-term prophylactic treatment. In summary, the psychopharmacological indications for the differential use of mood stabilisers are becoming more and more complex, therefore clear guidelines are needed. PMID:19496037

  15. Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder: from acute episode to remission.

    PubMed

    Volkert, J; Schiele, M A; Kazmaier, Julia; Glaser, Friederike; Zierhut, K C; Kopf, J; Kittel-Schneider, S; Reif, A

    2016-04-01

    Considerable evidence demonstrates that neuropsychological deficits are prevalent in bipolar disorder during both acute episodes and euthymia. However, it is less clear whether these cognitive disturbances are state- or trait-related. We here present the first longitudinal study employing a within-subject pre- and post-testing examining acutely admitted bipolar patients (BP) in depression or mania and during euthymia, aiming to identify cognitive performance from acute illness to remission. Cognitive performance was measured during acute episodes and repeated after at least 3 months of remission. To do so, 55 BP (35 depressed, 20 hypo-/manic) and 55 healthy controls (HC) were tested with a neuropsychological test battery (attention, working memory, verbal memory, executive functioning). The results showed global impairments in acutely ill BP compared to HC: depressed patients showed a characteristic psychomotor slowing, while manic patients had severe deficits in executive functioning. Twenty-nine remitted BP could be measured in the follow-up (dropout rate 48 %), whose cognitive functions partially recovered, whereas working memory and verbal memory were still impaired. However, we found that subthreshold depressive symptoms and persisting sleep disturbances in euthymic BP were associated with reduced speed, deficits in attention and verbal memory, while working memory was correlated with psychotic symptoms (lifetime). This result indicates working memory as trait related for a subgroup of BP with psychotic symptoms. In contrast, attention and verbal memory are negatively influenced by state factors like residual symptoms, which should be more considered as possible confounders in the search of cognitive endophenotypes in remitted BP. PMID:26611783

  16. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    PubMed

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time.

  17. Temperament and Character in Euthymic Major Depressive Disorder Patients: The Effect of Previous Suicide Attempts and Psychotic Mood Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Yakup; Ekinci, Aslı Erkan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine personality traits of patients with major depressive disorder and explore the possible connections between personality and clinical and sociodemographic variables. Methods The sociodemographic and clinical properties of 80 patients with major depression, who were euthymic according to Hamilton Depression Scale scores, were recorded. Their personality was evaluated by using Temperament and Character Inventory and results were compared with 80 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We used general linear model analysis to evaluate the manner in which the variables contributed to TCI scores. Results Remitted depressive patients scored significantly lower on on self-directedness and higher on harm avoidance than HC. Previous suicide attempts had a main effect only on harm avoidance while previous psychotic mood episodes were significantly associated with novelty seeking, self-directedness and cooperativeness. With respect to numeric clinical variables, only duration of illness was significantly and negatively correlated with NS and RD scores. Conclusion Patients with euthymic major depressive disorder may have significantly different personality traits than the normal population, and patients with different clinical and sociodemographic characteristics may show different personality patterns. In addition, assessment of major depressed patients by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory may be helpful to get a deeper insight into those personality traits underlying suicidality and the emergence of psychotic mood episode. PMID:22707961

  18. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder versus Severe Mood Dysregulation: Risk for Manic Episodes on Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringaris, Argyris; Baroni, Argelinda; Haimm, Caroline; Brotman, Melissa; Lowe, Catherine H.; Myers, Frances; Rustgi, Eileen; Wheeler, Wanda; Kayser, Reilly; Towbin, Kenneth; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: An important question in pediatric bipolar research is whether marked nonepisodic irritability is a manifestation of bipolar disorder in youth. This study tests the hypothesis that youth with severe mood dysregulation (SMD), a category created for the purpose of studying children presenting with severe nonepisodic irritability, will be…

  19. Cortisol response to acute stress in asthma: Moderation by depressive mood.

    PubMed

    Trueba, Ana F; Simon, Erica; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Both individuals with asthma and depression show signs of a dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, little is known about the cortisol response to stress in the context of co-occurring asthma and depressive mood. Thirty-nine individuals with asthma and 41 healthy controls underwent a combined speech and mental arithmetic stressor. During the course of the laboratory session, salivary cortisol was collected 5 times, with 1 sample at 0min before the stressor and 4 samples at 0, 15, 30 and 45min after the stressor. Depressive mood in the past week was assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the beginning of the session. Depressive symptoms moderated cortisol response to the acute stressor, but only among asthmatic patients. Higher depressive mood was associated with a significant increase in cortisol, whereas low depressive mood was associated with no cortisol response. In healthy participants, depressive mood had no substantial effect on cortisol response to the stressor. These findings suggest that depressive mood and chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma can interact to augment cortisol response to stress.

  20. Aggressive treatment of the first acute rejection episode using first-line anti-lymphocytic preparation reduces further acute rejection episodes after human kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Theodorakis, J; Schneeberger, H; Illner, W D; Stangl, M; Zanker, B; Land, W

    1998-01-01

    The detrimental effect of acute rejection episodes on long-term outcome of renal allografts in cyclosporin-treated patients is well established, although has not been seen by all investigators. To analyse the possibility that aggressive treatment of the first episode may ameliorate this detrimental effect, we performed an open label, randomised prospective trial in cyclosporin-based, immunosuppressed recipients of postmortem renal allografts in order to compare two different treatment protocols during primary acute rejection episodes: (1) group 1 of 25 patients received 3 x 250 mg methylprednisolone (MP) i.v.; (2) group 2 of 25 patients received 7 x anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)-Fresenius i.v. (4 mg/kg body weight). During a period of 4 years, the following clinical observations were made: (1) The incidence of an acute re-rejection episode was significantly reduced in the ATG-treated study group (16%) compared to the MP-treated study group (72%); (2) The severity of the first acute rejection episode (intensity of renal dysfunction measured in terms of 10-day creatinine area under curve) showed no significant difference between the groups (37 mg x 10-d/dl to 58 mg x 10-d/dl); and (3) The half-lives of allografts in both groups have not shown any significant differences so far. In conclusion, aggressive treatment of the first rejection episode of renal allografts with the use of ATG reduced the incidence of re-rejection episodes which, however, are not reflected so far by improvement of the 4-year survival rate of these allografts. Since it could be observed that re-rejection is an even worse predictor for chronic transplant failure, a better long-term outcome of renal allografts in ATG-treated patients may be expected during a longer observation period. The incidence of a third episode was also reduced in the ATG-treated group (0%) compared to the MP-treated group (12%).

  1. Impaired niacin sensitivity in acute first-episode but not in multi-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smesny, S; Rosburg, T; Riemann, S; Baur, K; Rudolph, N; Berger, G; Sauer, H

    2005-06-01

    Niacin (vitamin B3) flushing--a marker of altered prostaglandin signaling--is indirectly linked to the phospholipid-prostaglandin metabolism. Diminished skin flushing was repeatedly found in schizophrenia, but has not been systematically investigated at different stages of disorder as yet. We compared niacin sensitivity of 32 first-episode and 32 multi-episode patients (mainly on stable medication) with age and gender matched healthy controls. Methylnicotinate was applied in three concentrations onto the inner forearm skin. Flush response was assessed in 3 min intervals over 15 min using optical reflection spectroscopy. Whereas first-episode patients showed significantly diminished flush response as compared to controls, comparable differences were not found between multi-episode patients and controls. Comparison of niacin sensitivity at different stages of schizophrenia support the notion of altered prostaglandin signaling primarily at the onset of disorder. Longitudinal studies have to rule out possible long-term effects of neuroleptic medication.

  2. Acute episode of cyclic vomiting syndrome preceded by arterial hypertension – Case presentation and review.

    PubMed

    Keller, K; Desuki, A; Hobohm, L; Münzel, T; Ostad, M A

    2015-10-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a functional disorder with recurrent episodes of vomiting. Between these episodes patients recover to well-being. Lack of awareness often leads to a delay in making the diagnosis. The diagnosis is based on a typical medical history and exclusion of other causes. We present a case report of a middle-aged patient who had recurrent episodes of vomiting for 12 years coinciding with hypertension. After excluding other causes, CVS was diagnosed. The episodes of acute vomiting were stopped by administration of antiemetic and sedative drugs and urapidil reduced the hypertension. Treatment with sedatives stops vomiting caused by the emetic centre of the central nervous system.

  3. An Investigation of the Acute Effects of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Subjective Wellbeing, Mood and Cognitive Performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew P; Sutherland, David; Hewlett, Paul

    2015-10-28

    Inulin is a natural food component found in many plants that are part of the human diet (e.g., leeks, onions, wheat, garlic, chicory and artichokes). It is added to many foods and is used to increase dietary fibre, replace fats or carbohydrates, and as a prebiotic (a stimulant of beneficial bacteria in the colon). Oligofructose, which is also present in these foods, produces similar effects and most research has used a combination of these products. A previous study (Smith, 2005) investigated the effects of regular consumption of oligofructose-enriched inulin on wellbeing, mood, and cognitive performance in humans. The results showed that oligofructose-enriched inulin had no negative effects but that it did not improve wellbeing, mood, or performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin (5 g) over a 4 h period during which the participants remained in the laboratory. A double blind placebo (maltodextrin) controlled study (N = 47) was carried out with the order of conditions being counterbalanced and the two sessions a week apart. On each test day mood and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline (at 8:00) and then following inulin or placebo (at 11:00). Prior to the second test session (at 10:30) participants completed a questionnaire assessing their physical symptoms and mental health during the test morning. The inulin and placebo were provided in powder form in 5 g sachets. Volunteers consumed one sachet in decaffeinated tea or decaffeinated coffee with breakfast (9:00). Questionnaire results showed that on the day that the inulin was consumed, participants felt happier, had less indigestion and were less hungry than when they consumed the placebo. As for performance and mood tasks, the most consistent effects were on the episodic memory tasks where consumption of inulin was associated with greater accuracy on a recognition memory task, and improved recall performance (immediate and delayed

  4. An Investigation of the Acute Effects of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Subjective Wellbeing, Mood and Cognitive Performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew P; Sutherland, David; Hewlett, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Inulin is a natural food component found in many plants that are part of the human diet (e.g., leeks, onions, wheat, garlic, chicory and artichokes). It is added to many foods and is used to increase dietary fibre, replace fats or carbohydrates, and as a prebiotic (a stimulant of beneficial bacteria in the colon). Oligofructose, which is also present in these foods, produces similar effects and most research has used a combination of these products. A previous study (Smith, 2005) investigated the effects of regular consumption of oligofructose-enriched inulin on wellbeing, mood, and cognitive performance in humans. The results showed that oligofructose-enriched inulin had no negative effects but that it did not improve wellbeing, mood, or performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin (5 g) over a 4 h period during which the participants remained in the laboratory. A double blind placebo (maltodextrin) controlled study (N = 47) was carried out with the order of conditions being counterbalanced and the two sessions a week apart. On each test day mood and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline (at 8:00) and then following inulin or placebo (at 11:00). Prior to the second test session (at 10:30) participants completed a questionnaire assessing their physical symptoms and mental health during the test morning. The inulin and placebo were provided in powder form in 5 g sachets. Volunteers consumed one sachet in decaffeinated tea or decaffeinated coffee with breakfast (9:00). Questionnaire results showed that on the day that the inulin was consumed, participants felt happier, had less indigestion and were less hungry than when they consumed the placebo. As for performance and mood tasks, the most consistent effects were on the episodic memory tasks where consumption of inulin was associated with greater accuracy on a recognition memory task, and improved recall performance (immediate and delayed

  5. An Investigation of the Acute Effects of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Subjective Wellbeing, Mood and Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew P.; Sutherland, David; Hewlett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Inulin is a natural food component found in many plants that are part of the human diet (e.g., leeks, onions, wheat, garlic, chicory and artichokes). It is added to many foods and is used to increase dietary fibre, replace fats or carbohydrates, and as a prebiotic (a stimulant of beneficial bacteria in the colon). Oligofructose, which is also present in these foods, produces similar effects and most research has used a combination of these products. A previous study (Smith, 2005) investigated the effects of regular consumption of oligofructose-enriched inulin on wellbeing, mood, and cognitive performance in humans. The results showed that oligofructose-enriched inulin had no negative effects but that it did not improve wellbeing, mood, or performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin (5 g) over a 4 h period during which the participants remained in the laboratory. A double blind placebo (maltodextrin) controlled study (N = 47) was carried out with the order of conditions being counterbalanced and the two sessions a week apart. On each test day mood and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline (at 8:00) and then following inulin or placebo (at 11:00). Prior to the second test session (at 10:30) participants completed a questionnaire assessing their physical symptoms and mental health during the test morning. The inulin and placebo were provided in powder form in 5 g sachets. Volunteers consumed one sachet in decaffeinated tea or decaffeinated coffee with breakfast (9:00). Questionnaire results showed that on the day that the inulin was consumed, participants felt happier, had less indigestion and were less hungry than when they consumed the placebo. As for performance and mood tasks, the most consistent effects were on the episodic memory tasks where consumption of inulin was associated with greater accuracy on a recognition memory task, and improved recall performance (immediate and delayed

  6. Mood influences on acute smoking responses are independent of nicotine intake and dose expectancy.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Ciccocioppo, Melinda; Conklin, Cynthia A; Milanak, Melissa E; Grottenthaler, Amy; Sayette, Michael A

    2008-02-01

    Acute responses to smoking are influenced by nicotine and by nonpharmacological factors such as nicotine dose expectancy and sensory effects of smoke inhalation. Because negative mood increases smoking reinforcement, the authors examined whether these effects may be altered by mood context. Smokers (n=200) participated in 2 sessions, negative or positive mood induction, and were randomized to 1 of 5 groups. Four groups comprised the 2x2 balanced placebo design, varying actual (0.6 mg vs. 0.05 mg yield) and expected nicotine dose (expected nicotine vs. denicotinized [denic]) of cigarettes. A fifth group was a no-smoking control. Smoking, versus not smoking, attenuated negative affect, as well as withdrawal and craving. Negative mood increased smoking reinforcement. However, neither actual nor expected nicotine dose had much influence on these responses; even those smokers receiving and expecting a denic cigarette reported attenuated negative affect. A follow-up comparison suggested that the sensory effects of smoke inhalation, but not the simple motor effects of smoking behavior, were responsible. Thus, sensory effects of smoke inhalation had a greater influence on relieving negative affect than actual or expected nicotine intake.

  7. Mood influences on acute smoking responses are independent of nicotine intake and dose expectancy.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Ciccocioppo, Melinda; Conklin, Cynthia A; Milanak, Melissa E; Grottenthaler, Amy; Sayette, Michael A

    2008-02-01

    Acute responses to smoking are influenced by nicotine and by nonpharmacological factors such as nicotine dose expectancy and sensory effects of smoke inhalation. Because negative mood increases smoking reinforcement, the authors examined whether these effects may be altered by mood context. Smokers (n=200) participated in 2 sessions, negative or positive mood induction, and were randomized to 1 of 5 groups. Four groups comprised the 2x2 balanced placebo design, varying actual (0.6 mg vs. 0.05 mg yield) and expected nicotine dose (expected nicotine vs. denicotinized [denic]) of cigarettes. A fifth group was a no-smoking control. Smoking, versus not smoking, attenuated negative affect, as well as withdrawal and craving. Negative mood increased smoking reinforcement. However, neither actual nor expected nicotine dose had much influence on these responses; even those smokers receiving and expecting a denic cigarette reported attenuated negative affect. A follow-up comparison suggested that the sensory effects of smoke inhalation, but not the simple motor effects of smoking behavior, were responsible. Thus, sensory effects of smoke inhalation had a greater influence on relieving negative affect than actual or expected nicotine intake. PMID:18266487

  8. Effect of acute alcohol use on the lethality of suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Makhija, Nita M; Posner, Kelly; Mann, J John; Stanley, Barbara H

    2009-07-01

    Acute alcohol use is an important risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. We evaluated the effect of acute alcohol intake on the lethality of suicide attempts to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with more lethal suicide attempts. This retrospective study included 317 suicide attempters enrolled in mood disorders protocols. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed. The use of alcohol at the time of the most lethal suicide attempt was determined. On the basis of their responses participants were classified into three groups: participants who reported "Enough alcohol intake to impair judgment, reality testing and diminish responsibility" or "Intentional intake of alcohol in order to facilitate implementation of attempt" were included in the group "Alcohol" (A); participants who reported "Some alcohol intake prior to but not related to attempt, reportedly not enough to impair judgment, reality testing" were included in the group "Some Alcohol" (SA); and participants who reported "No alcohol intake immediately prior to attempt" were included in the group "No Alcohol" (NA). Lethality of the most lethal suicide attempts was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. Prevalence of patients with alcohol use disorders was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. SA participants reported more reasons for living and lower suicide intent scores at the time of their most lethal suicide attempt compared to the A and NA groups. Acute alcohol use increases the lethality of suicide attempts in individuals with mood disorders.

  9. A multinational health professional perspective of the prevalence of mood disorders in patients with acute and chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Upton, Dominic; Solowiej, Kazia; Woo, Kevin Y

    2014-12-01

    Recent research has started to identify mood disorders and problems associated with acute and chronic wounds, which have been shown to contribute to delayed healing, poor patient well-being and a reduced quality of life. Furthermore, mood disorders have been shown to have a negative impact on financial costs for service providers and the wider society in terms of treatment and sickness absence. This study aimed to survey a multinational sample of health professionals to explore their perspective and awareness of mood disorders amongst acute and chronic wound patients. Responses were received from n = 908 health professionals working in Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe, North America and South America. A strong awareness of the prevalence of mood disorders appeared to be widespread among the health professionals across the world, in addition to a view on the potential factors contributing to these problems with mood. Despite this, it was thought that few patients were actually receiving treatment for their mood disorders. Implications for clinical practice include the need for health professionals to engage actively with their patients to enable them to learn from their experiences. Studies that explore the benefits of treatments and techniques appropriate for minimising mood disorders in patients with wounds would provide empirical evidence for health professionals to make recommendations for patients with acute and chronic wounds.

  10. Psychosocial Acute Treatment in Early-Episode Schizophrenia Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bola, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews evidence on the treatment of early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders that contradicts, in some cases, the American Psychiatric Association's generic recommendation of antipsychotic medication treatment for at least a year. Method: Evidence on lack of diagnostic validity, absence of demonstrated long-term…

  11. The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, P T; Lane, J; Moore, K L; Aspen, J; Rycroft, J A; O'Brien, D C

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine level in tea and coffee on acute physiological responses and mood. Randomised full crossover design in subjects after overnight caffeine abstention was studied. In study 1 (n = 17) the caffeine level was manipulated naturalistically by preparing tea and coffee at different strengths (1 or 2 cups equivalent). Caffeine levels were 37.5 and 75 mg in tea, 75 and 150 mg in coffee, with water and no-drink controls. In study 2 (n = 15) caffeine level alone was manipulated (water, decaffeinated tea, plus 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg caffeine). Beverage volume and temperature (55 degrees C) were constant. SBP, DBP, heart rate, skin temperature, skin conductance, and mood were monitored over each 3-h study session. In study 1, tea and coffee produced mild autonomic stimulation and an elevation in mood. There were no effects of tea vs. coffee or caffeine dose, despite a fourfold variation in the latter. Increasing beverage strength was associated with greater increases in DBP and energetic arousal. In study 2, caffeinated beverages increased SBP, DBP, and skin conductance and lowered heart rate and skin temperature compared to water. Significant dose-response relationships to caffeine were seen only for SBP, heart rate, and skin temperature. There were significant effects of caffeine on energetic arousal but no consistent dose-response effects. Caffeinated beverages acutely stimulate the autonomic nervous system and increase alertness. Although caffeine can exert dose-dependent effects on a number of acute autonomic responses, caffeine level is not an important factor. Factors besides caffeine may contribute to these acute effects.

  12. The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, P T; Lane, J; Moore, K L; Aspen, J; Rycroft, J A; O'Brien, D C

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine level in tea and coffee on acute physiological responses and mood. Randomised full crossover design in subjects after overnight caffeine abstention was studied. In study 1 (n = 17) the caffeine level was manipulated naturalistically by preparing tea and coffee at different strengths (1 or 2 cups equivalent). Caffeine levels were 37.5 and 75 mg in tea, 75 and 150 mg in coffee, with water and no-drink controls. In study 2 (n = 15) caffeine level alone was manipulated (water, decaffeinated tea, plus 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg caffeine). Beverage volume and temperature (55 degrees C) were constant. SBP, DBP, heart rate, skin temperature, skin conductance, and mood were monitored over each 3-h study session. In study 1, tea and coffee produced mild autonomic stimulation and an elevation in mood. There were no effects of tea vs. coffee or caffeine dose, despite a fourfold variation in the latter. Increasing beverage strength was associated with greater increases in DBP and energetic arousal. In study 2, caffeinated beverages increased SBP, DBP, and skin conductance and lowered heart rate and skin temperature compared to water. Significant dose-response relationships to caffeine were seen only for SBP, heart rate, and skin temperature. There were significant effects of caffeine on energetic arousal but no consistent dose-response effects. Caffeinated beverages acutely stimulate the autonomic nervous system and increase alertness. Although caffeine can exert dose-dependent effects on a number of acute autonomic responses, caffeine level is not an important factor. Factors besides caffeine may contribute to these acute effects. PMID:10837840

  13. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Acute Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms: Associations With Mood, Motives, and Use on Planned Drinking Days

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Day, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one’s mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes within subjects. The current study used EMA with 74 moderate drinkers who responded to fixed and random mood, motive, alcohol use, and AUD criteria prompts over a 21-day assessment period. A temporal pattern of daytime mood, evening drinking motivation, and nighttime alcohol use and acute AUD symptoms on planned drinking days was modeled to examine how these associations unfold throughout the day. The results suggest considerable heterogeneity in drinking motivation across drinking days. Additionally, an affect regulation model of drinking to cope with negative mood was observed. Specifically, on planned drinking days, the temporal association between daytime negative mood and the experience of acute AUD symptoms was mediated via coping motives and alcohol use. The current study found that motives are dynamic, and that changes in motives may predict differential drinking patterns across days. Further, the study provides evidence that emotion-regulation-driven alcohol involvement may need to be examined at the event level to fully capture the ebb and flow of negative affect motivated drinking. PMID:24932896

  14. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    PubMed

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress. PMID:23064870

  15. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    PubMed

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress.

  16. Acute effects of a winter air pollution episode on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of children

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. )

    1993-09-01

    The acute respiratory effects of a wintertime air pollution episode were studied in a general population sample of 112 children who were 7-12 y of age and who lived in a nonurban community. Spirometry was performed on 6 d, with a fixed interval of 3 wk between successive tests. During an air pollution episode, an additional pulmonary function test was made. Acute respiratory symptoms of the children were noted in a diary. Ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns, and nitrogen dioxide were considered as exposure variables. The association of air pollution with pulmonary function and prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms was assessed by individual linear regression analysis and time series analysis, respectively. In February 1991, an air pollution episode occurred during which daily average sulfur dioxide concentrations were slightly above 100 micrograms/m3, and particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns) concentrations reached 174 micrograms/m3. During the episode, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and maximal mid-expiratory flow were lower than on baseline tests. Significant negative associations were found between the concentration of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns. No association between prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms and the concentration of these compounds was found.

  17. Acute effects of a winter air pollution episode on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of children.

    PubMed

    Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B

    1993-01-01

    The acute respiratory effects of a wintertime air pollution episode were studied in a general population sample of 112 children who were 7-12 y of age and who lived in a nonurban community. Spirometry was performed on 6 d, with a fixed interval of 3 wk between successive tests. During an air pollution episode, an additional pulmonary function test was made. Acute respiratory symptoms of the children were noted in a diary. Ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns, and nitrogen dioxide were considered as exposure variables. The association of air pollution with pulmonary function and prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms was assessed by individual linear regression analysis and time series analysis, respectively. In February 1991, an air pollution episode occurred during which daily average sulfur dioxide concentrations were slightly above 100 micrograms/m3, and particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns) concentrations reached 174 micrograms/m3. During the episode, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and maximal mid-expiratory flow were lower than on baseline tests. Significant negative associations were found between the concentration of sulfur dioxide, black smoke, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns. No association between prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms and the concentration of these compounds was found.

  18. Two episodes of acute illness in a machine shop

    SciTech Connect

    Sinks, T.; Kerndt, P.R.; Wallingford, K.M.

    1989-08-01

    Following an explosion in a machine shop and temporary plant closure, on the day the plant returned to full operations a degreaser malfunctioned. Workers in the assembly room were exposed to trichloroethylene levels later estimated to have exceeded 220 ppm (OSHA PEL 100 ppm). The plant was evacuated and the degreaser taken out of operation. Blood testing for carbon monoxide (CO) on five employees found carboxyhemoglobin levels in excess of normal. The plant reopened the following morning. Over the next two weeks, 15 employees were seen by the plant nurses for similar complaints; although all returned to work, their carboxyhemoglobin levels, later found to be inaccurate, were reported by a local medical clinic to range from 13.7 to 20.0 percent. At the end of the second week, another outbreak of illness occurred, but carboxyhemoglobin, trichloroethylene, fluorocarbons, and methylene chloride were not elevated in all 17 persons tested; plant-wide monitoring for CO found no elevated levels. During the first outbreak of illness, cases were 2.26 times as likely to have entered the assembly room as noncases. During the second outbreak, cases were no more likely than noncases to have entered the assembly room. We believe the explosion, earlier toxic exposures and illness, and the misleading blood test results led to plant-wide anxiety which culminated in a collective stress reaction and the second outbreak. An open meeting with all employees, informing them of our findings, provided reassurance and no further episodes of illness occurred in this workforce.

  19. Two episodes of acute illness in a machine shop.

    PubMed Central

    Sinks, T; Kerndt, P R; Wallingford, K M

    1989-01-01

    Following an explosion in a machine shop and temporary plant closure, on the day the plant returned to full operations a degreaser malfunctioned. Workers in the assembly room were exposed to trichloroethylene levels later estimated to have exceeded 220 ppm (OSHA PEL 100 ppm). The plant was evacuated and the degreaser taken out of operation. Blood testing for carbon monoxide (CO) on five employees found carboxyhemoglobin levels in excess of normal. The plant reopened the following morning. Over the next two weeks, 15 employees were seen by the plant nurses for similar complaints; although all returned to work, their carboxyhemoglobin levels, later found to be inaccurate, were reported by a local medical clinic to range from 13.7 to 20.0 percent. At the end of the second week, another outbreak of illness occurred, but carboxyhemoglobin, trichloroethylene, fluorocarbons, and methylene chloride were not elevated in all 17 persons tested; plant-wide monitoring for CO found no elevated levels. During the first outbreak of illness, cases were 2.26 times as likely to have entered the assembly room as noncases. During the second outbreak, cases were no more likely than noncases to have entered the assembly room. We believe the explosion, earlier toxic exposures and illness, and the misleading blood test results led to plant-wide anxiety which culminated in a collective stress reaction and the second outbreak. An open meeting with all employees, informing them of our findings, provided reassurance and no further episodes of illness occurred in this workforce. PMID:2751018

  20. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Scholey, Andrew B; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A

    2002-07-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration of Melissa to healthy humans. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced-crossover study investigated the acute effects on cognition and mood of a standardised extract of M. officinalis. Twenty healthy, young participants received single doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg of M. officinalis (Pharmaton) or a matching placebo at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery and two serial subtraction tasks immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. In vitro IC(50) concentrations for the displacement of [3H]-(N)-nicotine and [3H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in human occipital cortex tissue were also calculated. Results, utilising the cognitive factors previously derived from the CDR battery, included a sustained improvement in Accuracy of Attention following 600 mg of Melissa and time- and dose-specific reductions in both Secondary Memory and Working Memory factors. Self-rated "calmness," as assessed by Bond-Lader mood scales, was elevated at the earliest time points by the lowest dose, whilst "alertness" was significantly reduced at all time points following the highest dose. Both nicotinic and muscarinic binding were found to be low in comparison to the levels found in previous studies.

  1. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: a clinical study of 12 episodes in 11 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H; Sandoval, L; Wainstein, A; Ribalta, J; Donoso, S; Smok, G; Rosenberg, H; Meneses, M

    1994-01-01

    Twelve episodes of acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) were diagnosed in 11 patients during the past 18 years in a general hospital in Santiago, Chile, with a prevalence of 1 per 15,900 deliveries. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy started between the 31st and 38th weeks of pregnancy, with malaise, vomiting, jaundice, and lethargy as the main clinical manifestations. Polydipsia (in nine episodes) and skin pruritus (in seven episodes) were unusual clinical findings. In two patients, pruritus started two and four weeks before AFLP, suggesting that an intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy preceded AFLP in those patients. Considering the current prevalence of both diseases in Chile, their association should be considered fortuitous. In another patient, two consecutive pregnancies were affected by AFLP, raising to three the number of reported patients with recurrent AFLP. In 11 episodes, liver biopsies supported the diagnosis of AFLP by showing small and midsized vacuolar cytoplasmic transformation as the most prominent histopathological feature. Positive intracellular fat staining was found in the four samples analysed. Studies by electron microscopy showed megamitochondria with paracrystalline inclusions in four samples. All the mothers survived, but fetal mortality was 58.3%. Several extrahepatic complications delayed maternal recovery for up to four weeks after delivery. This study confirms an improvement in maternal prognosis in AFLP, discusses the possibility of an epidemiological association with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and increases the number of patients reported with recurrent AFLP. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8307428

  2. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis. PMID:16164756

  3. Antibiotic Treatment for First Episode of Acute Otitis Media Is Not Associated with Future Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    te Molder, Marthe; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Smit, Henriette A.; Schilder, Anne G. M.; Damoiseaux, Roger A. M. J.; Venekamp, Roderick P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) has been suggested to increase the risk of future AOM episodes by causing unfavorable shifts in microbial flora. Because current evidence on this topic is inconclusive and long-term follow-up data are scarce, we wanted to estimate the effect of antibiotic treatment for a first AOM episode occurring during infancy on AOM recurrences and AOM-related health care utilization later in life. Methods We obtained demographic information and risk factors from data of the Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn, a prospective birth cohort study in which all healthy newborns born in Leidsche Rijn (between 2001 and 2012), The Netherlands, were enrolled. These data were linked to children’s primary care electronic health records up to the age of four. Children with at least one family physician-diagnosed AOM episode before the age of two were included in analyses. The exposure of interest was the prescription of oral antibiotics (yes vs no) for a child’s first AOM episode before the age of two years. Results 848 children were included in analyses and 512 (60%) children were prescribed antibiotics for their first AOM episode. Antibiotic treatment was not associated with an increased risk of total AOM recurrences (adjusted rate ratio: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.78–1.13), recurrent AOM (≥3 episodes in 6 months or ≥4 in one year; adjusted risk ratio: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.57–1.11), or with increased AOM-related health care utilization during children’s first four years of life. Conclusions Oral antibiotic treatment of a first AOM episode occurring during infancy does not affect the number of AOM recurrences and AOM-related health care utilization later in life. This information can be used when weighing the pros and cons of various AOM treatment options. PMID:27632355

  4. Pharmacotherapy of acute mania: monotherapy or combination therapy with mood stabilizers and antipsychotics?

    PubMed

    Grande, Iria; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-03-01

    The use of combination therapy with mood stabilizers and antipsychotics in acute mania in bipolar disorder (BD) is widespread, although most treatment guidelines recommend monotherapy as the first option, and reserve combination therapy, which is associated with more frequent and more severe side effects, for when patients do not respond to the former treatment option. Reasons to prescribe combination therapy include the lack of efficacy of the current treatment (either real or due to undisclosed poor adherence), psychiatric comorbidities, severe previous course of illness, slow cross-tapering during treatment switching, and potential benefits from particular combinations. The decision to start with monotherapy or combination therapy may depend on the patient characteristics, and is still under debate. Clinical trials designed to ascertain whether combination therapy or monotherapy is more advantageous for patients in acute mania and beyond, according to illness severity, are urgently needed. Adding a third monotherapy arm to the conventional two-arm, adjunctive-design trials or initiating combination therapy from the beginning may help to shed some light on the issue.

  5. Neural state and trait bases of mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in first-episode major depression.

    PubMed

    van Wingen, Guido A; van Eijndhoven, Philip; Cremers, Henk R; Tendolkar, Indira; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-06-01

    Mood-congruent cognitive biases constitute critical factors for the vulnerability to depression and its maintenance. One important aspect is impaired memory for positive information during depression and after recovery. To elucidate its state (during depression only) and trait (during depression and recovery) related neural bases, we investigated medication free depressed, recovered, and healthy individuals with functional MRI while they memorized and recognized happy and neutral face stimuli. The imaging results revealed group differences in mood-incongruent successful memory encoding and retrieval activity already in the absence of significant memory performance differences. State effects were observed in the amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex. Whereas the amygdala was generally involved in memory formation, its activity predicted subsequent forgetting of neutral faces in depressed patients. Furthermore, the amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex were involved in memory retrieval of happy faces in depressed patients only. Trait effects were observed in the fusiform gyrus and prefrontal cortex. The fusiform gyrus was involved in memory formation and retrieval of happy faces in both patient groups, whereas it was involved in memory formation and retrieval of neutral faces in healthy individuals. Similar trait effects were observed during memory retrieval in the orbitofrontal cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, while memory processing of positive information in the amygdala and posterior cingulate cortex is biased during depression only, memory processing in the fusiform gyrus and prefrontal cortex is biased also after recovery. These distinct neural mechanisms may respectively constitute symptom maintenance and cognitive vulnerability factors for depression.

  6. Clinical significance of automatic warning function of cardiac remote monitoring systems in preventing acute cardiac episodes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shou-Qiang; Xing, Shan-Shan; Gao, Hai-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In addition to ambulatory Holter electrocardiographic recording and transtelephonic electrocardiographic monitoring (TTM), a cardiac remote monitoring system can provide an automatic warning function through the general packet radio service (GPRS) network, enabling earlier diagnosis, treatment and improved outcome of cardiac diseases. The purpose of this study was to estimate its clinical significance in preventing acute cardiac episodes. Methods: Using 2 leads (V1 and V5 leads) and the automatic warning mode, 7160 patients were tested with a cardiac remote monitoring system from October 2004 to September 2007. If malignant arrhythmias or obvious ST-T changes appeared in the electrocardiogram records was automatically transferred to the monitoring center, the patient and his family members were informed, and the corresponding precautionary or therapeutic measures were implemented immediately. Results: In our study, 274 cases of malignant arrhythmia, including sinus standstill and ventricular tachycardia, and 43 cases of obvious ST-segment elevation were detected and treated. Because of early detection, there was no death or deformity. Conclusions: A cardiac remote monitoring system providing an automatic warning function can play an important role in preventing acute cardiac episodes. PMID:25674124

  7. Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Andrew; Haskell, Crystal; Robertson, Bernadette; Kennedy, David; Milne, Anthea; Wetherell, Mark

    2009-06-22

    The notion that chewing gum may relieve stress was investigated in a controlled setting. A multi-tasking framework which reliably evokes stress and also includes performance measures was used to induce acute stress in the laboratory. Using a randomised crossover design forty participants (mean age 21.98 years) performed on the multi-tasking framework at two intensities (on separate days) both while chewing and not chewing. Order of workload intensity and chewing conditions were counterbalanced. Before and after undergoing the platform participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Bond-Lader visual analogue mood scales, a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale and provided saliva samples for cortisol measurement. Baseline measures showed that both levels of the multi-tasking framework were effective in significantly reducing self-rated alertness, calmness and contentment while increasing self-rated stress and state anxiety. Cortisol levels fell during both levels of the stressor during the morning, reflecting the predominance of a.m. diurnal changes, but this effect was reversed in the afternoon which may reflect a measurable stress response. Pre-post stressor changes (Delta) for each measure at baseline were subtracted from Delta scores under chewing and no chewing conditions. During both levels of stress the chewing gum condition was associated with significantly better alertness and reduced state anxiety, stress and salivary cortisol. Overall performance on the framework was also significantly better in the chewing condition. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown but may involve improved cerebral blood flow and/or effects secondary to performance improvement during gum chewing. PMID:19268676

  8. Mood-management dynamics: the interrelationship between moods and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Hess, James D; Kacen, Jacqueline J; Kim, Junyong

    2006-11-01

    People actively attempt to create and maintain positive moods and to escape from negative moods by engaging in various activities. The principle of homeostasis explains the essence of the mood-management system: adjustments of individuals' moods and activities help maintain constant their conditions of life. We model the dynamics of mood and mood-management behaviour through a pair of interdependent, linear differential equations and estimate the equations using mood and behaviour data collected from an adult panel. Because empirically fitting continuous-time differential equations to intermittent observations is uncommon in the literature, we show how to transform differential equations into equations that can be estimated using simultaneous-equation regression methods. Our adult panel shows strong homeostasis in mood management with mood episodes of several hours and no evidence of endogenous mood cycles. PMID:17067416

  9. Influence of acute tryptophan depletion on mood and immune measures in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, A V; Griffiths, J; Merali, Z; Knott, V J; Anisman, H

    1999-01-01

    Depressive illness has been associated with variations of several aspects of immune functioning, as well as alterations of cytokine production in stimulated lymphocytes. In the present investigation we sought to determine whether pharmacologically-induced reductions of mood in healthy, male subjects would be associated with alterations in the levels of circulating IL-1 beta or IL-6 or to in vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to T cell mitogens, PHA and Con A. Lowering tryptophan levels by means of a tryptophan-deficient amino acid mixture, which reduced plasma tryptophan and serotonin (5-HT) levels, produced a lowering of mood in a subset of male subjects (that had no personal or family history of depression) relative to subjects that received a balanced amino acid mixture. Correlational analyses revealed that the change of mood (particularly depression and anger) in subjects that received the tryptophan-free mixture was related to the extent of the tryptophan or 5-HT reductions. However, while fenfluramine administration resulted in recovery of tryptophan and 5-HT levels, this was not accompanied by recovery of mood. Furthermore, it was observed that the lowering of tryptophan levels and the reduced mood were not accompanied by variations of the cytokine levels or cell proliferation. Evidently, transient and modest alterations of 5-HT or mood induced by a tryptophan-free amino acid mixture were insufficient to promote variations of immune activity or circulating IL-1 beta or IL-6 levels. Even if depression were related to immune disturbances, the mood and 5-HT alterations associated with this type of manipulation may be too brief to promote immune changes comparable with those ordinarily associated with severe or chronic depressive illness. PMID:10098222

  10. Acute effects of exercise on mood and EEG activity in healthy young subjects: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo; Moraes, Helena; Machado, Sérgio; Santos, Tony M; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography has been used to establish the relationship among cortical activity, exercise and mood, such as asymmetry, absolute and relative power. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the influence of cortical activity on mood state induced by exercise. The Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was followed in this study. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SciELO. Search was conducted in all databases using the following terms: EEG asymmetry, sLORETA, exercise, with affect, mood and emotions. Based on the defined criteria, a total of 727 articles were found in the search conducted in the literature (666 in Pubmed, 54 in ISI Web of Science, 2 in SciELO and 5 in other data sources). Total of 11 studies were selected which properly met the criteria for this review. Nine out of 11 studies used the frontal asymmetry, four used absolute and relative power and one used sLORETA. With regard to changes in cortical activity and mood induced by exercise, six studies attributed this result to different intensities, one to duration, one to type of exercise and one to fitness level. In general, EEG measures showed contradictory evidence of its ability to predict or modulate psychological mood states through exercise intervention.

  11. A comparison of mood-dependent memory in bipolar disorder and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Nutt, Rachel M; Lam, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    Mood-dependent memory was investigated in a sample of 28 individuals, with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder I but not during acute episodes, and 30 non-clinical controls by using the word lists from Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition and abstract inkblot recognition. Positive or negative mood induction procedures were used prior to and after the stimuli were presented. After either the same or contrasting high or low mood inductions, participants attempted to recall the word list and performed an inkblot recognition task. Bipolar patients were significantly better at the inkblot recognition in the same mood state, showing mood-dependent memory. No differences were found in the verbal recall task. This study paves the way for further investigation into memory differences of this sort in mood disorders.

  12. Diagnostic pitfalls in a young Romanian ranger with an acute psychotic episode.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Előd Ernő; Rácz, Attila; Urbán, Edit; Terhes, Gabriella; Berki, Timea; Horváth, Emőke; Georgescu, Anca M; Zaharia-Kézdi, Iringó E

    2016-01-01

    of the putative occupational risk, acute psychotic episode, and the success of antibiotic therapy, we registered this case as a late neuroborreliosis with atypical appearance. PMID:27217753

  13. Diagnostic pitfalls in a young Romanian ranger with an acute psychotic episode

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Előd Ernő; Rácz, Attila; Urbán, Edit; Terhes, Gabriella; Berki, Timea; Horváth, Emőke; Georgescu, Anca M; Zaharia-Kézdi, Iringó E

    2016-01-01

    basis of the putative occupational risk, acute psychotic episode, and the success of antibiotic therapy, we registered this case as a late neuroborreliosis with atypical appearance. PMID:27217753

  14. Early use of inhaled nedocromil sodium in children following an acute episode of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A; Lyons, J; Weinberg, E; Weinberg, F; Gillies, J; Reid, G; Robertson, C; Robinson, P; Dalton, M; Van Asperen, P; Wilson, C; Mullineux, J; Mullineux, A; Sly, P; Cox, M; Isles, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Current guidelines on the treatment of childhood asthma recommend the introduction of an anti-inflammatory drug in children who have persistent symptoms and require regular treatment with a bronchodilator. The efficacy and safety of inhaled nedocromil sodium (Tilade Mint aerosol) administered using a Fisonair spacer at a dose of 4 mg three times daily was compared with placebo in the treatment of asthmatic children aged 6-12 years who are symptomatic and recovering from an acute exacerbation of asthma.
METHODS—A group comparative, double blind, placebo controlled trial was performed in children who were recovering from an acute episode of asthma following treatment in the emergency department of the hospital or in children referred from their general practitioner following a wheezing episode and documented evidence of at least two previous episodes of wheezing. A two week baseline period on existing bronchodilator treatment was followed by a 12 week treatment period on either nedocromil sodium (2 mg/puff) or placebo. Both treatments were administered using a Fisonair spacer at a dose of two puffs three times daily. Changes from baseline values in daytime asthma and night time asthma symptom scores, usage of rescue bronchodilators, mean peak expiratory flow (PEF) recorded twice daily on diary cards, patients' opinion of treatment, and withdrawals due to treatment failure were measured during the primary treatment period (last six weeks of treatment).
RESULTS—One hundred and forty two children aged 6-12 years entered the baseline period. Sixty three were withdrawn due to failure to meet the entry criteria (18) or the criteria for asthma symptom severity (15) or reversibility (9), because they developed uncontrolled asthma (2), because they took disallowed treatment (2), or for other non-trial related reasons (17). Seventy nine patients (46boys) of mean age 8.8 years entered the treatment period. There were significant differences in the changes

  15. Autonomic nervous system reactivity to positive and negative mood induction: The role of acute psychological responses and frontal electrocortical activity

    PubMed Central

    Kop, Willem J.; Synowski, Stephen J.; Newell, Miranda E.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Waldstein, Shari R.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    The differential effects of positive versus negative emotions on autonomic nervous system activity are insufficiently understood. This study examined the role of acute mood responses and central nervous system activity on heart rate variability (HRV) using 5-min event recall tasks (happiness and anger recall) and a 5-min Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) in 20 healthy individuals (mean age 25±4 years, 55% female). HRV was measured in high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) domains, and frontal brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG) in the alpha frequency band in F3 and F4. Happiness Recall resulted in increased LF-HRV (p=0.005) but not HF-HRV (p=0.71). Anger Recall did not change HRV (p-values>0.10). The SCWT produced decreases in HF-HRV (p=0.001) as well as LF-HRV (p=0.001). The magnitude of feeling “happy” during Happiness Recall was positively correlated with ΔHF-HRV (p=0.050), whereas an incongruent mood state (“frustrated”) was associated with smaller ΔHF-HRV (p=0.070). Associations between frontal EEG activation and HRV responses were mostly non-significant, except for increased right frontal activation during Happiness Recall which was associated with a decrease in LF/HF ratio (p = 0.009), It is concluded that positive and negative mood induction result in differential HRV responses, which is related to both task valence and the intensity of task-induced emotions. PMID:21182891

  16. Mood disturbance and depression in Arab women following hospitalisation from acute cardiac conditions: a cross-sectional study from Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim Mohd; Al-Qahtani, Awad; Asaad, Nidal; Fung, Tak; Singh, Rajvir; Qader, Najlaa Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Depression is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates among cardiovascular patients. Depressed patients have three times higher risk of death than those who are not. We sought to determine the presence of depressive symptoms, and whether gender and age are associated with depression among Arab patients hospitalised with cardiac conditions in a Middle Eastern country. Setting Using a non-probability convenient sampling technique, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1000 Arab patients ≥20 years who were admitted to cardiology units between 2013 and 2014 at the Heart Hospital in Qatar. Patients were interviewed 3 days after admission following the cardiac event. Surveys included demographic and clinical characteristics, and the Arabic version of the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II). Depression was assessed by BDI-II clinical classification scale. Results 15% of the patients had mild mood disturbance and 5% had symptoms of clinical depression. Twice as many females than males suffered from mild mood disturbance and clinical depression symptoms, the majority of females were in the age group 50 years and above, whereas males were in the age group 40–49 years. χ2 Tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that gender and age were statistically significantly related to depression (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions Older Arab women are more likely to develop mood disturbance and depression after being hospitalised with acute cardiac condition. Gender and age differences approach, and routine screening for depression should be conducted with all cardiovascular patients, especially for females in the older age groups. Mental health counselling should be available for all cardiovascular patients who exhibit depressive symptoms. PMID:27388362

  17. Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: a case series.

    PubMed

    Holmes, E A; Bonsall, M B; Hales, S A; Mitchell, H; Renner, F; Blackwell, S E; Watson, P; Goodwin, G M; Di Simplicio, M

    2016-01-01

    Treatment innovation for bipolar disorder has been hampered by a lack of techniques to capture a hallmark symptom: ongoing mood instability. Mood swings persist during remission from acute mood episodes and impair daily functioning. The last significant treatment advance remains Lithium (in the 1970s), which aids only the minority of patients. There is no accepted way to establish proof of concept for a new mood-stabilizing treatment. We suggest that combining insights from mood measurement with applied mathematics may provide a step change: repeated daily mood measurement (depression) over a short time frame (1 month) can create individual bipolar mood instability profiles. A time-series approach allows comparison of mood instability pre- and post-treatment. We test a new imagery-focused cognitive therapy treatment approach (MAPP; Mood Action Psychology Programme) targeting a driver of mood instability, and apply these measurement methods in a non-concurrent multiple baseline design case series of 14 patients with bipolar disorder. Weekly mood monitoring and treatment target data improved for the whole sample combined. Time-series analyses of daily mood data, sampled remotely (mobile phone/Internet) for 28 days pre- and post-treatment, demonstrated improvements in individuals' mood stability for 11 of 14 patients. Thus the findings offer preliminary support for a new imagery-focused treatment approach. They also indicate a step in treatment innovation without the requirement for trials in illness episodes or relapse prevention. Importantly, daily measurement offers a description of mood instability at the individual patient level in a clinically meaningful time frame. This costly, chronic and disabling mental illness demands innovation in both treatment approaches (whether pharmacological or psychological) and measurement tool: this work indicates that daily measurements can be used to detect improvement in individual mood stability for treatment innovation (MAPP

  18. Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: a case series.

    PubMed

    Holmes, E A; Bonsall, M B; Hales, S A; Mitchell, H; Renner, F; Blackwell, S E; Watson, P; Goodwin, G M; Di Simplicio, M

    2016-01-26

    Treatment innovation for bipolar disorder has been hampered by a lack of techniques to capture a hallmark symptom: ongoing mood instability. Mood swings persist during remission from acute mood episodes and impair daily functioning. The last significant treatment advance remains Lithium (in the 1970s), which aids only the minority of patients. There is no accepted way to establish proof of concept for a new mood-stabilizing treatment. We suggest that combining insights from mood measurement with applied mathematics may provide a step change: repeated daily mood measurement (depression) over a short time frame (1 month) can create individual bipolar mood instability profiles. A time-series approach allows comparison of mood instability pre- and post-treatment. We test a new imagery-focused cognitive therapy treatment approach (MAPP; Mood Action Psychology Programme) targeting a driver of mood instability, and apply these measurement methods in a non-concurrent multiple baseline design case series of 14 patients with bipolar disorder. Weekly mood monitoring and treatment target data improved for the whole sample combined. Time-series analyses of daily mood data, sampled remotely (mobile phone/Internet) for 28 days pre- and post-treatment, demonstrated improvements in individuals' mood stability for 11 of 14 patients. Thus the findings offer preliminary support for a new imagery-focused treatment approach. They also indicate a step in treatment innovation without the requirement for trials in illness episodes or relapse prevention. Importantly, daily measurement offers a description of mood instability at the individual patient level in a clinically meaningful time frame. This costly, chronic and disabling mental illness demands innovation in both treatment approaches (whether pharmacological or psychological) and measurement tool: this work indicates that daily measurements can be used to detect improvement in individual mood stability for treatment innovation (MAPP).

  19. Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, E A; Bonsall, M B; Hales, S A; Mitchell, H; Renner, F; Blackwell, S E; Watson, P; Goodwin, G M; Di Simplicio, M

    2016-01-01

    Treatment innovation for bipolar disorder has been hampered by a lack of techniques to capture a hallmark symptom: ongoing mood instability. Mood swings persist during remission from acute mood episodes and impair daily functioning. The last significant treatment advance remains Lithium (in the 1970s), which aids only the minority of patients. There is no accepted way to establish proof of concept for a new mood-stabilizing treatment. We suggest that combining insights from mood measurement with applied mathematics may provide a step change: repeated daily mood measurement (depression) over a short time frame (1 month) can create individual bipolar mood instability profiles. A time-series approach allows comparison of mood instability pre- and post-treatment. We test a new imagery-focused cognitive therapy treatment approach (MAPP; Mood Action Psychology Programme) targeting a driver of mood instability, and apply these measurement methods in a non-concurrent multiple baseline design case series of 14 patients with bipolar disorder. Weekly mood monitoring and treatment target data improved for the whole sample combined. Time-series analyses of daily mood data, sampled remotely (mobile phone/Internet) for 28 days pre- and post-treatment, demonstrated improvements in individuals' mood stability for 11 of 14 patients. Thus the findings offer preliminary support for a new imagery-focused treatment approach. They also indicate a step in treatment innovation without the requirement for trials in illness episodes or relapse prevention. Importantly, daily measurement offers a description of mood instability at the individual patient level in a clinically meaningful time frame. This costly, chronic and disabling mental illness demands innovation in both treatment approaches (whether pharmacological or psychological) and measurement tool: this work indicates that daily measurements can be used to detect improvement in individual mood stability for treatment innovation (MAPP

  20. Acute oral candidiasis during febrile episodes in immunocompromised patients with haematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, O J; Andersen, P L

    1990-01-01

    To estimate clinical, pathogenic and serological aspects of acute oral candidiasis (AOC) during febril episodes in patients with haematologic malignancies, 23 consecutive patients who developed AOC within 7 days from start of fever were compared with 23 consecutive patients who did not develop AOC. The duration of fever and severe granulocytopenia (less than 0.5 x 10(9)/l) was significantly longer in patients with AOC than in patients without AOC, the median differences between the patients with and without AOC being 4 and 3 days, respectively. Development of AOC could not be correlated to a change in the qualitative composition of the oral microflora. The thrombocyte count was lower in patients with AOC on day 4, whereas no differences were found in leukocyte counts. The prevalences of Candida albicans agglutinin titres greater than or equal to 5 were similar in patients with (24%) and without AOC (33%), and in controls (29%). Seroconversion or a significant increase in the agglutinin titre occurred in 4 patients with AOC and long-lasting fever, who became afebrile after systemic antifungal therapy. It is concluded that AOC is associated with long-lasting fever and decreased bone marrow function as judged by low thrombocyte counts, but not related to specific bacteria in the oral cavity or to an increased occurrence of C. albicans antibodies in the serum.

  1. Reengineering acute episodic and chronic care delivery: the Geisinger Health System experience.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Jonathan R; Casale, Alfred S; Steele, Glenn D; Toms, Steven A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) represents an evolution in clinical decision-making research that allows for the study of heterogeneous groups of patients with complex diseases processes. It has foundations in decision science, reliability science, and health care policy research. Health care finance will increasingly rely on CER for guidance in the coming years. There is increasing awareness of the importance of decreasing unwarranted variation in health care delivery. In the past 7 years, Geisinger Health System has performed broad reengineering of its acute episodic and chronic care delivery models utilizing macrosystem-level application of CER principles. These provider-driven process initiatives have resulted in significant improvement across all segments of care delivery, improved patient outcomes, and notable cost containment. These programs have led to the creation of novel pricing models, and when "hardwired" throughout a care delivery system, they can lead to correct medical decision making by 100% of providers in all patient encounters. Neurosurgery as a specialty faces unique challenges and opportunities with respect to broad adoption and application of CER techniques. PMID:22746233

  2. Reengineering acute episodic and chronic care delivery: the Geisinger Health System experience.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Jonathan R; Casale, Alfred S; Steele, Glenn D; Toms, Steven A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) represents an evolution in clinical decision-making research that allows for the study of heterogeneous groups of patients with complex diseases processes. It has foundations in decision science, reliability science, and health care policy research. Health care finance will increasingly rely on CER for guidance in the coming years. There is increasing awareness of the importance of decreasing unwarranted variation in health care delivery. In the past 7 years, Geisinger Health System has performed broad reengineering of its acute episodic and chronic care delivery models utilizing macrosystem-level application of CER principles. These provider-driven process initiatives have resulted in significant improvement across all segments of care delivery, improved patient outcomes, and notable cost containment. These programs have led to the creation of novel pricing models, and when "hardwired" throughout a care delivery system, they can lead to correct medical decision making by 100% of providers in all patient encounters. Neurosurgery as a specialty faces unique challenges and opportunities with respect to broad adoption and application of CER techniques.

  3. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  4. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-03-29

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress.

  5. Should a Preschool Child with Acute Episodic Wheeze be Treated with Oral Corticosteroids? A Pro/Con Debate.

    PubMed

    Beigelman, Avraham; Durrani, Sandy; Guilbert, Theresa W

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, preschool-aged children with an acute wheezing episode have been treated with oral corticosteroids (OCSs) based on the efficacy of OCSs in older children and adolescents. However, this practice has been recently challenged based on the results of recent studies. The argument supporting the use of OCSs underscores the observation that many children with recurrent preschool wheezing develop atopic disease in early life which predicts both an increased risk to develop asthma in later life and response to OCS therapy. Further, review of the literature demonstrates heterogeneity of study designs, OCS dosage, interventions, study medication adherence, and settings and overall lack of predefined preschool wheezing phenotypes. The heterogeneity of these studies does not allow a definitive recommendation discouraging OCS use. Advocates against the use of OCSs in this population argue that most of studies investigating the efficacy of OCSs in acute episodic wheeze in preschool-aged children have not demonstrated beneficial effects. Moreover, repeated OCS bursts may be associated with adverse effects. Finally, both sides can agree that there is a significant need to conduct efficacy trials evaluating OCS treatment in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing targeted at phenotypes that would be expected to respond to OCSs. This article presents a summary of recent literature regarding the use of OCSs for acute episodic wheezing in preschool-aged children and a "pro" and "con" debate for such use.

  6. The acute effect of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on cognitive performance and mood in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Downey, Luke A; Croft, Kevin D; Scholey, Andrew; Stough, Con; Yang, Xingbin; Considine, Michael J; Ward, Natalie C; Puddey, Ian B; Swinny, Ewald; Mubarak, Aidilla; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2014-05-01

    Flavonoids and nitrate in a fruit and vegetable diet may be protective against cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline through effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. The circulating NO pool is increased via distinct pathways by dietary flavonoids and nitrate. Our aim was to investigate the acute effects of apples, rich in flavonoids, and spinach, rich in nitrate, independently and in combination on NO status, cognitive function and mood in a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial with healthy men and women (n = 30). The acute effects of four energy-matched treatments (control, apple, spinach and apple + spinach) were compared. Endpoints included plasma nitric oxide status (determined by measuring S-nitrosothiols + other nitroso species (RXNO)), plasma nitrate and nitrite, salivary nitrate and nitrite, urinary nitrate and nitrite as well as cognitive function (determined using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized cognitive assessment battery) and mood. Relative to control, all treatments resulted in higher plasma RXNO. A significant increase in plasma nitrate and nitrite, salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as urinary nitrate and nitrite was observed with spinach and apple + spinach compared to control. No significant effect was observed on cognitive function or mood. In conclusion, flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augmented NO status acutely with no concomitant improvements or deterioration in cognitive function and mood.

  7. A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial to Differentiate the Acute Cognitive and Mood Effects of Chlorogenic Acid from Decaffeinated Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Camfield, David A.; Silber, Beata Y.; Scholey, Andrew B.; Nolidin, Karen; Goh, Antionette; Stough, Con

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, sixty healthy older adults aged 50 years or older, and who were light to moderate coffee drinkers, were administered 6g of a decaffeinated green coffee blend (NESCAFÉ Green Blend coffee; GB) or 540mg pure chlorogenic acids (CGA) or placebo in a double-blind acute cross-over design, with cognitive and mood assessments pre-dose, 40-mins and 120-mins post-dose. The primary outcome measure was accuracy in Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP). Secondary cognitive outcome measures included RVIP reaction time as well as Inspection time (IT), Jensen Box decision/reaction times, serial subtraction and N-Back working memory. Secondary mood measures included Bond-Lader and caffeine Research visual analogue scales (VAS). No significant treatment effects were found for the primary outcome measure, although significant effects were found amongst secondary measures. Overall, CGA in isolation was not found to significantly improve cognitive function relative to placebo whereas the GB was found to improve sustained attention as measured by the N-Back task in comparison to placebo overall (t=2.45,p=.05), as well as decision time on a 2-choice reaction time task (Jensen box) in comparison to placebo at 40 minutes post-dose (t=2.45,p=.05). Similarly, GB was found to improve alertness on both the Bond-Lader at 120 minutes relative to CGA (t=2.86, p=0.02) and the caffeine Research VAS relative to CGA (t=3.09, p=0.009) and placebo (t=2.75,p=0.02) at 120 minutes post-dose. Both the GB and CGA were also found to significantly improve symptoms of headache at 120 minutes relative to placebo (t=2.51,p=0.03 and t=2.43,p=.04 respectively), whilst there was a trend towards a reduction in jitteriness with GB and CGA in comparison to placebo at 40 minutes post-dose (t=2.24,p=0.06 and t=2.20,p=0.06 respectively). These findings suggest that the improvements in mood observed with GB, but not the improvements in cognitive function, are likely to some extent to be

  8. Evaluation of D-Dimer in Screening Deep Vein Thrombosis in Hospitalized Japanese Patients with Acute Medical Diseases/Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yoshie; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Mo, Makoto; Tazaki, Junichi; Doi, Takahiro; Yamada, Norikazu; Suzuki, Takeo; Nakajima, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the usefulness of D-dimer as a screening method as well as to explore potent predictors of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in hospitalized Japanese patients with acute medical diseases/episodes. Methods and Subjects: This study was a multi-center, prospective, observational study. The inclusion criteria were hospitalized patients at high risk of developing venous thromboembolism with; (1) congestive heart failure, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infectious diseases, or inflammatory diseases, (2) bed rest ≥4 days, and (3) ≥60 years old. D-dimer was measured on the same day as ultrasonography. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate predictors associated with the presence of DVT. Results: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled. The prevalence of DVT was 33.3% (23/69; 95% C.I., 19.4% to 47.3%). D-dimer was measured in 42 patients and the sensitivity and negative predictive value reached 100%, while the specificity (13.3%) and positive predictive value (31.6%) were low (cut-off value: 0.9 or 1.0 µg/mL). Statistically significant predictor was not assigned. Conclusion: As the sensitivity and negative predictive value of D-dimer reached 100%, D-dimer have a role in excluding patients who might otherwise undergo diagnostic imaging for DVT in hospitalized Japanese patients with acute medical diseases/episodes. PMID:27738461

  9. Effects of an acute alpha-lactalbumin manipulation on mood and food hedonics in high- and low-trait anxiety individuals.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Ellen; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John; Markus, C Rob; King, Neil A

    2010-08-01

    Serotonergic hypofunction is associated with a depressive mood state, an increased drive to eat and preference for sweet (SW) foods. High-trait anxiety individuals are characterised by a functional shortage of serotonin during stress, which in turn increases their susceptibility to experience a negative mood and an increased drive for SW foods. The present study examined whether an acute dietary manipulation, intended to increase circulating serotonin levels, alleviated the detrimental effects of a stress-inducing task on subjective appetite and mood sensations, and preference for SW foods in high-trait anxiety individuals. Thirteen high- (eleven females and two males; anxiety scores 45.5 (sd 5.9); BMI 22.9 (sd 3.0)kg/m(2)) and twelve low- (ten females and two males; anxiety scores 30.4 (sd 4.8); BMI 23.4 (sd 2.5) kg/m(2)) trait anxiety individuals participated in a placebo-controlled, two-way crossover design. Participants were provided with 40 g alpha-lactalbumin (LAC; l-tryptophan (Trp):large neutral amino acids (LNAA) ratio of 7.6) and 40 g casein (placebo) (Trp:LNAA ratio of 4.0) in the form of a snack and lunch on two test days. On both the test days, participants completed a stress-inducing task 2 h after the lunch. Mood and appetite were assessed using visual analogue scales. Changes in food hedonics for different taste and nutrient combinations were assessed using a computer task. The results demonstrated that the LAC manipulation did not exert any immediate effects on mood or appetite. However, LAC did have an effect on food hedonics in individuals with high-trait anxiety after acute stress. These individuals expressed a lower liking (P = 0.012) and SW food preference (P = 0.014) after the stressful task when supplemented with LAC. PMID:20307355

  10. Acute haemolytic episodes & fava bean consumption in G6PD deficient Iraqis.

    PubMed

    Yahya, H I; al-Allawi, N A

    1993-12-01

    The relation between fava bean ingestion and the occurrence of a haemolytic episode was studied in 102 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenate (G6PD) deficient Iraqi patients. None of the patients (mean age 12.8 yr) had a documented similar illness earlier, although all of them gave history of reported regular fava bean ingestion in the past. Further, none of the three patients who were rechallenged (2-3 months later) by the beans developed any clinical or laboratory evidence of haemolysis. The incidence of the haemolytic episodes was found to peak in April, while the fava bean season extends from February to June. This study thus does not support a causal relation between the bean ingestion and the haemolytic episodes in G6PD deficient Iraqis. Possibly, some other factor such as a viral infection may be involved.

  11. Acute haemolytic episodes & fava bean consumption in G6PD deficient Iraqis.

    PubMed

    Yahya, H I; al-Allawi, N A

    1993-12-01

    The relation between fava bean ingestion and the occurrence of a haemolytic episode was studied in 102 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenate (G6PD) deficient Iraqi patients. None of the patients (mean age 12.8 yr) had a documented similar illness earlier, although all of them gave history of reported regular fava bean ingestion in the past. Further, none of the three patients who were rechallenged (2-3 months later) by the beans developed any clinical or laboratory evidence of haemolysis. The incidence of the haemolytic episodes was found to peak in April, while the fava bean season extends from February to June. This study thus does not support a causal relation between the bean ingestion and the haemolytic episodes in G6PD deficient Iraqis. Possibly, some other factor such as a viral infection may be involved. PMID:8132232

  12. Barking seizure: acute episodes of barking in a 75-year-old previously healthy man.

    PubMed

    Harandi, Ali Amini; Kalanie, Hossein; Asadollahi, Marjan; Fatehi, Farzad; Pakdaman, Hossein; Gharagozli, Koroush

    2012-05-01

    A 75-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our emergency department complaining of recurrent episodes of involuntary 'barking' within the past 12h. The episodes had occurred after an initial two-minute attack from sleep involving tonic contraction of the upper extremities and jaw locking. By the time of admission, the patient had had a total of at least 7-10 'barking' episodes, each lasting 30-45 s. Seven months prior to his current admission, the patient had had a minor ischemic stroke causing mild left paresis, which had resolved completely. His awake EEG revealed a normal background pattern interrupted by runs of two per second slow waves mixed with low-voltage spikes in the left temporal lobe with a left mid-temporal emphasis. The patient was diagnosed with recurrent simple partial seizures, and treatment with intravenous valproic acid was initiated. He was discharged four days later without having experienced any further barking episodes. Atypical presentations of the epileptic seizures have been described in the literature, but ictal barking is very rare manifestation of epilepsy. PMID:22391466

  13. Mood, Th-1/Th-2 cytokine profile, and autonomic activity in older adults with acute/decompensated heart failure: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Guinjoan, Salvador M; Vigo, Daniel E; Castro, Mariana N; Tateosian, Nancy; Chuluyan, Eduardo; Costanzo, Elsa; Fahrer, Rodolfo; Grancelli, Hugo; Leiguarda, Ramón; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the relationships among mood, peripheral autonomic output and circulating immunoinflammatory mediators in older individuals with decompensated heart failure (CHF), 20 consecutive patients (78+/-7 years, 35% women) admitted to the coronary care unit with a clinical diagnosis of acute/decompensated CHF of coronary origin were examined. Mood was evaluated by the 21-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D). Four patients met the criteria for major depression. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and the levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured within 24-72 h of admission. A significant positive relationship between score in HAM-D and serum IL-6 levels was detected with a similar trend as far as IL-2 levels. Circulating IL-2 levels were strongly associated with the HRV L/H quotient, an index of increased sympathetic and/or decreased parasympathetic thoracic activity. A negative correlation between vagal activity (as assessed by HRV) and IL-4 occurred. Neither TNF-alpha nor IL-10 were detectable in this group of elderly patients. The results add to the concept that mood and autonomic unbalance are associated with increased systemic inflammation in old patients with decompensated CHF, a potential mechanism for mood-related worsened prognosis of heart failure at an advanced age.

  14. Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on mood and cortisol release in first-degree relatives of type I and type II bipolar patients and healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, S; Honig, A; Nicolson, N A; Riedel, W J

    2002-11-01

    Biological vulnerability for bipolar disorders (BD) in relatives of BD patients has not as yet been established. Serotonergic vulnerability was studied, using acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), in healthy first-degree relatives of BD patients and healthy controls. The effects of ATD on mood and cortisol release in 30 healthy adult, lifetime symptom free, unaffected first-degree relatives of BD patients (Family History; FH) were compared with effects in 15 healthy matched controls in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design. During ATD and placebo, salivary cortisol response was also assessed during a stress-inducing speech task (SIST). First-degree relatives of type II BD patients (FH II) showed an elevation of mood, whereas control subjects and relatives of type I BD patients (FH I) showed a lowering of mood after ATD. ATD was followed by a decrease in cortisol level in both FH subgroups, but not in the controls. The results suggest serotonergic vulnerability that affected mood in FH II subjects and cortisol release in both FH I and FH II subjects.

  15. Increased activities of both superoxide dismutase and catalase were indicators of acute depressive episodes in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2016-01-30

    Oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and S100B in patients with MDD in an acute phase, and evaluate the changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD), protein carbonyl content (PCC), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine after treatment (8-OHdG), catalase (CAT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and S100B. We consecutively enrolled 21 MDD inpatients in an acute phase and 40 healthy subjects. Serum oxidative stress markers were measured with assay kits. Serum SOD and CAT activities in MDD patients in an acute phase were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects, and serum PCC levels were significantly lower. The HAM-D scores had a significantly positive association with S100B levels. Eighteen depressed patients were followed up, and there was no significant difference among all of the markers after treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased activities of both SOD and CAT might be indicators of acute depressive episodes in MDD patients.

  16. Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Acute Phase of Bronchiolitis and Its Relation with Episodes of Subsequent Wheezing in Children of Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Osona, Borja; Gil-Sanchez, Jose Antonio; Figuerola, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Background Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) levels are increased in children with asthma and in infants with recurrent wheezing, but the role of FENO in the acute phase of bronchiolitis is still not defined. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate FENO values in the acute phase of bronchiolitis, compare them with healthy infants, and relate those values with the appearance of other wheezing episodes. Methods FENO values were determined in infants between 2 months and 2 years affected with RVS bronchiolitis by offline method. The FENO values collected in the acute phase were related with the respiratory clinical symptoms presented in the 2 years following the episode. Results A total of 30 patients were recruited: 15 in the bronchiolitis group and 15 in the control group. The average of the FENO values in the acute phase was 18.74 ppb (range 2–88) in the bronchiolitis group, and 8.75 ppb (range 2–24) in the control group. However, these results showed no significant statistical differences (p=0.176). Nevertheless, we found a positive correlation between the FENO values and the clinical score (Downes) of the bronchiolitis episode (p=0.023). In infants that presented other wheezing episodes in the 2 years after, the average of FENO in the acute phase of the first episode was 23.1 ppb (average of 10.25 ppb) versus 8.4 ppb (average 5.4 ppb) in the group of patients with no other episodes. The comparison of averages has no statistical significance. Conclusion We found no differences in FENO between infants with bronchiolitis and healthy ones. The FENO values in the acute phase seems to be related to the severity of the disease but do not predict the appearance of wheezing episodes in the following 2 years. PMID:22768386

  17. Acute Psychophysiological Relationships Between Mood, Inflammatory and Cortisol Changes in Response to Simulated Physical Firefighting Work and Sleep Restriction.

    PubMed

    Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad; Reynolds, John; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2016-06-01

    This study examined how changes in wildland firefighters' mood relate to cytokine and cortisol levels in response to simulated physical firefighting work and sleep restriction. Firefighters completed 3 days of simulated wildfire suppression work separated by an 8-h (control condition; n = 18) or 4-h sleep opportunity (sleep restriction condition; n = 17) each night. Firefighters' mood was assessed daily using the Mood Scale II and Samn-Perelli fatigue scale. Participants also provided samples for the determination of salivary cortisol and pro- (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokine levels. An increase in the positive mood dimension Happiness was related to a rise in IL-8 and TNF-α in the sleep restriction condition. A rise in the positive mood dimension Activation among sleep restricted firefighters was also related to higher IL-6 levels. An increase in the negative mood dimension Fatigue in the sleep restriction condition was associated with increased IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and cortisol levels. In addition, an increase in Fear among sleep restricted firefighters was associated with a rise in TNF-α. Elevated positive mood and immune activation may reflect an appropriate response by the firefighters to these stressors. To further understand this relationship, subsequent firefighting-based research is needed that investigates whether immune changes are a function of affective arousal linked to the expression of positive moods. Positive associations between negative mood and inflammatory and cortisol levels to physical work and restricted sleep provide useful information to fire agencies about subjective fire-ground indicators of physiological changes.

  18. Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... older have mood disorders. These include depression and bipolar disorder (also called manic depression). Mood disorders can increase a person's risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other diseases. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, ...

  19. Doxapram hydrochloride in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure. A patient with four episodes treated without use of a respirator.

    PubMed

    Ohi, M; Nakashima, M; Heki, S; Kato, M; Sagawa, Y

    1978-10-01

    A 51-year-old woman with chronic respiratory failure (status after tuberculosis) was given an infusion of doxapram hydrochloride (1 to 2 mg/kg of body weight per hour) for four episodes of acute exacerbation of her condition. Treatment with the drug prevented worsening of hypercapnia in the four episodes, when administration of 24 percent oxygen had occasioned rises in the arterial carbon dioxide tension of 23, 10, 9, and 7 mm Hg.

  20. Treatment response for acute depression is not associated with number of previous episodes: lack of evidence for a clinical staging model for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Seetal; Berk, Michael; Kelin, Katarina; Mancini, Michele; Schacht, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Mental illness has been observed to follow a neuroprogressive course, commencing with prodrome, then onset, recurrence and finally chronic illness. In bipolar disorder and schizophrenia responsiveness to treatment mirrors these stages of illness progression, with greater response to treatment in the earlier stages of illness and greater treatment resistance in chronic late stage illness. Using data from 5627 participants in 15 controlled trials of duloxetine, comparator arm (paroxetine, venlafaxine, escitalopram) or placebo for the treatment of an acute depressive episode, the relationship between treatment response and number of previous depressive episodes was determined. Data was dichotomised for comparisons between participants who had >3 previous episodes (n=1697) or ≤3 previous episodes (n=3930), and additionally for no previous episodes (n=1381) or at least one previous episode (n=4246). Analyses were conducted by study arm for each clinical trial, and results were then pooled. There was no significant difference between treatment response and number of previous depressive episodes. This unexpected finding suggests that treatments to reduce symptoms of depression during acute illness do not lose efficacy for patients with a longer history of illness.

  1. Creating Learning Momentum through Overt Teaching Interactions during Real Acute Care Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquette, Dominique; Moulton, Carol-Anne; LeBlanc, Vicki R.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical supervisors fulfill a dual responsibility towards patient care and learning during clinical activities. Assuming such roles in today's clinical environments may be challenging. Acute care environments present unique learning opportunities for medical trainees, as well as specific challenges. The goal of this paper was to better understand…

  2. The Effect of Acute Rhodiola rosea Ingestion on Exercise Heart Rate, Substrate Utilisation, Mood State, and Perceptions of Exertion, Arousal, and Pleasure/Displeasure in Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Michael J.; Clarke, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) ingestion on substrate utilisation, mood state, RPE, and exercise affect. Ten males (mean age ± S.D. = 26 ± 6 years) completed two 30-minute cycling trials at an intensity of 70% of V˙O2max⁡ following ingestion of either 3 mg·kg−1 body mass of R. rosea or placebo using a double-blind, crossover design. During exercise, heart rate and RPE were recorded. Participants completed measures of mood state and exercise affect before and after exercise. Expired air samples were taken during exercise to determine substrate utilisation. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that RPE was significantly lower at 30 minutes into exercise versus placebo (P = 0.003). Perceptions of arousal (P = 0.05) and pleasure were significantly higher after exercise with R. rosea compared to placebo (P = 0.003). Mood state scores for vigor were also higher in R. rosea condition compared to placebo (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in energy expenditure, carbohydrate, or fat oxidation between conditions (P > 0.05). Ingestion of R. rosea favourably influenced RPE and exercise affect without changes in energy expenditure or substrate utilization during 30-minute submaximal cycling performance. PMID:26464892

  3. Psychobiology of postpartum mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Wisner, K L; Stowe, Z N

    1997-02-01

    Postpartum mood disorders are common. The clustering of mood-disorder episodes after birth compels a search for factors particularly potent during childbearing. In this article, the complex relationships between the dynamic postbirth physiological environment and mood disorder are discussed. Available studies show a lack of evidence that serum levels of gonadal hormones account for mood disturbance in women. However, substantial amounts of data demonstrate their ability to modulate other neuroendocrine systems. Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function attributable to childbearing show remarkable similarity to those observed in depressed women. Postpartum women are also at increased risk for hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidal (HPT) axis dysfunction that may increase affective-disorder vulnerability. A decreased rate of postpartum recovery of HPA- and HPT-axis function may play a more central role than cross-sectional measures. Understanding the etiology of postpartum mood disorders will require integration of multiple psychosocial and biological risk factors. Further research is critically needed.

  4. Changes in Antibody Levels during and following an Episode of Acute Adenolymphangitis (ADL) among Lymphedema Patients in Léogâne, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Mues, Katherine E.; Lammie, Patrick J.; Klein, Mitchel; Kleinbaum, David G.; Addiss, David; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ADL) are often the first clinical sign of lymphatic filariasis (LF). They are often accompanied by swelling of the affected limb, inflammation, fever, and general malaise and lead to the progression of lymphedema. Although ADL episodes have been studied for a century or more, questions still remain as to their etiology. We quantified antibody levels to pathogens that potentially contribute to ADL episodes during and after an episode among lymphedema patients in Léogâne, Haiti. We estimated the proportion of ADL episodes hypothesized to be attributed to specific pathogens. Methods We measured antibody levels to specific pathogens during and following an ADL episode among 41 lymphedema patients enrolled in a cohort study in Léogâne, Haiti. We calculated the absolute and relative changes in antibody levels between the ADL and convalescent time points. We calculated the proportion of episodes that demonstrated a two-fold increase in antibody level for several bacterial, fungal, and filarial pathogens. Results Our results showed the greatest proportion of two-fold changes in antibody levels for the carbohydrate antigen Streptococcus group A, followed by IgG2 responses to a soluble filarial antigen (BpG2), Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B, and an antigen for the fungal pathogen Candida. When comparing the median antibody level during the ADL episode to the median antibody level at the convalescent time point, only the antigens for Pseudomonas species (P-value = 0.0351) and Streptolysin O (P-value = 0.0074) showed a significant result. Conclusion Although our results are limited by the lack of a control group and few antibody responses, they provide some evidence for infection with Streptococcus A as a potential contributing factor to ADL episodes. Our results add to the current evidence and illustrate the importance of determining the causal role of bacterial and fungal pathogens and immunological antifilarial

  5. Decreased humoral antibody episodes of acute renal allograft rejection in recipients expressing the HLA-DQβ1*0202 allele.

    PubMed

    Mannam, Venkat K R; Santos, Mark; Lewis, Robert E; Cruse, Julius M

    2012-10-01

    The present investigation was designed to show the effect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecular allelic specificities in the recipient on the induction of humoral antibody rejection, identified by C4d peritubular capillary staining, as well as specific antibody identified by Luminex technology. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed on dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes and they present antigenic peptides to CD4 positive T lymphocytes. Human renal peritubular and glomerular capillaries express class II MHC molecules upon activation. Expression of class II molecules on renal microvascular endothelial cells exposes them to possible interaction with specific circulating antibodies. We hypothesize that HLA-DQβ1*0202 expression in recipients decreases the likelihood of antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection. We found that 80% (=25) of DQ2 positive haplotype recipients failed to induce humoral antibody renal allograft rejection and 20% (n=25) of DQ2 positive haplotype recipients induced humoral antibody renal allograft rejection (p=0.008). By contrast, 48% (n=46) of DQ2 negative haplotype recipients failed to induce a humoral antibody component of renal allograft rejection and 52% (n=46) of DQ2 negative haplotype recipients induced humoral antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection. Our results suggest that recipients who express the DQβ1*0202 allele are less likely to induce a humoral antibody component of acute renal allograft rejection than are those expressing DQ1, DQ3, or DQ4 alleles. DQβ1*0202 allele expression in recipients could possibly be protective against acute humoral allograft rejection and might serve as a future criterion in recipient selection and in appropriate therapy for acute renal rejection episodes.

  6. Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder. PMID

  7. Acute effects of different multivitamin mineral preparations with and without Guaraná on mood, cognitive performance and functional brain activation.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Andrew; Bauer, Isabelle; Neale, Chris; Savage, Karen; Camfield, David; White, David; Maggini, Silvia; Pipingas, Andrew; Stough, Con; Hughes, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Previous work has identified the positive effects of the acute administration of a multivitamin-guaraná preparation during an effortful executive/working memory task. Here, we aimed to differentiate the effects of multivitamins with and without guaraná and to examine the neural substrates of such effects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, balanced crossover design, 20 participants (mean age 29 ± 5.54 years) consumed multivitamin preparations with or without guaraná (Berocca® Performance and Boost, respectively) and a placebo. Thirty minutes post-treatment, they underwent neurocognitive assessment, consisting of a 10 min Cognitive Demand Battery, with mood ratings taken immediately before and after the battery. Five additional participants underwent post-treatment fMRI scanning during Rapid Visual Information Processing and Inspection Time activation tasks. The multivitamin with guaraná treatment was associated with significantly enhanced Serial Threes performance and self-rated contentment. fMRI revealed that both multivitamin treatments increased activation in areas associated with working memory and attentional processing, with the effect being greater in the multivitamin with guaraná condition. These data confirm the acute benefits of multivitamins with guaraná on mood and cognitive performance. Furthermore, they demonstrate for the first time increased brain activation from multivitamin preparations both with and without guaraná, as measured using fMRI. PMID:24067387

  8. Acute effects of different multivitamin mineral preparations with and without Guaraná on mood, cognitive performance and functional brain activation.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Andrew; Bauer, Isabelle; Neale, Chris; Savage, Karen; Camfield, David; White, David; Maggini, Silvia; Pipingas, Andrew; Stough, Con; Hughes, Matthew

    2013-09-13

    Previous work has identified the positive effects of the acute administration of a multivitamin-guaraná preparation during an effortful executive/working memory task. Here, we aimed to differentiate the effects of multivitamins with and without guaraná and to examine the neural substrates of such effects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, balanced crossover design, 20 participants (mean age 29 ± 5.54 years) consumed multivitamin preparations with or without guaraná (Berocca® Performance and Boost, respectively) and a placebo. Thirty minutes post-treatment, they underwent neurocognitive assessment, consisting of a 10 min Cognitive Demand Battery, with mood ratings taken immediately before and after the battery. Five additional participants underwent post-treatment fMRI scanning during Rapid Visual Information Processing and Inspection Time activation tasks. The multivitamin with guaraná treatment was associated with significantly enhanced Serial Threes performance and self-rated contentment. fMRI revealed that both multivitamin treatments increased activation in areas associated with working memory and attentional processing, with the effect being greater in the multivitamin with guaraná condition. These data confirm the acute benefits of multivitamins with guaraná on mood and cognitive performance. Furthermore, they demonstrate for the first time increased brain activation from multivitamin preparations both with and without guaraná, as measured using fMRI.

  9. Evidence for efficacy of acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache: methodological critique of randomised trials for oral treatments.

    PubMed

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Straube, Sebastian; Bendtsen, Lars

    2014-11-01

    The International Headache Society (IHS) provides guidance on the conduct of trials for acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache (TTH), a common disorder with considerable disability. Electronic and other searches identified randomised, double-blind trials of oral drugs treating episodic TTH with moderate or severe pain at baseline, or that tested drugs at first pain onset. The aims were to review methods, quality, and outcomes reported (in particular the IHS-recommended primary efficacy parameter pain-free after 2 hours), and to assess efficacy by meta-analysis. We identified 58 reports: 55 from previous reviews and searches, 2 unpublished reports, and 1 clinical trial report with results. We included 40 reports of 55 randomised trials involving 12,143 patients. Reporting quality was generally good, with potential risk of bias from incomplete outcome reporting and small size; the 23 largest trials involved 82% of patients. Few trials reported IHS outcomes. The number needed to treat values for being pain-free at 2 hours compared with placebo were 8.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2 to 15) for paracetamol 1000 mg, 8.9 (95% CI 5.9 to 18) for ibuprofen 400mg, and 9.8 (95% CI 5.1 to 146) for ketoprofen 25mg. Lower (better) number needed to treat values were calculated for outcomes of mild or no pain at 2 hours, and patient global assessment. These were similar to values for these drugs in migraine. No other drugs had evaluable results for these patient-centred outcomes. There was no evidence that any one outcome was better than others. The evidence available for treatment efficacy is small in comparison to the size of the clinical problem.

  10. [Aids-related toxoplasma-encephalitis presenting with acute psychotic episode].

    PubMed

    Ilniczky, Sándor; Debreczeni, Róbert; Kovács, Tibor; Várkonyi, Viktória; Barsi, Péter; Szirmai, Imre

    2006-07-20

    The most frequent neurological manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-(AIDS) are Cerebral Toxoplasmosis, Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL), Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) and AIDS-encephalitis (AIDS-dementia complex, multinucleated giant cell encephalitis, HIV-encephalopathy). Neurological complications usually occur in the advanced stages of the disease, and they are uncommon in the beginning as presenting illness, but may result in life-threatening condition or in death. Rarely the disease presents as a neuropsychiatric illness in an undiagnosed AIDS patient, delaying a proper diagnosis. We present the case of a 34 years old patient treated for AIDS-related Toxoplasma-encephalitis in our department. His illness started as an acute psychosis followed by rapid mental and somatic decline, leading to death in three months. His HIV-seropositivity was not known at his admission, and the extraneural manifestations were slight. The diagnosis was established by serology, imaging methods and histopathological investigation. After presenting the medical history and results of autopsy studies of the patient we discuss the problems of the differential diagnosis, especially regarding the findings of the imaging methods.

  11. The burden of different pathogens in acute diarrhoeal episodes among a cohort of Egyptian children less than five years old

    PubMed Central

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada; Salem, Mohammed; Abou-Zekri, Maha; El-Naghi, Suzan; Hassanin, Fetouh; El-Shamy, Ayman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhoea continues to cause significant morbidity in Egypt. Aim To determine the frequency and distribution of different enteropathogens in acute diarrhoeal episodes, utilising an expanded testing regimen, and to correlate clinical signs and symptoms associated with the detected pathogens. Material and methods The case-control study enrolled 356 patients < 5 years old with acute diarrhoea and 356 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Both cases and controls underwent a full history and physical examination, and provided two rectal swab specimens and a stool sample. Laboratory analysis included stool culture, microscopy, and indirect methods. Results Rotavirus was detected in 11% of patients. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter, Shigella, and Salmonella were detected in 7%, 3.7%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of patients, respectively; and in 11.1%, 3.1%, 0.6%, and 0.6% of controls, respectively, with no significant statistical difference. Cryptosporidium was detected in 3.9% of cases. Mixed infection was detected in 5.9% of cases and 0.9% of controls, with a significant difference (p < 0.001). No pathogen was detected in 66.3% of cases and in 83.5% of controls. Rotavirus infection was associated with recurrent vomiting, dehydration, and hospitalisation. Bacterial diarrhoea was associated with vomiting (52%) in ETEC infections, fever (80%) in Salmonella infections, mucus (100%) and blood (50%) in stools of Shigella infections, and convulsions (15%) in Campylobacter infections. Conclusions Rotavirus is a prominent cause of diarrhoea among Egyptian children. Despite utilising an expanded testing regimen, more work is still needed for identification of other enteropathogens that constitute other causative agents of diarrhoea. PMID:26516385

  12. Role of the Cannabinoid System in Pain Control and Therapeutic Implications for the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Manzanares, J; Julian, MD; Carrascosa, A

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids are still widely considered illegal substances. Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that they may result useful to treat diverse diseases, including those related with acute or chronic pain. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the machinery for the synthesis, transport, and degradation of these retrograde messengers, has equipped us with neurochemical tools for novel drug design. Agonist-activated cannabinoid receptors, modulate nociceptive thresholds, inhibit release of pro-inflammatory molecules, and display synergistic effects with other systems that influence analgesia, especially the endogenous opioid system. Cannabinoid receptor agonists have shown therapeutic value against inflammatory and neuropathic pains, conditions that are often refractory to therapy. Although the psychoactive effects of these substances have limited clinical progress to study cannabinoid actions in pain mechanisms, preclinical research is progressing rapidly. For example, CB1mediated suppression of mast cell activation responses, CB2-mediated indirect stimulation of opioid receptors located in primary afferent pathways, and the discovery of inhibitors for either the transporters or the enzymes degrading endocannabinoids, are recent findings that suggest new therapeutic approaches to avoid central nervous system side effects. In this review, we will examine promising indications of cannabinoid receptor agonists to alleviate acute and chronic pain episodes. Recently, Cannabis sativa extracts, containing known doses of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, have granted approval in Canada for the relief of neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. Further double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the potential therapeutic effectiveness of various cannabinoid agonists-based medications for controlling different types of pain. PMID:18615144

  13. Episode of Familial Mediterranean Fever-Related Peritonitis in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy Followed by Acute Cholecystitis: Dilemmas and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Kosmidis, Christophoros; Anthimidis, Georgios; Varsamis, Nikolaos; Makedou, Fotini; Georgakoudi, Eleni; Efthimiadis, Christophoros

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 33 Final Diagnosis: Acute cholecystitis after Familial Mediterranean Fever-related peritonitis Symptoms: Acute abdomen • fever Medication: Colchicine Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and adhesiolysis in the second trimester of pregnancy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in pregnant patients is one of the greatest challenges for the clinician. Occurrence of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) paroxysm of peritonitis and acute cholecystitis during pregnancy is a unique clinical entity that leads to serious diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Case Report: We present the case of a 33-year-old Armenian patient at 16 weeks’ gestational age with a history of FMF, who was admitted twice within 1 month with acute abdomen. The first episode was attributed to FMF and successfully treated conservatively with colchicine. The second episode was diagnosed as acute cholecystitis and led to emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and lysis of peritoneal adhesions from previous FMF attacks. The patient presented an uneventful postoperative clinical course and had a normal delivery of a healthy infant at the 39th week of gestation. Conclusions: Pregnant patients with acute abdomen should be evaluated with open mind. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published report of the coexistence of 2 different causes of acute abdomen during pregnancy. Meticulous history and thorough physical, laboratory, and radiologic examination are the keys to reach a correct diagnosis. Treatment of pregnant patients with acute abdomen should be individualized. Administration of colchicine should be continued during conception, pregnancy, and lactation in patients with FMF history. Laparoscopic intervention in pregnant patients with surgical abdomen such as acute cholecystitis is the optimal method of treatment. PMID:26907752

  14. Lead concentrations in blood and milk from periparturient dairy heifers seven months after an episode of acute lead toxicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Galey, F.D.; Slenning, B.D.; Anderson, M.L.; Breneman, P.C.; Littlefield, E.S.; Melton, L.A.; Tracy, M.L. )

    1990-07-01

    In September 1988, 100 of 300 yearling dairy heifers developed blindness, tachypnea, foaming at the mouth, chewing, and facial fasciculations. Twenty-five animals died. Lead toxicosis was diagnosed based on the clinical signs and the presence of excessive concentrations of lead in whole blood, liver, kidney, and rumen contents of affected animals. The source of the lead was sudan grass silage that had been contaminated by soil that contained up to 77,000 mg/kg of lead. Lead concentrations were determined approximately 7 months after the acute episode of lead toxicosis. Whole blood and milk samples were obtained from heifers and a group of control cows 2 weeks prior to (blood only), at the time of, and 2 and 4 weeks after freshening. No lead was found in any of the milk samples (detection limit = 0.055 mg/liter). Animals that had been severely affected by lead toxicosis experienced a transient increase in whole blood lead concentrations at freshening that was not high enough to be considered toxic. No similar increases in blood lead were observed for control cows or heifers that had experienced milder toxicosis. These findings suggest that at parturition lead is mobilized into the blood of cattle previously exposed to excessive lead.

  15. A Randomized Comparison of Aripiprazole and Risperidone for the Acute Treatment of First-Episode Schizophrenia and Related Disorders: 3-Month Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Delbert G; Gallego, Juan A; John, Majnu; Petrides, Georgios; Hassoun, Youssef; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Lopez, Leonardo; Braga, Raphael J; Sevy, Serge M; Addington, Jean; Kellner, Charles H; Tohen, Mauricio; Naraine, Melissa; Bennett, Natasha; Greenberg, Jessica; Lencz, Todd; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; Malhotra, Anil K

    2015-11-01

    Research findings are particularly important for medication choice for first-episode patients as individual prior medication response to guide treatment decisions is unavailable. We describe the first large-scale double-masked randomized comparison with first-episode patients of aripiprazole and risperidone, 2 commonly used first-episode treatment agents. One hundred ninety-eight participants aged 15-40 years with schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder or psychotic disorder Not Otherwise Specified, and who had been treated in their lifetime with antipsychotics for 2 weeks or less were randomly assigned to double-masked aripiprazole (5-30 mg/d) or risperidone (1-6 mg/d) and followed for 12 weeks. Positive symptom response rates did not differ (62.8% vs 56.8%) nor did time to response. Aripiprazole-treated participants had better negative symptom outcomes but experienced more akathisia. Body mass index change did not differ between treatments but advantages were found for aripiprazole treatment for total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, and prolactin levels. Post hoc analyses suggested advantages for aripiprazole on depressed mood. Overall, if the potential for akathisia is a concern, low-dose risperidone as used in this trial maybe a preferred choice over aripiprazole. Otherwise, aripiprazole would be the preferred choice over risperidone in most situations based upon metabolic outcome advantages and some symptom advantages within the context of similar positive symptom response between medications.

  16. Acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine, caffeine, and epigallocatechin gallate on cognitive function and mood: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Camfield, David A; Stough, Con; Farrimond, Jonathon; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on 11 randomized placebo-controlled human studies of acute effects of tea constituents L-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate, administered alone or in combination with caffeine, on cognitive function and mood. The outcome measures of mood were alertness, calmness, and contentedness, derived from the Bond-Lader scales, and state anxiety, from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Cognitive measures assessed were attentional switch, intersensory attention, and rapid visual information processing. Standardized mean differences between placebo and treatment groups are presented for each study and outcome measure. Meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted when data were available for three or more studies. Evidence of moderate effect sizes in favor of combined caffeine and L-theanine in the first 2 hours postdose were found for outcome measures Bond-Lader alertness, attentional switching accuracy, and, to a lesser extent, some unisensory and multisensory attentional outcomes. Moderator analysis of caffeine and L-theanine doses revealed trends toward greater change in effect size for caffeine dose than for L-theanine dose, particularly during the first hour postdose.

  17. Nerve growth factor variations in patients with mood disorders: no changes in eight weeks of clinical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Tianhong; He, Shen; Hong, Bo; Peng, Daihui; Su, Hui; Li, Fei; Tang, Yingying; Lin, Zhiguang; Fang, Yiru; Jiang, Kaida

    2014-01-01

    Background Nerve growth factor (NGF) has received much attention for its role in mood disorders. The primary objective of the present study was to examine serum NGF levels in Chinese inpatients with depressive or manic episodes in the acute phase and to explore the changes in NGF levels after effective clinical treatments. Methods One hundred and seven consecutive inpatients and outpatients with mood disorders (30 with unipolar depression, 23 with bipolar depression, and 54 with bipolar mania), and 50 healthy controls were recruited. The serum NGF levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Patients with bipolar mania presented higher serum NGF levels compared to those of healthy controls. After 8 weeks of medical treatment, there were significant improvements in symptoms in patients, but no significant changes in NGF levels. Conclusion The present findings may help to strengthen and expand the understanding of the role of NGF in the acute stages of mood disorders. PMID:24868159

  18. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable and unpredictable time-courses of the depressive episodes. The main supporting observations are: (1) mood transitions within minutes or days have been reported during deep brain stimulation, naps after sleep deprivation and bipolar mood disorders; (2) sleep deprivation, electroconvulsive treatment and experimental drugs (e.g., ketamine) may facilitate mood transitions in major depressive disorder within hours or a few days; (3) epidemiological and clinical studies show that the time-to-recovery from major depressive disorder can be described with decay models implying very short depressive episodes; (4) lack of relationship between the length of depression and recovery episodes in recurrent depression; (5) mood fluctuations predict later therapeutic success in major depressive disorder. We discuss some recent models aimed to describe random mood transitions. The observations together suggest that the mood transitions have a wide variety of apparently unrelated causes. We suggest that the mechanism of mood transition is compromised in major depressive disorder, which has to be recognized in diagnostic systems.

  19. Neuroplasticity in mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Drevets, Wayne C.

    2004-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have identified abnormalities of brain structure in areas of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, striatum, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and raphe nucleus. These structural imaging abnormalities persist across illness episodes, and preliminary evidence suggests they may in some cases arise prior to the onset of depressive episodes in subjects at high familial risk for MDD. In other cases, the magnitude of abnormality is reportedly correlated with time spent depressed. Postmortem histopathological studies of these regions have shown abnormal reductions of synaptic markers and glial cells, and, in rare cases, reductions in neurons in MDD and BD. Many of the regions affected by these structural abnormalities show increased glucose metabolism during depressive episodes. Because the glucose metabolic signal is dominated by glutamatergic transmission, these data support other evidence that excitatory amino acid transmission is elevated in limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuits during depression. Some of the subject samples in which these metabolic abnormalities have been demonstrated were also shown to manifest abnormally elevated stressed plasma cortisol levels. The co-occurrence of increased glutamatergic transmission and Cortisol hypersecretion raises the possibility that the gray matter volumetric reductions in these depressed subjects are partly accounted for by processes homologous to the dendritic atrophy induced by chronic stress in adult rodents, which depends upon interactions between elevated glucocorticoid secretion and N-meihyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor stimulation. Some mood-stabilizing and antidepressant drugs that exert neurotrophic effects in rodents appear to reverse or attenuate the gray matter volume abnormalities in humans with mood disorders. These neurotrophic effects may be integrally related to the therapeutic

  20. Elevated immune-inflammatory signaling in mood disorders: a new therapeutic target?

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert K; Lotrich, Francis E

    2012-01-01

    Converging translational evidence has implicated elevated immune-inflammatory signaling activity in the pathoetiology of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. This is supported in part by cross-sectional evidence for increased levels of proinflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines and acute-phase proteins during mood episodes, and prospective longitudinal evidence for the emergence of mood symptoms in response to chronic immune-inflammatory activation. In addition, mood-stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic medications downregulate initial components of the immune-inflammatory signaling pathway, and adjunctive treatment with anti-inflammatory agents augment the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant, mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic medications. Potential pathogenic mechanisms linked with elevated immune-inflammatory signaling include perturbations in central serotonin neurotransmission and progressive white matter pathology. Both heritable genetic factors and environmental factors including dietary fatty-acid composition may act in concert to sustain elevated immune-inflammatory signaling. Collectively, these data suggest that elevated immune-inflammatory signaling is a mechanism that is relevant to the pathoetiology of mood disorders, and may therefore represent a new therapeutic target for the development of more effective treatments. PMID:23039393

  1. EFFECTS OF ACUTE AND WEEKLY EPISODIC EXPOSURES TO ANATOXIN-A ON THE MOTOR ACTIVITY OF RATS: COMPARISON WITH NICOTINE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anatoxin-a is a potent nicotinic cholinergic agonist, that is produced by many genera of cyanobacteria, and has caused several poisoning episodes of wildlife, livestock, and domestic animals. Cyanobacterial blooms and toxin exposures are likely to occur episodically as environmen...

  2. The acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa flavanols on mood, cognitive and cardiovascular health in young healthy adults: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Massee, Laura A.; Ried, Karin; Pase, Matthew; Travica, Nikolaj; Yoganathan, Jaesshanth; Scholey, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Kennedy, Greg; Sali, Avni; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa supplementation has been associated with benefits to cardiovascular health. However, cocoa's effects on cognition are less clear. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial (n = 40, age M = 24.13 years, SD = 4.47 years) was conducted to investigate the effects of both acute (same-day) and sub-chronic (daily for four-weeks) 250 mg cocoa supplementation on mood and mental fatigue, cognitive performance and cardiovascular functioning in young, healthy adults. Assessment involved repeated 10-min cycles of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) encompassing two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing task, and a mental fatigue scale over the course of half an hour. The Swinburne University Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery (SUCCAB) was also completed to evaluate cognition. Cardiovascular function included measuring both peripheral and central blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. At the acute time point, consumption of cocoa significantly improved self-reported mental fatigue and performance on the Serial Sevens task in cycle one of the CDB. No other significant effects were found. This trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12613000626763). Accessible via http://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx?searchTxt=ACTRN12613000626763&ddlSearch=Registered. PMID:26042037

  3. Episodic ozone exposure in adult and Senescent Brown Norway rats: Acute and delayed cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Setting exposure standards for environmental pollutants may consider the aged as a susceptible population but the few published studies assessing susceptibility of the aged to air pollutants are inconsistent. Episodic ozone (O(3)) is more reflective of potential exposures occurri...

  4. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

  5. Pharmacological prevention of suicide in patients with major mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltan; Gonda, Xenia

    2013-12-01

    The risk of self-destructive behavior in mood disorders is an inherent phenomenon and suicidal behavior in patients with unipolar or bipolar major mood disorders strongly relates to the presence and severity of depressive episodes. Consequently, early recognition, and successful acute and long-term treatment of depressive disorders is essential for suicide prevention in such patients. Large-scale, retrospective and prospective naturalistic long-term clinical studies, including severely ill, frequently suicidal depressives show that appropriate pharmacotherapy markedly reduces suicide morbidity and mortality even in this high-risk population. Supplementary psycho-social interventions further improve the effect. The slightly elevated (but in absolute sense quite low) risk of suicidal behavior among patients taking antidepressants compared to those taking placebo in randomized controlled antidepressant trials on unipolar major depression might be the consequence of the depression-worsening potential of antidepressant monotherapy in subthreshold and mixed bipolar depressed patients included in these trials and falsely diagnosed as suffering from unipolar major depression. Concurrent depression-focused psychotherapies increase the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and this way contribute to suicide prevention for patients with mood disorders.

  6. Duration of Untreated Psychosis Is Associated with More Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms after Acute Treatment for First-Episode Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grano, Niklas; Lindsberg, Jenni; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Gronroos, Peter; Blomberg, Ari-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Evidence of association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients is inconsistent in the recent literature. In the present study, DUP, schizophrenia symptoms, duration of medication, and diagnosis were obtained from hospital archives in a sample of FEP patients.…

  7. Mood Food

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. Methods A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, ≥16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, ≥22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Results Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score ≥16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (≥22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, <.01). These associations extended to both men and women. These findings did not appear to be explained by a general increase in fat, carbohydrate, or energy intake. Conclusion Higher CES-D depression scores were associated with greater chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study. PMID:20421555

  8. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  9. Episodic ozone exposure in adult and senescent Brown Norway rats: acute and delayed effect on heart rate, core temperature and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Johnstone, A F; Aydin, C; Phillips, P M; MacPhail, R C; Kodavanti, U P; Ledbetter, A D; Jarema, K A

    2014-06-01

    Setting exposure standards for environmental pollutants may consider the aged as a susceptible population but the few published studies assessing susceptibility of the aged to air pollutants are inconsistent. Episodic ozone (O₃) is more reflective of potential exposures occurring in human populations and could be more harmful to the aged. This study used radiotelemetry to monitor heart rate (HR), core temperature (T(c)) and motor activity (MA) in adult (9-12 months) and senescent (20-24 months) male, Brown Norway rats exposed to episodic O₃ (6 h/day of 1 ppm O₃ for 2 consecutive days/week for 13 weeks). Acute O₃ initially led to marked drops in HR and T(c). As exposures progressed each week, there was diminution in the hypothermic and bradycardic effects of O₃. Senescent rats were less affected than adults. Acute responses were exacerbated on the second day of O₃ exposure with adults exhibiting greater sensitivity. During recovery following 2 d of O₃, adult and senescent rats exhibited an elevated T(c) and HR during the day but not at night, an effect that persisted for at least 48 h after O₃ exposure. MA was elevated in adults but not senescent rats during recovery from O₃. Overall, acute effects of O₃, including reductions in HR and T(c), were attenuated in senescent rats. Autonomic responses during recovery, included an elevation in T(c) with a pattern akin to that of a fever and rise in HR that were independent of age. An attenuated inflammatory response to O₃ in senescent rats may explain the relatively heightened physiological response to O₃ in younger rats. PMID:24779854

  10. Pharmacotherapy of first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Martin; Conus, Philippe; Lambert, Tim; McGorry, Pat D

    2003-05-01

    Early intervention in psychosis has attracted more attention in the last few years. The treatment of this phase of the disorders requires a specific and adapted approach. The issue of engaging the patient is so critical that it influences not only the choice of medication, but also the context and the way in which it is administered. In the case of a first admission, patients should be observed for 24-48 h without any antipsychotic treatment, in order to clarify the diagnosis and exclude the possibility that symptoms are caused by acute intoxication with illicit substances, for example. The diagnosis is often difficult and unstable. A dimensional, rather than a categorical approach, is usually more likely to be adopted. In recent years, atypical antipsychotics have become the most frequently used first-line treatment. They are less likely to cause secondary negative symptoms, cognitive impairments and dysphoria. They also appear to influence the course of depression and hostility/aggression better than conventional neuroleptics, have possibly mood-stabilising properties and, subjectively, are often better accepted by patients. On the risk side, prevalence of acute extrapyramidal side effects and possibly tardive dyskinesia are lower, compared to the older neuroleptics. Although, the risk for short-term weight gain, cardiovascular, and especially hyperglycaemic complications are somewhat higher for some of these antipsychotics. Finally, the dose should be adapted as it has been shown that patients presenting a first psychotic episode respond to a lower dose of antipsychotic. This article focuses on the pharmacotherapy of first-episode psychosis, on the basis of a computerised and a manual search for articles dealing with antipsychotic treatment of these patients. Findings are discussed and combined in clinical guidelines for first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis, for patients with incomplete recovery or treatment resistance, for cases of emergency and

  11. Mood and affect disorders.

    PubMed

    Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G

    2015-02-01

    Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians.

  12. A Pilot RCT of Psychodynamic Group Art Therapy for Patients in Acute Psychotic Episodes: Feasibility, Impact on Symptoms and Mentalising Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Christiane; Haase, Laura; Seidel, Dorothea; Bayerl, Martin; Gallinat, Jürgen; Herrmann, Uwe; Dannecker, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic episodes and justify

  13. Food and mood.

    PubMed

    Ottley, C

    A number of specific nutrients and other active substances in foods are thought to have a direct impact on mood. Carol Ottley explores the evidence linking food with aspects of mood and behaviour. Areas covered include premenstrual syndrome, chocolate craving, mood swings, and how we eat in relation to specific mood states such as fear, happiness and anxiety.

  14. Changes in brain regions associated with food-intake regulation, body mass and metabolic profiles during acute antipsychotic treatment in first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Emsley, Robin; Asmal, Laila; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; du Plessis, Stefan; Carr, Jonathan; Kidd, Martin; Malhotra, Anil K; Vink, Matthijs; Kahn, Rene S

    2015-08-30

    We investigated whether morphological brain changes occurred in brain regions associated with body-weight homeostasis during acute antipsychotic treatment, and if so, whether they were related to changes in body mass and metabolic profile. Twenty-two antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia received either risperidone long acting injection or flupenthixol decanoate over 13 weeks and were compared by structural MRI with 23 matched healthy volunteers at weeks 0, 4 and 13. Images were reconstructed using freesurfer fully-automated whole brain segmentation. The ventral diencephalon and prefrontal cortex were selected to represent the homeostatic and hedonic food intake regulatory systems respectively. Body mass was measured at weeks 0, 7 and 13 and fasting glucose and lipid profiles at weeks 0 and 13. Linear mixed effect models indicated significant group(⁎)time interactions for the ventral diencephalon volumes bilaterally. Ventral diencephalon volume reduction was strongly correlated bilaterally with body mass increase and HDL-cholesterol reductions, and unilaterally with blood glucose elevation. There were no significant changes in prefrontal cortical thickness. These findings implicate the ventral diencephalon, of which the hypothalamus is the main component, in the acute adipogenic and dyslipidaemic effects of antipsychotic medication. PMID:26184461

  15. Detecting Mood-Dependent Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Bower, Gordon H.

    The mood-dependent retrieval hypothesis states that mood will enhance recall by acting as a recall cue if the stimuli have been learned initially in the same mood. Material learned in a happy mood will be best recalled when the person returns to a happy mood; the same holds for a sad mood. Mood-dependent retrieval effect has been regulary…

  16. Mixed lymphocyte cultures can predict TCR Vbeta repertoires of T cells infiltrating kidney transplants during acute rejection episodes.

    PubMed

    Paraoan, Marius T; Bakran, Ali; Hammad, Abdul; Sells, Robert A; Christmas, Stephen E

    2005-12-27

    Alloreactive T cell populations can show skewing of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) Vbeta gene usage. The aims of the experiments were to compare in vivo and in vitro T cell alloresponses against donor alloantigens for TCR Vbeta gene usage. T-cell cultures from renal biopsies taken during acute rejection and pretransplant mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) were established from five renal transplant patients. TCR Vbeta gene usage, assessed with Vbeta family specific antibodies, showed that up to five different Vbeta families were significantly expanded. In four of five cases, there was close concordance between Vbeta families expanded from the biopsy and in MLC. T-cell clones from one renal biopsy were specific for the mismatched donor alloantigen and showed similar TCR Vbeta gene usage to the original T-cell line. The results show very similar patterns of TCR Vbeta gene usage in alloreactive T cells generated ex vivo or in vitro.

  17. Cost effectiveness of olanzapine in prevention of affective episodes in bipolar disorder in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    McKendrick, J; Cerri, K H; Lloyd, A; D'Ausilio, A; Dando, S; Chinn, C

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of olanzapine compared with lithium as maintenance therapy for patients with bipolar I disorder (BP1) in the UK. A Markov model was developed to assess costs and outcomes from the perspective of the UK National Health Service over a 1-year period. Patients enter the model after stabilization of a manic episode and are then treated with olanzapine or lithium. Using the findings of a recent randomized clinical trial, the model considers the monthly risk of manic or depressive episodes and of dropping out from allocated therapy. health care resources associated with acute episodes were derived primarily from a recent UK chart review. Costs of maintenance therapy and monitoring were also considered. Key factors influencing cost effectiveness were identified and included in a stochastic sensitivity analysis. The model estimated that, compared to lithium, olanzapine significantly reduced the annual number of acute mood episodes per patient from 0.81 to 0.58 (difference -0.23; 95% CI: -0.34, -0.12). Per patient average annual care costs fell by 799 UK pounds (95% CI: - 1,824 UK pounds, 59 UK pounds) driven by reduced inpatient days--but the cost difference was not statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis found the results to be robust to plausible variation in the model's parameters. The model estimated that using olanzapine instead of lithium as maintenance therapy for BP1 would significantly reduce the rate of acute mood events resulting in reduced hospital costs. Based on available evidence, there is a high likelihood that olanzapine would reduce costs of care compared to lithium.

  18. Non-degree allopathic practitioners as first contact points for acute illness episodes: insights from a qualitative study in rural northern India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2005, the Indian government launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to improve the quality of and access to rural public health care. Despite these efforts, recent evidence shows that the rural poor continue to primarily consult private non-degree allopathic practitioners (NDAPs) for acute illness episodes. To examine this phenomenon, we explore the rural poor’s perception and utilization of the rural health care system and the role and accessibility of NDAPs therein. Methods Our study is based on qualitative data from focus group discussions conducted in three rural districts in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, two high-focus states of the NRHM in northern India, in 2009/2010. Our study population consists of female micro-credit self-help group members and their male household heads. We apply a directed content analysis and use a theoretical framework to differentiate between physical, financial and cultural access to care. Results Our study population distinguishes between “home treatment” (informal self-care), “local treatment” (formally unqualified care) and “outside treatment” (formally qualified care). Because of their proximity, flexible payment options and familiarity with patients’ belief systems, among other things, local NDAPs are physically, financially and culturally accessible. They are usually the first contact points for patients before turning to qualified practitioners, and treat minor illnesses, provide first relief, refer patients to other providers and administer formally prescribed treatments. Conclusion Our findings are similar for all three study sites and reinforce recent findings from southern and eastern India. The poor’s understanding and utilization of the rural health system deviates from governmental ideas. Because of their embeddedness in the community, private NDAPs are the most accessible medical providers and first contact points for acute illness episodes. Thus, they de-facto fulfill the role

  19. Does mood influence the realism of confidence judgments?

    PubMed

    Allwood, Carl Martin; Granhag, Pär Anders; Jonsson, Anna-Carin

    2002-07-01

    Previous research has shown that mood affects cognition, but the extent to which mood affects meta-cognitive judgments is a relatively over-looked issue. In the current study we investigated how mood influences the degree of realism in participants' confidence judgments (based on an episodic memory task). Using music and film in combination, we successfully induced an elated mood in half of the participants, but failed to induce a sad mood in the other half. In line with previous research, the participants in both conditions were overconfident in their judgments. However, and contrary to our prediction, our data indicated that there was no difference in the realism of the confidence between the conditions. When relating this result to previous research, our conclusion is that there is no, or very little, influence of mood of moderate intensity on the realism of confidence judgments.

  20. Acute experimental changes in mood state regulate immune function in relation to central opioid neurotransmission: a model of human CNS-peripheral inflammatory interaction.

    PubMed

    Prossin, A R; Koch, A E; Campbell, P L; Barichello, T; Zalcman, S S; Zubieta, J-K

    2016-02-01

    Although evidence shows depressed moods enhance risk for somatic diseases, molecular mechanisms underlying enhanced somatic susceptibility are ill-defined. Knowledge of these molecular mechanisms will inform development of treatment and prevention strategies across comorbid depressive and somatic illnesses. Existing evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18; an IL-1 family cytokine) is elevated in depression and implicated in pathophysiology underlying comorbid medical illnesses. We previously identified strong associations between baseline IL-18 and μ-opioid receptor availability in major depressive disorder (MDD) volunteers. Combined with the evidence in animal models, we hypothesized that experimental mood induction would change IL-18, the extent proportional to opioid neurotransmitter release. Using the Velten technique in a [(11)C]carfentanil positron emission tomography neuroimaging study, we examined the impact of experimentally induced mood (sad, neutral) on plasma IL-18 and relationships with concurrent changes in the central opioid neurotransmission in 28 volunteers (healthy, MDD). Results showed mood induction impacted IL-18 (F2,25=12.2, P<0.001), sadness increasing IL-18 (T27=2.6, P=0.01) and neutral mood reducing IL-18 (T27=-4.1, P<0.001). In depressed volunteers, changes in IL-18 were more pronounced (F2,25=3.6, P=0.03) and linearly proportional to sadness-induced μ-opioid activation (left ventral pallidum, bilateral anterior cingulate cortices, right hypothalamus and bilateral amygdala). These data demonstrate that dynamic changes of a pro-inflammatory IL-1 superfamily cytokine, IL-18, and its relationship to μ-opioid neurotransmission in response to experimentally induced sadness. Further testing is warranted to delineate the role of neuroimmune interactions involving IL-18 in enhancing susceptibility to medical illness (that is, diabetes, heart disease and persistent pain states) in depressed individuals. PMID:26283642

  1. Acute experimental changes in mood state regulate immune function in relation to central opioid neurotransmission: a model of human CNS-peripheral inflammatory interaction

    PubMed Central

    Prossin, A R; Koch, A E; Campbell, P L; Barichello, T; Zalcman, S S; Zubieta, J-K

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence shows depressed moods enhance risk for somatic diseases, molecular mechanisms underlying enhanced somatic susceptibility are ill-defined. Knowledge of these molecular mechanisms will inform development of treatment and prevention strategies across comorbid depressive and somatic illnesses. Existing evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18; an IL-1 family cytokine) is elevated in depression and implicated in pathophysiology underlying comorbid medical illnesses. We previously identified strong associations between baseline IL-18 and μ-opioid receptor availability in major depressive disorder (MDD) volunteers. Combined with the evidence in animal models, we hypothesized that experimental mood induction would change IL-18, the extent proportional to opioid neurotransmitter release. Using the Velten technique in a [11C]carfentanil positron emission tomography neuroimaging study, we examined the impact of experimentally induced mood (sad, neutral) on plasma IL-18 and relationships with concurrent changes in the central opioid neurotransmission in 28 volunteers (healthy, MDD). Results showed mood induction impacted IL-18 (F2,25=12.2, P<0.001), sadness increasing IL-18 (T27=2.6, P=0.01) and neutral mood reducing IL-18 (T27=−4.1, P<0.001). In depressed volunteers, changes in IL-18 were more pronounced (F2,25=3.6, P=0.03) and linearly proportional to sadness-induced μ-opioid activation (left ventral pallidum, bilateral anterior cingulate cortices, right hypothalamus and bilateral amygdala). These data demonstrate that dynamic changes of a pro-inflammatory IL-1 superfamily cytokine, IL-18, and its relationship to μ-opioid neurotransmission in response to experimentally induced sadness. Further testing is warranted to delineate the role of neuroimmune interactions involving IL-18 in enhancing susceptibility to medical illness (that is, diabetes, heart disease and persistent pain states) in depressed individuals. PMID:26283642

  2. Chronobiological therapy for mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    Alteration of the sleep-wake cycle and of the sleep structure are core symptoms of a major depressive episode, and occur both in course of bipolar disorder and of major depressive disorder. Many other circadian rhythms, such as the daily profiles of body temperature, cortisol, thyrotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, melatonin and excretion of various metabolites in the urine, are disrupted in depressed patients, both unipolar and bipolar individuals. These disrupted rhythms seem to return to normality with patient recovery. Research on circadian rhythms and sleep have led to the definition of nonpharmacological therapies of mood disorder that can be used in everyday practice. These strategies, named chronotherapeutics, are based on controlled exposures to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, and demonstrate good efficacy in the treatment of illness episodes. They include manipulations of the sleep-wake rhythm (such as partial and total sleep deprivation, and sleep phase advance) and of the exposure to the light-dark cycle (light therapy and dark therapy). In recent years, an increasing literature about the safety and efficacy of chronobiological treatments in everyday psychiatric settings has supported the inclusion of these techniques among the first-line antidepressant strategies for patients affected by mood disorders.

  3. An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on multitasking stress reactivity and mood.

    PubMed

    Benson, Sarah; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Wetherell, Mark; Zangara, Andrea; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Little research exists in humans concerning the anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative, and adaptogenic actions the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri (BM) possesses in addition to its documented cognitive-enhancing effects. Preclinical work has identified a number of acute anxiolytic, nootropic, and adaptogenic effects of BM that may also co-occur in humans. The current double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study assessed the acute effects of a specific extract of BM (KeenMind® - CDRI 08) in normal healthy participants during completion of a multitasking framework (MTF). Seventeen healthy volunteers completed the MTF, at baseline, then 1 h and 2 h after consuming a placebo, 320 mg BM and 640 mg of BM. Treatments were separated by a 7-day washout with order determined by Latin Square. Outcome measures included cognitive outcomes from the MTF, with mood and salivary cortisol measured before and after each completion of the MTF. Change from baseline scores indicated positive cognitive effects, notably at both 1 h post and 2 h post BM consumption on the Letter Search and Stroop tasks, suggesting an earlier nootropic effect of BM than previously investigated. There were also some positive mood effects and reduction in cortisol levels, pointing to a physiological mechanism for stress reduction associated with BM consumption. It was concluded that acute BM supplementation produced some adaptogenic and nootropic effects that need to be replicated in a larger sample and in isolation from stressful cognitive tests in order to quantify the magnitude of these effects. The study was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612000834853).

  4. An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on multitasking stress reactivity and mood.

    PubMed

    Benson, Sarah; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Wetherell, Mark; Zangara, Andrea; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Little research exists in humans concerning the anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative, and adaptogenic actions the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri (BM) possesses in addition to its documented cognitive-enhancing effects. Preclinical work has identified a number of acute anxiolytic, nootropic, and adaptogenic effects of BM that may also co-occur in humans. The current double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study assessed the acute effects of a specific extract of BM (KeenMind® - CDRI 08) in normal healthy participants during completion of a multitasking framework (MTF). Seventeen healthy volunteers completed the MTF, at baseline, then 1 h and 2 h after consuming a placebo, 320 mg BM and 640 mg of BM. Treatments were separated by a 7-day washout with order determined by Latin Square. Outcome measures included cognitive outcomes from the MTF, with mood and salivary cortisol measured before and after each completion of the MTF. Change from baseline scores indicated positive cognitive effects, notably at both 1 h post and 2 h post BM consumption on the Letter Search and Stroop tasks, suggesting an earlier nootropic effect of BM than previously investigated. There were also some positive mood effects and reduction in cortisol levels, pointing to a physiological mechanism for stress reduction associated with BM consumption. It was concluded that acute BM supplementation produced some adaptogenic and nootropic effects that need to be replicated in a larger sample and in isolation from stressful cognitive tests in order to quantify the magnitude of these effects. The study was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612000834853). PMID:23788517

  5. Oak Forest Responses to Episodic-Seasonal-Drought, Chronic Multi-year Precipitation Change and Acute Drought Manipulations in a Region With Deep Soils and High Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Paul J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Todd, Donald E.; Auge, Robert M.; Froberg, Mats; Johnson, Dale W.

    2010-05-01

    Implications of episodic-seasonal drought (extremely dry late summers), chronic multi-year precipitation manipulations (±33 percent over 12 years) and acute drought (-100 percent over 3 years) were evaluated for the response of vegetation and biogeochemical cycles for an upland-oak forest. The Quercus-Acer forest is located in eastern Tennessee on deep acidic soils with mean annual temperatures of 14.2 °C and abundant precipitation (1352 mm y-1). The multi-year observations and chronic manipulations were conducted from 1993 through 2005 using understory throughfall collection troughs and redistribution gutters and pipes. Acute manipulations of dominant canopy trees (Quercus prinus; Liriodendron tulipifera) were conducted from 2003 through 2005 using full understory tents. Regional and severe late-summer droughts were produced reduced stand water use and photosynthetic carbon gain as expected. Likewise, seedlings and saplings exhibited reduced survival and cumulative growth reductions. Conversely, multi-year chronic increases or decreases in precipitation and associated soil water deficits did not reduce large tree basal area growth for the tree species present. The resilience of canopy trees to chronic-change was the result of a disconnect between carbon allocation to tree growth (an early-season phenomenon) and late-season drought occurrence. Acute precipitation exclusion from the largest canopy trees also produced limited physiological responses and minimal cumulative growth reductions. Lateral root water sources were removed through trenching and could not explain the lack of response to extreme soil drying. Therefore, deep rooting the primary mechanism for large-tree resilience to severe drought. Extensive trench-based assessments of rooting depth suggested that ‘deep' water supplies were being obtained from limited numbers of deep fine roots. Observations of carbon stocks in organic horizons demonstrated accumulation with precipitation reductions and

  6. Corticostriatal pathways contribute to the natural time course of positive mood

    PubMed Central

    Admon, Roee; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    The natural time course of mood includes both acute responses to stimuli and spontaneous fluctuations. To date, neuroimaging studies have focused on either acute affective responses or spontaneous neural fluctuations at rest but no prior study has concurrently probed both components, or how mood disorders might modulate these processes. Here, using fMRI, we capture the acute affective and neural responses to naturalistic positive mood induction, as well as their spontaneous fluctuations during resting states. In both healthy controls and individuals with a history of depression, our manipulation acutely elevates positive mood and ventral striatum activation. Only controls, however, sustain positive mood over time, and this effect is accompanied by the emergence of a reciprocal relationship between the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex during ensuing rest. Findings suggest that corticostriatal pathways contribute to the natural time course of positive mood fluctuations, while disturbances of those neural interactions may characterize mood disorder. PMID:26638823

  7. Corticostriatal pathways contribute to the natural time course of positive mood.

    PubMed

    Admon, Roee; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-12-07

    The natural time course of mood includes both acute responses to stimuli and spontaneous fluctuations. To date, neuroimaging studies have focused on either acute affective responses or spontaneous neural fluctuations at rest but no prior study has concurrently probed both components, or how mood disorders might modulate these processes. Here, using fMRI, we capture the acute affective and neural responses to naturalistic positive mood induction, as well as their spontaneous fluctuations during resting states. In both healthy controls and individuals with a history of depression, our manipulation acutely elevates positive mood and ventral striatum activation. Only controls, however, sustain positive mood over time, and this effect is accompanied by the emergence of a reciprocal relationship between the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex during ensuing rest. Findings suggest that corticostriatal pathways contribute to the natural time course of positive mood fluctuations, while disturbances of those neural interactions may characterize mood disorder.

  8. Yoga in Public School Improves Adolescent Mood and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felver, Joshua C.; Butzer, Bethany; Olson, Katherine J.; Smith, Iona M.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the acute effects of participating in a single yoga class versus a single standard physical education (PE) class on student mood. Forty-seven high school students completed self-report questionnaires assessing mood and affect immediately before and after participating in a single yoga class…

  9. Use of recombinant activated factor VII for acute bleeding episodes in acquired hemophilia: final analysis from the Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research Society Registry acquired hemophilia study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Alice D.; Kessler, Craig M.; Al-Mondhiry, Hamid A.B.; Gut, Robert Z.; Cooper, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research Society Registry was used to monitor the postapproval use and safety of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa). The objective of this article is to evaluate the data from the Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research Society Registry related to rFVIIa-treated bleeding episodes in patients with acquired hemophilia. For each rFVIIa-treated bleeding episode, the initial dose, total dose, average infused dose, number of doses, and treatment duration were calculated. Efficacy was assessed on a three-point scale. Out of the 166 registered patients with acquired hemophilia, 110 patients were treated for 237 bleeding episodes (139 rFVIIa treated); the majority (70%) were in patients older than 60 years. The most frequently reported bleeding locations were subcutaneous (40%) and mucosal (32%). Subcutaneous bleeding episodes were more commonly reported in women (55% vs. 40% men) and white patients (44 vs. 27% black). Of the 139 rFVIIa-treated bleeding episodes, rFVIIa was used as first-line treatment in 127 bleeding episodes. The median initial dose was 90 μg/kg; the median total dose per episode was 333.5 μg/kg. Physician-rated efficacy of rFVIIa for each bleeding episode was reported as ‘bleeding stopped’ in 85% of bleeding episodes, ‘bleeding slowed’ in 11% of bleeding episodes, ‘no improvement’ in 4% of bleeding episodes, and was not documented in 1 bleeding episode. One thromboembolic event was reported; transient neurologic symptoms were reported in a 31-year-old postpartum patient after 110 doses of rFVIIa. Adequate hemostasis was provided for most rFVIIa-treated bleeding episodes at doses largely conforming to the package insert. No major safety concerns were reported. PMID:26761583

  10. Reducing length of stay for acute diabetic foot episodes: employing an extended scope of practice podiatric high-risk foot coordinator in an acute foundation trust hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To enhance the acute management of people with diabetic foot disease requiring admission, an extended scope of practice, podiatric high-risk foot coordinator position, was established at the Great Western Hospital, Swindon in 2010. The focus of this new role was to facilitate more efficient and timely management of people with complex diabetic foot disease. The aim of this project was to investigate the impact of the podiatric high-risk foot coordinator role on length of stay, rate of re-admission and bed cost. Method This study evaluated the difference in length of stay and rate of re-admission between an 11- month pre-pilot period (November 2008 to October 2009) and a 10-month pilot period (August 2010 to June 2011). The estimated difference in bed cost between the pre-pilot and pilot audits was also calculated. Inclusion criteria were restricted to inpatients admitted with a diabetic foot ulcer, gangrene, cellulitis or infection as the primary cause for admission. Eligible records were retrieved using ICD-10 (V9) coding via the hospital clinical audit department for the pre-pilot period and a unique database was used to source records for the pilot phase. Results Following the introduction of the podiatric high-risk foot coordinator, the average length of stay reduced from 33.7 days to 23.3 days (mean difference 10.4 days, 95% CI 0.0 to 20.8, p = 0.050). There was no statistically significant difference in re-admission rate between the two study periods, 17.2% (95% CI 12.2% to 23.9%) in the pre-pilot phase and 15.4% (95% CI 12.0% to 19.5%) in the pilot phase (p = 0.820). The extrapolated annual cost saving following the implementation of the new coordinator role was calculated to be £234,000 for the 2010/2011 year. Conclusions This audit found that the extended scope of practice coordinator role may have a positive impact on reducing length of stay for diabetic foot admissions. This paper advocates the role of a podiatric high-risk foot

  11. Rejection episodes.

    PubMed

    Koyama, H; Cecka, J M

    1992-01-01

    Based upon analyses of 40,671 kidney transplants reported to the UNOS Scientific Renal Transplant Registry between October 1987 and August 1992: 1. Twenty-four percent of the 21,923 recipients of first cadaver grafts experienced one or more rejection episodes during their transplant hospitalization, 52% during the first 6 months. At 12 months, only 40% of patients remained rejection-free. Patients who experienced any rejection during the first 6 months had a 72% 1-year graft survival rate compared with 95% for those who remained rejection-free (p < 0.001). 2. Recipients of transplants from living donors had a significantly lower incidence of rejection episodes. There was a clear effect of histocompatibility in comparing the incidence of rejection in HLA-identical sibling transplants (8% at discharge and 32% at 1 year) with that in 1-haplotype disparate transplants (22% at discharge and 52% at 1 year, p < 0.01 at each time point). Rejections were reported for 25% of transplants from other living donors at discharge and for 56% at 1 year, similar to the figures for cadaver transplants. 3. Histocompatibility also influenced the incidence of rejection in first cadaver-donor transplants. Only 15% of recipients of 0-HLA-A,B mismatched kidneys had rejection episodes reported at discharge, compared with 26% of those who received kidneys completely mismatched for HLA-A,B antigens (p < 0.01). At 1 year, 56% of HLA-A,B matched patients remained rejection-free, whereas only 35% of those mismatched for 4 antigens had no reported rejection through the first year (p < 0.01). Considering HLA-DR antigen mismatches, 19% of the 0-antigen mismatched group had rejection episodes at discharge, versus 28% for those with 2 HLA-DR mismatches (p < 0.01), and at 1 year, the percentage who were rejection-free decreased from 48% to 40% and 34% with 0, 1, and 2 HLA-DR mismatches, respectively. 4. The incidence of rejection episodes decreased as the recipient's age increased. Patients under age

  12. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Wake, G; Savelev, S; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2003-10-01

    Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized in that study did not exhibit in vitro cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The current study involved an initial screening of samples of M. officinalis for human acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The cognitive and mood effects of single doses of the most cholinergically active dried leaf were then assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover study. Following the in vitro analysis, 20 healthy, young participants received single doses of 600, 1000, and 1600 mg of encapsulated dried leaf, or a matching placebo, at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance and mood were assessed predose and at 1, 3, and 6 h postdose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery and Bond-Lader visual analog scales, respectively. In vitro analysis of the chosen extract established IC(50) concentrations of 0.18 and 3.47 mg ml(-1), respectively, for the displacement of [(3)H]-(N)-nicotine and [(3)H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the human cerebral cortex tissue. However, no cholinesterase inhibitory properties were detected. The most notable cognitive and mood effects were improved memory performance and increased 'calmness' at all postdose time points for the highest (1600 mg) dose. However, while the profile of results was overwhelmingly favorable for the highest dose, decrements in the speed of timed memory task performance and on a rapid visual information-processing task increased with decreasing dose. These results suggest that doses of Melissa

  13. Melatonin in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Venkataramanujan; Smits, Marcel; Spence, Warren; Lowe, Alan D; Kayumov, Leonid; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Parry, Barbara; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    The cyclic nature of depressive illness, the diurnal variations in its symptomatology and the existence of disturbed sleep-wake and core body temperature rhythms, all suggest that dysfunction of the circadian time keeping system may underlie the pathophysiology of depression. As a rhythm-regulating factor, the study of melatonin in various depressive illnesses has gained attention. Melatonin can be both a 'state marker' and a 'trait marker' of mood disorders. Measurement of melatonin either in saliva or plasma, or of its main metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in urine, have documented significant alterations in melatonin secretion in depressive patients during the acute phase of illness. Not only the levels but also the timing of melatonin secretion is altered in bipolar affective disorder and in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD). A phase delay of melatonin secretion takes place in SAD, as well as changes in the onset, duration and offset of melatonin secretion. Bright light treatment, that suppresses melatonin production, is effective in treating bipolar affective disorder and SAD, winter type. This review discusses the role of melatonin in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and SAD.

  14. Anxious mood and memory.

    PubMed

    Foa, E B; McNally, R; Murdock, T B

    1989-01-01

    Influenced by Bower (Am. Psychol. 36, 129-148, 1981) and Lang (Anxiety and the Anxiety Disorders, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1985), we tested three hypotheses concerning anxious mood and memory: (1) the mood state dependent hypothesis which states that memory retrieval will be greater when mood at encoding and at recall are the same than when they are different: (2) the encoding mood congruent hypothesis which states that information semantically related to mood at encoding is retrieved more readily than information unrelated to mood at encoding; and (3) the recall mood congruent hypothesis which states that information semantically related to mood at recall is retrieved more readily than information unrelated to mood at recall. We induced anxiety in speech anxious students by informing them that they would be delivering a speech during the experiment. Mood could be either anxious or nonanxious at encoding, recall, both, or neither. Hence, there were four groups: Anxiety-Anxiety, Anxiety-Nonanxiety, Nonanxiety-Anxiety, and Nonanxiety-Nonanxiety. Subjects were asked to rate the self-descriptiveness of anxiety (e.g. NERVOUS) and nonanxiety adjective (e.g. POLITE) during the encoding phase, and to recall them later. Anxious mood was measured by self-report scales and by heart rate. No support was obtained for any of the three hypotheses. However, post-hoc analyses indicated that anxiety words were recalled least often in subjects whose heart rate increased from encoding to recall. This suggests that attention to threat information may diminish in aroused nonclinical subjects.

  15. The bacterial lysate Lantigen B reduces the number of acute episodes in patients with recurrent infections of the respiratory tract: the results of a double blind, placebo controlled, multicenter clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Braido, Fulvio; Melioli, Giovanni; Candoli, Piero; Cavalot, Andrea; Di Gioacchino, Mario; Ferrero, Vittorio; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mereu, Carlo; Ridolo, Erminia; Rolla, Giovanni; Rossi, Oliviero; Savi, Eleonora; Tubino, Libero; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Baiardini, Ilaria; di Marco, Eddi; Rinaldi, Gilberto; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Accorsi, Carlo; Bossilino, Claudia; Bonzano, Laura; DiLizia, Michela; Fedrighini, Barbara; Garelli, Valentina; Gerace, Vincenzo; Maniscalco, Sara; Massaro, Ilaria; Messi, Alessandro; Milanese, Manlio; Peveri, Silvia; Penno, Arminio; Pizzimenti, Stefano; Pozzo, Tiziana; Raie, Alberto; Regina, Sergio; Sclifò, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Studies in the 1970s and 1980s reported that bacterial lysates (BL) had a prophylactic effect on recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTI). However, controlled clinical study procedures have evolved substantially since then. We performed a trial using updated methods to evaluate the efficacy of Lantigen B®, a chemical BL. This double blind, placebo controlled, multi-center clinical trial had the primary objective of assessing the capacity of Lantigen B to significantly reduce the total number of infectious episodes in patients with RRTI. Secondary aims were the RRTI duration, the frequency and the severity of the acute episodes, the use of drugs and the number of missed workdays. In the subgroup of allergic patients with RRTI, the number of allergic episodes (AE) and the use of anti-allergic drugs were also evaluated. One hundred and sixty patients, 79 allocated to the treated group (TG) and 81 to the placebo group (PG), were enrolled; 30 were lost during the study and 120 (79 females and 38 males) were evaluated. The PG had 1.43 episodes in the 8-months of follow-up while the TG had 0.86 episodes (p=0.036). A similar result was observed in the allergic patients (1.80 and 0.86 episodes for the PG and the TG, respectively, p=0.047). The use of antibiotics was reduced (mean 1.24 and 2.83 days of treatment for the TG and the PG). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the estimated risk of needing antibiotics and NSAIDs was reduced by 52.1 and 30.6%, respectively. With regard to the number of AE, no significant difference was observed between the two groups, but bronchodilators, antihistamines and local corticosteroids were reduced by 25.7%, 56.2% and 41.6%, respectively, in the TG. Lantigen B significantly reduced the number of infectious episodes in patients with RRTI. This finding suggests a first line use of this drug for the prophylaxis of infectious episodes in these patients. PMID:25445613

  16. The Velten Mood Induction Procedure: Effects on Mood and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskind, John H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that the self-devaluative aspects of the Velton Mood Induction Procedure (VMIP) do not lower mood but that the depression-related somatic states of the VMIP do lower mood. Found that both aspects of the VMIP have a powerful impact on mood. (Author/RC)

  17. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  18. Epilepsy and Mood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Epilepsy and mood Update Steven Karceski, MD In their ... important and worrisome topic for peo- ple with epilepsy. In short, a patient may wonder, “ Will the ...

  19. Music feels like moods feel

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Kris

    2014-01-01

    While it is widely accepted that music evokes moods, there is disagreement over whether music-induced moods are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music as such. The arguments against the aesthetic relevance of music-induced moods are: (1) moods cannot be intentionally directed at the music and (2) music-induced moods are highly subjective experiences and are therefore a kind of mind-wandering. This paper presents a novel account of musical moods that avoids these objections. It is correct to say that a listener’s entire mood is not relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music. However, the experience of mood consists of having different feelings. Music induces feelings that are intentionally directed at the music and clusters of these feelings can be recognized as typical of a specific mood. Therefore, mood-feelings are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music. PMID:24795677

  20. Gonadal hormones in schizophrenia and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M Erkan; Banoglu, R

    2003-08-01

    There are gender-related differences in the prevalence, course and treatment response characteristics of schizophrenia and mood disorders. Gonadal steroids exert potent effects on mood, cognition and behavior, and there is little doubt that androgens are crucial for differentiating to each gender. Serum level of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin was measured in 69 medication-free men with either schizophrenia (n=29) or bipolar I disorder, manic episode (n=18) or major depressive disorder (n=22). There was a statistically significant difference in free testosterone level between mania and schizophrenia groups (p<0.05). The higher free testosterone level in the mania group compared to the schizophrenia group found in this study supports further investigation of a potential difference in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis between patients with schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder, manic.

  1. The relationship between creativity and mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Andreasen, Nancy C.

    2008-01-01

    Research designed to examine the relationship between creativity and mental illnesses must confront multiple challenges. What is the optimal sample to study? How should creativity be defined? What is the most appropriate comparison group? Only a limited number of studies have examined highly creative individuals using personal interviews and a noncreative comparison group. The majority of these have examined writers. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that in these creative individuals the rate of mood disorder is high, and that both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression are quite common. Clinicians who treat creative individuals with mood disorders must also confronta variety of challenges, including the fear that treatment may diminish creativity, in the case of bipolar disorder, hovt/ever, it is likely that reducing severe manic episodes may actually enhance creativity in many individuals. PMID:18689294

  2. [Categorical and dimensional diagnostic approach to acute psychosis in view of operational diagnostic criteria].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    "Acute psychosis" is the tentative diagnosis made for the patients presenting acute onset of delusion, hallucination, confusion and emotional instability. "Acute psychosis" was focused in view of operational diagnostic criteria, ie, DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. The diagnostic categories in the DSM-IV-TR corresponding to "acute psychosis" were brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizo-affective disorder and mood disorder with psychotic features. Although brief psychotic disorder is representative of "acute psychosis" in the DSM-TR, it lacks in clinical usefulness, because its diagnostic criteria, based on no historical background, lack clinical validity in terms of symptom definition and duration (1 month>). On the other hand, in the ICD-10, a diagnostic category of acute transient psychotic disorder was based on the traditional "acute psychosis" concept that has been bred in the European Psychiatry. Among the acute transient psychotic disorders, acute polymorphic psychotic disorder is the diagnostic category made according to traditional concept of "bouffées délirantes" and cycloid psychosis. It is a clinically useful diagnostic category, because it could predict favorable episode outcome, if a person with fairly good premorbid social adaptation presents acute onset of polymorphic psychotic symptoms. One of the most prominent points of the revision of DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 is the adoption of dimensional approach evaluation (diagnosis) in a disorder-crossing fashion. In addition to insomnia, depressive mood and anxiety, symptomatic domain such as acute onset, bipolarity, polymorphism of psychotic symptoms, and furthermore such domain as premorbid social adaptation, life event and episode outcome should be evaluated in the course of treatment, contributing to the clinical practice of the patients with acute psychosis. PMID:22352007

  3. Nociception, pain, negative moods and behavior selection

    PubMed Central

    Baliki, Marwan N.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the brain adapts with pain, as well as imparts risk for developing chronic pain. Within this context we revisit the concepts for nociception, acute and chronic pain, and negative moods relative to behavior selection. We redefine nociception as the mechanism protecting the organism from injury; while acute pain as failure of avoidant behavior; and a mesolimbic threshold process that gates the transformation of nociceptive activity to conscious pain. Adaptations in this threshold process are envisioned to be critical for development of chronic pain. We deconstruct chronic pain into four distinct phases, each with specific mechanisms; and outline current state of knowledge regarding these mechanisms: The limbic brain imparting risk, while mesolimbic learning processes reorganizing the neocortex into a chronic pain state. Moreover, pain and negative moods are envisioned as a continuum of aversive behavioral learning, which enhance survival by protecting against threats. PMID:26247858

  4. Influences of mood, depression history, and treatment modality on outcomes in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Haas, Amie L; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Humfleet, Gary L; Reus, Victor I; Hall, Sharon M

    2004-08-01

    The relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD), treatment modality, and mood was evaluated in smokers participating in cessation programs. Participants (N = 549, 53.7% women, 46.3% men, 28% endorsing past MDD episodes) were randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) or health education (HE) intervention. Participants with a history of recurrent MDD (MDD-R) had higher rates of abstinence in CBT compared with HE even when the contribution of mood and the interaction between mood and an MDD x Treatment variable were included in the model. Likewise, higher levels of mood disturbance were reported by MDD-R smokers compared with those reporting a single episode. The study replicated results reported by R. A. Brown et al. (2001) and expanded upon them by evaluating the differential contribution of poor mood on cessation outcomes relative to MDD history. PMID:15301640

  5. Stress-induced changes in mood and cortisol release predict mood effects of amphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Hamidovic, Ajna; Childs, Emma; Conrad, Megan; King, Andrea; de Wit, Harriet

    2010-01-01

    Background Stress is thought to contribute to both initiation and relapse to drug abuse. However, the mechanisms by which stress influences drug use are unclear. Interestingly, responses to acute administration of stimulant drugs resemble certain neuronal and hormonal responses to acute stress, and there is accumulating evidence that individual variation in the positive reinforcing or euphorigenic effects of a drug are related to individual differences in responsivity to acute stress. Methods In this study we evaluated relationships between physiological and subjective responses to a stressful task and to an oral dose of d-amphetamine in healthy adult volunteers (N=34). Individuals participated in four experimental sessions; two behavioral sessions involving a stressful task (i.e. public speech) or a non-stressful control task, and two drug sessions involving oral administration of d-amphetamine (20mg) or a placebo. The dependent measures included salivary cortisol, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and subjective ratings of mood. Results As expected, both stress and d-amphetamine increased cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure. Stress increased negative mood, whereas d-amphetamine induced prototypic stimulant effects and increased ratings of drug liking. Analyses revealed that increased negative mood states after stress were correlated with positive mood after amphetamine. In addition, increased cortisol after stress was correlated with positive mood responses to amphetamine. Finally, there were modest positive correlations between cortisol and heart rate increases after stress and mean arterial pressure after amphetamine. Conclusions These results support and extend previous observations that responses to acute stress are correlated with certain subjective, hormonal and cardiovascular effects of a stimulant drug. PMID:20176450

  6. The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on recurrence of depressive episodes, mental health and quality of life: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Godfrin, K A; van Heeringen, C

    2010-08-01

    Depression is characterized by a large risk of relapse/recurrence. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a recent non-drug psychotherapeutic intervention to prevent future depressive relapse/recurrence in remitted/recovered depressed patients. In this randomized controlled trial, the authors investigated the effects of MBCT on the relapse in depression and the time to first relapse since study participation, as well as on several mood states and the quality of life of the patients. 106 recovered depressed patients with a history of at least 3 depressive episodes continued either with their treatment as usual (TAU) or received MBCT in addition to TAU. The efficacy of MBCT was assessed over a study period of 56 weeks. At the end of the study period relapse/recurrence was significantly reduced and the time until first relapse increased in the MBCT plus TAU condition in comparison with TAU alone. The MBCT plus TAU group also showed a significant reduction in both short and longer-term depressive mood and better mood states and quality of the life. For patients with a history of at least three depressive episodes who are not acutely depressed, MBCT, added to TAU, may play an important role in the domain of relapse prevention in depression.

  7. A longitudinal analysis of the effect of mass drug administration on acute inflammatory episodes and disease progression in lymphedema patients in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Brittany A; Blackstock, Anna J; Williamson, John M; Addiss, David G; Streit, Thomas G; Beau de Rochars, Valery M; Fox, Leanne M

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal analysis of 117 lymphedema patients in a filariasis-endemic area of Haiti during 1995-2008. No difference in lymphedema progression between those who received or did not receive mass drug administration (MDA) was found on measures of foot (P = 0.24), ankle (P = 0.87), or leg (P = 0.46) circumference; leg volume displacement (P = 0.09), lymphedema stage (P = 0.93), or frequency of adenolymphangitis (ADL) episodes (P = 0.57). Rates of ADL per year were greater after initiation of MDA among both groups (P < 0.01). Nevertheless, patients who received MDA reported improvement in four areas of lymphedema-related quality of life (P ≤ 0.01). Decreases in foot and ankle circumference and ADL episodes were observed during the 1995-1998 lymphedema management study (P ≤ 0.01). This study represents the first longitudinal, quantitative, leg-specific analysis examining the clinical effect of diethylcarbamazine on lymphedema progression and ADL episodes. PMID:24218408

  8. The acute effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink on mood state, readiness to invest effort, and resistance exercise to failure.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Smith, Mike; Cook, Kathryn; James, Rob S

    2012-10-01

    The efficacy of caffeine ingestion in enhancing aerobic performance is well established. The evidence for caffeine's effects on resistance exercise is mixed and has not fully examined the associated psychological and psychophysiological changes. This study examined acute effects of ingesting a caffeine-containing energy drink on repetitions to failure, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and the readiness to invest physical effort (RTIPE) and mental effort during resistance exercise to failure. Thirteen resistance-trained men took part in this double-blind, randomized cross-over experimental study whereby they ingested a caffeinated (179 mg) energy drink or placebo solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise comprising bench press, deadlift, prone row, and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 60% 1-repetition maximum. Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Participants completed significantly greater repetitions to failure, irrespective of exercise, in the energy drink condition (p = 0.015). Rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher in the placebo condition (p = 0.02) and was significantly higher during lower-body exercises compared with upper-body exercises irrespective of the substance ingested (p = 0.0001). Readiness to invest mental effort was greater with the energy drink condition (p = 0.04), irrespective of time. A significant time × substance interaction (p = 0.036) for RTIPE indicated that RTIPE increased for both placebo and energy drink conditions preingestion to pre-exercise, but the magnitude of increase was greater with the energy drink condition compared with placebo. This resulted in higher RTIPE postexercise for the energy drink condition. These results suggest that acute ingestion of a caffeine-containing energy drink can enhance resistance exercise performance to failure and positively enhance psychophysiological factors related to exertion in trained men. PMID:22124354

  9. An investigation into the sub-acute effects of ecstasy on aggressive interpretative bias and aggressive mood - are there gender differences?

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Rosa; Pratt, Hannah; Mehta, Sachin; Bond, Alyson J; Curran, H Valerie

    2006-03-01

    The lowering of serotonin for a period following MDMA use could account for the increases in both self-rated and objective measures of aggression previously found in ecstasy users several days after taking the drug. There is some evidence of gender differences in the acute, sub-acute and long-term effects of MDMA use, and given that gender differences have been found in aggression, it is possible that men may experience more aggression mid-week than women. The aim of this study was to attempt to replicate findings showing increased bias towards aggressive material in ecstasy users several days after using the drug. In addition, to investigate possible gender differences in mid-week aggression. A total of 46 participants were tested: 19 ecstasy users and 27 controls were compared on the night of drug use and 4 days later. On day 4, a task designed to tap cognitive bias toward material with aggressive content was administered. Participants were required to process sentences that could be interpreted as either aggressive or neutral and subsequently remember them in a recognition test. This data set was then combined with the data from Curran et al.'s (2004) study that employed exactly the same procedure. Thus, the data from 107 participants was analysed to investigate gender differences. Ecstasy users recognized more aggressive sentences than controls and tended to react slower to neutral sentences than controls. Ecstasy users also rated themselves as being more aggressive and depressed than controls on day 4. No gender differences were found on any measure of aggression in the combined data set. Both male and female ecstasy users show a bias toward interpretation of ambiguous material in an aggressive manner when compared to controls 4 days after ecstasy use.

  10. The acute effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink on mood state, readiness to invest effort, and resistance exercise to failure.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Smith, Mike; Cook, Kathryn; James, Rob S

    2012-10-01

    The efficacy of caffeine ingestion in enhancing aerobic performance is well established. The evidence for caffeine's effects on resistance exercise is mixed and has not fully examined the associated psychological and psychophysiological changes. This study examined acute effects of ingesting a caffeine-containing energy drink on repetitions to failure, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and the readiness to invest physical effort (RTIPE) and mental effort during resistance exercise to failure. Thirteen resistance-trained men took part in this double-blind, randomized cross-over experimental study whereby they ingested a caffeinated (179 mg) energy drink or placebo solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise comprising bench press, deadlift, prone row, and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 60% 1-repetition maximum. Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Participants completed significantly greater repetitions to failure, irrespective of exercise, in the energy drink condition (p = 0.015). Rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher in the placebo condition (p = 0.02) and was significantly higher during lower-body exercises compared with upper-body exercises irrespective of the substance ingested (p = 0.0001). Readiness to invest mental effort was greater with the energy drink condition (p = 0.04), irrespective of time. A significant time × substance interaction (p = 0.036) for RTIPE indicated that RTIPE increased for both placebo and energy drink conditions preingestion to pre-exercise, but the magnitude of increase was greater with the energy drink condition compared with placebo. This resulted in higher RTIPE postexercise for the energy drink condition. These results suggest that acute ingestion of a caffeine-containing energy drink can enhance resistance exercise performance to failure and positively enhance psychophysiological factors related to exertion in trained men.

  11. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed.

  12. The Prevalence and Diagnostic Validity of Short-Duration Hypomanic Episodes and Major Depressive Episodes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shefali; Dennehy, Ellen B; Suppes, Trisha

    2016-03-01

    Current diagnostic criteria for a hypomanic episode, as outlined in both the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV and DSM-5), require a minimum duration of four consecutive days of symptoms of mood elevation. The 4-day criterion for duration of hypomania has been challenged as arbitrary and lacking empirical support, with many arguing that shorter-duration hypomanic episodes are highly prevalent and that those experiencing these episodes are clinically more similar to patients with bipolar disorder than to those with unipolar major depressive disorder. We review the current evidence regarding the prevalence, diagnostic validity, and longitudinal illness correlates of shorter-duration hypomanic episodes and summarize the arguments for and against broadening the diagnostic criteria for hypomania to include shorter-duration variants. Accumulating findings suggest that patients with major depressive episodes and shorter-duration hypomanic episodes represent a complex clinical phenotype, perhaps best conceptualized as being on the continuum between those with unipolar depressive episodes alone and those with DSM-5-defined bipolar II disorder. Further investigation is warranted, ideally involving large prospective, controlled studies, to elucidate the diagnostic and treatment implications of depression with shorter-duration hypomanic episodes. PMID:26830885

  13. Signal Transduction in Astrocytes during Chronic or Acute Treatment with Drugs (SSRIs, Antibipolar Drugs, GABA-ergic Drugs, and Benzodiazepines) Ameliorating Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baoman; Du, Ting; Xu, Junnan; Chen, Ye; Peng, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Chronic treatment with fluoxetine or other so-called serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) or with a lithium salt “lithium”, carbamazepine, or valproic acid, the three classical antibipolar drugs, exerts a multitude of effects on astrocytes, which in turn modulate astrocyte-neuronal interactions and brain function. In the case of the SSRIs, they are to a large extent due to 5-HT2B-mediated upregulation and editing of genes. These alterations induce alteration in effects of cPLA2, GluK2, and the 5-HT2B receptor, probably including increases in both glucose metabolism and glycogen turnover, which in combination have therapeutic effect on major depression. The ability of increased levels of extracellular K+ to increase [Ca2+]i is increased as a sign of increased K+-induced excitability in astrocytes. Acute anxiolytic drug treatment with benzodiazepines or GABAA receptor stimulation has similar glycogenolysis-enhancing effects. The antibipolar drugs induce intracellular alkalinization in astrocytes with lithium acting on one acid extruder and carbamazepine and valproic acid on a different acid extruder. They inhibit K+-induced and transmitter-induced increase of astrocytic [Ca2+]i and thereby probably excitability. In several cases, they exert different changes in gene expression than SSRIs, determined both in cultured astrocytes and in freshly isolated astrocytes from drug-treated animals. PMID:24707399

  14. Mood-Congruent Memory and Natural Mood: New Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents new evidence that everyday mood does bring about a hypothesized effect on memory, termed mood-congruent memory (MCM). Results of three studies provided evidence for MCM among normal individuals (n=614). Findings support prior studies and bolster notions that mood and memory constantly covary in everyday experience. (RJM)

  15. Association of urodynamic findings in new onset multiple sclerosis with subsequent occurrence of urinary symptoms and acute episode of disease in females

    PubMed Central

    Tadayyon, Farhad; Etemadifar, Masoud; Bzeih, Hussein; Zargham, Mahtab; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kia; Akbari, Mojtaba; Tadayyon, Borna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine the relative frequency of abnormal urodynamic findings in new multiple sclerosis (MS) cases without micturition complaints and to find its correlation with the number of MS plaques on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urinary tract involvement and the number of disease episodes. Methods: In this prospective study, 50 new female case of multiple sclerosis were enrolled. Age, urodynamic findings, micturition complaints and number of plaques on MRI were recorded on admission. Occurrence of urinary symptoms and number of episodes of the disease were recorded every three months during one-year follow-up. Results: The mean patients’ age was 32.4 ± 7.2 years and all patients were female. Of the 50 patients, 19 (38%) had a normal urodynamic test and 31 (62%) had abnormal urodynamic findings at the beginning of the study. The occurrence of micturition complaints during follow-up in patients with abnormal urodynamic findings (94%) was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than patients with normal urodynamic findings (37%). In addition, the number of plaques on MRI at the beginning of the study in patients with abnormal urodynamic finding was significantly higher (p < 0.004) compared to patients with a normal urodynamic study. The number of episodes during follow-up was not statistically different between patients with normal and abnormal urodynamic findings (p = 0.46). Conclusions: According to this study, 62% of all new MS patients had an abnormal urodynamic test. This is a considerable proportion of patients and it seems urodynamic studies can be used when MS is first diagnosed. PMID:23267402

  16. Episodic disorders of behaviour and affect after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Eames, Peter Eames; Wood, Rodger Ll

    2003-01-01

    Psychological disorders that follow traumatic brain injury are possibly more complex and diverse than those associated with other forms of "brain damage". These may include organic aggressive, or organic affective syndromes that are episodic in nature and therefore require a more specific diagnosis, a different classification, and a different approach to treatment. Consequently, it is necessary for clinicians to learn to distinguish between "primary" psychiatric illnesses and those disorders of behavioural control and mood that stem specifically from brain injury. There is relatively little in the clinical literature that explains the relationship between variable states of behaviour, mood or temperament, and clinical disorders that may have long-term implications for patient management. This concept paper therefore addresses abnormalities of mood and behaviour that are episodic in character and are not recognisably included in the DSM and ICD classifications of psychological or psychiatric disorders. PMID:21854336

  17. Suicidal Behaviour in Mood Disorders—Who, When, and Why?

    PubMed Central

    Isometsä, Erkki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: About one-half to two-thirds of all suicides are by people who suffer from mood disorders; preventing suicides among those who suffer from them is thus central for suicide prevention. Understanding factors underlying suicide risk is necessary for rational preventive decisions. Method: The literature on risk factors for completed and attempted suicide among subjects with depressive and bipolar disorders (BDs) was reviewed. Results: Lifetime risk of completed suicide among psychiatric patients with mood disorders is likely between 5% and 6%, with BDs, and possibly somewhat higher risk than patients with major depressive disorder. Longitudinal and psychological autopsy studies indicate suicidal acts usually take place during major depressive episodes (MDEs) or mixed illness episodes. Incidence of suicide attempts is about 20- to 40-fold, compared with euthymia, during these episodes, and duration of these high-risk states is therefore an important determinant of overall risk. Substance use and cluster B personality disorders also markedly increase risk of suicidal acts during mood episodes. Other major risk factors include hopelessness and presence of impulsive–aggressive traits. Both childhood adversity and recent adverse life events are likely to increase risk of suicide attempts, and suicidal acts are predicted by poor perceived social support. Understanding suicidal thinking and decision making is necessary for advancing treatment and prevention. Conclusion: Among subjects with mood disorders, suicidal acts usually occur during MDEs or mixed episodes concurrent with comorbid disorders. Nevertheless, illness factors can only in part explain suicidal behaviour. Illness factors, difficulty controlling impulsive and aggressive responses, plus predisposing early exposures and life situations result in a process of suicidal thinking, planning, and acts. PMID:24881160

  18. Mood, food, and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  19. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  20. Etiological Misidentification by Routine Biochemical Tests of Bacteremia Caused by Gordonia terrae Infection in the Course of an Episode of Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Sande, E.; Brun-Otero, M.; Campo-Cerecedo, F.; Esteban, E.; Aguilar, L.; García-de-Lomas, J.

    2006-01-01

    Gordonia terrae has been reported to be a rare cause of bacteremia. We report the first case of bacteremia associated with acute cholecystitis. Commercial biochemical testing was not able to identify the strain at the genus level, classifying it instead as Rhodococcus sp. Definitive identification was obtained by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. PMID:16825404

  1. Chronobiology and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2003-12-01

    The clinical observations of diurnal variation of mood and early morning awakening in depression have been incorporated into established diagnostic systems, as has the seasonal modifier defining winter depression (seasonal affective disorder, SAD). Many circadian rhythms measured in depressive patients are abnormal: earlier in timing, diminished in amplitude, or of greater variability. Whether these disturbances are of etiological significance for the role of circadian rhythms in mood disorders, or a consequence of altered behavior can only be dissected out with stringent protocols (eg, constant routine or forced desynchrony). These protocols quantify contributions of the circadian pacemaker and a homeostatic sleep process impacting on mood, energy, appetite, and sleep. Future studies will elucidate any allelic mutations in "circadian clock" -related or "sleep"-related genes in depression. With respect to treatment, antidepressants and mood stabilizers have no consistent effect on circadian rhythmicity. The most rapid antidepressant modality known so far is nonpharmacological: total or partial sleep deprivation in the second half of the night. The disadvantage of sleep deprivation, that most patients relapse after recovery sleep, can be prevented by coadministration of lithium, pindolol, serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors, bright light, or a subsequent phase-advance procedure. Phase advance of the sleep-wake cycle alone also has rapid effects on depressed mood, which lasts longer than sleep deprivation. Light is the treatment of choice for SAD and may prove to be useful for nonseasonal depression, alone or as an adjunct to medication. Chronobiological concepts emphasize the important role of zeitgebers to stabilize phase, light being the most important, but dark (and rest) periods, regularity of social schedules and meal times, and use of melatonin or its analogues should also be considered. Advances in chronobiology continue to contribute novel treatments for

  2. Management of adverse effects of mood stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Murru, Andrea; Popovic, Dina; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Hidalgo, Diego; León-Caballero, Jordi; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Mood stabilizers such as lithium and anticonvulsants are still standard-of-care for the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence of their adverse effects (AEs) and to provide recommendations on their clinical management. We performed a systematic research for studies reporting the prevalence of AEs with lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine. Management recommendations were then developed. Mood stabilizers have different tolerability profiles and are eventually associated to cognitive, dermatological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, immunological, metabolic, nephrogenic, neurologic, sexual, and teratogenic AEs. Most of those can be transient or dose-related and can be managed by optimizing drug doses to the lowest effective dose. Some rare AEs can be serious and potentially lethal, and require abrupt discontinuation of medication. Integrated medical attention is warranted for complex somatic AEs. Functional remediation and psychoeducation may help to promote awareness on BD and better medication management.

  3. Pharmacogenetic study of antipsychotic induced acute extrapyramidal symptoms in a first episode psychosis cohort: role of dopamine, serotonin and glutamate candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Mas, S; Gassó, P; Lafuente, A; Bioque, M; Lobo, A; Gonzàlez-Pinto, A; Olmeda, M S; Corripio, I; Llerena, A; Cabrera, B; Saiz-Ruiz, J; Bernardo, M

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated whether the risk of presenting antipsychotic (AP)-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) could be related to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a naturalistic cohort of first episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Two hundred and two SNPs in 31 candidate genes (involved in dopamine, serotonin and glutamate pathways) were analyzed in the present study. One hundred and thirteen FEP patients (43 presenting EPS and 70 non-presenting EPS) treated with high-potency AP (amisulpride, paliperidone, risperidone and ziprasidone) were included in the analysis. The statistical analysis was adjusted by age, gender, AP dosage, AP combinations and concomitant treatments as covariates. Four SNPs in different genes (DRD2, SLC18A2, HTR2A and GRIK3) contributed significantly to the risk of EPS after correction for multiple testing (P<1 × 10(-4)). These findings support the involvement of dopamine, serotonin and glutamate pathways in AP-induced EPS.

  4. Pharmacogenetic study of antipsychotic induced acute extrapyramidal symptoms in a first episode psychosis cohort: role of dopamine, serotonin and glutamate candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Mas, S; Gassó, P; Lafuente, A; Bioque, M; Lobo, A; Gonzàlez-Pinto, A; Olmeda, M S; Corripio, I; Llerena, A; Cabrera, B; Saiz-Ruiz, J; Bernardo, M

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated whether the risk of presenting antipsychotic (AP)-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) could be related to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a naturalistic cohort of first episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Two hundred and two SNPs in 31 candidate genes (involved in dopamine, serotonin and glutamate pathways) were analyzed in the present study. One hundred and thirteen FEP patients (43 presenting EPS and 70 non-presenting EPS) treated with high-potency AP (amisulpride, paliperidone, risperidone and ziprasidone) were included in the analysis. The statistical analysis was adjusted by age, gender, AP dosage, AP combinations and concomitant treatments as covariates. Four SNPs in different genes (DRD2, SLC18A2, HTR2A and GRIK3) contributed significantly to the risk of EPS after correction for multiple testing (P<1 × 10(-4)). These findings support the involvement of dopamine, serotonin and glutamate pathways in AP-induced EPS. PMID:27272046

  5. Seeking Insights About Cycling Mood Disorders via Anonymized Search Logs

    PubMed Central

    White, Ryen W; Horvitz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background Mood disorders affect a significant portion of the general population. Cycling mood disorders are characterized by intermittent episodes (or events) of the disease. Objective Using anonymized Web search logs, we identify a population of people with significant interest in mood stabilizing drugs (MSD) and seek evidence of mood swings in this population. Methods We extracted queries to the Microsoft Bing search engine made by 20,046 Web searchers over six months, separately explored searcher demographics using data from a large external panel of users, and sought supporting information from people with mood disorders via a survey. We analyzed changes in information needs over time relative to searches on MSD. Results Queries for MSD focused on side effects and their relation to the disease. We found evidence of significant changes in search behavior and interests coinciding with days that MSD queries are made. These include large increases (>100%) in the access of nutrition information, commercial information, and adult materials. A survey of patients diagnosed with mood disorders provided evidence that repeated queries on MSD may come with exacerbations of mood disorder. A classifier predicting the occurrence of such queries one day before they are observed obtains strong performance (AUC=0.78). Conclusions Observed patterns in search behavior align with known behaviors and those highlighted by survey respondents. These observations suggest that searchers showing intensive interest in MSD may be patients who have been prescribed these drugs. Given behavioral dynamics, we surmise that the days on which MSD queries are made may coincide with commencement of mania or depression. Although we do not have data on mood changes and whether users have been diagnosed with bipolar illness, we see evidence of cycling in people who show interest in MSD and further show that we can predict impending shifts in behavior and interest. PMID:24568936

  6. Does a patient’s physical activity predict recovery from an episode of acute low back pain? A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Advice to remain active and normalisation of activity are commonly prescribed in the management of low back pain (LBP). However, no research has assessed whether objective measurements of physical activity predict outcome and recovery in acute low back pain. Method The aims of this study were to assess the predictive relationship between activity and disability at 3 months in a sub-acute LBP population. This prospective cohort study recruited 101 consenting patients with sub-acute LBP (< 6 weeks) who completed the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), the Visual Analogue Scale, and resumption of full ‘normal’ activity question (Y/N), at baseline and 3 months. Physical activity was measured for 7 days at both baseline and at 3 months with an RT3 accelerometer and a recall questionnaire. Results Observed and self-reported measures of physical activity at baseline and change in activity from baseline to 3 months were not independent predictors of RMDQ (p > 0.05) or RMDQ change (p > 0.05) over 3 months. A self-report of a return to full ‘normal’ activities was significantly associated with greater RMDQ change score at 3 months (p < 0.001). Paired t-tests found no significant change in activity levels measured with the RT3 (p = 0.57) or the recall questionnaire (p = 0.38) from baseline to 3 months. Conclusions These results question the predictive role of physical activity in LBP recovery, and the assumption that activity levels change as LBP symptoms resolve. The importance of a patient’s perception of activity limitation in recovery from acute LBP was also highlighted. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration Number, ACTRN12609000282280 PMID:23560880

  7. Chronobiological basis of female-specific mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Parry, B L; Newton, R P

    2001-11-01

    Women have twice the incidence of major depression compared with men. They are prone to develop episodes of depression during times of reproductive hormonal change at puberty, with use of oral contraceptives, during the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle, postpartum and during the perimenopause (see review: ). describes the variety of disturbances in biological rhythms observed in mood disorders. In this report, we describe the chronobiological disturbances observed in female-specific mood disorders, namely, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, pregnancy and postpartum depression and menopause. We hypothesize that changing reproductive hormones, by affecting the synchrony or coherence between components of the circadian system, may alter amplitude or phase (timing) relationships and thereby contribute to the development of mood disorders in predisposed individuals.

  8. Effects of mood state on impulsivity in pathological buying.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, Jennifer; Darancó, Stefaniá; Moshagen, Morten

    2016-10-30

    Pathological buying is characterized by irrepressible buying behaviour and its negative consequences. A possible mechanism contributing to its development and maintenance is that buying episodes act as a maladaptive strategy to cope with negative emotions. Accordingly, pathological buying has been repeatedly associated with impulsivity, in particular with the tendency to experience strong reactions under negative affect. Relying on an experimental mood induction procedure, the present study tested in a sample of 100 individuals (a) whether individuals with pathological buying symptoms respond more impulsively in the Go/No-Go Task (as a measure of the behavioural inhibition aspect of impulsivity) and (b) whether this association is more pronounced in a negative mood. While controlling for comorbidities, the results show that pathological buying is associated with faster responses and a larger number of commission errors. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that the association between pathological buying and performance the Go/No-Go Task was stronger in the negative mood condition. The present study thus shows that pathological buying is associated with deficits in the behavioural inhibition component of impulsivity. These deficits are most pronounced when mood is negative; in turn, this provides an explanation for the occurrence of excessive buying episodes following negative affect. PMID:27521976

  9. Effects of mood state on impulsivity in pathological buying.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, Jennifer; Darancó, Stefaniá; Moshagen, Morten

    2016-10-30

    Pathological buying is characterized by irrepressible buying behaviour and its negative consequences. A possible mechanism contributing to its development and maintenance is that buying episodes act as a maladaptive strategy to cope with negative emotions. Accordingly, pathological buying has been repeatedly associated with impulsivity, in particular with the tendency to experience strong reactions under negative affect. Relying on an experimental mood induction procedure, the present study tested in a sample of 100 individuals (a) whether individuals with pathological buying symptoms respond more impulsively in the Go/No-Go Task (as a measure of the behavioural inhibition aspect of impulsivity) and (b) whether this association is more pronounced in a negative mood. While controlling for comorbidities, the results show that pathological buying is associated with faster responses and a larger number of commission errors. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that the association between pathological buying and performance the Go/No-Go Task was stronger in the negative mood condition. The present study thus shows that pathological buying is associated with deficits in the behavioural inhibition component of impulsivity. These deficits are most pronounced when mood is negative; in turn, this provides an explanation for the occurrence of excessive buying episodes following negative affect.

  10. A Mood Management Intervention in an Internet Stop Smoking Randomized Controlled Trial Does Not Prevent Depression: A Cautionary Tale

    PubMed Central

    Schueller, Stephen M.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and depression are related, and mood management interventions included in smoking cessation interventions can increase smoking abstinence rates. Could a mood management intervention embedded in an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention prevent major depressive episodes? Spanish- and English-speaking smokers (N = 17,430) from 191 countries were randomized to one of four online self-help intervention conditions (two with mood management). We analyzed preventive effects among those participants without a major depressive episode at baseline. The mood management intervention did not reduce the incidence of major depressive episodes in the following 12 months. However, we found a mood management by depression risk interaction (OR = 1.77, p = .004), such that high-risk participants who received the mood management intervention had an increased occurrence of major depressive episodes (32.8% vs. 26.6%), but not low-risk participants (11.6% vs. 10.8%). Further research on whether mood management interventions may have deleterious effects on subsets of smokers appears warranted. PMID:25525565

  11. Recalling happy memories in remitted depression: a neuroimaging investigation of the repair of sad mood.

    PubMed

    Foland-Ross, Lara C; Cooney, Rebecca E; Joormann, Jutta; Henry, Melissa L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2014-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurrent mood disorder. The high rate of recurrence of MDD suggests the presence of stable vulnerability factors that place individuals with a history of major depression at an increased risk for the onset of another episode. Previous research has linked the remitted state, and therefore increased vulnerability for depressive relapse, with difficulties in the use of pleasant autobiographical memories to repair sad mood. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates of these difficulties. Groups of 16 currently euthymic, remitted depressed individuals and 16 healthy (control) women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sad mood induction and during recovery from a sad mood state through recall of mood-incongruent positive autobiographical memories. Sad mood was induced in participants by using film clips; participants then recalled positive autobiographical memories, a procedure previously shown to repair negative affect. During both the sad mood induction and automatic mood regulation, control participants exhibited activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and cuneus; in contrast, remitted participants exhibited a decrease in activation in these regions. Furthermore, exploratory analyses revealed that reduced activation levels during mood regulation predicted a worsening of depressive symptoms at a 20-month follow-up assessment. These findings highlight a dynamic role of the vlPFC and cuneus in the experience and modulation of emotional states and suggest that functional anomalies of these brain regions are associated with a history of, and vulnerability to, depression.

  12. Adolescents coping with mood disorder: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Meadus, R J

    2007-04-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to explore the phenomenon of coping as experienced by adolescents with a mood disorder. Mood disorders among children and adolescents are more persistent than previously thought and have numerous negative associated features, including further episodes of depression, impaired social, academic and vocational relationships, use of alcohol and other drugs, and an increased risk of suicide. Current literature offered little awareness of how adolescents cope with a mood disorder, as well as their perspective of how such an illness impacts their lives. A substantive theory regarding the process of coping for adolescents with a mood disorder was generated from the data collected from one male and eight female adolescents. Using grounded theory coding procedures, a four-phase coping theory identified by the categories feeling different, cutting off connections, facing the challenge/reconnecting, and learning from the experience was developed. The core category identified in this research was An Unplanned Journey: Coping Through Connections. Implications identified for nursing practice, research and education included greater attention on the prevention of adolescent mood disorder, and the education of adolescents about the development and enhancement of healthy coping skills. PMID:17352785

  13. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD): A New Diagnostic Approach to Chronic Irritability in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amy Krain; Lopes, Vasco; Klein, Rachel G.

    2015-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a newcomer to psychiatric nosology. This new DSM-5 diagnosis addresses the need for improved classification and treatment of children exhibiting non-episodic irritability and severe temper outbursts. Currently, many of these children are diagnosed with bipolar disorder, despite the lack of distinct mood episodes. This diagnostic practice has raised concerns, in part due to the escalating prescription of atypical antipsychotics. This article provides an overview of the limited literature on DMDD including its history, and relevant studies of assessment and treatment. We include a case study to illustrate key points, including diagnostic issues that clinicians may encounter when considering a DMDD diagnosis. PMID:25178749

  14. Circulating anti-brain autoantibodies in schizophrenia and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Mianulli, Rossana; Campa, Maria Gloria; Pastore, Adriana; Tampoia, Marilina

    2015-12-15

    In recent years, an inflammatory autoimmune process, autoantibodies mediated, has been porposed as having a role in the development of different psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to assay organ-specific and non organ-specific circulating autoantibodies in schizophrenia, mood disorders and healthy controls; among organ-specific autoantibodies we focused on different fluorescence patterns of anti-brain autoantibodies against rat and monkey's sections of hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum. Serum samples from 50 acutelly ill patients (30 schizophrenia and 20 mood disorders) and from 20 healthy controls were collected. Autoantibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and chemiluminescence immunoassay. We found a significant difference for circulating autoantibodies to hypothalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum and for anti-nuclear autoantibodies in both schizophrenia and mood disorders when compared to the control group. Referring to the two groups of patients only, circulating antibodies anti-hypothalamus were found significant higher in mood disorders rather than in schizophrenia, with specific regard to nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of the neurons. These data suggest an aspecific diffuse brain involvement of anti-brain autoantibodies in acute phases of schizophrenia and mood disorders. The greater involvement of the hypothalamus in mood disorders highlights the close relationship between autoimmunity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and affective disorders.

  15. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory.

    PubMed

    Tendolkar, Indira; van Wingen, Guido; Urner, Maren; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-10-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on neural correlates of mood-congruent and mood-incongruent memory formation and retrieval in healthy volunteers who underwent a sad mood induction procedure. Duloxetine did not affect acute mood state or memory performance, but interacted with brain processes mediating mood-congruent memory. It decreased activity related to successful memory formation for mood-congruent and -incongruent items in a set of brain regions comprising the putamen and the middle frontal gyrus, as well as the middle and the anterior cingulate cortex. Duloxetine specifically increased amygdala activity related to successful memory retrieval for mood-incongruent items. Here we show that short-term administration of duloxetine affects the neural correlates of emotional memory formation and retrieval in a set of brain regions whose processing is related to affective state and its regulation. While duloxetine suppressed the neural correlates of emotional memory formation in general, it specifically enhanced amygdala processes associated with mood-incongruent memory retrieval. This pattern of results shows how an antidepressant may reduce emotional memory formation and reverse mood-congruent processing biases at retrieval.

  16. Influences of Situational Factors and Alcohol Expectancies on Sexual Desire and Arousal Among Heavy-Episodic Drinking Women: Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Availability

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Heiman, Julia R.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women’s sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women’s sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol’s effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the effects of alcohol and condom condition on women’s sexual desire and arousal. The moderating effects of sex-related alcohol expectancies were also examined. Results revealed that alcohol intoxication was related to less desire to engage in sex with a new partner and condom presence was related to more desire. Alcohol interacted with sexual disinhibition alcohol expectancies, indicating that more expectancy endorsement was associated with greater sexual desire and self-reported arousal in the alcohol condition, but not the control condition. Condom condition had no effect on self-reported sexual arousal. The present research suggests that sexual desire merits research attention in non-clinical samples, and experimental methodology can provide valuable information about alcohol’s influence on women’s sexual desire, thus advancing our understanding of this relationship beyond cross-sectional correlations. The current findings also provide evidence that sex-related alcohol expectancies may play an important role in alcohol-involved sexual experiences including desire and arousal. PMID:23661324

  17. Episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Atance, Cristina M.; O'Neill, Daniela K.

    2001-12-01

    Thinking about the future is an integral component of human cognition - one that has been claimed to distinguish us from other species. Building on the construct of episodic memory, we introduce the concept of 'episodic future thinking': a projection of the self into the future to pre-experience an event. We argue that episodic future thinking has explanatory value when considering recent work in many areas of psychology: cognitive, social and personality, developmental, clinical and neuropsychology. Episodic future thinking can serve as a unifying concept, connecting aspects of diverse research findings and identifying key questions requiring further reflection and study.

  18. Mood as Representation of Momentum

    PubMed Central

    Eldar, Eran; Rutledge, Robb B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Niv, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Experiences affect mood, which in turn affects subsequent experiences. Recent studies suggest two specific principles. First, mood depends on how recent reward outcomes differ from expectations. Second, mood biases the way we perceive outcomes (e.g., rewards), and this bias affects learning about those outcomes. We propose that this two-way interaction serves to mitigate inefficiencies in the application of reinforcement learning to real-world problems. Specifically, we propose that mood represents the overall momentum of recent outcomes, and its biasing influence on the perception of outcomes ‘corrects’ learning to account for environmental dependencies. We describe potential dysfunctions of this adaptive mechanism that might contribute to the symptoms of mood disorders. PMID:26545853

  19. The silver lining of a mind in the clouds: interesting musings are associated with positive mood while mind-wandering.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Michael S; Mrazek, Michael D; Anderson, Craig L; Smallwood, Jonathan; Kingstone, Alan; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2013-01-01

    The negative effects of mind-wandering on performance and mood have been widely documented. In a recent well-cited study, Killingsworth and Gilbert (2010) conducted a large experience sampling study revealing that all off-task episodes, regardless of content, have equal to or lower happiness ratings, than on-task episodes. We present data from a similarly implemented experience sampling study with additional mind-wandering content categories. Our results largely conform to those of the Killingsworth and Gilbert (2010) study, with mind-wandering generally being associated with a more negative mood. However, subsequent analyses reveal situations in which a more positive mood is reported after being off-task. Specifically when off-task episodes are rated for interest, the high interest episodes are associated with an increase in positive mood compared to all on-task episodes. These findings both identify a situation in which mind-wandering may have positive effects on mood, and suggest the possible benefits of encouraging individuals to shift their off-task musings to the topics they find most engaging.

  20. Influences of Mood, Depression History, and Treatment Modality on Outcomes in Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Munoz, Ricardo F.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Reus, Victor I.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD), treatment modality, and mood was evaluated in smokers participating in cessation programs. Participants (N = 549, 53.7% women, 46.3% men, 28% endorsing past MDD episodes) were randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) or health education (HE) intervention. Participants…

  1. Attention Difficulties and Mood-Related Ruminative Response Style in Adolescents with Unipolar Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Paul O.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Depressed adults may show impairment in switching attention from one task to another. Rumination on negative thoughts is associated with the onset and persistence of depressive episodes. It is unclear if such mood-related ruminations are specifically associated with slowed ability in switching attention from one task to another.…

  2. Neural Correlates of Reversal Learning in Severe Mood Dysregulation and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adleman, Nancy E.; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel; Blair, R. James R.; Pine, Daniel; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Outcome and family history data differentiate children with severe mood dysregulation (SMD), a syndrome characterized by chronic irritability, from children with "classic" episodic bipolar disorder (BD). Nevertheless, the presence of cognitive inflexibility in SMD and BD highlights the need to delineate neurophysiologic similarities and…

  3. The role of mood stabilisers in the treatment of the depressive facet of bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel; Prica, Corina

    2007-01-01

    It was previously shown that available mood stabilisers are used to treat bipolar depression. As part of the natural course of illness, patients with bipolar disorder often suffer from episodes of depression more frequently and for longer durations than mania. A major challenge in the treatment of bipolar depression is the tendency for antidepressant medications, particularly tricyclic antidepressants, to precipitate episodes of mania, or to increase cycle frequency or symptom intensity. Thus, exploring the utility of mood stabilisers as monotherapy for bipolar depression is important. The aim of this review it to collate data involving the effects of some mood stabilisers like lithium, carbamazepine, valproate and lamotrigine in depressive aspects of bipolar disorder, but as well using an animal model of depression, to understand their mechanism of action.

  4. Management of bipolar depression with lamotrigine: an antiepileptic mood stabilizer

    PubMed Central

    Prabhavalkar, Kedar S.; Poovanpallil, Nimmy B.; Bhatt, Lokesh K.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of lamotrigine in the treatment of focal epilepsies have already been reported in several case reports and open studies, which is thought to act by inhibiting glutamate release through voltage-sensitive sodium channels blockade and neuronal membrane stabilization. However, recent findings have also illustrated the importance of lamotrigine in alleviating the depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder, without causing mood destabilization or precipitating mania. Currently, no mood stabilizers are available having equal efficacy in the treatment of both mania and depression, two of which forms the extreme sides of the bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine, a well established anticonvulsant has received regulatory approval for the treatment and prevention of bipolar depression in more than 30 countries worldwide. Lamotrigine, acts through several molecular targets and overcomes the major limitation of other conventional antidepressants by stabilizing mood from “below baseline” thereby preventing switches to mania or episode acceleration, thus being effective for bipolar I disorder. Recent studies have also suggested that these observations could also be extended to patients with bipolar II disorder. Thus, lamotrigine may supposedly fulfill the unmet requirement for an effective depression mood stabilizer. PMID:26557090

  5. The Effect of Mental Progression on Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Malia F.; Bar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Mood affects the way people think. But can the way people think affect their mood? In the present investigation, we examined this promising link by testing whether mood is influenced by the presence or absence of associative progression by manipulating the scope of participants' information processing and measuring their subsequent mood. In…

  6. Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'.

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, J I; Hetherington, M M

    1995-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that some foods are eaten to alter mood, the relationship between mood and intake of chocolate was investigated in 40 women. Twenty self-identified chocolate 'addicts' and 20 controls rated hunger, mood, intensity of craving and amount of chocolate eaten in a diary for seven consecutive days. The 'addicts' reported a significantly greater number of eating episodes and consumed a larger amount of chocolate than controls. 'Addicts' also rated depression, guilt and craving higher and feeling content and relaxed as lower before eating than controls. However, eating chocolate resulted in increased feelings of guilt in the 'addicts' and no significant changes in feeling depressed or relaxed. On indices of disordered eating and depression, 'addicts' scored significantly higher than controls; however, eating chocolate did not improve mood. Although chocolate is a food which provides pleasure, for those who consider intake of this food to be excessive, any pleasure experienced is short lived and accompanied by feelings of guilt.

  7. Neurocircuitry of Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Price, Joseph L; Drevets, Wayne C

    2010-01-01

    This review begins with a brief historical overview of attempts in the first half of the 20th century to discern brain systems that underlie emotion and emotional behavior. These early studies identified the amygdala, hippocampus, and other parts of what was termed the ‘limbic' system as central parts of the emotional brain. Detailed connectional data on this system began to be obtained in the 1970s and 1980s, as more effective neuroanatomical techniques based on axonal transport became available. In the last 15 years these methods have been applied extensively to the limbic system and prefrontal cortex of monkeys, and much more specific circuits have been defined. In particular, a system has been described that links the medial prefrontal cortex and a few related cortical areas to the amygdala, the ventral striatum and pallidum, the medial thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the periaqueductal gray and other parts of the brainstem. A large body of human data from functional and structural imaging, as well as analysis of lesions and histological material indicates that this system is centrally involved in mood disorders. PMID:19693001

  8. Trajectories of alcohol use and consequences in college women with and without depressed mood.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon; Abar, Caitlin C; O'Brien, Kimberly; Clark, Gabrielle; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2016-02-01

    College students with depressed mood face heightened risk for experiencing drinking-related negative consequences. However, few studies have examined prospective patterns of alcohol consequences among depressed students. In the present investigation, we assessed how first-year college women's trajectories of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol consequences differed as a function of depressed mood at college entry. Participants were 233 heavy drinking incoming first-year college females (61% White) at a mid-sized West Coast University. Participants completed an online baseline survey, attended a single brief group intervention session, and completed 1- and 6-month post-intervention follow-up surveys. Depressed mood, alcohol consumption, and alcohol consequences were assessed at each time point. We employed latent growth curve analyses. Females with depressed mood, versus without depressed mood, experienced greater levels of alcohol consequences overall, particularly during transitions to college. However, contrary to hypotheses, participants with depressed mood (vs. without) exhibited significantly steeper declining trends in consequences, controlling for treatment condition, age, race, and ethnicity, and despite stable drinking levels, depressed mood, and use of protective behaviors over time. Potential explanations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  9. Effects of mood induction on consumers with vs. without compulsive buying propensity: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Sinje; Hunger, Antje; Türpe, Tina; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2014-12-15

    Compulsive buying (CB) is excessive and leads to impairment and distress. Several studies aimed to explore the phenomenology and antecedents of CB, especially affective states. However, these studies mostly used retrospective self-report and mostly focused on compulsive buyers only. Therefore, this study aims to directly compare consumers with CB propensity and controls on experimental proxies of buying behavior and to investigate 1) effects of neutral vs. negative mood inductions and 2) whether mood effects on buying behavior are specific to CB. Forty female consumers with CB propensity and 40 female controls were randomly assigned to a neutral or negative mood induction. Buying related behavior (likelihood to expose oneself to a shopping situation, urge and probability to buy, willingness to pay) was assessed. Consumers with CB propensity differed from controls in all buying behavior aspects except for willingness to pay. Neither main effects of mood nor group×mood interaction effects on buying behavior were found. However, consumers with CB propensity were emotionally more strongly affected by a negative mood induction. Although negative affect has previously been reported to precede buying episodes in CB, our findings do not indicate specific negative mood effects on buying, neither in CB nor in controls.

  10. Is expectancy reality? Associations between tension reduction beliefs and mood following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2009-12-01

    The present study investigated whether tension reduction expectancies were uniquely associated with self-reported mood following in-lab alcohol administration, given that little research has addressed this association. We also tested whether level of experience with alcohol, which may influence the learning of expectancies, moderated expectancy-mood associations. Regularly drinking college students (N = 145) recruited through advertisements completed self-report measures of positive alcohol expectancies, alcohol involvement, demographics, and pre- and post-drinking mood, and then consumed alcohol ad libitum up to four drinks in the laboratory. Regression analyses controlling for pre-consumption mood, blood alcohol concentration, and all other positive expectancies showed tension reduction expectancies to be a marginally significant positive predictor of negative mood post-drinking. This association was significant only for those who achieved lower blood alcohol concentrations in lab and those who reported less involvement with alcohol (i.e., lower typical quantity, heavy episodic drinking frequency, and years of regular drinking). Findings suggest that associations between expectations for mood and actual post-drinking mood outcomes may operate differently for less versus more involved drinkers. Clinical implications pertain to early intervention, when expectancies may be less ingrained and perhaps more readily modified.

  11. Mood Spectrum Model: Evidence reconsidered in the light of DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Benvenuti, Antonella; Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Giorgi Mariani, Michela; Mauri, Mauro; Dell’Osso, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    somatic diseases; and (3) Higher scores on the MOODS-SR factors assessing “psychomotor disturbances”, “mixed instability” and “suicidality” delineate subtypes of patients characterized by the more severe forms of mood disorders, the higher risk for psychotic symptoms, and the lower quality of life after the remission of the full-blown-episode. CONCLUSION: The mood spectrum model help researchers and clinicians in the systematic assessment of those areas of psychopathology that are still neglected by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 classification. PMID:25815262

  12. Predictors of response to treatment in children and adolescents with mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Emslie, Graham J; Mayes, Taryn L; Laptook, Rebecca S; Batt, Melissa

    2003-06-01

    Depression and bipolar disorder are frequently chronic disorders, with onset often beginning in childhood. Mood disorders are becoming more recognized in children and adolescents, and treatment of these disorders has received much attention, particularly in the past 10 years. Recent studies have demonstrated efficacy of antidepressant medications (particularly SSRIs) and specific psychotherapies (primarily CBT). Rates of remission (little or no symptoms) in these studies, however, have remained quite low (35% to 40% in most acute studies). Furthermore, recurrence is common in this population, and affects 40% to 50%. Early onset mood disorders are also associated with increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, and suicide, and having poor academic, work, and social functioning. The lifelong implications are serious. Identifying factors that may predict response to treatment, both in general and to specific treatments, may lead to improved outcomes for these patients. Unfortunately, studies have typically been inconsistent. Most studies do not identify demographic variables as predictive of outcome, although older age has been associated with poor prognosis in several studies. Psychosocial factors have yielded some results, particularly with regard to family environments. Generally, intact families with positive interaction styles and less dysfunction have been associated with better outcomes. Psychiatric disorders among parents not only predicts the development of the disorder, but is also associated with poorer prognosis. Finally, several clinical factors have been linked to poorer outcome in children and adolescents with mood disorders. More frequent episodes, increased severity (particularly suicidality and psychosis), and comorbid disorders are likely to lead to fewer recoveries, longer episodes, and increased rate of recurrence. Recent attention has focused on mediators and moderators of outcomes to treatment. In general, the

  13. How to measure mood in nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Hammersley, Richard; Reid, Marie; Atkin, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    Mood is widely assessed in nutrition research, usually with rating scales. A core assumption is that positive mood reinforces ingestion, so it is important to measure mood well. Four relevant theoretical issues are reviewed: (i) the distinction between protracted and transient mood; (ii) the distinction between mood and emotion; (iii) the phenomenology of mood as an unstable tint to consciousness rather than a distinct state of consciousness; (iv) moods can be caused by social and cognitive processes as well as physiological ones. Consequently, mood is difficult to measure and mood rating is easily influenced by non-nutritive aspects of feeding, the psychological, social and physical environment where feeding occurs, and the nature of the rating system employed. Some of the difficulties are illustrated by reviewing experiments looking at the impact of food on mood. The mood-rating systems in common use in nutrition research are then reviewed, the requirements of a better mood-rating system are described, and guidelines are provided for a considered choice of mood-rating system including that assessment should: have two main dimensions; be brief; balance simplicity and comprehensiveness; be easy to use repeatedly. Also mood should be assessed only under conditions where cognitive biases have been considered and controlled.

  14. Search for a common mechanism of mood stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Adrian J; Agam, Galila

    2003-07-15

    Manic-depression, or bipolar affective disorder, is a prevalent mental disorder with a global impact. Mood stabilizers have acute and long-term effects and at a minimum are prophylactic for manic or depressive poles without detriment to the other. Lithium has significant effects on mania and depression, but may be augmented or substituted by some antiepileptic drugs. The biochemical basis for mood stabilizer therapies or the molecular origins of bipolar disorder is unknown. One approach to this problem is to seek a common target of all mood stabilizers. Lithium directly inhibits two evolutionarily conserved signal transduction pathways. It both suppresses inositol signaling through depletion of intracellular inositol and inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a multifunctional protein kinase. A number of GSK-3 substrates are involved in neuronal function and organization, and therefore present plausible targets for therapy. Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug with mood-stabilizing properties. It may indirectly reduce GSK-3 activity, and can up-regulate gene expression through inhibition of histone deacetylase. These effects, however, are not conserved between different cell types. VPA also inhibits inositol signaling through an inositol-depletion mechanism. There is no evidence for GSK-3 inhibition by carbamazepine, a second antiepileptic mood stabilizer. In contrast, this drug alters neuronal morphology through an inositol-depletion mechanism as seen with lithium and VPA. Studies on the enzyme prolyl oligopeptidase and the sodium myo-inositol transporter support an inositol-depletion mechanism for mood stabilizer action. Despite these intriguing observations, it remains unclear how changes in inositol signaling underlie the origins of bipolar disorder. PMID:12826261

  15. Mood Changes After Indoor Tanning Among College Women: Associations with Psychiatric/Addictive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Indoor tanning (IT) has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction). The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview) via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid) and positive (feeling interested) mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables. PMID:27403462

  16. Mood Changes After Indoor Tanning Among College Women: Associations with Psychiatric/Addictive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Carolyn; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline

    2016-06-23

    Indoor tanning (IT) has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction). The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview) via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid) and positive (feeling interested) mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables.

  17. Mood regulation in bipolar disorders viewed through the pendulum dynamics concept.

    PubMed

    Koutsoukos, Elias; Angelopoulos, Elias

    2014-12-01

    Bipolar disorders have been characterized by powerful fluctuations of energy, mood, and thinking patterns. Mood episodes (manic or depressive) could be considered as deviations of a psycho-physiological index above or below a conventionally defined value called 'normothymia'. In the present study, we analyzed the feedback techniques used to suppress the oscillatory activity exhibited on an inverted pendulum device. Subsequently, we examine the degree that this multimodal feedback design could be considered on a hypothetical pendulum where the mood plays the role of the suspended mass, and the force balance compensation circuitry is substituted by drug-specific therapeutic interventions. The study does not concern a model of bipolar illness that could simulate numerically various phases of mood episodes but focuses on the functional similarities regarding the correction treatments applied on the two different oscillating systems giving a potential perspective of how techniques of feedback control may enhance the conceptualization of the treatment schemes followed in recent guidelines for biological treatment of bipolar disorders. Our theoretical consideration, along with observations on clinical level, gives support to the concept that the compensation of the mood oscillations should be adaptive with selective therapeutic interventions that compensate the excited system in different time scales. PMID:26092396

  18. Mood Changes After Indoor Tanning Among College Women: Associations with Psychiatric/Addictive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Carolyn; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline

    2016-06-23

    Indoor tanning (IT) has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction). The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview) via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid) and positive (feeling interested) mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables. PMID:27403462

  19. Mood regulation in bipolar disorders viewed through the pendulum dynamics concept.

    PubMed

    Koutsoukos, Elias; Angelopoulos, Elias

    2014-12-01

    Bipolar disorders have been characterized by powerful fluctuations of energy, mood, and thinking patterns. Mood episodes (manic or depressive) could be considered as deviations of a psycho-physiological index above or below a conventionally defined value called 'normothymia'. In the present study, we analyzed the feedback techniques used to suppress the oscillatory activity exhibited on an inverted pendulum device. Subsequently, we examine the degree that this multimodal feedback design could be considered on a hypothetical pendulum where the mood plays the role of the suspended mass, and the force balance compensation circuitry is substituted by drug-specific therapeutic interventions. The study does not concern a model of bipolar illness that could simulate numerically various phases of mood episodes but focuses on the functional similarities regarding the correction treatments applied on the two different oscillating systems giving a potential perspective of how techniques of feedback control may enhance the conceptualization of the treatment schemes followed in recent guidelines for biological treatment of bipolar disorders. Our theoretical consideration, along with observations on clinical level, gives support to the concept that the compensation of the mood oscillations should be adaptive with selective therapeutic interventions that compensate the excited system in different time scales.

  20. Episodic coronal heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Dixon, W. W.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Antiochos, S. K.

    1990-01-01

    A study is made of the observational consequences of the hypothesis that there is no steady coronal heating, the solar corona instead being heated episodically, such that each short burst of heating is followed by a long period of radiative cooling. The form of the resulting contribution to the differential emission measure (DEM), and to a convenient related function (the differential energy flux, DEF) is calculated. Observational data for the quiet solar atmosphere indicate that the upper branch of the DEM, corresponding to temperatures above 100,000 K, can be interpreted in terms of episodic energy injection at coronal temperatures.

  1. Is blunted cardiovascular reactivity in depression mood-state dependent? A comparison of major depressive disorder remitted depression and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Kristen; Bylsma, Lauren M; White, Kristi E; Panaite, Vanessa; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    Prior work has repeatedly demonstrated that people who have current major depression exhibit blunted cardiovascular reactivity to acute stressors (e.g., Salomon et al., 2009). A key question regards the psychobiological basis for these deficits, including whether such deficits are depressed mood-state dependent or whether these effects are trait-like and are observed outside of depression episodes in vulnerable individuals. To examine this issue, we assessed cardiovascular reactivity to a speech stressor task and a forehead cold pressor in 50 individuals with current major depressive disorder (MDD), 25 with remitted major depression (RMD), and 45 healthy controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and impedance cardiography were assessed and analyses controlled for BMI and sex. Significant group effects were found for SBP, HR, and PEP for the speech preparation period and HR, CO, and PEP during the speech. For each of these parameters, only the MDD group exhibited attenuated reactivity as well as impaired SBP recovery. Reactivity and recovery in the RMD group more closely resembled the healthy controls. Speeches given by the MDD group were rated as less persuasive than the RMD or healthy controls' speeches. No significant differences were found for the cold pressor. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity and impaired recovery in current major depression may be mood-state dependent phenomena and may be more reflective of motivational deficits than deficits in the physiological integrity of the cardiovascular system.

  2. Circadian misalignment in mood disturbances.

    PubMed

    Lewy, Alfred J

    2009-12-01

    Recent refinements in methodology allow chronobiological researchers to answer the following questions: is there circadian misalignment in sleep and mood disturbances, and, if so, is it of the phase-advance or phase-delay type? Measurement of the dim light melatonin onset-to-midsleep interval, or phase-angle difference, in sleep and mood disorders should answer these questions. Although the phase-advance hypothesis of affective disorders was formulated three decades ago, recent studies suggest that many, if not all, mood disturbances have a circadian misalignment component of the phase-delay type, operationally defined as a delay in the dim light melatonin onset relative to the sleep/wake cycle. Phase-delayed disorders can be treated with bright light in the morning and/or low-dose melatonin in the afternoon/evening. Phase-advanced disorders can be treated with bright light in the evening and/or low-dose melatonin in the morning.

  3. Progress in understanding mood disorders: optogenetic dissection of neural circuits.

    PubMed

    Lammel, S; Tye, K M; Warden, M R

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is characterized by a cluster of symptoms that includes hopelessness, low mood, feelings of worthlessness and inability to experience pleasure. The lifetime prevalence of major depression approaches 20%, yet current treatments are often inadequate both because of associated side effects and because they are ineffective for many people. In basic research, animal models are often used to study depression. Typically, experimental animals are exposed to acute or chronic stress to generate a variety of depression-like symptoms. Despite its clinical importance, very little is known about the cellular and neural circuits that mediate these symptoms. Recent advances in circuit-targeted approaches have provided new opportunities to study the neuropathology of mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. We review recent progress and highlight some studies that have begun tracing a functional neuronal circuit diagram that may prove essential in establishing novel treatment strategies in mood disorders. First, we shed light on the complexity of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) responses to stress by discussing two recent studies reporting that optogenetic activation of midbrain DA neurons can induce or reverse depression-related behaviors. Second, we describe the role of the lateral habenula circuitry in the pathophysiology of depression. Finally, we discuss how the prefrontal cortex controls limbic and neuromodulatory circuits in mood disorders.

  4. Suicidal Behavior in Mood Disorders: Response to Pharmacological Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tondo, Leonardo; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2016-09-01

    Suicidal behavior is strongly associated with depression, especially if accompanied by behavioral activation, dysphoria, or agitation. It may respond to some treatments, but the design of scientifically sound, ethical trials to test for therapeutic effects on suicidal behavior is highly challenging. In bipolar disorder, and possibly also unipolar major depression, an underprescribed medical intervention with substantial evidence of preventive effects on suicidal behavior is long-term treatment with lithium. It is unclear whether this effect is specifically antisuicidal or reflects beneficial effects of lithium on depression, mood instability, and perhaps aggression and impulsivity. Antisuicidal effects of anticonvulsant mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproate) appear to be less than with lithium. Further evaluation is needed for potential antisuicidal effects of atypical antipsychotics with growing evidence of efficacy in depression, particularly acute bipolar depression, while generally lacking risk of inducing agitation, mania, or mood instability. Short-term and long-term value and safety of antidepressants are relatively secure for unipolar depression but uncertain and poorly tested for bipolar depression; their effects on suicidal risk in unipolar depression may be age-dependent. Sedative anxiolytics are virtually unstudied as regards suicidal risks. Adequate management of suicidal risks in mood disorder patients requires comprehensive, clinically skillful monitoring and timely interventions. PMID:27542851

  5. The Effect of Poor Sleep Quality on Mood Outcome Differs Between Men and Women: A Longitudinal Study of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Erika F.H.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Kamali, Masoud; Assari, Shervin; McInnis, Melvin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is bi-directionally related to mood de-stabilization in bipolar disorder (BD), and sleep quality differs in men and women. We aimed to determine whether perception of poor sleep quality would have a different effect on mood outcome in men versus women. Methods We assessed association between sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) at study intake and mood outcome over 2 years in subjects from the Prechter Longitudinal Study of Bipolar Disorder (N=216; 29.6% males). The main outcome measure was the severity, variability, and frequency of mood episodes measured by self-report over 2 years of follow-up. Multivariable linear regression models stratified by sex examined the relationship between PSQI with mood outcomes, while age, stressful life events, mood state and neuroticism at baseline were controlled. Results In women, poor sleep quality at baseline predicted increased severity (B=0.28, p<0.001) and frequency of episodes (B=0.32, p<0.001) of depression, and poor sleep quality was a stronger predictor than baseline depression; poor sleep quality predicted increased severity (B=0.19, p<0.05) and variability (B=0.20, p<0.05) of mania, and frequency of mixed episodes (B=0.27, p<0.01). In men, baseline depression and neuroticism were stronger predictors of mood outcome compared to poor sleep quality. Limitations We measured perception of sleep quality, but not objective changes in sleep. Conclusions In a longitudinal study of BD, women reported poorer perceived sleep quality than men, and poor sleep quality predicted worse mood outcome in BD. Clinicians should be sensitive to addressing sleep complaints in women with BD early in treatment to improve outcome in BD. PMID:25885066

  6. Mood differences between male and female light smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    File, Sandra E; Dinnis, Abigail K; Heard, Joy E; Irvine, Elaine E

    2002-06-01

    In an open study, we determined whether there were sex differences in the mood ratings of non-deprived light smokers and nonsmokers under baseline conditions and after completing a battery of cognitive tests that were mildly stressful. Male and female students who were light smokers (5-12 cigarettes a day) were tested immediately after smoking their usual cigarette, at a time that they normally smoked. They were compared with a group of male and female students who were nonsmokers and did not differ on age, IQ, personality measures, anxiety or depression. Compared with the nonsmokers, both male and female smokers felt overall significantly more discontented, troubled, tense, quarrelsome, furious, impatient, hostile, annoyed and disgusted and experienced greater dizziness. The performance of distracting cognitive tasks did not reveal anxiolytic effects of smoking, and after performance of these tasks, both smokers and nonsmokers became more discontented and anxious. In addition, after the cognitive testing, both male and female smokers showed greater increases than nonsmokers in feeling spiteful, rebellious, incompetent and in sweating, suggesting that they experienced greater mood changes in response to cognitive stress. There were no overall differences between the smokers and nonsmokers in the performance of divided or sustained attention tasks or in episodic memory. It is unlikely that either nicotine withdrawal or differences in cognitive performance could account for the greater anxiety, discontent and aggressive mood that was found in smokers.

  7. The Natural History of Insomnia: Acute Insomnia and First-onset Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jason G.; Perlis, Michael L.; Bastien, Célyne H.; Gardani, Maria; Espie, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: While many studies have examined the association between insomnia and depression, no studies have evaluated these associations (1) within a narrow time frame, (2) with specific reference to acute and chronic insomnia, and (3) using polysomnography. In the present study, the association between insomnia and first-onset depression was evaluated taking into account these considerations. Design: A mixed-model inception design. Setting: Academic research laboratory. Participants: Fifty-four individuals (acute insomnia [n = 33], normal sleepers [n = 21]) with no reported history of a sleep disorder, chronic medical condition, or psychiatric illness. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants were assessed at baseline (2 nights of polysomnography and psychometric measures of stress and mood) and insomnia and depression status were reassessed at 3 months. Individuals with acute insomnia exhibited more stress, poorer mood, worse subjective sleep continuity, increased N2 sleep, and decreased N3 sleep. Individuals who transitioned to chronic insomnia exhibited (at baseline) shorter REM latencies and reduced N3 sleep. Individuals who exhibited this pattern in the transition from acute to chronic insomnia were also more likely to develop first-onset depression (9.26%) as compared to those who remitted from insomnia (1.85%) or were normal sleepers (1.85%). Conclusion: The transition from acute to chronic insomnia is presaged by baseline differences in sleep architecture that have, in the past, been ascribed to Major Depression, either as heritable traits or as acquired traits from prior episodes of depression. The present findings suggest that the “sleep architecture stigmata” of depression may actually develop over the course transitioning from acute to chronic insomnia. Citation: Ellis JG; Perlis ML; Bastien CH; Gardani M; Espie CA. The natural history of insomnia: acute insomnia and first-onset depression. SLEEP 2014;37(1):97-106. PMID

  8. Insight Across the Different Mood States of Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Silveira, Luciana Angélica Silva; Nunes, Ana Letícia Santos; Novis, Fernanda Demôro; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Cheniaux, Elie

    2015-09-01

    In bipolar disorder, levels of insight vary as a function of the mood state and appear to influence pharmacology compliance, quality of life, the presence of suicidal ideations, and aggressive behavior. To establish a comparison among different mood states in bipolar with regard to level of insight. Forty-eight patients were evaluated in different affective states (i.e., euthymia, mania, depression, and mixed state). Identifying information, sociodemographic data, and clinical records were recorded. The following scales were applied: Hamilton Depression Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive symptoms subscale, and Global Assessment of Functioning and Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar disorder. Insight was evaluated using items 11 and 17 of the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Scale, respectively. Insight in bipolar disorder was found to be more compromised during manic phases and mixed episodes than during periods of depression or euthymia. The factors associated with lower levels of insight were the following: shorter illness duration, older age, and greater severity in mania; the female gender and older age in depression; and shorter illness duration and more severe depressive symptoms in mixed episodes. In the same individual, levels of insight vary as a function of the affective state over the course of bipolar disorder and appear to be influenced by several clinical variables.

  9. Mood instability: significance, definition and measurement.

    PubMed

    Broome, M R; Saunders, K E A; Harrison, P J; Marwaha, S

    2015-10-01

    Mood instability is common, and an important feature of several psychiatric disorders. We discuss the definition and measurement of mood instability, and review its prevalence, characteristics, neurobiological correlates and clinical implications. We suggest that mood instability has underappreciated transdiagnostic potential as an investigational and therapeutic target. PMID:26429679

  10. Measuring Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, Salvatore J.; Mearns, Jack

    Research has suggested the utility of studying individual differences in the regulation of negative mood states. Generalized response expectancies for negative mood regulation were defined as expectancies that some overt behavior or cognition would alleviate negative mood states as they occur across situations. The Generalized Expectancy for…

  11. Mood effects on memory and executive control in a real-life situation.

    PubMed

    Lagner, Prune; Kliegel, Matthias; Phillips, Louise H; Ihle, Andreas; Hering, Alexandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M

    2015-01-01

    In the laboratory, studies have shown an inconsistent pattern of whether, and how, mood may affect cognitive functions indicating both mood-related enhancement as well as decline. Surprisingly, little is known about whether there are similar effects in everyday life. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate possible mood effects on memory and executive control in a real-life situation. Mood effects were examined in the context of winning in a sports competition. Sixty-one male handball players were tested with an extensive cognitive test battery (comprising memory and executive control) both after winning a match and after training as neutral baseline. Mood differed significantly between the two testing situations, while physiological arousal and motivation were comparable. Results showed lowered performance after the win compared with training in selected cognitive measures. Specifically, short-term and episodic memory performance was poorer following a win, whereas executive control performance was unaffected by condition. Differences in memory disappeared when emotional states after the match were entered as covariates into the initial analyses. Thus, findings suggest mood-related impairments in memory, but not in executive control processes after a positive real-life event.

  12. Assessment and treatment of mood disorders in the context of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Anton, Raymond F

    2015-06-01

    Recognition and management of mood symptoms in individuals using alcohol and/or other drugs represent a daily challenge for clinicians in both inpatient and outpatient treatment settings. Diagnosis of underlying mood disorders in the context of ongoing substance abuse requires careful collection of psychiatric history, and is often critical for optimal treatment planning and outcomes. Failure to recognize major depression or bipolar disorders in these patients can result in increased relapse rates, recurrence of mood episodes, and elevated risk of completed suicide. Over the past decade, epidemiologic research has clarified the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders in substance-dependent individuals, overturning previous assumptions that depression in these patients is simply an artifact of intoxication and/or withdrawal, therefore requiring no treatment. However, our understanding of the bidirectional relationships between mood and substance use disorders in terms of their course(s) of illness and prognoses remains limited. Like-wise, strikingly little treatment research exists to guide clinical decision making in co-occurring mood and substance use disorders, given their high prevalence and public health burden. Here we overview what is known and the salient gaps of knowledge where data might enhance diagnosis and treatment of these complicated patients.

  13. Assessment and treatment of mood disorders in the context of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Anton, Raymond F

    2015-06-01

    Recognition and management of mood symptoms in individuals using alcohol and/or other drugs represent a daily challenge for clinicians in both inpatient and outpatient treatment settings. Diagnosis of underlying mood disorders in the context of ongoing substance abuse requires careful collection of psychiatric history, and is often critical for optimal treatment planning and outcomes. Failure to recognize major depression or bipolar disorders in these patients can result in increased relapse rates, recurrence of mood episodes, and elevated risk of completed suicide. Over the past decade, epidemiologic research has clarified the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders in substance-dependent individuals, overturning previous assumptions that depression in these patients is simply an artifact of intoxication and/or withdrawal, therefore requiring no treatment. However, our understanding of the bidirectional relationships between mood and substance use disorders in terms of their course(s) of illness and prognoses remains limited. Like-wise, strikingly little treatment research exists to guide clinical decision making in co-occurring mood and substance use disorders, given their high prevalence and public health burden. Here we overview what is known and the salient gaps of knowledge where data might enhance diagnosis and treatment of these complicated patients. PMID:26246792

  14. To Illustrate a Mood, Creatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Muriel E.

    1969-01-01

    Individually and in small groups, superior senior high school students in Belmont, Massachusetts, produced multimedia projects illustrating themes or moods through the synchronization of poems, original scripts, drawings, photographs, slides, and music. Projects ranged from a personal photographic interpretation of Delany's poem, "Solace," to…

  15. Psychiatric comorbidities of episodic and chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Buse, Dawn C; Silberstein, Stephen D; Manack, Aubrey N; Papapetropoulos, Spyros; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-08-01

    Migraine is a prevalent disabling neurological disorder associated with a wide range of medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Population- and clinic-based studies suggest that psychiatric comorbidities, particularly mood and anxiety disorders, are more common among persons with chronic migraine than among those with episodic migraine. Additional studies suggest that psychiatric comorbidities may be a risk factor for migraine chronification (i.e., progression from episodic to chronic migraine). It is important to identify and appropriately treat comorbid psychiatric conditions in persons with migraine, as these conditions may contribute to increased migraine-related disability and impact, diminished health-related quality of life, and poor treatment outcomes. Here, we review the current literature on the rates of several psychiatric comorbidities, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder, among persons with migraine in clinic- and population-based studies. We also review the link between physical, emotional, and substance abuse, psychiatric disorders, and migraine. Finally, we review the data on psychiatric risk factors for migraine chronification and explore theories and evidence underlying the comorbidity between migraine and these psychiatric disorders. PMID:23132299

  16. An event-level analysis of condom use as a function of mood, alcohol use, and safer sex negotiations.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Kerstin E E; Johnson, Christopher J; Wiebe, John S

    2009-04-01

    Daily self-reports of condom-protected intercourse were analyzed as a function of emotional states, alcohol consumption, and safer sex negotiations in a sample of single, low-income Hispanic students. The sample included 15 women and 17 men who reported a minimum of four sexual episodes as well as inconsistent condom use over a 3-month self-reporting period. The analyses focused on 829 days out of 2,586 daily self-reports on which sexual intercourse was reported. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to predict condom-protected intercourse as a function of mood states, substance use, and safer sex negotiations. Safer sex negotiation was the strongest positive predictor of condom use. Contrary to expectation, unprotected intercourse was less likely to occur in episodes characterized by greater negative affect and more likely in episodes in which greater positive mood was reported. No main effect of alcohol consumption on safer sex was observed; however, an interaction between alcohol consumption and positive mood emerged, indicating that unprotected intercourse was most likely to occur when positive mood was combined with alcohol consumption. The results contradict the assumption that emotional distress predicts engagement in more risky sexual behavior and indicate that safer sex negotiations are likely to outweigh any effects of mood or alcohol consumption on subsequent condom use.

  17. Mood and selective attention in the cold: the effect of interval versus continuous exercise.

    PubMed

    Muller, Matthew D; Muller, Sarah M; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J; Gunstad, John; Glickman, Ellen L

    2011-07-01

    Both mood and cognitive function are altered in cold environments. Body warming through exercise may improve Stroop interference score and lessen total negative mood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of equal caloric bouts of interval (INT) and continuous (CONT) exercise on mood and selective attention in the cold. Eleven young men underwent two experimental trials in 5°C air. Both trials consisted of 90 min acute cold exposure (ACE), 30 min exercise (INT vs. CONT), and 60 min recovery (REC). The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) were administered at four time points. Mean body temperature decreased during ACE, increased during exercise, and decreased during REC. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect for time for several of the POMS sub scores. In particular, negative mood was significantly decreased after exercise relative to ACE and then significantly increased during REC. Further, CONT appears to be more effective than INT at decreasing negative mood. Components of the SCWT supported both the arousal and distraction theories for simple perception, but no significant effects were shown for the interference score. In the cold, exercise decreases negative mood but does not appear to affect selective attention. Further mechanistic studies could determine the best mode and intensity of exercise for improving cognitive function in the cold. PMID:21152931

  18. The Role of Episodic and Semantic Memory in Episodic Foresight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Louw, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a special form of future thinking, termed "episodic foresight" and its relation with episodic and semantic memory. We outline the methodologies that have largely been developed in the last five years to assess this capacity in young children and non-human animals. Drawing on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic…

  19. Episodes, events, and models

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Harrison, Anthony M.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning. PMID:26578934

  20. Genetics Home Reference: episodic ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ebers GC. A genome-wide screen and linkage mapping for a large pedigree with episodic ataxia. Neurology. ... investigators. Primary episodic ataxias: diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. Brain. 2007 Oct;130(Pt 10):2484-93. Epub ...

  1. Habitual total water intake and dimensions of mood in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Colleen X; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Graverholt, Gitte; Casa, Douglas J; Maresh, Carl M; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2015-09-01

    Acute negative and positive mood states have been linked with the development of undesirable and desirable health outcomes, respectively. Numerous factors acutely influence mood state, including exercise, caffeine ingestion, and macronutrient intake, but the influence of habitual total water intake remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe relationships between habitual water intake and mood. One hundred twenty healthy females (mean ± SD; age = 20 ± 2 y, BMI = 22.9 ± 3.5 kg⋅m(-2) ) recorded all food and fluids consumed for 5 consecutive days. Investigators utilized dietary analysis software to determine Total Water Intake (TWI; total water content in foods and fluids), caffeine, and macronutrient consumption (i.e. protein, carbohydrate, fat). On days 3 and 4, participants completed the Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire, which examined tension, depression, anger, vigor, and confusion, plus an aggregate measure of Total Mood Disturbance (TMD). For comparison of mood, data were separated into three even groups (n = 40 each) based on TWI: low (LOW; 1.51 ± 0.27 L/d), moderate (MOD; 2.25 ± 0.19 L/d), and high (HIGH; 3.13 ± 0.54 L/d). Regression analysis was performed to determine continuous relationships between measured variables. Group differences (p < 0.05) were observed for tension (MOD = 7.2 ± 5.4, HIGH = 4.4 ± 2.9), depression (LOW = 4.5 ± 5.9, HIGH = 1.7 ± 2.3), confusion (MOD = 5.9 ± 3.4, HIGH = 4.0 ± 2.1), and TMD (LOW=19.0 ± 21.8, HIGH=8.2 ± 14.2). After accounting for other mood influencers, TWI predicted TMD (r(2) = 0.104; p = 0.050). The above relationships suggest the amount of water a woman consumes is associated with mood state.

  2. Pharmacotherapy of Acute Bipolar Depression in Adults: An Evidence Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-05-01

    In the majority of cases of bipolar disorder, manic episodes are usually brief and typically responsive to currently available psychopharmacological agents. In contrast, depressive manifestations are more prevalent and persistent, and can present as major depressive/mixed episodes or residual interepisode symptoms. The depressive phase is often associated with other neuropsychiatric conditions, such as anxiety spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, stressor-related disorders, and eating disorders. It is viewed as a systemic disease with associated ailments such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. There is an increased rate of mortality not only from suicide, but also from concomitant physical illness. This scenario is made worse by the fact that depressive symptoms, which represent the main disease burden, are often refractory to existing psychotropic drugs. As such, there is a pressing need for novel agents that are efficacious in acute depressive exacerbations, and also have applicable value in preventing recurrent episodes. The rationale of the present review is to delineate the pharmacotherapy of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder with medications for which there is evidence in the form of observational, open-label, or double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the treatment of acute bipolar depression in adults, a comprehensive appraisal of the extant literature reveals that among mood stabilizers, the most robust proof of efficacy exists for divalproex sodium; while atypical antipsychotics, which include olanzapine, quetiapine, lurasidone, and cariprazine, are also effective, as demonstrated in controlled trials. PMID:27274384

  3. Pharmacotherapy of Acute Bipolar Depression in Adults: An Evidence Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the majority of cases of bipolar disorder, manic episodes are usually brief and typically responsive to currently available psychopharmacological agents. In contrast, depressive manifestations are more prevalent and persistent, and can present as major depressive/mixed episodes or residual interepisode symptoms. The depressive phase is often associated with other neuropsychiatric conditions, such as anxiety spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, stressor-related disorders, and eating disorders. It is viewed as a systemic disease with associated ailments such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. There is an increased rate of mortality not only from suicide, but also from concomitant physical illness. This scenario is made worse by the fact that depressive symptoms, which represent the main disease burden, are often refractory to existing psychotropic drugs. As such, there is a pressing need for novel agents that are efficacious in acute depressive exacerbations, and also have applicable value in preventing recurrent episodes. The rationale of the present review is to delineate the pharmacotherapy of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder with medications for which there is evidence in the form of observational, open-label, or double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the treatment of acute bipolar depression in adults, a comprehensive appraisal of the extant literature reveals that among mood stabilizers, the most robust proof of efficacy exists for divalproex sodium; while atypical antipsychotics, which include olanzapine, quetiapine, lurasidone, and cariprazine, are also effective, as demonstrated in controlled trials. PMID:27274384

  4. Attentional Episodes in Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods…

  5. The Role of Muscarinic Receptors in the Pathophysiology of Mood Disorders: A Potential Novel Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Won Je; Dean, Brian; Scarr, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The central cholinergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. An imbalance in central cholinergic neurotransmitter activity has been proposed to contribute to the manic and depressive episodes typical of these disorders. Neuropharmacological studies into the effects of cholinergic agonists and antagonists on mood state have provided considerable support for this hypothesis. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have shown that the pan-CHRM antagonist, scopolamine, produces rapid-acting antidepressant effects in individuals with either major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BPD), such as bipolar depression, contrasting the delayed therapeutic response of conventional mood stabilisers and antidepressants. This review presents recent data from neuroimaging, post-mortem and genetic studies supporting the involvement of muscarinic cholinergic receptors (CHRMs), particularly CHRM2, in the pathophysiology of MDD and BPD. Thus, novel drugs that selectively target CHRMs with negligible effects in the peripheral nervous system might produce more rapid and robust clinical improvement in patients with BPD and MDD. PMID:26630954

  6. The effect of a musical mood induction procedure on mood state-dependent word retrieval.

    PubMed

    De L'Etoile, Shannon K

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to replicate and expand upon an earlier study by Thaut and de l'Etoile (1993) by examining the effect of a musical mood induction procedure on mood state-dependent word retrieval. Participants (N = 45) completed a 2-day testing procedure. On day one, participants read a list of adjectives and wrote down an antonym for each one. On day two, participants recalled as many of the antonyms as possible. During the testing procedure, participants were placed in 1 of 4 conditions: (a) mood induction at encoding, (b) mood induction at recall, (c) no mood induction, and (d) mood induction at both encoding and recall. The mood induction procedure included 3 steps. Participants first assessed their current mood state using a visual analog scale. They then listened to music for 5 minutes, determined the mood of the piece while listening, and tried to match their mood to the music. Finally, participants again used the visual analog scale to indicate their mood. Results indicated that participants who received mood induction prior to both encoding and recall were able to retrieve significantly more words than participants who did not undergo any mood induction. The results are discussed in light of the associative network theory of memory and emotions and the treatment of mood disorders.

  7. Sleep deprivation in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Colombo, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Growing clinical evidence in support of the efficacy and safety of sleep deprivation (SD), and its biological mechanisms of action suggest that this technique can now be included among the first-line antidepressant treatment strategies for mood disorders. SD targets the broadly defined depressive syndrome, and can be administered according to several different treatment schedules: total versus partial, single versus repeated, alone or combined with antidepressant drugs, mood stabilizers, or other chronotherapeutic techniques, such as light therapy and sleep phase advance. The present review focuses on clinical evidence about the place of SD in therapy, its indications, dosage and timing of the therapeutic wake, interactions with other treatments, precautions and contraindications, adverse reactions, mechanism of action, and comparative efficacy, with the aim of providing the clinical psychiatrist with an updated, concise guide to its application.

  8. Chronobiological Therapy for Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Suzuki, Masahiro; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Chronobiological therapies for mood disorders include manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle such as sleep deprivation and sleep phase advance and the controlled exposure to light and darkness. Their antidepressant efficacy can overcome drug resistance and targets the core depressive symptoms including suicide, thus making them treatment options to be tried either alone or as adjunctive treatments combined with common psychopharmacological interventions. The specific pattern of mood change observed with chronobiological therapies is characterized by rapid and sustained effects, when used among themselves or combined with drugs. Effects sizes are the same reported for the most effective psychiatric treatments, but side effects are usually marginal or absent. New treatment protocols are developed to adapt them in different clinical settings. This review deals with the general principles of clinical chronobiology and the latest findings in this rapidly developing field.

  9. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome and the onset of a manic episode.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, Phillip; Tau, Michael; Robertson, David

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a rare, recently described, clinically diagnosed condition that is characterised by a chronic history of cannabis use, cyclic nausea and vomiting, symptomatic relief with hot water bathing, and resolution with cessation of use. We present a case of this syndrome concurrent in a patient with bipolar mania. We suggest that a 3-week period of vomiting in the context of this syndrome contributed to the precipitation of a manic episode by lowering mood stabiliser serum levels, and that this syndrome will have significant consequences for the patient's mental health. PMID:27122104

  10. Biological rhythms and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Paola; Indic, Premananda; Murray, Greg; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2012-12-01

    Integration of several approaches concerning time and temporality can enhance the pathophysiological study of major mood disorders of unknown etiology. We propose that these conditions might be interpreted as disturbances of temporal profile of biological rhythms, as well as alterations of time-consciousness. Useful approaches to study time and temporality include philological suggestions, phenomenological and psychopathological conceptualizatíons, clinical descriptions, and research on circadian and ultradían rhythms, as well as nonlinear dynamics approaches to their analysis.

  11. Effects of acute postexercise chocolate milk consumption during intensive judo training on the recovery of salivary hormones, salivary SIgA, mood state, muscle soreness, and judo-related performance.

    PubMed

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of postexercise chocolate milk (CM) or water (W) consumption during 5 days of intensive judo training with concomitant weight loss on salivary cortisol and testosterone, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and judo-related performance. Twelve trained male judo athletes engaged in 5 days of intensive judo training followed by a simulated judo competition, on 2 separate training weeks 14 days apart. The athletes consumed 1000 mL of W (week 1) or CM (week 2) immediately post-training. During both weeks, athletes were instructed to "make weight" for the upcoming competition. Performance in timed push-ups and the Special Judo Fitness Test improved by 14.6% and 6.8%, respectively, at the end of the training week with CM consumption (both p < 0.001). Decreased salivary cortisol (p < 0.01) and a trend for an increased salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.07) were also observed midweek in the CM condition. Saliva flow rate was higher during the week with CM intake compared with W intake (p < 0.001). DOMS (p < 0.001) and mood disturbance (p < 0.0001) increased after the first day of training in the W condition but not in the CM condition. Salivary testosterone and SIgA responses were similar between treatments (p > 0.05). Body mass decreased by 1.9% in the W condition and by 1.1% in the CM condition, with no significant difference between treatments. This study indicates that postexercise CM consumption during short-term intensive judo training enhances aspects of recovery without affecting intentional weight loss. PMID:26513005

  12. Effects of acute postexercise chocolate milk consumption during intensive judo training on the recovery of salivary hormones, salivary SIgA, mood state, muscle soreness, and judo-related performance.

    PubMed

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of postexercise chocolate milk (CM) or water (W) consumption during 5 days of intensive judo training with concomitant weight loss on salivary cortisol and testosterone, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and judo-related performance. Twelve trained male judo athletes engaged in 5 days of intensive judo training followed by a simulated judo competition, on 2 separate training weeks 14 days apart. The athletes consumed 1000 mL of W (week 1) or CM (week 2) immediately post-training. During both weeks, athletes were instructed to "make weight" for the upcoming competition. Performance in timed push-ups and the Special Judo Fitness Test improved by 14.6% and 6.8%, respectively, at the end of the training week with CM consumption (both p < 0.001). Decreased salivary cortisol (p < 0.01) and a trend for an increased salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio (p = 0.07) were also observed midweek in the CM condition. Saliva flow rate was higher during the week with CM intake compared with W intake (p < 0.001). DOMS (p < 0.001) and mood disturbance (p < 0.0001) increased after the first day of training in the W condition but not in the CM condition. Salivary testosterone and SIgA responses were similar between treatments (p > 0.05). Body mass decreased by 1.9% in the W condition and by 1.1% in the CM condition, with no significant difference between treatments. This study indicates that postexercise CM consumption during short-term intensive judo training enhances aspects of recovery without affecting intentional weight loss.

  13. Recurrent Episodes of Dissociative Fugue

    PubMed Central

    Angothu, Hareesh; Pabbathi, Lokeswar Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative fugue is rare entity to encounter with possible differentials of epilepsy and malingering. It is one of the dissociative disorders rarely seen in clinical practice more often because of the short lasting nature of this condition. This might also be because of organized travel of the individuals during the episodes and return to their families after the recovery from episodes. This is a case description of a patient who has experienced total three episodes of dissociative fugue. The patient has presented during the third episode and two prior episodes were diagnosed as fugue episodes retrospectively based on the history. Planned travel in this case by the patient to a distant location was prevented because of early diagnosis and constant vigilance till the recovery. As in this case, it may be more likely that persons with Dissociative fugue may develop similar episodes if they encounter exceptional perceived stress. However, such conclusions may require follow-up studies. PMID:27114633

  14. Effects of noise on a computational model for disease states of mood disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias Huber, Martin; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Braun, Hans Albert; Moss, Frank

    2000-03-01

    Nonlinear dynamics are currently proposed to explain the progressive course of recurrent mood disorders starting with isolated episodes and ending with accelerated irregular (``chaotic") mood fluctuations. Such a low-dimensional disease model is attractive because of its principal accordance with biological disease models, i.e. the kindling and biological rhythms model. However, most natural systems are nonlinear and noisy and several studies in the neuro- and physical sciences have demonstrated interesting cooperative behaviors arising from interacting random and deterministic dynamics. Here, we consider the effects of noise on a recent neurodynamical model for the timecourse of affective disorders (Huber et al.: Biological Psychiatry 1999;46:256-262). We describe noise effects on temporal patterns and mean episode frequencies of various in computo disease states. Our simulations demonstrate that noise can cause unstructured randomness or can maximize periodic order. The frequency of episode occurence can increase with noise but it can also remain unaffected or even can decrease. We show further that noise can make visible bifurcations before they would normally occur under deterministic conditions and we quantify this behavior with a recently developed statistical method. All these effects depend critically on both, the dynamic state and the noise intensity. Implications for neurobiology and course of mood disorders are discussed.

  15. Maternity blues in Italian primipara women: symptoms and mood states in the first fifteen days after childbirth.

    PubMed

    Grussu, Pietro; Quatraro, Rosa Maria

    2013-07-01

    The maternity blues is the most commonly observed puerperal mood disturbance. In Italy, the mother's daily affective experience after childbirth has not yet been published. During each of the first 15 days after the birth of the child, 36 primipara women completed the Kellner Symptoms Questionnaire (SQ) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). We found that the mothers studied showed both psychological symptoms and mood disturbances of slight entity. Conversely, somatic symptoms were particularly acute in the first few days after childbirth. In this same period, slight anxiety symptoms, confusion, and bewilderment may develop.

  16. Depressed mood and smoking experimentation among preteens.

    PubMed

    Polen, Michael R; Curry, Susan J; Grothaus, Louis C; Bush, Terry M; Hollis, Jack F; Ludman, Evette J; McAfee, Timothy A

    2004-06-01

    The authors examined children's depressed mood, parental depressed mood, and parental smoking in relation to children's smoking susceptibility and experimentation over 20 months in a cohort of 418 preteens (ages 10-12 at baseline) and their parents. Depressed mood in preteens was strongly related to experimentation but not to susceptibility. In cross-sectional analyses parental depressed mood was related to children's experimentation, but in longitudinal analyses parental depressed mood at baseline did not differentiate children who experimented from those who did not. Although parental smoking was strongly related to experimentation, it was not related to susceptibility either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Depressed mood among preteens and parents appeared to be more strongly related to children's smoking behaviors than to their intentions to smoke. PMID:15238063

  17. Depressed mood and smoking experimentation among preteens.

    PubMed

    Polen, Michael R; Curry, Susan J; Grothaus, Louis C; Bush, Terry M; Hollis, Jack F; Ludman, Evette J; McAfee, Timothy A

    2004-06-01

    The authors examined children's depressed mood, parental depressed mood, and parental smoking in relation to children's smoking susceptibility and experimentation over 20 months in a cohort of 418 preteens (ages 10-12 at baseline) and their parents. Depressed mood in preteens was strongly related to experimentation but not to susceptibility. In cross-sectional analyses parental depressed mood was related to children's experimentation, but in longitudinal analyses parental depressed mood at baseline did not differentiate children who experimented from those who did not. Although parental smoking was strongly related to experimentation, it was not related to susceptibility either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Depressed mood among preteens and parents appeared to be more strongly related to children's smoking behaviors than to their intentions to smoke.

  18. Assessment of mood states in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Stern, R A

    1999-01-01

    Depression is common in patients with stroke and other neurological conditions. Accurate assessment and diagnosis is critical in understanding the causes of mood disturbance in these patients and in establishing effective treatments. Examination of mood states, however, is difficult in patients with aphasia, impaired emotional expression, and other communication and cognitive difficulties. Most standardized measures of mood are inappropriate for this population due to the instruments' linguistic, attention, and other cognitive demands. The Visual Analog Mood Scales (VAMS) are psychometrically sound measures, developed specifically for neurologically impaired patients in general and aphasic patients in particular. These very brief scales assess eight mood states: sad, happy, tense, afraid, tired, energetic, confused, and angry. The utility of these scales in clinical practice is presented, as are specific recommendations and guidelines for the assessment of mood in patients with aphasia and other communication deficits. PMID:10100375

  19. Structural Imaging in Late Life Depression: Association with Mood and Cognitive Responses to Antidepressant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Christopher M.; Workman, Clifford I.; Lyman, Christopher H.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Kraut, Michael A.; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent positron emission tomography studies of cerebral glucose metabolism have identified the functional neural circuitry associated with mood and cognitive responses to antidepressant treatment in late life depression (LLD). The structural alterations in these networks are not well understood. The present study used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to evaluate the association between grey matter volumes and changes in mood symptoms and cognitive function with treatment with the antidepressant citalopram. Design Open label trial with baseline brain MR scan. Mood and cognitive assessments performed at baseline and during citalopram treatment. Setting Outpatient clinics of an academic medical center. Participants 17 previously unmedicated patients age 55 or older with a major depressive episode and 17 non-depressed comparison subjects. Intervention 12 week trial of flexibly dosed citalopram. Measurements Grey matter volumes, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, California Verbal Learning Test, Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System™. Results In LLD, higher grey matter volumes in the cingulate gyrus, superior and middle frontal gyri, middle temporal gyrus and precuneus was associated with greater mood improvement. Higher grey matter volumes in primarily frontal areas were associated with greater improvement in verbal memory and verbal fluency performance. Conclusions Associations with antidepressant induced improvements in mood and cognition were observed in several brain regions previously correlated with normalization of glucose metabolism after citalopram treatment in LLD. Future studies will investigate molecular mechanisms underlying these associations (e.g. beta-amyloid, inflammation, glutamate). PMID:24238925

  20. Daytime spikes in dopaminergic activity drive rapid mood-cycling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sidor, Michelle M.; Spencer, Sade M.; Dzirasa, Kafui; Parekh, Puja K.; Tye, Kay M.; Warden, Melissa R.; Arey, Rachel N.; Enwright, John F; Jacobsen, Jacob PR; Kumar, Sunil; Remillard, Erin M; Caron, Marc G.; Deisseroth, Karl; McClung, Colleen A

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in circadian rhythms and dopaminergic activity are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, though their interaction remains unclear. Moreover, a lack of animal models that display spontaneous cycling between mood states has hindered our mechanistic understanding of mood switching. Here we find that mice with a mutation in the circadian Clock gene (ClockΔ19) exhibit rapid mood-cycling, with a profound manic-like phenotype emerging during the day following a period of euthymia at night. Mood cycling coincides with abnormal daytime spikes in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic activity, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, and dopamine synthesis. To determine the significance of daytime increases in VTA dopamine activity to manic behaviors, we developed a novel optogenetic stimulation paradigm that produces a sustained increase in dopamine neuronal activity and find that this induces a manic-like behavioral state. Time-dependent dampening of TH activity during the day reverses manic-related behaviours in ClockΔ19 mice. Finally, we show that CLOCK acts as a negative regulator of TH transcription, revealing a novel molecular mechanism underlying cyclic changes in mood-related behaviour. Taken together, these studies have identified a mechanistic connection between circadian gene disruption and the precipitation of manic episodes in bipolar disorder. PMID:25560763

  1. Catching moods and hitting runs: mood linkage and subjective performance in professional sport teams.

    PubMed

    Totterdell, P

    2000-12-01

    Are the moods and subjective performances of professional sports players associated with the ongoing collective moods of their teammates? Players from 2 professional cricket teams used pocket computers to provide ratings of their moods and performances 3 times a day for 4 days during a competitive match between the teams. Pooled time-series analysis showed significant associations between the average of teammates' happy moods and the players' own moods and subjective performances; the associations were independent of hassles and favorable standing in the match. Mood linkage was greater when players were happier and engaged in collective activity. An intraperson analysis of data from these teams and 2 other teams showed that mood linkage was also greater for players who were older, more committed to the team, and more susceptible to emotional contagion. The results support and extend previous findings concerning mood linkage.

  2. Effects of hydration status on cognitive performance and mood.

    PubMed

    Masento, Natalie A; Golightly, Mark; Field, David T; Butler, Laurie T; van Reekum, Carien M

    2014-05-28

    Although it is well known that water is essential for human homeostasis and survival, only recently have we begun to understand its role in the maintenance of brain function. Herein, we integrate emerging evidence regarding the effects of both dehydration and additional acute water consumption on cognition and mood. Current findings in the field suggest that particular cognitive abilities and mood states are positively influenced by water consumption. The impact of dehydration on cognition and mood is particularly relevant for those with poor fluid regulation, such as the elderly and children. We critically review the most recent advances in both behavioural and neuroimaging studies of dehydration and link the findings to the known effects of water on hormonal, neurochemical and vascular functions in an attempt to suggest plausible mechanisms of action. We identify some methodological weaknesses, including inconsistent measurements in cognitive assessment and the lack of objective hydration state measurements as well as gaps in knowledge concerning mediating factors that may influence water intervention effects. Finally, we discuss how future research can best elucidate the role of water in the optimal maintenance of brain health and function.

  3. Hyperactivation balances sensory processing deficits during mood induction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Miriam; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Mathiak, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    While impairments in emotion recognition are consistently reported in schizophrenia, there is some debate on the experience of emotion. Only few studies investigated neural correlates of emotional experience in schizophrenia. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared a standard visual mood induction paradigm with an audiovisual method aimed at eliciting emotions more automatically. To investigate the interplay of sensory, cognitive and emotional mechanisms during emotion experience, we examined connectivity patterns between brain areas. Sixteen schizophrenia patients and sixteen healthy subjects participated in two different mood inductions (visual and audiovisual) that were administered for different emotions (happiness, sadness and neutral). Confirming the dissociation of behavioral and neural correlates of emotion experience, patients rated their mood similarly to healthy subjects but showed differences in neural activations. Sensory brain areas were activated less, increased activity emerged in higher cortical areas, particularly during audiovisual stimulation. Connectivity was increased between primary and secondary sensory processing areas in schizophrenia. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit in filtering and processing sensory information alongside increased higher-order cognitive effort compensating for perception deficits in the affective domain. This may suffice to recover emotion experience in ratings of clinically stable patients but may fail during acute psychosis.

  4. Folie a Trois: Atypical Presentation as Shared Transient Psychotic Episode

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, V. K.; Krishnaram, V. D.; Vimala, Rupavathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Shared psychotic disorder or induced delusional disorder can occur in different clinical settings and profile and is not uncommon. A case of Folie a trois with atypical clinical presentation as shared acute transient episode in a bereavement setting is reported. Suggestibility, close association and intimacy of the affected persons and major stress as psychological trigger act as psychopathological factors. PMID:24860230

  5. Mood, memory, and social judgments in children.

    PubMed

    Forgas, J P; Burnham, D K; Trimboli, C

    1988-04-01

    The influence of positive and negative moods on children's recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments was investigated in a two-list experimental design. A total of 161 schoolchildren, 8 to 10 years old, were presented with audiovisual information containing positive and negative details about 2 target children. Each presentation was preceded by happy or sad mood manipulations. One day later, the children were again placed in a happy or sad mood, and their recall and recognition memory and impression-formation judgments were assessed. Results showed that memory was better when (a) the children felt happy during encoding, retrieval, or both; (b) the material was incongruent with learning mood; (c) the 2 target characters were encountered in contrasting rather than in matching mood states; and (d) recall mood matched encoding mood. A happy mood increased the extremity of both positive and negative impression-formation judgments. Results are contrasted with experimental data obtained with normal or depressed adults, and implications are considered for contemporary theories of mood effects on cognition and for social-developmental research. PMID:3367286

  6. [Chronobiological treatments of mood disorders].

    PubMed

    Urrila, Anna Sofia; Partonen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Chronobiological treatments are non-pharmacological treatments that influence the circadian rhythms and the physiology of sleep. In these treatments, the sleep-wake cycle and exposure to environmental stimuli affecting the biological rhythms are controlled. The aim is to produce a therapeutic effect in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Chronobiological treatments include manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle, like sleep deprivation and advanced sleep-wake rhythm, and scheduled exposures to light and darkness. The clinical use of chronobiological treatments in Finland has been minimal and limited to the treatment of mood disorders, especially depressive disorders.

  7. Biological rhythms and mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Paola; Indic, Premananda; Murray, Greg; Baldessarini, Ross J.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of several approaches concerning time and temporality can enhance the pathophysiological study of major mood disorders of unknown etiology. We propose that these conditions might be interpreted as disturbances of temporal profile of biological rhythms, as well as alterations of time-consciousness. Useful approaches to study time and temporality include philological suggestions, phenomenological and psychopathological conceptualizatíons, clinical descriptions, and research on circadian and ultradían rhythms, as well as nonlinear dynamics approaches to their analysis. PMID:23393414

  8. The neuropsychology of mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2006-12-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is central to our understanding of mood disorders in terms of patient experiences, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and psychological models. In this article, we highlight key findings from studies that have used neuropsychological tests and functional neuroimaging techniques to explore cognitive dysfunction in patients with depression and mania. In particular, we focus on affective processing bias, abnormal response to negative feedback, and decision making. Results are discussed in the context of current conceptualizations of dysfunctional neural circuitry, and in relation to important clinical research implications.

  9. The evolution of episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  10. The Episodic Nature of Episodic-Like Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Alexander; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Eacott, Madeline J.

    2012-01-01

    Studying episodic memory in nonhuman animals has proved difficult because definitions in humans require conscious recollection. Here, we assessed humans' experience of episodic-like recognition memory tasks that have been used with animals. It was found that tasks using contextual information to discriminate events could only be accurately…

  11. The management of mood disorders in pregnancy: alternatives to antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Richards, Erica M; Payne, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    The management of mood disorders during pregnancy is complex due to risks associated with medication use and risks associated with untreated depression. Antidepressant use during pregnancy is an exposure for the unborn child, and it currently remains unclear what long-term repercussions there might be from this exposure, though available data are reassuring. On the other hand, there are risks for both the mother and child of untreated depression during pregnancy. There is a real need for research into nonpharmacological strategies for the prevention of relapse of mood disorders in pregnant women who are off medications. We have reviewed a number of potential candidate interventions including psychotherapies, exercise, light box therapy (LBT), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), holistic strategies, and nutritional and herbal supplements. Currently there is a lack of evidence supporting the use of such strategies in the prevention of depressive relapse during pregnancy, though most of these strategies have at least some support for their use in the treatment of a major depressive episode. Carefully conducted research using one or more of these strategies in women who want to discontinue antidepressants for pregnancy is sorely needed.

  12. Mood stabilizers and antipsychotics during breastfeeding: Focus on bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; León-Caballero, Jordi; Murru, Andrea; Verdolini, Norma; Furio, Maria Antonietta; Pancheri, Corinna; Valentí, Marc; Samalin, Ludovic; Roigé, Eva Solé; González-Pinto, Ana; Montes, Jose Manuel; Benabarre, Antonio; Crespo, Jose Manuel; de Dios Perrino, Consuelo; Goikolea, Jose Manuel; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Carvalho, André F; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-10-01

    Breast milk is considered the best source of nutrients and provides much better protection than immune modified milk. However, the postpartum period is a phase of increased risk for all women to experience psychiatric symptoms and recurrences or new episodes of bipolar disorder (BD), especially in those who have discontinued treatment. This is a systematic review of the risks and benefits of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics during breastfeeding as they relate to the health and well-being of mothers and their infants. Evidence-based treatment advice for women with BD during lactation is also provided. This systematic review has been conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. We included studies examining the exposure and the effects of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers used to treat BD on infants during breastfeeding clearly reporting the estimated amount of drug or effects on infants. The final selection included 56 studies. The available data supports the use of lithium as a possible treatment option during breastfeeding. Carbamazepine and valproic acid are also considered relatively safe. Lamotrigine can be used but at the lowest doses and considered for individual cases. Among the antipsychotics, quetiapine and olanzapine should be considered as first-line treatment options. Risperidone may be compatible with breastfeeding under medical supervision. Clozapine and amisulpiride are currently contraindicated. Long-term outcome studies evaluating the infant׳s health and psychosocial and cognitive functioning are needed. PMID:27568278

  13. Midline Brain Abnormalities Across Psychotic and Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Landin-Romero, Ramón; Amann, Benedikt L; Sarró, Salvador; Guerrero-Pedraza, Amalia; Vicens, Victor; Rodriguez-Cano, Elena; Vieta, Eduard; Salvador, Raymond; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Radua, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are known to have increased prevalence of abnormalities in midline brain structures, such as a failure of the septum pellucidum to fuse (cavum septum pellucidum) and the absence of the adhesio interthalamica. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of these abnormalities across a large multidiagnostic sample. Presence of cavum septum pellucidum and absence of the adhesio interthalamica was assessed in 639 patients with chronic schizophrenia, delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, or a first episode of psychosis, mania or unipolar depression. This was compared with 223 healthy controls using logistic-regression-derived odds ratios (OR). Patients with psychotic or mood disorders showed an increased prevalence of both abnormalities (OR of cavum septum pellucidum = 2.1, OR of absence of the adhesio interthalamica = 2.6, OR of both cavum septum pellucidum and absence of the adhesio interthalamica = 3.8, all P < .001). This increased prevalence was separately observed in nearly all disorders as well as after controlling for potential confounding factors. This study supports a general increased prevalence of midline brain abnormalities across mood and psychotic disorders. This nonspecificity may suggest that these disorders share a common neurodevelopmental etiology.

  14. Effects of Eating on Depressed Moods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenier, Victoria; And Others

    Research has found that depressed moods increase eating among persons who are dieting and among those characterized by high levels of weight fluctuation. To determine whether eating improves depressed moods among persons who score high on the weight fluctuation factor on the Restraint Scale (Herman, et al, 1978), 72 college women consumed either a…

  15. Modeling Spanish Mood Choice in Belief Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a computational methodology new to linguistics that empirically evaluates competing linguistic theories on Spanish verbal mood choice through the use of computational techniques to learn mood and other hidden linguistic features from Spanish belief statements found in corpora. The machine learned probabilistic linguistic models…

  16. Variations in the Circumplex Structure of Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Lisa A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers have emphasized the similarity of the semantic and self-report mood circumplexes. Study investigated systematic differences in theses structures. Demonstrated that when making judgments of their mood, people weigh the arousal dimension less than the valence dimension. Dimensions are weighed equally in semantic structure. (JBJ)

  17. The administration of a polyvalent mechanical bacterial lysate in elderly patients with COPD results in serological signs of an efficient immune response associated with a reduced number of acute episodes.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Rossella; Palmero, Candida; Bazurro, Gyada; Riccio, Anna Maria; Garelli, Valentina; Di Marco, Eddi; Cirillo, Carmelina; Braido, Fulvio; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Melioli, Giovanni

    2014-02-01

    The administration of a polyvalent mechanical bacterial lysate (PMBL) in elderly patients with COPD has been shown to reduce the number of exacerbation. This is largely related to the involvement of cells belonging to the innate and the adaptive immune system (including dendritic cells, granulocytes, T and B lymphocytes and NK cells) that actively cooperate inducing the production of specific opsonizing antibodies directed to the antigens of PMBL. We have evaluated the production of antibodies directed to respiratory and systemic pathogens in a group of elderly COPD patients, recruited in a clinical trial, ancillary to a larger multicenter double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-designed clinical trial in which patients were randomized to daily receive either PMBL or placebo. The treated group not only experienced a reduced number of seroconversion, but also, better controlled the number of infectious episodes and COPD exacerbations. It was thus evident that the administration of PMBL resulted not only effective in inducing the secretion of specific antibodies, but also effective in reducing the infectious episodes trough the potentiation of the antibody-mediated arm of the immune response. PMID:23792312

  18. The role of emotional engagement and mood valence in retrieval fluency of mood incongruent autobiographical memory

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jonathan; Meiran, Nachshon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Retrieval of opposite mood autobiographical memories serves emotion regulation, yet the factors influencing this ability are poorly understood. Methods: Three studies examined the effect of mood valence (sad vs. happy) and degree of emotional engagement on fluency of mood incongruent retrieval by manipulating emotional engagement and examining the effect of emotional film clips on the Fluency of Autobiographical Memory task. Results: Following both sad and happy film clips, participants who received emotionally engaging instructions exhibited a greater recall latency of the first opposite mood memory, and had generated less such memories than those receiving emotionally disengaging instructions (Studies 1 and 2). A happy mood induction resulted in recollection of fewer mood incongruent memories compared to a sad mood induction. Providing emotionally engaging instructions was found to specifically hinder mood incongruent retrieval, without impairing mood congruent retrieval (Study 3). Conclusion: High emotional engagement seems to impair the retrieval of mood incongruent memories. Being in a happy mood may also partially impair such retrieval. Implications regarding emotional regulation are discussed. PMID:24570671

  19. Review of Cohort Studies for Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592

  20. Inducing jet lag in the laboratory: patterns of adjustment to an acute shift in routine.

    PubMed

    Monk, T H; Moline, M L; Graeber, R C

    1988-08-01

    Eight middle-aged males were studied in a temporal isolation experimental lasting 15 d. After 5 d and nights of entrainment to his own habitual routine, each subject experienced an acute, unheralded 6-h phase advance in routine, accomplished by truncating his sixth sleep episode. For the remaining 10 d of the study, subjects were held to a routine 6-h phase advanced to the original. Significant symptoms of jet lag appeared in mood, performance efficiency, sleep, and circadian temperature rhythms. When plotted as a function to "days post-shift," some variables (temperature phase, percent rapid eye movement sleep) showed a fairly monotonic recovery to baseline levels. However, other variables (actual sleep duration, percent slow wave sleep, motivation loss, subjective sleepiness) showed a zig-zag recovery pattern, suggesting the interaction of two competing processes, and reinforcing the need for greater sophistication in the development of jet lag coping strategies.

  1. Somatic Treatments for Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Moacyr A; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2012-01-01

    Somatic treatments for mood disorders represent a class of interventions available either as a stand-alone option, or in combination with psychopharmacology and/or psychotherapy. Here, we review the currently available techniques, including those already in clinical use and those still under research. Techniques are grouped into the following categories: (1) seizure therapies, including electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy, (2) noninvasive techniques, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and cranial electric stimulation, (3) surgical approaches, including vagus nerve stimulation, epidural electrical stimulation, and deep brain stimulation, and (4) technologies on the horizon. Additionally, we discuss novel approaches to the optimization of each treatment, and new techniques that are under active investigation. PMID:21976043

  2. Mood and Performance in Young Malaysian Karateka

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebecca S. K.; Thung, Jin Seng; Pieter, Willy

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1) to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2) to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years). The athletes were divided into winners (medalists) and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) was administered prior to the start of competition. MANOVA was employed to treat the data, while Pearson correlations were calculated for mood states in each depressed mood group and by gender. In terms of non-depressed and depressed mood, tension in the females was higher in the depressed group (5.61 ± 3.02 vs. 3.11 ± 1.90, p = 0.026, eta2 = 0.133), as was fatigue (3.64 ± 2.61 vs. 0.89 ± 1.69, p = 0.006, eta2 = 0.199). Tension in the males was higher in the depressed group (4.41 ± 2.52 vs. 1.50 ± 1.55, p < 0.001, eta2 = 0.215), as was anger (1.43 ± 1.88 vs. 0.25 ± 1.00, p = 0.019, eta2 = 0.076). The highest associations among mood subscales were between anger and depression (r = 0.57), and between depression and fatigue ( r = 0.55) in depressed males. The female winning karateka scored higher on anger (3.08 ± 2.96 vs. 1.29 ± 2.24, p = 0.046, eta2 = 0.109). The highest correlations between mood dimensions in depressed females were between depression and anger (r = 0.85) and between depression and confusion (r = 0.85). Contrary to previous research on the influence of depression on anger, only the female winners scored higher on anger. Several negative mood dimensions were higher in both male and female depressed groups, lending some support to the conceptual model advanced by Lane and Terry. Key Points To date, there is no information about the relationship between mood and martial arts performance in Malaysian athletes. There might be cultural differences in the way Malaysian athletes

  3. The Wnt Pathway in Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Gabriele; Napoletano, Flavia; Forte, Alberto Maria; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Panaccione, Isabella; Porfiri, Giulio Maria; Simonetti, Alessio; Caloro, Matteo; Girardi, Nicoletta; Telesforo, Carla Ludovica; Serra, Giulia; Romano, Silvia; Manfredi, Giovanni; Savoja, Valeria; Tamorri, Stefano Maria; Koukopoulos, Alexia E; Serata, Daniele; Rapinesi, Chiara; Casale, Antonio Del; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of the involvement of the Wnt signalling pathway in mood disorders and in the action of drugs used to treat these disorders. Methods: We performed a careful PubMed search using as keywords all possible terms relevant to the Wnt pathway and crossing them with each of four areas, i.e., developmental effects, behavioural effects, mood disorders, and drugs used in their treatment. Papers were selected on the basis of their content and their data used for discussion. Results: Neurodevelopmental and behavioural data point to the possibility of involvement of the Wnt pathway in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Clinical and post-mortem data are not sufficient to corroborate a definite role for Wnt alterations in any mood disorder. Combining genetic and pharmacological data, we may state that glycogen synthase kinase is the key molecule in bipolar disorder, as it is connected with many other signalling pathways that were shown to be involved in mood disorders, while Wnt molecules in the hippocampus appear to be mainly involved in depressive disorders. Conclusions: Altered Wnt signalling may play a role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, although not a central one. It is premature to draw conclusions regarding the possible usefulness of Wnt manipulations in the treatment of mood disorders. PMID:23449817

  4. Mental energy: Assessing the mood dimension.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick J

    2006-07-01

    Conceptualizing mental energy as a mood is impor tant, because these feelings are important to people and can influence behavior in the real world. If a person feels a lack of energy, for example, he or she is more likely to avoid physical or mental work if it is possible to do so. Alternatively, this person may seek to improve feelings of energy by eating, drinking, taking dietary supplements or drugs, sleeping, or engaging in other behaviors. Thus, the measurement of the mood of energy has importance in numerous ways, including public health, work productivity, and ultimately economic growth and productivity. Mood data have limitations, for example, self aware ness and literacy are necessary and faking is possible. The problem of faking is most salient in situations in which there is a strong motivation to fake, such as when psychological testing is used as part of an employment application. Despite these limitations, overwhelming evidence supports the validity for certain measures of the mood of energy such as the POMS vigor scale. This is not to say that mood measures are error free in all situations. Despite some error, however, validity evidence for mood measures is published in the scientific literature weekly. Future research aimed at determining the biological bases for the mood of energy, and its relationships to overlapping phenomena such as cognitive fatigue, should yield results that ultimately help us to understand how to optimize our feelings of energy. PMID:16910215

  5. Effect of flumazenil-augmentation on microsleep and mood in depressed patients during partial sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hemmeter, Ulrich; Hatzinger, Martin; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2007-11-01

    The antidepressive effect of sleep deprivation (SD) in depressed patients disappears after sleep of the recovery night and after early morning naps. Both can provoke a rapid relapse into depression in SD-responders. In addition, the occurrence of short episodes of sleep (termed microsleep, MS) during partial SD (PSD) is associated with SD-nonresponse, suggesting that MS during the time awake may be related to relapse or PSD-nonresponse. The GABA-benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil augments vigilance and reduces NonREM-sleep pressure in early morning recovery sleep in volunteers after SD. Therefore, in this study 27 patients with major depression were subjected to a PSD. In a double blind randomized design either flumazenil or placebo was orally applied during PSD in order to examine whether the application of flumazenil reduces sleep propensity and thus, increases antidepressant efficacy of PSD. EEG was registered continuously for 60h by a portable device for the assessment of microsleep episodes at baseline and during PSD. Flumazenil application significantly suppressed frequency and total amount of MS. While the antidepressant efficacy of PSD was not different between flumazenil and placebo during PSD, the subjective mood improved after the recovery night in patients treated with flumazenil. It is concluded that GABAergic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of MS during PSD, which may be related to a mood stabilizing effect after the recovery night. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between the occurrence of MS during PSD and mood variation have to be further clarified. PMID:16978648

  6. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review].

    PubMed

    Gilet, A-L

    2008-06-01

    For a long period in the history of psychological research, emotion and cognition have been studied independently, as if one were irrelevant to the other. The renewed interest of researchers for the study of the relations between cognition and emotion has led to the development of a range of laboratory methods for inducing temporary mood states. This paper aims to review the main mood induction procedures allowing the induction of a negative mood as well as a positive mood, developed since the pioneer study of Schachter and Singer [Psychol Rev 69 (1962) 379-399] and to account for the usefulness and problems related to the use of such techniques. The first part of this paper deals with the detailed presentation of some of the most popular mood induction procedures according to their type: simple (use of only one mood induction technique) or combined (association of two or more techniques at once). The earliest of the modern techniques is the Velten Mood Induction Procedure [Behav Res Ther 6 (1968) 473-482], which involves reading aloud sixty self-referent statements progressing from relative neutral mood to negative mood or dysphoria. Some researchers have varied the procedure slightly by changing the number of the statements [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117, J Pers Soc Psychol 35 (1977) 625-636]. Various other mood induction procedures have been developed including music induction [Cogn Emotion 11 (1997) 403-432, Br J Med Psychol 55 (1982) 127-138], film clip induction [J Pers Soc Psychol 20 (1971) 37-43, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193, Rottenberg J, Ray RR, Gross JJ. Emotion elicitation using films. In: Coan JA, Allen JJB, editors. The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007], autobiographical recall [J Clin Psychol 36 (1980) 215-226, Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publi

  7. Mitigation of Inflammation-Induced Mood Dysregulation by Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that chronic elevations in immune-inflammatory signaling can precipitate mood symptoms in a subset of individuals, associated risk and resilience mechanisms remain poorly understood. Long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapentaenic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have anti-inflammatory and inflammation-resolving properties that maintain immune-inflammatory signaling homeostasis. Cross-sectional evidence suggests that the mood disorders major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are associated with low EPA and/or DHA biostatus, elevations in the LCn-6:LCn-3 fatty acid ratio, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, and acute-phase proteins. Medications that are effective for reducing depressive symptoms or stabilizing manic depressive oscillations may act in part by downregulating immune-inflammatory signaling and are augmented by anti-inflammatory medications. Recent prospective longitudinal evidence suggests that elevations in the LCn-6:LCn-3 fatty acid ratio are a modifiable risk factor for the development of mood symptoms, including depression and irritability, in response to immune-inflammatory signaling. Together these data suggest that increasing LCn-3 fatty acid intake and biostatus represents a feasible strategy to mitigate the negative impact of elevated immune-inflammatory signaling on mood stability. Key teaching points: • Long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids have anti-inflammatory and inflammation-resolving properties. • Major mood disorders are associated with both LCn-3 fatty acids deficiency and elevated immune-inflammatory signaling. • Prospective evidence suggests that low LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus increases risk for developing inflammation-induced mood dysregulation. • Taken collectively, this evidence suggests that increasing LCn-3 fatty acid intake and biostatus represents a promising strategy to mitigate the detrimental effects of elevated immune

  8. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  9. Effects of glucocorticoids on mood, memory, and the hippocampus. Treatment and preventive therapy.

    PubMed

    Brown, E Sherwood

    2009-10-01

    Corticosteroids, such as prednisone and dexamethasone, are commonly prescribed medications that suppress the immune system and decrease inflammation. Common side effects of long-term treatment with corticosteroids include weight gain, osteoporosis, and diabetes mellitus. This paper reviews the literature on psychiatric and cognitive changes during corticosteroid therapy and potential treatment options. Hypomania and mania are the most common mood changes during acute corticosteroid therapy, although depression has also been reported. However, depression is reported to be more common than mania during long-term treatment with corticosteroids. A decline in declarative and working memory is also reported during corticosteroid therapy. Corticosteroids are associated with changes in the temporal lobe, detected by structural, functional, and spectroscopic imaging. The mood and cognitive symptoms are dose dependent and frequently occur during the first few weeks of therapy. Other risk factors are not well characterized. Controlled trials suggest that lithium and phenytoin can prevent mood symptoms associated with corticosteroids. Lamotrigine and memantine also have been shown to reverse, at least partially, the declarative memory effects of corticosteroids. Uncontrolled trials suggest that antipsychotics, anti-seizure medications, and perhaps some antidepressants can also be useful for normalizing mood changes associated with corticosteroids. Thus, both the symptoms and treatment response are similar to those of bipolar disorder. Moreover, corticosteroid-induced mood and cognitive alterations have been shown to be reversible with dose reduction or discontinuation of treatment.

  10. Mood regulation in seasonal affective disorder patients and healthy controls studied in forced desynchrony.

    PubMed

    Koorengevel, Kathelijne M; Beersma, Domien G M; den Boer, Johan A; van den Hoofdakker, Rutger H

    2003-01-25

    In healthy subjects, both the duration of wakefulness and the circadian pacemaker have been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of mood. Some features of affective disorders suggest that these two factors also play a role in the dysregulation of mood. In particular, disturbances of the circadian pacemaker have been proposed to be a pathogenetic factor in Seasonal Affective Disorder, winter type (SAD). This report presents a test of this proposition. To this end seven SAD patients and matched controls were subjected to a 120-h forced desynchrony protocol, in which they were exposed to six 20-h days. This protocol enables us to discriminate the extent to which the course of mood is determined by the imposed 20-h sleep-wake cycle from the influence of the circadian pacemaker on that course. Patients participated during a depressive episode, after recovery upon light therapy and in summer. Controls were studied in winter and in summer. Between SAD patients and controls no significant differences were observed in the period length nor in the timing of the endogenous circadian temperature minimum. In both groups, sleep-wake cycle- and pacemaker-related components were observed in the variations of mood, which were not significantly different between conditions.

  11. Increased involvement of the parahippocampal gyri in a sad mood predicts future depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Huffziger, Silke; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Kuehner, Christine; Kirsch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest a relationship between autobiographical memory, rumination and depression. The objective of this study was to determine whether remitted depressed patients show alterations in connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, a node in the default mode network) with the parahippocampal gyri (PHG, a region associated with autobiographical memory) while intensively recalling negative memories and whether this is related to daily life symptoms and to the further course of depression. Sad mood was induced with keywords of personal negative life events in participants with remitted depression (n = 29) and matched healthy controls (n = 29) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, daily life assessments of mood and rumination and a 6-month follow-up were conducted. Remitted depressed participants showed greater connectivity than healthy controls of the PCC with the PHG, which was even stronger in patients with more previous episodes. Furthermore, patients with increased PCC–PHG connectivity showed a sadder mood and more rumination in daily life and a worsening of rumination and depression scores during follow-up. A relationship of negative autobiographical memory processing, rumination, sad mood and depression on a neural level seems likely. The identified increased connectivity probably indicates a ‘scar’ of recurrent depression and may represent a prognostic factor for future depression. PMID:24493842

  12. Mood and the market: can press reports of investors' mood predict stock prices?

    PubMed

    Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Scherbaum, Charles A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Staw, Barry M

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices.

  13. Mood and the Market: Can Press Reports of Investors' Mood Predict Stock Prices?

    PubMed Central

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices. PMID:24015202

  14. Episodic tremor triggers small earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the weak shaking not associated with measurable earthquakes, could trigger nearby earthquakes. However, this had not been confirmed until recently. Vidale et al. monitored seismicity in the 4-month period around a 16-day episode of episodic tremor and slip in March 2010 in the Cascadia region. They observed five small earthquakes within the subducting slab during the ETS episode. They found that the timing and locations of earthquakes near the tremor suggest that the tremor and earthquakes are related. Furthermore, they observed that the rate of earthquakes across the area was several times higher within 2 days of tremor activity than at other times, adding to evidence of a connection between tremor and earthquakes. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2011GC003559, 2011)

  15. Behind the Webb Episode 27

    NASA Video Gallery

    This episode of "Behind the Webb" explores the multi-tasking capabilities of one of the cameras on the Webb Space Telescope, the Near-Infrared Spectrograph. Newly designed technology known as "micr...

  16. Mood Fluctuations: Women Versus Men And Menstrual Versus Other Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Jessica; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied mood fluctuations and cyclic changes in 15 women using oral contraceptives, 12 normally cycling women, and 15 men. Found no evidence of mood fluctuations over lunar cycle and groups did not differ in mood stability. Women's moods fluctuated less over menstrual cycle than over days of week. Differences between concurrent and retrospective…

  17. Mood Effects of Alcohol and Expectancies during the Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesso, Vincent J.; Freitag, Wendy J.

    This research attempted to develop a profile of women's moods across the menstrual cycle and to determine alcohol's effects upon those moods. The Profile of Mood States was used to measure mood in 96 female college students who were heavy drinkers. Subjects were randomly assigned to the cells of the balanced placebo design with equal numbers in…

  18. Episodic memory in nonhuman animals

    PubMed Central

    Templer, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of “having been there” has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhumans. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhumans and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap. However, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing the most crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naïve question “do nonhuman animals have episodic memory” to instead asking “what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans” are making progress. PMID:24028963

  19. Attention orienting and inhibitory control across the different mood states in bipolar disorder: an emotional antisaccade task.

    PubMed

    García-Blanco, Ana C; Perea, Manuel; Salmerón, Ladislao

    2013-12-01

    An antisaccade experiment, using happy, sad, and neutral faces, was conducted to examine the effect of mood-congruent information on inhibitory control (antisaccade task) and attentional orienting (prosaccade task) during the different episodes of bipolar disorder (BD) - manic (n=22), depressive (n=25), and euthymic (n=24). A group of 28 healthy controls was also included. Results revealed that symptomatic patients committed more antisaccade errors than healthy individuals, especially with mood-congruent faces. The manic group committed more antisaccade errors in response to happy faces, while the depressed group tended to commit more antisaccade errors in response to sad faces. Additionally, antisaccade latencies were slower in BD patients than in healthy individuals, whereas prosaccade latencies were slower in symptomatic patients. Taken together, these findings revealed the following: (a) slow inhibitory control in BD patients, regardless of their episode (i.e., a trait), and (b) impaired inhibitory control restricted to symptomatic patients (i.e., a state).

  20. Attention orienting and inhibitory control across the different mood states in bipolar disorder: an emotional antisaccade task.

    PubMed

    García-Blanco, Ana C; Perea, Manuel; Salmerón, Ladislao

    2013-12-01

    An antisaccade experiment, using happy, sad, and neutral faces, was conducted to examine the effect of mood-congruent information on inhibitory control (antisaccade task) and attentional orienting (prosaccade task) during the different episodes of bipolar disorder (BD) - manic (n=22), depressive (n=25), and euthymic (n=24). A group of 28 healthy controls was also included. Results revealed that symptomatic patients committed more antisaccade errors than healthy individuals, especially with mood-congruent faces. The manic group committed more antisaccade errors in response to happy faces, while the depressed group tended to commit more antisaccade errors in response to sad faces. Additionally, antisaccade latencies were slower in BD patients than in healthy individuals, whereas prosaccade latencies were slower in symptomatic patients. Taken together, these findings revealed the following: (a) slow inhibitory control in BD patients, regardless of their episode (i.e., a trait), and (b) impaired inhibitory control restricted to symptomatic patients (i.e., a state). PMID:24161800

  1. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W F; Schellenberg, E G; Husain, G

    2001-05-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on tbe spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood.

  2. Determinants of mood in general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, H J; Serieys, N M; Elliott-Binns, C P

    1987-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted in which 44 general practitioners completed cognitive behavioural self monitoring diaries. Hourly changes in emotional state were recorded together with associated circumstances. Lowering of mood was associated mainly with "hassle" at work, pressure of time, and domestic dissatisfaction. Improvement in mood was associated with domestic happiness and satisfaction at working efficiently and to time. Mood was significantly lower when the doctor was on call. Women doctors were more prone to mood changes associated with domestic matters. Responses to a questionnaire suggested that the doctors preferred traditional clinical medicine to problems of a social or psychological origin. Managerial skills would help alleviate several of the problems identified in this study and should be more prominent in the training that all doctors receive. PMID:3103834

  3. Coping with Mood Changes Later in Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of mood disorders. Could my illness be bipolar disorder (also known as manic-depression)? Have you had ... a relative or friend who has depression or bipolar disorder? Encourage your loved one to get help. Talk ...

  4. Attributional style and depressive mood reactions.

    PubMed

    Stiensmeier-Pelster, J

    1989-09-01

    According to the reformulated learned helplessness model of depression, individuals who characteristically attribute negative events to internal-stable-global causes become depressed when confronted with negative life events. This proposition was tested in a field and a laboratory study in settings with an interpersonal, socially relevant character. In the field study, the attributional style of 86 female college students was investigated before Christmas, and their mood was recorded both before and after Christmas. The laboratory study recorded the mood of 46 female students before and after either success or failure. In both studies changes in depressive mood were predicted by the Attribution X Outcome interaction. The direction and form of the interaction were in line with the diathesis-stress model. In the field study, but not the laboratory study, outcome was a significant predictor of changes in depressive mood.

  5. Mood-state-dependent retrieval: the effects of induced mood on memory reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Kenealy, P M

    1997-05-01

    Analysis of studies investigating mood-state-dependent retrieval identifies methodological problems that may have contributed to the controversy surrounding the reliability of the effect-in particular, the possible confounding of encoding and retrieval in previous studies. Five experiments are reported investigating the effects of mood on learning and recall. Mood-state-dependent retrieval was observed in Experiment 1a (using Velten's Mood Induction Procedure); Experiment 1b (using a music MIP); and Experiment lc (using Velten's MIP at encoding and a music MIP at retrieval). Subjects who learned and recalled in different moods had significantly greater decrements in recall than did subjects in the same moods. Experiments 2 and 3 investigated the effect of observable retrieval cues on mood-state-dependent retrieval. In Experiment 2, the presence of observable retrieval cues at recall overrode state-dependent retrieval. In Experiment 3, by manipulating the presence or absence of observable cues at recall, both the occurrence and the erasure of the mood-state dependency was demonstrated. Mood state during learning and cued recall was also shown to affect performance in a third session under conditions of free recall. PMID:9225625

  6. Does mood really influence comparative optimism? Tracking an elusive effect.

    PubMed

    Drace, Sasa; Desrichard, Olivier; Shepperd, James A; Hoorens, Vera

    2009-12-01

    Methodological limitations call into question prior evidence that positive moods are associated with greater comparative optimism. Experiments 1-4 tested if mood affects comparative optimism using a mood manipulation that minimized experimenter demand. While the procedure was successful in inducing mood, we found no evidence for a mood effect on comparative optimism. The absence of a mood effect was not due to participants correcting their judgments in response to a presumed mood bias (Experiments 2, 3 and 4) or to participants proactively regulating their mood (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 5 compared the mood manipulation of Experiments 1-4 with an autobiographical recall procedure. Although the two methods were equally effective in inducing mood, only autobiographical recall influenced participants' comparative optimism. Study 6 provides preliminary evidence that experimenter demand may be responsible for the effects of autobiographical recall on comparative judgments.

  7. Grazing, cognitive performance and mood.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, Paul; Smith, Andrew; Lucas, Eva

    2009-02-01

    Two experiments were carried out to examine how spreading food intake between either two or four occasions would affect mood and cognition. The first experiment used 96 participants in a between subject design where participants received either two milkshakes at 09:00 and 13:00 or four (half nutrient content but same volume) milkshakes at 09:00, 11:00, 13:00 and 15:00. The results showed that verbal reasoning accuracy improved in the four-milkshake condition. The second experiment used 24 participants in a cross-over design. The breakfast and lunch were halved in one condition and not in the other so participants either ate breakfast and lunch, or four meals at the same times as experiment 1. Verbal reasoning accuracy was improved by spreading the intake over four meals such that errors were reduced by between 30 and 40%. Speed was also increased in a five-item (but not one-item) search task. Further research is now necessary to uncover the mechanisms that underlie these effects. PMID:18838090

  8. The effect of post-discharge educational intervention on patients in achieving objectives in modifiable risk factors six months after discharge following an episode of acute coronary syndrome, (CAM-2 Project): a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether an intervention mainly consisting of a signed agreement between patient and physician on the objectives to be reached, improves reaching these secondary prevention objectives in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors six-months after discharge following an acute coronary syndrome. Background There is room to improve mid-term adherence to clinical guidelines' recommendations in coronary heart disease secondary prevention, specially non-pharmacological ones, often neglected. Methods In CAM-2, patients discharged after an acute coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to the intervention or the usual care group. The primary outcome was reaching therapeutic objectives in various secondary prevention variables: smoking, obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure control, exercise and taking of medication. Results 1757 patients were recruited in 64 hospitals and 1510 (762 in the intervention and 748 in the control group) attended the six-months follow-up visit. After adjustment for potentially important variables, there were, between the intervention and control group, differences in the mean reduction of body mass index (0.5 vs. 0.2; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (1.6 cm vs. 0.6 cm; p = 0.05), proportion of patients who exercise regularly and those with total cholesterol below 175 mg/dl (64.7% vs. 56.5%; p = 0.001). The reported intake of medications was high in both groups for all the drugs considered with no differences except for statins (98.1% vs. 95.9%; p = 0.029). Conclusions At least in the short term, lifestyle changes among coronary heart disease patients are achievable by intensifying the responsibility of the patient himself by means of a simple and feasible intervention. PMID:21092191

  9. Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population.

    PubMed

    Cox, Katherine H M; Pipingas, Andrew; Scholey, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Curcumin possesses many properties which may prevent or ameliorate pathological processes underlying age-related cognitive decline, dementia or mood disorders. These benefits in preclinical studies have not been established in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the acute (1 and 3 h after a single dose), chronic (4 weeks) and acute-on-chronic (1 and 3 h after single dose following chronic treatment) effects of solid lipid curcumin formulation (400 mg as Longvida®) on cognitive function, mood and blood biomarkers in 60 healthy adults aged 60-85. One hour after administration curcumin significantly improved performance on sustained attention and working memory tasks, compared with placebo. Working memory and mood (general fatigue and change in state calmness, contentedness and fatigue induced by psychological stress) were significantly better following chronic treatment. A significant acute-on-chronic treatment effect on alertness and contentedness was also observed. Curcumin was associated with significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol and had no effect on hematological safety measures. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the effects of curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population or to examine any acute behavioral effects in humans. Results highlight the need for further investigation of the potential psychological and cognitive benefits of curcumin in an older population.

  10. Integrative oncology: complementary therapies for pain, anxiety, and mood disturbance.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie R

    2005-01-01

    Many people with cancer experience pain, anxiety, and mood disturbance. Conventional treatments do not always satisfactorily relieve these symptoms, and some patients may not be able to tolerate their side effects. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture, mind-body techniques, massage, and other methods can help relieve symptoms and improve physical and mental well-being. Self-hypnosis and relaxation techniques help reduce procedural pain. Acupuncture is well documented to relieve chronic cancer pain. Massage and meditation improve anxiety and other symptoms of distress. Many dietary supplements contain biologically active constituents with effects on mood. However, not all complementary therapies are appropriate or useful, and even helpful complementary modalities may not be optimal under some circumstances. Situations when precaution is indicated include acute onset of symptoms and severe symptoms, which require immediate mainstream intervention. Dietary supplements are associated with serious negative consequences under some circumstances. The authors summarize the research on these modalities and discuss the rationale, expectation, and necessary precautions involved with combining complementary therapies and mainstream care. Practical clinical issues are addressed.

  11. [Effects of exercise on anxiety, depression and mood].

    PubMed

    Guszkowska, Monika

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the studies on the effects of physical activity on the emotional states--anxiety, depression and mood. The meta-analyses of correlational and experimental studies reveal positive effects of exercise, in healthy people and in clinical populations (also in patients with emotional disorders) regardless of gender and age. The benefits are significant especially in subjects with an elevated level of anxiety and depression because of more room for possible change. The most improvements are caused by rhythmic, aerobic exercises, using of large muscle groups (jogging, swimming, cycling, walking), of moderate and low intensity. They should be conducted for 15 to 30 minutes and performed a minimum of three times a week in programs of 10-weeks or longer. The results confirm the acute effect of exercise i.e. the reductions in anxiety and depression after single sessions of exercise. The changes in anxiety, depression and mood states after exercise are explained most frequently by the endorphin and monoamine hypotheses. Exercise may also increase body temperature, blood circulation in the brain and impact on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and physiological reactivity to stress. The possible psychological mechanisms include improvement of self-efficacy, distraction and cognitive dissonance. PMID:15518309

  12. Cingulum bundle diffusivity and delusions of reference in first episode and chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Jennifer; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitford, Thomas J.; Swisher, Tali; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Pelavin, Paula E.; Terry, Douglas P.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Seidman, Larry J.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Kubicki, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess integrity of the cingulum bundle in patients diagnosed with first episode schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, and matched controls as well as to determine the relationship between diffusion measures of cingulum bundle integrity and severity of patients’ delusions of reference. Participants, who comprised 18 first episode patients, 20 chronic patients, and two groups of matched controls (20 subjects in each), underwent 3 Tesla MRI diffusion tensor imaging. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (chronic + first episode) showed decreased fractional anisotropy in the right cingulum bundle compared with controls. First episode patients exhibited higher trace bilaterally, compared with matched controls, and on the left compared with chronic patients. Axial diffusivity was increased in first episode patients, bilaterally, compared with matched controls and chronic patients. Radial diffusivity was also higher, bilaterally, in first episode patients compared with matched controls, and on the right compared with chronic patients. Trace diffusity and radial diffusivity in first episode patients were significantly correlated with increased severity of delusions of reference. Given that the abnormalities were present only in first episode patients and were not observed in chronic cases, it appears that they normalize over time. These abnormalities in first episode patients involved diffusivity measures in all directions (trace, radial and axial), suggesting a likely acute, partially reversible process in which there is an increase in brain water content, i.e., swelling, edema, or inflammation, that may reflect an early neuroinflammatory response in first episode patients. PMID:25174840

  13. Treating Insomnia Improves Mood State, Sleep, and Functioning in Bipolar Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Kaplan, Kate A.; Hein, Kerrie; Lee, Jason; Kanady, Jennifer; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Neylan, Thomas C.; Li, Descartes; Ketter, Terence A.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if a treatment for interepisode bipolar disorder I patients with insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning. Method Alongside psychiatric care, interepisode bipolar disorder I participants with insomnia were randomly allocated to a bipolar disorder–specific modification of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTI-BP; n = 30) or psychoeducation (PE; n = 28) as a comparison condition. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, the end of 8 sessions of treatment, and 6 months later. This pilot was conducted to determine initial feasibility and generate effect size estimates. Results During the 6-month follow-up, the CBTI-BP group had fewer days in a bipolar episode relative to the PE group (3.3 days vs. 25.5 days). The CBTI-BP group also experienced a significantly lower hypomania/mania relapse rate (4.6% vs. 31.6%) and a marginally lower overall mood episode relapse rate (13.6% vs. 42.1%) compared with the PE group. Relative to PE, CBTI-BP reduced insomnia severity and led to higher rates of insomnia remission at posttreatment and marginally higher rates at 6 months. Both CBTI-BP and PE showed statistically significant improvement on selected sleep and functional impairment measures. The effects of treatment were well sustained through follow-up for most outcomes, although some decline on secondary sleep benefits was observed. Conclusions CBTI-BP was associated with reduced risk of mood episode relapse and improved sleep and functioning on certain outcomes in bipolar disorder. Hence, sleep disturbance appears to be an important pathway contributing to bipolar disorder. The need to develop bipolar disorder–specific sleep diary scoring standards is highlighted. Public Health Significance This study suggests that an intervention to improve sleep and circadian functioning reduces risk of relapse and improves sleep and overall functioning among individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder. PMID:25622197

  14. Factitious psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Alissa; Alqahtani, Saeed; Griffith, James; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z.

    2014-01-01

    Mistaking psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes (PNEPEs) for epileptic seizures (ES) is potentially dangerous, and certain features should alert physicians to a possible PNEPE diagnosis. Psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes due to factitious seizures carry particularly high risks of morbidity or mortality from nonindicated emergency treatment and, often, high costs in wasted medical treatment expenditures. We report a case of a 28-year-old man with PNEPEs that were misdiagnosed as ES. The patient had been on four antiseizure medications (ASMs) with therapeutic serum levels and had had multiple intubations in the past for uncontrolled episodes. He had no episodes for two days of continuous video-EEG monitoring. He then disconnected his EEG cables and had an episode of generalized stiffening and cyanosis, followed by jerking and profuse bleeding from the mouth. The manifestations were unusually similar to those of ES, except that he was clearly startled by spraying water on his face, while he was stiff in all extremities and unresponsive. There were indications that he had sucked blood from his central venous catheter to expel through his mouth during his PNEPEs while consciously holding his breath. Normal video-EEG monitoring; the patient's volitional and deceptive acts to fabricate the appearance of illness, despite pain and personal endangerment; and the absence of reward other than remaining in a sick role were all consistent with a diagnosis of factitious disorder. PMID:25667902

  15. Factitious psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes.

    PubMed

    Romano, Alissa; Alqahtani, Saeed; Griffith, James; Koubeissi, Mohamad Z

    2014-01-01

    Mistaking psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes (PNEPEs) for epileptic seizures (ES) is potentially dangerous, and certain features should alert physicians to a possible PNEPE diagnosis. Psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes due to factitious seizures carry particularly high risks of morbidity or mortality from nonindicated emergency treatment and, often, high costs in wasted medical treatment expenditures. We report a case of a 28-year-old man with PNEPEs that were misdiagnosed as ES. The patient had been on four antiseizure medications (ASMs) with therapeutic serum levels and had had multiple intubations in the past for uncontrolled episodes. He had no episodes for two days of continuous video-EEG monitoring. He then disconnected his EEG cables and had an episode of generalized stiffening and cyanosis, followed by jerking and profuse bleeding from the mouth. The manifestations were unusually similar to those of ES, except that he was clearly startled by spraying water on his face, while he was stiff in all extremities and unresponsive. There were indications that he had sucked blood from his central venous catheter to expel through his mouth during his PNEPEs while consciously holding his breath. Normal video-EEG monitoring; the patient's volitional and deceptive acts to fabricate the appearance of illness, despite pain and personal endangerment; and the absence of reward other than remaining in a sick role were all consistent with a diagnosis of factitious disorder. PMID:25667902

  16. Severe mood dysregulation: in the "light" of circadian functioning.

    PubMed

    Heiler, Sarah; Legenbauer, Tanja; Bogen, Thorsten; Jensch, Thomas; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Severe affective and behavioral dysregulation, labeled as severe mood dysregulation (SMD), is a widely spread phenomenon among adolescent psychiatric patients. This phenotype constitutes severe impairment across multiple settings, including various symptoms, such as non-episodic anger, mood instability, and hyperarousal. Moreover, SMD patients often show depression and reduced need for sleep. Despite a lifetime prevalence of 3.3%, systematic research is still scarce, and treatments that have been established do not account for the range of symptoms present in SMD. Considering the circadian dysfunctions, two hormones, melatonin and cortisol, are essential. When these hormones are dysregulated, the circadian rhythm gets out of synchrony. Since evidence is emerging showing that the worse the sleep-wake cycle is entrained, the worse the psychiatric symptoms are depicted, the importance of proper circadian functioning becomes clear. Chronotherapy as the controlled exposure to environmental stimuli (e.g. light) acting on biological rhythms has shown therapeutic effects. In both seasonal and major depression chronotherapy has been implemented, decreasing depressive symptoms and stabilizing circadian rhythms. Preliminary evidence from SMD related disorders, namely attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and pediatric bipolar depression, indicates that morning light therapy elicits positive influences on other symptoms as well. Hence, light therapy might not only be effective for depressive symptoms and circadian rhythms, but might also be beneficial for symptoms including inattention and irritability. We hypothesize that light therapy might be a helpful adjunctive treatment enhancing affective and circadian functioning, and eliciting positive influences on behavior. Physiologically, changes of both cortisol levels and melatonin production are expected.

  17. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  18. First thought, best thought: positive mood maintains and negative mood degrades implicit-explicit attitude correspondence.

    PubMed

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R; Smith, Colin Tucker

    2009-02-01

    Two studies investigate the effect of mood on the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes toward African Americans (Experiment 1) and implicit and explicit academic attitudes (Experiment 2). Because explicit and implicit attitudes are more related when people validate their automatic attitudes as true (the associative-propositional evaluation model) and because people tend to validate their immediate reactions when they are in positive rather than negative moods (the affect-as-information model), the authors predicted a stronger implicit-explicit attitude correspondence among positive versus negative mood participants. As predicted, in both studies, participants exhibited a significant correspondence between implicit and explicit attitudes when in positive moods but not when in negative moods.

  19. Cognitive Performance, Sleepiness, and Mood in Partially Sleep Deprived Adolescents: The Need for Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Ong, Ju Lynn; Leong, Ruth L.F.; Gooley, Joshua J.; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of sleep restriction (7 nights of 5 h time in bed [TIB]) on cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood in adolescents. Methods: A parallel-group design was adopted in the Need for Sleep Study. Fifty-six healthy adolescents (25 males, age = 15–19 y) who studied in top high schools and were not habitual short sleepers were randomly assigned to Sleep Restriction (SR) or Control groups. Participants underwent a 2-w protocol consisting of 3 baseline nights (TIB = 9 h), 7 nights of sleep opportunity manipulation (TIB = 5 h for the SR and 9 h for the control groups), and 3 nights of recovery sleep (TIB = 9 h) at a boarding school. A cognitive test battery was administered three times each day. Results: During the manipulation period, the SR group demonstrated incremental deterioration in sustained attention, working memory and executive function, increase in subjective sleepiness, and decrease in positive mood. Subjective sleepiness and sustained attention did not return to baseline levels even after 2 recovery nights. In contrast, the control group maintained baseline levels of cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood throughout the study. Incremental improvement in speed of processing, as a result of repeated testing and learning, was observed in the control group but was attenuated in the sleep-restricted participants, who, despite two recovery sleep episodes, continued to perform worse than the control participants. Conclusions: A week of partial sleep deprivation impairs a wide range of cognitive functions, subjective alertness, and mood even in high-performing high school adolescents. Some measures do not recover fully even after 2 nights of recovery sleep. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 497. Citation: Lo JC, Ong JL, Leong RL, Gooley JJ, Chee MW. Cognitive performance, sleepiness, and mood in partially sleep deprived adolescents: the need for sleep study

  20. The impact of phenomena El Niño and La Niña and other environmental factors on episodes of acute diarrhoea disease in the population of Aguascalientes, Mexico: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esthela Venegas-Pérez, Martha; Ramírez-López, Elsa Marcela; López-Santos, Armando; Orlando Magaña-Rueda, Víctor; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier

    2016-03-01

    Acute diarrhoea diseases (ADDs) are one of the major health problems in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Due to the risk of significant increases of ADDs in the hot season, it has been necessary to determine the weather conditions that might lead to escalating ADD events. The effects of El Niño and La Niña phenomena on the morbidity rate of ADD (MRADD) in the State of Aguascalientes were determined during the period of 2000-2010. The MRADD was calculated from cases reported by the State Health Department. The Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) was obtained from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The impact of El Niño and La Niña on the MRADD was determined using the Pearson correlation coefficient and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results gave a significant inverse correlation between El Niño phenomenon and MRADD (r = -0.55, P = 0.001), but a correlation was not observed on the La Niña phenomenon (r = -0.022, P = 0.888). Field data showed significant inverse influence of El Niño on MRADD for the years 2000-2010.

  1. Migration of objects and inferences across episodes.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, Sharon L; Reinitz, Mark Tippens

    2003-04-01

    Participants viewed episodes in the form of a series of photographs portraying ordinary routines (e.g., eating at a restaurant) and later received a recognition test. In Experiment 1, it was shown that objects (e.g., a vase of flowers, a pewter lantern) that appeared in a single episode during the study phase migrated between memories of episodes described by the same abstract schema (e.g., from Restaurant Episode A at study to Restaurant Episode B at test), and not between episodes anchored by different schemas. In Experiment 2, it was demonstrated that backward causal inferences from one study episode influenced memories of other episodes described by the same schema, and that high-schema-relevant items viewed in one episode were sometimes remembered as having occurred in another episode of the same schematic type.

  2. Migration of objects and inferences across episodes.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, Sharon L; Reinitz, Mark Tippens

    2003-04-01

    Participants viewed episodes in the form of a series of photographs portraying ordinary routines (e.g., eating at a restaurant) and later received a recognition test. In Experiment 1, it was shown that objects (e.g., a vase of flowers, a pewter lantern) that appeared in a single episode during the study phase migrated between memories of episodes described by the same abstract schema (e.g., from Restaurant Episode A at study to Restaurant Episode B at test), and not between episodes anchored by different schemas. In Experiment 2, it was demonstrated that backward causal inferences from one study episode influenced memories of other episodes described by the same schema, and that high-schema-relevant items viewed in one episode were sometimes remembered as having occurred in another episode of the same schematic type. PMID:12795485

  3. Kindling and sensitization as models for affective episode recurrence, cyclicity, and tolerance phenomena.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    We use the non-homologous model of sensitization and kindling to help conceptualize processes occurring in the longitudinal course of bipolar disorder. The models help focus on the phenomena of episode recurrence, regression, and cycle acceleration occurring without medication and during treatment, when these progressive processes can re-emerge during tolerance development. The preclinical data suggest that it is the ratio of pathological versus adaptive factors mediated by changes in gene expression that mediate episode recurrence or suppression. During tolerance development, there may be selective loss of some episode-induced adaptive factors that may be re-engendered during a period off that medication. The models reveal long-term molecular changes induced by recurrent stresses, episodes of illness, and substances of abuse that can accumulate and lead to progressive increases in vulnerability to episode recurrence. The clinical and preclinical data converge in emphasizing the importance of prevention and early and sustained prophylaxis. New data also implicate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in genetic and environmental illness vulnerability and progression, as well as in the mechanisms of action of the mood stabilizers and antidepressants. Therapeutic agents may thus not only prevent recurrent affective episodes and their adverse consequences on the brain, behavior, and quality of life, but they may also be able to ameliorate the effects of stressors, and reverse or prevent some of the basic pathological brain mechanisms underlying illness progression.

  4. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children. PMID:27613655

  5. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.

  6. Dopamine and light: dissecting effects on mood and motivational states in women with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Elizabeth I.; Park, Sarah; Rot, Marije aan het; Sancton, Kimberley; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.; Boivin, Diane B.; Leyton, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that bright light can improve mood, the neurobiology remains poorly understood. Some evidence implicates the catecholamines. In the present study, we measured the effects of transiently decreasing dopamine (DA) synthesis on mood and motivational states in healthy women with mild seasonal mood changes who were tested in either bright or dim light. Methods On 2 test days, participants slept overnight in a light-controlled room. On the morning of each session, half of the participants awoke to gradual increases of bright light, up to 3000 lux, and half to dim light (10 lux). For all participants, DA was reduced on 1 of the test days using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method; on the other day, they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture (BAL). Beginning 4 hours postingestion, participants completed subjective mood questionnaires, psychological tests and a progressive ratio breakpoint task during which they worked for successive units of $5. Results Thirty-two women participated in our study. The APTD lowered mood, agreeableness, energy and the willingness to work for monetary reward. The effects on energy and motivation were independent of light, while the effects on mood and agreeableness were seen in the dim condition only, being prevented by bright light. Limitations Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion might affect systems other than DA. The sample size was small. Conclusion These results suggest that increased DA function may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of light, while adding to the evidence that the neurobiology of mood and motivational states can be dissociated. PMID:23735584

  7. RAGG - R EPISODIC AGGREGATION PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The RAGG package is an R implementation of the CMAQ episodic model aggregation method developed by Constella Group and the Environmental Protection Agency. RAGG is a tool to provide climatological seasonal and annual deposition of sulphur and nitrogen for multimedia management. ...

  8. Depressive Mood Among Within-Country Migrants in Periurban Shantytowns of Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bennett, Ian M; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, migration to urban settings has reshaped the sprawl and socio demographic profiles of major cities. Depressive episodes make up a large portion of the burden of disease worldwide and are related to socio-demographic disruptions. As a result of terrorism, political upheaval, followed by economic development, Peru has undergone major demographic transitions over the previous three decades including large migrations within the country. We aimed to determine the prevalence of current depressive mood and its relationship with parameters of internal migration, i.e. region of origin, age at migration, and years since migration. A community-wide census was carried out between January and June 2010 within a shantytown immigrant receiving community in Lima, Peru. One male or female adult per household completed a survey. Depressive mood was assessed with a 2-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Migration-related variables included place of birth, duration of residence in Lima, and age at migration. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 8,551 out of 9,561 participants, response rate 89%, participated in the census. Of these, 8,091 records were analyzed: 71.8% were women [average age 39.4 (SD 13.9 years)] and 59.3% were immigrants. The overall prevalence of individuals with current depressive mood was 17.1% (95% CI 16.2-17.9%) and varied significantly by all socio-demographic and migration variables assessed. On unadjusted analyses, immigrants to Lima had higher prevalence of depressive mood if they originated in other costal or Andean areas, had lived in Lima for more than 20 years, or were <30 years of age when they out-migrated. When controlling for age, gender and socio-demographic variables the association was no longer significant, the only exception being a 20% lower prevalence of current depressive mood among those who out-migrated aged ≥30 years old (PR

  9. Depressive Mood Among Within-Country Migrants in Periurban Shantytowns of Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bennett, Ian M; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, migration to urban settings has reshaped the sprawl and socio demographic profiles of major cities. Depressive episodes make up a large portion of the burden of disease worldwide and are related to socio-demographic disruptions. As a result of terrorism, political upheaval, followed by economic development, Peru has undergone major demographic transitions over the previous three decades including large migrations within the country. We aimed to determine the prevalence of current depressive mood and its relationship with parameters of internal migration, i.e. region of origin, age at migration, and years since migration. A community-wide census was carried out between January and June 2010 within a shantytown immigrant receiving community in Lima, Peru. One male or female adult per household completed a survey. Depressive mood was assessed with a 2-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Migration-related variables included place of birth, duration of residence in Lima, and age at migration. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 8,551 out of 9,561 participants, response rate 89%, participated in the census. Of these, 8,091 records were analyzed: 71.8% were women [average age 39.4 (SD 13.9 years)] and 59.3% were immigrants. The overall prevalence of individuals with current depressive mood was 17.1% (95% CI 16.2-17.9%) and varied significantly by all socio-demographic and migration variables assessed. On unadjusted analyses, immigrants to Lima had higher prevalence of depressive mood if they originated in other costal or Andean areas, had lived in Lima for more than 20 years, or were <30 years of age when they out-migrated. When controlling for age, gender and socio-demographic variables the association was no longer significant, the only exception being a 20% lower prevalence of current depressive mood among those who out-migrated aged ≥30 years old (PR

  10. Mood Disorders in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, John G.; Su, Li; Urowitz, Murray B.; Romero-Diaz, Juanita; Gordon, Caroline; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Bernatsky, Sasha; Clarke, Ann E.; Wallace, Daniel J.; Merrill, Joan T.; Isenberg, David A.; Rahman, Anisur; Ginzler, Ellen M.; Petri, Michelle; Bruce, Ian N.; Dooley, M. A.; Fortin, Paul; Gladman, Dafna D.; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Steinsson, Kristjan; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Khamashta, Munther A.; Aranow, Cynthia; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Fessler, Barri J.; Manzi, Susan; Nived, Ola; Sturfelt, Gunnar K.; Zoma, Asad A.; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Lim, S. Sam; Kalunian, Kenneth C.; Inanc, Murat; Kamen, Diane L.; Peschken, Christine A.; Jacobsen, Soren; Askanase, Anca; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Farewell, Vernon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency, clinical and autoantibody associations and outcome of mood disorders in a multi-ethnic/racial, prospective, inception cohort of SLE patients. Methods Patients were assessed annually for mood disorders (4 types as per DSM-IV) and 18 other neuropsychiatric (NP) events. Global disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI) and SF-36 subscale, mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) component summary scores were collected. Time to event, linear and ordinal regressions and multi-state models were used as appropriate. Results Of 1,827 SLE patients, 88.9% were female, 48.9% Caucasian, mean ± SD age 35.1±13.3 years, disease duration 5.6±4.8 months and follow-up 4.73±3.45 years. Over the study 863 (47.2%) patients had 1,627 NP events. Mood disorders occurred in 232/1827 (12.7%) patients and 98/256 (38.3%) events were attributed to SLE. The estimated cumulative incidence of any mood disorder after 10 years was 17.7% (95%CI=[15.1%,20.2%]). There was a greater risk of mood disorder in patients with concurrent NP events (p ≤ 0.01) and lower risk with Asian race/ethnicity (p=0.01) and immunosuppressive drugs (p=0.003). Mood disorders were associated with lower mental health subscale and MCS scores but not with SLEDAI-2K, SDI scores or lupus autoantibodies. Antidepressants were used in 168/232 (72.4%) patients with depression. 126/256 (49.2%) mood disorders resolved in 117/232 (50.4%) patients. Conclusion Mood disorders, the second most frequent NP event in SLE patients, have a negative impact on HRQoL and improve over time. The lack of association with global SLE disease activity, cumulative organ damage and lupus autoantibodies emphasize their multifactorial etiology and a role for non-lupus specific therapies. PMID:25778456

  11. Chewing gum: cognitive performance, mood, well-being, and associated physiology.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew P; Smith, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance. PMID:26075253

  12. Allopregnanolone as a Mediator of Affective Switching in Reproductive Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Schmidt, Peter J.; Rubinow, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Reproductive mood disorders, including premenstrual dysphoria (PMD) and postpartum depression (PPD), are characterized by affective dysregulation that occurs during specific reproductive states. The occurrence of illness onset during changes in reproductive endocrine function has generated interest in the role of gonadal steroids in the pathophysiology of reproductive mood disorders, yet the mechanisms by which the changing hormone milieu triggers depression in susceptible women remain poorly understood. Objectives This review focuses on one of the neurosteroid metabolites of progesterone – allopregnanolone (ALLO) – that acutely regulates neuronal function and may mediate affective dysregulation that occurs concomitant with changes in reproductive endocrine function. We describe the role of the ‘neuroactive’ steroids estradiol and progesterone in reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders to highlight the potential mechanisms by which ALLO might contribute to their pathophysiology. Finally, using existing data, we test the hypothesis that changes in ALLO levels may trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women. Results Although there is no reliable evidence that basal ALLO levels distinguish those with PMD or PPD from those without, existing animal models suggest potential mechanisms by which specific reproductive states may unmask susceptibility to affective dysregulation. Consistent with these models, initially euthymic women with PMD and those with a history of PPD show a negative association between depressive symptoms and circulating ALLO levels following progesterone administration. Conclusions Existing animal models and our own preliminary data suggest that ALLO may play an important role in the pathophysiology of reproductive mood disorders by triggering affective dysregulation in susceptible women. PMID:24846476

  13. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance. PMID:26075253

  14. Antipsychotic Prescribing Patterns in First-episode Schizophrenia: A Five-year Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Daeyoung; Chang, Jhin-Goo; Yoon, Sol; Kim, Chan-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Objective Early treatment choice is critical in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The purpose of this study was to describe prescribing trends of antipsychotics use in patients with first-episode schizophrenia in 2005 and 2010, respectively. Methods We reviewed the medical records of newly treated patients with schizophrenia from a university psychiatric hospital in 2005 (n=47) and 2010 (n=52). We defined patients as receiving a high antipsychotic dose if their ratio of prescribed daily dose (PDD) to defined daily dose (DDD) was greater than 1.5. Results The rates of high-dose antipsychotic prescription were 61.7% and 53.8% in 2005 and 2010, respectively. The rates of antipsychotic polypharmacy were 34.6% in 2005 and 34.0% in 2010. The most common first-prescribed antipsychotics were (in descending order of prescription frequency) olanzapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, and haloperidol in 2005 and risperidone, quetiapine, paliperidone, and olanzapine in 2010. High-dose antipsychotics were significantly associated with antipsychotic poly-pharmacy (odds ratio=23.97; p<0.01). More individuals were treated with mood stabilizers in 2010 than in 2005 (p=0.003). Conclusion The practice of prescribing high-dose antipsychotics and associated antipsychotic polypharmacy were common even for initial treatment of first-episode schizophrenia in 2005 and 2010. In 2010, the list of the most common first-prescribed antipsychotics changed, and the use of mood stabilizers increased in non-affective schizophrenia. PMID:26598586

  15. Mood state and gambling: using mobile telephones to track emotions.

    PubMed

    Gee, Philip; Coventry, Kenny R; Birkenhead, David

    2005-02-01

    Mobile telephones were used to collect data on the relationship between gambling and mood state from gamblers in the field. Seventeen gamblers called an interactive voice response system running on a computer before, during and after a gambling episode. Measures taken in this way included self-reports of anxiety/arousal, the amount of money gambled, whether the result was a win or loss, the amount won or lost, and the type of gambling engaged in. Other measures were taken during an initial briefing session using conventional questionnaires that included self-reports of anxiety/arousal taken in a non-gambling situation, dissociation during gambling, and a measure of degree of impairment of control. The results showed that subjective anxiety/arousal levels were significantly higher during and after gambling than during the urge to gamble or at baselines. Losing was associated with increased subjective anxiety/arousal after play, and winning was associated with a decrease in subjective anxiety/arousal. This suggests that gambling may be a cause of increased subjective anxiety/arousal, rather than functioning to relieve it. A cluster of variables associated with impaired control and subjective anxiety/arousal levels was also identified. The method of collecting data using mobile telephones appears to be a valuable development.

  16. Face emotion labeling deficits in children with bipolar disorder and severe mood dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    RICH, BRENDAN A.; GRIMLEY, MARY E.; SCHMAJUK, MARIANA; BLAIR, KARINA S.; BLAIR, R. J. R.; LEIBENLUFT, ELLEN

    2009-01-01

    Children with narrow phenotype bipolar disorder (NP-BD; i.e., history of at least one hypomanic or manic episode with euphoric mood) are deficient when labeling face emotions. It is unknown if this deficit is specific to particular emotions, or if it extends to children with severe mood dysregulation (SMD; i.e., chronic irritability and hyperarousal without episodes of mania). Thirty-nine NP-BD, 31 SMD, and 36 control subjects completed the emotional expression multimorph task, which presents gradations of facial emotions from 100% neutrality to 100% emotional expression (happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, and disgust). Groups were compared in terms of intensity of emotion required before identification occurred and accuracy. Both NP-BD and SMD youth required significantly more morphs than controls to label correctly disgusted, surprised, fearful, and happy faces. Impaired face labeling correlated with deficient social reciprocity skills in NP-BD youth and dysfunctional family relationships in SMD youth. Compared to controls, patients with NP-BD or SMD require significantly more intense facial emotion before they are able to label the emotion correctly. These deficits are associated with psychosocial impairments. Understanding the neural circuitry associated with face-labeling deficits has the potential to clarify the pathophysiology of these disorders. PMID:18423093

  17. Effect of Premenstrual Mood Changes on the Couple Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Joan D.

    1991-01-01

    Investigated premenstrual mood changes in women and whether these mood changes have effects on interpersonal relationships. Analysis of responses from sample of 100 women from nonclinical college undergraduate and graduate psychology population found that 78.4 percent did experience mood changes prior to menstruation and 45 percent of these women…

  18. The Effects of Laughter on Humor and Humor on Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetola, Henry W.; Reno, Raymond R.

    Two experiments were conducted examining the mood altering effects of humor and the moderating effect of laughter on both humor appreciation and mood. The mood of the subjects in the first experiment was manipulated to make them feel slightly elated or slightly depressed. They then listened to either comedy routines or an interview. The comedy…

  19. Depressive Mood Induction: The Reactivity of Positive Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevon, Michael A.; And Others

    Mood induction procedures have been widely used as laboratory analogues of depression. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Velten depression mood induction (VMI) procedure and a personal recall depression induction (PRI) procedure. In contrast to prior research, mood was assessed in terms of two independent dimensions: positive affect…

  20. Dispositional and Situational Autonomy as Moderators of Mood and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Fengqiu; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yinghe; Zheng, Zhiwei; Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that mood can influence creativity, the controversy about the effects of positive and negative moods has raged for years. This study investigated how the relationship between induced mood and creativity is moderated by dispositional and situational autonomy. It contrasted the different moderating effects of the…

  1. Expected Evaluation, Goals, and Performance: Mood as Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanna, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Research indicates effortful performances are reduced when participants cannot be evaluated. Hypothesized mood interacts with goals to attenuate such reduction in performance. As predicted, when participants' tried to do as much as they could, those in negative moods put forth more effort and persisted longer than those in positive moods,…

  2. Mobile Phone Mood Charting for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Mark; Doherty, Gavin; Sharry, John; Fitzpatrick, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Mobile phones may provide a useful and engaging platform for supporting therapeutic services working with adolescents. This paper examines the potential benefits of the mobile phone for self-charting moods in comparison to existing methods in current practice. The paper describes a mobile phone application designed by the authors which allows…

  3. Gut microbiota in autism and mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mangiola, Francesca; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franceschi, Francesco; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of an important role of gut microbiota in the maintenance of physiological state into the gastrointestinal (GI) system is supported by several studies that have shown a qualitative and quantitative alteration of the intestinal flora in a number of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In the last few years, the importance of gut microbiota impairment in the etiopathogenesis of pathology such as autism, dementia and mood disorder, has been raised. The evidence of the inflammatory state alteration, highlighted in disorders such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, strongly recalls the microbiota alteration, highly suggesting an important role of the alteration of GI system also in neuropsychiatric disorders. Up to now, available evidences display that the impairment of gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of autism and mood disorders. The application of therapeutic modulators of gut microbiota to autism and mood disorders has been experienced only in experimental settings to date, with few but promising results. A deeper assessment of the role of gut microbiota in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as the advancement of the therapeutic armamentarium for the modulation of gut microbiota is warranted for a better management of ASD and mood disorders. PMID:26755882

  4. Depressed mood enhances anxiety to unpredictable threat

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, OJ; Overstreet, C; Letkiewicz, A; Grillon, C

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety disorders (AD) are highly comorbid, but the reason for this comorbidity is unclear. One possibility is that they predispose one another. An informative way to examine interactions between disorders without the confounds present in patient populations is to manipulate the psychological processes thought to underlie the pathological states in healthy individuals. In this paper we therefore asked whether a model of the sad mood in depression can enhance psychophysiological responses (startle) to a model of the anxiety in AD. We predicted that sad mood would increase anxious anxiety-potentiated startle responses. Methods In a between-subjects design, participants (N=36) completed either a sad mood induction procedure (N=18) or neutral mood induction procedure (N=18). Startle responses were assessed during short duration predictable electric shock conditions (fear-potentiated startle) or long-duration unpredictable threat of shock conditions (anxiety-potentiated startle). Results Induced sadness enhanced anxiety-, but not fear- potentiated startle. Conclusions This study provides support for the hypothesis that sadness can increase anxious responding measured by the affective startle response. This, taken together with prior evidence that AD can contribute to depression, provides initial experimental support for the proposition that AD and depression are frequently comorbid because they may be mutually reinforcing. PMID:22088577

  5. Episodic transdermal delivery of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ritu; Venkatesh, K S; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Misra, Amit

    2012-06-01

    Film-forming lotions, precast films and adhesive patches containing testosterone (T) were prepared by compounding vinylic, acrylic and cellulosic polymers with a variety of excipients in order to achieve distribution of T in domains of heterogeneity within multicomponent matrices. The feasibility of this approach in achieving episodic transdermal delivery of testosterone (T) was investigated. Composition-dependent differences in extent of in vitro drug release and periodicity were observed. Representative formulations showing the most pronounced episodic T release in vitro were tested in female rats. Whereas intravenously administered T decayed exponentially, three maxima of T in serum were observed upon application of selected formulations. Thus, peak serum concentrations of 240, 36, and 29 ng/dL were observed at 0.2, 5, and 16.8 h after application of the preferred lotion formulation, and 89, 65, and 64 ng/dL at 1, 16.4, and 48.8 h after patches. Deconvolution, noncompartment pharmacokinetic analysis and multiple peak fitting also indicated episodicity. These results suggest the feasibility of using transdermal systems for pulsatile T delivery in a variety of clinical applications, including hormone supplementation and male contraception.

  6. A meta-analytic review of mood-congruent implicit memory in depressed mood.

    PubMed

    Gaddy, Melinda A; Ingram, Rick E

    2014-07-01

    In studies of explicit memory, researchers have reliably demonstrated that mood-congruent, depressive information is especially likely to be recalled by individuals exhibiting depressed mood. Results from studies of implicit mood-congruent memory in depressed mood, however, have been largely discrepant. The current research reviews 20 studies of implicit mood-congruent memory for emotionally valenced words in the context of dysphoria and clinical depression. Meta-analytic techniques were used to summarize this research. Results indicated that depressive groups exhibited preferential implicit recall of negative information and nondepressed groups exhibited preferential implicit recall of positive information. Also, depressive implicit mood-congruent memory for negative information was associated with recall and encoding tasks that matched with regard to the perceptual versus conceptual processes required. Furthermore, self-relevance emerged as an important moderator for implicit recall in analyses that compared clinically depressed groups to nondepressed groups. These results provide partial support both for the transfer appropriate processing framework of memory and cognitive theories of depression that emphasize self-relevant information. Finally, certain participant characteristics, particularly age and severity of depressive symptoms, emerged as important moderators of the effect of group status on depressive implicit recall biases.

  7. Mood and threat to attitudinal freedom: delineating the role of mood congruency and hedonic contingency in counterattitudinal message processing.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Rene; Schlett, Christian; Aydinli, Arzu

    2013-08-01

    The present research examined when happy individuals' processing of a counterattitudinal message is guided by mood-congruent expectancies versus hedonic considerations. Recipients in positive, neutral, or negative mood read a strong or weak counterattitudinal message which either contained a threat to attitudinal freedom or did not contain such a threat. As expected, a freedom-threatening counterattitudinal message was more mood threatening than a counterattitudinal message not threatening freedom. Furthermore, as predicted by the mood-congruent expectancies approach, people in positive mood processed a nonthreatening counterattitudinal message more thoroughly than people in negative mood. Message processing in neutral mood lay in between. In contrast, as predicted by the hedonic-contingency view, a threatening counterattitudinal message was processed less thoroughly in positive mood than in neutral mood. In negative mood, processing of a threatening counterattitudinal message was as low as in positive mood. These findings suggest that message processing is determined by mood congruency unless hedonic considerations override expectancy-based processing inclinations.

  8. Mood State-Dependent Retention Using Identical or Non-Identical Mood Inductions at Learning and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haaga, David A.

    State-dependent retention (SDR) refers to the tendency to recall something more easily when in the same state as when one first learned it. The most directly relevant evidence in favor of mood SDR has confounded matching of mood at learning and recall with matching of mood induction procedure. A study was conducted to test directly whether the use…

  9. Planning Physical Education Lessons as Teaching "Episodes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoupis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    An "episode" is a unit of time within which teachers and students are working on the same objective and are engaged in the same teaching/learning style. The duration of each episode, as well as the number of them in a single lesson, may vary. Additionally, the multiple episodes of a lesson may have similar objectives, offer similar…

  10. A Compromise Circadian Phase Position for Permanent Night Work Improves Mood, Fatigue, and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark R.; Fogg, Louis F.; Eastman, Charmane I.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: To assess night shift improvements in mood, fatigue, and performance when the misalignment between circadian rhythms and a night shift, day sleep schedule is reduced. Design: Blocks of simulated night shifts alternated with days off. Experimental subjects had interventions to delay their circadian clocks to partially align with a night shift schedule. Control subjects had no interventions. Subjects were categorized according to the degree of circadian realignment independent of whether they were in the experimental or control groups. Twelve subjects were categorized as not re-entrained, 21 as partially re-entrained, and 6 as completely re-entrained. Setting: Home sleep and laboratory night shifts. Participants: Young healthy adults. Interventions: Experimental subjects had intermittent bright light pulses during night shifts, wore dark sunglasses outside, and had scheduled sleep episodes in darkness. Measurements and Results: A computerized test battery was administered every 2 hours during day and night shifts. After about one week on the night shift schedule, which included a weekend off, the partially and completely re-entrained groups had markedly improved mood, fatigue, and performance compared to the group that was not re-entrained. The completely and partially re-entrained groups were similar to each other and had levels of mood, fatigue, and performance that were close to daytime levels. Conclusions: Partial re-entrainment to a permanent night shift schedule, which can be produced by feasible, inexpensive interventions, is associated with greatly reduced impairments during night shifts. Citation: Smith MR; Fogg LF Eastman CI. A compromise circadian phase position for permanent night work improves mood, fatigue, and performance. SLEEP 2009;32(11):1481-1489. PMID:19928387

  11. Dopamine and opioid gene variants are associated with increased smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Lerman, Caryn; Grottenthaler, Amy; Ciccocioppo, Melinda M; Milanak, Melissa; Conklin, Cynthia A; Bergen, Andrew W; Benowitz, Neal L

    2008-09-01

    Negative mood increases smoking reinforcement and risk of relapse. We explored associations of gene variants in the dopamine, opioid, and serotonin pathways with smoking reward ('liking') and reinforcement (latency to first puff and total puffs) as a function of negative mood and expected versus actual nicotine content of the cigarette. Smokers of European ancestry (n=72) were randomized to one of four groups in a 2x2 balanced placebo design, corresponding with manipulation of actual (0.6 vs. 0.05 mg) and expected (told nicotine and told denicotinized) nicotine 'dose' in cigarettes during each of two sessions (negative vs. positive mood induction). Following mood induction and expectancy instructions, they sampled and rated the assigned cigarette, and then smoked additional cigarettes ad lib during continued mood induction. The increase in smoking amount owing to negative mood was associated with: dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) C957T (CC>TT or CT), SLC6A3 (presence of 9 repeat>absence of 9), and among those given a nicotine cigarette, DRD4 (presence of 7 repeat>absence of 7) and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA (TT or CT>CC). SLC6A3, and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA were also associated with smoking reward and smoking latency. OPRM1 (AA>AG or GG) was associated with smoking reward, but SLC6A4 variable number tandem repeat was unrelated to any of these measures. These results warrant replication but provide the first evidence for genetic associations with the acute increase in smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood.

  12. Dopamine and opioid gene variants are associated with increased smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Lerman, Caryn; Grottenthaler, Amy; Ciccocioppo, Melinda M; Milanak, Melissa; Conklin, Cynthia A; Bergen, Andrew W; Benowitz, Neal L

    2008-09-01

    Negative mood increases smoking reinforcement and risk of relapse. We explored associations of gene variants in the dopamine, opioid, and serotonin pathways with smoking reward ('liking') and reinforcement (latency to first puff and total puffs) as a function of negative mood and expected versus actual nicotine content of the cigarette. Smokers of European ancestry (n=72) were randomized to one of four groups in a 2x2 balanced placebo design, corresponding with manipulation of actual (0.6 vs. 0.05 mg) and expected (told nicotine and told denicotinized) nicotine 'dose' in cigarettes during each of two sessions (negative vs. positive mood induction). Following mood induction and expectancy instructions, they sampled and rated the assigned cigarette, and then smoked additional cigarettes ad lib during continued mood induction. The increase in smoking amount owing to negative mood was associated with: dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) C957T (CC>TT or CT), SLC6A3 (presence of 9 repeat>absence of 9), and among those given a nicotine cigarette, DRD4 (presence of 7 repeat>absence of 7) and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA (TT or CT>CC). SLC6A3, and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA were also associated with smoking reward and smoking latency. OPRM1 (AA>AG or GG) was associated with smoking reward, but SLC6A4 variable number tandem repeat was unrelated to any of these measures. These results warrant replication but provide the first evidence for genetic associations with the acute increase in smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood. PMID:18690118

  13. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Mood Disorders: Targeting Neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Fass, Daniel M.; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Perlis, Roy H.; Haggarty, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Developing novel therapeutics and diagnostic tools based upon an understanding of neuroplasticity is critical in order to improve the treatment and ultimately the prevention of a broad range of nervous system disorders. In the case of mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, where diagnoses are based solely on nosology rather than pathophysiology, there exists a clear unmet medical need to advance our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms and to develop fundamentally new mechanism experimental medicines with improved efficacy. In this context, recent preclinical molecular, cellular, and behavioral findings have begun to reveal the importance of epigenetic mechanisms that alter chromatin structure and dynamically regulate patterns of gene expression that may play a critical role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Here, we will review recent advances involving the use of animal models in combination with genetic and pharmacological probes to dissect the underlying molecular mechanisms and neurobiological consequence of targeting this chromatin-mediated neuroplasticity. We discuss evidence for the direct and indirect effects of mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and antipsychotics, among their many other effects, on chromatin-modifying enzmyes and on the epigenetic state of defined genomic loci, in defined cell types and in specific regions of the brain. These data, as well as findings from patient-derived tissue, have also begun to reveal alterations of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathophysiology and treatment of mood disorders. We summarize growing evidence supporting the notion that selectively targeting chromatin-modifying complexes, including those containing histone deacetylases (HDACs), provides a means to reversibly alter the acetylation state of neuronal chromatin and benefically impact neuronal activity-regulated gene transcription and mood-related behaviors. Looking beyond current knowledge, we discuss

  14. Episodic Memories in Anxiety Disorders: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Machulska, Alla; Adolph, Dirk; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:24795583

  15. Biological rhythm disturbances in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2006-02-01

    From earliest times, psychiatrists have described biological rhythm disturbances as characteristic of mood disorders. The present flourishing of circadian biology has revealed the molecular basis of 24-h rhythmicity driven by 'clock' genes, as well as the importance of zeitgebers (synchronisers). Winter depression was first modelled on regulation of animal behaviour by seasonal changes in daylength, and led to application of light as the first successful chronobiological treatment in psychiatry. Light therapy has great promise for many other disorders (e.g. sleep-wake cycle disturbances in Alzheimer's dementia, bulimia, premenstrual disorder, depression during pregnancy) and, importantly, as an adjuvant to antidepressant medication in major non-seasonal depression. The pineal hormone melatonin is also a zeitgeber for the human circadian system, in addition to possessing direct sleep-promoting effects. Chronobiology has provided efficacious non-pharmaceutical treatments for mood disorders (such as sleep deprivation or light therapy) as well as novel approaches to new drugs (e.g. agomelatine).

  16. Mood and anxiety in the medically ill.

    PubMed

    Bech, Per

    2012-01-01

    In this review on rating scales for anxiety and depression, only instruments considered to be quantifiable, analogue to the measurement of hypertension in the medical setting, have been selected. The clinimetric method for validating these rating scales is the item response theory model in which the individual items are rank ordered on the dimensions of anxiety or depression, resulting in their total score being a sufficient statistic. The measurement of anxiety and mood on their respective dimensions of severity implies that we can speak of primary and secondary anxiety or depression in the same way as we speak about primary hypertension (without a medical explanation) and secondary hypertension (when caused be various medical conditions). Both clinician-rated scales and patient-rated questionnaires are discussed. The Clinical Interview for Depression and Related Syndromes (CIDRS) is included in the appendix as this CIDRS covers many of the rating scales measuring mood and anxiety.

  17. Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: Intersections between memory and decisions

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.; Benoit, Roland G.; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one’s personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one’s personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions. PMID:24373942

  18. Mood disorders: regulation by metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Pilc, Andrzej; Chaki, Shigeyuki; Nowak, Gabriel; Witkin, Jeffrey M

    2008-03-01

    Medicinal therapies for mood disorders neither fully serve the efficacy needs of patients nor are they free of side-effect issues. Although monoamine-based therapies are the primary current treatment approaches, both preclinical and clinical findings have implicated the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorders. The present commentary focuses on the metabotropic glutamate receptors and their relationship to mood disorders. Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors regulate glutamate transmission by altering the release of neurotransmitter and/or modulating the post-synaptic responses to glutamate. Convergent biochemical, pharmacological, behavioral, and clinical data will be reviewed that establish glutamatergic neurotransmission via mGlu receptors as a biologically relevant process in the regulation of mood and that these receptors may serve as novel targets for the discovery of small molecule modulators with unique antidepressant properties. Specifically, compounds that antagonize mGlu2, mGlu3, and/or mGlu5 receptors (e.g. LY341495, MGS0039, MPEP, MTEP) exhibit biochemical effects indicative of antidepressant effects as well as in vivo activity in animal models predictive of antidepressant efficacy. Both preclinical and clinical data have previously been presented to define NMDA and AMPA receptors as important targets for the modulation of major depression. In the present review, we present a model suggesting how the interplay of glutamate at the mGlu and at the ionotropic AMPA and NMDA receptors might account for the antidepressant-like effects of glutamatergic- and monoaminergic-based drugs affecting mood in patients. The current data lead to the hypothesis that mGlu-based compounds and conventional antidepressants impact a network of interactive effects that converge upon a down regulation of NMDA receptor function and an enhancement in AMPA receptor signaling. PMID:18164691

  19. Gender, mood state, and justice preference: do mood states moderate gender-based norms of justice?

    PubMed

    Inness, Michelle; Desmarais, Serge; Day, Arla

    2005-09-01

    The present study extends research on distributive justice by investigating whether a person's mood state moderates the robust effects of gender norms on allocation decisions. One hundred and eighty undergraduates (90 men: 90 women) were asked to undergo a mood induction procedure in which they were randomly assigned to a positive, negative, or neutral mood condition, and to work on a task with either a male or female co-worker (confederate). This resulted in a 2 (gender of participant) x 2 (gender of confederate) x 3 (positive vs. neutral vs. negative mood) between-subjects factorial design. Following completion of the task, participants were informed that they did 60% of the work and their co-worker did 40%. They were then asked to divide money between themselves and their co-worker in a way that they considered fair. The analysis revealed a three-way interaction in participants self-payment whereby men in a negative mood, working with other men took more pay for themselves than did participants in all other conditions. Specifically, 60% of the participants in this condition, allocated the payment either equitably or in a manner suggesting even greater self-interest. These results support the view that gender effects are strongly influenced by the presence of other relevant contextual cues.

  20. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Baweja, Raman; Mayes, Susan D; Hameed, Usman; Waxmonsky, James G

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) was introduced as a new diagnostic entity under the category of depressive disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). It was included in DSM-5 primarily to address concerns about the misdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. DMDD does provide a home for a large percentage of referred children with severe persistent irritability that did not fit well into any DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic category. However, it has been a controversial addition to the DSM-5 due to lack of published validity studies, leading to questions about its validity as a distinct disorder. In this article, the authors discuss the diagnostic criteria, assessment, epidemiology, criticism of the diagnosis, and pathophysiology, as well as treatment and future directions for DMDD. They also review the literature on severe mood dysregulation, as described by the National Institute of Mental Health, as the scientific support for DMDD is based primarily on studies of severe mood dysregulation.

  1. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: Cognition and mood.

    PubMed

    Amato, Maria Pia; Krupp, Lauren B; Charvet, Leigh E; Penner, Iris; Till, Christine

    2016-08-30

    In comparison with the large body of evidence on cognitive functioning in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), there is limited information on cognition in pediatric-onset MS (POMS). Unique vulnerabilities in POMS can derive from having a disease that occurs during key periods of age-expected brain growth, active myelination in the CNS, and maturation of neural networks during the learning curve and key formative years in the academic career of the patient. Therefore, the consequences of MS on developing cognitive faculties can be assessed only in the pediatric population and cannot be simply extrapolated from studies carried on in the adult population. Until the last decade, research in the pediatric population was mainly represented by small clinical series, often limited by the narrow scope of neuropsychological assessment and lack of adequate control groups. Over the last decade, however, cognitive functioning and mood-related difficulties have become an increasing concern as awareness of this population has grown. A few specialized MS centers have begun performing more systematic research in the field in order to assess the prevalence of cognitive impairments and mood-related difficulties in patients with POMS, to better characterize the neuropsychological pattern and determine the functional consequences of these problems. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of cognitive and mood-related difficulties in POMS and highlights perceived gaps in knowledge and priorities for future research.

  2. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Baweja, Raman; Mayes, Susan D; Hameed, Usman; Waxmonsky, James G

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) was introduced as a new diagnostic entity under the category of depressive disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). It was included in DSM-5 primarily to address concerns about the misdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. DMDD does provide a home for a large percentage of referred children with severe persistent irritability that did not fit well into any DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic category. However, it has been a controversial addition to the DSM-5 due to lack of published validity studies, leading to questions about its validity as a distinct disorder. In this article, the authors discuss the diagnostic criteria, assessment, epidemiology, criticism of the diagnosis, and pathophysiology, as well as treatment and future directions for DMDD. They also review the literature on severe mood dysregulation, as described by the National Institute of Mental Health, as the scientific support for DMDD is based primarily on studies of severe mood dysregulation. PMID:27601906

  3. Reproductive Steroid Regulation of Mood and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Johnson, Sarah L; Abate, Anna C; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine evidence supporting the role of reproductive steroids in the regulation of mood and behavior in women and the nature of that role. In the first half of the article, we review evidence for the following: (i) the reproductive system is designed to regulate behavior; (ii) from the subcellular to cellular to circuit to behavior, reproductive steroids are powerful neuroregulators; (iii) affective disorders are disorders of behavioral state; and (iv) reproductive steroids affect virtually every system implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. In the second half of the article, we discuss the diagnosis of the three reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders (premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postpartum depression, and perimenopausal depression) and present evidence supporting the relevance of reproductive steroids to these conditions. Existing evidence suggests that changes in reproductive steroid levels during specific reproductive states (i.e., the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, parturition, and the menopause transition) trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women, thus suggesting the etiopathogenic relevance of these hormonal changes in reproductive mood disorders. Understanding the source of individual susceptibility is critical to both preventing the onset of illness and developing novel, individualized treatments for reproductive-related affective dysregulation. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1135-1160, 2016e. PMID:27347888

  4. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: current insights.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Raman; Mayes, Susan D; Hameed, Usman; Waxmonsky, James G

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) was introduced as a new diagnostic entity under the category of depressive disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). It was included in DSM-5 primarily to address concerns about the misdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. DMDD does provide a home for a large percentage of referred children with severe persistent irritability that did not fit well into any DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic category. However, it has been a controversial addition to the DSM-5 due to lack of published validity studies, leading to questions about its validity as a distinct disorder. In this article, the authors discuss the diagnostic criteria, assessment, epidemiology, criticism of the diagnosis, and pathophysiology, as well as treatment and future directions for DMDD. They also review the literature on severe mood dysregulation, as described by the National Institute of Mental Health, as the scientific support for DMDD is based primarily on studies of severe mood dysregulation. PMID:27601906

  5. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: Cognition and mood.

    PubMed

    Amato, Maria Pia; Krupp, Lauren B; Charvet, Leigh E; Penner, Iris; Till, Christine

    2016-08-30

    In comparison with the large body of evidence on cognitive functioning in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), there is limited information on cognition in pediatric-onset MS (POMS). Unique vulnerabilities in POMS can derive from having a disease that occurs during key periods of age-expected brain growth, active myelination in the CNS, and maturation of neural networks during the learning curve and key formative years in the academic career of the patient. Therefore, the consequences of MS on developing cognitive faculties can be assessed only in the pediatric population and cannot be simply extrapolated from studies carried on in the adult population. Until the last decade, research in the pediatric population was mainly represented by small clinical series, often limited by the narrow scope of neuropsychological assessment and lack of adequate control groups. Over the last decade, however, cognitive functioning and mood-related difficulties have become an increasing concern as awareness of this population has grown. A few specialized MS centers have begun performing more systematic research in the field in order to assess the prevalence of cognitive impairments and mood-related difficulties in patients with POMS, to better characterize the neuropsychological pattern and determine the functional consequences of these problems. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of cognitive and mood-related difficulties in POMS and highlights perceived gaps in knowledge and priorities for future research. PMID:27572867

  6. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  7. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  8. Using arterial spin labeling to examine mood states in youth

    PubMed Central

    Mikita, Nina; Mehta, Mitul A; Zelaya, Fernando O; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the neural correlates of mood states and the specific physiological changes associated with their valence and duration, especially in young people. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging is particularly well-suited to study sustained cerebral states in young people, due to its robustness to low-frequency drift, excellent interscan reliability, and noninvasiveness. Yet, it has so far been underutilized for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying mood states in youth. Methods In this exploratory study, 21 healthy adolescents aged 16 to 18 took part in a mood induction experiment. Neutral, sad, and happy mood states were induced using film clips and explicit instructions. An ASL scan was obtained following presentation of each film clip. Results Mood induction led to robust changes in self-reported mood ratings. Compared to neutral, sad mood was associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left middle frontal gyrus and anterior prefrontal cortex, and decreased rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule. A decrease in self-reported mood from neutral to sad condition was associated with increased rCBF in the precuneus. Happy mood was associated with increased rCBF in medial frontal and cingulate gyri, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and ventral striatum, and decreased rCBF in the inferior parietal lobule. The level of current self-reported depressive symptoms was negatively associated with rCBF change in the cerebellum and lingual gyrus following both sad and happy mood inductions. Conclusions Arterial spin labeling is sensitive to experimentally induced mood changes in healthy young people. The effects of happy mood on rCBF patterns were generally stronger than the effects of sad mood. PMID:26085964

  9. [Psychotic episode due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Nazou, M; Parlapani, E; Nazlidou, E-I; Athanasis, P; Bozikas, V P

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial in adult brain metabolic activity. As a result, abnormal thyroid gland function and in particular hypofunction, might cause principally depression and neurocognitive dysfunction. Psychosis, presented mainly with thought disorders and perceptual disturbances, is a much rarer manifestation of hypothyreoidism. A correlation between hypothyreoidism and psychosis has been described since 1888, especially in cases of advanced hypothyreoidism. A few years later (1949), Asher first added the terminology "myxedema madness" to the literature. Psychotic symptoms typically appear after the onset of physical symptoms, usually with a delay of months or years. The case of a female patient who presented a psychotic episode as a first manifestation of hypothyroidism will be described. NE, a 48 yearold female patient, was admitted for the first time to an inpatient mental health care unit due to delusions of persecution and reference, as well as auditory hallucinations that appeared a few weeks ago. After the patient admission, routine laboratory examination was conducted. In order to relieve the patient from her sense of discomfort and while awaiting laboratory results, olanzapine, 5 mg/day, was administered. Neurological examination and cranial computed tomography scan were unremarkable. Hormonal laboratory tests though revealed severe low thyroid hormone levels. Thyroid antibody testing certified Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Olanzapine was discontinued and the patient received thyroid hormone substitution, levothyroxine 75 μg/day, instead. The patient was discharged showing a significant improvement of psychotic symptoms after a 12-day hospitalization. A month later the patient was reevaluated. She had fully recovered from the psychotic episode. A year later, the patient continues to remain free from psychiatric symptoms, while thyroid hormone levels have been restored within normal range. The patient continues receiving only thyroid hormone substitution

  10. Acute bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  11. SENSITIZATION AND TOLERANCE WITH EPISODIC (WEEKLY) NICOTINE ON MOTOR ACTIVITY IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies grew out of an unexpected finding from investigations of the neurobehavioral toxicity of PCBs. This paper shows that episodic, or recurring intermittent acute exposures to nicotine produce dramatic and long-lasting changes in the motor activity of laboratory rats. ...

  12. Circadian genes, rhythms and the biology of mood disorders.

    PubMed

    McClung, Colleen A

    2007-05-01

    For many years, researchers have suggested that abnormalities in circadian rhythms may underlie the development of mood disorders such as bipolar disorder (BPD), major depression and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Furthermore, some of the treatments that are currently employed to treat mood disorders are thought to act by shifting or "resetting" the circadian clock, including total sleep deprivation (TSD) and bright light therapy. There is also reason to suspect that many of the mood stabilizers and antidepressants used to treat these disorders may derive at least some of their therapeutic efficacy by affecting the circadian clock. Recent genetic, molecular and behavioral studies implicate individual genes that make up the clock in mood regulation. As well, important functions of these genes in brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with mood regulation are becoming apparent. In this review, the evidence linking circadian rhythms and mood disorders, and what is known about the underlying biology of this association, is presented.

  13. Mood and audience effects on video lottery terminal gambling.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Morgan, Michael; Lalumière, Martin L; Williams, Robert J

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about the situational factors associated with gambling behavior. We induced 180 male participants (mean age: 21.6) into a positive, negative, or neutral mood prior to gambling on a video lottery terminal (VLT). While gambling, participants were observed by either a male peer, female peer, or no one. Induced mood had no effect on gambling behavior. Participants induced into a negative mood prior to gambling, however, reported more positive moods after gambling, whereas those with positive and neutral moods reported more negative moods after gambling. Participants observed by either a male or female peer spent less time gambling on the VLT compared to those not observed. Participants observed by a female peer lost less money relative to the other observer conditions. Degree of problem gambling in the last year had little influence on these effects. Some practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. The effect of grounding the human body on mood.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Gaétan

    2015-04-01

    Earthing (grounding) refers to bringing the body in contact with the Earth. Health benefits were previously reported, but no study exists about mood. This study was conducted to assess if Earthing improves mood. 40 adult participants were either grounded or sham-grounded (no grounding) for 1 hr. while relaxing in a comfortable recliner chair equipped with a conductive pillow, mat, and patches connecting them to the ground. This pilot project was double-blinded and the Brief Mood Introspection Scale (comprising 4 mood scales) was used. Pleasant and positive moods statistically significantly improved among grounded-but not sham-grounded-participants. It is concluded that the 1-hr. contact with the Earth improved mood more than expected by relaxation alone. More extensive studies are, therefore, warranted.

  15. Misery loves company: mood-congruent emotional responding to music.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Patrick G; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Griffith, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    We examined emotional responding to music after mood induction. On each trial, listeners heard a 30-s music excerpt and rated how much they liked it, whether it sounded happy or sad, and how familiar it was. When the excerpts sounded unambiguously happy or sad (Experiment 1), the typical preference for happy-sounding music was eliminated after inducing a sad mood. When the excerpts sounded ambiguous with respect to happiness and sadness (Experiment 2), listeners perceived more sadness after inducing a sad mood. Sad moods had no influence on familiarity ratings (Experiments 1 and 2). These findings imply that "misery loves company." Listeners in a sad mood fail to show the typical preference for happy-sounding music, and they perceive more sadness in music that is ambiguous with respect to mood.

  16. Temporal trends of neuro-autonomic complexity during severe episodes of bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Mimma; Valenza, Gaetano; Gentili, Claudio; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric condition during which patients experience mood swings among depression, hypomania or mania, mixed state (depression-hypomania) and euthymia, i.e., good affective balance. Nowadays, an objective characterization of the temporal trends of the disease as a response to the pharmacological treatment through physiological signatures, especially during severe episodes, is still missing. In this study we show interesting findings relating neuro-autonomic complexity to severe pathological mood states. More specifically, we studied Sample Entropy (SampEn) measures on Heart Rate Variability series gathered from four bipolar patients recruited within the frame of the European project PSYCHE. Patients were monitored through long term ECG recordings from the first hospital admission until clinical remission, i.e., the euthymic state. We observed that a mood transition from mixed-state to euthymia passing through depression can be characterized by increased SampEn values, i.e. as the patient is going to recover, SampEn increases. These results are in agreement with the current literature reporting on the complexity dynamics of the cardiovascular system and can provide a promising and viable clinical decision support to objectify the diagnosis and improve the management of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25570609

  17. Episodic memory--from brain to mind.

    PubMed

    Ferbinteanu, Janina; Kennedy, Pamela J; Shapiro, Matthew L

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal mechanisms of episodic memory, the conscious recollection of autobiographical events, are largely unknown because electrophysiological studies in humans are conducted only in exceptional circumstances. Unit recording studies in animals are thus crucial for understanding the neurophysiological substrate that enables people to remember their individual past. Two features of episodic memory--autonoetic consciousness, the self-aware ability to "travel through time", and one-trial learning, the acquisition of information in one occurrence of the event--raise important questions about the validity of animal models and the ability of unit recording studies to capture essential aspects of memory for episodes. We argue that autonoetic experience is a feature of human consciousness rather than an obligatory aspect of memory for episodes, and that episodic memory is reconstructive and thus its key features can be modeled in animal behavioral tasks that do not involve either autonoetic consciousness or one-trial learning. We propose that the most powerful strategy for investigating neurophysiological mechanisms of episodic memory entails recording unit activity in brain areas homologous to those required for episodic memory in humans (e.g., hippocampus and prefrontal cortex) as animals perform tasks with explicitly defined episodic-like aspects. Within this framework, empirical data suggest that the basic structure of episodic memory is a temporally extended representation that distinguishes the beginning from the end of an event. Future research is needed to fully understand how neural encodings of context, sequences of items/events, and goals are integrated within mnemonic representations of autobiographical events.

  18. Extreme cognitions in bipolar spectrum disorders: associations with personality disorder characteristics and risk for episode recurrence.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Adams, Ashleigh Molz; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K; Weiss, Rachel B; Ong, Mian-Li; Walshaw, Patricia D; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-01

    Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are often characterized by cognitive inflexibility and affective extremities, including "extreme" or polarized thoughts and beliefs, which have been shown to predict a more severe course of illness. However, little research has evaluated factors that may be associated with extreme cognitions, such as personality disorders, which are often characterized by extreme, inflexible beliefs and are also associated with poor illness course in BSDs. The present study evaluated associations among BSDs, personality disorder characteristics, and extreme cognitions (polarized responses made on measures of attributional style and dysfunctional attitudes), as well as links between extreme cognitions and the occurrence of mood episodes, among euthymic young adults with BSDs (n=83) and demographically matched healthy controls (n=89) followed prospectively for 3years. The relationship between personality disorder characteristics and negative and positive extreme cognitions was stronger among BSD participants than among healthy controls, even after statistically accounting for general cognitive styles. Furthermore, extreme negative cognitions predicted the prospective onset of major depressive and hypomanic episodes. These results suggest that extreme cognitive styles are most common in individuals with BSDs and personality disorder characteristics, and they provide further evidence that extreme negative cognitions may confer risk for mood dysregulation.

  19. Extreme Cognitions in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Associations with Personality Disorder Characteristics and Risk for Episode Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Adams, Ashleigh Molz; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K.; Weiss, Rachel B.; Ong, Mian-Li; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are often characterized by cognitive inflexibility and affective extremities, including “extreme” or polarized thoughts and beliefs, which have been shown to predict a more severe course of illness. However, little research has evaluated factors that may be associated with extreme cognitions, such as personality disorders, which are often characterized by extreme, inflexible beliefs and also are associated with poor illness course in BSDs. The present study evaluated associations between BSDs, personality disorder characteristics, and extreme cognitions (polarized responses made on measures of attributional style and dysfunctional attitudes), as well as links between extreme cognitions and the occurrence of mood episodes, among euthymic young adults with BSDs (n = 83) and demographically-matched healthy controls (n = 89) followed prospectively for three years. The relationship between personality disorder characteristics and negative and positive extreme cognitions was stronger among BSD participants than among healthy controls, even after statistically accounting for general cognitive styles. Furthermore, extreme negative cognitions predicted the prospective onset of major depressive and hypomanic episodes. These results suggest that extreme cognitive styles are most common in individuals with BSDs and personality disorder characteristics, and they provide further evidence that extreme negative cognitions may confer risk for mood dysregulation. PMID:25645172

  20. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Sara C.; Scott, Graham G.; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions—no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  1. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    PubMed

    Sereno, Sara C; Scott, Graham G; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J; O'Donnell, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions-no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  2. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    PubMed

    Sereno, Sara C; Scott, Graham G; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J; O'Donnell, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions-no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation.

  3. The effect of music-induced mood on attentional networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Scolaro, Ashley J; Bailey, Kira; Chen, Antao

    2011-06-01

    Attention network theory suggests that there are three separate neural networks that execute the discrete functions of alerting, orienting, and executive attention. Previous research on the influence of mood on attention has shown subtle and inconsistent results. The attention network theory may aid in clarifying the influence of mood on attention. The present study investigated the influence of mood on attentional networks in a normal population. Participants performed the Attention Network Test (ANT), which provides functional measures of alerting, orienting, and executive attention. Positive or negative mood was induced by listening to music with a positive or negative valence, respectively; neutral mood was induced by reading a collection of basic facts about China. The results revealed that negative mood led to a significantly higher alerting efficiency relative to other moods, while there were no significant mood effects on orienting or executive attention efficiency. According to the algorithm underlying the ANT, the higher alerting efficiency in the negative mood condition can be attributed to relatively greater benefits of cueing effects. The findings are discussed in the context of the noradrenergic system and of evolutionary significance. Specifically, the increase in the alerting function during negative mood states may be due to the modulation effect of negative mood on the noradrenergic system, and/or to the survival benefit resulting from an increase in automatic vigilance towards negative information. The current results suggest that as the influence of negative mood on attention appears to specifically consist in an enhanced alerting function, it may not be found in studies where the three attentional networks are not dissociated.

  4. The management of acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Cross, S

    1997-04-01

    Health professionals likely to come into contact with people experiencing an acute episode of asthma, such as school nurses, ambulance personnel and A&E staff, need clear guidelines on management. The British Thoracic Society guidelines, revised this year, advise on the categorisation of asthma, assessment and treatment.

  5. Sleep and Mood During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Bei, Bei; Coo, Soledad; Trinder, John

    2015-03-01

    During the perinatal period, compromises in sleep duration and quality are commonly reported by women and confirmed by objective measurements of sleep. Self-reported poor sleep has been associated with concurrent mood disturbance and with increased risk for future mood problems during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Findings on the relationship between objectively measured sleep and mood in perinatal women have been mixed. This article reviews the literature on the nature of and contributing factors to perinatal sleep disturbance, the relationship between sleep and mood, and intervention studies that aim to improve maternal sleep. PMID:26055670

  6. Psychological Characteristics of Problem Gamblers With and Without Mood Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lister, Jamey J; Milosevic, Aleks; Ledgerwood, David M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Problem and pathological gamblers are significantly more likely to experience mood disorders, compared with the general population. Our study examined the relation of psychological characteristics (personality, trait impulsiveness, and gambling motives) to current co-occurring mood disorder (major depression and dysthymia) status among problem and pathological gamblers. Method: Problem and pathological gamblers (N = 150) underwent a clinical interview to assess current co-occurring mood disorders; participants completed measures of problem gambling severity, personality, impulsiveness, and gambling motives. Results: Problem and pathological gamblers with a current co-occurring mood disorder were more likely to be female, older, and to report higher lifetime and past-year gambling severity. A co-occurring mood disorder was associated with higher personality scores for alienation and stress reaction, lower scores for well-being, social closeness, and control, as well as higher impulsiveness scores for urgency and lack of premeditation, and lower sensation seeking scores. Participants with a co-occurring mood disorder also reported higher coping motives for gambling. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that personality factors (lower social closeness and higher alienation) contributed to the greatest likelihood of being diagnosed with a co-occurring mood disorder. Conclusions: Mood disorders frequently co-occur with problem and pathological gambling, and they are associated with greater gambling severity. These findings highlight that interpersonal facets of personality contribute substantially to co-occurring mood disorder status. Implications for treatment will be discussed. PMID:26454559

  7. Standardized mood induction with happy and sad facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, F; Gur, R C; Gur, R E; Muenz, L R

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of applying ecologically valid and socially relevant emotional stimuli in a standardized fashion to obtain reliable mood changes in healthy subjects was examined. The stimuli consisted of happy and sad facial expressions varying in intensity. Two mood-induction procedures (happy and sad, each consisting of 40 slides) were administered to 24 young healthy subjects, who were instructed to look at each slide (self-paced) and try to feel the happy or sad mood expressed by the person in the picture. On an emotional self-rating scale, subjects rated themselves as relatively happier during the happy mood-induction condition and as relatively sadder during the sad mood-induction condition. Conversely, they reported that they were less happy during the sad mood-induction condition and less sad during the happy mood-induction condition. The effects were generalized to positive and negative affect as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. The intraindividual variability in the effect was very small. In a retest study after 1 month, the mood-induction effects showed good stability over time. The results encourage the use of this mood-induction procedure as a neurobehavioral probe in physiologic neuroimaging studies for investigating the neural substrates of emotional experience.

  8. Assessment of the ergogenic effect of caffeine supplementation on mood, anticipation timing, and muscular strength in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tallis, Jason; Duncan, Michael J; Wright, Sheila Leddington; Eyre, Emma L J; Bryant, Elizabeth; Langdon, Dominic; James, Rob S

    2013-08-01

    The effect of caffeine to promote improvements in mood, cognition, and exercise performance has been well established in young and athletic adults. However, little is known about whether such nutritional ergogenic aids are effective in enhancing psychological well-being, physiological or cognitive performance in older adults. This study assesses the ergogenic effect of caffeine on mood, perceptual-motor coupling, and muscular strength in an older human population. Following a familiarization session, 12 apparently healthy volunteers (nine females and three males; 69 ± 6 years) completed two laboratory visits. "Pre ingestion" trials of mood state Brunel Mood State Inventory (BRUMS) and coincidence anticipation performance (Bassin anticipation timer) at slow (3 mph) and fast (8 mph) stimulus speeds were completed on both visits. Using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, participants consumed either caffeine (3 mg/kg body mass) or a placebo. Sixty minutes postingestion participants repeated the trials before completing a set of 10 consecutive repetitions of maximal knee extension using isokinetic dynamometry. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed following the fifth and final repetition. Caffeine ingestion significantly improved mood state scores for vigor by 17% (P = 0.009) and reduced absolute error by 35% (P = 0.045) during coincidence anticipation assessment at 8 mph compared to placebo. There were no other significant effects. Caffeine ingestion failed to augment maximal voluntary contraction of the knee extensors and RPE did not prove to be significantly different to from placebo (P > 0.33 in each case). Acute caffeine ingestion may not be an effective ergogenic aid for improving muscular strength in older adults but could possibly be used as a nutrition supplement for enhancing mood and improving cognitive performance in daily living tasks where interceptive timing skills are required. PMID:24303144

  9. Mood, stress and longevity: convergence on ANK3.

    PubMed

    Rangaraju, S; Levey, D F; Nho, K; Jain, N; Andrews, K D; Le-Niculescu, H; Salomon, D R; Saykin, A J; Petrascheck, M; Niculescu, A B

    2016-08-01

    effects in older worms. Thus, ANK3/unc-44 may represent an example of antagonistic pleiotropy, in which low-expression level in young animals are beneficial, but the age-associated increase becomes detrimental. Inactivating mutations in ANK3/unc-44 reverse this effect and cause detrimental effects in young animals (sensitivity to oxidative stress) and beneficial effect in old animals (increased survival). In humans, we studied if the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for depressive symptoms in ANK3 from our GWAS has a relationship to lifespan, and show a trend towards longer lifespan in individuals with the risk allele for depressive symptoms in men (odds ratio (OR) 1.41, P=0.031) but not in women (OR 1.08, P=0.33). We also examined whether ANK3, by itself or in a panel with other top CFG-prioritized genes, acts as a blood gene-expression biomarker for biological age, in two independent cohorts, one of live psychiatric patients (n=737), and one of suicide completers from the coroner's office (n=45). We show significantly lower levels of ANK3 expression in chronologically younger individuals than in middle age individuals, with a diminution of that effect in suicide completers, who presumably have been exposed to more severe and acute negative mood and stress. Of note, ANK3 was previously reported to be overexpressed in fibroblasts from patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, a form of accelerated aging. Taken together, these studies uncover ANK3 and other genes in our dataset as biological links between mood, stress and longevity/aging, that may be biomarkers as well as targets for preventive or therapeutic interventions. Drug repurposing bioinformatics analyses identified the relatively innocuous omega-3 fatty acid DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), piracetam, quercetin, vitamin D and resveratrol as potential longevity promoting compounds, along with a series of existing drugs, such as estrogen-like compounds, antidiabetics and sirolimus

  10. Mood, stress and longevity: convergence on ANK3.

    PubMed

    Rangaraju, S; Levey, D F; Nho, K; Jain, N; Andrews, K D; Le-Niculescu, H; Salomon, D R; Saykin, A J; Petrascheck, M; Niculescu, A B

    2016-08-01

    effects in older worms. Thus, ANK3/unc-44 may represent an example of antagonistic pleiotropy, in which low-expression level in young animals are beneficial, but the age-associated increase becomes detrimental. Inactivating mutations in ANK3/unc-44 reverse this effect and cause detrimental effects in young animals (sensitivity to oxidative stress) and beneficial effect in old animals (increased survival). In humans, we studied if the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for depressive symptoms in ANK3 from our GWAS has a relationship to lifespan, and show a trend towards longer lifespan in individuals with the risk allele for depressive symptoms in men (odds ratio (OR) 1.41, P=0.031) but not in women (OR 1.08, P=0.33). We also examined whether ANK3, by itself or in a panel with other top CFG-prioritized genes, acts as a blood gene-expression biomarker for biological age, in two independent cohorts, one of live psychiatric patients (n=737), and one of suicide completers from the coroner's office (n=45). We show significantly lower levels of ANK3 expression in chronologically younger individuals than in middle age individuals, with a diminution of that effect in suicide completers, who presumably have been exposed to more severe and acute negative mood and stress. Of note, ANK3 was previously reported to be overexpressed in fibroblasts from patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, a form of accelerated aging. Taken together, these studies uncover ANK3 and other genes in our dataset as biological links between mood, stress and longevity/aging, that may be biomarkers as well as targets for preventive or therapeutic interventions. Drug repurposing bioinformatics analyses identified the relatively innocuous omega-3 fatty acid DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), piracetam, quercetin, vitamin D and resveratrol as potential longevity promoting compounds, along with a series of existing drugs, such as estrogen-like compounds, antidiabetics and sirolimus

  11. Postpartum Mood Disorders Screening in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Scheans, Patricia; Mischel, Rebecca; Munson, Margi; Bulaevskaya, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Maternal depression is increasingly recognized as the leading complication of childbearing. A mother's mental health impacts the well-being and long-term outcomes of her children. This column will discuss a systematic approach to screening for maternal postpartum mood disorders (PPMDs) and referring women to resources according to an established algorithm. This work was undertaken in a tertiary referral NICU and performed by dedicated NICU personnel with the goals of optimizing NICU infants' outcomes and supporting maternal and family health and well-being. PMID:27461203

  12. Testosterone and mood in aging men.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Stuart N; Weiser, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Age-associated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hypofunction, or partial androgen deficiency of the aging male, is thought to be responsible for various age-associated conditions such as reduced muscle and bone mass, mobility limitations, frailty, obesity, sleep apnea, cognitive impairment, sexual dysfunction, and depression. It has been difficult to establish consistent correlations between these symptoms and plasma testosterone levels in middle-aged men, but testosterone replacement does lead to improved muscle strength, bone density, and sexual function. This article focuses on the relationship between testosterone and mood in older men, and the treatment of age-related depression with exogenous testosterone.

  13. Adolescent depressed mood and parental unhappiness.

    PubMed

    Lasko, D S; Field, T M; Gonzalez, K P; Harding, J; Yando, R; Bendell, D

    1996-01-01

    A set of self-report scales on depression, parental happiness, intimate relationships, social support, self-esteem, and risk-taking behavior were administered to 455 adolescents to determine the relationship between depression and these other variables. Adolescents with depressed mood were found to be less intimate with both parents, felt less social support, and had lower self-esteem than their peers. Adolescents who perceived their mother or father as unhappy also reported less intimacy with both parents and less social support.

  14. Depending on My Mood: Mood-Driven Influences on Text Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Bohn-Gettler, Catherine M.; Rapp, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a critical component of success in educational settings. To date, research on text processing in educational and cognitive psychological domains has focused predominantly on cognitive influences on comprehension, and in particular, those influences that might be derived from particular tasks or strategies. However, there is growing interest in documenting the influences of emotional factors on the processes and products of text comprehension, because these factors are less likely to be associated with explicit reading strategies. The present study examines this issue by evaluating the degree to which mood can influence readers’ processing of text. Participants in control, happy-induced, or sad-induced groups thought aloud while reading expository texts. Happy, sad, and neutral moods influenced the degree to which readers engaged in particular types of coherence-building processes in the service of comprehension. Although reading strategies clearly influence processing, understudied factors that are less explicitly goal-driven, such as mood, can similarly impact comprehension activity. These findings have important implications for the role of mood on reading instruction and evaluation. PMID:21927504

  15. Depending on My Mood: Mood-Driven Influences on Text Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Bohn-Gettler, Catherine M; Rapp, David N

    2011-08-01

    Reading comprehension is a critical component of success in educational settings. To date, research on text processing in educational and cognitive psychological domains has focused predominantly on cognitive influences on comprehension, and in particular, those influences that might be derived from particular tasks or strategies. However, there is growing interest in documenting the influences of emotional factors on the processes and products of text comprehension, because these factors are less likely to be associated with explicit reading strategies. The present study examines this issue by evaluating the degree to which mood can influence readers' processing of text. Participants in control, happy-induced, or sad-induced groups thought aloud while reading expository texts. Happy, sad, and neutral moods influenced the degree to which readers engaged in particular types of coherence-building processes in the service of comprehension. Although reading strategies clearly influence processing, understudied factors that are less explicitly goal-driven, such as mood, can similarly impact comprehension activity. These findings have important implications for the role of mood on reading instruction and evaluation.

  16. Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke.

    PubMed

    Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja

    2008-03-01

    We know from animal studies that a stimulating and enriched environment can enhance recovery after stroke, but little is known about the effects of an enriched sound environment on recovery from neural damage in humans. In humans, music listening activates a wide-spread bilateral network of brain regions related to attention, semantic processing, memory, motor functions, and emotional processing. Music exposure also enhances emotional and cognitive functioning in healthy subjects and in various clinical patient groups. The potential role of music in neurological rehabilitation, however, has not been systematically investigated. This single-blind, randomized, and controlled trial was designed to determine whether everyday music listening can facilitate the recovery of cognitive functions and mood after stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients with a left or right hemisphere middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke were randomly assigned to a music group, a language group, or a control group. During the following two months, the music and language groups listened daily to self-selected music or audio books, respectively, while the control group received no listening material. In addition, all patients received standard medical care and rehabilitation. All patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment, which included a wide range of cognitive tests as well as mood and quality of life questionnaires, one week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that recovery in the domains of verbal memory and focused attention improved significantly more in the music group than in the language and control groups. The music group also experienced less depressed and confused mood than the control group. These findings demonstrate for the first time that music listening during the early post-stroke stage can enhance cognitive recovery and prevent negative mood. The neural mechanisms potentially

  17. Mood disorders, circadian rhythms, melatonin and melatonin agonists.

    PubMed

    Quera Salva, M A; Hartley, S

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of circadian rhythms have led to an interest in the treatment of major depressive disorder with chronobiotic agents. Many tissues have autonomous circadian rhythms, which are orchestrated by the master clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SNC). Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine) is secreted from the pineal gland during darkness. Melatonin acts mainly on MT1 and MT2 receptors, which are present in the SNC, regulating physiological and neuroendocrine functions, including circadian entrainment, referred to as the chronobiotic effet. Circadian rhythms has been shown to be either misaligned or phase shifted or decreased in amplitude in both acute episodes and relapse of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder. Manipulation of circadian rhythms either using physical treatments (such as high intensity light) or behavioral therapy has shown promise in improving symptoms. Pharmacotherapy using melatonin and pure melatonin receptor agonists, while improving sleep, has not been shown to improve symptoms of depression. A novel antidepressant, agomelatine, combines 5HT2c antagonist and melatonin agonist action, and has shown promise in both acute treatment of MDD and in preventing relapse.

  18. Individual Differences in the Effects of Mood on Sexuality: The Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R)

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Erick; Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Mustanski, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Previous research using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ) has revealed substantial variability in how negative mood impacts sexual response and behavior. However, the MSQ does not address differences between desire for solo or partnered sexual activity, examine the effects of sexual activity on mood, or assess the effects of positive mood. This paper presents the development and factor structure of the Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R). An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women (N = 1983) produced 8 factors. Considerable variability was found in how moods influence sexual desire and arousal, in the effects of mood on sexual behavior, and in the reciprocal effects of sexual activity on mood. Among other findings, heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual and homosexual men to experience increased sexual desire and arousal when anxious or stressed, whereas homosexual men and heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men to experience increased desire when sad or depressed. Heterosexual men and women were more likely than homosexual men to report increased desire when in a positive mood. Intercorrelations and correlations with various sexual behaviors varied by group. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22963331

  19. A Transactional Approach to Transfer Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jornet, Alfredo; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Krange, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present an analytical framework for approaching transfer episodes--episodes in which participants declare or can be declared to bring prior experience to bear on the current task organization. We build on Dewey's writings about the continuity of experience, Vygotsky's ideas of unit analysis, as well as more recent developments…

  20. Training Lessons Learned from Peak Performance Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fobes, James L.

    A major challenge confronting the United States Army is to obtain optimal performance from both its human and machine resources. This study examines episodes of peak performance in soldiers and athletes. Three cognitive components were found to enable episodes of peak performance: psychological readiness (activating optimal arousal and emotion…

  1. Tracking the Construction of Episodic Future Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Mathy, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    The ability to mentally simulate possible futures ("episodic future thinking") is of fundamental importance for various aspects of human cognition and behavior, but precisely how humans construct mental representations of future events is still essentially unknown. We suggest that episodic future thoughts consist of transitory patterns of…

  2. Police Response to Family Abduction Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plass, Peggy S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines role of police in responding to family abduction episodes using data from a national survey. Addresses questions concerning frequency of police involvement, how abductions to which police respond differ from those to which they don't, actions taken by police, and the effects of their actions on episode outcomes. (LKS)

  3. Episodic plate tectonics on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Studies of impact craters on Venus from the Magellan images have placed important constraints on surface volcanism. Some 840 impact craters have been identified with diameters ranging from 2 to 280 km. Correlations of this impact flux with craters on the Moon, Earth, and Mars indicate a mean surface age of 0.5 +/- 0.3 Ga. Another important observation is that 52 percent of the craters are slightly fractured and only 4.5 percent are embayed by lava flows. These observations led researchers to hypothesize that a pervasive resurfacing event occurred about 500 m.y. ago and that relatively little surface volcanism has occurred since. Other researchers have pointed out that a global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 MYBP is consistent with the results given by a recent study. These authors carried out a series of numerical calculations of mantle convection in Venus yielding thermal evolution results. Their model considered crustal recycling and gave rapid planetary cooling. They, in fact, suggested that prior to 500 MYBP plate tectonics was active in Venus and since 500 MYBP the lithosphere has stabilized and only hot-spot volcanism has reached the surface. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the inferred cessation of surface volcanism on Venus. We hypothesize that plate tectonics on Venus is episodic. Periods of rapid plate tectonics result in high rates of subduction that cool the interior resulting in more sluggish mantle convection.

  4. Individualized differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and mood disorders using neuroanatomical biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Meisenzahl, Eva M; Borgwardt, Stefan; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Frodl, Thomas; Kambeitz, Joseph; Köhler, Yanis; Falkai, Peter; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Reiser, Maximilian; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-based markers of schizophrenia have been repeatedly shown to separate patients from healthy controls at the single-subject level, but it remains unclear whether these markers reliably distinguish schizophrenia from mood disorders across the life span and generalize to new patients as well as to early stages of these illnesses. The current study used structural MRI-based multivariate pattern classification to (i) identify and cross-validate a differential diagnostic signature separating patients with first-episode and recurrent stages of schizophrenia (n = 158) from patients with major depression (n = 104); and (ii) quantify the impact of major clinical variables, including disease stage, age of disease onset and accelerated brain ageing on the signature's classification performance. This diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging signature was then evaluated in an independent patient cohort from two different centres to test its generalizability to individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 35), first-episode psychosis (n = 23) and clinically defined at-risk mental states for psychosis (n = 89). Neuroanatomical diagnosis was correct in 80% and 72% of patients with major depression and schizophrenia, respectively, and involved a pattern of prefronto-temporo-limbic volume reductions and premotor, somatosensory and subcortical increments in schizophrenia versus major depression. Diagnostic performance was not influenced by the presence of depressive symptoms in schizophrenia or psychotic symptoms in major depression, but earlier disease onset and accelerated brain ageing promoted misclassification in major depression due to an increased neuroanatomical schizophrenia likeness of these patients. Furthermore, disease stage significantly moderated neuroanatomical diagnosis as recurrently-ill patients had higher misclassification rates (major depression: 23%; schizophrenia: 29%) than first-episode patients (major depression: 15%; schizophrenia: 12

  5. Individualized differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and mood disorders using neuroanatomical biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Meisenzahl, Eva M.; Borgwardt, Stefan; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Frodl, Thomas; Kambeitz, Joseph; Köhler, Yanis; Falkai, Peter; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Reiser, Maximilian; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-based markers of schizophrenia have been repeatedly shown to separate patients from healthy controls at the single-subject level, but it remains unclear whether these markers reliably distinguish schizophrenia from mood disorders across the life span and generalize to new patients as well as to early stages of these illnesses. The current study used structural MRI-based multivariate pattern classification to (i) identify and cross-validate a differential diagnostic signature separating patients with first-episode and recurrent stages of schizophrenia (n = 158) from patients with major depression (n = 104); and (ii) quantify the impact of major clinical variables, including disease stage, age of disease onset and accelerated brain ageing on the signature’s classification performance. This diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging signature was then evaluated in an independent patient cohort from two different centres to test its generalizability to individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 35), first-episode psychosis (n = 23) and clinically defined at-risk mental states for psychosis (n = 89). Neuroanatomical diagnosis was correct in 80% and 72% of patients with major depression and schizophrenia, respectively, and involved a pattern of prefronto-temporo-limbic volume reductions and premotor, somatosensory and subcortical increments in schizophrenia versus major depression. Diagnostic performance was not influenced by the presence of depressive symptoms in schizophrenia or psychotic symptoms in major depression, but earlier disease onset and accelerated brain ageing promoted misclassification in major depression due to an increased neuroanatomical schizophrenia likeness of these patients. Furthermore, disease stage significantly moderated neuroanatomical diagnosis as recurrently-ill patients had higher misclassification rates (major depression: 23%; schizophrenia: 29%) than first-episode patients (major depression: 15%; schizophrenia: 12

  6. Individualized differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and mood disorders using neuroanatomical biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Meisenzahl, Eva M; Borgwardt, Stefan; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Frodl, Thomas; Kambeitz, Joseph; Köhler, Yanis; Falkai, Peter; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Reiser, Maximilian; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-based markers of schizophrenia have been repeatedly shown to separate patients from healthy controls at the single-subject level, but it remains unclear whether these markers reliably distinguish schizophrenia from mood disorders across the life span and generalize to new patients as well as to early stages of these illnesses. The current study used structural MRI-based multivariate pattern classification to (i) identify and cross-validate a differential diagnostic signature separating patients with first-episode and recurrent stages of schizophrenia (n = 158) from patients with major depression (n = 104); and (ii) quantify the impact of major clinical variables, including disease stage, age of disease onset and accelerated brain ageing on the signature's classification performance. This diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging signature was then evaluated in an independent patient cohort from two different centres to test its generalizability to individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 35), first-episode psychosis (n = 23) and clinically defined at-risk mental states for psychosis (n = 89). Neuroanatomical diagnosis was correct in 80% and 72% of patients with major depression and schizophrenia, respectively, and involved a pattern of prefronto-temporo-limbic volume reductions and premotor, somatosensory and subcortical increments in schizophrenia versus major depression. Diagnostic performance was not influenced by the presence of depressive symptoms in schizophrenia or psychotic symptoms in major depression, but earlier disease onset and accelerated brain ageing promoted misclassification in major depression due to an increased neuroanatomical schizophrenia likeness of these patients. Furthermore, disease stage significantly moderated neuroanatomical diagnosis as recurrently-ill patients had higher misclassification rates (major depression: 23%; schizophrenia: 29%) than first-episode patients (major depression: 15%; schizophrenia: 12

  7. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 hours later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. PMID:25262058

  8. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. PMID:25262058

  9. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise.

  10. Aspartame: effects on learning, behavior, and mood.

    PubMed

    Saravis, S; Schachar, R; Zlotkin, S; Leiter, L A; Anderson, G H

    1990-07-01

    The effect of aspartame on the learning, behavior, and mood of children was evaluated in two experiments. After an overnight fast and a standard breakfast, 20 healthy 9- to 10-year-old children were given the treatments in a double-blind crossover design at 10:30 AM. Lunch was served at 12:00 noon. In experiment 1, the treatment consisted of an ice slurry of strawberry Kool-Aid containing 1.75 g/kg of carbohydrate (polycose) plus either aspartame (34 mg/kg) or the equivalent sweetness as sodium cyclamate and amino acids as alanine. In experiment 2, the treatment consisted of a drink of cold unsweetened strawberry Kool-Aid, containing either 1.75 g/kg of sucrose or 9.7 mg/kg of aspartame. Measures of associative learning, arithmetic calculation, activity level, social interaction, and mood were unaffected by treatment in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the only significant treatment effect was that on the frequency of minor and gross motor behaviors, which were less frequent after the consumption of sucrose than after aspartame. Thus, the effect of aspartame on the short-term behavior of healthy 9- to 10-year-old children appears to be related to its absence of metabolic consequences rather than to its amino acid composition and putative neurochemical impact.

  11. Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; van de Rest, Ondine; Kessels, Roy P C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2014-01-01

    In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with self-reported memory complaints were included. Drinks consisted of 250 ml with dissolved glucose (50 g), sucrose (100 g), or a mixture of artificial sweeteners (placebo). Multiple neuropsychological tests were performed and were combined by means of z scores into four cognitive domains: episodic memory, working memory, attention and information (processing speed), and executive functioning. Mood was assessed with the short Profile of Mood Status (s-POMS) questionnaire. Blood glucose concentrations were measured at five time points to divide participants into those with a better or poorer blood glucose recovery. Performance on the domain of attention and information processing speed was significantly better after consuming the sucrose drink (domain score of 0.06, SD = 0.91) than after the placebo drink (-0.08, SD = 0.92, p = .04). Sucrose had no effect on the other three domains, and glucose had no effect on any of the domains compared to the placebo. When dividing participants into poorer or better glucose recoverers, the beneficial effect of sucrose on attention and information processing speed was only seen in participants with a poorer recovery. After sucrose consumption, depressive feelings and tension were slightly higher than after the placebo. To conclude, 100 g sucrose, but not 50 g glucose, optimized attention and information processing speed in the short term in this study in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints.

  12. Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; van de Rest, Ondine; Kessels, Roy P C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2014-01-01

    In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with self-reported memory complaints were included. Drinks consisted of 250 ml with dissolved glucose (50 g), sucrose (100 g), or a mixture of artificial sweeteners (placebo). Multiple neuropsychological tests were performed and were combined by means of z scores into four cognitive domains: episodic memory, working memory, attention and information (processing speed), and executive functioning. Mood was assessed with the short Profile of Mood Status (s-POMS) questionnaire. Blood glucose concentrations were measured at five time points to divide participants into those with a better or poorer blood glucose recovery. Performance on the domain of attention and information processing speed was significantly better after consuming the sucrose drink (domain score of 0.06, SD = 0.91) than after the placebo drink (-0.08, SD = 0.92, p = .04). Sucrose had no effect on the other three domains, and glucose had no effect on any of the domains compared to the placebo. When dividing participants into poorer or better glucose recoverers, the beneficial effect of sucrose on attention and information processing speed was only seen in participants with a poorer recovery. After sucrose consumption, depressive feelings and tension were slightly higher than after the placebo. To conclude, 100 g sucrose, but not 50 g glucose, optimized attention and information processing speed in the short term in this study in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints. PMID:24839862

  13. Binge drinking and sex: effects on mood and cognitive function in healthy young volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hartley, David E; Elsabagh, Sarah; File, Sandra E

    2004-07-01

    This study compared the mood and cognitive performance of male and female teetotal and binge drinking students. The binge drinkers had significantly lower self-ratings of trait anxiety and depression and of state alertness at the time of testing than did the teetotallers. The females had significantly higher ratings of trait and state anxiety, but there were no Sex x Bingeing interactions on mood. The binge drinkers made significantly fewer correct responses in a test of sustained attention and recalled fewer line drawings. There was a significant Sex x Binge interaction in a spatial recognition task because the male, but not the female, binge drinkers were slower to make correct responses. Males performed better than females in both the spatial and pattern recognition memory tasks. There were three tests of executive function. In a spatial working memory task, males performed better than females, but there were no effects of binge drinking. There were no effects in a test of mental flexibility. However, in a test of planning, the binge drinkers were significantly slower than the teetotallers were. Thus, compared with a group of teetotallers, the binge drinkers had lower trait anxiety and depression and poorer performance in tests of sustained attention, episodic memory and planning ability.

  14. The role of the dopaminergic system in mood, motivation and cognition in Parkinson's disease: a double blind randomized placebo-controlled experimental challenge with pramipexole and methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Drijgers, Rosa L; Verhey, Frans R J; Tissingh, Gerrit; van Domburg, Peter H M F; Aalten, Pauline; Leentjens, Albert F G

    2012-09-15

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) reduced dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway is implied in the pathophysiology of several non-motor symptoms related to mood, motivation and cognition. Insight in the pathophysiology of these syndromes may pave the way for more rational treatments. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design with three arms, we studied the effects of a direct dopaminergic challenge with the dopamine 2 receptor agonist pramipexole, an indirect challenge with the dopamine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate, and placebo on measures of mood, motivation and cognition in 23 agonist-naïve PD patients and 23 healthy controls. Acute challenge with pramipexole had a negative effect on mood and fatigue in both patients and controls. In addition, challenge with pramipexole led to increased anger, fatigue, vigor and tension in healthy control subjects, but not in PD patients. Challenge with methylphenidate had a positive effect on anhedonia and vigor in PD patients. Due to its side effects after a single administration, pramipexole is probably less suitable for acute challenge studies. The acute effects of a methylphenidate challenge on anhedonia and vigor in PD patients make this drug an interesting choice for further studies of the treatment of mood and motivational disorders in this population.

  15. The impact of mood stabilizers on bipolar disorder: the 1890s and 1990s compared.

    PubMed

    Harris, Margaret; Chandran, Summit; Chakraborty, Nabonita; Healy, David

    2005-12-01

    This study comparing patterns of service utilization by bipolar patients in North-West Wales found a greater prevalence of service utilization in the 1990s compared with the 1890s. In the pre-lithium era, admissions for bipolar disorders occurred at a rate of 4 every 10 years; they now occur at a rate of 6.3 every 10 years. Where 100 years ago, there were 16 bipolar patients per million population resident per day in hospital, there are now 24 per million resident in acute service beds and more in non-acute beds. These data are incompatible with simple claims that mood stabilizing drugs 'work'. An alternative is that these agents have treatment effects, and further research is needed to match treatments to patients in order to optimize outcomes.

  16. Dispositional optimism and stress-induced changes in immunity and negative mood

    PubMed Central

    Brydon, Lena; Walker, Cicely; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J.; Chart, Henrik; Steptoe, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that optimism may be protective for health during times of heightened stress, yet the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, we recently showed that acute psychological stress and an immune stimulus (Typhim-Vi typhoid vaccine) synergistically increased serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and negative mood in 59 healthy men. Here we carried out further analysis of this sample to investigate the relationship between dispositional optimism and stress-induced changes in immunity and mood. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions in which they received either typhoid vaccine or saline placebo, and then rested or completed two mental tasks. In the stress condition, optimism was inversely related to IL-6 responses, independent of age, BMI, trait CES-D depression and baseline IL-6. This relationship was present across both stress groups (combining vaccine and placebo) and was not present in the vaccine/stress group alone, suggesting that optimism protects against the inflammatory effects of stress rather than vaccine per se. Typhoid vaccine induced a significant increase in participants’ circulating anti-Vi antibody levels. Stress had no effect on antibody responses overall. However, in the vaccine/stress group, there was a strong positive association between optimism and antibody responses, indicating that stress accentuated the antibody response to vaccine in optimists. Across the complete sample, more optimistic individuals had smaller increases in negative mood and less reduction in mental vigour. Together these findings suggest that optimism may promote health, by counteracting stress-induced increases in inflammation and boosting the adjuvant effects of acute stress. PMID:19272441

  17. Dispositional optimism and stress-induced changes in immunity and negative mood.

    PubMed

    Brydon, Lena; Walker, Cicely; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Chart, Henrik; Steptoe, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Evidence suggests that optimism may be protective for health during times of heightened stress, yet the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, we recently showed that acute psychological stress and an immune stimulus (Typhim-Vi typhoid vaccine) synergistically increased serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and negative mood in 59 healthy men. Here we carried out further analysis of this sample to investigate the relationship between dispositional optimism and stress-induced changes in immunity and mood. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions in which they received either typhoid vaccine or saline placebo, and then rested or completed two mental tasks. In the stress condition, optimism was inversely related to IL-6 responses, independent of age, BMI, trait CES-D depression and baseline IL-6. This relationship was present across both stress groups (combining vaccine and placebo) and was not present in the vaccine/stress group alone, suggesting that optimism protects against the inflammatory effects of stress rather than vaccine per se. Typhoid vaccine induced a significant increase in participants' circulating anti-Vi antibody levels. Stress had no effect on antibody responses overall. However, in the vaccine/stress group, there was a strong positive association between optimism and antibody responses, indicating that stress accentuated the antibody response to vaccine in optimists. Across the complete sample, more optimistic individuals had smaller increases in negative mood and less reduction in mental vigour. Together these findings suggest that optimism may promote health, by counteracting stress-induced increases in inflammation and boosting the adjuvant effects of acute stress.

  18. A meta-analysis of neuropsychological functioning in first-episode bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Scott, Jan; Redoblado-Hodge, M Antoinette; Naismith, Sharon L; Lagopoulos, Jim; Griffiths, Kristi R; Porter, Melanie A; Hickie, Ian B

    2014-10-01

    Broad neuropsychological deficits have been consistently demonstrated in well-established bipolar disorder. The aim of the current study was to systematically review neuropsychological studies in first-episode bipolar disorders to determine the breadth, extent and predictors of cognitive dysfunction at this early stage of illness through meta-analytic procedures. Electronic databases were searched for studies published between January 1980 and December 2013. Twelve studies met eligibility criteria (N = 341, mean age = 28.2 years), and pooled effect sizes (ES) were calculated across eight cognitive domains. Moderator analyses were conducted to identify predictors of between-study heterogeneity. Controlling for known confounds, medium to large deficits (ES ≥ 0.5) in psychomotor speed, attention and working memory, and cognitive flexibility were identified, whereas smaller deficits (ES 0.20-0.49) were found in the domains of verbal learning and memory, attentional switching, and verbal fluency. A medium to large deficit in response inhibition was only detected in non-euthymic cases. Visual learning and memory functioning was not significantly worse in cases compared with controls. Overall, first-episode bipolar disorders are associated with widespread cognitive dysfunction. Since euthymia was not associated with superior cognitive performance in most domains, these results indicate that even in the earliest stages of disease, cognitive deficits are not mood-state dependent. The current findings have important implications for whether cognitive impairments represent neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes. Future studies need to more clearly characterise the presence of psychotic features, and the nature and number of previous mood episodes.

  19. The Magnitude of Premenstrual and Menstrual Mood Changes in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Sharon; Murphy, Denise

    Frequent mood changes in adolescents are often attributed to the influence of shifting hormone levels. The presence and magnitude of menstrual-related mood changes in adolescent women were examined in 10th and 11th grade females (N=158) who completed the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). Self-reports of the onset date for the next two…

  20. Maternal Recurrent Mood Disorders and High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ira L.; Tsiouris, John A.

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative examination was made of the association of parental mood and anxiety disorders with severity of disability within a large sample of young children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Maternal recurrent mood disorders were associated with elevated cognitive and adaptive functioning in their affected children, parent reports…

  1. Test Review: The Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shuqiong; Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Wang, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The "Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition" (POMS 2) was published in 2012 by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) to assess transient feelings and mood among individuals aged 13 years and above. Evolving from the original POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971, 1992), the POMS 2 was designed for youth (13-17 years old) and adults (18 years old…

  2. Hypnotizability as a Function of Repression, Adaptive Regression, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Maurice Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Forty male undergraduates were assessed in a personality assessment session and a hypnosis session. The personality traits studied were repressive style and adaptive regression, while the transitory variable was mood prior to hypnosis. Hypnotizability was a significant interactive function of repressive style and mood, but not of adaptive…

  3. Ups and Downs: Daily Cycles of Adolescent Moods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Bonnie L.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Miller, Kristelle E.; Petersen, Anne C.

    1998-01-01

    Examined diurnal patterns of adolescents' stress, affect, and arousal. Found that gender, depression risk status, and day of week influenced mean levels of adolescent moods but were not associated with differences in mood patterns throughout the day. Suggested that adolescents' emotional states follow a diurnal cycle stemming from endogenous…

  4. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates amygdala activity during mood regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Hengyi; Wang, Jiongjiong; Detre, John A.; Breland, Jessica; Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V.; Brodkin, Edward S.; Farah, Martha J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated the short allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in depression vulnerability, particularly in the context of stress. Several neuroimaging studies have shown that 5-HTTLPR genotype predicts amygdala reactivity to negatively valenced stimuli, suggesting a mechanism whereby the short allele confers depression risk. The current study investigated whether 5-HTTLPR genotype similarly affects neural activity during an induced sad mood and during recovery from sad mood. Participants were 15 homozygous short (S) and 15 homozygous long (L) individuals. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging during four scanning blocks: baseline, sad mood, mood recovery and following return to baseline. Comparing mood recovery to baseline, both whole brain analyses and template-based region-of-interest analyses revealed greater amygdala activity for the S vs the L-group. There were no significant amygdala differences found during the induced sad mood. These results demonstrate the effect of the S allele on amygdala activity during intentional mood regulation and suggest that amygdala hyperactivity during recovery from a sad mood may be one mechanism by which the S allele confers depression risk. PMID:19858108

  5. The Relationship among Leisure Interests, Personality Traits, Affect, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Todd J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between leisure interests and the Big Five personality traits, positive and negative affect, and moods. Regression analysis identified particular personality but not mood or affect variables as significant predictors of leisure factor scores. Further exploration through factor analysis revealed factor…

  6. Improving Music Mood Classification Using Lyrics, Audio and Social Tags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    The affective aspect of music (popularly known as music mood) is a newly emerging metadata type and access point to music information, but it has not been well studied in information science. There has yet to be developed a suitable set of mood categories that can reflect the reality of music listening and can be well adopted in the Music…

  7. Emotional Mood as a Context for Learning and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Gordon H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In experiments where hypnotized subjects learned one word list while happy or sad, retention proved to be surprisingly independent of the congruence of learning and testing moods. Learning mood provided a helpful retrieval cue and differentiating context only where subjects learned two word lists, one while happy, one while sad. (EJS)

  8. The Effects of Musical Mood Induction on Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adaman, Jill E.; Blaney, Paul H.

    1995-01-01

    A music mood-induction procedure was used to induce either elated, depressed, or neutral mood in 71 college undergraduates. Creativity measures revealed that the subjects in the elated and depressed groups showed significantly greater creativity than subjects in the neutral group. (Author/DB)

  9. The Relationship of Beliefs about Mood to Coping Resource Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Brack, Greg; Liu, Hsin-tine Tina; Brack, Catherine J.; Ghormley, Michael R.

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed 115 undergraduates to examine how their differing abilities to reflect upon and manage emotions could predict measures of coping resource effectiveness. Results show that generalized expectancies for alleviating negative moods predicted overall levels of perceived coping resources. Findings suggest that metaperspectives, like mood, are…

  10. Dismantling the Built Drawing: Working with Mood in Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Randall

    2010-01-01

    From the late Middle Ages onward an emphasis on the rational and the technical aspects of design and design drawing gained hold of architectural practice. In this transformation, the phenomenon of mood has been frequently overlooked or seen as something to be added on to a design; yet the fundamental grounding of mood, as described in Martin…

  11. The Experiences of University Students with a Mood Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demery, Rachel; Thirlaway, Kathryn; Mercer, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Mood disorders typically materialise in young adulthood, a life-stage when many enter university. However, Padron notes that few studies have examined the experiences of students with a mood disorder. The current study offers a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with five university students who had personal experience of such a…

  12. Predictors of Childhood Depressed Mood: A Two-Generational Study

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Morojele, Neo K.; Rosenberg, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a model of intergenerational influences on childhood depressed mood that proposes (1) indirect and direct paths from maternal drug use to offspring depressed mood; and (2) pathways from maternal maladaptive personality attributes to offspring depressed mood via adverse child-rearing practices. A cross-sectional two-generational design is employed. Data was obtained utilizing structured questionnaires administered by trained interviewers in the homes of the participants. The sample was comprised of African American and Puerto Rican children (N=210) and their mothers living in New York City. Using structural equation modeling, the analysis showed that maladaptive personality attributes are associated with adverse maternal child-rearing practices, which, in turn, are related to depressed mood in the offspring. Maternal drug use had a direct effect on offspring depressed mood. Maternal drug use also had an indirect path to offspring depressed mood via maladaptive personality attributes and adverse maternal child-rearing practices. The total effects analysis indicated that adverse maternal child-rearing practices was the strongest predictor of childhood depressed mood. This finding was consistent with the proximal position of the latent construct within the model. Maternal personality attributes and drug use were of lesser importance, but still statistically significant. The results suggest that maternal drug use and maladaptive personality attributes pose risks for the future depressive mood of children. The relative strength of maternal involvement with offspring should be the focus of preventive and therapeutic intervention efforts. PMID:26539024

  13. How assess drugs in the treatment of acute bipolar mania?

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel; Thibaut, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder is a serious mental disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Good-quality research available to guide treatment strategies remains insufficient, particularly with regard to manic or hypomanic episodes. A critical review of the various stages of mania might be helpful for pharmaceutical companies and investigators as a prerequisite for the clinical evaluation of potential antimanic properties of medications. The main difficulty is with a comparison between anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers such as lithium (with equal efficacy in the acute phase and the prevention of recurrent manic episodes). No consensus has been reached with regard to the treatment of bouts of acute mania in various parts of the world. Controlled clinical trials have, at last, provided irrefutable evidence of the activity of lithium, which has long been used alone, as well as that of divalproate or its derivatives and, to a lesser extent, carbamazepine. The new antipsychotic agents have more recently established their efficacy, especially aripiprazole, asenapine, quetiapine; olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone (not sure where the paradox is). In Europe, haloperidol is still the reference substance used in clinical trials despite the fact that it is not officially indicated in the treatment of mania. In the USA, lithium, divalproate, or antipsychotics can be prescribed as first-line treatment. In Europe, lithium remains the first-line medication, whereas divalproate and atypical antipsychotic agents are used only as second-line therapy. Although both types of medication (antipsychotics, normothymic agents, and/or anticonvulsants) have proved to be clinically effective in the management of mania by reducing the mania scores overall, the same does not apply, however, to all symptoms of mania. Factorial approaches to mania have all shown that since there are several clinical forms of mania, several clusters of manic symptoms can

  14. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  15. How do episodic and semantic memory contribute to episodic foresight in young children?

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Caza, Julian S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving’s definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight. PMID:25071690

  16. Mood and sex of participant in perception of happy faces.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Cupp, Derwin W

    2002-08-01

    The influences of mood-state and sex of subject were examined for ratings of the emotional intensity of videotaped facial expressions of happiness. 102 subjects who were classified by sex and their scores on the Beck Depression Inventory provided ratings of the faces. A significant sex by mood-state interaction indicated that ratings of intensity by men and women were influenced differently by mood-state, and these findings are interpreted within the framework of the Affect Infusion Model. The results support our hypothesis that men and women tend to rely preferentially on low and high affect infusion strategies, respectively. The findings further suggest that the cognitive effect of affect infusion on the magnitude of perceived intensity of facial affect could be influenced by mood-state via differences in cognitive effort subjects employ when in a dysphoric or nondysphoric mood. PMID:12365265

  17. The effect of mood on detection of covariation.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Julia

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the effect of mood on the detection of covariation. Predictions were based on an assumption that sad moods facilitate a data-driven information elaboration style and careful data scrutinizing, whereas happy moods predispose individuals toward top-down information processing and decrease the attention given to cognitive tasks. The primary dependent variable involved is the detection of covariation between facial features and personal information and the use of this information for evaluating new target faces. The findings support the view that sad mood facilitates both conscious and unconscious detection of covariation because it increases motivation to engage in the task. Limiting available cognitive resources does not eliminate the effect of mood on the detecting of covariation.

  18. French antecedents of "contemporary" concepts in the American Psychiatric Association's classification of bipolar (mood) disorders.

    PubMed

    Haustgen, Thierry; Akiskal, Hagop

    2006-12-01

    Although first detailed descriptions of what we today term "bipolar disorders" are generally attributed to E. Kraepelin [Kraepelin, E., 1899 (1976 tr). Manic depressive insanity and paranoia. (reprint of English translation). Arno, New York], a review of French psychiatric literature from Esquirol to the middle of 20th century reveals major clinical contributions to the development of the concept of cyclic mood disorders, their phenomenology and classification as embodied in DSM-IV. The main treatise was published by the Paris psychiatric schools of Salpêtrière, Bicêtre, Charenton, Sainte-Anne and Vanves. Already much before Kraepelin, French authors had described most symptoms and the course of future DSM-IV bipolar, manic, major depressive [Falret, J.-P., 1854. De la folie circulaire ou forme de maladie mentale caracterisée par l'alternative régulière de la manie et de la mélancolie, Bull. Acad. Méd. XIX, 382-400.; Baillarger, J., 1854. Note sur un genre de folie dont les accès sont caractérisés par deux périodes régulières, l'une de dépression, l'autre d'excitation, Bull. Acad. Méd. XIX, 340 et Ann. Méd. Psychol. XII, 369], hypomanic and mixed episodes [Falret, J., 1861. Principes à suivre dans la classification des maladies mentales, Ann. Méd. Psychol. XIX, 145.; Falret, J., 1866, 1867. La folie raisonnante ou folie morale, Ann. Méd. Psychol. XXIV, 382, XXV, 68], as well as - under other names - the characteristics of bipolar II disorder, various specifiers describing mood episode and course of recurrent episodes [Ritti, A., 1883. Traité clinique de la folie à double forme (folie, circulaire, délire à formes alternes). Doin, Paris]. The synthesis of these clinical observations led to Magnan's "intermittent madness" (1893), a precursor of Kraepelin's "manic-depressive psychosis". After 1899, French authors generally adhered to their classification of autonomous depressive disorder (melancholia), as distinct from manic-depressive insanity

  19. Episodic acidification of small streams in the northeastern united states: ionic controls of episodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wigington, P.J.; DeWalle, David R.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Kretser, W.A.; Simonin, H.A.; Van Sickle, J.; Baker, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the Episodic Response Project (ERP), we intensively monitored discharge and stream chemistry of 13 streams located in the Northern Appalachian region of Pennsylvania and in the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York from fall 1988 to spring 1990. The ERP clearly documented the occurrence of acidic episodes with minimum episodic pH ??? 5 and inorganic monomeric Al (Alim) concentrations >150 ??g/L in at least two study streams in each region. Several streams consistently experienced episodes with maximum Alim concentrations >350 ??g/L. Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) depressions resulted from complex interactions of multiple ions. Base cation decreases often made the most important contributions to ANC depressions during episodes. Organic acid pulses were also important contributors to ANC depressions in the Adirondack streams, and to a lesser extent, in the Catskill and Pennsylvania streams. Nitrate concentrations were low in the Pennsylvania streams, whereas the Catskill and Adirondack study streams had high NO3- concentrations and large episodic pulses (???54 ??eq/L). Most of the Pennsylvania study streams also frequently experienced episodic pulses of SO42- (???78 ??eq/L), whereas the Adirondack and Catskill streams did not. High baseline concentrations of SO42- (all three study areas) and NO3- (Adirondacks and Catskills) reduced episodic minimum ANC, even when these ions did not change during episodes. The ion changes that controlled the most severe episodes (lowest minimum episodic ANC) differed from the ion changes most important to smaller, more frequent episodes. Pulses of NO3- (Catskills and Adirondacks), SO42- (Pennsylvania), or organic acids became more important during major episodes. Overall, the behavior of streamwater SO42- and NO4- is an indicator that acidic deposition has contributed to the severity of episodes in the study streams.

  20. Episodic Memories and Their Relevance for Psychoactive Drug Use and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of adult people in western societies regularly consume psychoactive drugs. While this consumption is integrated in everyday life activities and controlled in most consumers, it may escalate and result in drug addiction. Non-addicted drug use requires the systematic establishment of highly organized behaviors, such as drug-seeking and -taking. While a significant role for classical and instrumental learning processes is well established in drug use and abuse, declarative drug memories have largely been neglected in research. Episodic memories are an important part of the declarative memories. Here a role of episodic drug memories in the establishment of non-addicted drug use and its transition to addiction is suggested. In relation to psychoactive drug consumption, episodic drug memories are formed when a person prepares for consumption, when the drug is consumed and, most important, when acute effects, withdrawal, craving, and relapse are experienced. Episodic drug memories are one-trial memories with emotional components that can be much stronger than “normal” episodic memories. Their establishment coincides with drug-induced neuronal activation and plasticity. These memories may be highly extinction resistant and influence psychoactive drug consumption, in particular during initial establishment and at the transition to “drug instrumentalization.” In that, understanding how addictive drugs interact with episodic memory circuits in the brain may provide crucial information for how drug use and addiction are established. PMID:23734106

  1. The role of ovarian steroid hormones in mood.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Deborah H; Romans, Sarah E; Meiyappan, Soumia; De Souza, Mary Jane; Einstein, Gillian

    2012-09-01

    Fluctuations in ovarian hormones across the menstrual cycle have long been considered a determinant of mood in women. The majority of studies, however, use menstrual cycle phase as proxy for hormone levels. We measured ovarian hormone levels directly in order to examine the relationship between daily hormone levels and mood in non-help-seeking women. Participants (n=19) provided daily information about their positive and negative moods, and collected their first morning-voided urine for 42days, which was analyzed for estrogen and progesterone metabolites (E1G and PdG). The independent contributions of daily E1G, PdG, stress, physical health, and weekly social support, were calculated for 12 daily mood items, and composite measures of positive and negative mood items, using linear mixed models. E1G or PdG contributed to few mood items: E1G measured 2days prior contributed negatively to the model for Motivation, while E1G measured 3days prior contributed negatively to Getting Along with Others, and E1G measured 4days prior contributed negatively to Anxiety. PdG, measured the same day and 1day prior, contributed positively to the models of Irritability, and PdG measured 5days prior contributed positively to Difficulty Coping. By contrast, the variables stress and physical health contributed significantly to all the mood items, as well as both composite positive and negative mood measures. These findings demonstrate that, compared to stress and physical health, ovarian hormones make only a small contribution to daily mood. Thus, fluctuations in ovarian hormones do not contribute significantly to daily mood in healthy women.

  2. How robust is the language architecture? The case of mood

    PubMed Central

    Van Berkum, Jos J. A.; De Goede, Dieuwke; Van Alphen, Petra M.; Mulder, Emma R.; Kerstholt, José H.

    2013-01-01

    In neurocognitive research on language, the processing principles of the system at hand are usually assumed to be relatively invariant. However, research on attention, memory, decision-making, and social judgment has shown that mood can substantially modulate how the brain processes information. For example, in a bad mood, people typically have a narrower focus of attention and rely less on heuristics. In the face of such pervasive mood effects elsewhere in the brain, it seems unlikely that language processing would remain untouched. In an EEG experiment, we manipulated the mood of participants just before they read texts that confirmed or disconfirmed verb-based expectations about who would be talked about next (e.g., that “David praised Linda because … ” would continue about Linda, not David), or that respected or violated a syntactic agreement rule (e.g., “The boys turns”). ERPs showed that mood had little effect on syntactic parsing, but did substantially affect referential anticipation: whereas readers anticipated information about a specific person when they were in a good mood, a bad mood completely abolished such anticipation. A behavioral follow-up experiment suggested that a bad mood did not interfere with verb-based expectations per se, but prevented readers from using that information rapidly enough to predict upcoming reference on the fly, as the sentence unfolds. In all, our results reveal that background mood, a rather unobtrusive affective state, selectively changes a crucial aspect of real-time language processing. This observation fits well with other observed interactions between language processing and affect (emotions, preferences, attitudes, mood), and more generally testifies to the importance of studying “cold” cognitive functions in relation to “hot” aspects of the brain. PMID:23986725

  3. The influence of music on mood and performance while driving.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D; Dijksterhuis, Chris; de Waard, Dick; Mulder, Ben L J M; Westerink, Joyce H D M; Brookhuis, Karel A

    2012-01-01

    Mood can influence our everyday behaviour and people often seek to reinforce, or to alter their mood, for example by turning on music. Music listening while driving is a popular activity. However, little is known about the impact of music listening while driving on physiological state and driving performance. In the present experiment, it was investigated whether individually selected music can induce mood and maintain moods during a simulated drive. In addition, effects of positive, negative, and no music on driving behaviour and physiological measures were assessed for normal and high cognitive demanding rides. Subjective mood ratings indicated that music successfully maintained mood while driving. Narrow lane width drives increased task demand as shown in effort ratings and increased swerving. Furthermore, respiration rate was lower during music listening compared to rides without music, while no effects of music were found on heart rate. Overall, the current study demonstrates that music listening in car influences the experienced mood while driving, which in turn can impact driving behaviour. PRACTITIONERS SUMMARY: Even though it is a popular activity, little is known about the impact of music while driving on physiological state and performance. We examined whether music can induce moods during high and low simulated drives. The current study demonstrates that in car music listening influences mood which in turn can impact driving behaviour. The current study shows that listening to music can positively impact mood while driving, which can be used to affect state and safe behaviour. Additionally, driving performance in high demand situations is not negatively affected by music.

  4. How robust is the language architecture? The case of mood.

    PubMed

    Van Berkum, Jos J A; De Goede, Dieuwke; Van Alphen, Petra M; Mulder, Emma R; Kerstholt, José H

    2013-01-01

    In neurocognitive research on language, the processing principles of the system at hand are usually assumed to be relatively invariant. However, research on attention, memory, decision-making, and social judgment has shown that mood can substantially modulate how the brain processes information. For example, in a bad mood, people typically have a narrower focus of attention and rely less on heuristics. In the face of such pervasive mood effects elsewhere in the brain, it seems unlikely that language processing would remain untouched. In an EEG experiment, we manipulated the mood of participants just before they read texts that confirmed or disconfirmed verb-based expectations about who would be talked about next (e.g., that "David praised Linda because … " would continue about Linda, not David), or that respected or violated a syntactic agreement rule (e.g., "The boys turns"). ERPs showed that mood had little effect on syntactic parsing, but did substantially affect referential anticipation: whereas readers anticipated information about a specific person when they were in a good mood, a bad mood completely abolished such anticipation. A behavioral follow-up experiment suggested that a bad mood did not interfere with verb-based expectations per se, but prevented readers from using that information rapidly enough to predict upcoming reference on the fly, as the sentence unfolds. In all, our results reveal that background mood, a rather unobtrusive affective state, selectively changes a crucial aspect of real-time language processing. This observation fits well with other observed interactions between language processing and affect (emotions, preferences, attitudes, mood), and more generally testifies to the importance of studying "cold" cognitive functions in relation to "hot" aspects of the brain. PMID:23986725

  5. The case for episodic memory in animals.

    PubMed

    Dere, E; Kart-Teke, E; Huston, J P; De Souza Silva, M A

    2006-01-01

    The conscious recollection of unique personal experiences in terms of their details (what), their locale (where) and temporal occurrence (when) is known as episodic memory and is thought to require a 'self-concept', autonoetic awareness/conciousness, and the ability to subjectively sense time. It has long been held that episodic memory is unique to humans, because it was accepted that animals lack a 'self-concept', 'autonoetic awareness', and the ability to 'subjectively sense time'. These assumptions are now being questioned by behavioral evidence showing that various animal species indeed show behavioral manifestations of different features of episodic memory such as, e.g. 'metacognition', 'conscious recollection' of past events, 'temporal order memory', 'mental time travel' and have the capacity to remember personal experiences in terms of what happened, where and when. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview on the current progress in attempts to model different prerequisites and features of human episodic memory in animals and to identify possible neural substrates of animal episodic memory. The literature covered includes behavioral and physiological studies performed with different animal species, such as non-human primates, rodents, dolphins and birds. The search for episodic memory in animals has forced researchers to define objective behavioral criteria by which different features of episodic memory can be operationalized experimentally and assessed in both animals and humans. This is especially important because the current definition of episodic memory in terms of mentalistic constructs such as 'self', 'autonoetic awareness/consciousness', and 'subjectively sensed time', not only hinders animal research on the neurobiology of episodic memory but also research with healthy human subjects as well as neuropsychiatric patients with impaired language or in children with less-developed verbal abilities.

  6. How Do We Learn in a Negative Mood? Effects of a Negative Mood on Transfer and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Serge; Reimer, Torsten; Opwis, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Findings show that both positive and negative mood may hinder or promote information processing. In two experiments, we show that negative mood impairs transfer effects and learning. In the first experiment, N = 54 participants drawn from a training course for the Swiss Corps of Fortification Guards first learned to solve the three- and four-disk…

  7. Does negative mood drive the urge to eat? The contribution of negative mood, exposure to food cues and eating style.

    PubMed

    Loxton, Natalie J; Dawe, Sharon; Cahill, Allison

    2011-04-01

    The current study investigated whether negative mood alone, or in conjunction with exposure to food cues, influences the urge to eat. Female participants (N=160) were allocated to either a negative or neutral mood induction procedure followed by exposure to either a preferred food cue or a non-food cue. Participants reported their urge to eat at baseline, following the mood induction procedure, and following the cue exposure, as well as completing measures of restrained and disinhibited eating. Contrary to prediction, urge to eat decreased following the mood induction procedure for those in the negative mood condition. This was not influenced by eating style (i.e., restrained or disinhibited eaters). Urge to eat subsequently increased following exposure to the food, but not the non-food, cue. This effect was moderated by negative mood and eating style with disinhibited eating being positively associated with urge to eat for those women in the negative mood condition. These findings suggest that negative mood plays a role in the tendency to overeat, but only in the context of personally desirable food cues and for a subgroup of women with a history of disinhibited eating.

  8. Acute pyelonephritis can have serious complications.

    PubMed

    Shields, Joanne; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2010-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) may predominantly involve the lower urinary tract, i.e. acute cystitis, or upper urinary tract consisting of the renal pelvis and kidney,, i.e. acute pyelonephritis The incidence of acute pyelonephritis is higher in young women than in men but the incidence in men over 65 is similar to that in older women. Women have up to a 10% risk of recurrent acute pyelonephritis in the year following a first acute episode. The equivalent risk in men is 6%. Acute pyelonephritis may be uncomplicated and resolve without serious sequelae. A minority of episodes may be complicated by acute kidney injury, papillary necrosis, renal or perinephric abscess or the development of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Acute pyelonephritis is generally caused by microorganisms ascending from the urethra via the bladder into the upper urinary tract. Rarely the kidney may be seeded by blood-borne infection. Ecoli is the most common uropathogen causing pyelonephritis accounting for 70-90% of infections. Species of Enterococci, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Staphylococci are responsible for the remaining infections. There is a rising incidence in the community of UTI with bacteria that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes. These ESBL bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporins and increasingly to quinolones. Risk factors for uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis include recent sexual intercourse, acute cystitis, stress incontinence and diabetes and for complicated acute pyelonephritis include pregnancy, diabetes, anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract and renal calculi. PMID:20486480

  9. Clock gene variants differentiate mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika Paulina; Pawlak, Joanna Maria; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Moczko, Jerzy; Wilkosc, Monika; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Zaremba, Dorota; Hauser, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in clock-related genes were hypothesized to be involved to in the susceptibility of mood disorders MD (both unipolar (UPD) and bipolar (BPD) disorders). In our work we investigated role of gene variants form four core period proteins: CLOCK, ARNTL, TIM and PER3. The total sample comprised from 744 mood disorders inpatients (UPD = 229, BPD = 515) and 635 healthy voluntary controls. The 42 SNPs from four genes of interest were genotyped. We used single polymorphisms, haplotypes, SNPs interactions and prediction analysis using classical statistical and machine learning methods. We observed association between two polymorphisms of CLOCK (rs1801260 and rs11932595) with BPDII and two polymorphisms of TIM (rs2291739, rs11171856) with UPD. We also detected ARNTL haplotype variant (rs1160996C/rs11022779G/rs1122780T) to be associated with increased risk of MD, BPD (both types). We established significant epistatic interaction between PER3 (rs2172563) and ARNTL (rs4146388 and rs7107287) in case of BPD. Additionally relation between PER3 (rs2172563) and CLOCK (rs1268271 and rs3805148) appeared in case of UPD. Classification and Regression Trees (C and RT) showed significant predictive value for 10 polymorphisms in all analyzed genes. However we failed to obtain model with sufficient predictive power. During analyses of sleep disturbances sample, we found carriers of homozygote variants (ARNTL: rs11022778 TT, rs1562438 TT, rs1982350 AA and PER3: rs836755 CC) showing more frequent falling asleep difficulties when compare to other genotypes carriers. Our study suggested a putative role of the CLOCK, TIM, ARNTL and PER3 and polymorphisms in MD susceptibility. In our analyses we showed association of specific gene variants with particular types of MD. We also confirmed necessity of performing separate analyzes for BPD and UPD patients. Comprehensive statistical approach is required even with individual symptoms analyses.

  10. Basal insulin regime change from Lantus to Toujeo resulted in fewer hypoglycaemic episodes in a 28-year-old man with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shields, Alexandra; Sankaranarayanan, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    An active 28-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus reported a reduced number of hypoglycaemic episodes following change in basal regime insulin glargine from U100 Lantus to U300 Toujeo. Consequently, an improved quality of life was also reported. Flash-based glucose monitoring was utilised to record 24-hour continuous glucose levels throughout two comparable 60-day periods before and after the change in regimen. Low blood glucose was most likely between 03:00 and 08:00. Nocturnal hypoglycaemic episodes (≤3.9 mmol/L) reduced by an average of 2.5 episodes per week. Severe hypoglycaemic episodes (≤2.9 mmol/L) reduced to an average of 0.4 per week, down from 1.5 per week. Nocturnal hypoglycaemic episodes reduced in frequency and severity. Furthermore, nocturnal hypoglycaemia episodes occurred in a more predictable time window. This was especially important in the reported reduction of impact on the patient's quality of life, as the episodes tended to be associated with anxiety and low mood. Patient education needed to facilitate this change was minimal, and benefits to the patient were great, including decreased sleep disturbances and reduced risk of associated anxiety symptoms. PMID:27307429

  11. Attentional Biases and the Persistence of Sad Mood in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Clasen, Peter C.; Wells, Tony T.; Ellis, Alissa J.; Beevers, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether attentional biases for emotional information are associated with impaired mood recovery following a sad mood induction among individuals with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Attentional biases were assessed with an exogenous cuing task using emotional facial expressions as cues among adults with (n = 48) and without (n = 224) current MDD. Mood reactivity and recovery were measured following a sad mood induction. Mood reactivity strongly predicted mood recovery; however, this relationship was moderated by attentional biases for negative emotional stimuli. Biases for sad and fear stimuli were associated with diminished mood recovery following mood induction across the sample. However, biases for sad stimuli were associated with significantly greater impairments in mood recovery among individuals with MDD than healthy controls. Furthermore, within the MDD group, impaired mood recovery was positively associated with depression severity. These results suggest that attentional biases maintain depression, in part, by facilitating the persistence of sad mood. PMID:22867117

  12. Difference in the binocular rivalry rate between depressive episodes and remission.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ting; Ye, Xing; Wei, Qiang; Xie, Wen; Cai, Chunlan; Mu, Jingjing; Dong, Yi; Hu, Panpan; Hu, Xinglong; Tian, Yanghua; Wang, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Binocular rivalry refers to a phenomenon in which, when different images are presented to each eye simultaneously, perception alternates spontaneously between monocular views rather than being a superposition of the two images. Recently, the involvement of serotonin systems has been reported to be related to the phenomenon. There is abundant evidence for abnormalities of the serotonin systems in depression and the antidepressants that enhance 5-HT transmission, which in turn improves mood and behavior. However, the available data with respect to rivalry rates in depression are less clear. Therefore, we aimed to explore whether perceptual rivalry was affected by a dysfunctional serotonin system in patients with depression and whether there was a rivalry rate difference between episode and remission states in depression patients. Twenty-eight patients with depression and 30 healthy controls were recruited in the study. We assessed the rivalry rate and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with depression during clinical episode and remission states. The results suggested that alternation rates for patients during episodes were significantly slower than during remission and than in healthy controls. Also, alternation rates for patients during remission were slower than in healthy controls. These results may provide further clues to serotonergic neural systems contributing to the dynamics of perception rivalry and may foster enlightenment regarding the field of binocular rivalry in psychiatric disorders other than bipolar disorder. PMID:26247392

  13. Sleep and adult neurogenesis: implications for cognition and mood.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Anka D; Meerlo, Peter; McGinty, Dennis; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a critical role in learning and memory throughout life, in part by the integration of adult-born neurons into existing circuits. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is regulated by numerous environmental, physiological, and behavioral factors known to affect learning and memory. Sleep is also important for learning and memory. Here we critically examine evidence from correlation, deprivation, and stimulation studies that sleep may be among those factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. There is mixed evidence for correlations between sleep variables and rates of hippocampal cell proliferation across the day, the year, and the lifespan. There is modest evidence that periods of increased sleep are associated with increased cell proliferation or survival. There is strong evidence that disruptions of sleep exceeding 24 h, by total deprivation, selective REM sleep deprivation, and chronic restriction or fragmentation, significantly inhibit cell proliferation and in some cases neurogenesis. The mechanisms by which sleep disruption inhibits neurogenesis are not fully understood. Although sleep disruption procedures are typically at least mildly stressful, elevated adrenal corticosterone secretion is not necessary for this effect. However, procedures that prevent both elevated corticosterone and interleukin 1β signaling have been found to block the effect of sleep deprivation on cell proliferation. This result suggests that sleep loss impairs hippocampal neurogenesis by the presence of wake-dependent factors, rather than by the absence of sleep-specific processes. This would weigh against a hypothesis that regulation of neurogenesis is a function of sleep. Nonetheless, impaired neurogenesis may underlie some of the memory and mood effects associated with acute and chronic sleep disruptions.

  14. Food-derived serotonergic modulators: effects on mood and cognition.

    PubMed

    Hulsken, Sjoerd; Märtin, Antje; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Homberg, Judith Regina

    2013-12-01

    The most frequently described drugs in the treatment of mood disorders are selective serotonin reuptake and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, enhancing serotonin levels in the brain. However, side-effects have been reported for these drugs. Because serotonin levels in the brain are dependent on the availability of the food-derived precursor tryptophan, foods such as chicken, soyabeans, cereals, tuna, nuts and bananas may serve as an alternative to improve mood and cognition. Here we discuss the effects of high- or low-tryptophan-containing food, as well as plant extracts with a modest monoamine reuptake and MAO-A inhibition functional profile, on mood and cognition in healthy and vulnerable human subjects and rodents. Together the studies suggest that there is an inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels, with low and too high tryptophan levels impairing cognition, and moderate to high tryptophan levels improving cognition. This relationship is found for both healthy and vulnerable subjects. Whereas this relationship may also exist for mood, the inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels and mood may be based on different tryptophan concentrations in healthy v. vulnerable individuals. Animal studies are emerging and allow further understanding of effects and the mode of action of food-derived serotonergic components on mood, cognition and mechanisms. Ultimately, insight into the concentrations of tryptophan and other serotonergic components in food having beneficial effects on mood and cognition in healthy, but particularly vulnerable, subjects may support well-being in our highly demanding society. PMID:24134856

  15. Preschoolers' Psychopathology and Temperament Predict Mothers' Later Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allmann, Anna E S; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Klein, Daniel N

    2016-04-01

    Considerable research exists documenting the relationship between maternal mood disorders, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD), and a variety of negative child outcomes. By contrast, research exploring the reverse pathway whereby child traits are associated with later maternal mood disorders is much more limited. We examined whether young children's temperament and psychopathology predicted maternal mood disorders approximately 6 years later. Child temperament and symptoms were assessed at age three using semi-structured diagnostic interviews and parent-report inventories. Maternal psychopathology was assessed with semi-structured interviews when children were 3 and 9 years old. Mothers also reported on their marital satisfaction when children were 3 and 6 years old. Child temperamental negative affectivity (NA), depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior problems significantly predicted maternal mood disorders over and above prior maternal mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. The link between children's early externalizing symptoms and maternal mood disorders 6 years later was mediated by maternal marital satisfaction 3 years after the initial assessment. These findings suggest that early child temperament and psychopathology contribute to risk for later maternal mood disorders both directly and through their impact on the marital system. Research indicates that effective treatment of maternal depression is associated with positive outcomes for children; however, this study suggests that treating early child problems may mitigate the risk of later maternal psychopathology. PMID:26219263

  16. A study of the interrupted REM episode.

    PubMed

    Merica, H; Gaillard, J M

    1991-12-01

    Brief interruptions of REM sleep are considered to be part of the REM episode. The maximum allowable duration of such an interruption, which is used to define the end of the REM episode, is currently a matter of debate. Making measurements on individual REM cycles, inter-REM interval analysis was carried out to determine whether the generally adopted 15 minute empirical rule for this maximum needs to be extended to 25 minutes as suggested by several including Kobayashi et al. Our results show that there is no reason to alter the 15 minute rule and that measurements which do not take into account the time-of-night effect may be misleading. The proportion of interrupted REM episodes observed in our population of healthy adults is high. We have therefore also examined in some detail the phenomenology of the temporal evolution of the structure and content of the interrupted REM episodes. Both showed a definite change over the night: the interruptions in the earlier episodes tend to return the system to slow wave sleep while those in the later episodes tend to return it to wake. It is hypothesized that these interruptions reflect a measure of REM sleep pressure and its interaction with both slow wave sleep and wake pressures. PMID:1798770

  17. Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia.

    PubMed

    Squire, L R; Zola, S M

    1998-01-01

    Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe/diencephalic damage should be proportionately impaired in both episodic and semantic memory. An alternative view is that the capacity for semantic memory is spared, or partially spared, in amnesia relative to episodic memory ability. This article reviews two kinds of relevant data: 1) case studies where amnesia has occurred early in childhood, before much of an individual's semantic knowledge has been acquired, and 2) experimental studies with amnesic patients of fact and event learning, remembering and knowing, and remote memory. The data provide no compelling support for the view that episodic and semantic memory are affected differently in medial temporal lobe/diencephalic amnesia. However, episodic and semantic memory may be dissociable in those amnesic patients who additionally have severe frontal lobe damage.

  18. 40 CFR 51.153 - Reevaluation of episode plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes § 51.153 Reevaluation of episode plans. (a) States should periodically...

  19. 40 CFR 51.153 - Reevaluation of episode plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes § 51.153 Reevaluation of episode plans. (a) States should periodically...

  20. 40 CFR 51.153 - Reevaluation of episode plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes § 51.153 Reevaluation of episode plans. (a) States should periodically...

  1. 40 CFR 51.153 - Reevaluation of episode plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes § 51.153 Reevaluation of episode plans. (a) States should periodically...

  2. 40 CFR 51.153 - Reevaluation of episode plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes § 51.153 Reevaluation of episode plans. (a) States should periodically...

  3. Formal thought disorder in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ayer, Ahmet; Yalınçetin, Berna; Aydınlı, Esra; Sevilmiş, Şilay; Ulaş, Halis; Binbay, Tolga; Akdede, Berna Binnur; Alptekin, Köksal

    2016-10-01

    Formal thought disorder (FTD) is one of the fundamental symptom clusters of schizophrenia and it was found to be the strongest predictor determining conversion from first-episode acute transient psychotic disorder to schizophrenia. Our goal in the present study was to compare a first-episode psychosis (FEP) sample to a healthy control group in relation to subtypes of FTD. Fifty six patients aged between 15 and 45years with FEP and forty five control subjects were included in the study. All the patients were under medication for less than six weeks or drug-naive. FTD was assessed using the Thought and Language Index (TLI), which is composed of impoverishment of thought and disorganization of thought subscales. FEP patients showed significantly higher scores on the items of poverty of speech, weakening of goal, perseveration, looseness, peculiar word use, peculiar sentence construction and peculiar logic compared to controls. Poverty of speech, perseveration and peculiar word use were the significant factors differentiating FEP patients from controls when controlling for years of education, family history of psychosis and drug abuse. PMID:27565775

  4. Neuropsychological outcomes of pediatric burn patients who sustained hypoxic episodes.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Marta; Robertson, Carrie; Murphy, Kevin D; Rosenberg, Laura; Mlcak, Ronald; Robert, Rhonda S; Herndon, David N; Meyer, Walter J

    2005-11-01

    The neuropsychological outcomes of children who suffered hypoxic episodes following their burns are not completely understood and vary depending on the nature and severity of the episode. A retrospective review of youth that were admitted to this acute burn care facility over the past 20 years was conducted to identify the extent of cognitive and affective difficulties. Thirty-nine children who sustained hypoxic injuries related to their burns were compared with 21 controls that were matched for age, TBSA, and time of injury. Approximately a third of the children who survived from the hypoxia group continued to have long-term cognitive and emotional difficulties. For those who recovered reasonably well, no differences were found from the matched burned controls. These results probably underestimate the true extent of neuropsychological difficulties experienced by these youth given that detailed cognitive testing was not routinely performed. Prospective studies are needed to further characterize the full nature of difficulties and outcomes associated with burn related hypoxic injuries.

  5. Haze Research in Brunei Darussalam During the 1998 Episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radojevic, M.

    - Brunei Darussalam experienced a severe haze episode between the beginning of February and the end of April 1998 due mainly to local peat and forest fires in Brunei and in neighbouring Sabah and Sarawak. The extensive research studies of the haze carried out in Brunei are outlined together with selected results. Particulate matter (PM10) was the only significant criteria pollutant and it exceeded WHO guidelines and accepted air quality standards on most days during the haze episode. Gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, SO2, NO2, O3) were generally well below WHO guidelines and at these concentrations they are expected to have no significant health or environmental effects. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) revealed the presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), aldehydes, phenol, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Personal exposure monitoring of PM10 revealed significant differences in exposure patterns between different individuals depending on the location, time and activity. Data on outpatient visits showed an increase for some illnesses (e.g., acute respiratory infection) during the months of haze. No significant impacts of haze on rainwater acidity or deposition were noted. Emission factors for some volatile compounds were determined in combustion experiments in which peat was burned at temperatures typical of smouldering.

  6. Attentional capture by emotional scenes across episodes in bipolar disorder: Evidence from a free-viewing task.

    PubMed

    García-Blanco, Ana; Salmerón, Ladislao; Perea, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether the initial orienting, subsequent engagement, and overall allocation of attention are determined exogenously (i.e. by the affective valence of the stimulus) or endogenously (i.e. by the participant's mood) in the manic, depressive and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Participants were asked to compare the affective valence of two pictures (happy/threatening/neutral [emotional] vs. neutral [control]) while their eye movements were recorded in a free-viewing task. Results revealed that the initial orienting was exogenously captured by emotional images relative to control images. Importantly, engagement and overall allocation were endogenously captured by threatening images relative to neutral images in BD patients, regardless of their episode--this effect did not occur in a group of healthy controls. The threat-related bias in BD, which occurs even at the early stages of information processing (i.e. attentional engagement), may reflect a vulnerability marker.

  7. Attentional capture by emotional scenes across episodes in bipolar disorder: Evidence from a free-viewing task.

    PubMed

    García-Blanco, Ana; Salmerón, Ladislao; Perea, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether the initial orienting, subsequent engagement, and overall allocation of attention are determined exogenously (i.e. by the affective valence of the stimulus) or endogenously (i.e. by the participant's mood) in the manic, depressive and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Participants were asked to compare the affective valence of two pictures (happy/threatening/neutral [emotional] vs. neutral [control]) while their eye movements were recorded in a free-viewing task. Results revealed that the initial orienting was exogenously captured by emotional images relative to control images. Importantly, engagement and overall allocation were endogenously captured by threatening images relative to neutral images in BD patients, regardless of their episode--this effect did not occur in a group of healthy controls. The threat-related bias in BD, which occurs even at the early stages of information processing (i.e. attentional engagement), may reflect a vulnerability marker. PMID:25796341

  8. What to Do When Your School's in a Bad Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Tschannen-Moran, Bob

    2014-01-01

    "We can think of morale as an organizational mood," the authors write, "and we can view a school with low morale as a school that's in a bad mood." School leaders can improve mood and raise morale by implementing three strategies that promote the kind of good mood that fosters student learning and success. School leaners…

  9. Understanding the Relationship between Mood and Creativity: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 62 experimental and 10 non-experimental studies was conducted to evaluate the positive-mood-enhances-creativity generalization. While the results demonstrate that positive mood enhances creativity, the strength of that effect is contingent upon the comparative or referent mood state (i.e., neutral or negative mood) as well as…

  10. Emotional Language Processing: How Mood Affects Integration Processes during Discourse Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egidi, Giovanna; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2012-01-01

    This research tests whether mood affects semantic processing during discourse comprehension by facilitating integration of information congruent with moods' valence. Participants in happy, sad, or neutral moods listened to stories with positive or negative endings during EEG recording. N400 peak amplitudes showed mood congruence for happy and sad…

  11. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified.

    PubMed

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as "memory detection," little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  12. Acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Gretchen

    2014-03-01

    One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients. PMID:24439877

  13. Acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Gretchen

    2014-03-01

    One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients.

  14. Happiness as alchemy: Positive mood leads to self-serving responses to social comparisons.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Camille S; Stapel, Diederik A

    2011-06-01

    People in a positive mood process information in ways that reinforce and maintain this positive mood. The current studies examine how positive mood influences responses to social comparisons and demonstrates that people in a positive mood interpret ambiguous information about comparison others in self-benefitting ways. Specifically, four experiments demonstrate that compared to negative mood or neutral mood participants, participants in a positive mood engage in effortful re-interpretations of ambiguously similar comparison targets so that they may assimilate to upward comparison targets and contrast from downward comparison targets. PMID:21660089

  15. Relationships between mood state, time estimation, and selected movement speed.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Kumi

    2004-10-01

    We investigated whether different aspects of mood state influence sense of time estimation and movement speed. Mood states were measured on the Multiple Mood Scale for 142 female undergraduate students, who were then asked to estimate the interval of time elapsed between the words "start" and "stop" spoken by a tester. Next, the same subjects were told to draw circles inside 1-cm squares printed on an A4 size sheet of paper in succession at their freely elected comfortable speed. Scores on Concentration (r=-.22, p<.01) and Being Startled (r=-.26, p<.01) each correlated significantly and negatively with time estimation, while scores on Boredom (r =.17, p <.05) had a significant positive correlation with movement speed. These results suggest that different aspects of mood state have some association with time estimation and selected movement speed. Values account for small common variance. PMID:15560352

  16. Current Neural and Behavioral Dimensional Constructs across Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Langenecker, Scott A; Jacobs, Rachel H; Passarotti, Alessandra M

    2014-09-01

    Our understanding of the underlying neurobiology for mood disorders is still limited. We present an integrated model for conceptualizing and understanding mood disorders drawing upon a broad literature pertinent to mood disorders. The integrated model of emotion processing and regulation incorporates the linguistic constructs of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. In particular, we focus on the Positive Valence domain/circuit (PVC), highlighting recent reward research and the Negative Valence domain/circuit (NVC), highlighting rumination. Furthermore, we also illustrate the Cognitive Control and Problem Solving (CCaPS) circuit, which is heavily involved in emotion regulation, as well as the default mode network (DMN) and interactions between circuits. We conclude by proposing methods for addressing challenges in the developmental study of mood disorders including using high-risk design that incorporates risk for many disorders.

  17. Social support and depressed mood in isolated and confined environments.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Johnson, Jeffrey C; Boster, James S

    2004-05-01

    The influence of isolation and confinement on social support and depressed mood was examined in a study of 235 men and women who spent a year at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and a study of 77 men and women who spent a year at the Amundson-Scott South Pole Station. Although availability of support remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in reported satisfaction with support obtained, as well as a significant increase in depressed mood. Satisfaction with support was inversely associated with depressed mood at the beginning and end of isolation and confinement. At the end of winter, this association varied by source of support. High levels of tension-anxiety, depression and anger preceded an increase in advice seeking, but high levels of advice seeking also preceded an increase in tension-anxiety and depression. Results suggest a significant erosion of social support under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement, leading to an increase in depressed mood.

  18. A comparison of cognitive and behavioral inductions of negative mood.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, M; Westerholm, P; McHugh, K

    1994-11-01

    Sixty undergraduate subjects were exposed to one of three depressive mood inductions: cognitive, behavioral, or control. Subjects in the cognitive induction group read negative self-statements consistent with Beck's (1974) cognitive theory of depression. Subjects in the behavioral induction group were exposed to insoluble discrimination problems consistent with Lewinsohn's (1974) behavioral theory that lack of reinforcement produces depression. The control group read a neutral passage. Following the mood induction, subjects rated their current moods using the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist (MAACL; Zuckerman & Lubin, 1965). The cognitive and behavioral inductions produced significantly higher MAACL total and subscale scores than did the control condition; however, the cognitive and behavioral inductions did not differ from one another. Because the cognitive and behavioral mood inductions appear equally powerful, they may be used by researchers who are attempting to identify variables that are related to subjects' differing responses to behavioral and cognitive influences on depression.

  19. Social support and depressed mood in isolated and confined environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.

    2004-05-01

    The influence of isolation and confinement on social support and depressed mood was examined in a study of 235 men and women who spent a year at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and a study of 77 men and women who spent a year at the Amundson-Scott South Pole Station. Although availability of support remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in reported satisfaction with support obtained, as well as a significant increase in depressed mood. Satisfaction with support was inversely associated with depressed mood at the beginning and end of isolation and confinement. At the end of winter, this association varied by source of support. High levels of tension-anxiety, depression and anger preceded an increase in advice seeking, but high levels of advice seeking also preceded an increase in tension-anxiety and depression. Results suggest a significant erosion of social support under conditions of prolonged isolation and confinement, leading to an increase in depressed mood.

  20. Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Major Ups and Downs Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings Most people feel happy ... Strike Out Stroke Wise Choices Links Dealing with Bipolar Disorder If you have bipolar disorder, get treatment and ...

  1. Clinical Trials: Information and Options for People with Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... events Visit the podcast archive Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/Disorders Related ... for Your Patients Information about Depression Information about Bipolar Disorder Wellness Tools DBSA Support Groups Active Research Studies ...

  2. Is Duplex-Ultrasound a useful tool in defining rejection episodes in composite tissue allograft transplants?

    PubMed

    Loizides, Alexander; Kronberger, Irmgard-Elisabeth; Plaikner, Michaela; Gruber, Hannes

    2015-12-01

    Immunologic reactions in transplanted organs are in more or less all allograft patients detectable: clear parameters exist as e.g. in renal transplants where the clearance power reduces by rejection. On the contrary, in composite tissue allografts clear and objective indicators stating a rejection episode lack. We present the case of a hand-transplanted subject with signs of acute transplant rejection diagnosed by means of Duplex Ultrasound and confirmed by biopsy.

  3. A Derived Transfer of Mood Functions through Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Smeets, Paul M.; Luciano, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the transfer of induced happy and sad mood functions through equivalence relations. Sixteen subjects participated in a combined equivalence and mood induction procedure. In Phase 1, all subjects were trained in 2 conditional discriminations using a matching-to-sample format (i.e., A1-B1, A2-B2, A1-C1, A2-C2). In…

  4. Negative Urgency, Mood Induction, and Alcohol Seeking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    VanderVeen, J. Davis; Plawecki, Martin H.; Millward, James B.; Hays, James; Kareken, David A.; O’Connor, Sean; Cyders, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Negative urgency, defined as impulsive risk-taking during extreme negative emotional states, is the most important impulsivity-related trait for alcohol-related problems and alcohol dependence. However, how negative urgency imparts risk for alcohol-related problems is not yet well understood. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to examine how negative urgency relates to separable aspects of the emotional experience and alcohol-seeking behaviors. METHODS A total of 34 (19 women) community-dwelling, alcohol-using adults aged 21–32 (mean age=24.86, SD=3.40, 74.3% Caucasian) completed two counterbalanced intravenous alcohol self-administration sessions: one during a neutral mood condition and one during a negative mood condition. RESULTS Negative urgency was associated with 1) greater mood change following negative mood induction (F=4.38, df=15, p=.002, η2=0.87), but was unrelated to changes in craving or cortisol release in response to mood induction; 2) greater alcohol craving prior to and after an alcohol prime (F=3.27, p=.02, η2=0.86), but only in the negative and not the neutral mood condition; and 3) higher peak BrAC (F=2.13, df=42, p=.02, η2=0.48), continuing to increase intoxication level over a longer period (F=3.77, df=42, p<.001, η2=0.62), and more alcohol seeking (F=21.73, df=22, p<.001, η2=0.94) throughout the negative session. Negative urgency was associated with overall lower cortisol release. CONCLUSIONS These results highlight the importance of assessing behavioral indicators of negative urgency under mood condition, and suggest that negative urgency may amplify alcohol self-administration through increased negative emotional reactivity to mood events and increased alcohol craving after initial alcohol exposure, leading to maintenance of alcohol related behavior. PMID:27291583

  5. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  6. Illness episodes, physician visits, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Berkanovic, E; Hurwicz, M L

    1992-08-01

    Although there is a large literature examining the effects of distress on the demand for medical care, the data on which this literature is based are equivocal. Nonetheless, this literature is cited frequently by those who advocate a national mental health policy designed to produce a cost-effective "medical offset effect." In this study, longitudinal data on illness episodes, physician visits, and depressive symptoms were collected from 940 Medicare recipients enrolled in a health maintenance organization (HMO) under a Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA) contract. Seven waves of interviews were conducted over a period of 1 year. This article presents two sets of analyses. In the first, controlling for chronic conditions and demographics reported at baseline, the relationships between depressive symptoms reported at baseline, and all illness episodes and physician visits that occurred over the subsequent year are examined. In the second, controlling for depressive symptoms and demographics reported at baseline, the relationships between illness episodes and physician visits over the study year, and depressive symptoms recorded at the final interview are examined. The data indicate that, whereas depressive symptoms at baseline are virtually unrelated to subsequent illness episodes and physician visits, illness episodes and physician visits are related to subsequent depressive symptoms. These data indicate, therefore, that policies aimed at diverting the distressed from seeking medical care may result in further inequities in the receipt of needed care. PMID:10120227

  7. Influence of the composition of a meal taken after physical exercise on mood, vigilance, performance.

    PubMed

    Verger, P; Lagarde, D; Batejat, D; Maitre, J F

    1998-06-01

    The metabolic and behavioral effects of nutrients after exercise on vigilance level, performance, and mood have been minimally studied and have given contradictory results. In order to increase the understanding of the relationships between nutrition, exercise and performance, this experiment compared the effects on mood and performance of a protein- rich meal and a protein- poor meal, eaten just after an acute session of exercise. Vigilance and mood were evaluated by visual analog scales, and memory was measured by memory search task from the AGARD STRES battery, based on the Sternberg paradigm. Forty-two subjects were involved in this experiment. All subjects participated in the study of the effect of exercise after two kinds of meals (protein and nonprotein). Two groups of fourteen subjects we used to evaluate the effect of the exercise and the effect of the delay of meal intake after exercise in the two kinds of diet. The results show no difference in memory performance between exercise and rest conditions, nor between "protein" and "no protein" meal groups. They do show, however, that subjects feel happier after a meal with protein than after a meal without protein. The effects of the "no protein" meal on drowsiness differ with the glucide content of the meal. Subjects are less drowsy when they eat between 125 and 150 g of glucide than when they eat more than 150 g. The rousing effect induced by physical exercise is counterbalanced when subjects eat more than 150 g of carbohydrate. The anxiolytic effect of glucide is re-established.

  8. Mood stabilizers in pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Management of bipolar during pregnancy and postpartum is very challenging. The treating clinicians have to take into account various factors like current mental state, longitudinal history of the patient, past history of relapse while off medication, response to medication, time of pregnancy at which patient presents to the clinician, etc. The choice of drug should depend on the balance between safety and efficacy profile. Whenever patient is on psychotropic medication, close and intensive monitoring should be done. Among the various mood stabilizers, use of lithium during the second and third trimester appears to be safe. Use of valproate during first trimester is associated with major malformation and long-term sequalae in the form of developmental delay, lower intelligence quotient, and higher risk of development of autism spectrum disorder. Similarly use of carbamazepine in first trimester is associated with higher risk of major congenital malformation and its use in first trimester is contraindicated. Data for lamotrigine (LTG) appears to be more favorable than other antiepileptics. During lactation, use of valproate and LTG is reported to be safe. Use of typical and/atypical antipsychotic is a good option during pregnancy in women with bipolar disorder. PMID:26330649

  9. MR evaluation of cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow in stroke-like episodes of MELAS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Jiangxi; Xie, Sheng; Zhao, Danhua; Liu, Xiwei; Zhang, Jue; Yuan, Yun; Huang, Yining

    2012-12-15

    Metabolic information is essential in the investigation of the pathophysiology of stroke-like episodes in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Here, we used magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the dynamic metabolic changes before and after a stroke-like episode in two patients with MELAS caused by the mitochondrial DNA mutation A3243G. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging, including arterial spin labeling and oxygen extraction fraction imaging, and generated cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction maps. We recruited eight healthy volunteers to define the normal range of the oxygen extraction fraction. We detected a heterogeneous reduction in the oxygen extraction fraction in the brain in the interictal period as well as at the onset of a stroke-like attack. However, the oxygen extraction fraction in the stroke-like lesions normalized in the acute stage. The stroke-like lesions showed consistent hyperperfusion in the acute phase but hypoperfusion in the chronic phase. We have demonstrated the utility of using new magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the evaluation of the pathophysiology of stroke-like lesions. The increased utilization of oxygen in an acute lesion is a novel finding in our study, which might play a role in the oxidative stress.

  10. Lactobacillus rhamnosus meningitis following recurrent episodes of bacteremia in a child undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Robin, Frédéric; Paillard, Catherine; Marchandin, Hélène; Demeocq, François; Bonnet, Richard; Hennequin, Claire

    2010-11-01

    We report a case of meningitis due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a child undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia. Four episodes of bacteremia involving strains with pulsotypes identical to that of the cerebrospinal fluid isolate preceded meningitis. After several courses of clindamycin, no relapse occurred during the patient follow-up.

  11. Mood-as-input hypothesis and perseverative psychopathologies.

    PubMed

    Meeten, Frances; Davey, Graham C L

    2011-12-01

    Mood-as-input hypothesis is a theory of task perseveration that has been applied to the understanding of perseveration across psychopathologies such as pathological worrying, compulsive checking, depressive rumination, and chronic pain. We review 10 years of published evidence from laboratory-based analogue studies and describe their relevance for perseveration in clinical populations. In particular, mood-as-input hypothesis predicts that perseveration at a task will be influenced by interactions between the individual's stop rules for the task and their concurrent mood, and that the valency of an individual's concurrent mood is used as information about whether the stop rule-defined goals for the task have been met. The majority of the published research is consistent with this hypothesis, and we provide evidence that clinical populations possess characteristics that would facilitate perseveration through mood-as-input processes. We argue that mood-as-input research on clinical populations is long overdue because (1) it has potential as a transdiagnostic mechanism helping to explain the development of perseveration and its comorbidity across a range of different psychopathologies, (2) it is potentially applicable to any psychopathology where perseveration is a defining feature of the symptoms, and (3) it has treatment implications for dealing with clinical perseveration. PMID:21963671

  12. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks.

    PubMed

    Hill, E M; Griffiths, F E; House, T

    2015-08-22

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6-12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression.

  13. Reactivity to alcohol cues and induced moods in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Litt, M D; Cooney, N L; Kadden, R M; Gaupp, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been theorized that respondent conditioning processes in part underlie desire for alcohol and thus contribute to relapse after alcoholism treatment. One implication of this theory is that the relevant conditioned responses could be eliminated by respondent extinction, in which the alcoholic patient is exposed to alcohol-related stimuli while being prevented from consuming alcohol. However, exteroceptive cues such as the sight and smell of alcoholic beverages are not always sufficient to elicit desire for alcohol. In view of this, it has been suggested that interoceptive cues, such as mood states, may also play a role in eliciting desire for alcohol. To test this, eight alcoholic subjects were induced to experience negative or neutral moods on four separate days, and then exposed to the sight and smell of their favorite alcoholic drink, and to a neutral stimulus (seltzer water), in a within-subjects design. Results from this work indicate that: (a) negative moods can be reliably induced in the laboratory as confirmed by subjects' reports; (b) exposure to alcohol cues had no effect on desire for alcohol while subjects were in a relaxed, neutral mood state; (c) the presence of negative mood states alone appeared to be sufficient to elicit desire for alcohol in some subjects, regardless of whether alcohol or water was presented. These data argue that negative mood states may cue desire for alcohol independent of other cues. The data also suggest that reactivity to alcohol cues may be substantially reduced by relaxation.

  14. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks.

    PubMed

    Hill, E M; Griffiths, F E; House, T

    2015-08-22

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6-12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. PMID:26290075

  15. Pre-flight safety briefings, mood and information retention.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Morteza; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2015-11-01

    Mood is a moderating factor that is known to affect performance. For airlines, the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing prior to a commercial flight is not only an opportunity to inform passengers about the safety features on-board the aircraft they are flying, but an opportunity to positively influence their mood, and hence performance in the unlikely event of an emergency. The present research examined whether indeed the pre-flight safety briefing could be used to positively impact passengers' mood. In addition, the present research examined whether the recall of key safety messages contained within the pre-flight safety briefing was influenced by the style of briefing. Eighty-two participants were recruited for the research and divided into three groups; each group exposed to a different pre-flight cabin safety briefing video (standard, humorous, movie theme). Mood was measured prior and post safety briefing. The results revealed that pre-flight safety briefing videos can be used to manipulate passengers' mood. Safety briefings that are humorous or use movie themes to model their briefing were found to positively affect mood. However, there was a trade-off between entertainment and education, the greater the entertainment value, the poorer the retention of key safety messages. The results of the research are discussed from both an applied and theoretical perspective.

  16. Pre-flight safety briefings, mood and information retention.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Morteza; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2015-11-01

    Mood is a moderating factor that is known to affect performance. For airlines, the delivery of the pre-flight safety briefing prior to a commercial flight is not only an opportunity to inform passengers about the safety features on-board the aircraft they are flying, but an opportunity to positively influence their mood, and hence performance in the unlikely event of an emergency. The present research examined whether indeed the pre-flight safety briefing could be used to positively impact passengers' mood. In addition, the present research examined whether the recall of key safety messages contained within the pre-flight safety briefing was influenced by the style of briefing. Eighty-two participants were recruited for the research and divided into three groups; each group exposed to a different pre-flight cabin safety briefing video (standard, humorous, movie theme). Mood was measured prior and post safety briefing. The results revealed that pre-flight safety briefing videos can be used to manipulate passengers' mood. Safety briefings that are humorous or use movie themes to model their briefing were found to positively affect mood. However, there was a trade-off between entertainment and education, the greater the entertainment value, the poorer the retention of key safety messages. The results of the research are discussed from both an applied and theoretical perspective. PMID:26154236

  17. Situated navigational working memory: the role of positive mood.

    PubMed

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Rogolino, Carmelo; D'Amico, Simonetta; Piccardi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The perspective of situated cognition assumes that cognition is not separated from the context. In the present study, the issue if visuospatial memory and navigational working memory are situated was explored by manipulating participants' mood (positive, negative and neutral) while performing two different tasks. College students were randomly assigned to the group of positive, negative or neutral music. Participants filled out the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) before and after carrying out the Corsi Test and the Walking Corsi Test. Both tasks were performed forward and backward. Music was played throughout the memory tasks. Firstly, comparing pre-mood induction PANAS scores to post-mood induction PANAS scores, results showed that only positive affects were manipulated: After mood induction, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores, whereas the Negative Music Group produced lower scores than before mood induction; the Neutral Music Group produced no effect. Secondly, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores than Negative and Neutral Music Groups both at the Corsi Test and at the Walking Corsi Test. These results show that situational contexts that induce a specific mood can affect visuospatial memory and navigational working memory, and open to the idea that positive emotions may play a crucial role in enhancing navigational strategies.

  18. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks

    PubMed Central

    Hill, E. M.; Griffiths, F. E.; House, T.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6–12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. PMID:26290075

  19. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  20. Episodic spontaneous hypothermia: a periodic childhood syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cynthia; Gener, Blanca; Garaizar, Carmen; Prats, José M

    2003-04-01

    Episodic spontaneous hypothermia is an infrequent disorder, with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. A systemic cause or underlying brain lesion has not been found for the disease. We report four new patients, 3-9 years old, with episodic hypothermia lower than 35 degrees C, marked facial pallor, and absent shivering. The episodes could last a few hours or four days, and recurred once a week or every 2-3 months. Two patients also demonstrated bradycardia, mild hypertension, and somnolence during the events; in one of them, profuse sweating was also a feature, and all four presented with either headache, a periodic childhood syndrome, or both (recurrent abdominal pain, cyclic vomiting, or vertigo). Three patients reported a family history of migraine. Neurologic examination, endocrine function, and imaging studies were normal. Migraine prophylactic therapy was of moderate efficacy. Spontaneous resolution was observed in one patient. The clinical characteristics of the syndrome allow for its inclusion as a childhood periodic syndrome related to migraine. PMID:12849886

  1. Nonstationary signal analysis in episodic memory retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Y. G.; Kawasumi, Masashi; Saito, Masao

    2004-04-01

    The problem of blind source separation from a mixture that has nonstationarity can be seen in signal processing, speech processing, spectral analysis and so on. This study analyzed EEG signal during episodic memory retrieval using ICA and TVAR. This paper proposes a method which combines ICA and TVAR. The signal from the brain not only exhibits the nonstationary behavior, but also contain artifacts. EEG data at the frontal lobe (F3) from the scalp is collected during the episodic memory retrieval task. The method is applied to EEG data for analysis. The artifact (eye movement) is removed by ICA, and a single burst (around 6Hz) is obtained by TVAR, suggesting that the single burst is related to the brain activity during the episodic memory retrieval.

  2. Being a grump only makes things worse: a transactional account of acute stress on mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Vinski, Melaina T.; Watter, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high-stress or low-stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task as a measure of mind-wandering behavior. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high-stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind-wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter) immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood. PMID:24273520

  3. The effects of allostatic load on neural systems subserving motivation, mood regulation, and social affiliation.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Neuhaus, Emily; Zalewski, Maureen; Crowell, Sheila E; Potapova, Natalia

    2011-11-01

    The term allostasis, which is defined as stability through change, has been invoked repeatedly by developmental psychopathologists to describe long-lasting and in some cases permanent functional alterations in limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responding following recurrent and/or prolonged exposure to stress. Increasingly, allostatic load models have also been invoked to describe psychological sequelae of abuse, neglect, and other forms of maltreatment. In contrast, neural adaptations to stress, including those incurred by monoamine systems implicated in (a) mood and emotion regulation, (b) behavioral approach, and (c) social affiliation and attachment, are usually not included in models of allostasis. Rather, structural and functional alterations in these systems, which are exquisitely sensitive to prolonged stress exposure, are usually explained as stress mediators, neural plasticity, and/or programming effects. Considering these mechanisms as distinct from allostasis is somewhat artificial given overlapping functions and intricate coregulation of monoamines and the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. It also fractionates literatures that should be mutually informative. In this article, we describe structural and functional alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic, and noradrenergic neural systems following both acute and prolonged exposure to stress. Through increases in behavioral impulsivity, trait anxiety, mood and emotion dysregulation, and asociality, alterations in monoamine functioning have profound effects on personality, attachment relationships, and the emergence of psychopathology. PMID:22018077

  4. Effects of serotonin and catecholamine depletion on interleukin-6 activation and mood in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ben J; Olver, James S; Norman, Trevor R; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2002-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that depression and related neurotic illnesses are associated with alterations in immune function that may contribute to their pathogenesis. For example, clinical and experimental studies have shown that abnormal HPA-axis activation and monoamine neurotransmission may be related to an increased release of proinflammatory cytokines from stimulated lymphocytes in the periphery and brain. In the present investigation, the effects of tryptophan depletion (TD) on unstimulated plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were investigated in order to determine whether acute changes in serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission would induce a proinflammatory response in healthy individuals. The effects of TD were compared with the analogous procedure of tyrosine depletion (TPD), which reduces catecholamine metabolism in humans. Thirteen female participants completed three experimental sessions: TD, TPD and a balanced-control condition (B). Mood-ratings and blood sampling were performed at baseline and 5 h after the administration of the mixtures. Analyses revealed that TD and TPD markedly reduced tryptophan and tyrosine/phenylalanine levels, respectively. No changes in plasma IL-6 production or ratings of lowered mood were observed, however, subjects did report feeling more fatigued after TD. These findings indicate that a transient disruption in global monoamine function does not stimulate a proinflammatory response of IL-6 in normal volunteers. PMID:12404674

  5. Stress and acute respiratory infection

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, N.M.; Douglas, R.M.; Ryan, P.

    1986-09-01

    To examine the relationship between stress and upper respiratory tract infection, 235 adults aged 14-57 years, from 94 families affiliated with three suburban family physicians in Adelaide, South Australia, participated in a six-month prospective study. High and low stress groups were identified by median splits of data collected from the Life Events Inventory, the Daily Hassles Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire, which were administered both before and during the six months of respiratory diary data collection. Using intra-study stress data, the high stress group experienced significantly more episodes (mean of 2.71 vs. 1.56, p less than 0.0005) and symptom days (mean of 29.43 vs. 15.42, p = 0.005) of respiratory illness. The two groups were almost identical with respect to age, sex, occupational status, smoking, passive smoking, exposure to air pollution, family size, and proneness to acute respiratory infection in childhood. In a multivariate model with total respiratory episodes as the dependent variable, 21% of the variance was explained, and two stress variables accounted for 9% of the explained variance. Significant, but less strong relationships were also identified between intra-study stress variables and clinically definite episodes and symptom days in both clinically definite and total respiratory episodes. Pre-study measures of stress emphasized chronic stresses and were less strongly related to measures of respiratory illness than those collected during the study. However, significantly more episodes (mean of 2.50 vs. 1.75, p less than 0.02) and symptom days (mean of 28.00 vs. 17.06, p less than 0.03) were experienced in the high stress group. In the multivariate analyses, pre-study stress remained significantly associated with total respiratory episodes nd symptom days in total and ''definite'' respiratory episodes.

  6. Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services and Illness Perceptions Among Adolescents with Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Floersch, Jerry E.; Townsend, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes how adolescents perceive their mood disorders (MD; e.g., acute vs. chronic) and their attitudes toward mental health services. The study also explores the relationships between demographics, clinical characteristics, perceptions of illness and attitudes. Finally, we examine the psychometric properties of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (Moss-Morris et al. in Psychology & Health 17(1):1–16, 2002). Seventy adolescents were recruited from the greater Cleveland area. Structured interviews were conducted utilizing standardized instruments. Results show that adolescents with MD have fairly positive attitudes, with Caucasian youth reporting more positive attitudes than their nonwhite ounterparts. Illness perceptions were related to psychological openness and indifference to stigma. Implications are discussed. PMID:19834581

  7. Reevaluation of patients with bipolar disorder on manic episode: improving the diagnosing of mixed episode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Ran; Cho, Hyun-Sang; Kim, Se Joo; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Eun; Jon, Duk-In

    2013-08-01

    Mixed manic/depressive episodes in patients with bipolar disorder are underdiagnosed because of restrictive diagnostic criteria. Using the broader definition of a mixed episode represented by the Cincinnati criteria, we reevaluated the medical records of patients with bipolar disorder hospitalized for a manic episode. We also examined the predictive power of previously unrecognized depressive symptoms. Of 520 inpatients with mania, we retrospectively diagnosed 59 (11.3%) as having a probable mixed episode. Compared with the patients with pure mania, the patients with mixed episodes were more likely to have a family history of psychiatric illness, comorbid personality disorder, and a history of suicide attempts. Binary logistic regression revealed that loss of interest, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness, and feelings of helplessness had good positive predictive value (>0.7) for mixed episodes. Accurate diagnosis of mixed episodes may require a broadening of diagnostic criteria and emphasis on symptoms such as loss of interest, loss of energy, and feelings of worthlessness and helplessness.

  8. Influence of Tryptophan and Serotonin on Mood and Cognition with a Possible Role of the Gut-Brain Axis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Trisha A; Nguyen, Jason C D; Polglaze, Kate E; Bertrand, Paul P

    2016-01-20

    The serotonergic system forms a diffuse network within the central nervous system and plays a significant role in the regulation of mood and cognition. Manipulation of tryptophan levels, acutely or chronically, by depletion or supplementation, is an experimental procedure for modifying peripheral and central serotonin levels. These studies have allowed us to establish the role of serotonin in higher order brain function in both preclinical and clinical situations and have precipitated the finding that low brain serotonin levels are associated with poor memory and depressed mood. The gut-brain axis is a bi-directional system between the brain and gastrointestinal tract, linking emotional and cognitive centres of the brain with peripheral functioning of the digestive tract. An influence of gut microbiota on behaviour is becoming increasingly evident, as is the extension to tryptophan and serotonin, producing a possibility that alterations in the gut may be important in the pathophysiology of human central nervous system disorders. In this review we will discuss the effect of manipulating tryptophan on mood and cognition, and discuss a possible influence of the gut-brain axis.

  9. Comments on episodic superposition of memory States.

    PubMed

    Lambert-Mogiliansky, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a commentary to Charles Brainerd, Zheng Wang and Valerie F. Reyna's article entitled "Superposition of episodic memories: Overdistribution and quantum models" published in a special number of topiCS 2013 devoted to quantum modelling in cognitive sciences. PMID:24259305

  10. The episodic memory system: neurocircuitry and disorders.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Bradford C; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The ability to encode and retrieve our daily personal experiences, called episodic memory, is supported by the circuitry of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, which interacts extensively with a number of specific distributed cortical and subcortical structures. In both animals and humans, evidence from anatomical, neuropsychological, and physiological studies indicates that cortical components of this system have key functions in several aspects of perception and cognition, whereas the MTL structures mediate the organization and persistence of the network of memories whose details are stored in those cortical areas. Structures within the MTL, and particularly the hippocampus, have distinct functions in combining information from multiple cortical streams, supporting our ability to encode and retrieve details of events that compose episodic memories. Conversely, selective damage in the hippocampus, MTL, and other structures of the large-scale memory system, or deterioration of these areas in several diseases and disorders, compromises episodic memory. A growing body of evidence is converging on a functional organization of the cortical, subcortical, and MTL structures that support the fundamental features of episodic memory in humans and animals.

  11. Episodic Accretion among the Orion Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, William J.; Safron, Emily; Megeath, S. Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Episodic accretion, where a young stellar object undergoes stochastic spikes in its disk-to-star accretion rate one or more times over its formation period, may be a crucial process in the formation of low-mass stars. These spikes result in a factor of 10 to 100 increase in the source luminosity over the course of several months that may persist for years. Six years after the Spitzer survey of the Orion molecular clouds, the WISE telescope mapped Orion with similar wavelength coverage. Thus, the two surveys can be used to explore the mid-infrared variability of young stars on this timescale, which is suitable for discovering episodic accretion events. Out of 319 Orion protostars that were targets of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey, we identified two examples of episodic accretion with this method. One of them, HOPS 223, was previously known. The other, HOPS 383, is the first known example of episodic accretion in a Class 0 protostar (age < 0.2 Myr). With these and one other outburst that began early in the Spitzer mission, we estimate that the most likely interval between protostellar outbursts is 740 years, with a 90% confidence interval of 470 to 6200 years. These outbursts are weaker than the optically revealed FU Ori events. We will update the mid-infrared light curves of HOPS 223 and HOPS 383 with recent data from FORCAST aboard SOFIA; HOPS 223 shows signs of fading.

  12. Context Prediction Analysis and Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Mizumori, Sheri J. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Events that happen at a particular place and time come to define our episodic memories. Extensive experimental and clinical research illustrate that the hippocampus is central to the processing of episodic memories, and this is in large part due to its analysis of context information according to spatial and temporal references. In this way, hippocampus defines ones expectations for a given context as well as detects errors in predicted contextual features. The detection of context prediction errors is hypothesized to distinguished events into meaningful epochs that come to be recalled as separate episodic memories. The nature of the spatial and temporal context information processed by hippocampus is described, as is a hypothesis that the apparently self-regulatory nature of hippocampal context processing may ultimately be mediated by natural homeostatic operations and plasticity. Context prediction errors by hippocampus are suggested to be valued by the midbrain dopamine system, the output of which is ultimately fed back to hippocampus to update memory-driven context expectations for future events. Thus, multiple network functions (both within and outside hippocampus) combine to result in adaptive episodic memories. PMID:24109442

  13. Strokelike episodes and cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita.

    PubMed

    Van Schaik, Sander M; Reneman, Liesbeth; Engelen, Marc; Roos, Yvo B W E M; Poll-The, Bwee Tien

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a boy with cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, strokelike episodes, and a pinpoint stenosis of the left internal carotid artery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a stenosis of an intracranial artery in a patient with cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita.

  14. A calendar savant with episodic memory impairments.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ingrid R; Berryhill, Marian E; Drowos, David B; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-06-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures and retain some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year-old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient's memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable.

  15. Cough in asthma triggered by reflux episodes.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Devendra; He, Zhaoping; Padman, Raj

    2014-05-01

    With combined pH and impedance monitoring, non-acid, as well as acid reflux episodes, are more commonly detected immediately prior to cough in asthma in children. Gastroesophageal reflux should be evaluated as a trigger for cough in difficult childhood asthma.

  16. The Interpersonal Conflict Episode: A Systems Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawski, Carl

    A detailed systems diagram elaborates the process of dealing with a single conflict episode between two parties or persons. Hypotheses are fully stated to lead the reader through the flow diagram. A concrete example illustrates its use. Detail is provided in an accounting scheme of virtually all possible variables to consider in analyzing a…

  17. A Calendar Savant with Episodic Memory Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Ingrid R.; Berryhill, Marian E.; Drowos, David B.; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures as well as retaining some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient’s memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable. PMID:20104390

  18. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Video Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    The transcripts of dialogues from videotape recordings were developed, along with accompanying language laboratory material, as part of a one-semester course in Spanish for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America. Included are 48 episodes covering such topics as: working with a local Spanish-speaking counterpart,…

  19. The Episodic Memory System: Neurocircuitry and Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Bradford C; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The ability to encode and retrieve our daily personal experiences, called episodic memory, is supported by the circuitry of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, which interacts extensively with a number of specific distributed cortical and subcortical structures. In both animals and humans, evidence from anatomical, neuropsychological, and physiological studies indicates that cortical components of this system have key functions in several aspects of perception and cognition, whereas the MTL structures mediate the organization and persistence of the network of memories whose details are stored in those cortical areas. Structures within the MTL, and particularly the hippocampus, have distinct functions in combining information from multiple cortical streams, supporting our ability to encode and retrieve details of events that compose episodic memories. Conversely, selective damage in the hippocampus, MTL, and other structures of the large-scale memory system, or deterioration of these areas in several diseases and disorders, compromises episodic memory. A growing body of evidence is converging on a functional organization of the cortical, subcortical, and MTL structures that support the fundamental features of episodic memory in humans and animals. PMID:19776728

  20. Neuropsychology of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Sinanović, Osman

    2010-06-01

    Neuropsychology includes both the psychiatric manifestations of neurological illness (primary brain-based disorders) and neurobiology of "idiopathic" psychiatric disorders. Neurological primary brain disorders provoke broad spectrum of brain pathophysiology that cause deficit sin human behaviour, and the magnitude of neurobehavioral-related problems is a world wide health concern. Speech disorders of aphasic type, unilateral neglect, anosognosia (deficit disorders), delirium and mood disorders (productive disorders) in urgent neurology, first of all in acute phase of stroke are more frequent disorders then it verified in routine exam, not only in the developed and large neurological departments. Aphasia is common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with prevalence of one third of all stroke patients in acute phase although exist reports on greater frequency. Unilateral neglect is a disorder that mostly effects the patient after the lesion of the right hemisphere, mostly caused by a cerebrovascular insult (infarct or haemorrhage affecting a large area - up to two thirds of the right hemisphere), and in general the left-side neglect is the most widespread neuropsychological deficit after the lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere. Reports on the incidence of visual neglect vary and they range from 13 to 85%. Anosognosia is on the second place as neuropsychological syndrome of stroke in right hemisphere, characterized by the denial of the motor, visual or cognitive deficit. This syndrome, defined as denial of hemiparesis or hemianopsia, is a common disorder verified in 17-28% of all patents with acute brain stoke. There are different reports on frequency of delirium in acute stroke, from 24 to 48%, and it is more frequent in hemorrhagic then ischemic stoke. Post stroke depression (PSD) is one of the more frequent consequences on the stroke, and the prevalence of PSD has ranged from 5 to 63% of patients in