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Sample records for acute myocardial damage

  1. Diagnostic usefulness of the oedema-infarct ratio to differentiate acute from chronic myocardial damage using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kiyoyasu; Isobe, Satoshi; Suzuki, Susumu; Kinoshita, Kousuke; Yokouchi, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Hirokazu; Ohshima, Satoru; Hirai, Makoto; Sawada, Ken; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2012-04-01

    To differentiate acute from chronic damage to the myocardium in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) using DE and T2w MR. Short-axis T2w and DE MR images were acquired twice after the onset of MI in 36 patients who successfully underwent emergency coronary revascularisation. The areas of infarct and oedema were measured. The oedema-infarct ratio (O/I) of the left ventricular area was calculated by dividing the oedema by the infarct area. The oedema size on T2w MR was significantly larger than the infarct size on DE MR in the acute phase. Both the oedema size on T2w MR and the infarct size on DE MR in the acute phase were significantly larger than those in the chronic phase. The O/I was significantly greater in the acute phase compared with that in the chronic phase (P < 0.05). An analysis of relative cumulative frequency distributions revealed an O/I of 1.4 as a cut-off value for differentiating acute from chronic myocardial damage with the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 85.1%, 82.7% and 83.9%, respectively. The oedema-infarct ratio may be a useful index in differentiating acute from chronic myocardial damage in patients with MI. MR can differentiate reversible from irreversible myocardial damage after myocardial infarction. MR is a useful modality to noninvasively differentiate the infarct stages. The O/I is an important index to decide therapeutic strategies.

  2. Electrocardiographic changes and myocardial damage in patients with acute cerebrovascular accidents.

    PubMed

    Dimant, J; Grob, D

    1977-01-01

    In 100 consecutive patients with acute cerebrovascular accident, due to cerebral thrombosis in 72, cerebral hemorrhage in 12, embolus in 6, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 10, there were 90 who had electrocardiographic abnormalities during the first three days after admission, compared to 50% in a control group. The patients with cerebrovascular accident had a 7- to 10-fold higher incidence of ST segment depression, prolonged Q-Tc interval and atrial fibrillation, and a 2- to 4-fold higher incidence of T wave inversion, conduction defects, premature ventricular beats and left ventricular hypetrophy. Patients who died had a 2-, 3- and 5-fold higher incidence of electrocardiographic evidence of recent myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation and conduction defects than those who survived, but these changes occurred in only 5, 21 and 14% of all patients, and other electrocardiographic changes could not be correlated with mortality. During the first three days after admission 29 patients had elevation of serum enzymes which may be derived from cardiac muscle, particularly CPK, which was increased 6-fold, compared to 2-fold increases in HBDH, GOT, and LDH. Only 5 of these patients had electrocardiographic evidence of recent myocardial infarction. Patients with elevated serum CPK had a 2-fold higher incidence of ST segment depression, T wave inversion, conduction defects and atrial fibrillation than those with normal CPK, and a mortality of 66%, compared to 30%. Of 41 patients who died, 49% had elevated serum CPK, compared to 15% of 59 patients who survived. These differences were significant (P less than 0.01). Serum CPK was more frequently helpful than the electrocardiogram in evaluating the extent of cardiac damage and in predicting mortality. Patients with acute cerebrovascular accident should have repeated evaluation of serum CPK and the ECG, and be monitored for arrhythmias.

  3. CMR Native T1 Mapping Allows Differentiation of Reversible Versus Irreversible Myocardial Damage in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: An OxAMI Study (Oxford Acute Myocardial Infarction).

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Borlotti, Alessandra; Viliani, Dafne; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Alkhalil, Mohammad; De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Fahrni, Gregor; Dawkins, Sam; Wijesurendra, Rohan; Francis, Jane; Ferreira, Vanessa; Piechnik, Stefan; Robson, Matthew D; Banning, Adrian; Choudhury, Robin; Neubauer, Stefan; Channon, Keith; Kharbanda, Rajesh; Dall'Armellina, Erica

    2017-08-01

    CMR T1 mapping is a quantitative imaging technique allowing the assessment of myocardial injury early after ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. We sought to investigate the ability of acute native T1 mapping to differentiate reversible and irreversible myocardial injury and its predictive value for left ventricular remodeling. Sixty ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients underwent acute and 6-month 3T CMR, including cine, T2-weighted (T2W) imaging, native shortened modified look-locker inversion recovery T1 mapping, rest first pass perfusion, and late gadolinium enhancement. T1 cutoff values for oedematous versus necrotic myocardium were identified as 1251 ms and 1400 ms, respectively, with prediction accuracy of 96.7% (95% confidence interval, 82.8% to 99.9%). Using the proposed threshold of 1400 ms, the volume of irreversibly damaged tissue was in good agreement with the 6-month late gadolinium enhancement volume (r=0.99) and correlated strongly with the log area under the curve troponin (r=0.80) and strongly with 6-month ejection fraction (r=-0.73). Acute T1 values were a strong predictor of 6-month wall thickening compared with late gadolinium enhancement. Acute native shortened modified look-locker inversion recovery T1 mapping differentiates reversible and irreversible myocardial injury, and it is a strong predictor of left ventricular remodeling in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. A single CMR acquisition of native T1 mapping could potentially represent a fast, safe, and accurate method for early stratification of acute patients in need of more aggressive treatment. Further confirmatory studies will be needed. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Is plasma urotensin II concentration an indicator of myocardial damage in patients with acute coronary syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Babińska, Magdalena; Holecki, Michał; Prochaczek, Fryderyk; Owczarek, Aleksander; Kokocińska, Danuta; Więcek, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urotensin II (UII) is a vasoactive peptide secreted by endothelial cells. Increased plasma UII concentration was observed in patients with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, diabetic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. In patients with myocardial infarction both increased and decreased plasma UII concentrations were demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze whether plasma UII concentration reflects the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Material and methods One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients with ACS, without age limit, were enrolled in the study. In all patients plasma concentration of creatinine, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), troponin C, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), and UII were assessed, and echocardiography was performed in order to assess the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy, ejection fraction (EF) and mass (LVM). Results In patients with the highest risk (TIMI 5-7) plasma UII concentration was significantly lower than in those with low risk (TIMI 1-2): 2.61±1.47 ng/ml vs. 3.60±2.20 ng/ml. Significantly lower plasma UII concentration was found in patients with increased concentration of troponin C (2.60±1.52 ng/ml vs. 3.41±2.09 ng/ml). There was a significant negative correlation between plasma UII concentration and TIMI score or concentration of troponin C, but not CK-MB. Borderline correlation between plasma UII and ejection fraction (R = 0.157; p=0.063) or NT-proBNP (R = − 0.156; p=0.058) was found. Conclusions Decreased plasma urotensin II concentration in patients with ACS could be associated with more severe injury of myocardium. PMID:22851999

  5. Determinants of microvascular damage recovery after acute myocardial infarction: results from the acute myocardial infarction contrast imaging (AMICI) multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Funaro, Stefania; Galiuto, Leonarda; Boccalini, Francesca; Cimino, Sara; Canali, Emanuele; Evangelio, Francesca; DeLuca, Laura; Paraggio, Lazzaro; Mattatelli, Antonella; Gnessi, Lucio; Agati, Luciano

    2011-04-01

    Microvascular damage (MD) occurring soon after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) may reverse or remain sustained within the first week after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We investigated the incidence, determinants, and long-term clinical relevance of MD reversal after PPCI. Serial two-dimensional echocardiograms (2DE) and a myocardial contrast study were obtained within 24 h of PPCI (T1) and at pre-discharge (T2) in 110 successfully re-perfused STEMI patients. Six months 2DE and 2-year clinical follow-up were obtained. After PPCI myocardial re-perfusion was normal at T1 only in 40 patients (36%, 'normal reflow'), recovered at T2 in 33 (30%, 'reversible MD'), and remained abnormal in 37 (34%, 'sustained MD'). At follow-up, normal reflow and reversible MD were coupled with a significant reduction in the infarct area, decrease in cardiac volumes, and a slight non-significant improvement in systolic function. Conversely, in the sustained MD group, the infarct area did not change and cardiac volumes significantly increased with a parallel worsening in systolic function. By multivariate analysis, independent predictors of reversible MD were: absence of family history of coronary artery disease (CAD), younger age, shorter time to re-perfusion, and absence of diabetes. The 2-year combined events rate was significantly lower in reversible MD (log-rank test P= 0.03) compared with sustained MD patients. In STEMI patients treated according to the current guidelines, MD frequently occurs soon after re-perfusion but it is reversible in ~50% of cases and it is associated with a favourable functional and clinical outcome. Family history of CAD, aging, time to re-perfusion, and diabetes are independent predictors of MD reversibility.

  6. Acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Eric; Mercado, Nestor; Poldermans, Don; Gardien, Martin; Vos, Jeroen; Simoons, Maarten L

    2003-03-08

    Acute myocardial infarction is a common disease with serious consequences in mortality, morbidity, and cost to the society. Coronary atherosclerosis plays a pivotal part as the underlying substrate in many patients. In addition, a new definition of myocardial infarction has recently been introduced that has major implications from the epidemiological, societal, and patient points of view. The advent of coronary-care units and the results of randomised clinical trials on reperfusion therapy, lytic or percutaneous coronary intervention, and chronic medical treatment with various pharmacological agents have substantially changed the therapeutic approach, decreased in-hospital mortality, and improved the long-term outlook in survivors of the acute phase. New treatments will continue to emerge, but the greatest challenge will be to effectively implement preventive actions in all high-risk individuals and to expand delivery of acute treatment in a timely fashion for all eligible patients.

  7. How reliable is myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Willerson, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    Myocardial scintigraphic techniques available presently allow a sensitive and relatively specific diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction when they are used correctly, although every technique has definite limitations. Small myocardial infarcts (less than 3 gm.) may be missed, and there are temporal limitations in the usefulness of the scintigraphic techniques. The development of tomographic methodology that may be used with single-photon radionuclide emitters (including technetium and /sup 201/Tl will allow the detection of relatively small abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and regions of myocardial infarction and will help to provide a more objective interpretation of the myocardial scintigrams. The use of overlay techniques allowing simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion, infarct-avid imaging, and radionuclide ventriculograms will provide insight into the relevant aspects of the extent of myocardial damage, the relationship of damage to myocardial perfusion, and the functional impact of myocardial infarction on ventricular performance.

  8. Anterior ST segment depression in acute inferior myocardial infarction as a marker of greater inferior, apical, and posterolateral damage

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, T.D.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    The clinical significance of anterior precordial ST segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction was evaluated in 67 consecutive patients early after onset of symptoms with gated blood pool scans, thallium-201 perfusion images, and 12-lead ECGs. Patients with anterior ST depression (n = 33) had depressed mean values for left ventricular ejection fraction (54 +/- 2% (mean +/- S.E.M.) vs 59 +/- 2%; p = 0.02), cardiac index (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.6 +/- 0.2 L/m2; p = 0.03), and ratio of systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs 2.5 +/- 0.3 mm Hg/ml; p = 0.04) compared to patients with no anterior ST depression (n = 34). Patients with anterior ST depression had (1) lower mean wall motion values for the inferior, apical, and inferior posterolateral segments (p less than 0.05) and (2) greater reductions in thallium-201 uptake in the inferior and posterolateral regions (p less than 0.05). However, anterior and septal (1) wall motion and (2) thallium-201 uptake were similar in patients with and without ST depression. Thus, anterior precordial ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction represents more than a reciprocal electrical phenomenon. It identifies patients with more severe wall motion impairment and greater hypoperfusion of the inferior and adjacent segments. The poorer global left ventricular function in these patients is a result of more extensive inferior infarction and not of remote septal or anterior injury.

  9. Myocardial changes in acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Ultrastructural evidence of immune damage and the role of microangiopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Z. A.; Andrade, S. G.; Correa, R.; Sadigursky, M.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1994-01-01

    Histological and ultrastructural studies of the hearts of dogs sacrificed 18 to 26 days after intraperitoneal inoculation with 4 x 10(5) blood forms of the 12 SF strain of Trypanosoma cruzi/kg of body weight disclosed myocarditis characterized by parasitic invasion of some myocytes, damage and necrosis of nonparasitized myocytes, and interstitial infiltration by mononuclear cells. Nonparasitized myocytes showed alterations ranging from mild edema to severe myocytolysis. These changes often were accompanied by contacts of myocytes with lymphocytes (both granular and agranular) and macrophages. These contacts were characterized by focal loss of the myocyte basement membrane and close approximation of the plasma membranes of the two cells. Contacts between lymphocytes and capillary endothelial cells were also frequent. Platelet aggregates and fibrin microthrombi were observed in some capillaries. Our findings suggest that immune effector cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of the myocyte damage and the microangiopathy in acute Chagas' disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8203476

  10. Myocardial damage after inhalation of chloramines.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Castro, Alejandro; Holanda, Maria Soledad; Canas, Borja S; Morlote, Jesús G; Minambres, Eduardo; Prieto Solis, José A

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this case report was to document a rare case of myocardial damage, in the context of an accidental inhalation of chloramines, demonstrated by electrocardiogram and myocardium-specific enzymes.

  11. Tachyarrhythmias in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    McLean, K H; Bett, J N; Saltups, A

    1975-02-01

    In 1505 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) serious ventricular arrhythmias were commoner in those with transmural ECG changes, and were associated with an increase in mortality and in the incidence of left ventricular failure (LVF) as well as higher peak serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurred more often in older patients and in those with LVF and clinical evidence of pericarditis.

  12. Infant acute myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tilouche, Samia; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Sahnoun, Maha; Chkirbène, Youssef; Mestiri, Sarra; Boughamoura, Lamia; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and progression. In clinical practice, although there are many methods of diagnosis of acute myocarditis, the diagnosis remains an embarrassing dilemma for clinicians. The authors report the case of 9-month-old infant who was brought to the Pediatric Emergency Department with sudden onset dyspnea. Examination disclosed heart failure and resuscitation was undertaken. The electrocardiogram showed an ST segment elevation in the anterolateral leads with a mirror image. Cardiac enzyme tests revealed a significant elevation of troponin and creatine phosphokinase levels. A diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was made, and heparin therapy was prescribed. The infant died on the third day after admission with cardiogenic shock. The autopsy showed dilatation of the ventricles and massive edema of the lungs. Histological examinations of myocardium samples revealed the presence of a marked lymphocytic infiltrate dissociating myocardiocytes. Death was attributed to acute myocarditis. The authors call attention to the difficulties of differential diagnosis between acute myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction especially in children, and to the important therapeutic implications of a correct diagnosis. PMID:28210569

  13. Myocardial revascularisation after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bana, A; Yadava, O P; Ghadiok, R; Selot, N

    1999-05-15

    One hundred and twenty-three patients had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) within 30 days of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from May 1992 to November 1997. Commonest infarct was anterior transmural (61.8%) and commonest indication of surgery was post-infarct persistent or recurrent angina (69.1%). Ten patients were operated within 48 h and 36 between 48 h to 2 weeks of having MI. Out of these, nine patients were having infarct extension and cardiogenic shock at the time of surgery. Pre-operatively fourteen patients were on inotropes of which six also had intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support. All patients had complete revascularisation with 3.8+/-1.2 distal anastomoses per patient. By multivariate analysis, we found that independent predictors of post-operative morbidity [inotropes >48 h, use of IABP, ventilation >24 h, ICU stay >5 days] and complications [re-exploration, arrhythmias, pulmonary complications, wound infection, cerebrovascular accident (CVA)] were left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <30%, Q-wave MI, surgery <48 h after AMI, presence of pre-operative cardiogenic shock and age >60 years (P < or = 0.01). Mortality at 30 days was 3.3%. LVEF <30%, Q-wave MI, surgery <48 h after AMI, presence of pre-operative cardiogenic shock and age >60 years were found to be independent predictors of 30 days mortality (P < or = 0.01). Ninety patients were followed up for a mean duration of 33 months (1 to 65 months). There were three late deaths and five patients developed recurrence of angina. To conclude, CABG can be carried out with low risk following AMI in stable patients for post-infarct angina. Patients who undergo urgent or emergent surgery and who have pre-operative cardiogenic shock, IABP, poor left ventricular functions, age >60 years and Q-wave MI are at increased risk.

  14. Heroin-associated myocardial damages--conventional and immunohistochemical investigations.

    PubMed

    Dettmeyer, R; Friedrich, K; Schmidt, P; Madea, B

    2009-05-30

    Well-known complications related to drug abuse are myocardial insufficiency, myocardial infarction, endocarditis, myocarditis, aortic dissection, neurologic damages, ischemic colitis, thrombotic phenomenons, renal infarction and acute liver failure. Furthermore, microfocal fibrosis of the myocardium is found in stimulant abuse. The origin of myocardial fibrosis associated with opiate abuse (endocarditis, myocarditis, embolism) is still unclear. This question shall be investigated using immunohistochemical staining for early diagnosis of myocarditis. A quantification of myocardial interstitial leucocytic infiltrates was accomplished in 21 chronic drug abusers who died of heroin/morphine intoxication and compared to 15 normal subjects who died suddenly due to non-cardiac causes of death without intoxication (e.g. traffic accidents, head trauma). Toxicological investigations were performed and in addition, blood samples were checked to clarify the status of HIV, hepatitis A, B and C in both groups. To verify signs of inflammation, myocardial specimen from different locations were investigated with conventional histological stainings and immunohistochemical techniques for characterization and quantification of interstitial myocardial leucocytes, T-lymphocytes and macrophages. The number of cells were found up to fivefold increased in heroin addicts compared to the control group without reaching the cut-off values for immunohistochemically based diagnosis of myocarditis.

  15. Mitotically inactivated embryonic stem cells can be used as an in vivo feeder layer to nurse damaged myocardium after acute myocardial infarction: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Burt, Richard K; Chen, You-hong; Verda, Larissa; Lucena, Carolina; Navale, Shankararao; Johnson, Jesse; Han, Xiaoqiang; Lomasney, Jon; Baker, Jessa M; Ngai, Ka-Leung; Kino, Aya; Carr, James; Kajstura, Jan; Anversa, Piero

    2012-10-26

    Various types of viable stem cells have been reported to result in modest improvement in cardiac function after acute myocardial infarction. The mechanisms for improvement from different stem cell populations remain unknown. To determine whether irradiated (nonviable) embryonic stem cells (iESCs) improve postischemic cardiac function without adverse consequences. After coronary artery ligation-induced cardiac infarction, either conditioned media or male murine or male human iESCs were injected into the penumbra of ischemic myocardial tissue of female mice or female rhesus macaque monkeys, respectively. Murine and human iESCs, despite irradiation doses that prevented proliferation and induced cell death, significantly improved cardiac function and decreased infarct size compared with untreated or media-treated controls. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of the Y chromosome revealed disappearance of iESCs within the myocardium, whereas 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine assays revealed de novo in vivo cardiomyocyte DNA synthesis. Microarray gene expression profiling demonstrated an early increase in metabolism, DNA proliferation, and chromatin remodeling pathways, and a decrease in fibrosis and inflammatory gene expression compared with media-treated controls. As a result of irradiation before injection, ex vivo and in vivo iESC existence is transient, yet iESCs provide a significant improvement in cardiac function after acute myocardial infarction. The mechanism(s) of action of iESCs seems to be related to cell-cell exchange, paracrine factors, and a scaffolding effect between iESCs and neighboring host cardiomyocytes.

  16. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in acute myocardial infarction and ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J.

    1982-04-01

    Thallium-201 scintigraphy provides a sensitive and reliable method of detecting acute myocardial infarction and ischemia when imaging is performed with understanding of the temporal characteristics and accuracy of the technique. The results of scintigraphy are related to the time interval between onset of symptoms and time of imaging. During the first 6 hr after chest pain almost all patients with acute myocardial infarction and approximately 50% of the patients with unstable angina will demonstrate /sup 201/TI pefusion defects. Delayed imaging at 2-4 hr will permit distinction between ischemia and infarction. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the size of the perfusion defect accurately reflects the extent of the infarcted and/or jeopardized myocardium, which may be used for prognostic stratification. In view of the characteristics of /sup 201/TI scintigraphy, the most practical application of this technique is in patients in whom myocardial infarction has to be ruled out, and for early recognition of patients at high risk for complications.

  17. Postmortem diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute respiratory failure - demographics, etiologic and pulmonary histologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Matos Soeiro, Alexandre; Ruppert, Aline D; Canzian, Mauro; Capelozzi, Vera L; Serrano, Carlos V

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory failure is present in 5% of patients with acute myocardial infarction and is responsible for 20% to 30% of the fatal post-acute myocardial infarction. The role of inflammation associated with pulmonary edema as a cause of acute respiratory failure post-acute myocardial infarction remains to be determined. We aimed to describe the demographics, etiologic data and histological pulmonary findings obtained through autopsies of patients who died during the period from 1990 to 2008 due to acute respiratory failure with no diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction during life. METHODS: This study considers 4,223 autopsies of patients who died of acute respiratory failure that was not preceded by any particular diagnosis while they were alive. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was given in 218 (4.63%) patients. The age, sex and major associated diseases were recorded for each patient. Pulmonary histopathology was categorized as follows: diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia. The odds ratio of acute myocardial infarction associated with specific histopathology was determined by logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 147 men were included in the study. The mean age at the time of death was 64 years. Pulmonary histopathology revealed pulmonary edema as well as the presence of diffuse alveolar damage in 72.9% of patients. Bacterial bronchopneumonia was present in 11.9% of patients, systemic arterial hypertension in 10.1% and dilated cardiomyopathy in 6.9%. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant positive association between acute myocardial infarction with diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary edema. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that in autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure as the cause of death, 5% were diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. Pulmonary histology revealed a significant inflammatory response, which has

  18. Determination of the Role of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction by Biomarkers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-02

    Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI); Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS); ST Elevation (STEMI) Myocardial Infarction; Ischemic Reperfusion Injury; Non-ST Elevation (NSTEMI) Myocardial Infarction; Angina, Unstable

  19. Acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in a patient with acute aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Camaro, Cyril; Wouters, Noëmi T A E; Gin, Melvyn Tjon Joe; Bosker, Hans A

    2009-09-01

    Diagnosing acute Stanford type A aortic dissection with the uncommon involvement of the left main coronary artery(LMCA) remains challenging for the emergency physician because it can resemble acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. The following case report illustrate this infrequent but critical situation. A 52-year-old woman with a history of hypertension awakened with acute retrosternal chest pain accompanied by nausea and vomiting. She was referred to our hospital for primary coronary intervention because of acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. Coronary angiography indeed revealed LMCA occlusion. Subsequently successful percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation was performed, followed by immediate clinical improvement of the patient. Soon after admission at the coronary care unit, severe chest pain, hypotension, and electrocardiographic signs of diffuse myocardial ischemia relapsed. Control coronary angiography,however, showed no in-stent thrombosis. Review of clinical examination revealed an aortic regurgitation murmur. Because of this dynamic pattern of (1) signs of acute myocardial ischemia, (2) relapse of hemodynamic collapse, and (3) unaltered control coronary angiography together with the confirmed aortic regurgitation at transthoracic echocardiography, the patient was suspected of having aortic dissection. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed Stanford type A aortic dissection with severe eccentric aortic regurgitation and no pericardial effusion. Emergent valve-sparing aortic replacement was performed. The patient recovered completely. In this case, the lifesaving element was primary coronary intervention with stenting of the LMCA preventing extensive myocardial damage followed by a surgical correction of the aorta.

  20. Decreased selenium levels in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, F.J.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; de Bruijn, A.M.; Kruyssen, D.H.C.M.; de Bruin, M.; Valkenburg, H.A. )

    1989-02-24

    To study the association between selenium status and the risk of myocardial infarction, the authors compared plasma, erythrocyte, and toenail selenium levels and the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase among 84 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 84 population controls. Mean concentrations of all selenium measurements were lower in cases than controls. The differences were statistically significant, except for the plasma selenium level. A positive trend in the risk of acute myocardial infarction from high to low toenail selenium levels was observed, which persisted after adjustment for other risk factors for myocardial infarction. In contrast, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in cases than controls. Because toenail selenium level reflects blood levels up to one year before sampling, these findings suggest that a low selenium status was present before the infarction and, thus, may be of etiologic relevance. The higher glutathione peroxidase activity in the cases may be interpreted as a defense against increased oxidant stress either preceding or following the acute event.

  1. Computational modeling of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sáez, P; Kuhl, E

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction, commonly known as heart attack, is caused by reduced blood supply and damages the heart muscle because of a lack of oxygen. Myocardial infarction initiates a cascade of biochemical and mechanical events. In the early stages, cardiomyocytes death, wall thinning, collagen degradation, and ventricular dilation are the immediate consequences of myocardial infarction. In the later stages, collagenous scar formation in the infarcted zone and hypertrophy of the non-infarcted zone are auto-regulatory mechanisms to partly correct for these events. Here we propose a computational model for the short-term adaptation after myocardial infarction using the continuum theory of multiplicative growth. Our model captures the effects of cell death initiating wall thinning, and collagen degradation initiating ventricular dilation. Our simulations agree well with clinical observations in early myocardial infarction. They represent a first step toward simulating the progression of myocardial infarction with the ultimate goal to predict the propensity toward heart failure as a function of infarct intensity, location, and size.

  2. Computational modeling of acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, P.; Kuhl, E.

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction, commonly known as heart attack, is caused by reduced blood supply and damages the heart muscle because of a lack of oxygen. Myocardial infarction initiates a cascade of biochemical and mechanical events. In the early stages, cardiomyocytes death, wall thinning, collagen degradation, and ventricular dilation are the immediate consequences of myocardial infarction. In the later stages, collagenous scar formation in the infarcted zone and hypertrophy of the non-infarcted zone are auto-regulatory mechanisms to partly correct for these events. Here we propose a computational model for the short-term adaptation after myocardial infarction using the continuum theory of multiplicative growth. Our model captures the effects of cell death initiating wall thinning, and collagen degradation initiating ventricular dilation. Our simulations agree well with clinical observations in early myocardial infarction. They represent a first step towards simulating the progression of myocardial infarction with the ultimate goal to predict the propensity toward heart failure as a function of infarct intensity, location, and size. PMID:26583449

  3. [Methylphenidate induced ST elevation acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-03-05

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose, and subsequent episodes of myocardial injury due to the use and misuse of methylphenidate over a period of two years. We recommend an increased attention to the subscription of methylphenidate to patients, who are at risk of misuse and patients, who have a cardiovascular history.

  4. Aspergillus coronary embolization causing acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M; Trigg, M; de Alarcon, P; Giller, R

    1988-05-01

    An increased frequency of disseminated aspergillosis has been observed in the last decade, mostly occurring in immunocompromised patients including the bone marrow transplant population. Cardiac involvement by Aspergillus remains rare. We report the clinical and postmortem findings of an unusual case of Aspergillus pancarditis in a 7-year-old bone marrow transplant patient with Aspergillus embolization to the coronary arteries leading to a massive acute myocardial infarction. This case suggests that myocardial injury secondary to disseminated aspergillosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of chest pain in the immunocompromised pediatric patient.

  5. [Frovatriptan possibly causing acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Møller-Helgestad, Ole Kristian; Kaltoft, Anne Kjer; Kasch, Helge

    2015-03-23

    Globally migraine affects more than 10% of the adult population and it is treated with simple analgesics, combined with a triptan for a stronger treatment effect. Triptans cause arterial vasoconstriction, and this is a case report of vasospasm-induced acute myocardial infarction in a 61-year-old woman with frequent episodic migraine attacks treated with triptans. She was possibly also suffering from medication overuse headache. We suggest that regular frovatriptan use may have contributed to the myocardial infarction and that long-term triptan use may have caused the medication overuse headache.

  6. Clinical value of delayed thallium-201 myocardial imaging in suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    McKillop, J H; Turner, J G; Gray, H W; Bessent, R G; Greig, W R

    1978-01-01

    Fifty patients with acute chest pain had thallium-201 myocardial imaging performed three to six days after emergency admission to hospital. The image was abnormal in 20 out of 22 patients with acute transmural myocardial infarcts but in only 1 of 5 with acute subendocardial infarcts. Indistinguishable scan abnormalities caused by old infarcts were seen in 7 patients, and caused by myocardial ischaemia in 1 patient. A single thallium-201 myocardial scan some days after the onset of symptoms appears to be of little value in the clinical assessment of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Images PMID:687488

  7. Neuroendocrine activation after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    McAlpine, H M; Morton, J J; Leckie, B; Rumley, A; Gillen, G; Dargie, H J

    1988-01-01

    The extent of neuroendocrine activation, its time course, and relation to left ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmias were investigated in 78 consecutive patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. High concentrations of arginine vasopressin were found within six hours of symptoms, even in the absence of myocardial infarction (n = 18). Plasma catecholamine concentrations also were highest on admission, whereas renin and angiotensin II concentrations rose progressively over the first three days, not only in those with heart failure but also in patients with no clinical complications. Heart failure, ventricular tachycardia, and deaths were associated with extensive myocardial infarction, low left ventricular ejection fraction, and persistently high concentrations of catecholamines, renin, and angiotensin II up to 10 days after admission, whereas in uncomplicated cases concentrations had already returned to normal. PMID:3415870

  8. Pheochromocytoma-induced acute pulmonary edema and reversible catecholamine cardiomyopathy mimicking acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pineda Pompa, Luis Ramón; Barrera-Ramírez, Carlos Felipe; Martínez-Valdez, Jesús; Rodríguez, Pedro Domínguez; Guzmán, Carlos E

    2004-04-01

    Acute noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy as the first presentations of pheochromocytoma are uncommon events, but usually rapidly fatal. A 36-year-old man presented acute pulmonary edema in a setting of hypertensive emergency after arthroscopy, later developing catecholamine-induced cardiotoxicity mimicking an acute myocardial infarction, with elevation of cardiac damage markers, normal coronary arteries, and with full recovery from electrical abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right adrenal mass. Elevated levels of catecholamines and metanephrines, and a positive 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scan confirmed a pheochromocytoma. Once the patient had been hemodynamically stabilized, he was successfully operated.

  9. Acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm and mimicking acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Andreas; Bagur, Rodrigo; Béliveau, Patrick; Potvin, Jean-Michel; Levesque, Pierre; Fillion, Nancy; Tremblay, Benoit; Larose, Éric; Gaudreault, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    A 24-year-old healthy man consulted to our center because of typical on-and-off chest-pain and an electrocardiogram showing ST-segment elevation in inferior leads. An urgent coronary angiography showed angiographically normal coronary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging confirmed acute myocarditis. Although acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm is an uncommon association, it is important to recognize it, particularly for the management for those patients presenting with ST-segment elevation and suspect myocardial infarction and angiographically normal coronary arteries. The present report highlights the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to identify acute myocarditis as the underlying cause. PMID:25276306

  10. Acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm and mimicking acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Andreas; Bagur, Rodrigo; Béliveau, Patrick; Potvin, Jean-Michel; Levesque, Pierre; Fillion, Nancy; Tremblay, Benoit; Larose, Eric; Gaudreault, Valérie

    2014-09-26

    A 24-year-old healthy man consulted to our center because of typical on-and-off chest-pain and an electrocardiogram showing ST-segment elevation in inferior leads. An urgent coronary angiography showed angiographically normal coronary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging confirmed acute myocarditis. Although acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm is an uncommon association, it is important to recognize it, particularly for the management for those patients presenting with ST-segment elevation and suspect myocardial infarction and angiographically normal coronary arteries. The present report highlights the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to identify acute myocarditis as the underlying cause.

  11. Automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator discharges and acute myocardial injury

    SciTech Connect

    Avitall, B.; Port, S.; Gal, R.; McKinnie, J.; Tchou, P.; Jazayeri, M.; Troup, P.; Akhtar, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Multiple defibrillations by the automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (AICD) have been reported to result in localized epicardial damage. No data exist, however, regarding whether this damage can be detected in the clinical setting or whether it interferes with the detection of true myocardial infarction. Forty-nine patients who received defibrillations by patch electrodes were studied prospectively. We attempted to document the presence of myocardial injury with the following three commonly used modalities for the detection of myocardial infarction: serial electrocardiographic changes, serial creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and CPK-MB release, and technetium 99m pyrophosphate scanning. Fifteen patients received defibrillations by AICD patches at the time of AICD generator replacement. Nine patients received defibrillations at the time of new AICD lead placement. The average total energy delivered was 85 +/- 29 J. None of these patients had detectable myocardial injury. Ten patients had defibrillations by the AICD patches at the time of bypass operation. One patient in this group developed acute myocardial infarction in the inferior wall after posterior descending coronary bypass operation, as detected by electrocardiogram, 99mTc pyrophosphate scanning, and CPK-MB analysis. Fifteen patients were evaluated for spontaneous AICD discharges. Thirteen had a maximum of five consecutive shocks, and cumulative energy delivered was not greater than 330 J. None of these patients had detectable injury. Two patients had CPK-MB release of 15.3% and 7.5%, respectively. One of these patients had a positive 99mTc pyrophosphate scan. These two patients received 12 and 17 rapid and consecutive AICD discharges, respectively, with cumulative delivered energy of 360 and 510 J, respectively.

  12. Amphetamine Abuse Related Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Archana; Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary.

  13. Myocardial Edema Imaging in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Michael C.; Verhaert, David; Raman, Subha V.

    2011-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) continue to be the most common morbid condition of industrialized nations. The advent of and technical improvements in revascularization and medical therapy have led to a steady decline in mortality rates. However, many patients who suffer unstable angina or myocardial infarction require further testing and risk stratification to guide therapeutic selection and prognosis assignment. Myocardial edema imaging with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) affords the ability to define the amount of myocardium at risk, refine estimates of prognosis and provide guidance for therapies with excellent sensitivity compared to standard clinical markers. This review will discuss the rationale for edema imaging, how it is performed using CMR and its potential clinical applications. PMID:22102557

  14. Painless acute myocardial infarction on Mount Kilimanjaro.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Nasiruddin; Rajhy, Mubina; Bapumia, Mustaafa

    2016-03-17

    An individual experiencing dyspnoea or syncope at high altitude is commonly diagnosed to have high-altitude pulmonary edema or cerebral edema. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis. There have been very rare cases of AMI reported only from Mount Everest. We report a case of painless ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that occurred while climbing Mount Kilimanjaro. A 51-year-old man suffered dyspnoea and loss of consciousness near the mountain peak, at about 5600 m. At a nearby hospital, he was treated as a case of high-altitude pulmonary edema. ECG was not obtained. Two days after the incident, he presented to our institution with continued symptoms of dyspnoea, light-headedness and weakness, but no pain. He was found to have inferior wall and right ventricular STEMI complicated by complete heart block. He was successfully managed with coronary angioplasty, with good recovery. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Amphetamine Abuse Related Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H.

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary. PMID:26998366

  16. Mechanics of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium: effects of acute and chronic myocardial edema.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ketaki V; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H; Cox, Charles S; Quick, Christopher M; Allen, Steven J; Fischer, Uwe M

    2008-06-01

    Myocardial interstitial edema forms as a result of several disease states and clinical interventions. Acute myocardial interstitial edema is associated with compromised systolic and diastolic cardiac function and increased stiffness of the left ventricular chamber. Formation of chronic myocardial interstitial edema results in deposition of interstitial collagen, which causes interstitial fibrosis. To assess the effect of myocardial interstitial edema on the mechanical properties of the left ventricle and the myocardial interstitium, we induced acute and chronic interstitial edema in dogs. Acute myocardial edema was generated by coronary sinus pressure elevation, while chronic myocardial edema was generated by chronic pulmonary artery banding. The pressure-volume relationships of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium and left ventricular chamber for control animals were compared with acutely and chronically edematous animals. Collagen content of nonedematous and chronically edematous animals was also compared. Generating acute myocardial interstitial edema resulted in decreased left ventricular chamber compliance compared with nonedematous animals. With chronic edema, the primary form of collagen changed from type I to III. Left ventricular chamber compliance in animals made chronically edematous was significantly higher than nonedematous animals. The change in primary collagen type secondary to chronic left ventricular myocardial interstitial edema provides direct evidence for structural remodeling. The resulting functional adaptation allows the chronically edematous heart to maintain left ventricular chamber compliance when challenged with acute edema, thus preserving cardiac function over a wide range of interstitial fluid pressures.

  17. Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction Accompanied by Acute Inferior Myocardial Infarction: A Very Rare Coronary Artery Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Alsancak, Y; Sezenöz, B; Duran, M; Unlu, S; Turkoglu, S; Yalcın, R

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are rare and mostly silent in clinical practice. First manifestation of this congenital abnormality can be devastating as syncope, acute coronary syndrome, and sudden cardiac death. Herein we report a case with coronary artery anomaly complicated with ST segment myocardial infarction in both inferior and anterior walls simultaneously diagnosed during primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

  18. Persistent T-wave inversion predicts myocardial damage after ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Reindl, Martin; Reinstadler, Sebastian Johannes; Feistritzer, Hans-Josef; Niess, Lea; Koch, Constantin; Mayr, Agnes; Klug, Gert; Metzler, Bernhard

    2017-08-15

    Persistent T-wave inversion (PTI) after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with worse clinical outcome; however, the underlying mechanism between PTI and poor prognosis is incompletely understood. We sought to investigate the relationship between PTI and myocardial damage assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) following STEMI. In this prospective observational study, we included 142 consecutive revascularized STEMI patients. Electrocardiography to determine the presence and amplitude of PTI and pathological Q-waves was conducted 4months after infarction. CMR was performed within 1week after infarction and at 4months follow-up to evaluate infarct characteristics and myocardial function. Patients with PTI (n=103, 73%) showed a larger acute (21[11-29] vs. 6[1-13]%; p<0.001) and chronic infarct size (IS) (14[8-19] vs. 3[1-8]%; p<0.001) and more frequently microvascular obstruction (59 vs. 33%; p=0.02). The association between PTI and chronic IS remained significant (odds ratio: 9.02, 95%CI 3.49-23.35; p<0.001) after adjustment for pathological Q-wave and other IS estimators (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, culprit vessel, pre-interventional TIMI flow). The value of PTI amplitude for the prediction of large chronic IS>11% (AUC: 0.84, 95%CI 0.77-0.90) was significantly higher compared to Q-wave amplitude (AUC: 0.72, 95%CI 0.63-0.80; p=0.009); the combination of PTI with pathological Q-wave (Q-wave/T-wave score) led to a net reclassification improvement of 0.43 (95% CI 0.29-0.57; p<0.001) as compared to PTI alone. PTI following STEMI is independently and incrementally associated with more extensive myocardial damage as visualized by CMR. An electrocardiographic score combining PTI with pathological Q-wave allows for a highly accurate IS estimation post-STEMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Serum mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (ASTm) in acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, G

    1991-06-01

    The increase of serum ASTm activity might reflect the severity of damage at the subcellular level of the myocardium. 50 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were observed. The mean peak ASTm activity was 34.34 +/- 34.60 IU/L and 48 patients (96%) greater than or equal to 9 IU/L (two times median value of normal subject). The peak time (36 h) came later and the duration (120 h) was longer than that of CK-MB. ASTm/ASTt ratio in groups of AMI, non-AMI heart failure and acute ictero-hepatitis was 0.25 +/- 0.10, 0.02 +/- 0.05 and 0.05 +/- 0.02 respectively. The former was significantly greater than other two groups (P less than 0.01). The activity of ASTm in AMI cases with heart function at I, II and III + IV (Killip classification) was 21.8, 40.2 and 76.2 IU/L respectively (F = 8.407 P less than 0.01) and it was 84.9 and 24.7 IU/L in the death and surviving groups (P less than 0.01). The result showed that the estimation of serum ASTm level was helpful to the establishment of diagnosis in the patients with AMI who were sent delayed to the hospital. It held special significance in evaluating the severity of myocardial damage, heart function and in predicting the prognosis of AMI.

  20. Myocardial Bridge and Acute Plaque Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Leor; Daniels, David; Schwartz, Jonathan; Tanaka, Shige; Yeung, Alan; Tremmel, Jennifer A.; Schnittger, Ingela

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial bridge (MB) is a common anatomic variant, most frequently located in the left anterior descending coronary artery, where a portion of the coronary artery is covered by myocardium. Importantly, MBs are known to result in a proximal atherosclerotic lesion. It has recently been postulated that these lesions predispose patients to acute coronary events, even in cases of otherwise low-risk patients. One such mechanism may involve acute plaque rupture. In this article, we report 2 cases of patients with MBs who presented with acute coronary syndromes despite having low cardiovascular risk. Their presentation was life-risking and both were treated urgently and studied with coronary angiographies and intravascular ultrasound. This latter modality confirmed a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque proximal to the MB as a likely cause of the acute events. These cases, of unexplained acute coronary syndrome in low-risk patients, raise the question of alternative processes leading to the event and the role MB play as an underlying cause of ruptured plaques. In some cases, an active investigation for this entity may be warranted, due to the prognostic implications of the different therapeutic modalities, should an MB be discovered. PMID:28251167

  1. Nanog expression in heart tissues induced by acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huanhuan; Li, Qiong; Pramanik, Jogen; Luo, Jiankai; Guo, Zhikun

    2014-10-01

    Nanog is a potential stem cell marker and is considered a regeneration factor during tissue repair. In the present study, we investigated expression patterns of nanog in the rat heart after acute myocardial infarction by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. Our results show that nanog at both mRNA and protein levels is positively expressed in myocardial cells, fibroblasts and small round cells in different myocardial zones at different stages after myocardial infarction, showing a spatio-temporal and dynamic change. After myocardial infarction, the nanog expression in fibroblasts and small round cells in the infarcted zone (IZ) is much stronger than that in the margin zone (MZ) and remote infarcted zone (RIZ). From day 7 after myocardial infarction, the fibroblasts and small cells strongly expressed nanog protein in the IZ, and a few myocardial cells in the MZ and the RIZ and the numbers of nanog-positive fibroblasts and small cells reached the highest peak at 21 days after myocardial infarction, but in this period the number of nanog-positive myocardial cells decreased gradually. At 28 days after myocardial infarction, the numbers of all nanog-positive cells decreased into a low level. Therefore, our data suggest that all myocardial cells, fibroblasts and small round cells are involved in myocardial reconstruction after cardiac infarction. The nanog-positive myocardial cells may respond to early myocardial repair, and the nanog-positive fibroblasts and small round cells are the main source for myocardial reconstruction after cardiac infarction.

  2. Holmium:YAG laser angioplasty: treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, On

    1993-06-01

    We report our clinical experience with a group of 14 patients who presented with acute myocardial infarction. A holmium:YAG laser was applied to the infarct-related artery. This laser emits 250 - 600 mJ per pulse, with a pulse length of 250 microseconds and repetition rate of 5 Hz. Potential benefits of acute thrombolysis by lasers include the absence of systemic lytic state; a shortened thrombus clearing time relative to using thrombolytics; safe removal of the intracoronary thrombus and facilitation of adjunct balloon angioplasty. Potential clinical difficulties include targeting the obstructive clot and plaque, creation of debris and distal emboli and laser-tissue damage. It is conceivable that holmium:YAG laser can be a successful thrombolytic device as its wave length (2.1 microns) coincides with strong water absorption peaks. Since it is common to find an atherosclerotic plaque located under or distal to the thrombotic occlusion, this laser can also be applied for plaque ablation, and the patient presenting with acute myocardial infarction can clearly benefit from the combined function of this laser system.

  3. Macrophages mediate cardioprotective cellular postconditioning in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    de Couto, Geoffrey; Liu, Weixin; Tseliou, Eleni; Sun, Baiming; Makkar, Nupur; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Arditi, Moshe; Marbán, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic injury in the heart induces an inflammatory cascade that both repairs damage and exacerbates scar tissue formation. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are a stem-like population that is derived ex vivo from cardiac biopsies; they confer both cardioprotection and regeneration in acute myocardial infarction (MI). While the regenerative effects of CDCs in chronic settings have been studied extensively, little is known about how CDCs confer the cardioprotective process known as cellular postconditioning. Here, we used an in vivo rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury–induced MI and in vitro coculture assays to investigate how CDCs protect stressed cardiomyocytes. Compared with control animals, animals that received CDCs 20 minutes after IR had reduced infarct size when measured at 48 hours. CDCs modified the myocardial leukocyte population after ischemic injury. Specifically, introduction of CDCs reduced the number of CD68+ macrophages, and these CDCs secreted factors that polarized macrophages toward a distinctive cardioprotective phenotype that was not M1 or M2. Systemic depletion of macrophages with clodronate abolished CDC-mediated cardioprotection. Using both in vitro coculture assays and a rat model of adoptive transfer after IR, we determined that CDC-conditioned macrophages attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reduced infarct size, thereby recapitulating the beneficial effects of CDC therapy. Together, our data indicate that CDCs limit acute injury by polarizing an effector macrophage population within the heart. PMID:26214527

  4. Macrophages mediate cardioprotective cellular postconditioning in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    de Couto, Geoffrey; Liu, Weixin; Tseliou, Eleni; Sun, Baiming; Makkar, Nupur; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Arditi, Moshe; Marbán, Eduardo

    2015-08-03

    Ischemic injury in the heart induces an inflammatory cascade that both repairs damage and exacerbates scar tissue formation. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are a stem-like population that is derived ex vivo from cardiac biopsies; they confer both cardioprotection and regeneration in acute myocardial infarction (MI). While the regenerative effects of CDCs in chronic settings have been studied extensively, little is known about how CDCs confer the cardioprotective process known as cellular postconditioning. Here, we used an in vivo rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury-induced MI and in vitro coculture assays to investigate how CDCs protect stressed cardiomyocytes. Compared with control animals, animals that received CDCs 20 minutes after IR had reduced infarct size when measured at 48 hours. CDCs modified the myocardial leukocyte population after ischemic injury. Specifically, introduction of CDCs reduced the number of CD68+ macrophages, and these CDCs secreted factors that polarized macrophages toward a distinctive cardioprotective phenotype that was not M1 or M2. Systemic depletion of macrophages with clodronate abolished CDC-mediated cardioprotection. Using both in vitro coculture assays and a rat model of adoptive transfer after IR, we determined that CDC-conditioned macrophages attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reduced infarct size, thereby recapitulating the beneficial effects of CDC therapy. Together, our data indicate that CDCs limit acute injury by polarizing an effector macrophage population within the heart.

  5. Pizza and risk of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gallus, S; Tavani, A; La Vecchia, C

    2004-11-01

    Pizza eating has been favourably related to the risk of cardiovascular disease, but the data are limited. To evaluate the potential role of pizza consumption on the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we considered data from an Italian study. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study on 507 cases of nonfatal AMI and 478 controls in Milan, Italy, between 1995 and 1999. The multivariate odds ratios were 0.78 for occasional, 0.62 for regular and 0.44 for frequent eaters. The estimates were similar across strata of age, sex, smoking and other major covariates. Some of the ingredients of pizza have been shown to have a favourable influence on the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, there is no single explanation for the present findings. Pizza may in fact represent a general indicator of Italian diet, that has been shown to have potential cardiovascular benefits.

  6. Acute prolongation of myocardial refractoriness by sotalol.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, D H

    1982-01-01

    Sotalol, a beta adrenoceptor antagonist, was given intravenously to 15 patients with accessory atrioventricular pathways during intracardiac electrophysiological studies. Eleven patients had the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and four patients had concealed left sided accessory pathways. Four patients were restudied while receiving oral sotalol. In contrast to the actions typical of beta blocking agents, intravenous sotalol prolonged the effective refractory periods of the ventricles and accessory pathways and reduced the ventricular response to atrial fibrillation in the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Similar results were obtained with oral administration. These findings support the observation that sotalol, unlike other beta blocking agents. causes acute prolongation of the myocardial action potential and suggest that this action might be of therapeutic use. PMID:7082500

  7. Oxygen Therapy in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Robin; James, Stefan K; Jernberg, Tomas; Lindahl, Bertil; Erlinge, David; Witt, Nils; Arefalk, Gabriel; Frick, Mats; Alfredsson, Joakim; Nilsson, Lennart; Ravn-Fischer, Annica; Omerovic, Elmir; Kellerth, Thomas; Sparv, David; Ekelund, Ulf; Linder, Rickard; Ekström, Mattias; Lauermann, Jörg; Haaga, Urban; Pernow, John; Östlund, Ollie; Herlitz, Johan; Svensson, Leif

    2017-08-28

    Background The clinical effect of routine oxygen therapy in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction who do not have hypoxemia at baseline is uncertain. Methods In this registry-based randomized clinical trial, we used nationwide Swedish registries for patient enrollment and data collection. Patients with suspected myocardial infarction and an oxygen saturation of 90% or higher were randomly assigned to receive either supplemental oxygen (6 liters per minute for 6 to 12 hours, delivered through an open face mask) or ambient air. Results A total of 6629 patients were enrolled. The median duration of oxygen therapy was 11.6 hours, and the median oxygen saturation at the end of the treatment period was 99% among patients assigned to oxygen and 97% among patients assigned to ambient air. Hypoxemia developed in 62 patients (1.9%) in the oxygen group, as compared with 254 patients (7.7%) in the ambient-air group. The median of the highest troponin level during hospitalization was 946.5 ng per liter in the oxygen group and 983.0 ng per liter in the ambient-air group. The primary end point of death from any cause within 1 year after randomization occurred in 5.0% of patients (166 of 3311) assigned to oxygen and in 5.1% of patients (168 of 3318) assigned to ambient air (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.21; P=0.80). Rehospitalization with myocardial infarction within 1 year occurred in 126 patients (3.8%) assigned to oxygen and in 111 patients (3.3%) assigned to ambient air (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.46; P=0.33). The results were consistent across all predefined subgroups. Conclusions Routine use of supplemental oxygen in patients with suspected myocardial infarction who did not have hypoxemia was not found to reduce 1-year all-cause mortality. (Funded by the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation and others; DETO2X-AMI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01787110 .).

  8. Protective mechanism of quercetin on acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Yang, M; Liu, J W; Yin, G T

    2016-03-11

    To investigate the protective mechanism of quercetin on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rats, an AMI rat model was established by ligating the left coronary anterior descending branch. The rats were randomly divided into the model group and low- and high-dose quercetin groups. The control group comprised sham-operated rats. The rats in the low- and high-dose quercetin groups were administered 100 and 400 mg/kg quercetin, respectively, by gavage. The rats in the control and model groups were administered isometric normal saline once daily for one week. The mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the myocardial tissue of rats were detected in each group by real time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the myocardial tissue and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were detected using a colorimetric method. The level of apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Compared with those in the control group, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA content in the model, low-, and high-dose groups significantly increased. SOD and CAT activities decreased significantly. The cell apoptosis index increased significantly  (P < 0.05). Compared with those in the model group, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and IL-1β and MDA content in myocardial tissue of rats in the low-dose and high-dose groups decreased significantly. SOD and CAT activities increased significantly. The cell apoptosis index significantly reduced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, quercetin has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects on AMI rats and can effectively protect against myocardium damage.

  9. Endogenous C1-inhibitor production and expression in the heart after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Emmens, Reindert W; Baylan, Umit; Juffermans, Lynda J M; Karia, Rashmi V; Ylstra, Bauke; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha; Simsek, Suat; van Ham, Marieke; Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J

    2016-01-01

    Complement activation contributes significantly to inflammation-related damage in the heart after acute myocardial infarction. Knowledge on factors that regulate postinfraction complement activation is incomplete however. In this study, we investigated whether endogenous C1-inhibitor, a well-known inhibitor of complement activation, is expressed in the heart after acute myocardial infarction. C1-inhibitor and complement activation products C3d and C4d were analyzed immunohistochemically in the hearts of patients who died at different time intervals after acute myocardial infarction (n=28) and of control patients (n=8). To determine putative local C1-inhibitor production, cardiac transcript levels of the C1-inhibitor-encoding gene serping1 were determined in rats after induction of acute myocardial infarction (microarray). Additionally, C1-inhibitor expression was analyzed (fluorescence microscopy) in human endothelial cells and rat cardiomyoblasts in vitro. C1-inhibitor was found predominantly in and on jeopardized cardiomyocytes in necrotic infarct cores between 12h and 5days old. C1-inhibitor protein expression coincided in time and colocalized with C3d and C4d. In the rat heart, serping1 transcript levels were increased from 2h up until 7days after acute myocardial infarction. Both endothelial cells and cardiomyoblasts showed increased intracellular expression of C1-inhibitor in response to ischemia in vitro (n=4). These observations suggest that endogenous C1-inhibitor is likely involved in the regulation of complement activity in the myocardium following acute myocardial infarction. Observations in rat and in vitro suggest that C1-inhibitor is produced locally in the heart after acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute posteroinferior wall myocardial infarction secondary to football chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, R; Badui, E; Castaño, R; Madrid, R

    1985-12-01

    Myocardial infarction secondary to nonpenetrating chest trauma is rare. We present the case of a sportsman who developed an acute transmural posteroinferior wall myocardial infarction due to chest trauma by a football. The angiographic study revealed total obstruction of the proximal right coronary artery.

  11. Acute myocardial infarction in a young woman on isotretinoin treatment.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Natalia; Antuña, Paula; Dominguez, Lourdes; Rivero, Fernando; Bastante, Teresa; Alfonso, Fernando

    2015-02-15

    The use of isotretinoin has been associated with mild changes in the metabolic profile of adolescents. In very rare cases, a possible association with myocardial infarction, stroke and thromboembolic events has been reported. In this report we describe the potential association of isotretinoin with the occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction in a very young girl. OCT provided unique visualization of the culprit lesion.

  12. An Unusual Complication Following Transarterial Chemoembolization: Acute Myocardial Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Lai Yiliang; Chang Weichou; Kuo Wuhsien; Huang Tienyu; Chu Hengcheng; Hsieh Tsaiyuan; Chang Weikuo

    2010-02-15

    Transarterial chemoembolization has been widely used to treat unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Various complications have been reported, but they have not included acute myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction results mainly from coronary artery occlusion by plaques that are vulnerable to rupture or from coronary spasm, embolization, or dissection of the coronary artery. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case report that describes a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent transarterial chemoembolization and died subsequently of acute myocardial infarction. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of this complication induced by transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. This case illustrates the need to be aware of acute myocardial infarction when transarterial chemoembolization is planned for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in patients with underlying coronary artery disease.

  13. Acute myocardial infarction and sudden death in Sioux Indians.

    PubMed

    Hrabovsky, S L; Welty, T K; Coulehan, J L

    1989-04-01

    While some Indian tribes have low rates of acute myocardial infarction, Northern Plains Indians, including the Sioux, have rates of morbidity and mortality from acute myocardial infarction higher than those reported for the United States population in general. In a review of diagnosed cases of acute myocardial infarction over a 3-year period in 2 hospitals serving predominantly Sioux Indians, 8% of cases were found misclassified, and 22% failed to meet rigorous diagnostic criteria, although the patients did indeed have ischemic heart disease. Patients had high frequencies of complications and risk factors and a fatality rate of 16% within a month of admission. Sudden deaths likely due to ischemic heart disease but in persons not diagnosed as having acute myocardial infarction by chart review occurred 3 times more frequently than deaths occurring within a month of clinical diagnosis.

  14. Oxygen therapy for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Juan B; Burls, Amanda; Emparanza, José I; Bayliss, Susan E; Quinn, Tom

    2016-12-19

    Oxygen (O2) is widely used in people with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Previous systematic reviews concluded that there was insufficient evidence to know whether oxygen reduced, increased or had no effect on heart ischaemia or infarct size. Our first Cochrane review in 2010 also concluded there was insufficient evidence to know whether oxygen should be used. Since 2010, the lack of evidence to support this widely used intervention has attracted considerable attention, prompting further trials of oxygen therapy in myocardial infarction patients. It is thus important to update this Cochrane review. To assess the effects of routine use of inhaled oxygen for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We searched the following bibliographic databases on 6 June 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), CINAHL (EBSCO) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters). LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) was last searched in September 2016. We also contacted experts to identify eligible studies. We applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials in people with suspected or proven AMI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI) within 24 hours after onset, in which the intervention was inhaled oxygen (at normal pressure) compared to air, regardless of co-therapies provided to participants in both arms of the trial. Two authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of identified studies to see if they met the inclusion criteria and independently undertook the data extraction. We assessed the quality of studies and the risk of bias according to guidance in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The primary outcome was death. The measure of effect used was the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the GRADE approach to evaluate the quality of the evidence and the GRADE profiler (GRADEpro) to

  15. Cannabinoids in acute gastric damage and pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dembiński, A; Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Dembiński, M; Cieszkowski, J; Pawlik, W W; Konturek, S J; Tomaszewska, R; Hładki, W; Konturek, P C

    2006-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that stimulation of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor reduces the area of ischemic myocardial necrosis and affects activity of the digestive tract. The aim of the present study was to check whether the administration of CB1 receptor agonist or antagonist affects the stress-induced gastric ulceration and development of edematous pancreatitis. Experiments were performed on rats. Gastric lesions were induced by water immersion and restrain stress (WRS). Acute pancreatitis was induced by cerulein. Prior to WRS or before and during cerulein administration, a natural endogenous ligand for CB1 receptor, anandamide was administered intraperitoneally at the dose of 0.8, 1.5 or 3.0 micromol/kg. A synthetic CB1 receptor antagonist, AM 251 (ALEXIS(R) Biochemicals) was administrated at the dose of 4 micromol/kg i.p. alone or in combination with anandamide at the dose of 1.5 micromol/kg. Administration of anandamide reduced gastric lesions and this effect was associated with am increase in gastric mucosal blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis; whereas serum level of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1 beta was reduced. Treatment with AM 251 aggravated gastric damage and reversed protective effect of anandamide administration. Opposite effect was observed in the pancreas. Administration of anandamide increased dose-dependently the severity of pancreatitis. In histological examination, we observed an increase in pancreatic edema and inflammatory infiltration. Also, treatment with anandamide augmented the pancreatitis-induced increase in serum level of lipase, amylase, poly-C ribonuclease, and pro-inflammatory interleukin-1 beta; whereas pancreatic DNA synthesis was reduced. Treatment with AM 251 reduced histological and biochemical signs of pancreatic damage and reversed deleterious effect of anandamide in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Activation of CB1 receptors evokes opposite effects in the stomach and pancreas: in the stomach, exhibits protective effect

  16. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial perfusion and viability in assessment of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.; Shah, P.K.

    1989-07-18

    Technical advances in radionuclide imaging have important implications for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Single-photon emission computerized tomography with thallium 201 (TI-201) offers greater accuracy than planar imaging in detecting, localizing and sizing myocardial perfusion defects. Use of single-photon emission computerized tomography with TI-201 should allow for a more accurate assessment of prognosis after myocardial infarction. A new radiopharmaceutical, technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, provides a number of advantages over TI-201, including higher quality images, lack of redistribution, and the ability to assess first-pass ventricular function. Applications of TI-201 and technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile include assessment of arterial patency and myocardial salvage immediately after thrombolytic therapy, detection of resting ischemia after thrombolytic therapy, targeting of subsets of patients for further intervention, and predischarge assessment to predict the future course of patients after an acute myocardial infarction.

  17. Acute myocardial infarction and renal failure following naphtha ingestion.

    PubMed

    Roberge, R J; Crippen, D R; Jayadevappa, D; Kosek, T L

    2001-10-01

    We present a case of a non-Q wave myocardial infarction and acute renal failure following an ingestion of naphtha, a petroleum distillate composed primarily of hydrocarbons. The patient's renal, metabolic, and cardiac status improved over several days with aggressive volume replacement and bicarbonate therapy. Acute cardiotoxic effects of hydrocarbon exposure generally manifest as dysrhythmias, secondary to myocardial sensitization to circulating catecholamines, or, possibly, coronary vasospasm. Ischemia from associated hypotension or direct myocardial toxicity are other potential causes of naphtha-related cardiac injury.

  18. MOEMS-based cardiac enzymes detector for acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amritsar, Jeetender; Stiharu, Ion G.; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Balagopal, Ganesharam; Li, Xing

    2004-10-01

    Biomedical applications of MOEMS are limited only by the mankind imagination. Precision measurements on minute amounts of biological material could be performed by optical means with a remarkable accuracy. Although available in medical laboratories for general purposes, such analyzers are making their way directly to the users in the form of dedicated equipment. Such an example is a test kit to detect the existence of cardiac enzymes in the blood stream. Apart from the direct users, the medical personnel will make use of such tools given the practicality of the kit. In a large proportion of patients admitted to the hospital suspected of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), the symptoms and electrocardiographic changes are inconclusive. This necessitates the use of biochemical markers of myocardial damage for correct exclusion or conformation of AMI. In this study the concept of MOEMS is applied for the detection of enzyme reaction, in which glass spectrums are scanned optically when enzyme molecules adsorb on their surface. This paper presents the optical behavior of glass spectrums under Horseradish Peroxide (HRP) enzyme reaction. The reported experimental results provide valuable information that will be useful in the development of biosensors for enzymatic detection. This paper also reports the dynamic behavior of different glass spectrums.

  19. Guidelines for management of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amal Kumar; Kumar, Soumitra

    2011-12-01

    These Guidelines summarize and evaluate all currently available evidence on Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) with the aim of assisting physicians in selecting the best management strategies for a typical patient, suffering from AMI, taking into account the impact on outcome, as well as the risk/benefit ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means. Rapid diagnosis and early risk stratification of patients presenting with AMI are important to identify patients in whom early interventions can improve outcome. AMI can be defined from a number of different perspectives related to clinical, electrocardiographic (ECG), biochemical, and pathological characteristics. Quantitative assessment of risk is useful for clinical decision making. For patients with the clinical presentation of AMI within 12 h after symptom onset, early mechanical (PCI) or pharmacological reperfusion should be performed. Platelet activation and subsequent aggregation play a dominant role in the propagation of arterial thrombosis and consequently are the key therapeutic targets in the management of AMI. Adjunctive therapy with antiplatelets and antithrombotics is essential. A recommendation for routine urgent PCI (within 24 h) following successful fibrinolysis seems to be most practical option. In India, pharmacoinvasive therapy is the best option.

  20. Vitamin D and acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Valentina; De Metrio, Monica; Cosentino, Nicola; Marenzi, Giancarlo; Tremoli, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a prevalent condition, cutting across all ethnicities and among all age groups, and occurring in about 30%-50% of the population. Besides vitamin D established role in calcium homeostasis, its deficiency is emerging as a new risk factor for coronary artery disease. Notably, clinical investigations have suggested that there is an association between hypovitaminosis D and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Not only has it been linked to incident AMI, but also to increased morbidity and mortality in this clinical setting. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency seems to predispose to recurrent adverse cardiovascular events, as it is associated with post-infarction complications and cardiac remodeling in patients with AMI. Several mechanisms underlying the association between vitamin D and AMI risk can be involved. Despite these observational and mechanistic data, interventional trials with supplementation of vitamin D are controversial. In this review, we will discuss the evidence on the association between vitamin D deficiency and AMI, in terms of prevalence and prognostic impact, and the possible mechanisms mediating it. Further research in this direction is warranted and it is likely to open up new avenues for reducing the risk of AMI. PMID:28163832

  1. [Thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Murín, J; Kasper, J; Bulas, J; Uhliar, R

    1993-08-01

    In the period of two years the authors treated at the coronary care unit 146 patients inflicted by the acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In 15 of them (13 men, 2 women, 13 times Q and twice non-Q, 5 times anterior, 10 times inferior) they performed intravenous thrombolytic treatment by use of streptokinase. The success rate of the thrombolytic therapy was evaluated by noninvasive markers: 1.) rapid withdrawal of chest pain, 2.) rapid (in 6 hours) and essential improvement of ST segment elevation and 3.) presence of reperfusion arrhythmias (in 6 hours). The authors detected insufficient medicinal conciousness among their health district population as regard to their response after the AMI origin (absolute majority of patients delayed their arrival). Minor complications due to therapy (allergy and minor local hemorrhage) occurred in 4 patients. Nobody died. Only those cases were considered as being successful, in which all three success rate markers were present. This condition was fulfilled in 8 patients (i.e. in 53% of cases) and with minor insufficiencies in further two patients (which would increase the percentage of the success rate to 67%). This success rate of the thrombolytic therapy ranges within the limits given by literature. In five patients the authors evaluated the behaviour of the left ventricular asynergy (its range and index) prior to and following the thrombolytic therapy and this examination they consider to be appropriate for observance of the thrombolytic therapy success rate in patients with AMI. (Tab. 3, Ref. 20.).

  2. Hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction in the thrombolytic era

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, N; O'Rorke, C; Codd, M; McCann, H; McGarry, K; Sugrue, D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the management and outcome of an unselected consecutive series of patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction to a tertiary referral centre.
DESIGN—A historical cohort study over a three year period (1992-94) of consecutive unselected admissions with acute myocardial infarction identified using the HIPE (hospital inpatient enquiry) database and validated according to MONICA criteria for definite or probable acute myocardial infarction.
SETTING—University teaching hospital and cardiac tertiary referral centre.
RESULTS—1059 patients were included. Mean age was 67 years; 60% were male and 40% female. Rates of coronary care unit (CCU) admission, thrombolysis, and predischarge angiography were 70%, 28%, and 32%, respectively. Overall in-hospital mortality was 18%. Independent predictors of hospital mortality by multivariate analysis were age, left ventricular failure, ventricular arrhythmias, cardiogenic shock, management outside CCU, and reinfarction. Hospital mortality in a small cohort from a non-tertiary referral centre was 14%, a difference largely explained by the lower mean age of these patients (64 years). Five year survival in the cohort was 50%. Only age and left ventricular failure were independent predictors of mortality at follow up.
CONCLUSIONS—In unselected consecutive patients the hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction remains high (18%). Age and the occurrence of left ventricular failure are major determinants of short and long term mortality after acute myocardial infarction.


Keywords: myocardial infarction; mortality; thrombolysis PMID:10212164

  3. Internal countershock produces myocardial damage and lactate production without myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, D.M.; Maxwell, M.S.; Merlone, S.; Smith, C.

    1987-04-01

    The global myocardial extraction of lactate was measured in 13 halothane anesthetized dogs to assess the effect of electric countershock applied directly to the heart. Seven animals received two countershocks of 30 delivered joules each, while six animals were not shocked but were atrially paced to a rate of 190-200, both with and without occlusion of the vena cava to produce a mean arterial pressure of 40-50 mmHg. All animals had substantially positive lactate extraction in the baseline state (36 +/- 10% for countershock group vs. 41 +/- 3% for pacing group). Myocardial lactate extraction reached a markedly negative nadir 2.5 min after countershock (-19 +/- 15%), but returned toward normal by 6 min (10 +/- 6%). Lactate extraction was not significantly changed from baseline in the pacing group. The relationship between changes in regional myocardial blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) and post-countershock myocardial damage (technetium pyrophosphate uptake) was assessed in six dogs shocked as above. Mean myocardial blood flow was increased minimally immediately after countershock (0.78 +/- 0.08 ml X min-1 X g-1 vs. 1.16 +/- 0.3), but there was no difference in blood flow between damaged and undamaged tissue at either time point. The epicardial-to-endocardial ratio of blood flow was unchanged after countershock (0.97 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.08). There was no relationship between myocardial damage and either the absolute amount of blood flow after countershock (r = -0.03) or the change in blood flow compared with the pre-shock period (r = 0.01).

  4. [Acute myocardial infarction complicated by acute pulmonary oedema and cardiogenic collapse during dobutamine stress echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Mbaye, Alassane; Kagambega, Larissa Justine; Dioum, Momar; Diagne-Sow, Dior; Kane, Moussa; Diack, Bouna; Kane, Abdoul

    2013-06-23

    Acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication of dobutamine stress echocardiography. We describe the case of a diabetic patient who presented with an anterior myocardial infarction complicated by an acute pulmonary oedema and cardiogenic collapse during dobutamine stress echocardiography, requiring five days' hospitalisation. Coronarography could not be performed because of inadequate medical facilities.

  5. [Relationship between hydrogen sulfide and myocardial damage in endotoxemic rats].

    PubMed

    Xian, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Xin-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Jing-Kun; Ling, Yi-Ling

    2007-06-25

    To investigate the changes and role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in myocardial damage in endotoxemic rats, a rat model of endotoxemia induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was developed. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group, LPS group, LPS + propargylglycine (PPG, a metabolic enzyme inhibitor of H2S) group and LPS + NaHS (H2S donor) group. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) of rats within 4 h was observed, TNF-alpha and H2S contents in plasma, TNF-alpha and H2S contents, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in cardiac muscles were determined. The morphological structure of cardiac muscle was observed. Administration of LPS caused a sustained fall in MAP within 4 h, and significant increases in TNF-alpha and H2S contents in plasma (P<0.05). Plasmic H2S content was negatively correlated with MAP (r = -0.936, -0.913 and -0.908 at 1, 2 and 4 h, respectively, P<0.05). LPS also induced increases in TNF-alpha and H2S contents, LDH and MPO activity in cardiac muscles and myocardial damage. Treatment with PPG reduced the increases in TNF-alpha and H2S contents in plasma, TNF-alpha and H2S contents, LDH and MPO activity in cardiac muscles, ameliorated the hypotensive effect and myocardial damage caused by LPS administration (P<0.05). However, treatment with NaHS increased TNF-alpha and H2S contents in plasma, TNF-alpha and H2S contents, LDH and MPO activity in cardiac muscles, and aggravated the hypotensive action and tissue injuries caused by LPS administration (P<0.05). It is suggested that hypotension and myocardial damage in endotoxemic rats are partly induced by increase in H2S content.

  6. A review of strategies for infarct size reduction during acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Parviz, Yasir; Vijayan, Sethumadhavan; Lavi, Shahar

    2017-02-08

    Advances in medical and interventional therapy over the last few decades have revolutionized the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Despite the ability to restore epicardial coronary artery patency promptly through percutaneous coronary intervention, tissue level damage may continue. The reported 30-day mortality after all acute coronary syndromes is 2 to 3%, and around 5% following myocardial infarction. Post-infarct complications such as heart failure continue to be a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Inadequate microvascular reperfusion leads to worse clinical outcomes and potentially strategies to reduce infarct size during periods of ischemia-reperfusion can improve outcomes. Many strategies have been tested, but no single strategy alone has shown a consistent result or benefit in large scale randomised clinical trials. Herein, we review the historical efforts, current strategies, and potential novel concepts that may improve myocardial protection and reduce infarct size.

  7. Ventricular septal rupture following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Koh, Angela S; Loh, Yee Jim; Lim, Yeong Phang; Le Tan, Ju

    2011-04-01

    Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) that is associated with significant mortality. We aim to review the clinical outcome in the current era. Patients admitted to a single tertiary centre from 1997 to 2008 with VSR post-AMI were identified from the local cardiac registry. We performed a retrospective review on 25 patients. Mean age (15 women) was 71 years. Most patients had cardiovascular risk factors (84%); the commonest was hypertension (72%). Anterior AMI (80%) and apical VSR (84%) formed the majority of the cases. Eleven patients (44%) received prior coronary reperfusion therapy either via thrombolysis or PCI. Median time to rupture was 1 day from diagnosis of infarction. More than half (60%) of the patients were in Killip class 3 or 4 at diagnosis of rupture. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 33 +/- 10%. Most patients (80%) required IABP for haemodynamic support. All patients who underwent surgery had ventricular septal repair; amongst them 47% had concomitant CABG. Those managed conservatively were older (P = 0.01). Overall mortality rate was 44%. Most died within the first four days (82%). Surgical and non-surgical survival rates were 68% and 17%, respectively (P= 0.039). Patient demographics, prior coronary reperfusion techniques, Killip class status and LVEF were not significant predictors of mortality. However, non-anterior wall AMI and non-apical VSR were significantly associated with poorer survival (P = 0.009, P = 0.026 respectively). While the occurrence ofVSR post-AMI appears to be low compared to earlier studies, it continues to be associated with significant mortality. Non-anterior wall AMI and non-apical VSR were associated with poorer survival and surgical repair conferred survival advantage over conservative management.

  8. [Early statin therapy in acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bailén, M; Romero-Bermejo, F J; Expósito-Ruiz, M; Zamora-Zamora, F; Martínez-Ramírez, M J; Castillo-Rivera, A M; Ramos-Cuadra, J A; Ramírez-Sánchez, M; Vázquez-García, R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the early administration of statins during acute myocardial infarction (MI). A retrospective cohort study was carried out. National (Spain). Patients included in the ARIAM registry from January 1999 to December 2008 with a diagnosis of MI. None. We used logistic regression analysis and propensity scoring to determine whether the administration of statins during the first 24h of MI acts as a protective factor against: 1) mortality, 2) the incidence of lethal arrhythmias, or 3) cardiogenic shock. A total of 36 842 patients were included in the study. Statins were administered early in 50.2% of the patients. Statin administration was associated with younger patients with known previous dyslipidemia, obesity, a history of ischemic heart disease, heart failure, presence of sinus tachycardia, use of beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, thrombolysis and percutaneous coronary intervention. Mortality was 8.2% (13.2% without statin versus 3% with statin, P<.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that statin administration acted as a protective factor against mortality (adjusted OR 0.518, 95%CI 0.447 to 0.601). Continued use of statins was associated with a reduction in mortality (adjusted OR 0.597, 95%CI 0.449 to 0.798), and the start of treatment was a protective factor against mortality (adjusted OR 0.642, 95%CI 0.544 -0.757). Statin therapy also exerted a protective effect against the incidence of lethal arrhythmias and cardiogenic shock. These results suggest that early treatment with statins in patients with MI is associated with reduced mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Ventricular Assist Device in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Achary, Deepak; Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y.; Pamboukian, Salpy V.; Tallaj, Jose A.; Holman, William L.; Cantor, Ryan S.; Naftel, David C.; Kirklin, James K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by acute heart failure or cardiogenic shock have high mortality with conventional management. Objectives We evaluated outcomes of patients with AMI who received durable ventricular assist devices (VADs). Methods Patients with AMI in the INTERMACS registry who underwent VAD placement were included and compared to patients who received VADs for non-AMI indications. Results VADs were implanted in 502 patients with AMI: 443 left ventricular assist devices; 33 biventricular assist devices; and 26 total artificial hearts. Median age was 58.3 years, and 77.1% were male. At implant, 66% were INTERMACS profile 1. A higher proportion of AMI than non- AMI patients had preoperative intra-aortic balloon pumps (57.6% vs. 25.3%; p < 0.01), intubation (58% vs. 8.3%; p < 0.01), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (17.9% vs. 1.7%, p < 0.01), cardiac arrest (33.5% vs. 3.3%, p < 0.01), and higher-acuity INTERMACS profiles. At 1 month post-VAD, 91.8% of AMI patients were alive with ongoing device support, 7.2 % had died on device, and 1% had been transplanted. At 1 year post-VAD, 52% of AMI patients were alive with ongoing device support, 25.7% had been transplanted, 1.6% had LVADs explanted for recovery, and 20.7% had died on device. The AMI group had higher unadjusted early-phase hazard (HR: 1.24; p = 0.04) and reduced late-phase hazard of death (HR: 0.57; p = 0.04) than the non-AMI group. After accounting for established risk factors, the AMI group no longer had higher early mortality hazard (HR: 0.89; p = 0.3), but had lower late mortality hazard (HR: 0.55; p = 0.02). Conclusion Patients with AMI who receive VADs have outcomes similar to other VAD populations, despite being more critically ill pre-implantation. VAD therapy is an effective strategy for patients with AMI in whom medical therapy is failing. PMID:27102502

  10. Horizontal ECG in acute anterolateral myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Okan; Dalkilic, Bahar; Kepez, Alper

    2016-07-01

    The present study aims to compare the amount of ST segment changes recorded by horizontal electrocardiography (hECG) with standard ECG (sECG) in patients with acute anterior and/or lateral ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Consecutive eligible patients (n = 58) who were diagnosed with acute anterior and/or lateral STEMI were included in the study. After recording simultaneous sECG and hECG by placing precordial leads (V3-6) horizontally on the left 4th intercostal space, ST segment changes were compared. The mean ST segment changes (mV) on hECG were significantly higher than sECG in V4 (0.27 ± 0.2 vs. 0.21 ± 0.21, p = 0.001), V5 (0.21 ± 0.17 vs. 0.12 ± 0.16, p < 0.001) and V6 (0.09 ± 0.1 vs. 0.04 ± 0.12, p < 0.001), respectively. When hECG and sECG were compared in patients with BMI < 30 kg/m(2), mean ST segment changes (mV) on hECG were significantly higher than sECG in V4 (0.29 ± 0.21 vs. 0.21 ± 0.24, p = 0.004), V5 (0.22 ± 0.19 vs. 0.13 ± 0.17, p < 0.001) and V6 (0.11 ± 0.11 vs. 0.04 ± 0.11, p < 0.001), respectively. Mean ST segment changes in patients with anterior and/or lateral STEMI were significantly higher and easily detectable on hECG compared with sECG. We suggest that hECG be used in conjunction with sECG to diagnose anterior and lateral wall STEMI in cases of diagnostic doubt.

  11. Incidence of acute myocardial infarction in patients with exercise-induced silent myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Assey, M.E.; Walters, G.L.; Hendrix, G.H.; Carabello, B.A.; Usher, B.W.; Spann, J.F. Jr.

    1987-03-01

    Fifty-five patients with angiographically proved coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent Bruce protocol exercise stress testing with thallium-201 imaging. Twenty-seven patients (group I) showed myocardial hypoperfusion without angina pectoris during stress, which normalized at rest, and 28 patients (group II) had a similar pattern of reversible myocardial hypoperfusion but also had angina during stress. Patients were followed for at least 30 months. Six patients in group I had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 3 of whom died, and only 1 patient in group II had an AMI (p = 0.05), and did not die. Silent myocardial ischemia uncovered during exercise stress thallium testing may predispose to subsequent AMI. The presence of silent myocardial ischemia identified in this manner is of prognostic value, independent of angiographic variables such as extent of CAD and left ventricular ejection fraction.

  12. Increased Sensitivity to Heparin Following Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dufault, C.

    1965-01-01

    In vivo increased sensitivity to heparin has been demonstrated in patients following an acute myocardial infarction. An intravenous injection of 10,000 units of heparin was given to each of 18 patients with recent myocardial infarction in order to compare them with 17 patients who were not suffering from any acute illness. The changes in whole blood clotting time, recalcified plasma clotting time and prothrombin time were greater and more prolonged in the patients with recent myocardial infarction. Of the three tests, the one-stage prothrombin time provided the simplest and the most precise measurement of heparin sensitivity. The reason for this was not clear: it is possible that it is related to shock and congestive heart failure which were complications of the clinical course following myocardial infarction. PMID:14216140

  13. Human recombinant relaxin reduces heart injury and improves ventricular performance in a swine model of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Perna, Avio-Maria; Masini, Emanuela; Nistri, Silvia; Bani Sacchi, Tatiana; Bigazzi, Mario; Bani, Daniele

    2005-05-01

    This study shows that relaxin can be effective in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. In a swine model of heart ischemia-reperfusion currently used to test cardiotropic drugs because of its similarities with human myocardial infarction, human recombinant relaxin (2.5 and 5 microg/kg body weight), given at reperfusion after a 30-min ischemia, markedly reduced the main serum markers of myocardial damage (myoglobin, CK-MB, and troponin T) and the metabolic and histopathologic parameters of myocardial inflammation and cardiomyocyte injury, resulting in overall improvement of ventricular performance (increased cardiac index) compared to the controls. These results provide a background for future clinical trials with human relaxin as adjunctive therapy to catheter-based coronary angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  14. Role of myocardial perfusion imaging in evaluating thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, G.A.

    1987-03-01

    Myocardial thallium-201 scintigraphy is being increasingly employed as a method for assessing the efficacy of coronary reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction. New thallium uptake after intracoronary tracer administration after successful recanalization indicates that nutrient blood flow has been successfully restored. One may also presume that some myocardial salvage occurred if thallium administered in this manner is transported intracellularly by myocytes with intact sarcolemmal membranes. However, if one injects thallium by way of the intracoronary route immediately after reperfusion, the initial uptake of thallium in reperfused myocardium may predominantly represent hyperemic flow and regional thallium counts measured may not be proportional to the mass of viable myocytes. When thallium is injected intravenously during the occlusion phase the degree of redistribution after thrombolysis is proportional to the degree of flow restoration and myocardial viability. When thallium is injected for the first time intravenously immediately after reperfusion, an overestimation of myocardial salvage may occur because of excess thallium uptake in the infarct zone consequent to significant hyperemia. Another approach to myocardial thallium scintigraphy in patients undergoing thrombolytic therapy is to administer two separate intravenous injections before and 24 hours or later after treatment. Finally, patients with acute myocardial infarction who receive intravenous thrombolytic therapy are candidates for predischarge exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy for risk stratification and detection of residual ischemia.

  15. Low molecular weight heparin for treatment of acute myocardial infarction (FAMI): Fragmin (dalteparin sodium) in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, V V; Iyengar, S S; De Lorenzo, F; Hargreaves, J R; Kadziola, Z A

    2000-01-01

    The benefit of using subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin sodium) for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction in patients not treated with thrombolytic therapy. Twenty-nine cardiological centres from leading hospitals in India participated in this prospective, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in two phases which included 1128 patients with acute myocardial infarction. In the acute phase (between day 1 and 3 of admission) all the patients received a weight-adjusted dose of subcutaneous dalteparin (120 IU/kg twice daily). In the second, double-blind phase of acute myocardial infarction, patients were randomised to receive a fixed dose of dalteparin (7,500 IU) or an identical placebo injection for 30 days. A composite primary endpoint of death, reinfarction, recurrence of angina and emergency revascularisation was used. All the 1128 patients with acute myocardial infarction were included in the trial. In the acute phase, the composite primary endpoint was observed in 58 (5.1%) patients. Of 1037 paients who were randomly assigned to receive a fixed dose of dalteparin (n=519) or placebo (n=518), the composite primary event rate was 6.7 percent and 7.0 percent, respectively (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.62-1.52; p=0.90). To conclude, treatment with dalteparin administered subcutaneously in a weight-adjusted dose of 120 IU/kg twice daily resulted in a lower than expected mortality during the acute phase of myocardial infarction. A lower fixed once daily dose of 7,500 IU during the chronic phase did not confer additional protection.

  16. Relation between the kinetics of thallium-201 in myocardial scintigraphy and myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, H; Akioka, K; Takagi, M; Tanaka, A; Takeuchi, K; Yoshikawa, J; Ochi, H

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the relations between myocardial metabolism and the kinetics of thallium-201 in myocardial scintigraphy.
Methods—46 patients within six weeks after the onset of acute myocardial infarction underwent resting myocardial dual isotope, single acquisition, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioiodinated 15-iodophenyl 3-methyl pentadecaenoic acid (BMIPP) and thallium-201, exercise thallium-201 SPECT, and positron emission tomography (PET) using nitrogen-13 ammonia (NH3) and [F18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) under fasting conditions. The left ventricle was divided into nine segments, and the severity of defects was assessed visually.
Results—In the resting SPECT, less BMIPP uptake than thallium-201 uptake was observed in all of 40 segments with reverse redistribution of thallium-201, and in 21 of 88 segments with a fixed defect of thallium-201 (p < 0.0001); and more FDG uptake than NH3 uptake (NH3-FDG mismatch) was observed in 35 of 40 segments with reverse redistribution and in 38 of 88 segments with fixed defect (p < 0.0001). Less BMIPP uptake in the resting SPECT was observed in 49 of 54 segments with slow stress redistribution in exercise SPECT, and in nine of 17 segments with rapid stress redistribution (p < 0.0005); NH3-FDG mismatch was observed in 42 of 54 segments with slow stress redistribution and in five of 17 segments with rapid stress redistribution (p < 0.0005).
Conclusions—Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy provides information about not only myocardial perfusion and viability but also about myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

 Keywords: thallium-201 SPECT;  BMIPP SPECT;  FDG PET;  myocardial infarction;  redistribution PMID:9764055

  17. Amphetamine Containing Dietary Supplements and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hritani, Abdulwahab; Antoun, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient's choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions. PMID:27516911

  18. [Cardiogenic shock in acute myocardial infarct. Its coronary angioplasty treatment].

    PubMed

    Fernández Valadez, E; García y Otero, J M; Escobar, G P; Frutos Rangel, E; Zúñiga Sedano, J; García García, R; Verduzco Bazavilvazo, S; López Aranda, J; López Ruiz, J

    1993-01-01

    Ventricular dysfunction is the most common cause of in-hospital death in patients with acute myocardial infarction. When cardiogenic shock is manifested the mortality is very high. Seven patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction were treated with emergency coronary angioplasty. Four patients required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 2 intraaortic balloon pump support and one femoro-femoral bypass pump support during the coronary angioplasty. The angiography success rate was 86%. Two patients died, one in the catheterization laboratory and the other one 24 hours later. The hospital mortality was 29%. Of the patients who survived 4 are in functional class I and one in functional class II (NYHA). Coronary angioplasty therapy in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction plays a decisive role in the reduction of mortality.

  19. Risk profile in women with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Târlea, Mihaela; Deleanu, D; Bucşa, A; Zarma, L; Croitoru, M; Platon, P; Ginghină, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The studies in the literature of the past years have noticed the particular characteristics of the ischemic heart disease in women, who seem to be lacking early diagnosis and invasive treatment of coronary heart disease. They especially emphasize that the evolution, complications and mortality in myocardial infarction in women are more severe. The evaluation of clinical, investigational and therapeutic aspects in a lot of women with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus a lot of men with the same pathology, hospitalised in the same period. 78 women hospitalised in the Emergency Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases between 1st January 1999 and 30th October 2001 with acute myocardial infarction. 109 men hospitalised in the Emergency Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases with acute myocardial infarction in the same period. acute myocardial infarction, coronary angiography +/=left ventriculography. The lot of study and the witness lot were divided into 3 subgroups based on the severity of coronary lesions: Group I: left main stenoses, Group II: stenoses >60% on the other epicardial coronary vessels, Group III: stenoses <60% on the other epicardial coronary vessels. The risk factors, clinical data, cardiac performance indices and medical and invasive treatment were compared between the two groups. The women hospitalised with AMI were older than men, had more diabetes and hypertension as main risk factors than men, with the exception of smoking, had more frequent heart failure and diastolic dysfunction of left ventricle. The favorite invasive treatment in women was the angioplasty with application of stent and in men--coronary bypass.

  20. ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction in pregnancy: 2016 update.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sahar; Wong, Cynthia; Rajan, Priya; Vidovich, Mladen I

    2017-02-13

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during pregnancy or the early postpartum period is rare, but can be devastating for both the mother and the fetus. There have been major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndromes in the general population, but there is little consensus on the approach to diagnosis and treatment of pregnant women. This article reviews the literature relating to the pathophysiology of AMI in pregnant patients and the challenges in diagnosis and treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in this unique population. From a cardiologist, maternal-fetal medicine specialist, and anesthesiologist's perspective, we provide recommendations for the diagnosis and management of STEMI occurring during pregnancy.

  1. Acute myocardial infarction in young adults: causes and management

    PubMed Central

    Osula, S; Bell, G; Hornung, R

    2002-01-01

    The case report in this review illustrates an acute myocardial infarction in a young adult probably due to arterial thrombosis that can be attributed to a hypercoagulable state resulting from the nephrotic syndrome. Although rare, acute myocardial infarction should be considered in young adults presenting with chest pain. A detailed clinical history may help to identify the aetiology, and guide subsequent management, but diagnostic coronary angiography is essential. Careful risk factor modification and treatment of the underlying cause should reduce the incidence of recurrent cardiac events. PMID:11796868

  2. Risk stratification after acute myocardial infarction: which studies are best?

    PubMed

    Figueredo, V M

    1996-04-01

    The prognosis for a patient who has survived an acute myocardial infarction depends on three general prognostic factors: (1) residual left ventricular function, (2) remaining viable myocardium at risk (residual ischemia), and (3) presence of substrate for the development of malignant arrhythmias. Multiple clinical and historical factors predict the presence of one or more of these prognostic indicators. Electrocardiographic exercise treadmill testing needs to be done in all patients with uncomplicated infarctions. Guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force are recommended for risk stratification in most patients after acute myocardial infarction.

  3. Endothelial progenitor cell transplantation decreases lymphangiogenesis and adverse myocardial remodeling in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hyeong; Yoon, Jung Yeon; Ko, Seon Mi; Jin, Seon Ah; Kim, Jun Hyung; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Si Wan; Seong, In-Whan; Jeong, Jin Ok

    2011-08-31

    Cardiac lymphatic system in the remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been overlooked. We wanted to investigate the role of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and their contribution to lymphatic distribution in myocardial remodeling after AMI. Mouse (C57bl/6J) MI models were created by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and were treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or EPCs. Real-time RT-PCR with 2- to 4-week myocardial tissue samples revealed that lymphangiogenetic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C (8.5 fold, P < 0.05), VEGF-D (6.1 fold, P < 0.05), Lyve-1 (15 fold, P < 0.05), and Prox-1 (11 fold, P < 0.05) were expressed at significantly higher levels in the PBS group than the EPC group. The PBS group also showed a significantly higher density of lymphatic vessels in the peri-infarction area. Echocardiography showed that from 2 weeks after the treatment, left ventricle (LV) dimensions at both systole and diastole were significantly smaller in the EPC group than in the PBS group (P < 0.01) and LV fractional shortening was higher in the EPC group accordingly (P < 0.01). Lymphangiogenic markers increased in a mouse MI model. EPC transplantation decreased lymphangiogenesis and adverse ventricular remodeling after AMI. These novel findings suggest that new lymphatic vessels may be formed in severely damaged myocardium, and may be involved in adverse myocardial remodeling after AMI.

  4. Biochemical assessment of acute myocardial ischaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Cárceles, M D; Osuna, E; Vieira, D N; Martínez, A; Luna, A

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the efficacy of biochemical parameters in different fluids in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction of different causes, analysed after death. METHODS--The myoglobin concentration and total creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) activities were measured in serum, pericardial fluid, and vitreous humour from seven diagnostic groups of cadavers classified according to the severity of myocardial ischaemia and cause of death. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and myosin were measured only in serum and pericardial fluid, and cathepsin D only in pericardial fluid. Routine haematoxylin and eosin and acridine orange staining were used for microscopy studies of heart tissue. RESULTS--In pericardial fluid there were substantial differences between the different groups with respect to CK, CK-MB, and LDH activities and myosin concentrations. The highest values were found in cases with morphological evidence of myocardial ischaemia. CONCLUSIONS--Biochemical parameters, which reach the pericardial fluid via passive diffusion and ultrafiltration due to a pressure gradient, were thus detectable in this fluid earlier than in serum in cases with myocardial ischaemia. These biochemical parameters may be of use for ruling out myocardial ischaemia in those controversial cases in which reliable morphological findings are lacking. PMID:7745110

  5. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in subjects with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Rathbone, B.; Martin, D.; Stephens, J.; Thompson, J. R.; Samani, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk of myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. METHODS: Serological evidence of H pylori infection was determined in 342 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted into the coronary care unit and in 236 population-based controls recruited from visitors to patients on medical and surgical wards. RESULTS: 206/342 (60.2%) of cases were H pylori positive compared with 132/236 (55.9%) of controls (P = 0.30). Age and sex stratified odds ratio for myocardial infarction associated with H pylori seropositivity was 1.05 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.53, P = 0.87) and this remained non-significant (P = 0.46) when other risk factors for ischaemic heart disease were taken into account using logistic regression analysis. H pylori seropositivity was not associated with several coronary risk factors in either cases or controls. CONCLUSION: No increase was found in H pylori seropositivity in subjects with acute myocardial infarction. This suggests that previous H pylori infection is not a major risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. Images PMID:8983674

  6. Acute Myocardial Infarction in Adult Congenital Patients with Bodily Isomerism.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Buelow, Matthew; Nijhawan, Karan; Gupta, Navdeep; Alla, Venkata; Arora, Rohit R

    2016-12-01

    Children born with congenital malformations of the heart are increasingly surviving into adulthood. This population of patients possesses lesion-specific complication risks while still being at risk for common illnesses. Bodily isomerism or heterotaxy, is a unique clinical entity associated with congenital malformations of the heart which further increases the risk for future cardiovascular complications. We aimed to investigate the frequency of myocardial infarction in adults with bodily isomerism. We utilized the 2012 iteration of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify adult inpatient admissions associated with acute myocardial infarction in patients with isomerism. Data regarding demographics, comorbidities and various procedures were collected and compared between those with and without isomerism. A total of 6,907,109 admissions were analyzed with a total of 172,394 admissions being associated with an initial encounter for acute myocardial infarction. The frequency of myocardial infarction did not differ between those with and without isomerism and was roughly 2% in both groups. Similarly, the number of procedures and in-hospital mortality did not differ between the two groups. The frequency and short-term prognosis of acute myocardial infarction is similar in patients with and without isomerism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Reduced myocardial blood flow in acute and chronic digitalization.

    PubMed

    Steiness, E; Bille-Brahe, N E; Hansen, J F; Lomholt, N; Ring-Larsen, H

    1978-07-01

    The myocardial blood flow was measured by the 133Xenon disappearance curve from the left ventricular wall following an injection of 133Xenon in the left coronary artery in 8 dogs without digoxin pretreatment and in 8 chronically digitalized dogs. The myocardial blood flow was significantly less (30%) in the digitalized dogs than in the dogs without pretreatment. In the digitalized dogs as well as in those without pretreatment an intravenous injection of digoxin resulted in a further significant decrease of the myocardial blood flow of about 20% and a significant increase of the coronary vascular resistance. The reduced myocardial blood flow both during acute and chronic digitalization is beleived to be of clinical importance.

  8. Systemic Atherosclerotic Inflammation Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: Myocardial Infarction Begets Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Nikhil V; Toor, Iqbal; Shah, Anoop S V; Carruthers, Kathryn; Vesey, Alex T; Alam, Shirjel R; Sills, Andrew; Hoo, Teng Y; Melville, Adam J; Langlands, Sarah P; Jenkins, William S A; Uren, Neal G; Mills, Nicholas L; Fletcher, Alison M; van Beek, Edwin J R; Rudd, James H F; Fox, Keith A A; Dweck, Marc R; Newby, David E

    2015-01-01

    Background Preclinical data suggest that an acute inflammatory response following myocardial infarction (MI) accelerates systemic atherosclerosis. Using combined positron emission and computed tomography, we investigated whether this phenomenon occurs in humans. Methods and Results Overall, 40 patients with MI and 40 with stable angina underwent thoracic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose combined positron emission and computed tomography scan. Radiotracer uptake was measured in aortic atheroma and nonvascular tissue (paraspinal muscle). In 1003 patients enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events, we assessed whether infarct size predicted early (≤30 days) and late (>30 days) recurrent coronary events. Compared with patients with stable angina, patients with MI had higher aortic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (tissue-to-background ratio 2.15±0.30 versus 1.84±0.18, P<0.0001) and plasma C-reactive protein concentrations (6.50 [2.00 to 12.75] versus 2.00 [0.50 to 4.00] mg/dL, P=0.0005) despite having similar aortic (P=0.12) and less coronary (P=0.006) atherosclerotic burden and similar paraspinal muscular 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (P=0.52). Patients with ST-segment elevation MI had larger infarcts (peak plasma troponin 32 300 [10 200 to >50 000] versus 3800 [1000 to 9200] ng/L, P<0.0001) and greater aortic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (2.24±0.32 versus 2.02±0.21, P=0.03) than those with non–ST-segment elevation MI. Peak plasma troponin concentrations correlated with aortic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (r=0.43, P=0.01) and, on multivariate analysis, independently predicted early (tertile 3 versus tertile 1: relative risk 4.40 [95% CI 1.90 to 10.19], P=0.001), but not late, recurrent MI. Conclusions The presence and extent of MI is associated with increased aortic atherosclerotic inflammation and early recurrent MI. This finding supports the hypothesis that acute MI exacerbates systemic atherosclerotic inflammation and remote plaque destabilization

  9. Acute myocardial infarction associated with intravenous dipyridamole for rubidium-82 PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marwick, T.H.; Hollman, J. )

    1990-03-01

    This report describes the occurrence of chest pain and electrocardiographic features of acute myocardial infarction following intravenous dipyridamole-handgrip stress. Myocardial perfusion imaging (Rb-82 PET) demonstrated a stress-induced perfusion defect. Following failure to respond to medical therapy, urgent cardiac catheterization demonstrated total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The vessel was revascularized, with limitation of myocardial damage evidenced by failure to develop anterior Q waves and only modest elevation of cardiac enzyme levels. Complications of intravenous dipyridamole stress are rare, this case constituting the first major problem in over 500 such procedures at this institution. However, this experience demonstrates the importance of vigilant observation during the performance of this technique.

  10. Acute myocardial infarction in a young man using anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Wysoczanski, Mariusz; Rachko, Maurice; Bergmann, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are used worldwide to help athletes gain muscle mass and strength. Their use and abuse is associated with numerous side effects, including acute myocardial infarction (MI). We report a case of MI in a young 31-year-old bodybuilder. Because of the serious cardiovascular complications of anabolic steroids, physicians should be aware of their abuse and consequences.

  11. A History of Streptokinase Use in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sikri, Nikhil; Bardia, Amit

    2007-01-01

    A serendipitous discovery by William Smith Tillett in 1933, followed by many years of work with his student Sol Sherry, laid a sound foundation for the use of streptokinase as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. The drug found initial clinical application in combating fibrinous pleural exudates, hemothorax, and tuberculous meningitis. In 1958, Sherry and others started using streptokinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction and changed the focus of treatment from palliation to “cure.” Initial trials that used streptokinase infusion produced conflicting results. An innovative approach of intracoronary streptokinase infusion was initiated by Rentrop and colleagues in 1979. Subsequently, larger trials of intracoronary infusion achieved reperfusion rates ranging from 70% to 90%. The need for a meticulously planned and systematically executed randomized multicenter trial was fulfilled by the Gruppo Italiano per la Sperimentazione della Streptochinasi nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI) trial in 1986, which not only validated streptokinase as an effective therapeutic method but also established a fixed protocol for its use in acute myocardial infarction. Currently, despite the wide use of tissue plasminogen activator in developed nations, streptokinase remains essential to the management of acute myocardial infarction in developing nations. PMID:17948083

  12. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Armas, Nurys B; Ortega, Yanela Y; de la Noval, Reinaldo; Suárez, Ramón; Llerena, Lorenzo; Dueñas, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged ≥25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room) and location (jurisdiction) of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008). In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged ≥75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively). Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies, studies of out-of-hospital mortality and quality of care

  13. In vivo characterization of acute myocardial ischemia using photoacoustic imaging with a focused transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2011-03-01

    We explore the feasibility of using photoacoustic imaging based on a focused transducer to characterizing acute myocardial ischemia at different stage. In this study, we blocked rat left anterior coronary descending artery (LAD) to induce the acute myocardial ischemia. The results show that the intensity and areas of photoacoustic images of myocardial decrease with the LAD time increasing, which suggests that photoacoustic imaging has a potential for diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia.

  14. Current trend of acute myocardial infarction in Korea (from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from 2006 to 2013).

    PubMed

    Kook, Hyun Yi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Oh, Sangeun; Yoo, Sung-Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Ju Han; Chai, Leem Soon; Kim, Young Jo; Kim, Chong Jin; Chan Cho, Myeong

    2014-12-15

    Although the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Korea has been rapidly changed because of westernization of diet, lifestyle, and aging of the population, the recent trend of the myocardial infarction have not been reported by classification. We investigated recent trends in the incidence and mortality associated with the 2 major types of AMI. We reviewed 39,978 patients registered in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry for either ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) from 2006 to 2013. When the rate for AMI were investigated according to each year, the incidence rates of STEMI decreased markedly from 60.5% in 2006 to 48.1% in 2013 (p <0.001). In contrast, a gradual increase in the incidence rates of NSTEMI was observed from 39.5% in 2006 to 51.9% in 2013 (p <0.001). As risk factors, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were much more common in patients with NSTEMI than STEMI. Among medical treatments, the use of β blockers, angiotensin receptor blocker, and statin were increased from 2006 to 2013 in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. Patients with STEMI and NSTEMI were more inclined to be increasingly treated by invasive treatments with percutaneous coronary intervention. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the trend of myocardial infarction has been changed rapidly in the aspect of risk factors, ratio of STEMI versus NSTEMI, and therapeutic strategies during the recent 8 years in Korea.

  15. Rethinking the epidemiology of acute myocardial infarction: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Robert W; Go, Alan S

    2010-05-10

    During the previous decade, many strategies for preventing acute myocardial infarction found to be efficacious in randomized controlled trials have been adopted by physicians in the community. Although evaluations of quality improvement typically focus on process measures at the hospital, practice, or clinician level, assessment of improvements in health outcomes remains the true test for the successful translation of evidence into practice. We performed a review of the current literature examining trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction in communities. We focused specifically on the group of population-based studies that have examined trends in myocardial infarction incidence. Few population-based studies have examined recent temporal trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction, overall and by type. Existing studies have been largely limited by modest sample sizes, limited diversity within the study populations, the use of composite end points that combine disparate outcomes, and the inability to characterize the effect of long-term outpatient medication use on observed trends in incidence and severity of myocardial infarction. More contemporary assessments of community-wide changes in the epidemiology of myocardial infarction are needed to help assess the effectiveness of primary prevention and to identify areas for potential improvement.

  16. [Myocardial lesions in acute increase of the intracranial pressure (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Varga, T; Szabó, A

    1978-01-31

    Myocardial lesions occuring in diseases with acute increase of intracranial pressure were investigated. Morphologic alterations in heart muscle in spite of different lengh of surviving and various causes of the death were of similar type. In every case subendocardial haemorrhage could be observed on the septal surface and on the papillary muscle of the left ventricle. Focal intracellular edema, myocytolysis were revealed in 76%, focal necrosis of hypercontractic type developed in 52% of the cases. Cellular infiltration occurred around the alternations observed in 3 cases. It is concluded, that damage to the heart muscle is not caused directly by the increased intracranial pressure or catecholamine mobilisation, but seems to be the consequence of the acute myocardial hypoxia.

  17. Acute Myocardial Ischemia: Cellular Mechanisms Underlying ST Segment Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Di Diego, José M.; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is an essential tool for the diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia in the emergency department, as well as for that of an evolving acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Changes in the surface ECG in leads whose positive poles face the ischemic region are known to be related to injury currents flowing across the boundaries between the ischemic and the surrounding normal myocardium. Although experimental studies have also shown an endocardium to epicardium differential sensitivity to the effect of acute ischemia, the important contribution of this transmural heterogeneous response to the changes observed in the surface ECG are less appreciated by the clinical cardiologist. This review briefly discusses our current knowledge regarding the electrophysiology of the ischemic myocardium focusing primarily on the electrophysiologic changes underlying the ECG alterations observed at the onset of a transmural AMI. PMID:24742586

  18. Holmium:YAG laser coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, On; Luxenberg, Michael; Schumacher, Audrey

    1994-07-01

    Patients who sustain complicated acute myocardial infarction in whom thrombolytic agents either fail or are contraindicated often need mechanical revascularization other than PTCA. In 24 patients with acute infarction complicated by continuous chest pain and ischemia who either received lytics or with contraindication to lytics, a holmium:YAG laser (Eclipse Surgical Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) was utilized for thrombolysis and plaque ablation. Clinical success was achieved in 23/24 patients, with 23 patients (94%) surviving the acute infarction. Holmium:YAG laser is very effective and safe in thrombolysis and revascularization in this complicated clinical setting.

  19. Cannabis: a trigger for acute myocardial infarction? A case report.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Francesco; Lazzeri, Chiara; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina

    2008-07-01

    Cannabis smoking is consistently increasing in Europe and after alcohol it is the most common recreational drug in the western world. Users and lay people believe that marijuana or hashish is safe. Over the past four decades, however, it has been well established that cannabis has pathophysiological effects on the cardiovascular system. Information concerning the link between cannabis consumption and myocardial infarction is limited and existing data are controversial on this topic. In our case report, we describe a case of a young man who after smoking marijuana experienced ST elevation myocardial infarction caused by acute thrombosis of the descending artery, submitted to efficacious primary coronary angioplasty.

  20. Myocardial potency of Bio-tea against Isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Reema Orison; Shenoy, Chandrakala K

    2015-07-01

    Kombucha (Bio-tea) is a beverage produced by the fermentation of sugared black tea using a symbiotic association of bacteria and yeasts. Traditional claims about Kombucha report beneficial effects such as antibiotic properties, gastric regulation, relief from joint rheumatism and positive influence on the cholesterol level, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, and aging problems. The present investigation was carried out to understand the preventive effect of Kombucha on heart weight, blood glucose, total protein, lipid profile and cardiac markers in rats with myocardial damage induced using Isoproterenol. As Bio-tea is produced by fermenting tea, the parameters were compared in rats pre-treated with normal black tea and Bio-tea for 30 days followed by subcutaneous injection of Isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight). Normal rats as well as Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats were also used, which served as controls. Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted control rats showed a significant increase in heart weight, blood glucose and cardiac markers and a decrease in plasma protein. Increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipids (LDL) and very low density lipids (VLDL) were also observed, while the high density lipid (HDL) content decreased. Bio-tea showed a higher preventive effect against myocardial infarction when compared to tea, as was observed by the significant reduction in heart weight, and blood glucose and increase in plasma albumin levels. Bio-tea significantly decreased cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL while simultaneously increasing the levels of HDL. Similarly a decrease in leakage of cardiac markers from the myocardium was also observed.

  1. B lymphocytes trigger monocyte mobilization and impair heart function after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zouggari, Yasmine; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Bonnin, Philippe; Simon, Tabassome; Sage, Andrew P; Guérin, Coralie; Vilar, José; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Laurans, Ludivine; Dumeau, Edouard; Kotti, Salma; Bruneval, Patrick; Charo, Israel F; Binder, Christoph J; Danchin, Nicolas; Tedgui, Alain; Tedder, Thomas F; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Mallat, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a severe ischemic disease responsible for heart failure and sudden death. Here, we show that after acute myocardial infarction in mice, mature B lymphocytes selectively produce Ccl7 and induce Ly6Chi monocyte mobilization and recruitment to the heart, leading to enhanced tissue injury and deterioration of myocardial function. Genetic (Baff receptor deficiency) or antibody-mediated (CD20- or Baff-specific antibody) depletion of mature B lymphocytes impeded Ccl7 production and monocyte mobilization, limited myocardial injury and improved heart function. These effects were recapitulated in mice with B cell–selective Ccl7 deficiency. We also show that high circulating concentrations of CCL7 and BAFF in patients with acute myocardial infarction predict increased risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction. This work identifies a crucial interaction between mature B lymphocytes and monocytes after acute myocardial ischemia and identifies new therapeutic targets for acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24037091

  2. Relationship between epicardial ST-segment elevation and myocardial ischemic damage after experimental coronary artery occlusion in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Heng, M K; Singh, B N; Norris, R M; John, M B; Elliot, R

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between early and late epicardial electrocardiographic changes as well as those in regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and the severity of myocardial damage was determined in 12 anesthetized dogs with left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Radioactive microspheres (15 mum) were used to measure regional MBF at 15 min (early) and 24 h (late) after coronary occlusion. Severity of myocardial damage was assessed by the extent of myocardial creatine phosphokinase depletion 24 h after coronary ligation. There was a close linear correlation between myocardial creatine phosphokinase activity and regional MBF both early (r=0.93, 2P less than 0.001) and late (r=0.88, 2P less than 0.001). An inverse but less precise relationship existed between acute epicardial ST-segment elevation and early (r=-0.41, 2P less than 0.001), or late (r=0.35, 2P less than 0.05) regional MBF. Similarly, a weak correlation was found between myocardial creatine phosphokinase (IU/mg protein) at 24 h and early epicardial ST (millivolt) elevation (r=-0.36, 2P less than 0.02). In the center zones of the infarct with MBF 1/10 of normal, about 35% of the areas with normal QRS width had no epicardial ST-segment elevation 15 min after coronary occlusion. About 44% of the areas which developed pathological Q-waves in the electrocardiogram at 24 h had no ST elevation 15 min after coronary ligation. Late evolution of abnormal Q-waves occurred almost invariably in areas in which the early MBF was reduced to less than 50% of normal and in areas which subsequently had myocardial creatine phosphokinase levels reduced to less than 60% of normal. After coronary occlusion, the severity of the ultimate myocardial damage, which was directly proportional to the degree of reduction in MBF, was therefore not reliably predicted by the early epicardial ST-segment elevation. The data obtained in these studies suggest the need for caution in the use of acute ST-segment elevation as a predictive

  3. Single coronary artery presenting as acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Román, Alfonso; Sánchez-Pérez, Ignacio; Lozano-Ruíz-Poveda, Fernando; Pinilla-Echeverri, Natalia; López-Lluva, María T; Moreno-Arciniegas, Andrea; Marina-Breysse, Manuel; Piqueras-Flores, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    A single coronary artery is one of the most rarely seen coronary artery anomalies. In addition, the specific subtype (Lipton RII-A) that our patient presented is one of the least common, and its clinical presentation as myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest has not been described in the literature. The case shows that although it is essential to exclude a malignant interarterial course of the vessel, cardiac arrest is a possible clinical presentation produced by myocardial ischemia in the context of acute myocardial infarction and should be managed according to clinical practice guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Depressive symptoms are associated with mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jingkai; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J Douglas; Nye, Jonathon A; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38-60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task), and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS), obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores. There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30), p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56), p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress. Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological) stress.

  5. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jingkai; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task), and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS), obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores. Results There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30), p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56), p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress. Conclusion Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological) stress. PMID:25061993

  6. [Double post-acute myocardial infarction complication: rupture of the interventricular septum and acute mitral insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Curcio Ruigómez, A; Martín Jiménez, J; Wilhelmi Ayza, M; Soria Delgado, J L

    1997-02-01

    We present a case of double post acute myocardial infarction complication: ventricular septal defect and acute and severe mitral insufficiency. As a consequence of the delay in the diagnosis, the patient developed pulmonary hypertension with values at the systemic level. The patient underwent surgery in order to close the ventricular septal defect and aneurysmectomy, resulting in posterior regression of mitral insufficiency and pulmonary circuit values became normal. The ethology, diagnosis, evolution and treatment of this exceptional association of acute post myocardial infarction complications are discussed.

  7. Primary coronary angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Popma, J J; Chuang, Y C; Satler, L F; Kleiber, B; Leon, M B

    1994-01-01

    In some patients with acute myocardial infarction, thrombolytic therapy may be limited by its failure to reperfuse the occluded artery, by recurrent ischemia (despite initially successful reperfusion), and by major hemorrhagic complications. Primary coronary angioplasty may circumvent these limitations. This article reviews the results of primary angioplasty reported in patients with myocardial infarction and makes recommendations for its use. The review includes pertinent articles found in the English language literature from July 1987 to July 1993 on MEDLINE. Nonrandomized series of primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction have demonstrated high procedural success rates (86% to 99%) and infrequent recurrent ischemia (4%). Two randomized trials comparing primary angioplasty and thrombolytic therapy have shown that primary angioplasty results in lower mortality, less recurrent ischemia, shorter length of hospital stay, and improved left ventricular function. Two other randomized studies have shown little benefit from primary angioplasty on myocardial salvage, recurrent ischemia, or ventricular function. One major limitation of primary angioplasty is that it requires 24-hour availability of a catheterization laboratory and experienced surgical personnel. Primary angioplasty may be the preferred approach in patients with extensive myocardial infarction who have immediate (< 120 min) access to a cardiac catheterization laboratory with experienced personnel. Patients having 1) contraindications to thrombolytic therapy, 2) cardiogenic shock, 3) prior coronary bypass surgery, or 4) "stuttering" onset of pain may also benefit from primary angioplasty. Poor candidates for this procedure are those with a small myocardial infarction, those in whom undue delays in access to a cardiac catheterization facility would be expected, or those with complex coronary anatomy, including left main coronary artery disease. PMID:8061539

  8. Characterization of acute myocardial infarction by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D L; Wendt, R E; Mulvagh, S L; Rubin, H

    1992-05-15

    The T2-weighted spin-echo technique is currently the most frequently used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to visualize acute myocardial infarction. However, image quality is often degraded by ghost artifacts from blood flow, and respiratory and cardiac contractile motion. To enhance the usefulness of this technique for detailed characterization of infarction, a velocity-compensated spin-echo pulse sequence was tested by imaging a flow phantom, 6 normal subjects and 17 patients with acute myocardial infarction. After preliminary studies were performed in 7 patients to determine optimal imaging parameters, a standardized imaging protocol was used in the next 10. The location of myocardial infarction identified by the electrocardiogram and coronary anatomy was correctly identified in 10 of 10 patients. Distribution of the injury within the left ventricle was clearly visualized, and showed that patients often had a mixture of transmural and nontransmural injury. Heterogenous distribution of signal intensity within the infarction suggested the presence of hemorrhage. Papillary muscle involvement was readily apparent. Signal intensity of the infarction (brightest segment) was increased by 89 +/- 31% compared with the mean of the remote segments. The myocardial/skeletal muscle ratio was significantly (p less than 0.001) increased for the infarction segments compared with that for remote myocardium, allowing quantitative analysis of segmental signal intensity. The MRI wall motion study obtained as part of this protocol demonstrated wall thickening in 58% of the infarction segments and in 6 of 10 patients. This finding suggested the presence of reversibly injured myocardium. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the potential of MRI for detailed tissue characterization after acute myocardial infarction.

  9. Management of acute perioperative myocardial infarction: a case report of concomitant acute myocardial infarction and tumor bleeding in the transverse colon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qian; Li, Yuan-Xin; Feng, Quan-Zhou; Zhu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction complicated by bleeding colon tumor is problematic with regard to management, and appropriate balance of antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy and hemostasis or surgery is crucial for effective treatment. Here, we present a case of concomitant acute myocardial infarction and bleeding tumor in the transverse colon, and share our experience of successfully balancing anticoagulation therapy and hemostasis. PMID:26937182

  10. [Sexuality in acute myocardial infarction patients].

    PubMed

    Casado Dones, Ma J; de Andrés Gimeno, B; Moreno González, C; Fernández Balcones, C; Cruz Martín, R Ma; Colmenar García, C

    2002-01-01

    We as nurses in the Coronary Unit we do not see the sexuality of the patients sufficiently addressed neither by us nor by the patients themselves. In this article we are trying to analize the reasons and to emphasize the need to include this subject in our Nursing Problem List. In it we explaine the fears and the wrong ideas that we have identified in our patients. The sexual function is not affected by a myocardial infarction but psychological factors, age, drugs and other associated diseases might be a reason. A quiet enviroment, a fit training plan and looking for personalise proper alternatives may help the patient to start a satisfactory sexual life again.

  11. Venlafaxine induced acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Godkar, Darshan; Stensby, Jessica; Sinnapunayagam, Selvaratnam; Niranjan, Selva

    2009-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old female with no risk factors for coronary artery disease who had an episode of a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in association with an overdose of Venlafaxine. Cardiac catheterization revealed normal coronary arteries. Because no other obvious exacerbating factors for ischemia were observed, we assume that this drug may have contributed to the development of an acute ischemic event because of its pharmacologic properties.

  12. More frequent diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction among Navajo Indians.

    PubMed

    Klain, M; Coulehan, J L; Arena, V C; Janett, R

    1988-10-01

    In an earlier study, we failed to confirm a clinical impression that the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was increasing in Navajo men. Extending our data collection an additional three years, through 1986, we observed that the attack rate in men more than doubled and there was a gradual increase among women. Most Navajos who sustain AMI are hypertensive (51 per cent), diabetic (50 per cent) or both (31 per cent), but few smoke cigarettes.

  13. More frequent diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction among Navajo Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Klain, M; Coulehan, J L; Arena, V C; Janett, R

    1988-01-01

    In an earlier study, we failed to confirm a clinical impression that the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was increasing in Navajo men. Extending our data collection an additional three years, through 1986, we observed that the attack rate in men more than doubled and there was a gradual increase among women. Most Navajos who sustain AMI are hypertensive (51 per cent), diabetic (50 per cent) or both (31 per cent), but few smoke cigarettes. PMID:3421396

  14. An unusual presentation of mad honey poisoning: acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Akinci, Sinan; Arslan, Uğur; Karakurt, Kamber; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-09-26

    An unusual type of food poisoning is commonly seen in the Black Sea coast of Turkey due to grayanotoxin containing toxic honey so called "mad honey" ingestion. In cases of toxication bradycardia and rhythm disturbances are commonly observed. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was admitted to the hospital because of acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries after "mad honey" ingestion.

  15. [Acute myocardial infarction during tocolytic treatment with ritodrine].

    PubMed

    Fornet, I; Calvo, M; Gimeno, M; Canser, E; Alonso, E; Gilsanz, F

    2006-05-01

    Ritodrine, a beta2-adrenergic agonist with a selective effect on the uterine muscle, is prescribed to prevent premature labor and to treat a hypertonic uterus. At therapeutic doses ritodrine has chronotropic and peripheral vasodilator effects. At high doses it has been related to sporadic cases of subendocardial necrosis, pulmonary edema, and death in pregnancy. We report the case of a pregnant woman who had a non-Q wave acute myocardial infarction after administration of ritodrine.

  16. [Protective effect of peptide semax the rat heart in acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Golubeva, A V; Gavrilova, S A; Lipina, T V; Shornikova, M V; Postnikov, A B; Andreeva, L A; Chentsov, Iu S; Koshelev, V B

    2006-06-01

    Semax, a member of ACTH-derived peptides family, has been employed in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in patients. It decreased neurological deficit and reduced NO hyperproduction in the rat brain, caused by acute cerebral hypoperfusion. We suggested that semax is also able to protect rat heart from ischemic damage in acute myocardial infaction (AMI). AMI was induced by left coronary artery occlusion, myocardial ischemic area averaged 30 % of left ventricle. In 2 hours after coronary occlusion, the AMI group developed 11 % reduced mean arterial blood pressure and 48 % increased diastolic blood pressure in left ventricle in comparison with sham-operated control group. However, infusion of either dobutamine, which directly stimulates myocardial contractility, or sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, that change vascular resistance and thus cardiac afterload, did not reveal distinctions in hemodynamic parameters between groups. These data indicate absense or only moderate cardiac dysfunction in rats with AMI and are consistent wih morphometrical and histochemical studies that did not detect any necrotic or apoptotic (TUNEL-test) changes in left ventricular cardiomyocytes in spite of development of distinct ischemic disturbances of mitochondria and nuclear in about 50 % of cardiomyocytes in 2 hours after AMI. Semax (150 microg/kg), given i. p. 15 min and 2 hours after coronary occlusion, caused no effect on cardiac function, but completely prevented ischemia-induced ultrastructural changes of cardiomyocytes. This protective effect was accompanied by the ability of peptide to blunt the increase in plasma concentrations of nitrates, observed in AMI group.

  17. Acute Myocardial Infarction Quality of Care: The Strong Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Best, Lyle G.; Butt, Amir; Conroy, Britt; Devereux, Richard B.; Galloway, James M.; Jolly, Stacey; Lee, Elisa T.; Silverman, Angela; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Welty, Thomas K.; Kedan, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the quality of care provided patients with acute myocardial infarction and compare with similar national and regional data. Design Case series. Setting The Strong Heart Study has extensive population-based data related to cardiovascular events among American Indians living in three rural regions of the United States. Participants Acute myocardial infarction cases (72) occurring between 1/1/2001 and 12/31/2006 were identified from a cohort of 4549 participants. Outcome measures The proportion of cases that were provided standard quality of care therapy, as defined by the Healthcare Financing Administration and other national organizations. Results The provision of quality services, such as administration of aspirin on admission and at discharge, reperfusion therapy within 24 hours, prescription of beta blocker medication at discharge, and smoking cessation counseling were found to be 94%, 91%, 92%, 86% and 71%, respectively. The unadjusted, 30 day mortality rate was 17%. Conclusion Despite considerable challenges posed by geographic isolation and small facilities, process measures of the quality of acute myocardial infarction care for participants in this American Indian cohort were comparable to that reported for Medicare beneficiaries nationally and within the resident states of this cohort. PMID:21942161

  18. A Type A Aortic Dissection Mimicking an Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    D’Aloia, Antonio; Vizzardi, Enrico; Bugatti, Silvia; Magatelli, Marco; Bonadei, Ivano; Rovetta, Riccardo; Quinzani, Filippo; Curnis, Antonio; Cas, Livio Dei

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of a 54 years old man in whom an initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) revealed to be finally an acute aortic dissection. This case report stresses the importance to maintain a high grade of suspicion of aortic dissection as a possible alternative in presence of eletrocardiographic myocardial ischemic signs. In many medical centers where thrombolitic therapy, antiplatelets receptor blockers, heparin or percutaneous coronary angioplasty is the first line therapy for ACS the outcome may be catastrophic in situation such as aortic dissection.

  19. Regional Myocardial Blood Flow and Ultrastructure Following Acute Temporary Ischemia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    kidneys of dogs and cats , and suggest some element present in whole blood, but not present in filtered blood may serve to further damage ischemic...minutes of myocardial ischemia in the dog as Krug et al. (66) has reported in the cat . Finally, in this experiment the relationship of inhibited reflow...transient inhibition of flow. One has to wonder if their 6 cats with smaller areas of risk are more like the dogs in this study and may also have had

  20. Prognostic significance and relationship of worst lead residual ST segment elevation with myocardial damage assessed by cardiovascular MRI in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Rommel, K P; Baum, A; Mende, M; Desch, S; Gutberlet, M; Schuler, G; Thiele, H; Eitel, I

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the relation of residual worst lead ST segment elevation (WL-STE) after ST segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) with infarct size and microvascular injury assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. WL-STE in patients with acute reperfused STEMI has been shown to identify high risk patients for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). However, the relation of WL-STE with myocardial damage is unknown. In this multicentre study we analysed ECG data 90 min after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in 763 STEMI patients. WL-STE was defined as the absolute magnitude of STE in the most affected lead on the post-PCI ECG. Patients were categorised into three groups (<1 mm, 1-2 mm, and ≥2 mm). CMR was performed within 1 week after infarction for comprehensive assessment of myocardial damage using a standardised protocol. The primary clinical endpoint was MACE defined as death, reinfarction, and new congestive heart failure within 12 months after infarction. WL-STE <1 mm, 1-2 mm, and ≥2 mm was present in 155 (20%), 328 (43%), and 280 (37%) patients, respectively. Myocardial damage determined by CMR demonstrated a graded relationship of infarct size (median (IQR) 13.3 (6.2-20.3)%LV vs 13.7 (7.6-21.3)%LV vs 22.5 (15.6-31.2)%LV, p<0.001), the myocardial salvage index (60.8 (37.0-84.5) vs 55.0 (36.6-73.9) vs 42.7 (26.2-58.2), p<0.001), and microvascular obstruction (0.0 (0.0-0.9)%LV vs 0.0 (0-1.0)%LV vs 1.2 (0.0-3.6)%LV, p<0.001) across the three groups. WL-STE ≥2 mm was strongly associated with MACE 12 month after infarction (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.37; p=0.02). This largest CMR study to date correlating post-PCI WL-STE with markers of myocardial damage demonstrates that WL-STE is significantly associated with infarct size, myocardial salvage, microvascular obstruction, and MACE in a high risk STEMI population. NCT00712101. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance by non contrast T1-mapping allows assessment of severity of injury in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) methods, such as late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and oedema imaging (T2W) used to depict myocardial ischemia, have limitations. Novel quantitative T1-mapping techniques have the potential to further characterize the components of ischemic injury. In patients with myocardial infarction (MI) we sought to investigate whether state-of the art pre-contrast T1-mapping (1) detects acute myocardial injury, (2) allows for quantification of the severity of damage when compared to standard techniques such as LGE and T2W, and (3) has the ability to predict long term functional recovery. Methods 3T CMR including T2W, T1-mapping and LGE was performed in 41 patients [of these, 78% were ST elevation MI (STEMI)] with acute MI at 12-48 hour after chest pain onset and at 6 months (6M). Patients with STEMI underwent primary PCI prior to CMR. Assessment of acute regional wall motion abnormalities, acute segmental damaged fraction by T2W and LGE and mean segmental T1 values was performed on matching short axis slices. LGE and improvement in regional wall motion at 6M were also obtained. Results We found that the variability of T1 measurements was significantly lower compared to T2W and that, while the diagnostic performance of acute T1-mapping for detecting myocardial injury was at least as good as that of T2W-CMR in STEMI patients, it was superior to T2W imaging in NSTEMI. There was a significant relationship between the segmental damaged fraction assessed by either by LGE or T2W, and mean segmental T1 values (P < 0.01). The index of salvaged myocardium derived by acute T1-mapping and 6M LGE was not different to the one derived from T2W (P = 0.88). Furthermore, the likelihood of improvement of segmental function at 6M decreased progressively as acute T1 values increased (P < 0.0004). Conclusions In acute MI, pre-contrast T1-mapping allows assessment of the extent of myocardial damage. T1-mapping might become an important

  2. Acute oedema in the evaluation of microvascular reperfusion and myocardial salvage in reperfused myocardial infarction with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Phrommintikul, Arintaya; Abdel-Aty, Hassan; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Friedrich, Matthias G; Taylor, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    The accurate measurement of myocardial salvage is critical to the ongoing refinement of reperfusion strategies in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) can define the area at risk in AMI by the presence of myocardial oedema, identified by high signal intensity on T(2)-weighted imaging with a short inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR) sequence. In addition, myocardial necrosis can be identified with CMR delayed contrast enhanced imaging. In this prospective study we examined the relationship of acute oedema and necrosis with impaired microvascular reperfusion. We also evaluated acute oedema as a marker of the area at risk in AMI, for the purposes of documenting myocardial salvage. CMR was performed on 15 patients with (AMI), within 24h of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction was defined by a systolic thickening <40% (severe <20%). Microvascular reperfusion was evaluated during the acute phase of contrast wash-in. CMR was repeated 3 months post-PCI to evaluate recovery of LV function and final infarct size. Myocardial salvage was defined as the percentage of the area at risk that was not infarcted on follow up CMR. There was a significant correlation between impaired microvascular reperfusion and the extent of segmental oedema (R=0.363, P<0.01), but not myocardial necrosis (R=0.110, P>0.5). The extent of myocardial salvage correlated with recovery of systolic function (R=0.241, P<0.05), which was strongest in LV segments with severely reduced systolic function (R=0.422, P<0.01). In acutely reperfused AMI, oedema can be used to identify the area at risk for the purpose of calculating myocardial salvage. The correlation between myocardial oedema and reperfusion status suggests a pathological role of acute oedema in the impairment of microvascular reperfusion. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Target organ damage in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Casado Cerrada, J; Zabaleta Camino, J P; Fontecha Ortega, M

    2016-03-01

    Acute heart failure is a prognostic factor due to its high mortality during the acute phase and the increased frequency of medium to long-term adverse events. The pathophysiological mechanisms triggered during these exacerbations can persist after reaching clinical stability, remaining even after the acute episode has ended. A certain degree of neurohormonal activation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation (among other conditions) can therefore persist, resulting in organ damage, not just of the myocardium but likely the entire cardiovascular apparatus. This new insight into the persistence of harmful mechanisms that last beyond the exacerbations could be the start of a change in perspective for developing new therapeutic strategies that seek an overall control of hemodynamic and congestive changes that occur during acute decompensated heart failure and changes that remain after achieving clinical stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  4. Acute myocardial infarction and stress cardiomyopathy following the Christchurch earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christina; Elliott, John; Troughton, Richard; Frampton, Christopher; Smyth, David; Crozier, Ian; Bridgman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by 2 major earthquakes at 4:36 am on 4 September 2010, magnitude 7.1 and at 12:51 pm on 22 February 2011, magnitude 6.3. Both events caused widespread destruction. Christchurch Hospital was the region's only acute care hospital. It remained functional following both earthquakes. We were able to examine the effects of the 2 earthquakes on acute cardiac presentations. Patients admitted under Cardiology in Christchurch Hospital 3 week prior to and 5 weeks following both earthquakes were analysed, with corresponding control periods in September 2009 and February 2010. Patients were categorised based on diagnosis: ST elevation myocardial infarction, Non ST elevation myocardial infarction, stress cardiomyopathy, unstable angina, stable angina, non cardiac chest pain, arrhythmia and others. There was a significant increase in overall admissions (p<0.003), ST elevation myocardial infarction (p<0.016), and non cardiac chest pain (p<0.022) in the first 2 weeks following the early morning September earthquake. This pattern was not seen after the early afternoon February earthquake. Instead, there was a very large number of stress cardiomyopathy admissions with 21 cases (95% CI 2.6-6.4) in 4 days. There had been 6 stress cardiomyopathy cases after the first earthquake (95% CI 0.44-2.62). Statistical analysis showed this to be a significant difference between the earthquakes (p<0.05). The early morning September earthquake triggered a large increase in ST elevation myocardial infarction and a few stress cardiomyopathy cases. The early afternoon February earthquake caused significantly more stress cardiomyopathy. Two major earthquakes occurring at different times of day differed in their effect on acute cardiac events.

  5. Acute Myocardial Infarction and Stress Cardiomyopathy following the Christchurch Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christina; Elliott, John; Troughton, Richard; Frampton, Christopher; Smyth, David; Crozier, Ian; Bridgman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by 2 major earthquakes at 4:36am on 4 September 2010, magnitude 7.1 and at 12:51pm on 22 February 2011, magnitude 6.3. Both events caused widespread destruction. Christchurch Hospital was the region's only acute care hospital. It remained functional following both earthquakes. We were able to examine the effects of the 2 earthquakes on acute cardiac presentations. Methods Patients admitted under Cardiology in Christchurch Hospital 3 week prior to and 5 weeks following both earthquakes were analysed, with corresponding control periods in September 2009 and February 2010. Patients were categorised based on diagnosis: ST elevation myocardial infarction, Non ST elevation myocardial infarction, stress cardiomyopathy, unstable angina, stable angina, non cardiac chest pain, arrhythmia and others. Results There was a significant increase in overall admissions (p<0.003), ST elevation myocardial infarction (p<0.016), and non cardiac chest pain (p<0.022) in the first 2 weeks following the early morning September earthquake. This pattern was not seen after the early afternoon February earthquake. Instead, there was a very large number of stress cardiomyopathy admissions with 21 cases (95% CI 2.6–6.4) in 4 days. There had been 6 stress cardiomyopathy cases after the first earthquake (95% CI 0.44–2.62). Statistical analysis showed this to be a significant difference between the earthquakes (p<0.05). Conclusion The early morning September earthquake triggered a large increase in ST elevation myocardial infarction and a few stress cardiomyopathy cases. The early afternoon February earthquake caused significantly more stress cardiomyopathy. Two major earthquakes occurring at different times of day differed in their effect on acute cardiac events. PMID:23844213

  6. Acute myocardial infarction in a young athlete: Optical coherence tomographic features of the culprit lesion

    PubMed Central

    Klemenc, Matjaz; Budihna, Gregor; Bedencic, Mateja; Bartolic, Andrej; Kranjec, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We report on a young male athlete who suffered from acute myocardial infarction immediately after a vigorous training. Methods: A comprehensive optical coherence tomographic investigation of the culprit coronary artery was performed after the combined mechanical and pharmacological thrombus removal. Results and Conclusion: The imaging discovered a tear at the junction of the non-obstructive, largely fibrotic plaque with the normal arterial wall. This exertion-related vessel damage resulted in a dynamic thrombosis that almost completely occluded the culprit artery. As the vessel obstruction was not considered flow-limiting, the stent implantation was not required and the patient was discharged on the double antiplatelet therapy and statin. PMID:27489712

  7. Hemodynamic effects of acute digitalization several months after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ressl, J; Jandová, R; Jebavý, P; Kasalický, J; Widimský, J

    1975-01-01

    Left ventricular function was investigated at rest and during exercise by heart catheterization in 15 patients 3-5 months after acute myocardial infarction. The effect of 1 mg digoxin i.v. in ten patients was correlated to placebo (saline solution) in five patients. A significant decrease of the left ventricular enddiastolic pressure, increase of left ventricular systolic ejection fraction and a shift of the left ventricular function curve to left upwards was found after digoxin with no changes in the placebo group. This beneficial effect of acute digitalization in patients convalescing from uncomplicated myocardial infarction without clinical signs of manifest heart failure could have therapeutic implication.

  8. 3D cardiac wall thickening assessment for acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, A.; Chan, B. T.; Lim, E.; Liew, Y. M.

    2017-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most severe form of coronary artery disease leading to localized myocardial injury and therefore irregularities in the cardiac wall contractility. Studies have found very limited differences in global indices (such as ejection fraction, myocardial mass and volume) between healthy subjects and AMI patients, and therefore suggested regional assessment. Regional index, specifically cardiac wall thickness (WT) and thickening is closely related to cardiac function and could reveal regional abnormality due to AMI. In this study, we developed a 3D wall thickening assessment method to identify regional wall contractility dysfunction due to localized myocardial injury from infarction. Wall thickness and thickening were assessed from 3D personalized cardiac models reconstructed from cine MRI images by fitting inscribed sphere between endocardial and epicardial wall. The thickening analysis was performed in 5 patients and 3 healthy subjects and the results were compared against the gold standard 2D late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images for infarct localization. The notable finding of this study is the highly accurate estimation and visual representation of the infarct size and location in 3D. This study provides clinicians with an intuitive way to visually and qualitatively assess regional cardiac wall dysfunction due to infarction in AMI patients.

  9. Combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow by myocardial contrast echocardiography after acute reperfused myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, F; Messner-Pellenc, P; Descours, Q; Daures, J; Pasquie, J; Hager, F; Davy, J; Grolleau-Raoux, R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow by myocardial contrast echocardiography after myocardial infarction.
DESIGN—Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed in patients with acute myocardial infarction shortly after successful coronary reperfusion (TIMI 3 patency) by direct angioplasty. Collateral flow was assessed before coronary angioplasty, and contrast reflow was evaluated 15 minutes after reperfusion. The presence of contractile reserve was assessed by low dose dobutamine echocardiography (5 to 15 µg/kg/min) at (mean (SD)) 3 (2) days after myocardial infarction. Recovery of segmental function (myocardial viability) was evaluated by resting echocardiography at a two month follow up. The study was prospective.
PATIENTS—35 consecutive patients referred for acute transmural myocardial infarction.
RESULTS—Contrast reflow was observed in 20 patients (57%) and collateral flow in 14 (40%). Contrast reflow and collateral contrast flow were both correlated with reversible dysfunction on initial dobutamine echocardiography and at follow up (p < 0.05). The presence of reflow or collateral flow on myocardial contrast echocardiography was a highly sensitive (100%) but weakly specific (60%) indicator of segmental dysfunction recovery. Simultaneous presence of contrast reflow and collateral flow was more specific of reversible dysfunction than reflow alone (90% v 60%).
CONCLUSIONS—Combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow enhanced the sensitivity of myocardial contrast echocardiography in predicting myocardial viability after acute, reperfused myocardial infarction. The simultaneous presence of reflow and collateral blood flow was highly specific of recovery of segmental dysfunction.


Keywords: contrast echocardiography; coronary reflow; collateral blood flow; dobutamine echocardiography; myocardial dysfunction PMID:10377311

  10. Pathological observation of acute myocardial infarction in Chinese miniswine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuang; Wang, Shao-Xin; Dong, Ping-Shuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Duan, Na-Na; Wang, Yan-Yu; Wang, Ke; Li, Zhuan-Zhen; Wei, Li-Juan; Meng, Ya-Li; Cheng, Jian-Xin

    2015-01-01

    The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model in Chinese miniswine was built by percutaneous coronary artery occlusion. Pathological observation of AMI was performed, and the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the infarct sites was detected at different days after modeling in Chinese miniswine. The experimental findings may be used as the basis for blood flow reconstruction and intervention after AMI. Seven experimental Chinese miniswine were subjected to general anesthesia and Seldinger right femoral artery puncture. After coronary angiography, the gelfoam was injected via the microtube to occlude the obtuse marginal branch (OM branch). At 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 10 d, 14 d and 17 d after modeling, hetatoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed to observe the pathological changes and to detect the expression of TNF-α in the myocardial tissues. Cytoplasmic acidophilia of the necrotic myocardial tissues at 1 d after modeling was enhanced, and cytoplasmic granules were formed; at 3 d, the margins of the necrotic myocardial tissues were infiltrated by a large number of inflammatory cells; at 5 d, the nuclei of the necrotic myocardial cells were fragmented; at 7 d, extensive granulation tissues were formed at the margin of the necrotic myocardial tissues; at 10 d, part of the granulation tissues were replaced by fibrous scar tissues; at 14-17 d, all granulation tissues were replaced by fibrous scar tissues. Immunohistochemical detection indicated that no TNF-α expression in normal myocardial tissues. The TNF-α expression was first detected at 3 d in the necrotic myocardial tissues and then increased at 5 d and 7 d. After reaching the peak at 10 d, the expression began to decrease at 14 d and the decrease continued at 17 d. Coronary angiography showed the disappearance of blood flow at the distal end of OM branch occluded by gelfoam, indicating that AMI model was constructed successfully. The repair of the infarcted myocardium began at 10-17 d after

  11. Postcountershock myocardial damage after pretreatment with adrenergic and calcium channel antagonists in halothane-anesthetized dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, D.M.; Metz, S.; Maze, M.

    1985-05-01

    Transthoracic electric countershock can cause necrotic myocardial lesions in humans as well as experimental animals. The authors investigated the effect on postcountershock myocardial damage of pretreatment with prazosin, an alpha-1 antagonist; L-metoprolol, a beta-1 antagonist, and verapamil, a calcium channel-blocking agent. Twenty dogs were anesthetized with halothane and given two transthoracic countershocks of 295 delivered joules each after drug or vehicle treatment. Myocardial injury was quantitated 24 h following countershock by measuring the uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the myocardium. Elevated technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake occurred in visible lesions in most dogs regardless of drug treatment. For each of four parameters of myocardial damage there was no statistically significant difference between control animals and those treated with prazosin, metoprolol, or verapamil. These data suggest that adrenergic or calcium channel-mediated mechanisms are not involved in the pathogenesis of postcountershock myocardial damage.

  12. Comparison between myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus damage caused angiogenesis or energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Lu, Chengzhi; Zhao, Xiangdong; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare and analyze lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and differences in capillary density level in the model of myocardial damage which caused by rats diabetes. The Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, including control, diabetic, myocardial infarction and two diseases combined group. Ligate descending branch of left coronary artery on 1/3 position or inject streptozotocin into abdominal cavity to establish two kinds of disease models. After 6 w, obtain the myocardial tissues to do the vascular density analysis of tissue sections which are stained and cell tissue enzyme. Explore change of relevant index and differences among groups. Results indicated that degree of LDH and SDH decrease in two kinds of disease model. Compared with control group, level of myocardial vascular of myocardial injury group is higher, and diabetic group is higher than non diabetic group. Quantitative result of FFA in mitochondrial suspension of single disease group is higher than that of control group and two diseases combined group. Level of FFA and LDH of two diseases combined group is consistent with control group. In conclusion, after myocardial damage, which is caused by diabetes mellitus or myocardial infarction, degree of local vascularization increases, diabetes mellitus is more obvious. After myocardial damage, process of myocardial mitochondrial glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation has some obstacles. But these two kinds of diseases all have cardiac muscle cell which can keep generated procedure of aerobic and anaerobic energy to instead the normal function of cardiac muscle.

  13. Sinoatrial disease in acute myocardial infarction. Long-term prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hatle, L; Bathen, J; Rokseth, R

    1976-01-01

    Of 32 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by sinoatrial disease, 23 survived. All 23 had inferior infarction. During follow-up lasting 4 to 6 years only one patient developed severe chronic sinoatrial disease (sick sinus syndrome) necessitating permanent pacemaker treatment; twelve others died during this time. In 2 of them death was sudden 5 and 6 months after infarction. Atrial pacing studies in 7 of the 11 patients still alive showed no gross abnormalities. A review of 71 patients with chronic sinoatrial disease treated with a permanent pacemaker revealed only 5 with previous documented infarction. The present data suggest that sinus node dysfunction in patients surviving acute infarction is most often only temporary as is atrioventricular block. Occasionally, however, severe chronic sinoatrial disease requiring a permanent pacemaker may develop later, and this course of events is most likely to occur in those patients who had additional complications during the acute infarct. PMID:1267985

  14. Polycythemia vera presenting as acute myocardial infarction: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bahbahani, Hussain; Aljenaee, Khaled; Bella, Abdelhaleem

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is usually seen in the setting of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors. Myocardial infarction in the young poses a particular challenge, as the disease is less likely, due to atherosclerosis. We report the case of a 37-year-old female patient who presented with ST segment elevation anterolateral AMI. The only abnormality on routine blood investigation was raised hemoglobin and hematocrit. After further testing, she was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria with polycythemia vera. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing polycythemia vera as an important cause of thrombosis, which can present initially as AMI, and to emphasize the early recognition of the disease in order to initiate appropriate management strategies. PMID:25544823

  15. Effect of hydroxy safflower yellow A on myocardial apoptosis after acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, M X; Fu, J H; Zhang, Q; Wang, J Q

    2015-04-10

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroxy safflower yellow A (HSYA) on myocardial apoptosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats. We randomly divided 170 male Wistar rats into 6 groups (N = 23): normal control, sham, control, SY (90 mg/kg), HSYA high-dose (HSYA-H, 40 mg/kg), and HSYA low-dose groups (HSYA-L, 20 mg/kg). Myocardial ischemic injury was induced by ligating the anterior descending coronary artery, and the degree of myocardial ischemia was evaluated using electrocardiography and nitroblue tetrazolium staining. Bax and Bcl-2 expressions in the ischemic myocardium were determined using immunohistochemical analysis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression in the myocardium of rats with AMI was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Compared to rats in the control group, those in the HYSA-H, HSYA-L, and SY groups showed a decrease in the elevated ST segments and an increase in the infarct size. The rats in the drug-treated groups showed a significantly lower percentage of Bax-positive cells and a significantly higher percentage of Bcl-2-positive cells than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, mRNA expression of PPAR-γ in the ischemic myocardium of rats in the SY, HSYA-L, and HSYA-H groups was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Thus, HSYA and SY can attenuate myocardial ischemia in rats, possibly by increasing the level of Bcl-2/Bax, and PPAR-γ may be not a necessary link in this process.

  16. Cells involved in extracellular matrix remodeling after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Larissa Ferraz; Mataveli, Fábio D’Aguiar; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effects of VEGF165 gene transfer in the process of remodeling of the extracellular matrix after an acute myocardial infarct. Methods Wistar rats were submitted to myocardial infarction, after the ligation of the left descending artery, and the left ventricle ejection fraction was used to classify the infarcts into large and small. The animals were divided into groups of ten, according to the size of infarcted area (large or small), and received or not VEGF165 treatment. Evaluation of different markers was performed using immunohistochemistry and digital quantification. The primary antibodies used in the analysis were anti-fibronectin, anti-vimentin, anti-CD44, anti-E-cadherin, anti-CD24, anti-alpha-1-actin, and anti-PCNA. The results were expressed as mean and standard error, and analyzed by ANOVA, considering statistically significant if p≤0.05. Results There was a significant increase in the expression of undifferentiated cell markers, such as fibronectin (protein present in the extracellular matrix) and CD44 (glycoprotein present in the endothelial cells). However, there was decreased expression of vimentin and PCNA, indicating a possible decrease in the process of cell proliferation after treatment with VEGF165. Markers of differentiated cells, E-cadherin (adhesion protein between myocardial cells), CD24 (protein present in the blood vessels), and alpha-1-actin (specific myocyte marker), showed higher expression in the groups submitted to gene therapy, compared to non-treated group. The value obtained by the relation between alpha-1-actin and vimentin was approximately three times higher in the groups treated with VEGF165, suggesting greater tissue differentiation. Conclusion The results demonstrated the important role of myocytes in the process of tissue remodeling, confirming that VEGF165 seems to provide a protective effect in the treatment of acute myocardial infarct. PMID:25993074

  17. [Extracorporeal cardiac shock wave therapy improved myocardial micro-vascular circulation after acute myocardial infarction at early stage in pigs].

    PubMed

    Tao, Si-ming; Guo, Tao; Wang, Yue; Cai, Hong-yan; Yang, Chao

    2011-03-01

    To explore the effect of low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy to improve myocardial micro-vascular circulation after acute myocardial infarction at the early stage in pig model. A total of 25 domestic pigs were used in this study. Model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was created successfully by the implantation of angioplasty balloon in mid-distal segment of left anterior descending coronary artery (n=20). These AMI animals were divided two groups. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy to the ischemic myocardial region was performed for the group of shock wave therapy (n=15) at 3 days after acute myocardial infarction; The remaining AMI animals were treated in the same manner, but without the shock wave therapy (n=5), The other health animals (n=5) were used as blank control group. The number of endothelium cell, capillary density, VEGF mRNA level and collateral vessel Rentrop score in each group were evaluated and compared. Shock wave treatment up-regulated the mRNA expression of VEGF in the model of acute myocardial infarction (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the number of capillaries was significantly higher in the shock wave group than that of positive and blank control group (P < 0.05). The Rentrop score of collateral vessel indicated the reconstruction of collateral circulation in shock wave group. Extracorporeal cardiac shock wave therapy could effectively induce angiogenesis, up-regulate the expression of angiogenic factor, resulting in an improvement in micro-vascular circulation reconstruction of ischemic myocardial region.

  18. Weather fronts and acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kveton, Vit

    1991-03-01

    Some methodological aspects are discussed of the investigation of acute infarct myocarditis (AIM) in relation to weather fronts. Results of a new method of analysis are given. Data were analysed from about the hour of the onset of symptoms, and led to the diagnosis of AIM either immediately or within a few hours or days (3019 cases observed over 4.5 years during 1982 1986 in Plzen, Czechoslovakia). Weather classification was based on three factors (the type of the foregoing front, the type of the subsequent front, the time section of the time interval demarcated by the passage of the surfaces of the fronts). AIM occurrence increased in particular types of weather fronts: (i) by 30% during 7 12 h after a warm front, if the time span between fronts exceeded 24 h; (ii) by 10% in time at least 36 h distant from the foregoing cold or occlusion front and from the succeeding warm or occlusion front; (iii) by 20% during 0 2 h before the passage of the front, provided the foregoing front was not warm and the interval between fronts exceeded 5 h. AIM occurrence decreased by 15% 20% for time span between fronts > 24 h at times 6 11, 6 23 and 6 35 h before a coming warm or occlusion front (for interfrontal intervals 25 48, 49 72 and possibly > 72 h), and also at 12 23 and possibly 12 35 h before a cold front (for intervals 49 72 and possibly > 72 h), if the foregoing front was cold or an occlusion front.

  19. Spontaneous splenic artery aneurysm rupture: mimicking acute myocardial infarct.

    PubMed

    Zeren, Sezgin; Bayhan, Zülfü; Sönmez, Yalcın; Mestan, Metin; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Kadıoglu, Emine; Ucar, Bercis Imge; Devir, Cigdem; Ekici, Fatih Mehmet; Sanal, Bekir

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is a rare but a life-threatening condition. Thus, early diagnoses may increase the chance of survival. A 52-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with a pain that starts from the chest and epigastric region and radiates to back and left arm. The patient prediagnosed as having acute myocardial infarct and was under observation when acute abdomen and hemorrhagic shock developed. After further investigation, the patient was diagnosed as having SAA and has undergone a successful surgery. The patient was fully cured and discharged from the hospital on the seventh postoperative day. The patient originally presented with SAA, although she was primarily observed in the emergency department with acute myocardial infarct diagnosis because of similar symptoms and clinical findings to cardiovascular diseases. When changes in the clinical picture occurred, the patient was reevaluated and had undergone an operation because of SAA rupture. Therefore, physicians should take into consideration of aneurysm rupture in the differential diagnosis of the cardiovascular conditions; otherwise, the patient may lose his/her life.

  20. Body Mass Index and Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bucholz, Emily M.; Rathore, Saif S.; Reid, Kimberly J.; Jones, Philip G.; Chan, Paul S.; Rich, Michael W.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have described an “obesity paradox” with heart failure, whereby higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality. However, little is known about the impact of obesity on survival after acute myocardial infarction. Methods Data from 2 registries of patients hospitalized in the United States with acute myocardial infarction between 2003–04 (PREMIER) and 2005–08 (TRIUMPH) were used to examine the association of BMI with mortality. Patients (n=6359) were categorized into BMI groups (kg/m2) using baseline measurements. Two sets of analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression with fractional polynomials to model BMI as categorical and continuous variables. To assess the independent association of BMI with mortality, analyses were repeated adjusting for 7 domains of patient and clinical characteristics. Results Median BMI was 28.6. BMI was inversely associated with crude 1-year mortality (normal, 9.2%; overweight, 6.1%; obese, 4.7%; morbidly obese; 4.6%; p<0.001), which persisted after multivariable adjustment. When BMI was examined as a continuous variable, the hazards curve declined with increasing BMI and then increased above a BMI of 40. Compared with patients with a BMI of 18.5, patients with higher BMIs had a 20% to 68% lower mortality at 1 year. No interactions between age (p=0.37), gender (p=0.87) or diabetes mellitus (p=0.55) were observed. Conclusions There appears to be an “obesity paradox” among acute myocardial infarction patients such that higher BMI is associated with lower mortality, an effect that was not modified by patient characteristics and was comparable across age, gender, and diabetes subgroups. PMID:22483510

  1. Discharge heart rate and mortality after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Seronde, Marie France; Geha, Raghed; Puymirat, Etienne; Chaib, Aurès; Simon, Tabassome; Berard, Laurence; Drouet, Elodie; Bataille, Vincent; Danchin, Nicolas; Schiele, François

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to describe the determinants of discharge heart rate in acute coronary syndrome patients and assess the impact of discharge heart rate on 5-year mortality in hospital survivors. French Registry of Acute ST-Elevation or non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI) 2005 is a nationwide French registry that included all consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction over 1 month in 223 institutions in 2005. Discharge heart rate was recorded in 3079 patients discharged alive; all had 5-year follow-up. Logistic regression was used to detect predictors of high heart rate at discharge. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to assess the hazard ratio for mortality at 5 years. Heart rate was categorized into 4 groups by quartiles (<60, 61-67, 68-75, >75 beats per minute). High heart rate was defined as ≥75 beats per minute. Landmark analysis was performed at 1 year. Independent predictors of heart rate ≥75 beats per minute at discharge were female sex, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bleeding/transfusion during hospitalization, left ventricular dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and prescription (type, but not dose category) of beta-blockers at discharge. Discharge heart rate was significantly related to mortality at 1 year (hazard ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.24 per 10 beats per minute, P = .02); this was confirmed by landmark analysis, with a 39% increase (hazard ratio 1.39; 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.84) in the risk of 1-year death for discharge heart rate ≥75 beats per minute vs <75 beats per minute. This relationship was no longer significant between 2 and 5 years. After acute myocardial infarction, patients discharged with high heart rate (≥75 beats per minute) are at higher risk of death during the first year, but not later, irrespective of beta-blocker use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Accentuates Ethanol-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction and Mitochondrial Damage in Mice: Role of Mitochondrial Death Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Methods ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways) were examined. Results Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O2•−. Myocardium from ethanol-treated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-α, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression following acute ethanol exposure exacerbated ethanol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte enlargement, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, indicating a pivotal role of ADH in ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through mitochondrial death pathway of apoptosis. PMID:20090911

  3. Alcohol dehydrogenase accentuates ethanol-induced myocardial dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in mice: role of mitochondrial death pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-18

    Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways) were examined. Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O(2) (*-). Myocardium from ethanol-treated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-alpha, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF. Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression following acute ethanol exposure exacerbated ethanol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte enlargement, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, indicating a pivotal role of ADH in ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through mitochondrial death pathway of apoptosis.

  4. The Impact of Early Regular Cardiac Rehabilitation Program on Myocardial Function after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul; Kim, Duk You

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if an early regular cardiac rehabilitation program would have an adverse effect on myocardial function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Method Patients who received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after AMI were divided into the exercise group and control group in accordance with their willingness to participate. Patients in the exercise group (n=18) received ECG monitored exercise for six weeks and were instructed to maintain self exercise in their communities for four months. The control group (n=16) patients were just instructed of risk factor control. All the subjects underwent echocardiography at the time of the AMI as well as six months later. The echocardiography parameters, including the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), stroke volume (SV), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and end-systolic diameter (LVESD), were measured. Results In the exercise group, the LVEF increased to 59.58±9.24% and 61.58±9.63% after six weeks and six months, respectively (p<0.05), but SV, LVEDD and LVESD did not change (p>0.05). Conclusion Active participation in the cardiac rehabilitation program approximately two weeks after AMI did not have an adverse effect on the size of the left ventricle and myocardial function. PMID:22506170

  5. Serum creatine kinase B subunit activity in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Ljungdahl, L; Gerhardt, W; Hofvendahl, S

    1980-01-01

    The value of serum creatine kinase B subunit activity (CK B) in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was studied in 238 consecutive cases. All were admitted to a coronary care unit because of suspected acute myocardial infarction. Serum CK B activity was determined by an immunoinhibition procedure, using a CK M subunit inhibiting antibody (anti-M). For the evaluation of serum CK B, patients were classified into acute myocardial infarction and non-acute myocardial infarction groups. This classification was based on electrocardiographic findings, on quantitative determinations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total serum creatine kinase (CK) activities, and on qualitative electrophoretic determinations of serum CK and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes. The prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in the patient material was 0.47. Serum CK B subunit activity was found to be a highly selective indicator of acute myocardial infarction with a predictive value of a positive test result of 0.97 and a predictive value of a negative test result of 0.99. The serum CK B activity increased above the acute myocardial infarction discrimination limit within 12 hours from onset of symptoms. Two non-acute myocardial infarction patients, who were resuscitated after cardiac arrest, had increased serum CK B values caused by the transient presence of CK isoenzyme BB in serum. PMID:7378210

  6. Computerized fetal heart rate analysis in the prediction of myocardial damage in pregnancies with placental insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Mariane de Fátima Y; Nomura, Roseli M Y; Niigaki, Juliana I; Francisco, Rossana P V; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the reliability of fetal heart rate (FHR) parameters analyzed by computerized cardiotocography (cCTG) in predicting myocardial damage in pregnancies with placental insufficiency. We evaluated 38 patients with placental insufficiency detected before 34 weeks of gestation. All patients underwent 30 min of cCTG (Sonicaid Fetal Care, version 2.2) and Doppler of umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus. Umbilical vein blood samples were collected at birth to determine fetal cardiac Troponin T, and a ≥0.09ng/ml value was deemed a sign of myocardial damage. The fetuses with myocardial damage (39%) showed significantly increased values of umbilical artery pulsatility index z-score (P=0.003), ductus venosus pulsatility index z-score (P=0.007), basal FHR (P=0.033) and periods of low episodes (P=0.038). The number of small accelerations and the short-term variation (STV) were significantly reduced in the group with myocardial damage (P=0.013 and P=0.003, respectively). Logistic regression analysis identified STV and gestational age at delivery as independent predictors for fetal myocardial damage, with area under ROC curve of 0.91. Computerized cardiotocography parameters may be useful in the management of early onset placental insufficiency, and the association of STV with gestational age could play a role in detecting myocardial injury in pregnancies with placental insufficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Activated platelet chemiluminescence and presence of CD45+ platelets in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gabbasov, Zufar; Ivanova, Oxana; Kogan-Yasny, Victor; Ryzhkova, Evgeniya; Saburova, Olga; Vorobyeva, Inna; Vasilieva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that in 15% of acute myocardial infarction patients' platelets generate reactive oxygen species that can be detected with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of platelet-rich plasma within 8-10 days after acute myocardial infarction. This increase in generate reactive oxygen species production coincides with the emergence of CD45(+) platelets. The ability of platelets to carry surface leukocyte antigen implies their participation in exchange of specific proteins in the course of acute myocardial infarction. Future studies of CD45(+) platelets in peripheral blood of acute myocardial infarction patients in association with generate reactive oxygen species production may provide a new insight into the complex mechanisms of cell-cell interactions associated with acute myocardial infarction.

  8. Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Cells in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Damani, Samir; Bacconi, Andrea; Libiger, Ondrej; Chourasia, Aparajita H.; Serry, Rod; Gollapudi, Raghava; Goldberg, Ron; Rapeport, Kevin; Haaser, Sharon; Topol, Sarah; Knowlton, Sharen; Bethel, Kelly; Kuhn, Peter; Wood, Malcolm; Carragher, Bridget; Schork, Nicholas J.; Jiang, John; Rao, Chandra; Connelly, Mark; Fowler, Velia M.; Topol, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI), which involves the rupture of existing atheromatous plaque, remains highly unpredictable despite recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. Accordingly, a biomarker that can predict an impending MI is desperately needed. Here, we characterize circulating endothelial cells (CECs) using the first automated and clinically feasible CEC 3-channel fluorescence microscopy assay in 50 consecutive patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 44 consecutive healthy controls. CEC counts were significantly elevated in MI cases versus controls with median numbers of 19 and 4 cells/ml respectively (p = 1.1 × 10−10). A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated an area under the ROC curve of 0.95, suggesting near dichotomization of MI cases versus controls. We observed no correlation between CECs and typical markers of myocardial necrosis (ρ=0.02, CK-MB; ρ=−0.03, troponin). Morphologic analysis of the microscopy images of CECs revealed a 2.5-fold increase (P<0.0001) in cellular area and 2-fold increase (P<0.0001) in nuclear area of MI CECs versus healthy control, age-matched CECs, as well as CECs obtained from patients with preexisting peripheral vascular disease. The distribution of CEC images containing from 2 up to 10 nuclei demonstrates that MI patients are the only group to contain more than 3 nuclei/image, indicating that multi-cellular and multi-nuclear clusters are specific for acute MI. These data indicate that CECs may serve as promising biomarkers for the prediction of atherosclerotic plaque rupture events. PMID:22440735

  9. Thallium-201 versus technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging in detection and evaluation of patients with acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, B.; Thrall, J.H.

    1980-12-18

    Thallium-201 myocardial imaging is of value in the early detection and evaluation of patients with suspected acute infarction. Thallium imaging may have a special value in characterizing patients with cardiogenic shock and in detecting patients at risk for subsequent infarction or death or death or both, before hospital discharge. Approximately 95 percent of pateints with transmural or nontransmural myocardial infarction can be detected with technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging if the imaging is performed 24 to 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Pyrophosphate imaging may have an important role in the evaluation of patients during the early follow-up period after hospital discharge from an episode of acute infarction. The finding of a persistently positive pyrophosphate image suggests a poor prognosis and is associated with a relatively large incidence of subsequent myocardial infarction and death.

  10. Effects of glycine supplementation on myocardial damage and cardiac function after severe burn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Lv, Shang-jun; Yan, Hong; Wang, Lin; Liang, Guang-ping; Wan, Qian-xue; Peng, Xi

    2013-06-01

    Glycine has been shown to participate in protection from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. However, the cardioprotective effect of glycine after burn remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the protective effect of glycine on myocardial damage in severely burned rats. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls (C), burned controls (B), and glycine-treated (G). Groups B and G were given a 30% total body surface area full-thickness burn. Group G was administered 1.5 g/(kg d) glycine and group B was given the same dose of alanine via intragastric administration for 3d. Serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), and blood lactate, as well as myocardial ATP and glutathione (GSH) content, were measured. Cardiac contractile function and histopathological changes were analyzed at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Serum CK, LDH, AST, and blood lactate increased, while myocardial ATP and GSH content decreased in both burned groups. Compared with group B, the levels of CK, LDH, and AST significantly decreased, whereas blood lactate as well as myocardial ATP and GSH content increased in group G. Moreover, cardiac contractile function inhibition and myocardial histopathological damage in group G significantly decreased compared with group B. Myocardial histological structure and function were damaged significantly after burn. Glycine is beneficial to myocardial preservation by improving cardiomyocyte energy metabolism and increasing ATP and GSH abundance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanism of reduced myocardial glucose utilization during acute hypertriglyceridemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Sébastien L; Ci, Xiuli; Frisch, Frédérique; Normand-Lauzière, François; Cadorette, Jules; Ouellet, René; Van Lier, Johannes E; Bénard, François; Bentourkia, M'hamed; Lecomte, Roger; Carpentier, André C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to study the effect of acute inhibition of intravascular lipolysis on myocardial substrate selection during hypertriglyceridemia using in vivo radiotracer analysis and positron emission tomography. We induced acute hypertriglyceridemia in vivo using an intravenous infusion of Intralipid 20% (IL) without and with acute inhibition of fatty acid delivery from circulating triglycerides with injection of Triton WR-1339 (TRI) during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in Wistar rats. We determined the effect of TRI on myocardial uptake of circulating triglycerides and free fatty acids using intravenous injection of [(3)H]-triolein and [(14)C]-bromopalmitate, respectively. Myocardial blood flow, oxidative metabolism, and metabolic rate of glucose (MMRG) were determined using micro-positron emission tomography (microPET) with [(13)N]-ammonia, [(11)C]-acetate, and 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D: -glucose (FDG). TRI reduced myocardial incorporation of [(3)H]-triolein but not [(14)C]-bromopalmitate showing that it selectively reduces myocardial fatty acid delivery from circulating triglycerides but not from free fatty acids. IL reduced myocardial blood flow and MMRG by 37% and 56%, respectively, but did not affect myocardial oxidative metabolism. TRI did not abolish the effect of IL on myocardial blood flow and MMRG. Hypertriglyceridemia acutely reduces myocardial blood flow and MMRG in rats, but this effect is not explained by increased myocardial fatty acid delivery through intravascular triglyceride lipolysis.

  12. Detecting Acute Myocardial Infarction by Diffusion-Weighted versus T2-Weighted Imaging and Myocardial Necrosis Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Li, Yongjun; Wang, YaLing; Zhang, Shijun; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Ju, Shenghong

    2016-01-01

    We used a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction to study the signal evolution of ischemic myocardium on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DWI). Eight Chinese miniature pigs underwent percutaneous left anterior descending or left circumflex coronary artery occlusion for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion, which induced acute myocardial infarction. We used DWI preprocedurally and hourly for 4 hours postprocedurally. We acquired turbo inversion recovery magnitude T2-weighted images (TIRM T2WI) and late gadolinium enhancement images from the DWI slices. We measured the serum myocardial necrosis markers myoglobin, creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme, and cardiac troponin I at the same time points as the magnetic resonance scanning. We used histochemical staining to confirm injury. All images were analyzed qualitatively. Contrast-to-noise ratio (the contrast between infarcted and healthy myocardium) and relative signal index were used in quantitative image analysis. We found that DWI identified myocardial signal abnormity early (<4 hr) after acute myocardial infarction and identified the infarct-related high signal more often than did TIRM T2WI: 7 of 8 pigs (87.5%) versus 3 of 8 (37.5%) (P=0.046). Quantitative image analysis yielded a significant difference in contrast-to-noise ratio and relative signal index between infarcted and normal myocardium on DWI. However, within 4 hours after infarction, the serologic myocardial injury markers were not significantly positive. We conclude that DWI can be used to detect myocardial signal abnormalities early after acute myocardial infarction—identifying the infarction earlier than TIRM T2WI and widely used clinical serologic biomarkers. PMID:27777517

  13. Detecting Acute Myocardial Infarction by Diffusion-Weighted versus T2-Weighted Imaging and Myocardial Necrosis Markers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiyang; Chen, Min; Li, Yongjun; Wang, YaLing; Zhang, Shijun; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Ju, Shenghong

    2016-10-01

    We used a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction to study the signal evolution of ischemic myocardium on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DWI). Eight Chinese miniature pigs underwent percutaneous left anterior descending or left circumflex coronary artery occlusion for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion, which induced acute myocardial infarction. We used DWI preprocedurally and hourly for 4 hours postprocedurally. We acquired turbo inversion recovery magnitude T2-weighted images (TIRM T2WI) and late gadolinium enhancement images from the DWI slices. We measured the serum myocardial necrosis markers myoglobin, creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme, and cardiac troponin I at the same time points as the magnetic resonance scanning. We used histochemical staining to confirm injury. All images were analyzed qualitatively. Contrast-to-noise ratio (the contrast between infarcted and healthy myocardium) and relative signal index were used in quantitative image analysis. We found that DWI identified myocardial signal abnormity early (<4 hr) after acute myocardial infarction and identified the infarct-related high signal more often than did TIRM T2WI: 7 of 8 pigs (87.5%) versus 3 of 8 (37.5%) (P=0.046). Quantitative image analysis yielded a significant difference in contrast-to-noise ratio and relative signal index between infarcted and normal myocardium on DWI. However, within 4 hours after infarction, the serologic myocardial injury markers were not significantly positive. We conclude that DWI can be used to detect myocardial signal abnormalities early after acute myocardial infarction-identifying the infarction earlier than TIRM T2WI and widely used clinical serologic biomarkers.

  14. Fatal poisoning by butane sniffing: A forensic analysis and immunohistochemical detection of myocardial hypoxic damage.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Francesco; Barranco, Rosario; Landolfa, Maria Celeste; Gallo, Massimo; Castiglione, Andrea Gianelli; Orcioni, Giulio Fraternali; De Stefano, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    Although less widespread than twenty years ago, inhalant abuse remains an on-going problem, whose incidence among U.S. teenagers and young adults ranges from 10 to 15%. Death due to the inhalation of vapor from halogenated hydrocarbons is a well-known phenomenon, yet few cases of fatal butane-gas poisoning have been described. Many cases of volatile substance abuse in prison populations have been reported: drug-addicted inmates often resort to this alternative practice when unable to get their habitual drugs of abuse. A similar pattern occurs especially among adolescents. The study herein described was conducted including all cases of fatal acute intoxication of butane gas examined from 2007 to 2015 at the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the University of Genoa. In the absence of overt and specific macroscopic and histological findings indicating cause and pathological mechanism of death, we aimed to assess whether recent cardiac lesions were detectable by way of immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Specifically, fibronectin and troponin C expression in myocardial tissues were investigated in deaths from acute butane-gas poisoning so as to better define the underlying pathological mechanisms. IHC findings were indicative of hypoxic cardiac damage. In all cases, positivity to fibronectin and mildly to moderately reduced troponin C expression in cardiac muscle cells were immunohistochemically ascertained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Myocardial and pulmonary effects of aqueous oxygen with acute hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Corno, Antonio F; Boone, Yves; Mallabiabarrena, Iker; Augstburger, Monique; Tozzi, Piergiorgio; Ferrari, Enrico; von Segesser, Ludwig K

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate myocardial and pulmonary effects of aqueous oxygen (AO) delivered directly into the pulmonary circulation in acute hypoxia. Six calves (2 months old, 68.0 +/- 2.2 kg) after general anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and median sternotomy underwent total right heart bypass using fixed flow with continuous pressure and blood gas measurements in carotid and femoral arteries, left atrium, the coronary sinus and PA. Measurements of systemic and PA pressures and O2 saturations; myocardial O2 atrioventricular (AV) differences; and O2 extraction were made. After base line measurements, hypoxic ventilation reducing the mean arterial PO2 from 277 +/- 102 mm Hg to 47 +/- 4 mm Hg (p < 0.0005) was maintained for 30 minutes. Without changes in the hypoxic ventilation (mean arterial PO2 = 49 +/- 11 mm Hg) 3 ml/min of hyperbaric aqueous oxygen (AO = oxygen diluted in saline solution) was administered into the PA for 30 minutes. Pulmonary blood flow was maintained during the entire experiment (3.7 +/- 0.3 L/min). Hypoxic ventilation significantly raised (p < 0.05) the systolic (30 +/- 7 vs 21 +/- 4 mm Hg), diastolic (20 +/- 6 vs 12 +/- 3 mm Hg), and mean (23 +/- 7 vs 15 +/- 3 mm Hg) PA pressure; PA/systemic pressure ratio for systolic (0.37 +/- 0.08 vs 0.25 +/- 0.06) and mean (0.56 +/- 0.19 vs 0.29 +/- 0.11) pressures; and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (5.63 +/- 1.06 vs 3.53 +/- 0.75 U). Aqueous oxygen (AO) infusion significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the values obtained with hypoxic ventilation; systolic (23 +/- 5 vs 30 +/- 7 mm Hg), diastolic (11 +/- 4 vs 20 +/- 6 mm Hg), and mean (14 +/- 3 vs 23 +/- 7 mm Hg) PA pressure; PA/systemic pressure ratio for systolic (0.25 +/- 0.05 vs 0.37 +/- 0.08) and mean pressures (0.29 +/- 0.12 vs 0.56 +/- 0.19); and PVR (3.41 +/- 1.01 vs 5.63 +/- 1.06 U). AO infusion in the pulmonary circulation did not influence the myocardial O2 atrioventricular (AV) difference or the O2 extraction. Infusion of

  16. Safety of air travel following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Roby, Howard; Lee, Anna; Hopkins, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    initiated in one patient with chest pain that turned out to be non-ischemic when the Holter traces were later analyzed. This study suggests that, provided that care is taken during the immediate preflight and postflight phases not to overexert the patients, neither supplemental oxygen nor medical escorts are needed in the transportation of patients who fly 2 wk after acute myocardial infarction.

  17. Dexrazoxane Shows No Protective Effect in the Acute Phase of Reperfusion during Myocardial Infarction in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Pranitha; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Christen, Stephan; Bongoni, Anjan K; Meier, Bernhard; Rieben, Robert; Khattab, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and iron overload participate in the mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during myocardial infarction (MI). Calcium overload induces cardiomyocyte death by hypercontraction, while iron catalyses generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We therefore hypothesized that dexrazoxane, an intracellular metal chelator, would attenuate I/R injury. MI was induced in pigs by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 1 hour followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Thirty minutes before reperfusion either 5 mg/ml dexrazoxane (n = 5) or saline (n = 5) was infused intravenously. Myocardial necrosis as percentage of the area at ischemic risk was found to be similar in both groups (77.2 ± 18% for dexrazoxane and 76.4 ± 14% for saline group) as determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of the ischemic myocardium. Also, serum levels of troponin-I were similar in both groups. A conductance catheter was used to measure left ventricular pressure and volume at all times. Markers for tissue damage due to ROS (HNE), endothelial cell activation (CD31) and inflammation (IgG, C3b/c, C5b9, MCP-1) were assessed on tissue and/or in serum. No significant differences were observed between the groups for the parameters analyzed. To conclude, in this clinically relevant model of early reperfusion after acute myocardial ischemia, dexrazoxane lacked attenuating effects on I/R injury as shown by the measured parameters.

  18. Dexrazoxane Shows No Protective Effect in the Acute Phase of Reperfusion during Myocardial Infarction in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Pranitha; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Christen, Stephan; Bongoni, Anjan K.; Meier, Bernhard; Rieben, Robert; Khattab, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and iron overload participate in the mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during myocardial infarction (MI). Calcium overload induces cardiomyocyte death by hypercontraction, while iron catalyses generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We therefore hypothesized that dexrazoxane, an intracellular metal chelator, would attenuate I/R injury. MI was induced in pigs by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 1 hour followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Thirty minutes before reperfusion either 5 mg/ml dexrazoxane (n = 5) or saline (n = 5) was infused intravenously. Myocardial necrosis as percentage of the area at ischemic risk was found to be similar in both groups (77.2 ± 18% for dexrazoxane and 76.4 ± 14% for saline group) as determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of the ischemic myocardium. Also, serum levels of troponin-I were similar in both groups. A conductance catheter was used to measure left ventricular pressure and volume at all times. Markers for tissue damage due to ROS (HNE), endothelial cell activation (CD31) and inflammation (IgG, C3b/c, C5b9, MCP-1) were assessed on tissue and/or in serum. No significant differences were observed between the groups for the parameters analyzed. To conclude, in this clinically relevant model of early reperfusion after acute myocardial ischemia, dexrazoxane lacked attenuating effects on I/R injury as shown by the measured parameters. PMID:28002439

  19. Acute tuberculous myopericarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    REN, MANYI; ZHANG, CHUNSHENG; ZHANG, XIAOJUAN; ZHONG, JINGQUAN

    2016-01-01

    A number of cases of acute myopericarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have previously been reported in the literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, such a case resulting from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has not previously been described. The present study reports the case of a 21-year-old male patient presenting with acute chest pain, in whom focal ST-segment elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes mimicked a diagnosis of AMI. However, acute tuberculous myopericarditis was diagnosed on the basis of a variety of imaging examinations, laboratory tests, as well as the changes observed in electrocardiograms (ECGs) and in the cardiac enzyme levels. The case highlights the importance of a detailed collection of medical history, comprehensive explanations of serial ECGs, thoracic computed tomography, echocardiogram and coronary angiography in the diagnosis and differentiation of acute tuberculous myopericarditis mimicking AMI. PMID:27284323

  20. Use of copeptin for rapid rule-out of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christian; Möckel, Martin; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Huber, Kurt; Mair, Johannes; Plebani, Mario; Thygesen, Kristian; Jaffe, Allan S; Lindahl, Bertil

    2017-06-01

    Copeptin is currently understood as a quantitative marker of endogenous stress. It rises rapidly in multiple acute disorders including acute myocardial infarction. As a single variable, it has only modest diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction. However, the use of copeptin within a dual-marker strategy together with conventional cardiac troponin increases the diagnostic accuracy and particularly the negative predictive value of cardiac troponin alone for acute myocardial infarction. The rapid rule-out of acute myocardial infarction is the only application in acute cardiac care mature enough to merit consideration for routine clinical care. However, the dual-marker approach seems to provide only very small incremental value when used in combination with sensitive or high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays. This review aims to update and educate regarding the potential and the procedural details, as well as the caveats and challenges of using copeptin in clinical practice.

  1. Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Immune Thrombocytopenia Purpura: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Sandeep K; Lee, Edwin; Fox, John; Rachko, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is rare. We describe a case of AMI in patient with ITP. An 81-year-old woman presented with acute inferoposterior MI with low platelet count on admission (34,000/µl). Coronary angiography revealed significant mid right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis with thrombus, subsequently underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In some patients with immune thrombocytopenia purpura and acute myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention is a therapeutic option.

  2. A Case of an Acute Myocardial Infarction Post Thrombolytic Treatment of Ischemic Stroke - A Management Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Wagle, Kalyan; Yee, Jimmy; Kumar, Vishesh; Anuwatworn, Amornpol; Stys, Tomasz; Stys, Adam; Stanton, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Acute ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction are emergency clinical events that require prompt intervention. Concurrent occurrence of both events magnifies the complexity of the clinical management. We present a case of a patient who presented with acute ischemic stroke, complicated by acute myocardial infarction shortly after thrombolytic was administered. This case highlights the importance of individualization of management especially in complex cases where there are no clear specific guidelines to follow. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  3. QT dispersion and early arrhythmic risk during acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Paventi, S; Bevilacqua, U; Parafati, M A; Di Luzio, E; Rossi, F; Pelliccioni, P R

    1999-03-01

    It has been suggested that QT dispersion (maximal minus minimal QT interval calculated on a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram) could reflect regional variations of ventricular repolarization and could provide a substrate for reentry ventricular arrhythmias. The present study evaluates QT dispersion in patients with acute myocardial infarction, assessing its relation with early severe ventricular arrhythmias and some clinical features. Three hundred three patients with acute myocardial infarction and a control group of 297 healthy subjects were studied. QT and QTc dispersion were determined on the electrocardiogram taken after 12 hours and on days 3 and 10 after symptoms onset and on the electrocardiogram taken in the control group. The average values of QT and QTc dispersions (ms) were as follows: 70.5 +/- 42.5-87 +/- 45.6 (12th hour), 66.7 +/- 37.6-76.8 +/- 43.6 (day 3), 68.8 +/- 42.7-76.8 +/- 42.8 (day 10), versus 43 +/- 13.2-53.9 +/- 16.2 (control group). There were statistically significant differences between QT and QTc dispersion recorded in normal subjects and in each of the three electrocardiograms taken in patients with infarction. A greater QT dispersion was recorded in patients with anterior infarction (78.9 +/- 38.5 vs 64.9 +/- 42.8 in inferior/lateral infarction). In the first 3 days QT dispersion was not different in patients treated and untreated with thrombolysis, whereas on day 10 it was greater in untreated patients (74.9 +/- 45.3 vs 60.5 +/- 37.2). Creatine kinase peak level did not influence QT dispersion. In the first 72 hours of infarction, 37 patients developed ventricular fibrillation or sustained ventricular tachycardia. Higher early values of QT and QTc dispersion were found in patients who developed severe ventricular arrhythmias (107.8 +/- 62 and 124.8 +/- 67.5 ms) than in patients without serious arrhythmias (62.9 +/- 32.2 and 80.1 +/- 37.9 ms). These data suggest that: (1) QT dispersion increased during acute myocardial infarction. (2

  4. Association of heat shock protein 70 expression with rat myocardial cell damage during heat stress in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, H B; Zhang, X C; Cheng, Y F; Abdelnasir, A; Tang, S; Kemper, N; Hartung, J; Bao, E D

    2015-03-20

    To investigate the mechanism of sudden death as a result of stress-induced damage to heart tissue and myocardial cells and to investigate the cardioprotective role of Hsp70 during heat stress, the distribution and expression of Hsp70 was evaluated in the heart cells of heat-stressed rats in vivo and heat-stressed H9c2 cells in vitro. After exposure to heat stress at 42°C for different durations, we observed a significant induction of CK, CK-MB, and LDH as well as pathologic lesions characterized by acute degeneration, suggesting that cell damage occurs from the onset of heat stress. Immunocytochemistry showed that Hsp70 was distributed mainly in the cytoplasm of myocardial cells in vivo and in vitro. Hsp70-positive signals in the cytoplasm were more prominent in intact areas than in degenerated areas after 60 min of heat stress. Hsp70 protein levels in myocardial cells in vitro decreased from the beginning to the end of heat stress. Hsp70 protein levels in rat heart tissues in vivo decreased gradually with prolonged heat stress, with a slight increase at the beginning of heat stress. These results indicate that Hsp70 plays a role in the response of cardiac cells to heat stress and that decreased Hsp70 levels are associated with damage to rat myocardial cells in vitro and in vivo. Significant differences were found in hsp70 mRNA, which began to increase after 20 min of heat stress in vitro and after 40 min in vivo. This indicates that hysteresis is involved in mRNA expression after heat stress in vivo.

  5. Acute myocardial infarction: the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease and relation to risk factors.

    PubMed

    Manfroi, Waldomiro Carlos; Peukert, Carolina; Berti, Clarissa Bacha; Noer, Clarissa; Gutierres, Danielle de Avila; Silva, Felipe Theodoro Bezerra Gaspar Carvalho da

    2002-04-01

    To assess the association between cardiovascular risk factors and acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease, correlating them with coronary angiographic findings. We carried out a cross-sectional study of 104 patients with previous acute myocardial infarction, who were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of angina prior to acute myocardial infarction. We assessed the presence of angina preceding acute myocardial infarction and risk factors, such as age >55 years, male sex, smoking, systemic arterial hypertension, lipid profile, diabetes mellitus, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and familial history of ischemic heart disease. On coronary angiography, the severity of coronary heart disease and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy were assessed. Of the 104 patients studied, 72.1% were males, 90.4% were white, 73.1% were older than 55 years, and 53.8% were hypertensive. Acute myocardial infarction was the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease in 49% of the patients. The associated risk factors were systemic arterial hypertension (RR=0.19; 95% CI=0.06-0.59; P=0.04) and left ventricular hypertrophy (RR=0.27; 95% CI=0,.8-0.88; P=0.03). The remaining risk factors were not statistically significant. Prevalence of acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease is high, approximately 50%. Hypertensive individuals more frequently have symptoms preceding acute myocardial infarction, probably due to ventricular hypertrophy associated with high blood pressure levels.

  6. Edema is a sign of early acute myocardial infarction on post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Thomas D; Ebert, Lars C; Khattab, Ahmed A; Rieben, Robert; Thali, Michael J; Kamat, Pranitha

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if acute myocardial infarction can be detected by post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMMR) at an earlier stage than by traditional autopsy, i.e., within less than 4 h after onset of ischemia; and if so, to determine the characteristics of PMMR findings in early acute infarcts. Twenty-one ex vivo porcine hearts with acute myocardial infarction underwent T2-weighted cardiac PMMR imaging within 3 h of onset of iatrogenic ischemia. PMMR imaging findings were compared to macroscopic findings. Myocardial edema induced by ischemia and reperfusion was visible on PMMR in all cases. Typical findings of early acute ischemic injury on PMMR consist of a central zone of intermediate signal intensity bordered by a rim of increased signal intensity. Myocardial edema can be detected on cardiac PMMR within the first 3 h after the onset of ischemia in porcine hearts. The size of myocardial edema reflects the area of ischemic injury in early acute (per-acute) myocardial infarction. This study provides evidence that cardiac PMMR is able to detect acute myocardial infarcts at an earlier stage than traditional autopsy and routine histology.

  7. L-carnitine for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dinicolantonio, James J; Niazi, Asfandyar K; McCarty, Mark F; Lavie, Carl J; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; O'Keefe, James H

    2014-01-01

    Although the therapeutic strategies available for treating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have evolved dramatically in recent decades, coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of death in our society, and the rates of recurrent myocardial infarction and mortality are still unacceptably high. Therefore, exploration of alternative therapeutic strategies for AMI is of utmost importance. One such strategy is to target metabolic pathways via L-carnitine supplementation. L-carnitine is a physiologically essential metabolic cofactor that has been shown to provide a plethora of benefits when administered after AMI. L-carnitine has been shown to lessen infarct size, to reduce ventricular arrhythmias, left ventricular dilation, and heart failure incidence, as well as improve survival. These benefits may, in part, be related to its ability to boost glucose oxidation in ischemic tissues, while moderating increases in fatty acyl-coenzyme A levels that can impair mitochondrial efficiency and promote oxidative stress and inflammation. This article summarizes the evidence pertinent to the therapeutic use of L-carnitine for AMI.

  8. Cardiac Rehabilitation After Acute Myocardial Infarction Resuscitated From Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul; Choi, Hee Eun; Kang, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety and effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation on patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction. Methods The study included 23 subjects, including 8 with history of cardiac arrest and 15 without history of cardiac arrest. Both groups underwent initial graded exercise test (GXT) and subsequent cardiac rehabilitation for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, both groups received follow-up GXT. Results Statistically significant (p<0.05) increase of VO2peak and maximal MVO2 but significant (p<0.05) decrease of submaximal MVO2 and resting heart rate were observed in both groups after 6 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation. An increasing trend of maximal heart rates was observed in both groups. However, the increase was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant change of resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal MVO2, or submaximal MVO2 in both groups after cardiac rehabilitation. Fatal cardiac complications, such as abnormal ECG, cardiac arrest, death or myocardial infarction, were not observed. All subjects finished the cardiac rehabilitation program. Conclusion Improvement was observed in the exercise capacity of patients after aerobic exercise throughout the cardiac rehabilitation program. Therefore, cardiac rehabilitation can be safely administered for high-risk patients with history of cardiac arrest. Similar improvement in exercise capacity can be expected in patients without cardiac arrest experience. PMID:25566479

  9. Sequential thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy after acute infarction in man

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.W.; Mueller, H.S.; Rao, P.S.

    1980-07-01

    Three sequential Tl-201 myocardial perfusion studies were performed in 21 patients (18 men, 3 women) with first acute transmural myocardia infarction. The Tl-201 image defect size was determined with a semiquantitative visual scoring method and temporal changes in image defect size were compared to CK-MB infarct size and enzymatic evidence of progressive myocardial necrosis and infarct extension. Progressive decreases in Tl-201 image defect size were observed and the visual score in all 21 patients decreased significantly from 6.5 +- 3.7 (mean +- SD) on day 1 to 4.9 +- 3.5 on day 12. Eleven patients without evidence of infarct extension had significantly lower infarct size, a significant decrease in visual score by the 12th day and had significantly smaller Tl-201 defects at all three study times compared to 10 patients with infarct extension. Seven of 10 (70%) with extension had an initial visual score greater than or equal to 7 compared to only 2/11 (18%) without extension. The temporal behavior of Tl-201 image defects is related to the size of the infarction and presence or absence of extension. Sequential studies comparing early initial and subsequent defect size may assist in evaluating the behavior of ischemic and infarcted myocardium in the postinfarction period.

  10. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Fernando; Brucker, Natália; Durgante, Juliano; Bubols, Guilherme; Bulcão, Rachel; Moro, Angela; Charão, Mariele; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Sauer, Elisa; Zimmer, Marcelo; Thiesen, Flávia; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo; Garcia, Solange C.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and exogenous antioxidants) and the inflammatory biomarker (hs-CRP) were analyzed. 1-OHP levels were increased in post-infarct patients compared to controls (p < 0.05) and were correlated to MDA (r = 0.426, p < 0.01), CAT (r = 0.474, p < 0.001) and β-carotene (r = −0.309; p < 0.05) in non-smokers. Furthermore, post-infarction patients had elevated hs-CRP, MDA, CAT and GPx levels compared to controls for both smokers and non-smokers. Besides, β-carotene levels and SOD activity were decreased in post-infarction patients. In summary, our findings indicate that the exposure to pyrenes was associated to lipid damage and alterations of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, demonstrating that PAHs contribute to oxidative stress and are associated to acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25257356

  11. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Fernando; Brucker, Natália; Durgante, Juliano; Bubols, Guilherme; Bulcão, Rachel; Moro, Angela; Charão, Mariele; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Sauer, Elisa; Zimmer, Marcelo; Thiesen, Flávia; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-09-01

    Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and exogenous antioxidants) and the inflammatory biomarker (hs-CRP) were analyzed. 1-OHP levels were increased in post-infarct patients compared to controls (p < 0.05) and were correlated to MDA (r = 0.426, p < 0.01), CAT (r = 0.474, p < 0.001) and β-carotene (r = -0.309; p < 0.05) in non-smokers. Furthermore, post-infarction patients had elevated hs-CRP, MDA, CAT and GPx levels compared to controls for both smokers and non-smokers. Besides, β-carotene levels and SOD activity were decreased in post-infarction patients. In summary, our findings indicate that the exposure to pyrenes was associated to lipid damage and alterations of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, demonstrating that PAHs contribute to oxidative stress and are associated to acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Weng, Guo-Xing; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapidly non-invasive technique with great potential for biomedical research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on two groups of saliva samples: one group from patients (n=30) with confirmed AMI and the other group from healthy controls (n=31). The diagnostic performance for differentiating AMI saliva from normal saliva was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) of the measured Raman spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps, rendering the sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 80.6%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy of human saliva can serve as a potentially clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  13. [Effect of mexicor on oxidative stress in acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Golikov, A P; Davydov, B V; Rudnev, D V; Klychnikova, E V; Bykova, N S; Riabinin, V A; Polumiskov, V Iu; Nikolaeva, N Iu; Golikov, P P

    2005-01-01

    Mexicor (5% solution and capsules) was used in 40 of 80 conventionally treated patients with acute myocardial infarction. The drug was given intravenously for 5 days, than intramuscularly (6-9 mg/kg) for 9 days and orally (0.1 mg t.i.d.) thereafter until discharge. Severity of oxidative stress was evaluated by K coefficient. Calculation of this coefficient required data on degree of oxidation of lipids in blood serum, serum levels of diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin. These parameters as well as activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in erythrocytes were measured at admission, on days 2, 3, 7, 14 and at discharge. Mexicor treated compared with untreated (n=40) patients were characterized by diminished severity of oxidative stress at the account of lower levels of lipid peroxidation products and augmented compensatory potential of the endogenous antioxidant system.

  14. Climate and environmental triggers of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Claeys, Marc J; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Nawrot, Tim S; Brook, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Over the past few decades, a growing body of epidemiological and clinical evidence has led to heightened concerns about the potential short- and long-term deleterious effects of the environment on cardiovascular health, including the risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This review highlights the increased risk of AMI caused by exposure to air pollution and cold temperatures. These factors should be considered modifiable risk factors in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The current body of knowledge about the biological mechanisms linking environmental changes to atherothrombotic events and the impact of climate change on cardiovascular health are discussed. Finally, recommendations for prevention and public policy are presented. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction with mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yan; Zeng, Qing-Chun; Huang, Ying; Li, Jian-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Current evidences suggest that revascularization of the culprit vessels with percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting can be beneficial for relieving IMR. A 2.5-year follow-up data of a 61-year-old male patient with ST-segment elevation AMI complicated with IMR showed that mitral regurgitation area increased five days after PCI, and decreased to lower steady level three months after PCI. This finding suggest that three months after PCI might be a suitable time point for evaluating the possibility of IMR recovery and the necessity of surgical intervention of the mitral valve for AMI patient. PMID:27582769

  16. Maximizing the benefits of thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, J; Armstrong, P W; Belenkie, I; Hirsh, J; Johnstone, D E; Knudtson, M; Lemieux, M; Massel, D; Naylor, C D; Roy, L

    1995-01-01

    Thrombolytic therapy is a huge advance in the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results of large clinical trials over the past 9 years have unequivocally demonstrated its benefit: of every 1000 patients treated 30 will be saved, at a cost of two cases of nonfatal cerebral hemorrhage and seven of noncerebral major hemorrhage. The concurrent use of acetylsalicylic acid increases the benefit of thrombolytic therapy. Sales figures for thrombolytic agents indicate that their use in Canada is less than optimal and lags behind that in several European countries. Major educational efforts are needed to promote awareness of the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy and of optimal approaches for maximizing its potential benefit for patients with AMI. PMID:7697574

  17. Deciding to Seek Emergency Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Noureddine, Samar; Dumit, Nuhad Y; Saab, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore how patients who experience acute myocardial infarction (AMI) decide to seek emergency care. Fifty patients with AMI were interviewed at two hospitals in Lebanon. The perspective of 22 witnesses of the attack was also sought about the cardiac event. The themes that transpired from the data were as follows: making sense of the symptoms, waiting to see what happens, deciding to come to the hospital, and the family influenced the decision to seek care. The witnesses of the cardiac event, mostly family members, supported the decision to seek emergency care. Deciding to seek emergency care for AMI is complex. Nurses must solicit their patients' perception of the cardiac event to provide them with tailored education and counseling about heart attack symptoms and how to respond to them in case they recur. Family members must be included in the education process.

  18. Congenital absence of the pericardium presenting as acute myocardial necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Brulotte, Steeve; Roy, Louis; Larose, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Congenital absence of the pericardium is a rare defect of which recognition is critical because it can be associated with catastrophic outcomes. While some carriers of this condition may present with a lethal complication, most are asymptomatic, and the defect is found incidentally. The case of a 49-year-old woman is described who presented with acute myocardial necrosis and absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, and in whom a complete left pericardial defect was found. An investigation was undertaken to determine the role of the defect in this patient’s presentation and to recommend the best possible therapy. Finally, a review of literature focusing on congenital absence of the pericardium, as well as a discussion of clinical presentation, imaging techniques and therapeutic options, is also presented. PMID:17876387

  19. A case of acute myocardial infarction during 5-fluorouracil infusion.

    PubMed

    Canale, Maria Laura; Camerini, Andrea; Stroppa, Stefano; Porta, Romana Prosperi; Caravelli, Paolo; Mariani, Mario; Balbarini, Alberto; Ricci, Sergio

    2006-11-01

    Cardiac toxicity is an uncommon side-effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment, consisting mainly of chest pain episodes with or without electrocardiographic changes and dysrhythmias. Here, we describe the case of a 56-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of advanced colorectal cancer who developed an acute myocardial infarction during 5-FU infusion. The patient was not affected by prior heart disease and did not show any classic risk factors for coronary heart disease. Coronary angiography examination revealed no evidence of coronary stenosis, supporting the hypothesis of a coronary artery spasm related to 5-FU infusion. Given the great number of cancer patients receiving 5-FU containing chemotherapeutic regimens, this rare but severe cardiac side-effect may be observed in both cardiologic and oncologic clinical practice. We suggest a tight clinical monitoring of all patients receiving 5-FU infusions, even in those without a prior history of heart disease.

  20. Acute myocardial infarction as a finding of acute promyelocytic leukemia-related coagulation disorder.

    PubMed

    Özkurt, Zübeyde N; Aypar, Eda; Sarifakiogullari, Serpil; Taçoy, Gülten; Özdag, Murat; Kahraman, Seda; Çengel, Atiye

    2015-12-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has one of the most favorable prognoses among other leukemia subtypes. However, the major cause of mortality in APL is disseminated intravascular coagulation at the presentation. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction (MI) at the time of APL diagnosis before treatment. The patient suffered from chest pain, sweating and giddiness. He was hypoxic, hypotensive and bradycardic. ECG showed inferior MI. Unfractioned heparin infusion (850 U/h) was started and 5 min after the previous ECG showed total ST resolution. We suggest that in this case, MI was not related to atherosclerotic plaque rupture but related to DIC manifestation.

  1. Effect of initial temperature changes on myocardial enzyme levels and cardiac function in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yuanyu; Liu, Jie; Ma, Jinling; Meng, Qingyi; Peng, Chaoying

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of initial body temperature changes on myocardial enzyme levels and cardiac function in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients was investigated. A total of 315 AMI patients were enrolled and the mean temperature was calculated based on their body temperature within 24 h of admission to hospital. The patients were divided into four groups according to their normal body temperature: Group A, <36.5°C; group B, ≥36.5°C and <37.0°C; group C, ≥37.0°C and <37.5°C and group D, ≥37.5°C. The levels of percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial enzymes and troponin T (TNT), as well as cardiac ultrasound images, were analyzed. Statistically significant differences in the quantity of creatine kinase at 12 and 24 h following admission were identified between group A and groups C and D (P<0.01). A significant difference in TNT at 12 h following admission was observed between groups A and D (P<0.05), however, this difference was not observed with groups B and C. The difference in TNT between the groups at 24 h following admission was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Significant differences in lactate dehydrogenase at 12 and 24 h following admission were observed between groups A and D (P<0.05), however, differences were not observed with groups B and C (P>0.05). Significant differences in glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase at 12 and 24 h following admission were observed between groups A and D (P<0.05), however, differences were not observed in groups B and C (P>0.05). However, no significant differences were identified in cardiac function index between all the groups. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that AMI patients with low initial body temperatures exhibited decreased levels of myocardial enzymes and TNT. Thus, the observation of an initially low body temperature may be used as a protective factor for AMI and may improve the existing clinical program.

  2. Acute nonrheumatic streptococcal myocarditis resembling ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction in a young patient

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Margarita; Porres-Aguilar, Mateo; Olivas-Chacon, Cristina; Porres-Muñoz, Mateo; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Taveras, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocarditis can be induced by various concomitant disease processes including infections. Most of these cases are viral in origin; however, bacterial infections are also implicated to a lesser degree. Group A streptococcus is a frequent culprit in bacterial-induced myocarditis. Its diagnosis is suspected by the presence of signs and symptoms of rheumatic fever as established by the Jones criteria. The development and refinement of current diagnostic tools has improved our ability to identify specific pathogens. It has been found that group A streptococcus may be responsible for more cases of infection-induced acute myocarditis than previously thought, and often without the clinical features of rheumatic fever. We present the case of a 43-year-old man hospitalized with chest pain that was initially diagnosed as an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Further evaluation confirmed that his chief complaint was due to acute nonrheumatic streptococcal myocarditis. PMID:25829649

  3. Acute nonrheumatic streptococcal myocarditis resembling ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Jose L; Jurado, Margarita; Porres-Aguilar, Mateo; Olivas-Chacon, Cristina; Porres-Muñoz, Mateo; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Taveras, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Acute myocarditis can be induced by various concomitant disease processes including infections. Most of these cases are viral in origin; however, bacterial infections are also implicated to a lesser degree. Group A streptococcus is a frequent culprit in bacterial-induced myocarditis. Its diagnosis is suspected by the presence of signs and symptoms of rheumatic fever as established by the Jones criteria. The development and refinement of current diagnostic tools has improved our ability to identify specific pathogens. It has been found that group A streptococcus may be responsible for more cases of infection-induced acute myocarditis than previously thought, and often without the clinical features of rheumatic fever. We present the case of a 43-year-old man hospitalized with chest pain that was initially diagnosed as an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Further evaluation confirmed that his chief complaint was due to acute nonrheumatic streptococcal myocarditis.

  4. The role of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate in myocardial imaging to recognize, localize and identify extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willerson, J. T.; Parkey, R. W.; Bonte, F. J.; Stokely, E. M.; Buja, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams to aid diagnostically in recognizing, localizing, and identifying extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients was evaluated. The present study is an extension of previous animal and patient evaluations that were recently performed utilizing this myocardial imaging agent.

  5. The role of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate in myocardial imaging to recognize, localize and identify extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willerson, J. T.; Parkey, R. W.; Bonte, F. J.; Stokely, E. M.; Buja, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams to aid diagnostically in recognizing, localizing, and identifying extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients was evaluated. The present study is an extension of previous animal and patient evaluations that were recently performed utilizing this myocardial imaging agent.

  6. Cardiac troponin I: A potent biomarker for myocardial damage assessment following high voltage electric burn

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Arindam; Chhabra, Chandra B.; Chamania, Shobha; Hemvani, Nanda; Chitnis, Dhananjay S.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) following high voltage electric burn is very rare, and its pathogenesis remains controversial. Electrical burns represent only 4% of all burns. Hence, clinical managements have taken a slow pace in developing. The recent guidelines laid down by the cardiology societies include cardiac troponin I (cTnI) as the gold standard marker for the assessment of myocardial damage assessment. Two patients were admitted to our hospital at the different time with the same kind of high voltage electric burn. Both patients had complained with chest discomfort during admission, and cardiac parameter assessment was done for both the patients. cTnI was also measured for both patients, and marked increase in the values was seen within 5 h of onset of myocardial damage and got into normal range within 72 h. Myocardial damage following electric burn needs to be suspected and assessed as early as possible. Hence, cTnI should be the valuable tool to detect the severity of myocardial damage incurred in the electric burn cases. PMID:28216824

  7. The treatment of acute myocardial infarction: the Past, the Present, and the Future.

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2012-04-01

    Since Herrick's description of the clinical picture of acute myocardial infarction exactly one century ago (1912), there have been three phases of therapy: Phase 1 (1912-1961, bed rest and 'expectant' treatment); Phase 2 (1961-1974, the coronary care unit); and Phase 3 (1975-present, myocardial reperfusion). We are now on the cusp of Phase 4, which comprises efforts to reduce myocardial perfusion injury as well as regenerative medicine.

  8. Study of CK-MB activity in patients with acute myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Emukhvari, N M; Tsetsekhladze, E D; Khijakadze, Kh A; Mamatsashvili, I O; Napetvaridze, R G

    2015-02-01

    The research has been carried out in patients of TSMU Cardiovascular Department of A.Aladashvili University Clinic. 105 patients with acute myocardial infarction have been involved in the study, wich undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). For several years coronary angioplasty has been proposed to be an effective method, but in spite of its well developed technique, probability of myocardial injury is still high which appears to have no clinical or electrocardiographic manifestations and is diagnosed only by elevation of cardiac marker level. According to our study data after successful PCI elevation of CK-MB mass was observed in 34.4% patients, majority of those patients had STEMI. In II group the age of patients was higher compared to I group. There were more patients with diabetes mellitus (38.8%), dyslipidemia (86.1%) and patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (50%). Also there were more patients with previous MI and damage of 3 coronary arteries. Hence age, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, number of damaged coronaries might be considered as predictors of CK-MB elevation after successful PCI. Solid elevation of CK-MB after procedure was also associated with increased hospital complications rate, 30-day and 6 months hospitalization rate and 6 months mortality rate. It should be noted that from 36 patients who developed solid (24 h) elevation of CK-MB after PCI CK-MB mass was increased in all cases, while the concentration was elevated only in 16 cases. It proves that CK-MB mass is more significant criteria of myocardial injury.

  9. Rhabdomyolysis and myocardial damage induced by palytoxin, a toxin of blue humphead parrotfish.

    PubMed

    Okano, H; Masuoka, H; Kamei, S; Seko, T; Koyabu, S; Tsuneoka, K; Tamai, T; Ueda, K; Nakazawa, S; Sugawa, M; Suzuki, H; Watanabe, M; Yatani, R; Nakano, T

    1998-03-01

    A 55-year-old man had rhabdomyolysis and myocardial damage induced by palytoxin. Weakness and myalgia of four extremities occurred five hours after eating a fish. Rhabdomyolysis developed and the serum creatine phosphokinase (CK) was elevated to 40,000 IU/l on the 3rd day. Gastric lavage with activated charcoal and forced mannitol-alkaline diuresis therapy were performed. The patient recovered with no complication such as renal failure. In this case, palytoxin was suggested to induce myocardial damage which was demonstrated by an elevation of the myosin light chain level and a change in electrocardiogram.

  10. Blood PGC-1α Concentration Predicts Myocardial Salvage and Ventricular Remodeling After ST-segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Fabregat-Andrés, Óscar; Ridocci-Soriano, Francisco; Estornell-Erill, Jordi; Corbí-Pascual, Miguel; Valle-Muñoz, Alfonso; Berenguer-Jofresa, Alberto; Barrabés, José A; Mata, Manuel; Monsalve, María

    2015-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a metabolic regulator induced during ischemia that prevents cardiac remodeling in animal models. The activity of PGC-1α can be estimated in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the value of blood PGC-1α levels in predicting the extent of necrosis and ventricular remodeling after infarction. In this prospective study of 31 patients with a first myocardial infarction in an anterior location and successful reperfusion, PGC-1α expression in peripheral blood on admission and at 72 hours was correlated with myocardial injury, ventricular volume, and systolic function at 6 months. Edema and myocardial necrosis were estimated using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging during the first week. At 6 months, infarct size and ventricular remodeling, defined as an increase > 10% of the left ventricular end-diastolic volume, was evaluated by follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. Myocardial salvage was defined as the difference between the edema and necrosis areas. Greater myocardial salvage was seen in patients with detectable PGC-1α levels at admission (mean [standard deviation (SD)], 18.3% [5.3%] vs 4.5% [3.9%]; P = .04). Induction of PGC-1α at 72 hours correlated with greater ventricular remodeling (change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume at 6 months, 29.7% [11.2%] vs 1.2% [5.8%]; P = .04). Baseline PGC-1α expression and an attenuated systemic response after acute myocardial infarction are associated with greater myocardial salvage and predict less ventricular remodeling. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with unstable angina: comparison with acute myocardial infarction and normals

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, M.; Johnson, R.F. Jr.; Fawcett, H.D.; Schreiber, M.H.

    1988-09-01

    The role of magnetic resonance imaging in characterizing normal, ischemic and infarcted segments of myocardium was examined in 8 patients with unstable angina, 11 patients with acute myocardial infarction, and 7 patients with stable angina. Eleven normal volunteers were imaged for comparison. Myocardial segments in short axis magnetic resonance images were classified as normal or abnormal on the basis of perfusion changes observed in thallium-201 images in 22 patients and according to the electrocariographic localization of infarction in 4 patients. T2 relaxation time was measured in 57 myocardial segments with abnormal perfusion (24 with reversible and 33 with irreversible perfusion changes) and in 25 normally perfused segments. T2 measurements in normally perfused segments of patients with acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina and stable angina were within normal range derived from T2 measurements in 48 myocardial segments of 11 normal volunteers (42 +/- 10 ms). T2 in abnormal myocardial segments of patients with stable angina also was not significantly different from normal. T2 of abnormal segments in patients with unstable angina (64 +/- 14 in reversibly ischemic and 67 +/- 21 in the irreversibly ischemic segments) was prolonged when compared to normal (p less than 0.0001) and was not significantly different from T2 in abnormal segments of patients with acute myocardial infarction (62 +/- 18 for reversibly and 66 +/- 11 for irreversibly ischemic segments). The data indicate that T2 prolongation is not specific for acute myocardial infarction and may be observed in abnormally perfused segments of patients with unstable angina.

  12. [The content of selen in blood plasma in patients with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Radchenko, E N; Nizov, A A; Ivanova, A Yu; Sidorova, Yu S

    2015-01-01

    The level of blood plasma selenium was analyzed by microfluorimetric method in in-patients and out-patients with acute coronary syndrome with ST-elevation resulting in acute Q-wave myocardial infarction. 72 patients, 40-75 years old, with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction were followed during a month. The initial decreased concentration of blood plasma selenium was recorded in most patients in the acute period of the myocardial infarction: deficiency of the microelement (< 90 mcg/l) was found in 30 subjects, the critical ranges (< 70 mcg/l) were stated in 33 patients. Just 2 patients had optimal concentration and 7 patients had a suboptimal one (90-114 mcg/l). Blood plasma level of the microelement increased in 2 weeks after myocardial infarction (in subacute stage) but it was still within deficient or critical levels. No difference was detected in selen concentration depending on gender, age, location on myocardial infarction, accompanying diseases, presence of some risk factors (smoking, alcohol abuse, hereditary predisposition to coronary artery disease). At the same time we revealed a significant Spearman rank correlation in patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction between basal level of blood serum selenium on the one hand, and electrocardiography indices (reflecting the rate of myocardial lesion and necrosis), echocardiography. data (which characterize myocardium reparation processes and remodeling), CPK (a prognostic marker of the myocardial necrosis), HDL-cholesterol (lipid profile index), blood potassium level and BMI on the other.

  13. Quality indicators for acute myocardial infarction: A position paper of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Francois; Gale, Chris P; Bonnefoy, Eric; Capuano, Frederic; Claeys, Marc J; Danchin, Nicolas; Fox, Keith Aa; Huber, Kurt; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Lettino, Maddalena; Quinn, Tom; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Bøtker, Hans E; Swahn, Eva; Timmis, Adam; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zeymer, Uwe; Bueno, Hector

    2017-02-01

    Evaluation of quality of care is an integral part of modern healthcare, and has become an indispensable tool for health authorities, the public, the press and patients. However, measuring quality of care is difficult, because it is a multifactorial and multidimensional concept that cannot be estimated solely on the basis of patients' clinical outcomes. Thus, measuring the process of care through quality indicators (QIs) has become a widely used practice in this context. Other professional societies have published QIs for the evaluation of quality of care in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but no such indicators exist in Europe. In this context, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) has reflected on the measurement of quality of care in the context of AMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)) and created a set of QIs, with a view to developing programmes to improve quality of care for the management of AMI across Europe. We present here the list of QIs defined by the ACCA, with explanations of the methodology used, scientific justification and reasons for the choice for each measure.

  14. Brain death provokes very acute alteration in myocardial morphology detected by echocardiography: preventive effect of beta-blockers.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, René; Hadour, Guylaine; Tamion, Fabienne; Henry, Jean-Paul; Mulder, Paul; Richard, Vincent; Thuillez, Christian; Ovize, Michel; Derumeaux, Geneviève

    2011-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate immediate acute changes in myocardial function during the autonomic storm of brain death (BD). Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8/group): controls without any treatment, β-blocker (Esmolol®, 10 mg/kg), calcium channel blocker (Diltiazem®, 10 mg/kg), or alpha-blocker (Prazosin®, 0.3 mg/kg). Treatments were administered intravenously 5 min before BD induction. Echocardiography (ATL-5000, 8 MHz) was performed to measure left ventricular (LV) dimensions and fractional shortening at baseline, during BD induction and 5 min and 15 min after BD. In controls, BD was immediately associated with an increase in wall thickness and a decrease in LV cavity dimension. This myocardial wall hypertrophy was completely prevented by β-blockers, but not with calcium- and alpha-blockers. Extensive myocardial interstitial edema was found in all groups, except in the β-blocker group. Myocardial wall hypertrophy was also prevented during a longer follow-up of 180 min after BD in β-blocker group as opposed to controls. In conclusion, BD is associated with an immediate and severe myocardial damage related to an important interstitial edema which is prevented by β-blockers.

  15. Myocardial Extracellular Volume Estimation by CMR Predicts Functional Recovery Following Acute MI.

    PubMed

    Kidambi, Ananth; Motwani, Manish; Uddin, Akhlaque; Ripley, David P; McDiarmid, Adam K; Swoboda, Peter P; Broadbent, David A; Musa, Tarique Al; Erhayiem, Bara; Leader, Joshua; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; Greenwood, John P; Plein, Sven

    2017-09-01

    In the setting of reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the authors sought to compare prediction of contractile recovery by infarct extracellular volume (ECV), as measured by T1-mapping cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) transmural extent. The transmural extent of myocardial infarction as assessed by LGE CMR is a strong predictor of functional recovery, but accuracy of the technique may be reduced in AMI. ECV mapping by CMR can provide a continuous measure associated with the severity of tissue damage within infarcted myocardium. Thirty-nine patients underwent acute (day 2) and convalescent (3 months) CMR scans following AMI. Cine imaging, tissue tagging, T2-weighted imaging, modified Look-Locker inversion T1 mapping natively and 15 min post-gadolinium-contrast administration, and LGE imaging were performed. The ability of acute infarct ECV and acute transmural extent of LGE to predict convalescent wall motion, ejection fraction (EF), and strain were compared per-segment and per-patient. Per-segment, acute ECV and LGE transmural extent were associated with convalescent wall motion score (p < 0.01; p < 0.01, respectively). ECV had higher accuracy than LGE extent to predict improved wall motion (area under receiver-operating characteristics curve 0.77 vs. 0.66; p = 0.02). Infarct ECV ≤0.5 had sensitivity 81% and specificity 65% for prediction of improvement in segmental function; LGE transmural extent ≤0.5 had sensitivity 61% and specificity 71%. Per-patient, ECV and LGE correlated with convalescent wall motion score (r = 0.45; p < 0.01; r = 0.41; p = 0.02, respectively) and convalescent EF (p < 0.01; p = 0.04). ECV and LGE extent were not significantly correlated (r = 0.34; p = 0.07). In multivariable linear regression analysis, acute infarct ECV was independently associated with convalescent infarct strain and EF (p = 0.03; p = 0.04), whereas LGE was not (p = 0.29; p = 0.24). Acute infarct ECV

  16. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Life Expectancy After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bucholz, Emily M.; Ma, Shuangge; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have been unable to disentangle the negative associations of black race and low socioeconomic status (SES) with long-term outcomes of patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Such information could assist in efforts to address both racial and socioeconomic disparities. Methods and Results We used data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a prospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with AMI with 17-years of follow-up, to evaluate the relationship between race, area-level SES (measured by ZIP code level median household income), and life expectancy after AMI. Life expectancy was estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression with extrapolation using exponential models. Of the 141,095 patients with AMI, 6.3% were black and 6.8% resided in low SES areas; 26% of black patients lived in low SES areas compared with 5.7% of white patients. Post-myocardial infarction life expectancy estimates were shorter for black than white patients across all socioeconomic levels in patients ≤75 years of age. After adjustment for patient and treatment characteristics, the association between race and life expectancy persisted but was attenuated. Younger black patients (<68 years) had shorter life expectancies than white patients whereas older black patients had longer life expectancies. The largest white-black gap in life expectancy occurred in patients residing in high and medium SES areas (p=0.02 interaction). Conclusions Black and white patients residing in low SES areas have similar life expectancies after AMI, which are lower than those living in higher SES areas. Racial disparities were most prominent among patients living in high SES areas. PMID:26369354

  17. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Life Expectancy After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Bucholz, Emily M; Ma, Shuangge; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-10-06

    Previous studies have been unable to disentangle the negative associations of black race and low socioeconomic status (SES) with long-term outcomes of patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Such information could assist in efforts to address both racial and socioeconomic disparities. We used data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a prospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with AMI with 17 years of follow-up, to evaluate the relationship between race, area-level SES (measured by zip code-level median household income), and life expectancy after AMI. Life expectancy was estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression with extrapolation using exponential models. Of the 141 095 patients with AMI, 6.3% were black and 6.8% resided in low-SES areas; 26% of black patients lived in low-SES areas in comparison with 5.7% of white patients. Post-myocardial infarction life expectancy estimates were shorter for black patients than for white patients across all socioeconomic levels in patients ≤ 75 years of age. After adjustment for patient and treatment characteristics, the association between race and life expectancy persisted but was attenuated. Younger black patients (<68 years) had shorter life expectancies than white patients, whereas older black patients had longer life expectancies. The largest white-black gap in life expectancy occurred in patients residing in high- and medium-SES areas (P=0.02 interaction). Black and white patients residing in low-SES areas have similar life expectancies after AMI, which are lower than those living in higher-SES areas. Racial disparities were most prominent among patients living in high-SES areas. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Left ventricular muscle and fluid mechanics in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nucifora, Gaetano; Delgado, Victoria; Bertini, Matteo; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Van de Veire, Nico R; Ng, Arnold C T; Siebelink, Hans-Marc J; Schalij, Martin J; Holman, Eduard R; Sengupta, Partho P; Bax, Jeroen J

    2010-11-15

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic filling is characterized by the formation of intraventricular rotational bodies of fluid (termed "vortex rings") that optimize the efficiency of LV ejection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphology and dynamics of LV diastolic vortex ring formation early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in relation to LV diastolic function and infarct size. A total of 94 patients with a first ST-segment elevation AMI (59 ± 11 years; 78% men) were included. All patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. After 48 hours, the following examinations were performed: 2-dimensional echocardiography with speckle-tracking analysis to assess the LV systolic and diastolic function, the vortex formation time (VFT, a dimensionless index for characterizing vortex formation), and the LV untwisting rate; contrast echocardiography to assess LV vortex morphology; and myocardial contrast echocardiography to identify the infarct size. Patients with a large infarct size (≥ 3 LV segments) had a significantly lower VFT (p <0.001) and vortex sphericity index (p <0.001). On univariate analysis, several variables were significantly related to the VFT, including anterior AMI, LV end-systolic volume, LV ejection fraction, grade of diastolic dysfunction, LV untwisting rate, and infarct size. On multivariate analysis, the LV untwisting rate (β = -0.43, p <0.001) and infarct size (β = -0.33, p = 0.005) were independently associated with VFT. In conclusion, early in AMI, both the LV infarct size and the mechanical sequence of diastolic restoration play key roles in modulating the morphology and dynamics of early diastolic vortex ring formation.

  19. New-onset atrial fibrillation after acute myocardial infarction and its relation to admission biomarkers (from the TRIUMPH registry).

    PubMed

    Parashar, Susmita; Kella, Danesh; Reid, Kimberly J; Spertus, John A; Tang, Fengming; Langberg, Jonathan; Vaccarino, Viola; Kontos, Michael C; Lopes, Renato D; Lloyd, Michael S

    2013-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an independent predictor of mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We analyzed the relation between biomarkers linked to myocardial stretch (NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]), myocardial damage (Troponin-T [TnT]), and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) and new-onset AF during AMI to identify patients at high risk for AF. In a prospective multicenter registry of AMI patients (from the Translational Research Investigating Underlying disparities in recovery from acute Myocardial infarction: Patients' Health status registry), we measured NT-proBNP, TnT, and hs-CRP in patients without a history of AF (n = 2,370). New-onset AF was defined as AF that occurred during the index hospitalization. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the association of biomarkers with new-onset AF, after adjusting for other covariates. New-onset AF was documented in 114 patients with AMI (4.8%; mean age 58 years; 32% women). For each twofold increase in NT-proBNP, there was an 18% increase in the rate of AF (odds ratio [OR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 1.35; p <0.02). Similarly, for every twofold increase in hs-CRP, there was a 15% increase in the rate of AF (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.30; p = 0.02). TnT was not independently associated with new-onset AF (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07; p = 0.3). NT-proBNP and hs-CRP were independently associated with new in-hospital AF after MI, in both men and women, irrespective of race. Our study suggests that markers of myocardial stretch and inflammation, but not the amount of myocardial necrosis, are important determinants of AF in the setting of AMI.

  20. Acute Myocardial Infarction Due to Spontaneous Dissection of the Right Coronary Artery in a Young Male

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Dimitris P. Moyssakis, Ioannis; Perakis, Alexandros; Athanasiou, Andreas; Anagnostopoulou, Sophia; Benos, Ioannis; Votteas, Vassilios E.

    2004-09-15

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction. We report a case of a 33-year-old male who presented with an acute inferior myocardial infarction. Coronary arteriography performed 3 hours after the episode revealed a dissection involving the middle segment of right coronary artery. Because of a spiral form of dissection and the TIMI 3 flow grade, our patient was treated medically and repeat coronary angiography 6 months later was decided.

  1. Influence of climate variability on acute myocardial infarction mortality in Havana, 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Alina; Bolufé, Javier; Ortiz, Paulo L; Rodríguez, Yunisleydi; Reyes, María C

    2015-04-01

    Death from acute myocardial infarction is due to many factors; influences on risk to the individual include habits, lifestyle and behavior, as well as weather, climate and other environmental components. Changing climate patterns make it especially important to understand how climatic variability may influence acute myocardial infarction mortality. Describe the relationship between climate variability and acute myocardial infarction mortality during the period 2001-2012 in Havana. An ecological time-series study was conducted. The universe comprised 23,744 deaths from acute myocardial infarction (ICD-10: I21-I22) in Havana residents from 2001 to 2012. Climate variability and seasonal anomalies were described using the Bultó-1 bioclimatic index (comprising variables of temperature, humidity, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure), along with series analysis to determine different seasonal-to-interannual climate variation signals. The role played by climate variables in acute myocardial infarction mortality was determined using factor analysis. The Mann-Kendall and Pettitt statistical tests were used for trend analysis with a significance level of 5%. The strong association between climate variability conditions described using the Bultó-1 bioclimatic index and acute myocardial infarctions accounts for the marked seasonal pattern in AMI mortality. The highest mortality rate occurred during the dry season, i.e., the winter months in Cuba (November-April), with peak numbers in January, December and March. The lowest mortality coincided with the rainy season, i.e., the summer months (May-October). A downward trend in total number of deaths can be seen starting with the change point in April 2009. Climate variability is inversely associated with an increase in acute myocardial infarction mortality as is shown by the Bultó-1 index. This inverse relationship accounts for acute myocardial infarction mortality's seasonal pattern.

  2. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after acute myocardial infarction: An unusual case of possible association.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Francesco; Baldi, Cesare; Malinconico, Marisa; Acri, Edvige; Cirillo, Annapaola; Citro, Rodolfo; Bossone, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an acute reversible clinical condition mimicking an acute myocardial infarction. Although a normal coronary artery tree is frequently detected, the concurrence of coronary artery disease is a common finding in a substantial proportion of patients. We report an unusual case of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in post-menopausal women after emotional stress, occurring after inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The possible association between takotsubo cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease is discussed.

  3. Acute myocardial injury caused by Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) envenoming.

    PubMed

    Isbister, G K; Warner, G

    2003-12-01

    A 67-year-old female suffered envenoming by a Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus), complicated by ST elevation and elevated troponin levels consistent with an acute myocardial injury. She was treated primarily with funnel-web spider antivenom, admission to intensive care and initial respiratory support for acute pulmonary oedema. The mechanism by which funnel-web spider envenomation caused myocardial injury is unclear but follow-up nuclear studies in the patient demonstrated that she had minimal atherosclerotic disease.

  4. The importance of patency of the infarct-related artery in treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, N.; Zijlstra, F.; de Boer, M.J.; Dambrink, J.H.E.; Gosselink, A.T.M.; Henriques, J.P.S.; van 't Hof, A.W.J.; Hoorntje, J.C.A.; van der Horst, J.C.C.; Suryapranata, H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of patency of the infarct-related artery on the coronary angiogram, both before and after primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction, on 30-day mortality. Method Data of 1702 consecutive patients treated with primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction were collected prospectively from 1994 to 2000. Results Patients with a (partially) patent infarct artery before primary angioplasty had less damage to the myocardium and a lower 30-day mortality (1.6% versus 3.4%, p=0.04) compared with patients with an occluded artery. Patients with pre-hospital treatment with aspirin and heparin more often presented with a patent artery before angioplasty (31% versus 20%, p<0.001). After primary angioplasty, 95% of patients had a patent artery with a 30-day mortality of 2.2%. The 5% of patients with failed angioplasty had extensive myocardial damage and a 30-day mortality rate of 17%. Conclusion Patency of the infarct-related artery on the coronary angiogram, both before and after primary angioplasty, has a major impact on 30-day mortality. PMID:25696139

  5. [Myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome: definitions, classification, and diagnostic criteria].

    PubMed

    Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Mishnev, O D; Kakturskiĭ, L V

    2014-01-01

    The review gives the definitions and classification of and diagnostic criteria for myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome in accordance with the "The third universal definition of myocardial infarction" adopted in 2012 (Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction, 2012). It also discusses the clinical and morphological comparisons of and the problems in the differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction as a nosological entity within coronary heart disease with other coronarogenic and non-coronarogenic necroses of the myocardium.

  6. Comparison between primary angioplasty and thrombolytic therapy on erectile dysfunction after acute ST elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Akdemir, Ramazan; Karakurt, Özlem; Orcan, Salih; Karakoyunlu, Nihat; Mucahit Balci, Mustafa; Sağnak, Levent; Ersoy, Hamit; Bulent Vatan, Mehmet; Kilic, Harun; Yeter, Ekrem

    2012-01-01

    Acute ST elevation myocardial infarction has high mortality and morbidity rates. The majority of patients with this condition face erectile dysfunction in addition to other health problems. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of two different reperfusion strategies, primary angioplasty and thrombolytic therapy, on the prevalence of erectile dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. Of the 71 patients matching the selection criteria, 45 were treated with primary coronary angioplasty with stenting, and 26 were treated with thrombolytic agents. Erectile function was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function in the hospital to characterize each patient's sexual function before the acute myocardial infarction and 6 months after the event. The time required to restore blood flow to the artery affected by the infarct was found to be associated with the occurrence of erectile dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. The increase in the prevalence of erectile dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction was 44.4% in the angioplasty group and 76.9% in the thrombolytic therapy group (P=0.008). In conclusion, this study has shown that reducing the time of reperfusion decreases the erectile dysfunction prevalence, and primary angioplasty is superior to thrombolytic therapy for decreasing the prevalence of erectile dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:22796737

  7. [Impact of comorbidities on in-hospital mortality from acute myocardial infarction, 2003-2009].

    PubMed

    Gili, Miguel; Sala, José; López, Julio; Carrión, Ana; Béjar, Luís; Moreno, Julio; Rosales, Angela; Sánchez, Gabriel

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of acute myocardial infarction has changed notably in recent years. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in in-hospital mortality during the period 2003-2009 and to examine how changes in comorbidity indices affected mortality prediction models for acute myocardial infarction using the minimum basic data set. During the study period, 5275 cases of acute myocardial infarction were admitted. Mortality rates were calculated by age and sex and Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity index scores were obtained on admission for every patient. Trends were analyzed and their validity studied. Multivariate models predictive of mortality were derived and compared. Mean age and comorbidities increased in all patients over the period 2003-2009. In spite of these trends, acute myocardial infarction mortality decreased. Comorbidity indices remained valid when the criterion "present on admission" was applied. Multivariate predictive models included age, sex, medical treatment, coronary revascularization and a comorbidity index or specific comorbidities. The model with specific comorbidities showed the best predictive ability. All models found that age and comorbidities increased the risk of death, and that coronary revascularization and treatment with anticoagulants, fibrinolytics, and platelet antiaggregants were protective factors. Despite the fact that the mean age and number of comorbidities in acute myocardial infarction patients has increased year over year, acute myocardial infarction mortality has decreased, probably because of more frequent reperfusion and revascularization therapy and better medical treatment. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Myocardial protection of early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gang-jie; Sun, Li-na; Li, Xing-hai; Wang, Ning-fu; Wu, Hong-hai; Yuan, Chen-xing; Li, Qiao-qiao; Xu, Peng; Ren, Ya-qi; Mao, Bao-gen

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore myocardial protection of early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in pigs. 24 male pigs (34.6 ± 1.3 kg) were randomly divided into three groups-control group, drug therapy group, and ECMO group. Myocardial infarction model was created in drug therapy group and ECMO group by ligating coronary artery. When cardiogenic shock occurred, drugs were given in drug therapy group and ECMO began to work in ECMO group. The pigs were killed 24 h after cardiogenic shock. Compared with in drug therapy group, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in ECMO group decreased significantly 6 h after ligation (P < 0.05). At the end of the experiments, LV - dp/dt among three groups was significantly different, drug therapy group < ECMO group < control group. There was no difference in LV + dp/dt between drug therapy group and ECMO group. Compared with drug group, myocardial infarct size of ECMO group did not reduce significantly, but myocardial enzyme and troponin-I decreased significantly. Compared with drug therapy, ECMO improves left ventricular diastolic function, and may improve systolic function. ECMO cannot reduce myocardial infarct size without revascularization, but may have positive effects on ischemic areas by avoiding further injuring.

  9. HIV Infection and the Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Matthew S.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Skanderson, Melissa; Lowy, Elliott; Kraemer, Kevin L.; Butt, Adeel A.; Bidwell Goetz, Matthew; Leaf, David; Oursler, Kris Ann; Rimland, David; Rodriguez Barradas, Maria; Brown, Sheldon; Gibert, Cynthia; McGinnis, Kathy; Crothers, Kristina; Sico, Jason; Crane, Heidi; Warner, Alberta; Gottlieb, Stephen; Gottdiener, John; Tracy, Russell P.; Budoff, Matthew; Watson, Courtney; Armah, Kaku A.; Doebler, Donna; Bryant, Kendall; Justice, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Whether people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with uninfected people is not clear. Without demographically and behaviorally similar uninfected comparators and without uniformly measured clinical data on risk factors and fatal and nonfatal AMI events, any potential association between HIV status and AMI may be confounded. Objective To investigate whether HIV is associated with an increased risk of AMI after adjustment for all standard Framingham risk factors among a large cohort of HIV-positive and demographically and behaviorally similar (ie, similar prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and cocaine use) uninfected veterans in care. Design and Setting Participants in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort from April 1, 2003, through December 31, 2009. Participants After eliminating those with baseline cardiovascular disease, we analyzed data on HIV status, age, sex, race/ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, hepatitis C infection, body mass index, renal disease, anemia, substance use, CD4 cell count, HIV-1 RNA, antiretroviral therapy, and incidence of AMI. Main Outcome Measure Acute myocardial infarction. Results We analyzed data on 82 459 participants. During a median follow-up of 5.9 years, there were 871 AMI events. Across 3 decades of age, the mean (95% CI) AMI events per 1000 person-years was consistently and significantly higher for HIV-positive compared with uninfected veterans: for those aged 40 to 49 years, 2.0 (1.6-2.4) vs 1.5 (1.3-1.7); for those aged 50 to 59 years, 3.9 (3.3-4.5) vs 2.2 (1.9-2.5); and for those aged 60 to 69 years, 5.0 (3.8-6.7) vs 3.3 (2.6-4.2) (P < .05 for all). After adjusting for Framingham risk factors, comorbidities, and substance use, HIV-positive veterans had an increased risk of incident AMI compared with uninfected veterans (hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.27-1.72). An excess risk remained among

  10. Prediction of myocardial damage depth induced by extracellular photosensitization reaction using fluorescence measurement in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, M.; Ogawa, E.; Nakamura, T.; Kawakami, H.; Machida, N.; Yajima, M.; Kurotsu, M.; Ito, A.; Kimura, T.; Arai, T.

    2014-03-01

    We experimentally studied the correlation between myocardial damage depth due to the extracellular photosensitization reaction (PR) using talaporfin sodium and fluorescence-fall amount (FA), which is calculated from the measured backscattering fluorescence intensity via a manipulatable 7 Fr. laser catheter during the PR operation in vivo to establish treatment depth predictor for a non-thermal tachyarrhythmia treatment. The PR was performed to left and/or right ventricle in the open-chest canine heart. The laser irradiation of 663+/-2 nm in wavelength via the laser catheter was operated 15 min after the intravenous administration of talaporfin sodium with concentration of 36.2+/-8.0 μg/ml in plasma. The irradiation was operated with irradiance of 5, 10, 20 W/cm2, and duration of 5, 10, 20 s. Backscattering fluorescence of 710+/-2 nm in wavelength was measured via the laser catheter during the PR. The FA was calculated multiplying the irradiation duration by the fluorescence-fall, which is subtraction of the fluorescence intensity at the kickoff and end of the irradiation. The canine heart was extracted 1 week after the PR and HE stained specimen was histologically evaluated. The correlation of the myocardial damage depth and FA was investigated. We found that FA obtained a logarithmic relation to the myocardial damage depth. We think that the FA might be available to predict the PR induced myocardial damage depth for the application of tachyarrhythmia treatment under catheterization in vivo.

  11. A rare case of concomitant stress (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Miguel Nobre; Silva, Doroteia; Almeida, Ana G; Pinto, Fausto J; Brito, Dulce

    2015-01-01

    Stress cardiomyopathy and myocardial infarction are generally regarded as mutually exclusive diagnoses. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with acute chest pain. Her echocardiogram and ventriculography were typical of stress cardiomyopathy, but she had one subocclusive coronary lesion, a highly significant rise in troponin and a subendocardial myocardial infarction scar documented on cardiac magnetic resonance. This is a rare case of concomitant myocardial infarction and stress cardiomyopathy, in which the acute coronary syndrome itself may have been the stressor, given the absence of other identifiable causes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic implications of cardiac scintigraphic parameters obtained in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, A.; Matsushima, H.; Satoh, A.; Hayashi, H.; Sotobata, I.

    1988-06-01

    A cohort of 76 patients with acute myocardial infarction was studied with infarct-avid scan, radionuclide ventriculography, and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Infarct area, left ventricular ejection fraction, and defect score were calculated as radionuclide indices of the extent of myocardial infarction. The correlation was studied between these indices and cardiac events (death, congestive heart failure, postinfarction angina, and recurrence of myocardial infarction) in the first postinfarction year. High-risk patients (nonsurvivors and patients who developed heart failure) had a larger infarct area, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and a larger defect score than the others. Univariate linear discriminant analysis was done to determine the optimal threshold of these parameters for distinguishing high-risk patients from others. Radionuclide parameters obtained in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction were useful for detecting both patients with grave complications and those with poor late prognosis during a mean follow-up period of 2.6 years.

  13. Myocardial uptake of indium-111-labeled antimyosin in acute subendocardial infarction: Clinical, histochemical, and autoradiographic correlation of myocardial necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hendel, R.C.; McSherry, B.A.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Indium-111-labeled antimyosin has been utilized in the diagnosis and localization of acute transmural myocardial infarction. The present report describes a patient who presented with a massive subendocardial infarction. Two days after the injection of antimyosin, the patient's clinical status markedly deteriorated and he expired. Postmortem examination demonstrated severe three-vessel coronary artery disease with extensive myocyte death in the endocardium. Autoradiography and histochemical staining of the prosected heart demonstrated high correlation for myocardial necrosis and corresponded to clinical evidence for diffuse subendocardial infarction.

  14. Pharmacological prevention of reperfusion injury in acute myocardial infarction. A potential role for adenosine as a therapeutic agent.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Miguel; Kahan, Thomas; Hjemdahl, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The concept of reperfusion injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Although the pathophysiology of reperfusion injury is complex, the major role that neutrophils play in this process is well known. Neutrophils generate free radicals, degranulation products, arachidonic acid metabolites and platelet-activating factors that interact with endothelial cells, inducing endothelial injury and neutralization of nitrous oxide vasodilator capacity. Adenosine, through its multi-targeted pharmacological actions, is able to inhibit some of the above-mentioned detrimental effects. The net protective of adenosine in in vivo models of reperfusion injury is the reduction of the infarct size, the improvement of the regional myocardial blood flow and of the regional function of the ischemic area. Additionally, adenosine preserves the post-ischemic coronary flow reserve, coronary blood flow and the post-ischemic regional contractility. In small-scale studies in patients with acute MI, treatment with adenosine has been associated with smaller infarcts, less no-reflow phenomenon and improved LV function. During elective PCI adenosine reduced ST segment shifts, lactate production and ischemic symptoms. During the

  15. HSP90 gene expression induced by aspirin is associated with damage remission in a chicken myocardial cell culture exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Qian, Z; Zhu, H; Tang, S; Wu, D; Zhang, M; Kemper, N; Hartung, J; Bao, E

    2016-08-01

    To understand the potential protection of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) induced by aspirin against heat stress damage in chicken myocardial cells, enzyme activities related to stress damage, cytopathological changes, the expression and distribution of HSP90, and HSP90 mRNA levels in the myocardial cells exposed to heat stress (42°C) for different durations with or without aspirin administration (1 mg/ml, 2 h prior) in vitro were investigated. Significant increase of enzyme levels in the supernatant of heat-stressed myocardial cells and cellular lesions characterised by acute degeneration, karyopyknosis and karyorrhexis were observed, compared to non-treated cells. However, the lesions of cells treated with aspirin were milder, characterised by earlier recovery of enzyme levels to the control levels and no obvious heat stress-related cellular necrosis. Stronger positive signals in the cytoplasm and longer retention of HSP90 signal in nuclei were observed in aspirin-treated myocardial cells than those of only heat-stressed cells. HSP90 level in the aspirin-treated myocardial cells was 11.1-fold higher than that in non-treated cells, and remained at a high level at the early stage of heat stress, whereas it was just 4.1-fold higher in only heat-stressed cells and returned rapidly to a low level. Overexpression of HSP90 mRNA in aspirin-treated cells was observed throughout the experiment, whereas HSP90 mRNA decreased significantly only in heat-stressed cells. The early higher HSP90 expression induced by aspirin during heat stress was accompanied by decreased heat stress damage, suggesting that aspirin might play an important role in preventing myocardial cells from heat stress damage in vitro.

  16. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    LIU, FANG; LIU, GUANG-JIE; LIU, NA; ZHANG, GANG; ZHANG, JIAN-XIN; LI, LAN-FANG

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is believed to be involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes, and now it is recognized as the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide; however, the effects of H2S on inflammatory factors in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats have not been clarified. In the present study, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was used as the H2S donor. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sham, ischemia, ischemia + low-dose (0.78 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + medium-dose (1.56 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + high-dose (3.12 mg/kg) NaHS and ischemia + propargylglycine (PPG) (30 mg/kg). The rats in each group were sacrificed 6 h after the surgery for sample collection. Compared with the ischemia group, the cardiac damage in the rats in the ischemia + NaHS groups was significantly reduced, particularly in the high-dose group; in the ischemia + PPG group, the myocardial injury was aggravated compared with that in the ischemia group. Compared with the ischemia group, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum of rats in the ischemia + medium- and high-dose NaHS groups were significantly reduced, and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) protein in the myocardial tissues of rats was significantly reduced. In the ischemia + PPG group, the TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the serum were significantly increased, the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased, although without a significant difference, and the expression of NF-κB was increased. The findings of the present study provide novel evidence for the dual effects of H2S on acute myocardial ischemia injury via the modulation of inflammatory factors. PMID:25667680

  17. Accuracy in ED Triage for Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Susan F; DeVon, Holli A

    2016-07-01

    More than 6 million people present to emergency departments across the United States annually with symptoms of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Of the 1 million patients with AMI, 350,000 die during the acute phase. Accurate ED triage can reduce mortality and morbidity, yet accuracy rates are low. In this study we explored the relationship between patient and nurse characteristics and accuracy of triage in patients with symptoms of AMI. This retrospective, descriptive study used patient data from electronic medical records. The sample of 286 patients was primarily white, with a mean age of 61.44 years (standard deviation [SD], ±13.02), and no history of heart disease. The sample of triage nurses was primarily white and female, with a mean age of 45.46 years (SD, ±11.72) and 18 years of nursing experience. Nineteen percent of the nurses reported having earned a bachelor's degree. Emergency nurse triage accuracy was 54%. Patient race and presence of chest pain were significant predictors of accuracy. Emergency nurse age was a significant predictor of accuracy in triage, but years of experience in nursing was not a significant predictor. Of the 9 variables investigated, only patient race, symptom presentation, and emergency nurse age were significant predictors of triage accuracy. Inconsistency in triage decisions may be due to other conditions not yet explored, such as critical thinking skills and executive functions. This study adds to the body of evidence regarding ED triage of patients with symptoms of AMI. However, further exploration into decisions at triage is warranted to improve accuracy, expedite care, and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors in young patients of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Abdul Wajid Khan; Ayub, Mohammad; Waseem, Tariq; Khan, Rao Shahzad Abdul Tawwab; Hasnain, Syed Sibitul

    2011-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. CAD has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. Very limited data is available regarding the prevalence of various risk factors in our younger patients that is why this study was planed. Objectives of the study were to look for the risk factors most prevalent in our young patient of 1st Acute Myocardial Infarction. And to also look for the number of Risk Factors present in each patient. We studied 100 consecutive patients from 16-45 years of age presenting with first acute MI. Twelve risk factors were studied namely, gender, family history of premature CAD, smoking hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, mental stress (type A personality), alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), physical activity, and diet. We divided the patients into two groups. Group A with patients 35 years of age or less and group B with patients 36-45 years of age. All risk factors were compared in both the groups. Smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension were statistically different between the two groups. Frequency wise risk factors were lined up as male sex (91%) Diet (66%), Dyslipidemia (62%), smoking (46%), Type A personality(46%), family history (32%), diabetes mellitus (28%), sedentary lifestyle (26%), hypertension (22%), obesity (17%), alcohol (3%), and OCPs (0%) Most of the patients that is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. If a young male who is smoker or a young female who is diabetic, presents in emergency room with chest pain, always suspect coronary artery disease. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for us.

  19. A Case of Metanephric Adenoma and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dusan, Ruzicic; Relja, Kovacevic; Marija, Mirkovic; Jelena, Radovanovic; Vesna, Krstevska; Milijana, Terzic; Vladimir, Pantelic; Irena, Matic; Dragan, Hrncic

    2016-01-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA) is a rare neoplasm that acounts for 0.2% of adult renal neoplasms. MAs are typically discover incidentally during detailed examinations for nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal or flank pain, hematuria, fever and palpable abdominal mass. Additionally, polycythemia has occasionally been reported as well. Herein we describe a case of metanephric adenoma which was an incidental finding in the course of a clinical autopsy in a patient with complete AV block and polycythemia. Histologically, the tumor was composed of small and uniform tubular structures reminiscent of renal tubuli, without signs of cellular atypia and pleomorphism. Such tumor histomorphology was consistent with the diagnosis of metanephric adenoma. Thrombosis is a common complication of polycythemia that often causes death. Polycythemia with an increasing number of blood cells causes hyperviscosity and, in 20-40% of cases, lethal thrombosis or hemorrhage. Hyperviscosity and coronary artery disease in our patient caused acute myocardial infarction with the subsequent rupture of posterior left ventricle wall and hemopericardium. PMID:27471365

  20. A Case of Metanephric Adenoma and Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dusan, Ruzicic; Relja, Kovacevic; Marija, Mirkovic; Jelena, Radovanovic; Vesna, Krstevska; Milijana, Terzic; Vladimir, Pantelic; Irena, Matic; Dragan, Hrncic

    2016-07-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA) is a rare neoplasm that acounts for 0.2% of adult renal neoplasms. MAs are typically discover incidentally during detailed examinations for nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal or flank pain, hematuria, fever and palpable abdominal mass. Additionally, polycythemia has occasionally been reported as well. Herein we describe a case of metanephric adenoma which was an incidental finding in the course of a clinical autopsy in a patient with complete AV block and polycythemia. Histologically, the tumor was composed of small and uniform tubular structures reminiscent of renal tubuli, without signs of cellular atypia and pleomorphism. Such tumor histomorphology was consistent with the diagnosis of metanephric adenoma. Thrombosis is a common complication of polycythemia that often causes death. Polycythemia with an increasing number of blood cells causes hyperviscosity and, in 20-40% of cases, lethal thrombosis or hemorrhage. Hyperviscosity and coronary artery disease in our patient caused acute myocardial infarction with the subsequent rupture of posterior left ventricle wall and hemopericardium.

  1. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  2. Acute myocardial infarction after heart irradiation in young patients with Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Joensuu, H.

    1989-02-01

    Forty-seven patients younger than 40 years at the time of the diagnosis, and irradiated to the mediastinum for Hodgkin's disease at Turku University Central Hospital from 1977 to 1982, were regularly followed for 56 to 127 months after therapy. Two patients developed an acute myocardial infarction ten and 50 months after cardiac irradiation at the age of only 28 and 24 years, respectively. None of the patients died from lymphoma within five years from the diagnosis, but one of the infarctions was eventually fatal. Since acute myocardial infarction is rare in this age group, the result suggests strongly that prior cardiac irradiation is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. The possibility of radiation-induced myocardial infarction should be taken into account both in treatment planning and follow-up of patients with Hodgkin's disease.

  3. An unusual case of silent acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction following amphetamine use.

    PubMed

    Chia-Yu Chang, Julia; Peng, Chian-Ze; How, Chorng-Kuang; Huang, Mu-Shun

    2013-07-01

    We report a case of silent acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction associated with amphetamine use in a 62 years old diabetic man. The patient was devoid of chest pain and had a normal cardiac enzyme analysis at the initial presentation. A routine electrocardiogram demonstrated acute inferior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography confirmed a total occlusion of the posterior lateral branch of right coronary artery. The patient underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stent placement. Amphetamine abuse may play a role in acute myocardial infarction. Adverse cardiovascular manifestations of amphetamine can occur with sudden overt chest pain or present insidiously. In view of the potential association of amphetamine and myocardial infarction, physicians should not rely only upon clinical symptoms. This report highlights the diabetic patients with amphetamine abuse should undergo a routine electrocardiogram in such circumstances.

  4. New perspectives on the role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate myocardial salvage and myocardial hemorrhage after acute reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mangion, Kenneth; Corcoran, David; Carrick, David; Berry, Colin

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging enables the assessment of left ventricular function and pathology. In addition to established contrast-enhanced methods for the assessment of infarct size and microvascular obstruction, other infarct pathologies, such as myocardial edema and myocardial hemorrhage, can be identified using innovative CMR techniques. The initial extent of myocardial edema revealed by T2-weighted CMR has to be stable for edema to be taken as a retrospective marker of the area-at-risk, which is used to calculate myocardial salvage. The timing of edema assessment is important and should be focused within 2 - 7 days post-reperfusion. Some recent investigations have called into question the diagnostic validity of edema imaging after acute STEMI. Considering the results of these studies, as well as results from our own laboratory, we conclude that the time-course of edema post-STEMI is unimodal, not bimodal. Myocardial hemorrhage is the final consequence of severe vascular injury and a progressive and prognostically important complication early post-MI. Myocardial hemorrhage is a therapeutic target to limit reperfusion injury and infarct size post-STEMI.

  5. Microvascular obstruction on delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, compared with myocardial (201)Tl and (123)I-BMIPP dual SPECT findings.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroaki; Isobe, Satoshi; Sakai, Shinichi; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Naoki; Miura, Manabu; Uchida, Yasuhiro; Kanashiro, Masaaki; Ichimiya, Satoshi; Okumura, Takahiro; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-08-01

    The hypo-enhanced regions within the hyper-enhanced infarct areas detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging reflect microvascular obstruction (MO) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The combined myocardial thallium-201 ((201)Tl)/iodine-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid ((123)I-BMIPP) dual single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a useful tool for detecting myocardial reversibility after AMI. We evaluated whether MO could be an early predictor of irreversible myocardial damage in comparison with (201)Tl and (123)I-BMIPP dual SPECT findings in AMI patients. Sixty-two patients with initial AMI who successfully underwent coronary revascularization were enrolled. MO was defined by CMR imaging. Patients were divided into 2 groups as follows: MO group (n=32) and non-MO group (n=30). Scintigraphic defect scores were calculated using a 17-segment model with a 5-point scoring system. The mismatch score (MMS) was calculated as follows: the total sum of (Σ) (123)I-BMIPP defect score minus Σ(201)Tl defect score. The percentage mismatch score (%MMS) was calculated as follows: MMS/(Σ(123)I-BMIPP score)×100 (%). The percentage infarct size (%IS) was significantly greater in the MO group than in the non-MO group (32.2±13.8% vs. 18.3±12.1%, p<0.001). The %MMS significantly correlated with the %IS and the percentage MO (r=-0.26, p=0.03; r=-0.45, p<0.001, respectively). The %MMS was significantly greater in the non-MO group than in the MO group (45.4±42.4% vs. 13.3±28.0%, p=0.001), and was an independent predictor for MO (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.94-0.99, p=0.02). Our results reconfirm that, in comparison with myocardial dual scintigraphy, MO is an important structural abnormality. CMR imaging is useful for the early detection of irreversible myocardial damage after AMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between myocardial viability and the predischarge electrocardiographic pattern in patients with first anterior wall acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Atak, Ramazan; Turhan, Hasan; Senen, Kubilay; Ileri, Mehmet; Yetkin, Ertan; Ozbakir, Cemal; Demirkan, Deniz

    2003-10-01

    The assessment of residual viability in the infarcted area after an acute myocardial infarction is relevant to subsequent management and prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between myocardial viability after an acute anterior myocardial infarction (AMI) as assessed by low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (LDDSE) and the electrocardiographic patterns of ST segment and T wave abnormalities at the end of the first week of the acute event. Sixty-nine consecutive patients (51 men, 18 women, mean age+/-standard deviation=57+/-11 years) who admitted to our clinic due to a first episode of transmural AMI were included in this study. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed to all patients during rest and low dose dobutamine administration at the end of the first week of admission (7+/-2 days). Patients were classified into four groups according to ST segment and T wave morphology: group A, ST elevation < or =0.1 mV and negative T waves; group B, ST elevation < or =0.1 mV and positive T waves; group C, ST elevation > or =0.1 mV and negative T waves and group D, ST elevation > or =0.1 mV and positive T waves. Myocardial viability was detected more often in patients with isoelectric ST segments (22/24, 92%) than those with elevated ST segments (21/45, 47%) (P<0.001). Similarly patients with negative T waves had myocardial viability more frequently compared to those with positive T waves (32/45, 71% vs. 11/24, 46%, P<0.01). Seventeen (94%) of 18 patients in group A and 5 (83%) of six patients in group B had viable myocardium (P>0.05). Myocardial viability was found in 15 (56%) of 27 patients in group C and six (33%) of 18 patients in group D (P<0.01). As a marker of viable myocardium, isoelectricity of ST segment was specific (92%) but only moderately sensitive (51%), with a 92% positive predictive accuracy and a poor (53%) negative predictive value. T wave negativity was less specific but more sensitive than isoelectricity of ST

  7. Torsade de pointes indicates early neurologic damage in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Yen; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Lin, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Cheng-Chung; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Tsai, Tsung-Neng

    2013-12-01

    Torsade de pointes (TdP) is a life-threatening polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that is related to QT prolongation. Although QT prolongation is commonly seen in acute stroke, TdP is rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old woman with ischemic stroke who presented with TdP as the initial manifestation of early neurologic deterioration. We hypothesized that an increase in intracranial pressure may result in neurohormonal activation, QT prolongation, and then myocardial damage, leading to TdP. We highlight that new onset of TdP in a patient with stroke may reflect neurologic deterioration, requiring further evaluation and specific intervention.

  8. Ventricular Assist Device in Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Deepak; Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y; Pamboukian, Salpy V; Tallaj, José A; Holman, William L; Cantor, Ryan S; Naftel, David C; Kirklin, James K

    2016-04-26

    Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by acute heart failure or cardiogenic shock have high mortality with conventional management. This study evaluated outcomes of patients with AMI who received durable ventricular assist devices (VAD). Patients in the INTERMACS (Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support) registry who underwent VAD placement in the setting of AMI were included and compared with patients who received VAD for non-AMI indications. VAD were implanted in 502 patients with AMI: 443 left ventricular assist devices; 33 biventricular assist devices; and 26 total artificial hearts. Median age was 58.3 years, and 77.1% were male. At implantation, 66% were INTERMACS profile 1. A higher proportion of AMI than non-AMI patients had pre-operative intra-aortic balloon pumps (57.6% vs. 25.3%; p < 0.01), intubation (58% vs. 8.3%; p < 0.01), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (17.9% vs. 1.7%, p < 0.01), cardiac arrest (33.5% vs. 3.3%, p < 0.01), and higher-acuity INTERMACS profiles. At 1 month post-VAD, 91.8% of AMI patients were alive with ongoing device support, 7.2% had died on device, and 1% had been transplanted. At 1-year post-VAD, 52% of AMI patients were alive with ongoing device support, 25.7% had been transplanted, 1.6% had left VAD explanted for recovery, and 20.7% had died on device. The AMI group had higher unadjusted early phase hazard (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.24; p = 0.04) and reduced late-phase hazard of death (HR: 0.57; p = 0.04) than the non-AMI group did. After accounting for established risk factors, the AMI group no longer had higher early mortality hazard (HR: 0.89; p = 0.30), but it had lower late mortality hazard (HR: 0.55; p = 0.02). Patients with AMI who receive VAD have outcomes similar to other VAD populations, despite being more critically ill pre-implantation. VAD therapy is an effective strategy for patients with AMI and acute heart failure or shock in whom medical therapy is

  9. No covariation between the geomagnetic activity and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the polar area of northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, T.; Häggström, I.; Sandahl, I.; Lundberg, V.

    2002-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether there was any relation between the aurora borealis (measured as the geomagnetic activity) and the number of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in the northern, partly polar, area of Sweden. The AMI cases were collected from The Northern Sweden MONICA (multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) AMI registry between 1985 and 1998, inclusive, and the information on the geomagnetic activity from continuous measurements at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna. In the analyses, both the relation between the individual AMI case and ambient geomagnetic activity, and the relation between the mean daily K index and the daily number of AMI cases were tested. We found no statistically significant relation between the number of fatal or non-fatal AMI cases, the number of sudden deaths or the number of patients with chest pain without myocardial damage, and geomagnetic activity. Our data do not support a relation between the geomagnetic activity and AMI.

  10. No covariation between the geomagnetic activity and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the polar area of northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Messner, T; Häggström, I; Sandahl, I; Lundberg, V

    2002-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether there was any relation between the aurora borealis (measured as the geomagnetic activity) and the number of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in the northern, partly polar, area of Sweden. The AMI cases were collected from The Northern Sweden MONICA (multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) AMI registry between 1985 and 1998, inclusive, and the information on the geomagnetic activity from continuous measurements at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna. In the analyses, both the relation between the individual AMI case and ambient geomagnetic activity, and the relation between the mean daily K index and the daily number of AMI cases were tested. We found no statistically significant relation between the number of fatal or non-fatal AMI cases, the number of sudden deaths or the number of patients with chest pain without myocardial damage, and geomagnetic activity. Our data do not support a relation between the geomagnetic activity and AMI.

  11. C-Reactive protein predicts acute myocardial infarction during high-risk noncardiac and vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Martins, Oscar M; Fonseca, Vicente F; Borges, Ivan; Martins, Vaierio; Portal, Vera Lucia; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2011-01-01

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts cardiovascular events in a wide range of clinical contexts. However, the role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a predictive marker for perioperative acute myocardial infarction during noncardiac surgery is not yet clear. The present study investigated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels as predictors of acute myocardial infarction risk in patients undergoing high-risk noncardiac surgery. This concurrent cohort study included patients aged ≥ 50 years referred for high-risk noncardiac surgery according to American Heart Association/ACC 2002 criteria. Patients with infections were excluded. Electrocardiograms were performed, and biomarkers (Troponin I or T) and/or total creatine phosphokinase and the MB fraction (CPK-T/MB) were evaluated on the first and fourth days after surgery. Patients were followed until discharge. Baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were compared between patients with and without acute myocardial infarction. A total of 101 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, including 33 vascular procedures (17 aortic and 16 peripheral artery revascularizations), were studied. Sixty of the patients were men, and their mean age was 66 years. Baseline levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were higher in the group with perioperative acute myocardial infarction than in the group with non-acute myocardial infarction patients (mean 48.02 vs. 4.50, p = 0.005). All five acute myocardial infarction cases occurred in vascular surgery patients with high CRP levels. Patients undergoing high-risk noncardiac surgery, especially vascular surgery, and presenting elevated baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels are at increased risk for perioperative acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Bovine Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Reduces Inflammation After Induction of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fiechter, Danielle; Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; van Middelaar, Ben; Pasterkamp, Gerard; de Kleijn, Dominique; Seinen, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been increasing evidence suggesting that lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin may be an important activator of the innate immune system after acute myocardial infarction. Bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase reduces inflammation in several endotoxin mediated diseases by dephosphorylation of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase on reducing inflammation after acute myocardial infarction. Methods Just before permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) artery to induce acute myocardial infarction in Balb/c mice, bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP) was administrated intravenously. After 4 hours, mice were sacrificed and the inflammatory response was assessed. Acute myocardial infarction induced the production of different cytokines, which were measured in blood. Results Treatment with bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase resulted in a significant reduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and the chymase mouse mast cell protease-1. No difference in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was observed between the control group and the bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase treated group. Conclusion In a mouse model of permanent LAD coronary artery ligation, bIAP diminishes the pro-inflammatory responses but does not have an effect on the anti-inflammatory response in the acute phase after acute myocardial infarction.

  13. Different contribution of extent of myocardial injury to left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in early reperfused acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to investigate the influence of the extent of myocardial injury on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in patients after reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods Thirty-eight reperfused AMI patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging after percutaneous coronary revascularization. The extent of myocardial edema and scarring were assessed by T2 weighted imaging and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging, respectively. Within a day of CMR, echocardiography was done. Using 2D speckle tracking analysis, LV longitudinal, circumferential strain, and twist were measured. Results Extent of LGE were significantly correlated with LV systolic functional indices such as ejection fraction (r = -0.57, p < 0.001), regional wall motion score index (r = 0.52, p = 0.001), and global longitudinal strain (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). The diastolic functional indices significantly correlated with age (r = -0.64, p < 0.001), LV twist (r = -0.39, p = 0.02), average non-infarcted myocardial circumferential strain (r = -0.52, p = 0.001), and LV end-diastolic wall stress index (r = -0.47, p = 0.003 with e’) but not or weakly with extent of LGE. In multivariate analysis, age and non-infarcted myocardial circumferential strain independently correlated with diastolic functional indices rather than extent of injury. Conclusions In patients with timely reperfused AMI, not only extent of myocardial injury but also age and non-infarcted myocardial function were more significantly related to LV chamber diastolic function. PMID:24512272

  14. Disappearing signs of acute myocardial infarction in a patient with viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Bullón, F. Sarnago; Falzgraf, Sharon; Pedrero, Agustin Camacho; Jimenez, Manuel Abeytua

    1980-01-01

    A case of acute viral myocarditis with the rapid appearance and disappearance of clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, and vectorcardiographic signs of acute myocardial infarction is described in this report. Although segmentary alterations in contractility were demonstrated by ventriculography, coronary angiography revealed normal coronary arteries. Images PMID:15216283

  15. The influence of hypertonic mannitol on regional myocardial blood flow during acute and chronic myocardial ischemia in anesthetized and awake intact dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Willerson, J T; Watson, J T; Hutton, I; Fixler, D E; Curry, G C; Templeton, G H

    1975-01-01

    The influence of hypertonic mannitol on regional myocardial blood flow and ventricular performance was studied during acute myocardial ischemia in awake, unsedated and in anesthesized dogs and after myocardial infarction in awake unsedated dogs. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres. Generalized increases in regional myocardial blood flow occurred after mannitol in all of the different animal models studied. The increases in coronary blood flow after mannitol were just as impressive in the nonischemic regions as in the ischemic portion of the left ventricle in all of the different models that were examined in this study. Improvement in regional myocardial blood flow to the ischemic area of the left ventricle after mannitol was associated with a reduction in ST segment elevation during acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs. The increases in regional myocardial flow after mannitol were also associated with increases in contractility, but the increases in flow appeared to be more impressive than the changes in contractility. The data obtained demonstrate that mannitol increases regional coronary blood flow to both ischemic and nonischemic myocardium in both anesthetized and awake, unsedated, intact dogs with acute and chronic myocardial ischemia and that mannitol reduces ST segment elevation during acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs. Thus the results suggest that under these circumstances the increases in regional myocardial blood flow after mannitol are of physiological importance in reducing the extent of myocardial injury. Since coronary blood flow increased to nonischemic regions the increases in regional myocardial flow demonstrated in this study after mannitol cannot be entirely explained by the mechanism of reduction in ischemic cell swelling. PMID:1123427

  16. Acute myocardial infarction caused by left atrial myxoma: Role of intracoronary catheter aspiration.

    PubMed

    Al-Fakhouri, Ahmad; Janjua, Muhammad; DeGregori, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) caused by left atrial myxoma is very rare. Catheter-based approaches or thrombolytic therapy are mostly the first step in the management of STEMI with less time delay. We report a case of acute anterior/lateral STEMI caused by a left atrial myxoma. The patient was successfully treated by intracoronary aspiration with an Export aspiration catheter, with excellent distal coronary flow. Intracoronary catheter aspiration in acute myocardial infarction caused by a left atrial myxoma may help to salvage the infarcting myocardium with less time delay.

  17. Detection and evaluation of renal biomarkers in a swine model of acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Duan, Su-Yan; Xing, Chang-Ying; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of type 1 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is increasing and strongly associated with long-term mortality. However, lack of reliable animal models and well-defined measures of renoprotection, made early diagnosis and therapy difficult. We previously successfully established the swine acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model of ischemia-reperfusion by blocking left anterior descending branch (LAD). Reperfusion was performed after 90-minute occlusion of the LAD. AMI was confirmed by ECG and left ventricular angiography (LVG). Then those 52 survived AMI reperfusion swine, including ventricular fibrillation-cardiac arrest after restoration of blood flow, were randomly divided into four groups (four/group) according to different interventions: resuscitation in room temperature, resuscitation with 500 ml saline in room temperature, resuscitation with 4°C 500 ml saline and normal control (with no intervention of resuscitation). Each group was further observed in four groups according to different time of resuscitation after ventricular arrhythmias: 1, 3, 5, 10-minute reperfusion after ventricular arrhythmias. Plasma and random urine were collected to evaluate renal function and test renal biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI). Our swine AMI model of ischemia-reperfusion provoked subclinical AKI with the elevation of the tubular damage biomarker, NGAL, IL-18 and L-FABP. Renal damage rapidly observed after hemodynamic instability, rather than observation after several hours as previously reported. The increasing rate of biological markers declined after interventions, however, its impact on the long-term prognosis remains to be further studied. These data show that elevation of tubular damage biomarkers without glomerular function loss may indicate appropriate timing for effective renoprotections like hypothermia resuscitation in type 1 CRS.

  18. The effects of preceding exercise on myocardial damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Seung Hee; Kim, Young Mi; Park, Su Jin

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on myocardial injury in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained with either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for four weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of cardiac troponin and the N-terminal of prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were examined following a single bout of prolonged intensive exercise (lasting 3 h). [Subjects and Methods] The study included 40 six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g each. The aerobic exercise group was divided into high-intensity (28 m/min) and moderate-intensity (15 m/min) subgroups. Both subgroups were trained for 35 min daily for six days per week (excluding Sunday) over a four-week period. Following training, the high- and moderate-intensity exercise groups and a nonexercise group performed one bout of prolonged treadmill exercise for 3 h at a speed of 15 m/min. [Results] The cardiac troponin and NT-proBNP levels differed significantly between the groups. [Conclusion] The exercise groups showed lower levels of cardiac troponin and NT-proBNP than the nonexercise group after the bout of prolonged intensive exercise. PMID:28356642

  19. Uptake of iodinated contrast material by the ischemically damaged myocardial cell.

    PubMed

    Newell, J D; Higgins, C B; Abraham, J L

    1982-01-01

    Computerized transmission tomography has shown differential contrast enhancement of the area of ischemic damage after intravenous administration of iodinated contrast material. The current study performed in normal dogs and dogs with two-day-old and 30-day-old myocardial infarctions was intended to determine if the iodine accumulation is intracellular. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis detected iodine peaks associated with the cells in areas of ischemic damage, while iodine peaks were not detected in normal myocardium. Energy spectra in the area of ischemic damage showed a significant increase in the Na+ -K+ ratio compared to normal myocardium, consistent with the loss of cellular membrane integrity in this region. Results were similar for both two- and 30-day-old infarcts. These results indicate that iodinated contrast material attaches to the membrane of enters the ischemically damaged cell, but is virtually excluded from the normal myocardial cell. It may serve as a marker of myocardial cells which have lost cellular membrane integrity after an ischemic insult.

  20. Mean platelet volume and cardiovascular outcomes in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ranjith, Mangalachulli Pottammal; DivyaRaj, Rajendran; Mathew, Dolly; George, Biju; Krishnan, Mangalath Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Objective High levels of mean platelet volume (MPV) may be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the association between MPV and the risk of death and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with MI. Methods We studied consecutive patients with MI admitted to a tertiary-care hospital during a period of 1 year. MPV was measured at admission and at third month. Patients were followed up for 1-year primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, stroke, fatal or non-fatal MI and cardiac failure. Patients were classified according to tertile of baseline MPV. Results A total of 1206 patients with MI, including 934 men (77.4%) and 272 women (22.6%) were studied. The mean age of the study population was 56 years. At 1-year follow-up, 292 (28.57%) primary outcome occurred: cardiovascular mortality 78 (7.6%), fatal or non-fatal MI 153 (15.0%), stroke 30 (2.9%) and cardiac failure 128 (12.52%). Patients with the highest tertile MPV had higher primary outcome as compared with those with MPV in the lowest tertile (adjusted OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.60 to 3.35; p<0.001). Total mortality was also more in high-MPV group (adjusted OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.47 to 4.70; p<0.001). There were no significant changes in mean MPV values at admission from those at third month interval (9.15, (SD 0.99) vs 9.19 (SD 0.94); p=0.2). Conclusions Elevated MPV was associated with worse outcome in patients with acute MI. Elevated MPV in these patients may be due to inherently large platelets. Trial registration number http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/rmaindet.php?trialid=5485&EncHid=98036.61144&modid=1&compid=19; CTRI/2012/12/003222. PMID:27326224

  1. Mean platelet volume and cardiovascular outcomes in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ranjith, Mangalachulli Pottammal; DivyaRaj, Rajendran; Mathew, Dolly; George, Biju; Krishnan, Mangalath Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    High levels of mean platelet volume (MPV) may be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the association between MPV and the risk of death and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with MI. We studied consecutive patients with MI admitted to a tertiary-care hospital during a period of 1 year. MPV was measured at admission and at third month. Patients were followed up for 1-year primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, stroke, fatal or non-fatal MI and cardiac failure. Patients were classified according to tertile of baseline MPV. A total of 1206 patients with MI, including 934 men (77.4%) and 272 women (22.6%) were studied. The mean age of the study population was 56 years. At 1-year follow-up, 292 (28.57%) primary outcome occurred: cardiovascular mortality 78 (7.6%), fatal or non-fatal MI 153 (15.0%), stroke 30 (2.9%) and cardiac failure 128 (12.52%). Patients with the highest tertile MPV had higher primary outcome as compared with those with MPV in the lowest tertile (adjusted OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.60 to 3.35; p<0.001). Total mortality was also more in high-MPV group (adjusted OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.47 to 4.70; p<0.001). There were no significant changes in mean MPV values at admission from those at third month interval (9.15, (SD 0.99) vs 9.19 (SD 0.94); p=0.2). Elevated MPV was associated with worse outcome in patients with acute MI. Elevated MPV in these patients may be due to inherently large platelets. http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/rmaindet.php?trialid=5485&EncHid=98036.61144&modid=1&compid=19; CTRI/2012/12/003222.

  2. Geomagnetic Storms and Acute Myocardial Infarctions Morbidity in Middle Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.; Babayev, E. S.; Mustafa, F. R.; Stoilova, I.; Taseva, T.; Georgieva, K.

    2009-12-01

    Results of collaborative studies on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and pre-hospital acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data from Bulgaria and Azerbaijan. Bulgarian data, covering the period from 01.12.1995 to 31.12.2004, concerned daily distribution of number of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia Region on the day of admission at the hospital. Azerbaijani data contained 4479 pre-hospital AMI incidence cases for the period 01.01.2003-31.12.2005 and were collected from 21 emergency and first medical aid stations in Grand Baku Area (including Absheron Economical Region with several millions of inhabitants). Data were "cleaned" as much as possible from social and other factors and were subjected to medical and mathematical/statistical analysis. Medical analysis showed reliability of the used data. Method of ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms - those caused by magnetic clouds (MC) and by high speed solar wind streams (HSSWS) - on AMI incidences. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results were outlined for both considered data. Results obtained for the Sofia data showed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI occurrence. ANOVA revealed that AMI incidence number was significantly increased from the day before till the day after geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day for the period 1995-2004. Results obtained for the Baku data revealed trends similar to those obtained for Sofia data. AMI morbidity increment was observed on the days with higher GMA intensity and after these days

  3. Association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dupre, Matthew E; George, Linda K; Liu, Guangya; Peterson, Eric D

    2015-05-01

    Divorce is a major life stressor that can have economic, emotional, and physical health consequences. However, the cumulative association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. This study investigated the association between lifetime exposure to divorce and the incidence of AMI in US adults. We used nationally representative data from a prospective cohort of ever-married adults aged 45 to 80 years (n=15,827) who were followed biennially from 1992 to 2010. Approximately 14% of men and 19% of women were divorced at baseline and more than one third of the cohort had ≥1 divorce in their lifetime. In 200,524 person-years of follow-up, 8% (n=1211) of the cohort had an AMI and age-specific rates of AMI were consistently higher in those who were divorced compared with those who were continuously married (P<0.05). Results from competing-risk hazard models showed that AMI risks were significantly higher in women who had 1 divorce (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.55), ≥2 divorces (hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.41), and among the remarried (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.70) compared with continuously married women after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Multivariable-adjusted risks were elevated only in men with a history of ≥2 divorces (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.66) compared with continuously married men. Men who remarried had no significant risk for AMI. Interaction terms for sex were not statistically significant. Divorce is a significant risk factor for AMI. The risks associated with multiple divorces are especially high in women and are not reduced with remarriage. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. [The causes of death after acute myocardial infarction (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Puletti, M; Zingales, L D; Borgia, C; La Rosa, A; Curione, M; Pozzar, F; Righetti, G; Jacobellis, G F

    1979-01-01

    Following a brief outline on problems concerning methodology, the cause of death is analysed in 110 patients dying from acute myocardial infarction during hospitalization. Autopsy studied were carried out in 78 cases. Of the various causes, the most frequent were forms of contractile insufficiency (EPA, shock, shock + EPA, biventricular congestive heart failure) which were responsible for 50.90% of cases; followed by cardiac rupture (considered in a single group with electromechanic dissociations of the patients not submitted to autopsy studies since in the experience of the Authors cardiac rupture almost always presents with this pattern) with a frequency of 29%. The frequency of arrhythmias, on the other hand, is very low, particularly in the coronary care unit where it is practically a negligible causa mortis 2.72%): even if sudden death, in patients who were not monitored, is included amongst the arrhythmias, the percentage is still only about 10%. Embolism (usually pulmonary, but systemic in one case) was the cause of death in 5 patients (4.54%). Three patients over 80 years of age died from ischemic cerebral episodes. Age, sex, and site of infarction, do not appear, in the present series, to have a determinant effect in the cause of death; a higher frequency of rupture in the female sex was not, for example, confirmed. On the basis of the observations in the present series, any relationship between cardiac rupture and anticoagulating therapy, steroid treatment, application of endocavitary stimulators, or early ambulation is excluded. It is also excluded that reanimation, as hypothesized by some Authors, may be responsible for rupture.

  5. The Association Between Divorce and Risks for Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dupre, Matthew E.; George, Linda K.; Liu, Guangya; Peterson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Divorce is a major life stressor that can have economic, emotional, and physical health consequences. However, the cumulative association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. This study investigated the association between lifetime exposure to divorce and the incidence of AMI in U.S. adults. Methods and Results We used nationally representative data from a prospective cohort of ever-married adults aged 45 to 80 (n=15,827) who were followed biennially from 1992 to 2010. Approximately 14% of men and 19% of women were divorced at baseline and more than one-third of the cohort had at least one divorce in their lifetime. In 200,524 person-years of follow-up, 8% (n=1,211) of the cohort had an AMI and age-specific rates of AMI were consistently higher in those who were divorced relative to those who were continuously married (P<.05). Results from competing-risk hazard models showed that AMI risks were significantly higher in women who had 1 divorce (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55), 2 or more divorces (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.30-2.41), and among the remarried (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.70) compared with continuously married women after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Multivariable-adjusted risks were elevated only in men with a history of 2 or more divorces (HR, 1.30; 95%CI, 1.02-1.66) relative to continuously married men. Men who remarried had no significant risk for AMI. Interaction terms for sex were not statistically significant. Conclusions Divorce is a significant risk factor for AMI. The risks associated with multiple divorces are especially high in women and are not reduced with remarriage. PMID:25872508

  6. Association of leptin in periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gundala, Rupasree; Chava, Vijay K; Ramalingam, K

    2014-07-01

    Serum leptin concentrations are reported to be elevated in patients with periodontal diseases and may have a modulating role in cardiovascular diseases. Serum leptin concentrations have not been assessed in periodontitis associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to date. The purpose of this study was to assess the concentration of serum leptin in periodontitis associated with AMI. A cross-sectional clinical study was conducted comprising a sample size of 120 participants divided into four groups (n = 30 each) based on their clinical signs: 1) control; 2) AMI; 3) generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP); and 4) GCP + AMI. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and recorded for all the subjects based on BMI chart of the World Health Organization. After thorough clinical and oral examination, plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss (AL) were recorded. In addition, 2 mL venous blood was collected by venipuncture from all participants to determine serum leptin concentration using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. A strong correlation of serum leptin concentration to BMI was observed in AMI, GCP, and GCP + AMI groups. Serum leptin levels were significantly elevated in AMI, GCP, and GCP + AMI groups compared to the control group. Significant associations between serum leptin concentration and PI, GI, PD, and AL were also seen in the GCP group. PI, GI, PD, and AL were statistically significantly elevated in GCP + AMI and AMI groups. Elevated serum leptin concentration was associated with increased BMI, GCP, and AMI and may serve as a risk marker for these conditions.

  7. Early Biventricular Molecular Responses to an Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Erdal, Cenk; Karakülah, Gökhan; Fermancı, Emel; Kunter, İmge; Silistreli, Erdem; Canda, Tülay; Erdal, Esra; Hepaguslar, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains as one of the most common lethal diseases in the world and therefore it is necessary to understand its effect on molecular basis. Genome-wide microarray analysis provides us to predict potential biomarkers and signaling pathways for this purpose. Objectives: The aim of this study is to understand the molecular basis of the immediate right ventricular cellular response to left ventricular AMI. Material and Methods: A rat model of left anterior descending coronary artery ligation was used to assess the effect of left ventricular AMI on both the right ventricle as a remote zone and the left ventricle as an ischemic/infarct zone. Microarray technology was applied to detect the gene expression. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathways analysis were done to identify effected pathways and related genes. Results: We found that immune response, cell chemotaxis, inflammation, cytoskeleton organization are significantly deregulated in ischemic zone as early response within 30 min. Unexpectedly, there were several affected signaling pathways such as cell chemotaxis, regulation of endothelial cell proliferation, and regulation of caveolea regulation of anti-apoptosis, regulation of cytoskeleton organization and cell adhesion on the remote zone in the right ventricle. Conclusion: This data demonstrates that there is an immediate molecular response in both ventricles after an AMI. Although the ischemia did not histologically involve the right ventricle; there is a clear molecular response to the infarct in the left ventricle. This provides us new insights to understand molecular mechanisms behind AMI and to find more effective drug targets. PMID:22211093

  8. Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy and puerperium: a review.

    PubMed

    Badui, E; Enciso, R

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze the possible parameters that lead to the development of what is a rare event--acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during pregnancy and puerperium. Through the Index Médicus, 109 publications on the subject were obtained. Since the first well-documented case by Katz in 1922, 136 patients have been reported, and from these reports the following data have been gathered: the average age was 32.1 years. This event is more frequent during the third trimester and puerperium of the first and second pregnancies. In 42.6% of the patients no coronary risk factors were observed, but when present, hypertension and cigarette smoking were the most common. The anterior wall along or in combination with any other anatomic area was affected in 73% of cases. Coronary angiograms, when taken, appeared normal in 47%. The maternal mortality rate was 26/136 (19.1%) and was higher during the third trimester, labor, and puerperium. Eight patients (8/26) (30.7%) had sudden death. In 5 of these, (62.5%) coronary thrombosis was found. In 18/26 deaths, an autopsy was performed; 9/18 (50%) had coronary thrombus formation and in 7/18 (39%) variable degrees of atherosclerosis were detected. On the other hand, the fetal mortality rate was 16.9%; however, in only 52% was death coincidental with that of the mother. Coronary artery spasm associated with a probable hypercoagulability state was the most likely mechanism in the majority of these patients, followed by atherosclerotic heart disease and coronary dissection-the last being secondary most likely to hormonal changes. During the AMI these patients should be studied by a medical team composed of a cardiologist, gynecologist, and anesthesiologist. A complete cardiologic work-up should be made to decide individually about further pregnancies.

  9. Renal function and anaemia in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pinto de Carvalho, Leonardo; McCullough, Peter A; Gao, Fei; Sim, Ling Ling; Tan, Huay Cheem; Foo, David; Ooi, Yau Wei; Richards, A Mark; Chan, Mark Y; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng

    2013-09-30

    Impaired renal function and anaemia are common among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). While both conditions are known independent risk factors for increased mortality, their interaction as risk factors for increased mortality in AMI is unclear. We studied 5395 subjects hospitalized for AMI between January 2000 and December 2005. An estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was defined as impaired GFR and GFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was defined as preserved GFR. Anaemia was defined as <13 g/dL (males) and <12 g/dL (females). The odds ratio (OR) for one-year mortality and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression. We identified 758 (14%) patients with impaired GFR and anaemia, 1105 (20.5%) patients with impaired GFR without anaemia, 465 (8.6%) patients with preserved GFR and anaemia, and 3012 (55.8%) patients with preserved GFR without anaemia; one-year mortality rates were 56.5%, 41.8%, 31.8% and 10.3% respectively in these 4 groups. Among patients with impaired GFR, anaemia was associated with an adjusted OR of 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.85) for one-year mortality, while among patients with preserved GFR, anaemia was associated with a higher adjusted OR of 2.07 (95% CI=1.54-2.76) for one-year mortality, interaction P<0.001. The combination of impaired GFR and anaemia confers greater than five-fold increased risk of mortality after AMI. The differential effect of anaemia among patients with impaired and preserved GFR on mortality suggests that in patients with preserved GFR anaemia confers a greater relative hazard than in patients with impaired renal function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduction in Acute Myocardial Infarction Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Krumholz, Harlan M.; Wang, Yun; Chen, Jersey; Drye, Elizabeth E.; Spertus, John A.; Ross, Joseph S.; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Lichtman, Judith H.; Havranek, Edward P.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Radford, Martha J.; Han, Lein F.; Rapp, Michael T.; Straube, Barry M.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.

    2012-01-01

    Context During the last 2 decades, health care professional, consumer, and payer organizations have sought to improve outcomes for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, little has been reported about improvements in hospital short-term mortality rates or reductions in between-hospital variation in short-term mortality rates. Objective To estimate hospital-level 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) for patients discharged with AMI. Design, Setting, and Patients Observational study using administrative data and a validated risk model to evaluate 3 195 672 discharges in 2 755 370 patients discharged from nonfederal acute care hospitals in the United States between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2006. Patients were 65 years or older (mean, 78 years) and had at least a 12-month history of fee-for-service enrollment prior to the index hospitalization. Patients discharged alive within 1 day of an admission not against medical advice were excluded, because it is unlikely that these patients had sustained an AMI. Main Outcome Measure Hospital-specific 30-day all-cause RSMR. Results At the patient level, the odds of dying within 30 days of admission if treated at a hospital 1 SD above the national average relative to that if treated at a hospital 1 SD below the national average were 1.63 (95% CI, 1.60-1.65) in 1995 and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.53-1.60) in 2006. In terms of hospital-specific RSMRs, a decrease from 18.8% in 1995 to 15.8% in 2006 was observed (odds ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.75-0.77). A reduction in between-hospital heterogeneity in the RSMRs was also observed: the coefficient of variation decreased from 11.2% in 1995 to 10.8%, the interquartile range from 2.8% to 2.1%, and the between-hospital variance from 4.4% to 2.9%. Conclusion Between 1995 and 2006, the risk-standardized hospital mortality rate for Medicare patients discharged with AMI showed a significant decrease, as did between-hospital variation. PMID:19690309

  11. Acute case-fatality rates of stroke and acute myocardial infarction in a Japanese population: Takashima stroke and AMI registry, 1989-2005.

    PubMed

    Rumana, Nahid; Kita, Yoshikuni; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Takashima, Naoyuki; Ichikawa, Masaharu; Sugihara, Hideki; Morita, Yutaka; Hirose, Kunihiko; Kawakami, Kenzou; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2014-10-01

    Few comprehensive stroke and acute myocardial infarction registries of long duration exist in Japan to illustrate trends in acute case-fatality of stroke and acute myocardial infarction with greater precision. We examined 17-year case-fatality rates of stroke and acute myocardial infarction using an entire community-monitoring registration system to investigate trends in these rates over time in a Japanese population. Data were obtained from the Takashima Stroke and AMI Registry covering a stable population of approximately 55 000 residents of Takashima County in central Japan. We divided the total observation period of 17 years into four periods, 1989-1992, 1993-1996, 1997-2000, and 2001-2005. We calculated gender, age-specific and age-adjusted acute case-fatality rates (%) of stroke and acute myocardial infarction across these four periods. During the study period of 1989-2005, there were 341 fatal cases within 28 days of onset among 2239 first-ever stroke events and 163 fatal cases among 433 first-ever acute myocardial infarction events. The age-adjusted acute case-fatality rate of stroke was 14·9% in men and 15·7% in women. The age-adjusted acute case-fatality rate of acute myocardial infarction was 34·3% in men and 43·3% in women. The age-adjusted acute case-fatality rates of stroke and acute myocardial infarction showed insignificant differences across the four time periods. The average annual change in the acute case-fatality rate of stroke (-0·2%; 95% CI: -2·4-2·1) and acute myocardial infarction (2·7%; 95% CI: -0·7-6·1) did not change significantly across the study years. The acute case-fatality rates of stroke and acute myocardial infarction have remained stable from 1989 to 2005 in a rural and semi-urban Japanese population. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  12. Cell sheet-based myocardial tissue engineering: new hope for damaged heart rescue.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tatsuya; Sekine, Hidekazu; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2009-01-01

    Regenerative therapy has currently emerged as one of the most promising treatments for the patients suffering from severe heart failure. Several cell therapies by direct injection have been already clinically performed. However, significant cell loss due to physical strain, primary hypoxia or cell wash-out has become problematic. To overcome this obstacle, tissue engineered myocardial patch transplantation has been examined as the second generation cell therapy. Furthermore several research groups have challenged to engineer pulsatile myocardial tissues/organs using beating cardiomyocytes. Among several tissue engineering technologies, we have developed cell sheet-based tissue engineering, which utilize two-dimensional (2-D) cell sheets harvested from temperature-responsive culture surfaces and create three-dimensional (3-D) tissues by stacking cell sheets without generally utilized scaffolds. Several types of cell sheet-based patches have improved damaged heart function in rat, canine and pig models. Stacked cardiomyocyte sheets simultaneously beat in macroscopic view both in vitro and in vivo and revealed characteristic structures of native heart tissue. As a possible solution for scaling up, multi-step transplantation of triple-layer cell sheets was performed and finally, 10-time transplantations have realized about 1 mm-thick functional myocardial tissue. As further advanced therapy, functional myocardial tubes have been also engineered by wrapping cell sheets. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering should have enormous potential in myocardial tissue regenerative medicine and rescue many patients suffering severe heart failure.

  13. Extensive Acute Axonal Damage in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifenbring, Sabine; Bunyan, Reem F.; Metz, Imke; Röver, Christian; Huppke, Peter; Gärtner, Jutta; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Brück, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Axonal damage occurs early in multiple sclerosis (MS) and contributes to the degree of clinical disability. Children with MS more often show disabling and polyfocal neurological symptoms at disease onset than adults with MS. Thus, axonal damage may differ between pediatric and adult MS patients. Methods We analyzed axonal pathology in archival brain biopsy and autopsy samples from 19 children with early MS. Lesions were classified according to demyelinating activity and presence of remyelination. Axonal density and extent of acute axonal damage were assessed using Bielschowsky silver impregnation and immunohistochemistry for amyloid precursor protein (APP), respectively. Axonal injury was correlated with the inflammatory infiltrate as well as clinical characteristics. Results were compared with data from adult MS patients. Results Acute axonal damage was most extensive in early active demyelinating (EA) lesions of pediatric patients and correlated positively with the Expanded Disability Status Scale at attack leading to biopsy/autopsy. Comparison with 12 adult patients showed a 50% increase in the extent of acute axonal damage in EA lesions from children compared to adults, with the highest number of APP-positive spheroids found prior to puberty. The extent of acute axonal damage correlated positively with the number of lesional macrophages. Axonal density was reduced in pediatric lesions irrespective of the demyelinating activity or the presence of remyelination. Axonal reduction was similar between children and adults. Interpretation Our results provide evidence for more pronounced acute axonal damage in inflammatory demyelinating lesions from children compared to adults. PMID:25612167

  14. Myocardial rupture associated with bolus injection of contrast medium during computed tomographic study in a patient with acute myocardial infarction: a rare but lethal complication.

    PubMed

    Lai, Vincent; Hau, K C; Lau, H Y; Chan, W C

    2009-08-01

    Well-documented potential cardiovascular complications associated with the use of contrast media include bradycardia, hypotension, arrhythmia, and conduction disturbances. Rupture of the myocardium after acute myocardial infarction is a known cause of death, but has yet to be recognised as a potential complication of the use of a bolus injection of contrast medium. On the contrary, contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies have been performed widely for the diagnosis and evaluation of myocardial infarction. We report a case of complicated myocardial rupture after a single bolus injection of contrast medium during a computed tomographic study in an elderly woman with acute myocardial infarction, which led to cardiac tamponade and rapid death. Although rare, this should alert us to the need for cautious use of contrast medium in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  15. Acute myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma due to sea traffic accident.

    PubMed

    Vincelj, Josip; Sokol, Ivan; Samodol, Ante; Grubisić-Cabo, Robert

    2007-09-14

    Myocardial infarction as a complication of blunt chest trauma has been reported most commonly in victims of car accidents. Other cases have been very rarely reported. To our knowledge, sea traffic accident as the cause of coronary artery injury has not been described. The authors report on a rare case of acute anterior wall myocardial infarction in a 60-year-old woman following blunt chest trauma caused by sea traffic accident.

  16. Angiotensin-converting enzyme in acute myocardial infarction and angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Rømer, F K; Kornerup, H J

    1981-06-01

    Serum activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was measured by serial analysis in 19 patients with acute myocardial infarction and in eight patients with angina pectoris. As a rule no changes in enzyme activity occurred during 6 days observations. However, two patients with infarction exhibited a pronounced fall of enzyme activity which could not be related to clinical events. The analysis seems to have no place in the diagnosis and management of patients with myocardial infarction.

  17. Evidence for Acute Myocardial and Skeletal Muscle Injury after Serial Transthoracic Shocks in Healthy Swine

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Janelle; Nadeshalingam, Gobinath; Fischer, Kady; Shearer, Jane; Friedrich, Matthias G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous serological studies have shown controversial results whether defibrillation or cardioversion can cause myocardial injury. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) can be used to detect myocardial edema, hyperemia and capillary leak as features of acute myocardial injury. The aim of this study was to assess for myocardial and skeletal muscle injury in swine following transthoracic shocks. Methods Seventeen anaesthetized swine were examined, with 11 undergoing five synchronized transthoracic shocks (200J). Myocardial and skeletal muscle injury were assessed at baseline and up to 5h post-shock employing T1 mapping, T2 mapping, early and late gadolinium enhancement. Serologic markers (cFABP, TnI, CK, and CK-MB) and myocardial tissue were assessed by standard histology methods. Results In myocardial regions within the shock path, T1 and T2 were significantly increased compared to remote myocardium in the same animals. The early gadolinium enhancement ratio between the left-ventricular myocardium and the right pectoral muscle was also increased compared to control animals. After the shocks cFABP and CK were significantly elevated. After shock application, the regions identified as abnormal by CMR showed significantly increased interstitial and myocardial cell areas in histological analysis. This increased cell area suggests significant cellular and interstitial edema. Conclusion Our pilot study data indicate that serial defibrillator shocks lead to acute skeletal muscle and myocardial injury. CMR is a useful tool to detect and localize myocardial and skeletal muscle injury early after transthoracic shocks in vivo. In the future the technique could potentially be used as an additional tool for quality control such as verifying insufficient local shock application in non-responders after cardioversion or to develop safer shock forms. PMID:27611090

  18. Resveratrol activates endogenous cardiac stem cells and improves myocardial regeneration following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ling, Lin; Gu, Shaohua; Cheng, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Stem cell antigen-1-positive (Sca-1+) cardiac stem cells (CSCs) therapy for myocardial regeneration following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is limited by insufficient cell viability and a high rate of apoptosis, due to the poor regional microenvironment. Resveratrol, which is a compound extracted from red wine, has been reported to protect myocardial tissue post‑AMI by increasing the expression of angiogenic and chemotactic factors. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on Sca‑1+ CSCs, and to optimize Sca‑1+ CSCs therapy for myocardial regeneration post‑AMI. C57/BL6 mice (age, 6 weeks) were divided into two groups, which received intragastric administration of PBS or 2.5 mg/kg.d resveratrol. The endogenous expression of Sca‑1+ CSCs in the heart was assessed on day 7. Furthermore, C57/BL6 mice underwent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for the construction of an AMI model, and received an injection of 1x106 CSCs into the peri‑ischemic area (n=8/group). Mice received intragastric administration of PBS or resveratrol (2.5 mg/kg.d) for 4 weeks after cell transplantation. Echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac function 4 weeks after cell transplantation. Capillary density and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the peri‑ischemic myocardium were assessed by cluster of differentiation 31 immunofluorescent staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, respectively. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect the protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell‑derived factor (SDF)‑1α in the myocardium. Treatment with resveratrol increased the number of endogenous Sca‑1+ CSCs in heart tissue after 7 days (PBS vs. Res, 1.85±0.41/field vs. 3.14±0.26/field, P<0.05). Furthermore, intragastric administration of resveratrol significantly increased left ventricle (LV) function 4 weeks after AMI, as determined by an

  19. Resveratrol activates endogenous cardiac stem cells and improves myocardial regeneration following acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Lin; Gu, Shaohua; Cheng, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1-positive (Sca-1+) cardiac stem cells (CSCs) therapy for myocardial regeneration following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is limited by insufficient cell viability and a high rate of apoptosis, due to the poor regional microenvironment. Resveratrol, which is a compound extracted from red wine, has been reported to protect myocardial tissue post-AMI by increasing the expression of angiogenic and chemotactic factors. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on Sca-1+ CSCs, and to optimize Sca-1+ CSCs therapy for myocardial regeneration post-AMI. C57/BL6 mice (age, 6 weeks) were divided into two groups, which received intragastric administration of PBS or 2.5 mg/kg.d resveratrol. The endogenous expression of Sca-1+ CSCs in the heart was assessed on day 7. Furthermore, C57/BL6 mice underwent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for the construction of an AMI model, and received an injection of 1×106 CSCs into the peri-ischemic area (n=8/group). Mice received intragastric administration of PBS or resveratrol (2.5 mg/kg.d) for 4 weeks after cell transplantation. Echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac function 4 weeks after cell transplantation. Capillary density and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the peri-ischemic myocardium were assessed by cluster of differentiation 31 immunofluorescent staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, respectively. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect the protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α in the myocardium. Treatment with resveratrol increased the number of endogenous Sca-1+ CSCs in heart tissue after 7 days (PBS vs. Res, 1.85±0.41/field vs. 3.14±0.26/field, P<0.05). Furthermore, intragastric administration of resveratrol significantly increased left ventricle (LV) function 4 weeks after AMI, as determined by an increase in LV fractional

  20. Acute-phase reactants in acute myocardial infarction: impact on 5-year prognosis.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, R; Musumeci, G; De Carlo, M; Biadi, O; Caravelli, P; Limbruno, U; Mariani, M

    2001-04-01

    Acute-phase reactants have recently been shown to have a short-term and possibly long-term prognostic value in acute coronary syndromes. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively verify whether serum levels of inflammation markers can predict the occurrence of early and late cardiac events after myocardial infarction. We reevaluated 58 consecutive patients (43 men and 15 women, mean age 66 +/- 12 years) admitted to our Center during 1993 with a first myocardial infarction. Patients with non-cardiac causes of inflammation were excluded, as well as patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction <40%. From the first blood sample obtained at admission, we evaluated C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP) serum levels, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen levels, and the white blood cell (WBC) count. We also evaluated the highest level of serum cardiac markers. Follow-up data were collected for 55 patients in June 1999. Five in-hospital and 13 delayed cardiac deaths occurred. The mean follow-up of current survivors was 5.9 +/- 0.4 years. Patients in whom cardiac death occurred had significantly higher CRP (7.4 +/- 4.1 vs 3.0 +/- 2.4 mg/dl, p < 0.001) and alpha1-AGP levels (160 +/- 38 vs 113 +/- 24 mg/dl, p < 0.001), ESR (63 +/- 30 vs 37 +/- 25 mm/hour, p < 0.001), and WBC count (13,727 +/- 3,853 vs 10,936 +/- 3,358/mm3, p = 0.004). At multivariate analysis, higher alpha1-AGP (p < 0.001) and CRP serum levels (p = 0.02) were independent predictors of cardiac death. Patients in whom cardiac events occurred during follow-up showed higher CRP (5.7 +/- 3.7 vs 1.6 +/- 1.5 mg/dl, p < 0.001) and alpha1-AGP levels (140 +/- 36 vs 101 +/- 23 mg/dl, p < 0.001) and ESR (50 +/- 30 vs 34 +/- 26 mm/hour, p = 0.06). Higher alpha1-AGP (p < 0.001) and CRP serum levels (p = 0.03) were independent predictors of the occurrence of cardiac events. The present study shows that CRP and alpha1-AGP have an independent prognostic value in

  1. [Rupture of the free wall of the heart as cause of death in acute myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Hurtado Buen Abad, L; De la Ree, R; Contreras, M; González-Hermosillo, J A; Salinas, L; Cárdenas, M

    1978-01-01

    Twenty four cases with myocardial rupture among 259 patients with autopsy after death due to myocardial infarction, were compared with patients with acute myocardial infarction and death secondary to other causes. Myocardial rupture occured during the first 72 hours in 58% of the patients and all cases within the first five days. Two thirds of the patients were males and 46% were 70 years of age. There were 24 myocardial ruptures (9.5%). Previous history of arterial hypertension and un-remittent anginal pain were predisposing factors for rupture (p=0.05). Other previously reported bad prognostic factors such as persistent hipertension after acute infarction, severe exercise before infarction and history of Diabetes Mellitus were not statistically significant in this study. Ruptured myocardium was not influenced by a previous history of myocardial infarction, hospitalization delay in the C.C.U., administration of anticoagulants, digitalis or pressor amines. There was no significant difference among the groups compared in enzyme curves or magnitude of leucocytosis. Electromechanic dissociation, sinus bradycardia, nodal rhythm followed by idioventricular rhythm and asystole, were observed following myocardial rupture.

  2. Myocardium and microvessel endothelium apoptosis at day 7 following reperfused acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sheng; Yang, Yue-jin; Wu, Yi-ling; Chen, Yu-tong; Li, Li; Tian, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study was to investigate the salvaged myocardial and microvascular endothelial cells apoptosis at the first week of reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sixteen mini swines (20-30 kg) were randomly assigned to the sham-operated group and the AMI group. The acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion model was created, and pathologic myocardial tissue was collected at day 7 following left anterior descending coronary artery reperfusion, and detected by transmission electron microscope, in situ cell apoptosis detection (TUNEL method), Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction and Western blot. In the AMI group, the infarcted area showed the myolysis, fibroblast and injuried endothelial cells under transmission electron microscope. The infarcted area had higher apoptotic index of microvascular endothelial cells than the marginal area, the normal area, and the sham-operated area (all P<0.05). Fas and Bax mRNA expressions in the infarcted area were higher than those in the marginal area, the normal area, and the sham-operated area (all P<0.05), and both protein overexpressions and Bcl-2 low expression in the infarcted and marginal areas compared with the normal area and the sham-operated area. The overexpressions of Fas and Bax or the low expression of Bcl-2 in the infarcted and marginal heart tissue may play an important role in the acceleration of myocardial and endothelial apoptosis at 7th day following reperfused acute myocardial infarction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Myocardial Strain After Acute ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mangion, Kenneth; McComb, Christie; Auger, Daniel A; Epstein, Frederick H; Berry, Colin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a clinically relevant, disease-based perspective on myocardial strain imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction or stable ischemic heart disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging uniquely integrates myocardial function with pathology. Therefore, this review focuses on strain imaging with cardiac magnetic resonance. We have specifically considered the relationships between left ventricular (LV) strain, infarct pathologies, and their associations with prognosis. A comprehensive literature review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Publications were identified that (1) described the relationship between strain and infarct pathologies, (2) assessed the relationship between strain and subsequent LV outcomes, and (3) assessed the relationship between strain and health outcomes. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, circumferential strain predicts the recovery of LV systolic function in the longer term. The prognostic value of longitudinal strain is less certain. Strain differentiates between infarcted versus noninfarcted myocardium, even in patients with stable ischemic heart disease with preserved LV ejection fraction. Strain recovery is impaired in infarcted segments with intramyocardial hemorrhage or microvascular obstruction. There are practical limitations to measuring strain with cardiac magnetic resonance in the acute setting, and knowledge gaps, including the lack of data showing incremental value in clinical practice. Critically, studies of cardiac magnetic resonance strain imaging in patients with ischemic heart disease have been limited by sample size and design. Strain imaging has potential as a tool to assess for early or subclinical changes in LV function, and strain is now being included as a surrogate measure of outcome in therapeutic trials. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Highly automatic quantification of myocardial oedema in patients with acute myocardial infarction using bright blood T2-weighted CMR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is clinically-useful for imaging the ischemic area-at-risk and amount of salvageable myocardium in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, to date, quantification of oedema is user-defined and potentially subjective. Methods We describe a highly automatic framework for quantifying myocardial oedema from bright blood T2-weighted CMR in patients with acute MI. Our approach retains user input (i.e. clinical judgment) to confirm the presence of oedema on an image which is then subjected to an automatic analysis. The new method was tested on 25 consecutive acute MI patients who had a CMR within 48 hours of hospital admission. Left ventricular wall boundaries were delineated automatically by variational level set methods followed by automatic detection of myocardial oedema by fitting a Rayleigh-Gaussian mixture statistical model. These data were compared with results from manual segmentation of the left ventricular wall and oedema, the current standard approach. Results The mean perpendicular distances between automatically detected left ventricular boundaries and corresponding manual delineated boundaries were in the range of 1-2 mm. Dice similarity coefficients for agreement (0=no agreement, 1=perfect agreement) between manual delineation and automatic segmentation of the left ventricular wall boundaries and oedema regions were 0.86 and 0.74, respectively. Conclusion Compared to standard manual approaches, the new highly automatic method for estimating myocardial oedema is accurate and straightforward. It has potential as a generic software tool for physicians to use in clinical practice. PMID:23548176

  5. Evaluate the early changes of myocardial fibers in rhesus monkey during sub-acute stage of myocardial infarction using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqing; Cai, Wei; Wang, Lei; Xia, Rui

    2016-05-01

    The deterioration of cardiac mechanical function starts from the micro-alterations in the myocardial fibers after myocardial infarction (MI) due to the heart beats derived from the systole and diastole of the myocardial fibers. So, we want to evaluate quantitatively the early changes of myocardial fibers in rhesus monkey during sub-acute MI stage. Three fixed hearts with infarction after left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 7days and eight age-matched intact controls were scanned by ex-vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) to measure apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA) and helix angle (HA). In comparison with healthy controls, FA and transmural range of HA in MI regions showed a significant reduction whereas ADC showed a significant increment (p<0.01). The double-helix myocardial fibers shifted further to left-handed helix around the infarcted and adjacent myocardium but shifted further to right-handed helix in remote myocardium. HA is sensitive to evaluate quantitatively the early changes of myocardial fibers in sub-acute MI rhesus monkeys. The myocardial fibers in normal monkeys are similar to those in normal humans, suggesting that early changes of myocardial fibers in sub-acute MI monkeys can contribute to more accurately understand those in patients suffering sub-acute MI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The value of admission glycosylated hemoglobin level in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Mahmut; Cakmak, Nazmiye; Cetemen, Sebnem; Tanriverdi, Halil; Enc, Yavuz; Teskin, Onder; Kilic, I Dogu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level on admission is a prognostic factor for mortality in patients with and without diabetes after myocardial infarction. In the present study, the authors examined the relationship between admission HbA1c level and myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction who were treated with thrombolytic therapy were included in the present prospective study. Blood glucose and HbA1c levels of all patients were measured within 3 h of admission. Patients were divided into three groups according to HbA1c level: 4.5% to 6.4% (n=25), 6.5% to 8.5% (n=28) and higher than 8.5% (n=47). All patients then underwent exercise thallium-201 imaging and coronary angiography to determine ischemic scores and the number of diseased coronary arteries four weeks after admission. RESULTS: Seven patients died within the four-week follow-up period. There was a significant relationship between admission HbA1c level and mortality (P=0.009). Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between HbA1c level and total ischemic scores in patients with acute myocardial infarction (r=0.482; P=0.001). Ischemic scores increased as HbA1c levels increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that admission plasma glucose and HbA1c levels are prognostic factors associated with mortality after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:18464942

  7. Assessment of myocardial damage in dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by using indium-111-antimyosin Fab myocardial scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, T.; Nagata, S.; Uehara, T.; Hayashida, K.; Mitani, I.; Kumita, S. )

    1991-07-01

    For the detection of myocardial cell damage, an 111In-antimyosin Fab study was carried out on seven patients (Group A) in the dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, seven patients (Group B) with dilated cardiomyopathy, and eight control patients (Group C). Imaging was done 48 hr after intravenous injection of 74 MBq of 111In-antimyosin Fab. Myocardial antimyosin uptake was visually graded as 0, +1, +2 or +3. A score of +2 or +3 was considered positive. The heart/lung ratio of antimyosin uptake (antimyosin index) also was determined. Antimyosin uptake was positive in seven (100%), nine (90%) and no (0%) patients in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. The antimyosin index in Groups A and B was 2.46 {plus minus} 0.49 and 2.04 {plus minus} 0.24, respectively, findings were significantly higher than that in Group C (1.51 {plus minus} 0.13) (p less than 0.01). Positive biopsy findings were noted in only two patients in Group A. Thus, antimyosin uptake was increased in dilated phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy, which suggests ongoing necrotic changes in these patients.

  8. Resilience as a correlate of acute stress disorder symptoms in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Rebecca E; Weber, Tania; Princip, Mary; Schnyder, Ulrich; Barth, Jürgen; Znoj, Hansjörg; Schmid, Jean-Paul; von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Myocardial infarction (MI) may be experienced as a traumatic event causing acute stress disorder (ASD). This mental disorder has an impact on the daily life of patients and is associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Trait resilience has been shown to be a protective factor for post-traumatic stress disorder, but its association with ASD in patients with MI is elusive and was examined in this study. Methods We investigated 71 consecutive patients with acute MI within 48 h of having stable haemodynamic conditions established and for 3 months thereafter. All patients completed the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and the Resilience Scale to self-rate the severity of ASD symptoms and trait resilience, respectively. Results Hierarchical regression analysis showed that greater resilience was associated with lower symptoms of ASD independent of covariates (b=−0.22, p<0.05). Post hoc analysis revealed resilience level to be inversely associated with the ASD symptom clusters of re-experiencing (b=−0.05, p<0.05) and arousal (b=−0.09, p<0.05), but not with dissociation and avoidance. Conclusions The findings suggest that patients with acute MI with higher trait resilience experience relatively fewer symptoms of ASD during MI. Resilience was particularly associated with re-experiencing and arousal symptoms. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of resilience as a potentially important correlate of ASD in the context of traumatic situations such as acute MI. These results emphasise the importance of identifying patients with low resilience in medical settings and to offer them adequate support. PMID:26568834

  9. Acute Myocardial Infarction in Women: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Laxmi S; Beckie, Theresa M; DeVon, Holli A; Grines, Cindy L; Krumholz, Harlan M; Johnson, Michelle N; Lindley, Kathryn J; Vaccarino, Viola; Wang, Tracy Y; Watson, Karol E; Wenger, Nanette K

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in American women. Since 1984, the annual cardiovascular disease mortality rate has remained greater for women than men; however, over the last decade, there have been marked reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality in women. The dramatic decline in mortality rates for women is attributed partly to an increase in awareness, a greater focus on women and cardiovascular disease risk, and the increased application of evidence-based treatments for established coronary heart disease. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on acute myocardial infarction in women. Sex-specific differences exist in the presentation, pathophysiological mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of women with acute myocardial infarction. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  11. Creatine kinase radioimmunoassay and isoenzyme electrophoresis compared in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Homburger, H.A.; Jacob, G.L.

    1980-07-01

    We compared, in 116 patients, the relative usefulness of results of tests for creatine kinase B-isoenzymes, as measured by radioimmunoassay, and the MB isoenzyme, as measured by electrophoresis, in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The radioimmunoassay was specific for isoenzymes of creatine kinase containing the B subunit. All patients with acute transmural infarcts had positive test results by both techniques, but concentrations of B-isoenzymes were more frequently above normal than were MB bands in the case of patients with acute subendocardial infarcts and in the case of all patients with acute myocardial infarcts from whom sera were collected more than 24 h after onset of chest pain. Concentrations of B-isoenzymes also were increased, even when MB bands were not electrophoretically detectable in specimens from several patients without documented acute myocardial infarcts. These abnormal results presumably were caused by increased concentrations of the BB isoenzyme in serum. Accordingly, an increased concentration of B-isoenzymes had less diagnostic specificity and predictive value for acute myocardial infarction than did a detectable MB band. Results of isoenzyme electrophoresis were more reliable for establishing this diagnosis, but the results of radioimmunoassay were more reliable for excluding it in patients with chest pain as the primary symptom.

  12. Effect of Pericardial Effusion Complicating ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction as Predictor of Extensive Myocardial Damage and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Jobs, Alexander; Eitel, Charlotte; Pöss, Janine; Desch, Steffen; Thiele, Holger; Eitel, Ingo

    2015-10-01

    Pericardial effusion (PE) is a common complication following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the frequency and prognostic relevance of PE complicating STEMI are unknown. Aim of this study was to investigate the exact incidence, infarct characteristics, and the prognostic impact of moderate-to-large PEs detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with acute reperfused STEMI. In total, 780 patients with STEMI reperfused by angioplasty (<12 hours after symptom onset) were enrolled in this CMR study at 8 centers. CMR was completed in median 3 days after infarction using a standardized protocol. Central core laboratory-masked analysis for the presence of moderate-to-large PE was performed. The primary clinical end point was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as composite of all-cause death, reinfarction, and new congestive heart failure within 12 months after the index event. A moderate-to-large PE was detected in 183 patients (24%). Patients with moderate-to-large PEs had significantly larger infarcts, less myocardial salvage, a larger extent of microvascular obstruction, higher incidence of intramyocardial hemorrhage, and more pronounced left ventricular dysfunction (p <0.001 for all). Significant predictors of a moderate-to-large PE were age, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow before percutaneous coronary intervention, and infarct size. MACE rates were significantly higher in the PE group (p = 0.003) and a moderate-to-large PE was identified as a significant independent predictor for MACE (hazard ratio 3.12, 95% confidence interval 1.49 to 6.81; p = 0.003) together with Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score and left ventricular ejection fraction. In conclusion, a moderate-to-large PE complicating STEMI is a common finding (almost 25%) and related to more severe infarcts with subsequent significantly increased MACE rates during 1-year follow-up. Consequently, a moderate-to-large PE

  13. [Myocardial ultrastructural changes in rats following different levels of acute +Gz exposure].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Liu, Cheng-gang; Ren, Li; Xiao, Xiao-guang; Xu, Shu-xuan; Wang, Ping; Ji, Gui-ying

    2004-06-01

    To observe the effects of different levels of acute +Gz exposure on myocardial ultrastructure of rats and provide experimental basis for further development of anti-G measures. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5): normal control group, +20 Gz group, +10 Gz group and +5 Gz group. Profile of the centrifuge +Gz exposure was trapezoidal, in which +20 Gz lasted for 30 s, +10 Gz for 1.5 min. +5 Gz exposure was repeated for 3 times with 30 min interval and each for 1.5 min. Myocardial tissue of left ventricle was sampled for transmission electron microscopy 5 h after exposure. +20 Gz and +10 Gz exposure caused obvious edema of myocardial and endothelial cells, myofibril disorder and injuries of mitochondria and nucleus. Breaks of myocardial fiber, formation of contraction bands and rupture of mitochondria were also observed in +20 Gz group. In +5 Gz group, there was still slight edema of myocardial and endothelial cells, while organic changes of myocardial ultrastructure were not observed. High +Gz exposure can cause myocardial ultrastructural injury in rats. Slight reversible injured response can also be observed in myocardial cell after repeated moderate level of +Gz exposure. This indicates that attention should be paid to the study of the effect of high +Gz on heart in pilots.

  14. Quality of health information on acute myocardial infarction and stroke in the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Ana; Paiva, Dagmara; Azevedo, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The quality of health information in the Internet may be low. This is a concerning issue in cardiovascular diseases which warrant patient self-management. We aimed to assess the quality of Portuguese websites as a source of health information on acute myocardial infarction and stroke. We used the search terms 'enfarte miocardio' and 'acidente vascular cerebral' (Portuguese terms for myocardial infarction and stroke) on Google(®), on April 5th and 7th 2011, respectively, using Internet Explorer(®). The first 200 URL retrieved in each search were independently visited and Portuguese websites in Portuguese language were selected. We analysed and classified 121 websites for structural characteristics, information coverage and accuracy of the web pages with items defined a priori, trustworthiness in general according to the Health on the Net Foundation and regarding treatments using the DISCERN instrument (48 websites). Websites were most frequently commercial (49.5%), not exclusively dedicated to acute myocardial infarction/ stroke (94.2%), and with information on medical facts (59.5%), using images, video or animation (60.3%). Websites' trustworthiness was low. None of the websites displayed the Health on the Net Foundation seal. Acute myocardial infarction/ stroke websites differed in information coverage but the accuracy of the information was acceptable, although often incomplete. The quality of information on acute myocardial infarction/ stroke in Portuguese websites was acceptable. Trustworthiness was low, impairing users' capability of identifying potentially more reliable content.

  15. Acute inferior myocardial infarction in a patient with a prosthetic aortic valve and high international normalized ratio

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Ibrahim; Delil, Kenan; Ileri, Cigdem; Samadov, Fuad

    2014-01-01

    ST elevation acute myocardial infarction in patients with a mechanical prosthetic valve is rare and usually due to inadequate anticoagulation. We present a case of acute inferior myocardial infarction in a patient with a prosthetic aortic valve and high international normalized ratio, which has not been reported previously. PMID:24799934

  16. Daylight saving time transitions and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Čulić, Viktor

    2013-06-01

    Most recently, the possible impact of transitions to and from daylight saving time (DST) on the increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been suggested. The goal of this report was to analyze independent influence of DST transitions on the incidence of AMI with simultaneous control for the confounding presence of situational triggers such as physical exertion, emotional stress, heavy meals, and sexual intercourse, as well as for other clinical factors. Detailed information was obtained from 2412 patients and included baseline characteristics, working status, exact time of AMI, possible external triggers, cardiovascular risk factors, and prehospital medication. AMI incidence on days after the DST was compared with incidence during control periods and patient characteristics, cardiovascular medication, and circumstances of AMI were evaluated to identify potential risk modifiers. Relative risks of AMI and differences in patient characteristics were expressed through incidence ratios and odds ratios, respectively, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analysis was performed by using a stepwise multiple regression to assess the independent predictive significance of the characteristics of patients for the AMI occurring in the posttransitional period. The incidence ratio for AMI for the first four workdays after the spring DST transition was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.09-1.49) and the excess was particularly prominent on Monday. In autumn, the incidence ratio for AMI for this 4-d period was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.19-1.69), with peaks on Tuesday and Thursday. The independent predictors for AMI during this period in spring were male sex (p = 0.03) and nonengagement in physical activity (p = 0.02) and there was a trend for the lower risk of incident among those taking calcium antagonists (p = 0.07). In autumn, the predictors were female sex (p = 0.04), current employment (p = 0.006), not taking β-blocker (p = 0.03), and nonengagement in physical activity (p

  17. Paclitaxel Induced Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sankalp; Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel, is a frequently used anti-neoplastic agent and is included in various chemotherapy regimens. The life threatening cardio toxicity associated with its use and the still unclear pathophysiology, has limited the use of this drug. Acute myocardial infarction is a rare adverse event associated with this drug. We report a case of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction induced by paclitaxel infusion in a patient of oesophageal carcinoma who was saved by percutaneous primary intervention. The authors emphasize the awareness of this side effect of Paclitaxel among the clinicians. PMID:27891444

  18. Acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock: pharmacologic and mechanical hemodynamic support pathways.

    PubMed

    Graf, Tobias; Desch, Steffen; Eitel, Ingo; Thiele, Holger

    2015-09-01

    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is still the predominant cause of in-hospital death in patients with acute myocardial infarction, although mortality has been reduced in recent years. Early percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting are causal therapies implemented in CS, supported by catecholamines, fluids, intra-aortic balloon pumping, and also active percutaneous assist devices. There is only limited evidence from randomized studies of any of these treatments in CS, except for early revascularization and the relative ineffectiveness of intra-aortic balloon pumping. This review will present treatment pathways of CS complicating acute myocardial infarction, with a major focus on revascularization, intensive care unit treatment, and mechanical support devices.

  19. Myocardial Microvascular Responsiveness During Acute Cardiac Sympathectomy Induced by Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Bulte, Carolien S E; Boer, Christa; Hartemink, Koen J; Kamp, Otto; Heymans, Martijn W; Loer, Stephen A; de Marchi, Stefano F; Vogel, Rolf; Bouwman, R Arthur

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute cardiac sympathectomy by thoracic epidural anesthesia on myocardial blood flow and microvascular function. A prospective observational study. The study was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital. Ten patients with a mean age of 48 years (range 22-63 years) scheduled for thoracic surgery. Myocardial contrast echocardiography was used to study myocardial blood flow and microvascular responsiveness at rest, during adenosine-induced hyperemia, and after sympathetic stimulation by the cold pressor test. Repeated measurements were performed without and with thoracic epidural anesthesia. An increased myocardial blood volume was observed with thoracic epidural anesthesia compared to baseline (from 0.08±0.02 to 0.10±0.03 mL/mL; p = 0.02). No difference existed in resting myocardial blood flow between baseline conditions and epidural anesthesia (0.85±0.24 v 1.03±0.27 mL/min/g, respectively). Hyperemia during thoracic epidural anesthesia increased myocardial blood flow to 4.31±1.07 mL/min/g (p = 0.0008 v baseline) and blood volume to 0.17±0.04 mL/mL (p = 0.005 baseline). After sympathetic stimulation, no difference in myocardial blood flow parameters was observed CONCLUSIONS: Acute cardiac sympathectomy by thoracic epidural anesthesia increased the blood volume in the myocardial capillary system. Also, thoracic epidural anesthesia increased hyperemic myocardial blood flow, indicating augmented endothelial-independent vasodilator capacity of the myocardium. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Acute non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: a distinct clinical entity of increasing importance.

    PubMed Central

    Montague, T J; MacKenzie, B R; Henderson, M A; Macdonald, R G; Forbes, C J; Chandler, B M

    1988-01-01

    Despite the increasing incidence of acute non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, controversy remains regarding its validity as a distinct pathophysiologic physiologic and clinical entity. Review of the data indicates that the controversy is more apparent than real. The pathophysiologic factor discriminating best between non-Q-wave and Q-wave infarction is the incidence rate of total occlusion of the infarct-related artery, approximately 30% in non-Q-wave infarction and 80% in Q-wave infarction. Patients with non-Q-wave infarction have a higher incidence of pre-existing angina than patients with Q-wave infarction; they also have lower peak creatine kinase levels, higher ejection fractions and lower wall-motion abnormality scores, which suggests a smaller area of acute infarction damage. However, patients with non-Q-wave infarction have a significantly shorter time to peak creatine kinase level and more heterogeneous ventriculographic and electrocardiographic infarct patterns. The in-hospital death rate is lower in non-Q-wave than in Q-wave infarction (approximately 12% v. 19%). The long-term death rates are similar for the two groups (27% and 23%), but the incidence of subsequent coronary events is higher among patients with non-Q-wave infarction; in particular, reinfarction is an important predictor of risk of death. Most of the differences in biologic and clinical variables between the two types of acute infarction can be related to a lower incidence of total occlusion, earlier reperfusion or better collateral supply in non-Q-wave infarction. Further study is needed to better characterize the long-term risk and to define the most appropriate therapies. PMID:3044553

  1. Clinical Effects of Hypertension on the Mortality of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Goo; Ahn, Yongkeun; Chae, Shung Chull; Hur, Seung Ho; Hong, Taek Jong; Kim, Young Jo; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Rhew, Jay Young; Chae, In Ho; Cho, Myeong Chan; Bae, Jang Ho; Rha, Seung Woon; Kim, Chong Jin; Jang, Yang Soo; Yoon, Junghan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of ischemic heart disease has been increased rapidly in Korea. However, the clinical effects of antecedent hypertension on acute myocardial infarction have not been identified. We assessed the relationship between antecedent hypertension and clinical outcomes in 7,784 patients with acute myocardial infarction in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry during one-year follow-up. Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease were more prevalent in hypertensives (n=3,775) than nonhypertensives (n=4,009). During hospitalization, hypertensive patients suffered from acute renal failure, shock, and cerebrovascular event more frequently than in nonhypertensives. During follow-up of one-year, the incidence of major adverse cardiac events was higher in hypertensives. In multi-variate adjustment, old age, Killip class ≥III, left ventricular ejection fraction <45%, systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg on admission, post procedural TIMI flow grade ≤2, female sex, and history of hypertension were independent predictors for in-hospital mortality. However antecedent hypertension was not significantly associated with one-year mortality. Hypertension at the time of acute myocardial infarction is associated with an increased rate of in-hospital mortality. PMID:19794974

  2. Acute myocardial infarction in young adults with antiphospholipid syndrome: report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Abid, Leila; Frikha, Faten; Bahloul, Zouhir; Kammoun, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is rarely associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. The treatment of these patients is a clinical challenge. We report the observations of 2 young adults (1 woman and 1 man), admitted in our acute care unit for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A coagulopathy work-up concludes the existence of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in the 2 cases. APS syndrome was considered primary in 2 cases. All patients presented an intense inflammatory syndrome (high level of CRP). Anticardiolipine was present in the 2 cases. However, anti B2 glycoprotein I antibodies were detected in only one case. Emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with direct stenting had been performed successfully only in the first case, and the follow-up was uncomplicated. Thereafter, long-term oral anticoagulant appeared to be effective. The last patient was admitted because of peripheral acute ischemia of legs. Standard electrocardiogram showed signs of previous silent anteroseptal wall myocardial infarction confirmed by echocardiography. The latter revealed an apical thrombus and a very low left ventricular ejection fraction. Amputation of the right leg was necessary because of consultation occurred too late. However, he died four weeks later. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome should be considered as a cause of acute myocardial infarction in young adults, and PTCA with anticoagulant treatment is effective for initial treatment of this complication.

  3. Invasive measurement of coronary microvascular resistance in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Amier, Raquel P; Teunissen, Paul F A; Marques, Koen M; Knaapen, Paul; van Royen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Up to 40% of patients with acute myocardial infarction develop microvascular obstruction (MVO) despite successful treatment with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The presence of MVO is linked to negative remodelling and left ventricular dysfunction, leading to decreased long-term survival, increased morbidity and reduced quality of life. The acute obstruction and dysfunction of the microvasculature can potentially be reversed by pharmacological treatment in addition to the standard PCI treatment. Identifying patients with post-PCI occurrence of MVO is essential in assessing which patients could benefit from additional treatment. However, at present there is no validated method to identify these patients. Angiographic parameters like myocardial blush grade or corrected Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow do not accurately predict the occurrence of MVO as visualised by MRI in the days after the acute event. Theoretically, acute MVO can be detected by intracoronary measurements of flow and resistance directly following the PCI procedure. In MVO the microvasculature is obstructed or destructed and will therefore display a higher coronary microvascular resistance (CMVR). The methods for intracoronary assessment of CMVR are based on either thermodilution or Doppler-flow measurements. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the currently available methods and parameters for assessing CMVR, with special attention given to their use in clinical practice and information provided by clinical studies performed in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  4. Side effects of using nitrates to treat heart failure and the acute coronary syndromes, unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Thadani, Udho; Ripley, Toni L

    2007-07-01

    Nitrates are potent venous dilators and anti-ischemic agents. They are widely used for the relief of chest pain and pulmonary congestion in patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure. Nitrates, however, do not reduce mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Combination of nitrates and hydralazine when given in addition to beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality and heart failure hospitalizations in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction who are of African-American origin. Side effects during nitrate therapy are common but are less well described in the literature compared with the reported side effects in patients with stable angina pectoris. The reported incidence of side effects varies highly among different studies and among various disease states. Headache is the most commonly reported side effect with an incidence of 12% in acute heart failure, 41-73% in chronic heart failure, 3-19% in unstable angina and 2-26% in acute myocardial infarction. The reported incidence of hypotension also differs: 5-10% in acute heart failure, 20% in chronic heart failure, 9% in unstable angina and < 1-48% in acute myocardial infarction, with the incidence being much higher with concomitant nitrate therapy plus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Reported incidence of dizziness is as low as 1% in patients with acute myocardial infarction to as high as 29% in patients with heart failure. Severe headaches and/or symptomatic hypotension may necessitate discontinuation of nitrate therapy. Severe life threatening hypotension or even death may occur when nitrates are used in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction associated with right ventricular dysfunction or infarction, or with concomitant use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine. Despite the disturbing observational reports in the literature that continuous and prolonged use of nitrates may lead to

  5. Regional heterogeneity in cardiac sympathetic innervation in acute myocardial infarction: relationship with myocardial oedema on magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gimelli, Alessia; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Liga, Riccardo; Grigoratos, Chrysanthos; Pasanisi, Emilio Maria; Lombardi, Massimo; Marzullo, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    To assess the relationships between myocardial structure and function on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and sympathetic tone on (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) scintigraphy early after myocardial infarction (MI). Ten patients underwent (123)I-MIBG and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin rest cadmium zinc telluride scintigraphy 4 ± 1 days after MI. The segmental left ventricular (LV) relative radiotracer uptake of both (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin and early (123)I-MIBG was calculated. The day after scintigraphy, on CMR imaging, the extent of ischaemia-related oedema and of myocardial fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement, LGE) was assessed. Accordingly, the extent of oedema and LGE was evaluated for each segment and segmental wall thickening determined. Based on LGE distribution, LV segments were categorized as "infarcted" (56 segments), "adjacent" (66 segments) or "remote" (48 segments). Infarcted segments showed a more depressed systolic wall thickening and greater extent of oedema than adjacent segments (p < 0.001) and remote segments (p < 0.001). Interestingly, while uptake of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin was significantly depressed only in infarcted segments (p < 0.001 vs. both adjacent and remote segments), uptake of (123)I-MIBG was impaired not only in infarcted segments (p < 0.001 vs. remote) but also in adjacent segments (p = 0.024 vs. remote segments). At the regional level, after correction for (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin and LGE distribution, segmental (123)I-MIBG uptake (p < 0.001) remained an independent predictor of ischaemia-related oedema. After acute MI the regional impairment of sympathetic tone extends beyond the area of altered myocardial perfusion and is associated with myocardial oedema.

  6. Abrupt opium discontinuation has no significant triggering effect on acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Masoomi, Mohammad; Zare, Jahangir; Nasri, Hamidreza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad

    2011-04-01

    A deleterious effect of withdrawal symptoms due to abrupt discontinuation of opium on the cardiovascular system is one of the recent interesting topics in the cardiovascular field. The current study hypothesized that the withdrawal syndrome due to discontinuing opium might be an important trigger for the appearance of acute myocardial infarction. Eighty-one opium-addicted individuals who were candidates for cardiovascular clinical evaluation and consecutively hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) ward of Shafa Hospital in Kerman between January and July 2009 were included in the study and categorized in the case group, including patients experiencing withdrawal symptoms within 6-12 h after the reduced or discontinued use of opium according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-revised IV version (DSM-IV-R) criteria for opium dependence and withdrawal, and the control group, without opium withdrawal symptoms. The appearance of acute myocardial infarction was compared between the two groups using multivariable regression models. Acute myocardial infarction occurred in 50.0% of those with withdrawal symptoms and in 45.1% of patients without evidence of opium withdrawal (P = 0.669). Multivariable analysis showed that opium withdrawal symptoms were not a trigger for acute myocardial infarction adjusting for demographic characteristics, marital status, education level and common coronary artery disease risk profiles [odds ratio (OR) = 0.920, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.350-2.419, P = 0.866]. Also, daily dose of opium before reducing or discontinuing use did not predict the appearance of myocardial infarction in the presence of confounder variables (OR = 0.975, 95% CI = 0.832-1.143, P = 0.755). Withdrawal syndrome due to abrupt discontinuation of opium does not have a triggering role for appearance of acute myocardial infarction.

  7. Indium-111 antimyosin scintigraphy to assess myocardial damage in patients with suspected myocarditis and cardiac rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Carrio, I.; Berna, L.; Ballester, M.; Estorch, M.; Obrador, D.; Cladellas, M.; Abadal, L.; Ginjaume, M.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111 antimyosin scans were used to assess myocardial damage in patients with suspected myocarditis and cardiac transplant rejection. The calculation of a myocardium to lung ratio (AM index) to quantify antimyosin uptake was performed. AM index in normal subjects (n = 8) at 48 hr postinjection was 1.46 +/- 0.04. In patients with suspected myocarditis (16 studies in 13 patients), AM index was 2.0 +/- 0.5 (p less than 0.001); suggesting a considerable incidence of ongoing cell damage in this group, despite the small proportion of positive right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy (RVbx) (4/13). In patients studied after cardiac transplantation (37 studies in 17 patients), AM indexes correlated with RVbx. In patients with RVbx proven rejection (n = 14), AM index was 1.87 +/- 0.19 (p less than 0.001). In patients with RVbx showing infiltrates but not myocyte damage (n = 13), AM index was 1.80 +/- 0.27 (p = 0.02). In patients with normal RVbx (n = 10), AM index was 1.56 +/- 0.17 (p = NS versus controls; p = 0.001 versus those with positive RVbx). Calculated AM indexes correlated with graded visual analysis of the scans (r = 0.823; p = 0.001). Antimyosin scans are an appropriate method to assess myocardial damage in patients with suspected myocarditis and cardiac rejection.

  8. The effects of 201Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy studies on oxidative damage in patients.

    PubMed

    Cicek, E; Yildiz, M; Delibas, N; Bahçeli, S

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage in erythrocytes after 201Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Twenty patients (8 women and 12 men) who performed 201Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were included in this study. The blood samples were taken from patients just before, 1 hour after and three hours after injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were measured to evaluate the gamma radiation induced oxidative damage. The enzyme activities of SOD, GPX and CAT were decreased 1 hour after (p = 0.042, p = 0.697 and p = 0.653 respectively) and 3 hours after (p = 0.003, p = 0.573 and p = 0.002 respectively) injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Malondialdehyde levels were increased 1 hour after (p = 0.10) and 3 hours after (p = 0.47) injection of the radiopharmaceutical. In this study, we found that radiation due to 201Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy decreased the erythrocyte antioxidant levels and increased MDA levels.

  9. Inflammatory and fibrotic responses of cardiac fibroblasts to myocardial damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs).

    PubMed

    Turner, Neil A

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) are well-established as key regulators of extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover in the context of myocardial remodelling and fibrosis. Recently, this cell type has also been shown to act as a sensor of myocardial damage by detecting and responding to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) upregulated with cardiac injury. CF express a range of innate immunity pattern recognition receptors (TLRs, NLRs, IL-1R1, RAGE) that are stimulated by a host of different DAMPs that are evident in the injured or remodelling myocardium. These include intracellular molecules released by necrotic cells (heat shock proteins, high mobility group box 1 protein, S100 proteins), proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1α), specific ECM molecules up-regulated in response to tissue injury (fibronectin-EDA, tenascin-C) or molecules modified by a pathological environment (advanced glycation end product-modified proteins observed with diabetes). DAMP receptor activation on fibroblasts is coupled to altered cellular function including changes in proliferation, migration, myofibroblast transdifferentiation, ECM turnover and production of fibrotic and inflammatory paracrine factors, which directly impact on the heart's ability to respond to injury. This review gives an overview of the important role played by CF in responding to myocardial DAMPs and how the DAMP/CF axis could be exploited experimentally and therapeutically.

  10. NT-proBNP predicts myocardial recovery after non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Broch, Kaspar; Eek, Christian; Wergeland, Ragnhild; Ueland, Thor; Skårdal, Rita; Aukrust, Pål; Skulstad, Helge; Gullestad, Lars

    2012-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the associations between B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), troponin T (TnT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and changes in left ventricular function and size after acute coronary syndrome. In 119 patients admitted for non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, echocardiography and blood sampling were performed prior to coronary angiography. Echocardiography was repeated at follow-up after 8 ± 3 months. Left ventricular function was assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography. In 50 patients, infarct size was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The associations between baseline levels of NT-proBNP, TnT and CRP and myocardial functional recovery, left ventricular intraventricular volumes and infarct size were determined by linear regression. All three biomarkers were associated with myocardial dysfunction at baseline. However, high levels of NT-proBNP were associated with better myocardial recovery, as measured by global longitudinal strain, even after adjusting for other factors potentially influencing myocardial recovery. Elevated levels of NT-proBNP at baseline are independently associated with improved myocardial performance 8 months after non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.

  11. [Effect of puerarin in myocardial protection in rats with acute and chronic alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Cui, Shu-qin

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the protective effect of puerarin on the myocardium of rats with acute and chronic alcoholism. In acute alcoholism experiment, normal male SD rats were randomly divided into the control group, alcoholism group and puerarin group (n=8), and high- and low-dose puerarin was administered. In chronic alcoholism experiment, increasing puerarin doses were given. Serum and myocardial levels of spartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were determined using enzymatic methed, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase, and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in the myocardium were assayed with colorimetric method. HE staining was used to observe the microscopic changes of the myocardium. Compared with alcoholism group, puerarin-treated groups showed significantly lowered myocardial contents of MDA, CPK and AST and serum levels of AST and CPK (P<0.05, P<0.01) and increased myocardial SOD (P<0.05, P<0.01), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activity (P<0.05, P<0.01), but Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). HE staining of the myocardium showed cell swelling and obscure cell boundaries in alcoholism group, especially in chronic alcoholism group. The myocardial structure in puerarin group remained clear and regular. Puerarin can protect from myocardial injuries induced by acute and chronic alcoholism in rats.

  12. Effect of decellularized tissue powders on a rat model of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Masaki; Negishi, Jun; Yamashita, Akitatsu; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio; Funamoto, Seiichi

    2015-11-01

    Many research groups are currently investigating new treatment modalities for myocardial infarction. Numerous aspects need to be considered for the clinical application of these therapies, such as low cell integration and engraftment rates of cell injection techniques. Decellularized tissues are considered good materials for promoting regeneration of traumatic tissues. The properties of the decellularized tissues are sustained after processing to powder form. In this study, we examined the use of decellularized tissue powder in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The decellularized tissue powders, especially liver powder, promoted cell integration and neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Decellularized liver powder induced neovascularization in the infarct area, resulting in the suppression of myocardial necrosis. The results of this study suggest that decellularized liver powder has good potential for application as a blood supply material for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of fatty acid metabolism in taxan-induced myocardial damage with iodine-123 BMIPP SPECT: comparative study with myocardial perfusion, left ventricular function, and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimimasa; Takeda, Kan; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Imai, Hiroshi; Sekine, Takao; Kamikura, Yuko

    2003-09-01

    We investigated myocardial fatty acid metabolism in taxan-induced myocardial damage in patients with advanced lung cancer. Twenty-five patients with non-small-cell lung cancer were treated with taxan combined with carboplatin intravenously for three cycles. Myocardial SPECT imaging using 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) and 123I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) was performed successively before and after chemotherapy. Regional uptake scores of BMIPP and MIBI were visually assessed and total uptake scores and the number of abnormal segments were calculated. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was obtained by first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography using MIBI. Postmortem pathological examination was performed in 5 patients. Total BMIPP uptake scores after chemotherapy were significantly lower than those before chemotherapy (23.4 +/- 3.4 vs. 26.6 +/- 0.8; p < 0.001). Mean LVEF showed a significant decrease after chemotherapy. Of the 25 patients, 4 exhibited a decrease in LVEF of more than 10%, 1 had a decrease in LVEF to below 50%, and 1 developed congestive heart failure. These 6 patients had significant decreases in total BMIPP uptake scores and increases in the number of abnormal segments as compared with the other 19 patients. Histopathological examination of myocardial tissue showed interstitial edema and disarrayed myocardial cells. Taxan impairs myocardial fatty acid metabolism. 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT is useful for evaluating the cardiotoxicity induced by taxan.

  14. Effects of Intracoronary Administration of Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Bo Won; Ahn, Jinhee; Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Jin Sup; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Sang-Pil; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Ji Yeon; Park, Mi Hwa; Jung, Jin Sup

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are known to be potentially effective in regeneration of damaged tissue. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of intracoronary administration of ADSCs in reducing the infarction area and improving function after acute transmural myocardial infarction (MI) in a porcine model. Materials and Methods ADSCs were obtained from each pig's abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue by simple liposuction. After 3 passages of 14-days culture, 2 million ADSCs were injected into the coronary artery 30 min after acute transmural MI. At baseline and 4 weeks after the ADSC injection, 99mTc methoxyisobutylisonitrile-single photon emission computed tomography (MIBI-SPECT) was performed to evaluate the left ventricular volume, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; %), and perfusion defects as well as the myocardial salvage (%) and salvage index. At 4 weeks, each pig was sacrificed, and the heart was extracted and dissected. Gross and microscopic analyses with specific immunohistochemistry staining were then performed. Results Analysis showed improvement in the perfusion defect, but not in the LVEF in the ADSC group (n=14), compared with the control group (n=14) (perfusion defect, -13.0±10.0 vs. -2.6±12.0, p=0.019; LVEF, -8.0±15.4 vs. -15.9±14.8, p=0.181). There was a tendency of reducing left ventricular volume in ADSC group. The ADSCs identified by stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) staining were well co-localized by von Willebrand factor and Troponin T staining. Conclusion Intracoronary injection of cultured ADSCs improved myocardial perfusion in this porcine acute transmural MI model. PMID:26446632

  15. Apigenin attenuates acute myocardial infarction of rats via the inhibitions of matrix metalloprotease-9 and inflammatory reactions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hong; Hao, Jie; Liu, Fan; Lu, Jingchao; Yang, Xiuchun

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the myocardial necrosis caused by coronary artery acute and persistent ischemia and hypoxia. Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in a series of process of occurrence and development of AMI. Inflammatory reaction plays the key role in all kinds of damage factors in AMI. Apigenin (API) has effectively restrained the activity of MMP-9, anti-inflammatory and hepatic fat oxidizing properties. API significantly improved AMI of rats through inhibiting MMP-9 and inflammatory reactions in a few recent studies. Our investigation detected the infarct size of AMI rats, casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) activities in AMI rats were also analyzed with commercial kits. Additionally, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels of whole bloods of AMI rats were also detected using commercial kits. Next, MMP-9 protein of cardiac in AMI rats was measured with gelatin zymography assays. Finally, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in AMI rats were analyzed with commercial kits. In the present study, our work indicated API might significantly reduce the infarction size of AMI rat. It was shown that the treatment of API could decrease the expression of MMP-9 level and reduce the activities of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in AMI rats. Next, API treatment could reduce caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities and decrease cellular apoptosis of AMI rats. Our findings concluded that API ameliorates acute myocardial infarction of rats via inhibiting MMP-9 and inflammatory reactions. PMID:26309539

  16. Value of planar 201Tl imaging in risk stratification of patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D. )

    1991-09-01

    Although exercise ECG testing has been shown to have important prognostic value after acute myocardial infarction, exercise 201Tl scintigraphy offers several potential advantages, including: (1) increased sensitivity for detecting residual myocardial ischemia; (2) the ability to localize ischemia to a specific area or areas subtended by a specific coronary artery; (3) the ability to identify exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction, which is manifested by increased lung uptake or transient left ventricular dilation; and (4) more reliable risk stratification of individual patients. The more optimal prognostic efficiency of 201Tl scintigraphy partially results from the fact that the error rate in falsely classifying patients as low risk is significantly smaller with 201Tl scintigraphy than with stress ECG. Because of these substantial advantages, there seems to be adequate rationale for recommending exercise perfusion imaging rather than exercise ECG alone as the preferred method for evaluating mortality and morbidity risks after acute myocardial infarction.

  17. Clinical review: mechanical circulatory support for cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the 10 leading reasons for admission to adult critical care units. In-hospital mortality for this condition has remained static in recent years, and this is related primarily to the development of cardiogenic shock. Recent advances in reperfusion therapies have had little impact on the mortality of cardiogenic shock. This may be attributable to the underutilization of life support technology that may assist or completely supplant the patient's own cardiac output until adequate myocardial recovery is established or long-term therapy can be initiated. Clinicians working in the intensive care environment are increasingly likely to be exposed to these technologies. The purpose of this review is to outline the various techniques of mechanical circulatory support and discuss the latest evidence for their use in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. PMID:21067535

  18. Acute myocardial infarction in a patient with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Beyranvand, Mohammad-Reza; Namazi, Mohammad-Hassan; Mohsenzadeh, Yusef; Assadpour Piranfar, Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    A 37-year-old man, a known case of Behcet's disease with its vascular complications such as abdominal and thoracic artery aneurysms, was admitted with the diagnosis of acute anterior myocardial infarction and received thrombolytic therapy. Coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention via transradial approach were performed for the patient on the eighth day of admission. The patient did not suffer from any symptoms, myocardial infarction, or readmission in the nine-month follow-up. About 25 cases of myocardial infarction associated with Behcet's disease have been reported previously. Although coronary involvement is rare in Behcet's disease, it is especially important because it affects young individuals and often presents as acute coronary syndromes.

  19. Impaired baroreflex control of vascular resistance and heart rate in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, T; Takeshita, A; Makino, N; Ashihara, T; Yamamoto, K; Nakamura, M

    1984-01-01

    The baroreflex control of vascular resistance and heart rate was studied in 11 patients to determine whether it is impaired in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Reflex forearm vasoconstriction in response to lower body negative pressure at 40 mm Hg was less in the early convalescent phase (mean seven days) than in the late convalescent phase (mean 41 days). Pressor as well as vasoconstricting responses to the cold pressor test did not differ between the early and late convalescent phases. The slope of the regression line relating systolic blood pressure and the RR interval during a transient rise in blood pressure produced by intravenous phenylephrine was appreciably reduced in the early convalescent phase of myocardial infarction. These results suggest that baroreflex control of vascular resistance and heart rate is impaired in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:6477780

  20. Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy and puerperium in athletic women. Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Badui, E; Rangel, A; Enciso, R; Espinosa, R; Bermudez, G; Luna, P; Lepe, L; Martinez, L

    1994-10-01

    The authors present 2 cases: 1 of a thirty-two-year-old woman and another of a thirty-eight-year-old woman, both Hispanic and athletic, with no identifiable precipitating or coronary risk factors, such as previous heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, hyperlipoproteinemia, oral contraceptive use, coagulation disorders, thyroid disease, collagen tissue disorder, or family history of premature myocardial infarction, who both developed an acute posteroinferior wall myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries, one during pregnancy, from which normal twin girls were born, and another, during the postpartum period. After reviewing the literature the authors consider the present cases as unique due to the rare association of pregnancy with intrapartum and postpartum acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries in athletic women.

  1. [Primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarct. A report on 304 consecutive patients].

    PubMed

    García y Otero, J M; Frutos Rangel, E; García García, R; Fernández Valadez, E; Zúñiga Sedano, J; Orendain González, V M; Briseño Ramírez, H

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a single-center experience in primary coronary angioplasty in 304 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. Sixty-seven percent were men and 33% women, the mean age was 69 years. The time from onset to treatment was 3.5 hours, 14% had previous bypass surgery and 23% prior myocardial infarction, 11% arrived in cardiogenic shock. Coronary angiography showed multivessel disease in 56% of patients, 73% had TIMI 0-1 flow. Successful PTCA occurred in 95% and in hospital mortality was 6.5%. Primary coronary angioplasty is a successful reperfusion method in acute myocardial infarction and it is associated with low mortality even in high risk groups. The rates of success and major complications in this series are similar to other publications.

  2. [Severe Acute Myocardial Infarction during Induction Chemotherapy for Retroperitoneal Germ Cell Tumor : A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Sakka, Shotaro; Kawai, Koji; Tsujimoto, Ippei; Kurobe, Masahiro; Ichioka, Daishi; Kantori, Shuya; Kojima, Takahiro; Suetomi, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akira; Miyazaki, Jun; Hoshi, Tomoya; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    A 37-year-old man presented at our hospital. Pathological examination of a right orchiectomy specimen, radiographic examination, and tumor marker profile resulted in a diagnosis of retroperitoneal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (intermediate risk according to IGCC classification). Laboratory testing revealed mild elevation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Induction chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) was started, but he complained of chest pain on day 10 of the second cycle of BEP. We immediately started cardiac monitoring. One hour later, he suffered cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. Fortunately, sinus rhythm was restored after defibrillation. A diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with total occlusion at the mid-portion of the left anterior descending coronary artery was established by coronary angiography. After percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was successfully performed, he recovered uneventfully. The induction chemotherapy was re-started 19 days after AMI. To avoid endothelial damage by bleomycin, we elected to treat with etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin (VIP). After two further courses of VIP, the patient underwent resection of retoperitoneal tumor and achieved complete remission. The patient has remained disease-free during 3 years follow up without recurrence of AMI.

  3. Development of a new model for acute myocardial infarction in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    TAN, Mei-Yun; XIA, Bo; XIAO, Zhun; FAN, Zhong-Wei; ZHOU, Hong; GUO, Xing; HUANG, Yong-Can

    2017-01-01

    The rabbit left anterior descending coronary artery is not macroscopically apparent; this often leads to failure in creation of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model. In order to devise a simple method with good reproducibility and high success rate for use as a rabbit AMI model, a new surgical technique was developed, in which the obtuse marginal (OM) branch of the left circumflex coronary artery was coagulated with an electric knife using a left parasternal approach. Four weeks after OM branch coagulation, an electrocardiogram (ECG), blood biochemistry analysis, echocardiographic measurements and pathologic analysis were performed. The left parasternal approach provided the surgeon clear visualization of the targeted blood vessel to accurately identify the proper site to occlude. The successful development of AMI was confirmed by ST segment elevation on the ECG, by high levels of AMI-related markers in blood samples, by cardiac functional damage reflected on echocardiographic images and by changes in pathological sections. Furthermore, an acceptable success rate and low mortality were achieved. Hence, this surgical technique was suggested to be a highly reliable and reproducible method to induce AMI in rabbits for the assessment of new therapeutic interventions or regenerative approaches. PMID:28111375

  4. Acute myocardial infarction secondary to platelet apheresis in a 57-year healthy donor.

    PubMed

    Rosencher, J; Zuily, S; Varenne, O; Spaulding, C; Weber, S

    2011-08-04

    Platelet donation by plateletpheresis is known to induce platelet and coagulation activation but there is no clear relationship between this acquired pre-thrombotic state and acute coronary syndrome in healthy donors. We report an acute myocardial infarction immediately following plateletpheresis in a 57-year-old donor with low atherosclerotic risk profile and no angiographic evidence of atherosclerotic disease strongly suggesting a causal relationship.

  5. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  6. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

  7. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  8. Quality of Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban US Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; MacLehose, Richard F.; Hart, L. Gary; Beaver, Shelli K.; Every,Nathan; Chan,Leighton

    2004-01-01

    Context: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common and important cause of admission to US rural hospitals, as transport of patients with AMI to urban settings can result in unacceptable delays in care. Purpose: To examine the quality of care for patients with AMI in rural hospitals with differing degrees of remoteness from urban centers.…

  9. Mortality and Revascularization following Admission for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Implication for Rural Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Thad E.; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Annually, over 3,000 rural veterans are admitted to Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet no studies of AMI have utilized the VA rural definition. Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified 15,870 patients admitted for AMI to all VA hospitals. Rural residence was identified…

  10. Creatine kinase B subunit as measured with a radioimmunoassay kit in detection of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Witherspoon, L R; Shuler, S E; Genre, C F; Gilbert, S S; Moore, R J; Meihaus, V; Hurry, E K

    1983-02-01

    Results with a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) reagent kit for quantification of the creatine kinase B subunit (CK-B) (Nuclear-Medical Laboratories, Irving, TX 75061) were compared with results obtained by electrophoresis for patients consecutively admitted to our coronary care unit for suspected acute myocardial infarction. Analytical sensitivity, precision, and specificity of the RIA were satisfactory. Its clinical efficacy was assessed in 97 patients suspected of having had an acute myocardial infarction. Of 30 patients who had had an acute myocardial infarction, increased CK-B was detected by RIA in 30 and by electrophoresis in 27. The temporal relationship between CK-B by RIA and CK-MB by electrophoresis was similar. Of 66 admissions where infarction was not established, CK-B was negligibly increased in samples from four patients by RIA, and from one by electrophoresis. Although not abnormally increased (greater than 5 U/L), CK-MB was detected by electrophoresis in samples from another five of these 66 patients. We conclude that estimation of CK-B by this RIA is an excellent alternative to estimation of CK-MB by electrophoresis in patients suspected of having had an acute myocardial infarction.

  11. Influence of acute glycaemic level on measures of myocardial infarction in non-diabetic pigs.

    PubMed

    Diemar, Sarah S; Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Iversen, Kasper K; Engstrøm, Thomas; Honge, Jesper L; Tønder, Niels; Vejlstrup, Niels; Idorn, Manja; Ekström, Kathrine; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of experiencing myocardial infarction. The influence of the prevailing plasma glucose level on infarction and mortality after acute ischaemia is however unknown. The aim was to study the effect of the acute plasma glucose level on the myocardial infarction size in a closed-chest pig model. 38 non-diabetic pigs were randomised to hypoglycaemic (1.8-2.2 mmol/l; n = 15), normoglycaemic (5-7 mmol/l; n = 12) or hyperglycaemic glucose clamping (22-23 mmol/l; n = 11). After 30 min within glucose target myocardial infarction was induced for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 120 min. Hereafter the heart was double-stained to delineate infarction from viable tissue within the area at risk. Mean infarction size was 201 ± 35 mm(2) (mean ± SEM) in the hypoglycaemic group, 154 ± 40 mm(2) in the normoglycaemic group and 134 ± 40 mm(2) in the hyperglycaemic group, with no differences in infarction size, infarct/area at risk ratio or troponin T levels between the groups. There was no difference in incidence of ventricular fibrillation or mortality between the groups. No statistically significant associations were observed between the acute glycaemic level and measures of myocardial infarction, rates of ventricular fibrillation and subsequent premature death in the setting of acute ischaemia and reperfusion.

  12. [Haematoma of the floor of the mouth associated to acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Pelaz, Alejandro; Bayón, Jeremías; Gallego, Lorena; Junquera, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of an 80-year-old man who developed a haematoma in the floor of the mouth after receiving alteplase in the treatment of an acute myocardial infarction. Both the treatment received and appropriate preventive measures to avoid such haematomas are described. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban US Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; MacLehose, Richard F.; Hart, L. Gary; Beaver, Shelli K.; Every,Nathan; Chan,Leighton

    2004-01-01

    Context: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common and important cause of admission to US rural hospitals, as transport of patients with AMI to urban settings can result in unacceptable delays in care. Purpose: To examine the quality of care for patients with AMI in rural hospitals with differing degrees of remoteness from urban centers.…

  14. Organization of Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban Hospitals in Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Bhimaraj, Arvind; Perpich, Denise

    2004-01-01

    One in 4 Americans lives in a rural community and relies on rural hospitals and medical systems for emergent care of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI). The infrastructure and organization of AMI care in rural and urban Kansas hospitals was examined. Using a nominal group process, key elements within hospitals that might influence quality of AMI…

  15. Organization of Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban Hospitals in Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Bhimaraj, Arvind; Perpich, Denise

    2004-01-01

    One in 4 Americans lives in a rural community and relies on rural hospitals and medical systems for emergent care of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI). The infrastructure and organization of AMI care in rural and urban Kansas hospitals was examined. Using a nominal group process, key elements within hospitals that might influence quality of AMI…

  16. Ventricular septal rupture and right ventricular intramyocardial dissection secondary to acute inferior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Seltmann, Martin; Muschiol, Gerd; Achenbach, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    A 61-year-old female patient presented with sub acute myocardial infarction with an occluded right coronary artery on invasive evaluation and a ventricular septal rupture on echocardiogram. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) was performed to better define the septal anatomy. As the anatomy on cardiac CT was considered unfavorable for percutaneous intervention, the patient underwent successful surgical repair.

  17. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

  18. Lay Public's Knowledge and Decisions in Response to Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…

  19. Mortality and Revascularization following Admission for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Implication for Rural Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Thad E.; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Annually, over 3,000 rural veterans are admitted to Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet no studies of AMI have utilized the VA rural definition. Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified 15,870 patients admitted for AMI to all VA hospitals. Rural residence was identified…

  20. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  1. Acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries in a patient with dermatomyositis. Case report.

    PubMed

    Badui, E; Valdespino, A; Lepe, L; Rangel, A; Campos, A; Leon, F

    1996-08-01

    The authors present a forty-year-old man, with a history of dermatomyositis for the past twelve years, managed intermittently with prednisone. During an exacerbation of his illness he developed an acute anterior wall myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries. A literature review indicates this represents a rare association.

  2. Acute myocardial infarction in the West Indies: early observations, current issues and future concerns.

    PubMed

    Martin, T C

    2009-12-01

    In the epidemiological transition from infectious diseases in the Caribbean, chronic non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease, have emerged as important public health interest. Although hypertensive heart disease predominates in Afro-Caribbean populations, ischaemic heart disease and acute myocardial infarction have also been present, but the prevalence has been somewhat under-appreciated.

  3. A case of enoxaparin-induced thrombocytopaenia during treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Snag Yup; Lee, Se Ryeon; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Seong Hwan; Ahn, Jeong Chun; Song, Woo Hyuk

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia is a life-threatening complication, affecting the morbidity and mortality of the patient if not properly treated. We report a case of a 75-year-old female patient who experienced enoxaparininduced thrombocytopaenia during medical treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction due to thrombotic total occlusion in the large right coronary artery.

  4. Regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and apoptotic pathways by betaine attenuates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, P; Liu, J; Mai, S; Yuan, Y; Wang, Y; Dai, G

    2015-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of betaine on acute myocardial ischemia induced experimentally in rats focusing on regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and apoptotic pathways as the potential mechanism underlying the drug effect. Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with betaine (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) orally for 40 days. Acute myocardial ischemic injury was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg), for two consecutive days. Serum cardiac marker enzyme, histopathological variables and expression of protein levels were analyzed. Oral administration of betaine (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the level of cardiac marker enzyme in the serum and prevented left ventricular remodeling. Western blot analysis showed that isoproterenol-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 was maintained or further enhanced by betaine treatment in myocardium. Furthermore, betaine (200 and 400 mg/kg) treatment increased the ventricular expression of Bcl-2 and reduced the level of Bax, therefore causing a significant increase in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. The protective role of betaine on myocardial damage was further confirmed by histopathological examination. In summary, our results showed that betaine pretreatment attenuated isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial ischemia via the regulation of STAT3 and apoptotic pathways.

  5. Is type D personality an independent risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients?

    PubMed

    Condén, Emelie; Rosenblad, Andreas; Wagner, Philippe; Leppert, Jerzy; Ekselius, Lisa; Åslund, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Background Type D personality refers to a combination of simultaneously high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The present study aimed to examine whether type D personality was independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. Design This was a prospective cohort study. Methods Utilising data from the Västmanland Myocardial Infarction Study, 946 post-acute myocardial infarction patients having data on the DS14 instrument used to measure type D personality were followed-up for recurrent myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality until 9 December 2015. Data were analysed using Cox regression, adjusted for established risk factors. Results In total, 133 (14.1%) patients suffered from type D personality. During a mean follow-up time for recurrent myocardial infarction of 5.7 (3.2) years, 166 (17.5%) patients were affected by recurrent myocardial infarction, of which 26 (15.7%) had type D personality, while during a mean follow-up time for all-cause mortality of 6.3 (2.9) years, 321 (33.9%) patients died, of which 42 (13.1%) had type D personality. After adjusting for established risk factors, type D personality was not significantly associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. A weak association was found between the social inhibition part of type D personality and a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, but this association was not significant after taking missing data into account in a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions No support was found for type D personality being independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality.

  6. Discrepancy between myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism following acute myocardial infarction for evaluating the dysfunctional viable myocardium.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shankar K; Sarai, Masayoshi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Hishida, Hitoshi; Ozaki, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) the area of myocardial perfusion and metabolism mismatch is designated as dysfunctional viable myocardium. (123)I-beta-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is clinically very useful for evaluating myocardial fatty acid metabolism, and (99)mTc-Tetrofosmin (TF) is a widely used tracer for myocardial perfusion. This study was designed to evaluate the degree of discrepancy between BMIPP and TF at the subacute state of AMI. Fifty-two patients (aged 59 ± 10 years; mean 46 years) with AMI were enrolled, and all of them underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were classified according to ST-T change and PCI timing. (123)I-beta-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid and TF cardiac scintigraphy were performed on 7 ± 3.5 days of admission using a dual headed gamma camera. Perfusion and fatty acid metabolism defect were scored on a 17 segments model. The mean BMIPP defect score on early and delayed images were 16.67 ± 10.19 and 16.25 ± 10.40, respectively. The mean TF defect score was 10 ± 7.69. Defect score of BMIPP was significantly higher than that of the TF (P < 0.0001; 95% CI 4.32-7.02), and there was a strong correlation between perfusion and metabolism defect score (r = 0.89, P < 0.00001). Forty-seven (90%) patients showed mismatched defect (BMIPP > TF), and 5 (10%) patients showed matched defect (BMIPP = TF). Mismatched defect score (MMDS) was significantly higher in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) than that of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (P < 0.041; 95% CI 0.11-5.19). At the subacute state of AMI, most of the patients showed perfusion-metabolism mismatch, which represents the dysfunctional viable myocardium, and patients with STEMI showed higher mismatch. Copyright © 2012 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma troponins as markers of myocardial damage during cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Salvatore; Casquero, Elena; Bustamante, Rosa; Gualis, Javier; Carrascal, Yolanda; Bustamante, Juan; Fulquet, Enrique; Florez, Santiago; Echevarria, Jose Ramon; Fiz, Luis

    2007-09-01

    All types of cardiac surgery involve considerable injury to the myocardium. However, it is difficult to differentiate, in the immediate post-operative state, between ischemic alterations associated with the cardiac surgery itself and the pathological alterations of a peri-operative myocardial infarction. The diagnosis of damaged myocardium, classically performed with the enzymatic markers creatine kinase (CK) and its muscle fraction (CK-MB), has become more precise with the option of measuring cardiac troponins T and I. We measured these markers in 58 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with extra-corporeal circulation (ECC). The patients included 37 cases undergoing valve surgery, 14 for coronary revascularization, 6 for mixed procedures, and 1 for closure of an inter-atrial communication. The markers were measured in plasma at baseline (at anesthesia initiation), 5 min post-ECC commencement, following aorta de-clamping, during the surgical closure, and 6, 18 and 42 hrs after surgery. All the markers were increased significantly relative to the baseline values. Troponin I, CK and CK-MB values peaked between 6 and 18 hrs after surgery, troponin T between 18 and 42 hrs, and myoglobin at the surgical closure. The values of all markers were higher in patients undergoing coronary surgery compared to those in patients undergoing valve surgery. In the evaluation of myocardial damage after surgery, the measurement of classical markers such as CK and myoglobin remain valid, but other markers such as troponins provide significant additional diagnostic benefit and, thus, need to be included in the routine biochemical measurements for monitoring myocardial damage associated with the surgical procedure.

  8. ProNGF, a cytokine induced after myocardial infarction in humans, targets pericytes to promote microvascular damage and activation

    PubMed Central

    Siao, Chia-Jen; Lorentz, Christina U.; Kermani, Pouneh; Marinic, Tina; Carter, John; McGrath, Kelly; Padow, Victoria A.; Mark, Willie; Falcone, Domenick J.; Cohen-Gould, Leona; Parrish, Diana C.; Habecker, Beth A.; Nykjaer, Anders; Ellenson, Lora H.; Tessarollo, Lino

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of acute cardiac ischemia focuses on reestablishment of blood flow in coronary arteries. However, impaired microvascular perfusion damages peri-infarct tissue, despite arterial patency. Identification of cytokines that induce microvascular dysfunction would provide new targets to limit microvascular damage. Pro–nerve growth factor (NGF), the precursor of NGF, is a well characterized cytokine in the brain induced by injury. ProNGF activates p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and sortilin receptors to mediate proapoptotic responses. We describe induction of proNGF by cardiomyocytes, and p75NTR in human arterioles after fatal myocardial infarction, but not with unrelated pathologies. After mouse cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury, rapid up-regulation of proNGF by cardiomyocytes and p75NTR by microvascular pericytes is observed. To identify proNGF actions, we generated a mouse expressing a mutant Ngf allele with impaired processing of proNGF to mature NGF. The proNGF-expressing mouse exhibits cardiac microvascular endothelial activation, a decrease in pericyte process length, and increased vascular permeability, leading to lethal cardiomyopathy in adulthood. Deletion of p75NTR in proNGF-expressing mice rescues the phenotype, confirming the importance of p75NTR-expressing pericytes in the development of microvascular injury. Furthermore, deficiency in p75NTR limits infarct size after I-R. These studies identify novel, nonneuronal actions for proNGF and suggest that proNGF represents a new target to limit microvascular dysfunction. PMID:23091165

  9. ProNGF, a cytokine induced after myocardial infarction in humans, targets pericytes to promote microvascular damage and activation.

    PubMed

    Siao, Chia-Jen; Lorentz, Christina U; Kermani, Pouneh; Marinic, Tina; Carter, John; McGrath, Kelly; Padow, Victoria A; Mark, Willie; Falcone, Domenick J; Cohen-Gould, Leona; Parrish, Diana C; Habecker, Beth A; Nykjaer, Anders; Ellenson, Lora H; Tessarollo, Lino; Hempstead, Barbara L

    2012-11-19

    Treatment of acute cardiac ischemia focuses on reestablishment of blood flow in coronary arteries. However, impaired microvascular perfusion damages peri-infarct tissue, despite arterial patency. Identification of cytokines that induce microvascular dysfunction would provide new targets to limit microvascular damage. Pro-nerve growth factor (NGF), the precursor of NGF, is a well characterized cytokine in the brain induced by injury. ProNGF activates p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and sortilin receptors to mediate proapoptotic responses. We describe induction of proNGF by cardiomyocytes, and p75(NTR) in human arterioles after fatal myocardial infarction, but not with unrelated pathologies. After mouse cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury, rapid up-regulation of proNGF by cardiomyocytes and p75(NTR) by microvascular pericytes is observed. To identify proNGF actions, we generated a mouse expressing a mutant Ngf allele with impaired processing of proNGF to mature NGF. The proNGF-expressing mouse exhibits cardiac microvascular endothelial activation, a decrease in pericyte process length, and increased vascular permeability, leading to lethal cardiomyopathy in adulthood. Deletion of p75(NTR) in proNGF-expressing mice rescues the phenotype, confirming the importance of p75(NTR)-expressing pericytes in the development of microvascular injury. Furthermore, deficiency in p75(NTR) limits infarct size after I-R. These studies identify novel, nonneuronal actions for proNGF and suggest that proNGF represents a new target to limit microvascular dysfunction.

  10. Prevalence and Prognosis of Hyperkalemia in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Grodzinsky, Anna; Goyal, Abhinav; Gosch, Kensey; McCullough, Peter A.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Spertus, John A.; Palmer, Biff F.; Kosiborod, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperkalemia is common and potentially dangerous in hospitalized patients; its contemporary prevalence and prognostic importance following acute myocardial infarction are not well described. Methods In 38,689 consecutive acute myocardial infarction patients from the Cerner Health Facts database, we evaluated the association between maximum in-hospital potassium levels (max K) and in-hospital mortality. Patients were stratified by dialysis status, and grouped by max K as follows: <5 mEq/L, 5–<5.5 mEq/L, 5.5–<6.0 mEq/L, 6.0–<6.5 mEq/L, and ≥ 6.5 mEq/L. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple patient and site characteristics. The relationship between number of hyperkalemic values and in-hospital mortality was also evaluated. Results Of 38,689 acute myocardial infarction patients, 886 were on dialysis. The rate of hyperkalemia (max K ≥ 5.0 mEq/L) was 22.6% in non-dialysis and 66.8% in dialysis patients. Moderate-severe hyperkalemia (max K ≥ 5.5 mEq/L) occurred in 9.8% of patients. There was a steep increase in mortality with higher max K levels. In-hospital mortality exceeded 15% once max K ≥5.5 mEq/L regardless of dialysis status. The relationship between higher max K and increased mortality risk persisted after multivariable adjustment. In addition, patients with greater number of hyperkalemic values (vs. a single value) experienced higher in-hospital mortality. Conclusions Hyperkalemia is common in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. Higher max K levels and number of hyperkalemic events are associated with a steep mortality increase; with higher risks for adverse outcomes observed even at mild levels of hyperkalemia. Whether more intensive management of hyperkalemia may improve outcomes in acute myocardial infarction patients merits further study. PMID:27060233

  11. Plasma carotenoids and risk of acute myocardial infarction in The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wang, Renwei; Lee, Yian-Ping; Lee, Bee-Lan; Yu, Mimi C.; Ong, Choon-Nam

    2010-01-01

    Background Modification of low density lipoprotein due to oxidative stress is essential in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Data of specific carotenoids except β-carotene on cardioprotective effects in humans are limited. Objective and methods This study examined the associations between plasma concentrations of specific carotenoids and incidence of acute myocardial infarction. The study included 280 incident cases of acute myocardial infarction and 560 matched controls nested within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women aged 45 to 74 years old enrolled in 1993-1998 in Singapore. Retinol and carotenoids in prediagnostic plasma were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results High levels of plasma β-cryptoxanthin and lutein were associated with decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction after adjustment for multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease. For β-cryptoxanthin, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest (Q5) versus the lowest (Q1) quintile was 0.67 (0.37-1.21) (P for trend = 0.03). For lutein, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for Q2-Q3 and Q4-Q5 versus Q1 were 0.71 (0.45-1.12) and 0.58 (0.35-0.94) respectively (P for trend = 0.03). There was no statistically significant association between other carotenoids or retinol and risk of acute myocardial infarction. Conclusions High plasma levels of β-cryptoxanthin and lutein were associated with decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction. The findings of this study support a cardioprotective role of these two carotenoids in humans. PMID:20227258

  12. Trends in acute myocardial infarction hospitalization rates for US States in the CDC tracking network.

    PubMed

    Talbott, Evelyn O; Rager, Judith R; Brink, Luann L; Benson, Stacey M; Bilonick, Richard A; Wu, Wen Chi; Han, Yueh-Ying

    2013-01-01

    We examined temporal trends, spatial variation, and gender differences in rates of hospitalization due to acute myocardial infarction. We used data from the Centers for Disease Control National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network to evaluate temporal trends, geographic variation, and gender differences in 20 Environmental Public Health Tracking Network states from 2000 to 2008. A longitudinal linear mixed effects model was fitted to the acute myocardial infarction hospitalization rates for the states and counties within each state to examine the overall temporal trend. There was a significant overall decrease in age-adjusted acute myocardial infarction hospitalization rates between 2000 and 2008, with most states showing over a 20% decline during the period. The ratio of male/female rates for acute myocardial infarction hospitalization rates remained relatively consistent over time, approximately two-fold higher in men compared to women. A large geographic variability was found for age-adjusted acute myocardial infarction hospitalization rates, with the highest rates found in the Northeastern states. Results of two ecological analyses revealed that the NE region remained significantly associated with increased AMI hospitalization rates after adjustment for socio-demographic factors. This investigation is one of the first to explore geographic differences in AMI age adjusted hospital rates in individuals 35+ years of age for 2000-2008. We showed a decreasing trend in AMI hospitalization rates in men and women. A large geographic variability in rates was found with particularly higher rates in the New England/Mid-Atlantic region of the US and lower rates in the mountain and Pacific states of the tracking network. It appeared that over time this disparity in rates became less notable.

  13. Free triiodothyronine level indicates the degree of myocardial injury in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-yao; Tang, Yi-da; Yang, Min; Cui, Cheng; Mu, Mu; Qian, Jie; Yang, Yue-jin

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that hypothyroidism correlated with coronary heart diseases (CHD) mortality in long-term cohort, but whether the thyroid function status is associated with myocardial injury in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been investigated sufficiently. Five hundred and eighty-two hospitalized patients from January 2010 to December 2011, with the diagnosis of STEMI, were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent testing for thyroid function status, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), cardiac enzymes, C-reactive protein (CRP). We investigated the association between thyroid hormone levels and cardiac markers (creatine kinase-MB and cTnI), and thus evaluated the potential role of thyroid function status in predicting the myocardial injury. There were 76 patients (13.06%) who had hypothyroidism including low-T3-syndrome (34 patients, 5.84%), subclinical hypothyroidism (28 patients, 4.81%) and clinical hypothyroidism (14 patients, 2.41%). After adjusting for conventional risk factors (age, gender, smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension), free triiodothyronine (FT3) was significantly and negatively correlated with log-CKMB (r = -0.244, P < 0.001) and log-cTnI (r = -0.290, P < 0.001), indicating that the lower thyroid hormone level correlates with the severer cardiac injury in STEMI patients. FT3 also had a moderate negative correlation with CRP (r = -0.475, P < 0.001), which might indicate that hypothyroidism may activate the inflammation response. No significant correlation was found between other thyroid parameters (TSH, FT4) and cardiac markers. As the lower FT3 level correlates with higher level of cardiac markers and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the hypothyroidism may be a predictor for myocardial injury in STEMI. And these results may warrant further study to investigate whether reversing the hypothyroidism could benefit the STEMI patients.

  14. Drug-eluting vs. bare-metal stents for treatment of acute myocardial infarction with renal insufficiency. Results from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun Hui; Lim, Sang Yup; Choi, Young Hwan; Suh, Sang Heon; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Chang Seong; Park, Jeong Woo; Ma, Seong Kwon; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Soo Wan

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have had conflicting results between drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS). The aim of the present study was to determine whether DES is preferable for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with renal insufficiency, and to elucidate the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on outcomes of each stent. As a part of the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR), 2,175 AMI patients with renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate <60ml/min) comprising 208 patients with BMS and 1,967 DES implantation were selected. Primary outcome was major adverse cardiac event (MACE), defined as a composite of mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization. In the overall population, the MACE rate at 1 year was significantly higher in the BMS group than that of DES (44% vs. 26%, P<0.05), which was mainly due to death rather than repeat intervention (44% vs. 26%, P<0.05). In the diabetic group with DES implantation, the MACE rate was higher compared with the DES group without DM, mainly due to repeat intervention (5% vs. 8%, P<0.05). In AMI patients with renal insufficiency, DES implantation exhibits a favorable 1-year clinical outcome than BMS implantation, and subgroup analysis for diabetic subjects showed worse outcomes in the DM group with implanted DES.

  15. Thallium scintigraphy in human transplants: A way to detect myocardial damage

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, J.; Herreros, J.; Serena, A.; Domper, M.; Ramirez, J.C.; Arcas, R. )

    1991-01-01

    An original index has been derived from thallium images to detect histopathologic changes in heart transplant patients. One hundred eighty-four static and end-diastolic images with thallium were recorded 5 minutes after injection in the left anterior oblique projection. Twenty patients and 14 healthy volunteers were studied. The epicardial and endocardial borders were determined, and the difference of these values was considered the myocardial area. The results in heart transplants were compared with the results of endomyocardial biopsies (N = 142). A significant decrease (p less than 0.01) was found in the index of the myocardial area between normal biopsy results and mild and moderate rejection. Differences were not detected between studies performed in several postoperative periods in the absence of rejection. The results in healthy volunteers prove that the index does not change between studies performed at different times in the same subject, although the value obtained from the end-diastolic image was more constant. On the basis of these results, it is possible to suggest that the decrease in the myocardial area during rejection is the result of a fall of thallium uptake by the myocardium. Capillary endothelial hyperplasia, perivascular infiltration, and myocytolysis can justify these changes, although the presence of other histologic findings, such as intramyocardial edema, could influence the value of this index. We conclude that the uptake of thallium decreases during acute rejection episodes; the results obtained from the images, in this work, are an expression of this event.

  16. [Thrombolysis by tissue plasminogen activator in acute myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Keltai, M; Dékány, P; Németh, J; Palik, I; Sitkei, E; Szente, A; Arvay, A

    1991-09-15

    The authors participated in the European multicenter investigation, ESPRIT, organized by the Wellcome Research Laboratories. Thrombolytic treatment by intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was performed in 25 patients with early (less than 6h) myocardial infarction. The efficacy of the treatment was controlled by repeat coronary arteriography at 60 minutes, at 90 minutes and at 24 hours of the tpA treatment. The infarct related artery was reperfused in 9/25 patients at 60 minutes, in 16/25 at 90 minutes and 17/18 at 24 hours. Four patients died after unsuccessful treatment or reocclusion. In two patients significant bleeding occurred at the puncture site but no transfusion was required. No other untoward effect was registered. The left ventricular function did not change significantly during the first day of infarction. It is concluded, that tpA is a safe thrombolytic agent in myocardial infarction. Its thrombolytic efficacy is similar to that of streptokinase.

  17. Early intervention in acute myocardial infarction: significance for myocardial salvage of immediate intravenous streptokinase therapy followed by coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H.I.; Almagor, Y.; Keren, G.; Chernilas, J.; Roth, A.; Eschar, Y.; Shapira, I.; Shargorodsky, B.; Berenfeld, D.; Laniado, S.

    1987-03-01

    Sixteen patients with acute myocardial infarction underwent treatment with streptokinase up to 3 hours after the onset of chest pain. Nine patients (group I) received streptokinase within 1 hour of the onset of pain, and seven patients (group II) received it within 2 to 3 hours. All underwent multigated radionuclide ventriculography after streptokinase therapy and 1 week later. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of the infarct artery was performed within 24 hours in all patients. An effort-limited treadmill stress test was performed before discharge. There was no mortality or serious complication. Mean peak total creatine kinase was 521 +/- 289 mU/ml in group I, and 1,614 +/- 709 mU/ml in group II (p less than 0.05). The mean initial left ventricular ejection fraction was 47 +/- 11% in group I and 37 +/- 10% in group II. After early angioplasty (within 24 hours) and at 1 week recovery, left ventricular ejection fraction increased to 53 +/- 9% in group I (p less than 0.05) and to 40 +/- 7% in group II (p = NS). Seven of the nine patients in group I had normal radionuclide ventriculograms at discharge compared with none of the seven patients in group II. Thrombolytic therapy administered less than 1 hour after the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction followed by angioplasty of the infarct artery results in preservation of left ventricular function, whereas therapy given after 2 hours has only a limited effect.

  18. Cardiac magnetic resonance evaluation of edema after ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Monmeneu, José V; Bodí, Vicente; Sanchis, Juan; López-Lereu, María P; Mainar, Luis; Núñez, Julio; Chaustre, Fabián; Rumiz, Eva; Chorro, Francisco J; Llácer, Angel

    2009-08-01

    The aims of the study were to characterize myocardial edema after ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and to investigate its impact on ventricular function and its subsequent evolution. In total, 134 patients admitted to hospital for a first ST-elevation myocardial infarction who had a patent infarct-related artery underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Cine images (at rest and with low-dose dobutamine) and edema, perfusion and viability images were acquired. Imaging was repeated after 6 months. In the first week after infarction, edema was detected in at least one segment in 96.6% of patients (4+/-2.1 segments per patient). Extensive edema (> or = 4 segments) was associated with large ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (P< .0001), a small left ventricular ejection fraction at rest (P=.001) and with low-dose dobutamine (P=.006), a large number of segments showing hypoperfusion (P=.001) or microvascular obstruction (P=.009), a more extensive infarct (P=.017) and greater transmural extent of the infarct (P=.003). The association between the presence and extent of edema during the first week and functional, perfusion and viability variables was still observable after 6 months. No patient exhibited edema at 6 months. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was useful for characterizing the myocardial edema that occurred after ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. Extensive edema was associated with poor left ventricular characteristics. Edema was a transitory phenomenon that vanished within 6 months.

  19. Akt-dependent Girdin phosphorylation regulates repair processes after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hayano, Shinji; Takefuji, Mikito; Maeda, Kengo; Noda, Tomonori; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Enomoto, Atsushi; Asai, Naoya; Takahashi, Masahide; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-11-01

    Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of death, and cardiac rupture following myocardial infarction leads to extremely poor prognostic feature. A large body of evidence suggests that Akt is involved in several cardiac diseases. We previously reported that Akt-mediated Girdin phosphorylation is essential for angiogenesis and neointima formation. The role of Girdin expression and phosphorylation in myocardial infarction, however, is not understood. Therefore, we employed Girdin-deficient mice and Girdin S1416A knock-in (Girdin(SA/SA)) mice, replacing the Akt phosphorylation site with alanine, to address this question. We found that Girdin was expressed and phosphorylated in cardiac fibroblasts in vitro and that its phosphorylation was crucial for the proliferation and migration of cardiac fibroblasts. In vivo, Girdin was localized in non-cardiomyocyte interstitial cells and phosphorylated in α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells, which are likely to be cardiac myofibroblasts. In an acute myocardial infarction model, Girdin(SA/SA) suppressed the accumulation and proliferation of cardiac myofibroblasts in the infarcted area. Furthermore, lower collagen deposition in Girdin(SA/SA) mice impaired cardiac repair and resulted in increased mortality attributed to cardiac rupture. These findings suggest an important role of Girdin phosphorylation at serine 1416 in cardiac repair after acute myocardial infarction and provide insights into the complex mechanism of cardiac rupture through the Akt/Girdin-mediated regulation of cardiac myofibroblasts.

  20. [Cardiovascular adaptability to acute hypercalcemia in the dog. The role of peroperative myocardial ischemia].

    PubMed

    Dumont, L; Stanley, P; Chartrand, C

    1985-01-01

    Since the hemodynamic consequences of acute hypercalcemia are altered by numerous interferences we have evaluated the role of peroperative myocardial ischemia on the adaptability to rapid calcium increment. Twenty-two dogs served as control and 16 were submitted to 1 hour of myocardial ischemia along with topical myocardial cooling. Each animal was equipped with blood flow transducer positioned around the ascending aorta and with central venous and aortic catheters. During each study 0.90 mEq of calcium was rapidly injected and hemodynamic data were recorded until base-line resetting. This experimental protocol was carried out 3 hours postoperatively and then daily during one month. Base-line hemodynamic data indicated the presence of myocardial failure in the experimental group in the immediate postoperative period only. Rapid calcium administration elicited transient positive inotropic response, widening of the arterial pulse pressure, reflex bradycardia and no evidence of peripheral vasoconstriction. In the early postoperative period (3 hours after surgery) the failing myocardium is more sensitive to the inotropic effect of hypercalcemia. Twenty-four hours after surgery both groups of animals have the same hemodynamic response to this stress; thereafter for both groups this response gradually decreased and finally stabilized by the 6th to 10th day after surgery. Acute hypercalcemia bears hemodynamic consequences that are amplified early after peroperative myocardial ischemia. However in long term this surgical component widely used clinically does not interfered with the cardiovascular adaptability to this pharmacological stress.

  1. Persistent Hypoxemia After Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Unexpected Culprit.

    PubMed

    Tralhão, António; Freitas, Pedro; Rodrigues, Gustavo; Café, Hugo; Ferreira, António Miguel; Mesquita Gabriel, Henrique; Bruges, Luís; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Jorge

    2017-07-29

    Hypoxemia after myocardial infarction (MI) is usually explained by common culprits, including congestive heart failure, pre-existing lung disease, and pulmonary infection. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman who experienced severe persistent hypoxemia caused by a patent foramen ovale in the setting of anterior MI complicated by a contained left ventricular rupture. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute Myocardial Infarction following Naltrexone Consumption; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dadpour, Bita; Gholoobi, Arash; Tajoddini, Shahrad; Habibi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of opioid withdrawal have long been studied. It was reported that patients with underlying ischemic heart disease and atherosclerotic vessels may be complicated by a sudden physical and emotional stress due to withdrawal syndrome. But some other believes sudden increase in catecholamine level as a sympathetic overflow might effect on heart with and without underlying ischemia. In the current study, a patient on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) who experienced myocardial infarction (MI) after taking naltrexone was described. PMID:28286852

  3. Intracoronary hypothermia for acute myocardial infarction in the isolated beating pig heart

    PubMed Central

    Otterspoor, Luuk C; van Nunen, Lokien X; Rosalina, Tilaï T; Veer, Marcel van’t; Tuijl, Sjoerd Van; Stijnen, Marco; Rutten, Marcel CM; van de Vosse, Frans N; Pijls, Nico HJ

    2017-01-01

    Hypothermia may attenuate reperfusion injury and thereby improve acute myocardial infarction therapy. Systemic cooling trials failed to reduce infarct size, perhaps because the target temperature was not reached fast enough. The use of selective intracoronary hypothermia combined with intracoronary temperature monitoring allows for titrating to target temperature and optimizing the cooling rate. We aimed to the test the feasibility of intracoronary cooling for controlled, selective myocardial hypothermia in an isolated beating pig heart. In five porcine hearts the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was occluded by an over-the-wire balloon (OTWB). After occlusion, saline at 22°C was infused through the OTWB lumen for 5 minutes into the infarct area at a rate of 30 ml/min. Thereafter the balloon was deflated but infusion continued with saline at 4°C for 5 minutes. Distal coronary temperature was continuously monitored by a pressure/temperature guidewire. Myocardial temperature at several locations in the infarct and control areas was recorded using needle thermistors. In the occlusion phase, coronary temperature decreased by 11.4°C (range 9.4-12.5°C). Myocardial temperature throughout the infarct area decreased by 5.1°C (range 1.8-8.1°C) within three minutes. During the reperfusion phase, coronary temperature decreased by 6.2°C (range 4.1-10.3°C) and myocardial temperature decreased by 4.5°C (range 1.5-7.4°C). Myocardial temperature outside the infarct area was not affected. In the isolated beating pig heart with acute occlusion of the LAD, we were able to rapidly “induce, maintain, and control” a stable intracoronary and myocardial target temperature of at least 4°C below body temperature without side effects and using standard PCI equipment, justifying further studies of this technique in humans. PMID:28337283

  4. Cardioprotective Effect of the Compound Yangshen Granule in Rat Models with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Xie; Tongshen, Wang; Delin, Wu; Ronghua, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The protective effect of Compound Yangshen Granules was observed in myocardial infarction rat model. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the model group, the control group (sham operated), the positive drug group, and small, medium, and large dosage of the Yangshen granule groups, respectively. The rats in the 3 Yangshen granule groups were orally administrated with 0.7 g/kg, 1.4 g/kg, and 2.8 g/kg for 7 consecutive days, whereas the rats of the positive drug group treated with 0.14 g/kg of Danshen Dropping Pills, and rats in the control and model groups orally administrated with saline. The rat model of acute myocardial infarction was established with ligation of coronary artery. Electrocardiograms at different time points, the blood rheology, myocardial enzymes, infarct size, and myocardial morphologic changes were measured. The results demonstrated that the granules could improve blood rheology, decrease st-segment of electrocardiograms and the activities of LDH and CK in serum, reduce myocardial infarction size, and alleviate myocardial histopathologic changes. In addition, the effect of the granules depended on the dose administrated orally. The results suggest that the Yangshen granules could produce cardioprotection effect and have potential benefits in the prevention of ischemic heart disease. PMID:22474518

  5. Antiphospholipid syndrome and acute myocardial infarction: treatment with thrombectomy and abciximab.

    PubMed

    Martí, Vicens; Seixo, Filipe; Santaló, Miguel; Serra, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune coagulation disorder that manifests clinically as venous and arterial thrombosis, and may affect any tissue or organ. Coronary artery involvement, however, is very rare. Case reports in the literature describing patients with coronary acute syndrome and APS treated with coronary angioplasty show conflicting results. We report an adult male patient with APS who presented with an acute myocardial infarction. Given the high risk of thrombosis in these patients, he was treated percutaneously with thrombectomy and abciximab. We review the few cases of coronary angioplasty in patients with APS reported to date. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which acute myocardial infarction due to thrombotic coronary occlusion was treated with thrombectomy and abciximab without stenting the artery. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Death from undetected acute myocardial infarction secondary to coronary artery dissection after blunt thoracic trauma.

    PubMed

    Puanglumyai, Supot; Thamtakerngkit, Somboon; Lekawanvijit, Suree

    2016-01-01

    Blunt thoracic trauma is a common occurrence in automobile accidents. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) caused by coronary dissection following blunt thoracic trauma is rare. We report a case of healthy 24-year-old man with a history of blunt thoracic injury with subsequent undetected AMI who died of acute decompensated heart failure 4 days after the insult. The autopsy findings showed a 90% luminal narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery by dissecting hematoma, 3 cm in length. The myocardium revealed transmural myocardial infarction affecting apex, most part of left ventricular free wall, and interventricular septum. Both lungs were heavy, wet, and noncrepitant. Histological findings of the infarcted myocardium were consistent with 3-5 days post-AMI. Sections from both lungs revealed massive pulmonary edema, reflecting acute decompensated heart failure following a large AMI secondary to coronary dissection. Blunt thoracic trauma may obscure typical chest pain associated with cardiac ischemia especially in cases with a high tolerance for pain.

  7. Triggers of acute myocardial infarction: a neglected piece of the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Alessandro; Proietti, Riccardo; Culić, Viktor; Lipovetzky, Nestor; Viecca, Maurizio; Danna, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The existence of specific risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease, both chronic and acute, has been extensively investigated and is well understood by cardiology professionals. Diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, psychological patterns and smoking are assumed to interact in a complex way with individual heritable predisposition, thus determining the long-term probability of coronary disease. However, the possibility that defined circumstances and activities may act as immediate triggers of acute coronary syndromes, particularly acute myocardial infarction, has not been given comparable attention in clinical research. For example, the recently issued 2012 European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention completely overlook the topic of triggers and their possible prevention. This review presents a picture of the most reliable evidence regarding the triggering of myocardial infarction and contributes to further investigation in the field.

  8. Use of orbital atherectomy in acute myocardial infarction via the transradial approach

    PubMed Central

    Mowakeaa, Samer; Snyder, Branden; Kakouros, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Severe coronary artery calcifications pose an ongoing challenge when performing percutaneous coronary interventions, resulting in an increased likelihood of procedural complications. Orbital atherectomy (OA) has emerged as a promising technology that helps improve outcomes in this complex patient population. Its safety and efficacy are yet to be demonstrated in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of a patient with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) evaluated with emergent transradial coronary angiography. The culprit lesion was a severely stenotic, heavily calcified, segment of the right coronary artery. The use of OA facilitated lesion expansion and implantation of a drug-eluting stent. Although OA should be considered as contraindicated for the management of soft-ruptured plaque, which accounts for the majority of STEMI presentations, it may be well applied to the small subset of patients with calcified nodule pathology, even in the acute setting. PMID:28180008

  9. Impact of redefining acute myocardial infarction on incidence, management and reimbursement rate of acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Polanczyk, Carísi A; Schneid, Samir; Imhof, Betina V; Furtado, Mariana; Pithan, Carolina; Rohde, Luis E; Ribeiro, Jorge P

    2006-02-15

    Although redefinition for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been proposed few years ago, to date it has not been universally adopted by many institutions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic, prognostic and economical impact of the new diagnostic criteria for AMI. Patients consecutively admitted to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndromes were enrolled in this study. Troponin T (cTnT) was measured in samples collected for routine CK-MB analyses and results were not available to physicians. Patients without AMI by traditional criteria and cTnT > or = 0.035 ng/mL were coded as redefined AMI. Clinical outcomes were hospital death, major cardiac events and revascularization procedures. In-hospital management and reimbursement rates were also analyzed. Among 363 patients, 59 (16%) patients had AMI by conventional criteria, whereas additional 75 (21%) had redefined AMI, an increase of 127% in the incidence. Patients with redefined AMI were significantly older, more frequently male, with atypical chest pain and more risk factors. In multivariate analysis, redefined AMI was associated with 3.1 fold higher hospital death (95% CI: 0.6-14) and a 5.6 fold more cardiac events (95% CI: 2.1-15) compared to those without AMI. From hospital perspective, based on DRGs payment system, adoption of AMI redefinition would increase 12% the reimbursement rate [3552 Int dollars per 100 patients evaluated]. The redefined criteria result in a substantial increase in AMI cases, and allow identification of high-risk patients. Efforts should be made to reinforce the adoption of AMI redefinition, which may result in more qualified and efficient management of ACS.

  10. Acute myocardial infarct imaging with indium-111-labeled monoclonal antimyosin Fab

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, B.A.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Johns, J.A.; Kanke, M.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Strauss, H.W.; Haber, E.

    1987-11-01

    Indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin Fab scintigraphy was used to detect myocardial necrosis in 52 of 54 patients (96.3%) with acute myocardial infarction. Infarcts were visualized when coronary arteries were persistently occluded (n = 10), became patent after thrombolysis (n = 33), or became patent after spontaneous reperfusion (n = 7). Posteroinferolateral visualizations were obtained in two patients with clinical and enzymatic evidence of infarction but normal electrocardiograms. Of the two patients in whom no infarcts were visualized, one had an anterior myocardial infarct. This patient underwent successful thrombolytic therapy, with attendant minimization of creatine kinase release. The other patient had a small, nonreperfused inferior myocardial infarct. Five patients with a history of remote infarction and acute necrosis showed antimyosin uptake only in regions concordant with the acute episodes of infarction, and radiolabeled antimyosin Fab localized in neither old infarcts nor normal, noninfarcted myocardium. Antimyosin Fab scintigraphy, thus, appears to be a highly specific means of delineating necrotic myocardium, at least in this limited and selected group of patients.

  11. Effect of coronary artery recanalization on right ventricular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Verani, M.S.; Tortoledo, F.E.; Batty, J.W.; Raizner, A.E.

    1985-05-01

    The effects of coronary artery recanalization by intracoronary administration of streptokinase on left ventricular function during acute myocardial infarction have received increasing attention in recent years. Although myocardial dysfunction is often more pronounced in the right ventricle than in the left ventricle in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction, the effect of coronary artery recanalization on right ventricular dysfunction has not been previously addressed. Accordingly, in this investigation, 54 patients who participated in a prospective, controlled, randomized trial of recanalization during acute myocardial infarction were studied. Among 30 patients with inferior wall infarction, 19 had right ventricular dysfunction on admission; 11 of these 19 had positive uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the right ventricle, indicative of right ventricular infarction. Patients with successful recanalization exhibited improved right ventricular ejection fraction from admission to day 10. However, control patients and patients who did not undergo recanalization also exhibited improvement. These data indicate that the right ventricular dysfunction commonly associated with inferior wall infarction is often transient, and improvement is the rule, irrespective of early recanalization of the infarct vessel.

  12. Protective roles of puerarin and Danshensu on acute ischemic myocardial injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Qiao, H; Li, Y; Li, L

    2007-10-01

    Ischemic heart diseases have been the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries over the past decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of the complex preparation (called Shenge), made of puerarin (isolated from Pueraria lobata Ohwi., also called Kudzu) and Danshensu (isolated from the Chinese herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza), on acute ischemic myocardial injury in rats and its underlying mechanisms. The left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was occluded to induce myocardial ischemia in the hearts of SD rats. Shenge was injected into the tail vein 15 min after occlusion at doses of 0, 30, 60, or 120 mg/kg body wt. ST elevation was then measured at 60, 120, and 240 min after Shenge administration. The ischemic size, serum levels of creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and ST elevation were measured after the rats were sacrificed. Shenge decreased ST elevation induced by acute myocardial ischemia, reduced ischemic size, serum levels of CK-MB, LDH and MDA, and increased serum activity of SOD in a dose-dependent manner. The combined use of puerarin and Danshensu at a ratio of 1:1 showed the most effective activity. In conclusion, Shenge exerts significant cardioprotective effects against acute ischemic myocardial injury in rats, likely through its antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation properties, and thus may be an effective and promising medicine for both prophylaxis and treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  13. Acute Myocardial Infarct Size Is Related to Periodontitis Extent and Severity

    PubMed Central

    Marfil-Álvarez, R.; Mesa, F.; Arrebola-Moreno, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, J.A.; Magán-Fernández, A.; O’Valle, F.; Galindo-Moreno, P.; Catena, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has been associated with 40% of deaths in high-income countries and 28% in lower-income countries. The relationship between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction is well documented, but it has not been established whether the extent and severity of periodontitis influence the infarct size. This cross-sectional and analytic study was designed to investigate the association of chronic periodontitis extent and severity with acute myocardial infarct size as indicated by serum cardiac troponin I and myoglobin levels. Sociodemographic, periodontal, cardiologic, and hematologic variables were gathered in 112 consecutive patients with myocardial infarction. The extent (Arbes Index) and severity (Periodontal Inflammatory Severity Index) of the chronic periodontitis were significantly associated with troponin I levels after controlling for sociodemographic and clinical confounders (change in R2 = .041, p < .02, and R2 = .031, p = .04). However, only the extent index accounted for levels of myoglobin (change in R2 = .030, p < .05), total leukocytes (change in R2 = .041 p < .02), and neutrophils (change in R2 = .059, p < .01). Mediated regression analysis showed that leukocytes and neutrophils may underlie these observed relationships of chronic periodontitis with troponin I and myoglobin. To our knowledge, this study contributes the first research data demonstrating that the extent and severity of periodontitis is positively associated with acute myocardial infarct size as measured by serum troponin I and myoglobin levels. PMID:25139359

  14. SURVIVAL IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION—Factors Observed in 318 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Harnagel, Edward E.; Jelinek, Vaclav V.; Andonian, Andon A.; Ulrich, Clifford W.

    1959-01-01

    Factors influencing survival in a group of 318 cases of acute myocardial infarction were analyzed. The mortality rate for the entire series was 41 per cent. Among the men it was 39.5 per cent; among women, 44.4 per cent. The mortality rate increased with the age of the patient. Twenty-six per cent of all deaths occurred within the first 24 hours, 44 per cent within 72 hours, and 71 per cent within the first week following hospital admission. Increased mortality rate was associated with previous history of congestive failure, myocardial infarction, hypertension or cardiomegaly. As to circumstances immediately preceding an infarction, the only ones that seemed to be related to a high mortality rate were hemorrhage and the postoperative state. Not only the presence but the degree of shock, congestive failure, cyanosis and dyspnea adversely influenced chances for survival. Duration, location, radiation and number of attacks of pain did not appear to be associated with extraordinary mortality rates. Anterior was slightly more common than posterior infarctions, and the mortality rate was much higher. Thromboembolic complications and certain disorders of rhythm and of conduction definitely worsen prognosis. Comparison of average mortality data as reported in different studies on acute myocardial infarction is improper and misleading because of the great differences between the kinds of patients included in various series reported upon. A standard method of grading the severity of acute myocardial infarction would help toward sounder comparisons. PMID:13638836

  15. Pseudo-acute myocardial infarction due to transient apical ventricular dysfunction syndrome (Takotsubo syndrome).

    PubMed

    Maciel, Bruno Araújo; Cidrão, Alan Alves de Lima; Sousa, Italo Bruno Dos Santos; Ferreira, José Adailson da Silva; Messias Neto, Valdevino Pedro

    2013-03-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is characterized by predominantly medial-apical transient left ventricular dysfunction, which is typically triggered by physical or emotional stress. The present article reports the case of a 61-year-old female patient presenting with dizziness, excessive sweating, and sudden state of ill feeling following an episode involving intense emotional stress. The physical examination and electrocardiogram were normal upon admission, but the troponin I and creatine kinase-MB concentrations were increased. Acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation was suspected, and coronary angiography was immediately performed, which showed severe diffuse left ventricular hypokinesia, medial-apical systolic ballooning, and a lack of significant coronary injury. The patient was referred to the intensive care unit and was successfully treated with supportive therapy. As this case shows, Takotsubo syndrome might simulate the clinical manifestations of acute myocardial infarction, and coronary angiography is necessary to distinguish between both myocardial infarction and myocardial infarction in the acute stage. The present patient progressed with spontaneous resolution of the ventricular dysfunction without any sequelae.

  16. Neural mechanisms and delayed gastric emptying of liquid induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de

    2015-02-01

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1 mA/10 s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  17. Pseudo-acute myocardial infarction due to transient apical ventricular dysfunction syndrome (Takotsubo syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Bruno Araújo; Cidrão, Alan Alves de Lima; Sousa, Ítalo Bruno dos Santos; Ferreira, José Adailson da Silva; Messias Neto, Valdevino Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is characterized by predominantly medial-apical transient left ventricular dysfunction, which is typically triggered by physical or emotional stress. The present article reports the case of a 61-year-old female patient presenting with dizziness, excessive sweating, and sudden state of ill feeling following an episode involving intense emotional stress. The physical examination and electrocardiogram were normal upon admission, but the troponin I and creatine kinase-MB concentrations were increased. Acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation was suspected, and coronary angiography was immediately performed, which showed severe diffuse left ventricular hypokinesia, medial-apical systolic ballooning, and a lack of significant coronary injury. The patient was referred to the intensive care unit and was successfully treated with supportive therapy. As this case shows, Takotsubo syndrome might simulate the clinical manifestations of acute myocardial infarction, and coronary angiography is necessary to distinguish between both myocardial infarction and myocardial infarction in the acute stage. The present patient progressed with spontaneous resolution of the ventricular dysfunction without any sequelae. PMID:23887762

  18. [Cardiovascular risk factors in the circadian rhythm of acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    López Messa, Juan B; Garmendia Leiza, José R; Aguilar García, María D; Andrés de Llano, Jesús M; Alberola López, Carlos; Ardura Fernández, Julio

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors on the circadian rhythm of acute myocardial infarction. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of 54,249 patients from a multicenter study of acute myocardial infarction (the Spanish ARIAM study). The variables were time of onset of symptoms, age, sex, previous ischemic heart disease, coronary unit discharge status, previous stroke, familial antecedents of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and reinfarction. To verify the presence of circadian rhythm, we developed a simple test of equality of time series based on cosinor analysis of multiple sinusoid curves. Three sinusoids (24, 12 and 8 hour periods) were used. The time of onset of pain showed a circadian rhythm (P< .01), with a peak at 10:07 am and a trough at 4:46 am. All subgroups categorized according to the presence of the variables analyzed here showed a circadian rhythm, with a sinusoid curve after adjustment. In patients with diabetes or reinfarction or who were smokers, the sinusoid curve was bimodal. Time of onset of symptoms in patients with acute myocardial infarction follows a circadian rhythm. Diabetes, smoking and reinfarction can modify the standard circadian rhythm of onset of myocardial infarction.

  19. Acute inferior myocardial infarction due to cannabis smoking in a young man.

    PubMed

    Kocabay, Gonenc; Yildiz, Mustafa; Duran, Nilufer Eksi; Ozkan, Mehmet

    2009-09-01

    Cannabis smoking, which has euphoric effects, is consistently increasing in Europe. Smoking cannabis is a rare trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) by inducing coronary artery spasm. Some cases who have thrombus formation in acute coronary artery and no serious atherosclerotic lesions have been reported in the literature. These cases had involved the left coronary artery. Although some cases were reported with MI after cannabis smoking, only two case reports with inferior MI after cannabis smoking were reported in the literature. The present report is of a young male patient who was affected by acute inferior MI half an hour after cannabis smoking.

  20. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging assessment of outcomes in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Jamal N; McCann, Gerry P

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging uniquely characterizes myocardial and microvascular injury in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), providing powerful surrogate markers of outcomes. The last 10 years have seen an exponential increase in AMI studies utilizing CMR based endpoints. This article provides a contemporary, comprehensive review of the powerful role of CMR imaging in the assessment of outcomes in AMI. The theory, assessment techniques, chronology, importance in predicting left ventricular function and remodelling, and prognostic value of each CMR surrogate marker is described in detail. Major studies illustrating the importance of the markers are summarized, providing an up to date review of the literature base in CMR imaging in AMI. PMID:28289525

  1. Acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery embolism in a patient with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Camaro, C; Aengevaeren, W R M

    2009-08-01

    A 66-year-old female was referred for primary coronary intervention because of acute inferior STelevation myocardial infarction. Electrocardiography also showed atrial fibrillation. Coronary angiography showed a distal occlusion of the right coronary artery. Two different wires did not pass the occlusion, but dislodged the apparent thrombus more distally. No abnormalities were seen in the course of the recanalised part of the vessel. The sequential angiographic images together with the presence of atrial fibrillation are highly suggestive of coronary embolism as the cause of the myocardial infarction. Anticoagulation and rate control strategy was initiated. The patient was discharged in good condition. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:297-9.).

  2. Acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery embolism in a patient with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Camaro, C.; Aengevaeren, W.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    A 66-year-old female was referred for primary coronary intervention because of acute inferior STelevation myocardial infarction. Electrocardiography also showed atrial fibrillation. Coronary angiography showed a distal occlusion of the right coronary artery. Two different wires did not pass the occlusion, but dislodged the apparent thrombus more distally. No abnormalities were seen in the course of the recanalised part of the vessel. The sequential angiographic images together with the presence of atrial fibrillation are highly suggestive of coronary embolism as the cause of the myocardial infarction. Anticoagulation and rate control strategy was initiated. The patient was discharged in good condition. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:297-9.19789700) PMID:19789700

  3. Reducing case fatality from acute myocardial infarction in Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1994-2009.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Víctor René; Falcón, Arelys; Iraola, Marcos D; Valladares, Francisco; Ordúñez, Pedro O

    2012-10-01

    Between 1994 and 2009, the Dr Gustavo Aldereguía University Hospital of Cienfuegos, Cuba implemented a series of interventions that reduced acute myocardial infarction case fatality rate from 47% to 15%. These interventions were part of an institutional plan for myocardial infarction included in the hospital's overall quality assurance strategy. Outcomes resulted primarily from organizational changes (from upgrading of the hospital emergency department and provincial emergency system to creation of a comprehensive coronary care unit and a chest pain center); optimizing use of effective drugs (streptokinase, aspirin, ACE inhibitors and beta blockers); adherence to clinical practice guidelines; and continual and participatory evaluation and adjustment.

  4. [Digitalization for acute myocardial infarction: haemodynamic changes in patients with heart failure at rest (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bachour, G; Hochrein, H

    1975-11-21

    Haemodynamic changes after intravenous administration of 0.4 mg beta-methyldigoxin or 0.4 mg digoxin daily were measured on the first to fourth day in 42 patients in heart failure after onset of transmural myocardial infarction. Regular reduction in filling pressure and increased stroke volume while arterial blood pressure remained unaltered pointed to improved contractility. Digitalization in the first few days after infarction achieved sustained tendency towards improved haemodynamics. It is concluded that early digitalization is indicated in patients with acute myocardial infarction if there are signs of heart failure.

  5. Successful treatment of a young woman with acute complicated myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Serpytis, Pranas; Kibarskis, Aleksandras; Katkus, Rimgaudas; Samalavicius, Robertas; Glaveskaite, Sigita; Rackauskas, Gediminas

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is method used to improve the neurological status of patients who are at risk of ischaemia after myocardial infarction. We report a case of a 28-year-old woman who suffered acute myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular fibrillation. The patient was successfully resuscitated. Invasive and non-invasive medical treatment was applied including therapeutic hypothermia. Success was achieved due to adequate public reaction, fast transportation, blood vessel revascularization and application of therapeutic hypothermia. The patient was successfully discharged after one week of treatment, and just minor changes in heart function were present. PMID:24570755

  6. Improved Detection of Myocardial Involvement in Acute Inflammatory Cardiomyopathies Using T2 Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Walls, Michael; Giri, Shivraman; Verhaert, David; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Moore, Sean; Simonetti, Orlando P.; Raman, Subha V.

    2011-01-01

    Background T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is useful in diagnosing acute inflammatory myocardial diseases such as myocarditis and tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTCM). We hypothesized that quantitative T2 mapping could better delineate myocardial involvement in these disorders vs. T2-weighted imaging. Methods and Results Thirty patients with suspected myocarditis or TTCM referred for CMR who met established diagnostic criteria underwent myocardial T2 mapping. T2 values were averaged in involved and remote myocardial segments, both defined by a reviewer blinded to T2 data. In myocarditis, T2 was 65.2±3.2ms in the involved myocardium vs. 53.5±2.1 in remote myocardium (p<0.001). In TTCM, T2 was 65.6±4.0ms in the involved myocardium vs. 53.6±2.7ms in remote segments (p<0.001). T2 values were similar across remote myocardial segments in patients and all myocardial segments in controls (p>0.05 for all). T2 maps provided diagnostic data even in patients with difficulty breath-holding. A T2 cutoff of 59ms identified areas of myocardial involvement with sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 97%, respectively. T2 mapping revealed regions of abnormal T2 beyond those identified by wall motion abnormalities or LGE-positivity. Conventional T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (T2W-STIR) images were uninterpretable in 7 patients due to artifact and unremarkable in 2 who had elevated T2 values. T2-prepared steady state free precession (T2p-SSFP) images showed areas of signal hyperintensity in only17/30 patients. Conclusions Quantitative T2 mapping reliably identifies myocardial involvement in patients with myocarditis and TTCM. T2 mapping delineated greater extent of myocardial disease in both conditions compared to that identified by wall motion abnormalities, T2W-STIR, T2p-SSFP or LGE. Quantitative T2 mapping warrants consideration as a robust technique to identify myocardial injury in patients with acute myocarditis or TTCM. PMID:22038988

  7. Relationship of Myocardial Strain and Markers of Myocardial Injury to Predict Segmental Recovery After Acute ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Khan, Jamal N; Nazir, Sheraz A; Singh, Anvesha; Shetye, Abhishek; Lai, Florence Y; Peebles, Charles; Wong, Joyce; Greenwood, John P; McCann, Gerry P

    2016-06-01

    Late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging overestimates infarct size and underestimates recovery of dysfunctional segments acutely post ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. We assessed whether cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging-derived segmental myocardial strain and markers of myocardial injury could improve the accuracy of late gadolinium-enhancement in predicting functional recovery after ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. A total of 164 ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients underwent acute (median 3 days) and follow-up (median 9.4 months) cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Wall-motion scoring, feature tracking-derived circumferential strain (Ecc), segmental area of late gadolinium-enhancement (SEE), microvascular obstruction, intramyocardial hemorrhage, and salvage index (MSI) were assessed in 2624 segments. We used logistic regression analysis to identify markers that predict segmental recovery. At acute CMR 32% of segments were dysfunctional, and at follow-up CMR 19% were dysfunctional. Segmental function at acute imaging and odds ratio (OR) for functional recovery decreased with increasing SEE, although 33% of dysfunctional segments with SEE 76% to 100% improved. SEE was a strong predictor of functional improvement and normalization (area under the curve [AUC], 0.840 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.814-0.867]; OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.97-0.98] per +1% SEE for improvement and AUC, 0.887 [95% CI, 0.865-0.909]; OR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.94-0.96] per +1% SEE for normalization). Its predictive accuracy for improvement, as assessed by areas under the receiver operator curves, was similar to that of MSI (AUC, 0.840 [95% CI, 0.809-0.872]; OR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.02-1.03] per +1% MSI for improvement and AUC, 0.862 [0.832-0.891]; OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.03-1.04] per +1% SEE for normalization) and Ecc (AUC, 0.834 [95% CI, 0.807-0.862]; OR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.03-1.07] per +1% MSI for improvement and AUC, 0.844 [95% CI, 0

  8. [Characteristics of acute myocardial infarction patients treated with mechanical ventilation. Data from the ARIAM Registry].

    PubMed

    López Messa, J B; Andrés De Llano, J M; Berrocal De La Fuente, C A; Pascual Palacín, R

    2001-07-01

    Scarce information is available about the use, clinical course and follow-up of patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with mechanical ventilation. Historical cohort study of patients with acute myocardial infarction, included in Spanish registry ARIAM. Differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis from patients treated with or without mechanical ventilation were compared. Three hundred and thirty-three of the 4143 patients (8.1%) with acute myocardial infarction were treated with mechanical ventilation. Treated patients were older, more frequently female, and had more frequently reinfarcts, anterior infarction, Killip III and IV, and higher creatine phosphokinase peak. Diabetes and high blood pressure were more frequent in those in which the technique was applied. They had a higher mortality at the coronary care unit (65.7 vs 5.1%; p < 0.001) than the non-ventilated patients. In multivariate analysis, creatine phosphokinase peak levels higher than 1.200 units/ml, Killip III and IV, and an infarction localization different to inferior were independent predictors of mechanical ventilation application. The 220 treated patients who died were older, more frequently female, had been more frequently admitted to the coronary unit, and had Killip IV whereas Killip III was more frequent among survivors. In multivariate analysis, restricted to patients treated with mechanical ventilation, Killip III was an independent predictor of survival with an odds ratio for mortality of 0.26 (CI 95%: 0.09-0.77). Mechanical ventilation is a vital support technique employed in a significant number of complicated acute myocardial infarction patients. The high mortality of these patients was related to more extended myocardial infarction and a worse clinical state.

  9. ST-elevation myocardial infarction and myelodysplastic syndrome with acute myeloid leukemia transformation.

    PubMed

    Jao, Geoffrey T; Knovich, Mary Ann; Savage, Rodney W; Sane, David C

    2014-04-01

    Acute myocardial infarction and acute myeloid leukemia are rarely reported as concomitant conditions. The management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients who have acute myeloid leukemia is challenging: the leukemia-related thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, and systemic coagulopathy increase the risk of bleeding, and the administration of thrombolytic agents can be fatal. We report the case of a 76-year-old man who presented emergently with STEMI, myelodysplastic syndrome, and newly recognized acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Standard antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy were contraindicated by the patient's thrombocytopenia and by his reported ecchymosis and gingival bleeding upon admission. He declined cardiac catheterization, was provided palliative care, and died 2 hours after hospital admission. We searched the English-language medical literature, found 8 relevant reports, and determined that the prognosis for patients with concomitant STEMI and acute myeloid leukemia is clearly worse than that for either individual condition. No guidelines exist to direct the management of STEMI and concomitant acute myeloid leukemia. In 2 reports, dual antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulation, and drug-eluting stent implantation were used without an increased risk of bleeding in the short term, even in the presence of thrombocytopenia. However, we think that a more conservative approach--balloon angioplasty with the provisional use of bare-metal stents--might be safer. Simultaneous chemotherapy for the acute myeloid leukemia is crucial. Older age seems to be a major risk factor: patients too frail for emergent treatment can die within hours or days.

  10. SIRT1 activation by curcumin pretreatment attenuates mitochondrial oxidative damage induced by myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Duan, Weixun; Lin, Yan; Yi, Wei; Liang, Zhenxing; Yan, Juanjuan; Wang, Ning; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Song; Li, Yue; Chen, Wensheng; Yu, Shiqiang; Yi, Dinghua; Jin, Zhenxiao

    2013-12-01

    Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI) is harmful to the cardiovascular system and causes mitochondrial oxidative stress. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a type of histone deacetylase, contributes to IRI. Curcumin (Cur) is a strong natural antioxidant and is the active component in Curcuma longa; Cur has protective effects against IRI and may regulate the activity of SIRT1. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Cur pretreatment on myocardial IRI and to elucidate this potential mechanism. Isolated and in vivo rat hearts and cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to IR. Prior to this procedure, the hearts or cardiomyocytes were exposed to Cur in the absence or presence of the SIRT1 inhibitor sirtinol or SIRT1 siRNA. Cur conferred a cardioprotective effect, as shown by improved postischemic cardiac function, decreased myocardial infarct size, decreased myocardial apoptotic index, and several biochemical parameters, including the up-regulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl2 and the down-regulation of the proapoptotic protein Bax. Sirtinol and SIRT1 siRNA each blocked the Cur-mediated cardioprotection by inhibiting SIRT1 signaling. Cur also resulted in a well-preserved mitochondrial redox potential, significantly elevated mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased formation of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde. These observations indicated that the IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage was remarkably attenuated. However, this Cur-elevated mitochondrial function was reversed by sirtinol or SIRT1 siRNA treatment. In summary, our results demonstrate that Cur pretreatment attenuates IRI by reducing IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage through the activation of SIRT1 signaling.

  11. Dual energy CT with nonlinear image blending improves visualization of delayed myocardial contrast enhancement in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kartje, Julia Katharina; Schmidt, Bernhard; Bruners, Philipp; Mahnken, Andreas H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of, and optimal parameters for, nonlinear image blending compared with linear image blending in the late-phase dual energy computed tomography (DECT) for the visualization of delayed myocardial contrast enhancement in acute myocardial infarction (MI). Acute reperfused MI was induced in 7 pigs by temporary occlusion of the left anterior descending or the left circumflex artery. Two hours after the reperfusion, a contrast-enhanced, late-phase DECT (80 kV/140 kV) scanning was performed. The DECT data were postprocessed with linear and nonlinear image blending techniques. Contrast and percentage signal differences between healthy and infarcted myocardium as well as the blood pool of the left ventricle were computed for the linear and nonlinear techniques and the low- and high-kilovolt images. Data were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc t tests. The nonlinear blending showed the highest signal differences for all contrasts and analyses. Repeated-measures ANOVA results confirmed that the differences were statistically significant for the different postprocessing techniques (P value ranging from <0.001-0.003). Paired-samples post hoc t tests proved the significance of these results (P value ranging from <0.001-0.037). The ideal settings for the nonlinear image blending can thus be deduced from the computed tomographic values of the regions of interest in the linearly blended images with the weighting factor 0.3. Nonlinear image blending improves the visualization of acute MI in the late-phase DECT. It is superior to linearly blended images and source images obtained at 80 or 140 kV.

  12. The Citrus Flavanone Naringenin Protects Myocardial Cells against Age-Associated Damage

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Barbara; Cavallini, Chiara; Testai, Lara; Martelli, Alma; Calderone, Vincenzo; Martini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the health-promoting effects of the citrus flavanone naringenin have been examined. The results have provided evidence for the modulation of some key mechanisms involved in cellular damage by this compound. In particular, naringenin has been revealed to have protective properties such as an antioxidant effect in cardiometabolic disorders. Very recently, beneficial effects of naringenin have been demonstrated in old rats. Because aging has been demonstrated to be directly related to the occurrence of cardiac disorders, in the present study, the ability of naringenin to prevent cardiac cell senescence was investigated. For this purpose, a cellular model of senescent myocardial cells was set up and evaluated using colorimetric, fluorimetric, and immunometric techniques. Relevant cellular senescence markers, such as X-gal staining, cell cycle regulator levels, and the percentage of cell cycle-arrested cells, were found to be reduced in the presence of naringenin. In addition, cardiac markers of aging-induced damage, including radical oxidative species levels, mitochondrial metabolic activity, mitochondrial calcium buffer capacity, and estrogenic signaling functions, were also modulated by the compound. These results suggested that naringenin has antiaging effects on myocardial cells. PMID:28386313

  13. QRS slopes for assessment of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, E.; Laciar, E.; Anzuola, E.; Laguna, P.; Jané, R.

    2007-11-01

    In this study the slopes of the QRS complex are evaluated for determination of the degree of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of the slope indices to reflect alterations in the conduction velocity of the cardiac impulse. Results obtained in the present study show that chronic chagasic patients have significantly flatter QRS slopes as compared to healthy subjects. Not only that but the extent of slope lessening turns out to be proportional to the degree of myocardial damage caused by the disease. Additionally, when incorporating the slope indices into a classification analysis together with other indices indicative of the presence of ventricular late potentials obtained from high resolution electrocardiography, results show that the percentages of correct classification increase up to 62.5%, which means eight points above the percentages obtained prior to incorporation of the slope indices. It can be concluded that QRS slopes have great potential for assessing the degree of severity associated with Chagas' disease.

  14. Hemodialysis-induced acute myocardial dyssynchronous impairment in children.

    PubMed

    Hothi, Daljit K; Rees, Lesley; McIntyre, Christopher W; Marek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In adults, recurrent hemodialysis (HD)-induced cardiac injury results in ischemic myocardial dysfunction. Uremic children, like adults, share the full complement of uremia-related cardiovascular abnormalities but without significant atheromatous coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was, to assess the impact of HD on left ventricular (LV) myocardial function in children. We assessed all single-center chronic HD patients (n = 15, range 1-17 years) excluding those with overt cardiac disease. Regional LV function and mechanical synchronicity was measured echographically by two-dimensional segmental longitudinal, circumferential and radial myocardial strain. All patients were assessed pre-dialysis and at the end of dialysis. In addition, we scanned age-matched controls at rest. The peak longitudinal strain was lower in uremic patients compared with controls with a significant fall during HD (mean peak strain -19.9 controls, -17.9 pre-HD, -15.3 end of HD, p < 0.05). Radial strain was lower in uremic patients and increased during HD. Circumferential strain was preserved in uremic patients and fell during HD. Intrasegmental deformation synchronicity was progressively worse pre-dialysis and end of dialysis compared with controls. Intradialytic peak longitudinal strain reduction was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and ultrafiltrate volume (p < 0.05). Uremic children have impaired regional LV function, with a predisposition to longitudinal axis dysfunction and LV mechanical dyssynchrony, both of which are established markers of ischemic injury. This is further evidence for a characteristic cardiovascular phenotype in uremic patients that predisposes them to subclinical demand ischemia during dialysis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Effects of acute hyperglycemia on myocardial glycolytic activity in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Wisneski, J A; Stanley, W C; Neese, R A; Gertz, E W

    1990-01-01

    The effects of hyperglycemia on myocardial glucose metabolism were investigated in seven healthy male subjects (age 24 +/- 4 yr). [6-14C]Glucose and [U-13C]lactate were infused as tracers. Circulating glucose was elevated to two hyperglycemic levels using a clamp technique for 1 h at each level. The mean arterial glucose concentration was 4.95 +/- 0.29 (control), 8.33 +/- 0.31 and 10.84 +/- 0.60 mumols/ml, respectively. Glucose extraction increased significantly from control (0.15 +/- 0.13 mumols/ml) during each level of the glucose clamp (0.28 +/- 0.12, P less than 0.02, and 0.54 +/- 0.14 mumols/ml, P less than 0.005, respectively). Myocardial production of 14CO2 showed that during control 9 +/- 10% of exogenous glucose was oxidized immediately upon extraction. Despite a significant increase in the amount of exogenous glucose oxidized with level II hyperglycemia, it represented only 32 +/- 10% of the glucose extracted. [13C]Lactate analysis showed that the myocardium was releasing lactate; during control 40 +/- 30% of this lactate was derived from exogenous glucose and during hyperglycemia this value increased to 97 +/- 37% (P less than 0.005). Thus, these data show that during short-term hyperglycemia, myocardial glucose extraction is enhanced. However, despite increases in exogenous glucose oxidation and the contribution of exogenous glucose to lactate release, the majority of the extracted glucose (i.e., 57%) is probably stored as glycogen. PMID:2185277

  16. Role of adenosine as adjunctive therapy in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Forman, Mervyn B; Stone, Gregg W; Jackson, Edwin K

    2006-01-01

    Although early reperfusion and maintained patency is the mainstay therapy for ST elevation myocardial infarction, experimental studies demonstrate that reperfusion per se induces deleterious effects on viable ischemic cells. Thus "myocardial reperfusion injury" may compromise the full potential of reperfusion therapy and may account for unfavorable outcomes in high-risk patients. Although the mechanisms of reperfusion injury are complex and multifactorial, neutrophil-mediated microvascular injury resulting in a progressive decrease in blood flow ("no-reflow" phenomenon) likely plays an important role. Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside found in large quantities in myocardial and endothelial cells. It activates four well-characterized receptors producing various physiological effects that attenuate many of the proposed mechanisms of reperfusion injury. The cardio-protective effects of adenosine are supported by its role as a mediator of pre- and post-conditioning. In experimental models, administration of adenosine in the peri-reperfusion period results in a marked reduction in infarct size and improvement in ventricular function. The cardioprotective effects in the canine model have a narrow time window with the drug losing its effect following three hours of ischemia. Several small clinical studies have demonstrated that administration of adenosine with reperfusion therapy reduces infarct size and improves ventricular function. In the larger AMISTAD and AMISTAD II trials a 3-h infusion of adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion resulted in a striking reduction in infarct size (55-65%). Post hoc analysis of AMISTAD II showed that this was associated with significantly improved early and late mortality in patients treated within 3.17 h of symptoms. An intravenous infusion of adenosine for 3 h should be considered as adjunctive therapy in high risk-patients undergoing reperfusion therapy.

  17. Acute myocardial infarction incidence, mortality and case fatality in Santa Clara, Cuba, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Morales, Alberto; Madrazo, Yuri; Ramírez, José I; Castañeda, Luis; Machín, Wilfredo; Álvarez, Licet; Angulo, Regla; Dueñas, Raúl; Bermúdez, Roberto

    2011-10-01

    Information on acute myocardial infarction incidence and mortality is essential for determining the efficacy of the health system's cardiovascular disease prevention activities; however, in Cuba, sufficient data related to acute myocardial infarction are lacking, particularly at the local level. Describe acute myocardial infarction incidence, mortality and case fatality rates from January 2007 through December 2008 in persons aged 45-74 in the municipality of Santa Clara, Villa Clara Province, Cuba. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The World Health Organization MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease Project (MONICA) methodology was used, but only in part, since out-of-hospital case fatalities were not investigated, resulting in insufficient data for such cases. Cases of acute myocardial infarction covered under MONICA definition 1 were included (non-fatal definite, fatal definite, fatal possible, and unclassifiable deaths). Hospitalized patients were followed for 28 days. Incidence, mortality and case fatality rates in the population were calculated by age group (45-54, 55-64 and 65-74 years) and sex. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated using the direct method, with the world population as a reference. A total of 482 cases of acute myocardial infarction were registered. The percentage of cases of non-fatal definite, fatal definite, fatal possible and fatal with insufficient data were 32%, 18.3%, 26.3% and 13.9% respectively. The cumulative age-standardized incidence per 100,000 population was 433 (95% CI 365-501) in men and 195 (95% CI 152-237) in women, while mortality per 100,000 population was 242 (95% CI 192-292) in men and 120 (95% CI 87-153) in women. Case fatality was 56.4% in men and 62.6% in women. Most fatal cases (65.6%) occurred out of hospital, a trend that was more marked in men (73.9%) than in women (51%). Case fatality from acute myocardial infarction in Santa Clara residents was high

  18. Male susceptibility to hepatic damage in acute uremia in rats.

    PubMed

    Golab, Fereshteh; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Xu, Jie; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the role of gender in hepatic oxidative stress response and production of inflammatory cytokines in acute uremia after bilateral nephrectomy. Published studies indicate that the severity of tissue damage in kidney, brain, or heart injury may differ according to gender. We recently demonstrated that acute renal failure after kidney injury or bilateral nephrectomy activates oxidative stress and causes damage to the liver. Male and female rats were subjected to bilateral nephrectomy and euthanized four hours later. Serum and liver tissues were collected and analyzed. To ascertain the role of testosterone and estrogen in hepatic oxidative stress, castration was carried out 15 days before bilateral nephrectomy. In some groups, animals were administrated 17-β-estradiol or vehicle for 2 weeks before bilateral nephrectomy. Hepatic oxidative stress was significantly pronounced in male rats as determined by increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decrease in total glutathione (GSH) contents. An increase in proinflammatory cytokine concentration was seen in male rats, whereas the antiinflammatory cytokine level was more elevated in females. Castration reduced hepatic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine concentration, whereas exogenous estradiol after castration did not have an additional effect on these parameters. There is a gender difference with regard to the severity of hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory response in acute uremia after bilateral nephrectomy, with female rats displaying significant protection relative to male rats. We suggest that sex hormones could play an important role in the severity of remote tissue damage in acute kidney failure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of glycyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation on myocardial damage and cardiac function in rats after severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Yan, Hong; Lv, Shang-Gun; Wang, Lin; Liang, Guang-Ping; Wan, Qian-Xue; Peng, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Glutamine decreases myocardial damage in ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the cardioprotective effect of glutamine after burn injury remains unclear. Present study was to explore the protective effect of glycyl-glutamine dipeptide on myocardial damage in severe burn rats. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (C), burned control (B) and glycyl-glutamine dipeptide-treated (GG) groups. B and GG groups were inflicted with 30% total body surface area of full thickness burn. The GG group was given 1.5 g/kg glycyl-glutamine dipeptide per day and the B group was given the same dose of alanine via intraperitoneal injection for 3 days. The serum CK, LDH, AST, and, blood lactic acid levels, as well as the myocardium ATP and GSH contents, were measured. The indices of cardiac contractile function and histopathological change were analyzed at 12, 24, 48, and 72 post-burn hours (PBH). The serum CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid levels increased, and the myocardium ATP and GSH content decreased in both burned groups. Compared with B group, the CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid levels reduced, myocardium ATP and GSH content increased in GG group. Moreover, the inhibition of cardiac contractile function and myocardial histopathological damage were reduced significantly in GG group. We conclude that myocardial histological structure and function were damaged significantly after burn injury, glycyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation is beneficial to myocardial preservation by improving cardiocyte energy metabolism, increasing ATP and glutathione synthesis.

  20. [Acute myocardial infarction in the elderly. The FAST-MI registry].

    PubMed

    Puymirat, Etienne; Aissaoui, Nadia; Simon, Tabassome; Bataille, Vincent; Drouet, Elodie; Mulak, Geneviève; Ferrières, Jean; Danchin, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    The FAST-MI 2010 registry collected information on characteristics and management of patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infraction during a one-month period in 213 centers across France, at the end of 2010. Among the 3079 patients included, 31% were aged 75 years or over (25% of those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and 38% of those with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction). The clinical profile and risk factors differ in elderly patients, but chest pain remains the most common presenting symptom, although a substantial percentage of patients also present with signs of heart failure. Elderly individuals receive less recommended medications, including reperfusion therapy for STEMI, with the largest difference observed beyond 85 years of age. In-hospital mortality increases with age, particularly after 85 years, but has decreased compared with previous French surveys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Vitamin D is related to markers of vulnerable plaque in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Machulsky, Nahuel; Barchuk, Magalí; Gagliardi, Juan; González, Diego; Lombardo, Micaela; Escudero, Alejandro García; Gigena, Gerardo; Blanco, Federico; Schreier, Laura; Fabre, Bibiana; Berg, Gabriela

    2017-06-09

    Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin involved in calcium and bone metabolism; recently its deficiency has been related to cardiovascular disease. In cardiac tissue, vitamin D suppresses metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression, enzymes directly associated with vulnerable plaque. To investigate whether the association between vitamin D and leptin is related to markers of vulnerable plaque, such as MMPs in patients with acute myocardial infarction. We studied 66 male patients with acute myocardial infarction, undergoing primary angioplasty. Blood samples were obtained at admission and 24hs after the surgery. Leptin and vitamin D concentrations in serum and MMP-2 and -9 activities in plasma were determined. MMP-2 activity was increased in Vitamin D deficient/insufficient patients at admission (p=0.04) and 24 hs later (p=0.05). In a linear regression model, vitamin D explained 24% of the variance of MMP-2 activity (F=2.839 p=0.04). At admission, vitamin D correlated with serum leptin (r=-0.302 p=0.033), and explained 39.5% of its variation (F=4.432 p=0.003). In the studied population, vitamin D was inversely related to MMP-2 and leptin which are involved in coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction. The decrease in this hormone levels would be associated with a worse metabolic profile in acute coronary syndrome patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. [32-year-old patient with acute myocardial infarction possibly induced by the appetite suppressant sibutramine].

    PubMed

    Pöss, Janine; Böhm, M; Link, A

    2010-05-01

    A 32-year-old, very slightly overweight woman (body mass index of 25) without any cardiovascular risk factors presented with acute chest pain. She reported taking the appetite suppressant sibutramine daily for three months. She was not pregnant and did not remember episodes of serious mental stress or infection during the last few weeks. Physical examination was unsuspicious. Laboratory results revealed an elevation of serum markers of myocardial ischemia. The electrocardiogram showed ST segment depressions and T wave inversions in leads II, III and aVF, indicating a nontransmural inferior myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed patent coronary arteries with inferior wall hypokinesia. There were no signs of a coronary dissection. Assuming that the acute coronary syndrome had been induced by coronary spasms, the patient was treated with amlodipine and ramipril. It seemed reasonable to suspect that the intake of sibutramine had induced coronary spasms. However, this is a diagnosis of exclusion. Three case reports have previously been published about acute myocardial infarctions, possibly related to sibutramin intake, in young patients with a negligible cardiovascular risk profile. The European Medicines Agency has questioned the marketing authorisations for sibutramine (January 2010). In patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes which can not be clearly related to cardiovascular risk factors, it is crucial to obtain a complete drug history. Some patients might continue to take sibutramine. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  3. The relationship between acute myocardial infarction and periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi Samani, Mahmoud; Jalali, Farzad; Seyyed Ahadi, Seyyed Masud; Hoseini, Seyyed Reza; Dabbagh Sattari, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is common in adults and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of adult death in the world. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CVD and periodontitis. Methods: Sixty patients with myocardial infarction (MI) as case and 63 subjects with periodontitis without MI as control were studied. Periodontitis was assessed according to Ramfjord periodontal diseases index and the number of missing teeth besides classic risk factors of MI were recorded. Results: The patients who lost more than 10 teeth were at more risk of myocardial infarction (OR=2.73). There was a significant relationship between mean attachment loss and MI (p=0.0001). There was also a relation between attachment loss more than 3 mm and MI with OR of 4. Significant difference between mean PDI (periodontal disease index) was seen in case and control groups (p=0.0001). Subjects with PDI>4 were at more risk of periodontal diseases (OR=7.87). Conclusion: The results show the presence of significant relation between periodontitis and MI which could serve as an alarm to treat periodontitis carefully. PMID:24009957

  4. Acute myocardial infarction with concomitant pulmonary embolism as a result of patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Bozbeyoğlu, Emrah; Akyüz, Şükrü; Yıldırımtürk, Özlem; Bozbay, Mehmet; Bakhshaliyev, Nijad; Renda, Emir; Gök, Gülay; Eren, Mehmet; Pehlivanoğlu, Seçkin

    2015-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) and pulmonary embolism canal one lead to life-threatening conditions such as sudden cardiac death and congestive heart failure. We discuss a case of a 74-year-old man presented to the emergency department with acute dyspnea and chest pain. Acute anterior MI and pulmonary embolism concomitantly were diagnosed. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention performed because of preliminary acute anterior MI diagnosis. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to determine further complications caused by acute MI because patient had a continuous tachycardia and dyspnea although hemodynamically stable. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a thrombus that was stuck into the patent foramen ovale with parts in right and left atria. Anticoagulation therapy was started; neither fibrinolytic therapy nor operation was performed because of low survey expectations of the patient's recently diagnosed primary disease stage IV lung cancer. Patient was discharged on his 20th day with oral anticoagulation and antiagregant therapy.

  5. Ginger Treatment Ameliorates Alcohol-induced Myocardial Damage by Suppression of Hyperlipidemia and Cardiac Biomarkers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, Ganjikunta Venkata; Mallikarjuna, Korivi; Shanmugam, Bhasha; Ravi, Sahukari; Taj, Patan Usnan; Reddy, Kesireddy Sathyavelu

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia is positively correlated with cardiovascular diseases. Several herbal extracts have been reported to protect the cardiac injury and suppress the hyperlipidemia. However, the effect of ginger extracts on alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia and associated myocardial damage remains unclear. This study investigated the cardio-protective properties of ginger ethanolic extract (Gt) against alcohol-induced myocardial damage, and further distinguished the association between hyperlipidemia and occurrence of myocardial damage in rats. Twenty four Wistar male albino rats (250 ± 20 g) were divided into four groups including, Normal control (NC) (0.9% NaCl), Ginger treated (Gt) (200 mg/Kg b.w.), Alcohol treated (At) (20% of 6g/kg b.w. alcohol), and Alcohol along with Ginger treatment (At+Gt). In this study, lipid profiles such as fatty acids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoproteins, and cardiac biomarkers, including LDH, AST, CK-MB, cTn-T and cTn-I were examined in rats. Furthermore, histopathological studies were also conducted. We found that alcohol-induced myocardial damage was associated with increased lipid profile except high density lipoprotein in alcohol treated (20%, 6g/kg b.w.) rats compared with control. Ginger treatment significantly reduced the alcohol-induced lipid profiles except high density lipoproteins. Furthermore, elevated cardiac biomarkers activity with alcohol intoxication was substantially suppressed by ginger treatment. In addition, ginger treatment for 7-weeks significantly minimized the alcohol-induced myocardial damage. Our results concluded that ginger could protect alcohol-induced myocardial damage by suppression of hyperlipidemia and cardiac biomarkers. Ginger extract could alleviate the myocardial injury partially due to the suppression of circulating FFAs and TG levels.Increased circulating cholesterol, LDL and phospholipids with alcohol intake were

  6. Ginger Treatment Ameliorates Alcohol-induced Myocardial Damage by Suppression of Hyperlipidemia and Cardiac Biomarkers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Subbaiah, Ganjikunta Venkata; Mallikarjuna, Korivi; Shanmugam, Bhasha; Ravi, Sahukari; Taj, Patan Usnan; Reddy, Kesireddy Sathyavelu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia is positively correlated with cardiovascular diseases. Several herbal extracts have been reported to protect the cardiac injury and suppress the hyperlipidemia. However, the effect of ginger extracts on alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia and associated myocardial damage remains unclear. Objective: This study investigated the cardio-protective properties of ginger ethanolic extract (Gt) against alcohol-induced myocardial damage, and further distinguished the association between hyperlipidemia and occurrence of myocardial damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four Wistar male albino rats (250 ± 20 g) were divided into four groups including, Normal control (NC) (0.9% NaCl), Ginger treated (Gt) (200 mg/Kg b.w.), Alcohol treated (At) (20% of 6g/kg b.w. alcohol), and Alcohol along with Ginger treatment (At+Gt). In this study, lipid profiles such as fatty acids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoproteins, and cardiac biomarkers, including LDH, AST, CK-MB, cTn-T and cTn-I were examined in rats. Furthermore, histopathological studies were also conducted. Results: We found that alcohol-induced myocardial damage was associated with increased lipid profile except high density lipoprotein in alcohol treated (20%, 6g/kg b.w.) rats compared with control. Ginger treatment significantly reduced the alcohol-induced lipid profiles except high density lipoproteins. Furthermore, elevated cardiac biomarkers activity with alcohol intoxication was substantially suppressed by ginger treatment. In addition, ginger treatment for 7-weeks significantly minimized the alcohol-induced myocardial damage. Conclusion: Our results concluded that ginger could protect alcohol-induced myocardial damage by suppression of hyperlipidemia and cardiac biomarkers. SUMMARY Ginger extract could alleviate the myocardial injury partially due to the suppression of circulating FFAs and TG levels

  7. Acute myocardial infarction: estimation of at-risk and salvaged myocardium at myocardial perfusion SPECT 1 month after infarction.

    PubMed

    Romero-Farina, Guillermo; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; Candell-Riera, Jaume; Pizzi, M Nazarena; Pineda, Victor; Figueras, Jaume; Cuberas, Gemma; de León, Gustavo; Castell-Conesa, Joan; García-Dorado, David

    2013-11-01

    To estimate at-risk and salvaged myocardium by using gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study was approved by the hospital's Ethical Committee on Clinical Trials (trial register number, PR(HG)36/2000), and all patients gave informed consent. Forty patients (mean age, 61.78 years; eight women) with a first AMI underwent two gated SPECT examinations--one before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and one 4-5 weeks after PCI. Myocardium at risk was estimated by assessing the perfusion defect at the first gated SPECT examination, and salvaged myocardium was estimated by assessing the risk area minus necrosis at the second examination. Myocardium at risk was estimated by determining the discordance between the areas of left ventricular (LV) wall motion and perfusion at the second examination. Concordance between tests was analyzed by means of linear regression analysis, the Pearson correlation, the intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. An improvement in perfusion, wall motion, wall thickening, and LV ejection fraction (P < .001) was observed at 1 month. At 1 month, the area with abnormal wall motion was greater than the area of altered perfusion (35.47 vs 23.1 cm(2); P = .007). The extent of myocardium at risk estimated from this discordance correlated well with myocardium at risk measured at the first gated SPECT examination and with salvaged myocardium between both studies (Pearson correlation: 0.78 and 0.6, respectively). Concordance for correct classification of patients with salvaged myocardium of 50% or greater was 83% (κ = 0.65). Myocardial perfusion gated SPECT performed 1 month after early PCI in a first AMI provides potentially useful information on at-risk and salvaged myocardium. http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13122324/-/DC1. RSNA, 2013

  8. Quantitative myocardial perfusion measurement using CT perfusion: a validation study in a porcine model of reperfused acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    So, Aaron; Hsieh, Jiang; Li, Jian-Ying; Hadway, Jennifer; Kong, Hua-Fu; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2012-06-01

    We validated a CT perfusion technique with beam hardening (BH) correction for quantitative measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF). Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was created in four pigs by occluding the distal LAD for 1 h followed by reperfusion. MBF was measured from dynamic contrast enhanced CT (DCE-CT) scanning of the heart, with correction of cardiac motion and BH, before ischemic insult and on day 7, 10 and 14 post. On day 14 post, radiolabeled microspheres were injected to measure MBF and the results were compared with those measured by CT perfusion. Excised hearts were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to determine the relationship between MBF measured by CT Perfusion and myocardial viability. MBF measured by CT perfusion was strongly correlated with that by microspheres over a wide range of MBF values (R = 0.81, from 25 to 225 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1)). While MBF in the LAD territory decreased significantly from 98.4 ± 2.5 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1) at baseline to 32.2 ± 9.1 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1), P < 0.05 at day 7 and to 49.4 ± 9.3 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1), P < 0.05 at day 14, the decrease in remote myocardium (LCx territory) from baseline (103.9 ± 1.9 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1)) was minimal throughout the study (90.6 ± 5.1 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1) on day 14 post, P > 0.05). TTC staining confirmed incomplete infarction in the LAD territory and no infarction in the LCx territory. Microvascular obstruction in infarcted tissue resulted in no-reflow and hence persistently low MBF in the reperfused LAD territory which contained a mixture of viable and non-viable tissue. CT perfusion measurement of MBF was accurate and correlated well with histology and microspheres measurements.

  9. Tar yield of cigarettes and risk of acute myocardial infarction. GISSI-EFRIM Investigators.

    PubMed Central

    Negri, E; Franzosi, M G; La Vecchia, C; Santoro, L; Nobili, A; Tognoni, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To analyse the relation between tar and nicotine yield of cigarettes smoked in the recent past and the risk of myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Multicentre case-control study conducted between September 1988 and June 1989. SETTING--Over 80 coronary care units in various Italian regions. SUBJECTS--916 patients with acute myocardial infarction without history of ischaemic heart disease and 1106 controls admitted to hospital for acute conditions not related to known or suspected risk factors for ischaemic heart disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Relative risk of myocardial infarction according to type of cigarette smoked adjusted for identified potential confounding factors. Brands of cigarettes classified according to yield of tar and nicotine. RESULTS--Patients with acute myocardial infarction were more often smokers and among smokers they tended to smoke more cigarettes. Compared with non-smokers their estimated relative risks were 3.8, 4.3, 3.2, and 3.7 in the four categories of tar yield (< 10, 10-15, > 15-20, and > 20 mg, respectively). No trend in risk across yields was evident when analysis was restricted to smokers and allowance was made for number of cigarettes. Compared with risks in subjects in the lowest category of tar yield the relative risks were 1.2, 0.8, and 1.0 for the subsequent yields. Compared with risks in non-smokers the relative risks ranged from 9.3 to 12.6 below the age of 50 but no trend was observed with increasing yield. CONCLUSIONS--Changing to cigarettes with a lower tar yield is not an effective means of reducing tobacco related morbidity from myocardial infarction. PMID:8329914

  10. Postinfarct intramyocardial injection of mesenchymal stem cells pretreated with TGF-α improves acute myocardial function

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Jeremy L.; Abarbanell, Aaron M.; Weil, Brent R.; Wang, Yue; Poynter, Jeffrey A.; Manukyan, Mariuxi C.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies offer promising potential for myocardial infarction (MI), but endogenous molecules released in response to injury likely impair posttransplantation stem cell function. Stem cell-mediated cardioprotection occurs in part via paracrine effects, and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) has been shown to enhance paracrine function. However, it is unknown whether pretreating stem cells with TGF-α increases stem cell-mediated cardioprotection after acute MI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were treated with TGF-α (250 ng/ml) for 24 h. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were isolated and perfused using the Langendorff method. MI was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. Postligation (30 min), vehicle or 1 × 106 MSCs with or without pretreatment were injected in the infarct border zones, and the hearts were perfused for an additional 60 min. Left ventricular function was continuously measured, and infarct size was assessed with Evans blue dye and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Myocardial production of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 and caspase 3 activation was also measured. Left ventricular function decreased significantly following coronary artery ligation but improved following injection of untreated MSCs and to a greater extent after injection of pretreated MSCs. In addition, the infarct area, myocardial caspase 3 activation, and IL-6 production were lowest in hearts injected with pretreated cells. Intramyocardial injection of TGF-α-pretreated MSCs after acute MI is associated with increased myocardial function and decreased myocardial injury. This strategy may be useful for optimizing the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells for the treatment of acute MI. PMID:20484699

  11. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea in recruitment of coronary collaterality during inaugural acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, H; Boussaid, H; Longo, S; Tlili, R; Fazaa, S; Baccar, H; Boujnah, M R

    2015-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may lead to myocardial preconditioning by increasing coronary collateral vessel recruitment in patients with acute coronary occlusion. To determine the relationship between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and coronary collaterality during acute myocardial infarction. This study prospectively included 71 patients with an inaugural myocardial infarction who had undergone a coronary angiography within 24h of onset. All patients underwent an overnight polygraph before discharge and were classified according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Coronary collaterals were scored by visual analyses and according to the Rentrop grading system. Mean age was 59±11years and 83% of patients were men. All patients had complete or subtotal occlusion of the infarct-related artery. After the sleep study, patients were divided into two groups: 25 were suffering from OSA (AHI>15/h). Patients with OSA showed better collateral vessel development (Rentrop score≥1) compared to non-OSA patients (68 vs. 41%, P=0.032). AHI was significantly higher in patients with developed coronary collaterals (Rentrop≥1) compared to those without collaterality (17.74±13.2 vs. 12.24±10.9, P=0.025). Coronary collateral development may be increased in OSA patients who are presenting with a first myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Serial transthoracic coronary Doppler shows complete reversibility of microvascular obstruction pattern at one month after reperfused acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ober, Camelia Diana; Ober, Mihai Claudiu; Iancu, Adrian Corneliu

    2017-01-31

    "No reflow" phenomenon is a common complication with significant prognostic repercussions after reperfused acute myocardial infarction. Previous studies have shown the feasibility and prognostic significance of coronary microcirculation assessment by transthoracic Doppler of left anterior descending artery (LAD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course of the coronary microcirculation status after acute anterior myocardial infarction reperfused by primary angioplasty with stent on LAD.

  13. Baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction through iNOS, inflammation and oxidative stress in rat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaguo; Xu, Yongfu; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin belongs to glucuronic acid glycosides and after hydrolysisbaicalein and glucuronic acid come into being. It has such effects as clearing heat and removing toxicity, anti-inflammation, choleresis, bringing high blood pressure down, diuresis, anti-allergic reaction and so on. In this study, we investigated whether baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and its mechanism. Rat model of acute myocardial infarction was induced by isoproterenol. Casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and infarct size measurement were used to measure the protective effect of baicalin on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction. iNOS protein expression in rat was analyzed using western blot analysis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase-3 activation levels were explored using commercial ELISA kits. In the acute myocardial infarction experiment, baicalin effectively ameliorates the level of CK, CK-MB, LDH and cTnT, reduced infarct size in acute myocardial infarction rat model. Meanwhile, treatment with baicalin effectively decreased the iNOS protein expression, inflammatory factors and oxidative stresses in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. However, baicalin emerged that anti-apoptosis activity and suppressed the activation of caspase-3 in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The data suggest that the protective effect of baicalin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction through iNOS, inflammation and oxidative stress in rat. PMID:26617721

  14. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction in a pediatric patient with giant coronary aneurysm due to Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Mongiovì, Maurizio; Alaimo, Annalisa; Vernuccio, Federica; Pieri, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of acute myocardial infarction in an 8-year-old boy with a history of Kawasaki disease and giant coronary aneurysms in the right and left coronary arteries. We performed coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention 4 hours after the onset of symptoms. This case suggests that primary percutaneous coronary intervention might be safe and effective in the long-term treatment of acute myocardial infarction due to coronary sequelae of Kawasaki. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Histamine deficiency exacerbates myocardial injury in acute myocardial infarction through impaired macrophage infiltration and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Long; Hong, Tao; Lin, Jinyi; Ding, Suling; Huang, Zheyong; Chen, Jinmiao; Jia, Jianguo; Zou, Yunzeng; Wang, Timothy C; Yang, Xiangdong; Ge, Junbo

    2015-08-17

    Histamine is a biogenic amine that is widely distributed and has multiple functions, but the role it plays in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the origin and contribution of endogenous histamine to AMI. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is the unique enzyme responsible for histamine generation. Using HDC-EGFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice in which EGFP expression is controlled by the HDC promoter, we identified HDC expression primarily in CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs) that markedly increase in the early stages of AMI. Deficiency of histamine in HDC knockout mice (HDC(-/-)) reduced cardiac function and exacerbated the injury of infarcted heart. Furthermore, administering either an H1 receptor antagonist (pyrilamine) or an H2 receptor antagonist (cimetidine) demonstrated a protective effect of histamine against myocardial injury. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays showed that histamine deficiency promotes the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and inhibits macrophage infiltration. In conclusion, CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) IMCs are the predominant HDC-expressing sites in AMI, and histamine plays a protective role in the process of AMI through inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and facilitation of macrophage infiltration.

  16. Physicians' perceptions of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score in older adults with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Feder, Shelli L; Schulman-Green, Dena; Geda, Mary; Williams, Kathleen; Dodson, John A; Nanna, Michael G; Allore, Heather G; Murphy, Terrence E; Tinetti, Mary E; Gill, Thomas M; Chaudhry, Sarwat I

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate physician-perceived strengths and limitations of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores for use in older adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The TIMI risk scores are risk stratification models developed to estimate mortality risk for patients hospitalized for AMI. However, these models were developed and validated in cohorts underrepresenting older adults (≥75 years). Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews and the constant comparative method for analysis. Twenty-two physicians completed interviews ranging 10-30 min (mean = 18 min). Median sample age was 37 years, with a median of 11.5 years of clinical experience. TIMI strengths included familiarity, ease of use, and validation. Limitations included a lack of risk factors relevant to older adults and model scope and influence. Physicians report that the TIMI models, while widely used in clinical practice, have limitations when applied to older adults. New risk models are needed to guide AMI treatment in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physicians’ Perceptions of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Risk Score in Older Adults with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Feder, Shelli L.; Schulman-Green, Dena; Geda, Mary; Williams, Kathleen; Dodson, John A.; Nanna, Michael G.; Allore, Heather G.; Murphy, Terrence E.; Tinetti, Mary E.; Gill, Thomas M.; Chaudhry, Sarwat I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate physician-perceived strengths and limitations of the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores for use in older adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Background The TIMI risk scores are risk stratification models developed to estimate mortality risk for patients hospitalized for AMI. However, these models were developed and validated in cohorts underrepresenting older adults (≥75 years). Methods Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews and the constant comparative method for analysis. Results Twenty-two physicians completed interviews ranging 10–30 minutes (mean = 18 minutes). Median sample age was 37 years, with a median of 11.5 years of clinical experience. TIMI strengths included familiarity, ease of use, and validation. Limitations included a lack of risk factors relevant to older adults and model scope and influence. Conclusions Physicians report that the TIMI models, while widely used in clinical practice, have limitations when applied to older adults. New risk models are needed to guide AMI treatment in this population. PMID:26164651

  18. Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury following Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Critical Issue for Clinicians and Forensic Pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Margherita; Pascale, Natascha; Pomara, Cristoforo

    2017-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Reperfusion strategies are the current standard therapy for AMI. However, they may result in paradoxical cardiomyocyte dysfunction, known as ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI). Different forms of IRI are recognized, of which only the first two are reversible: reperfusion-induced arrhythmias, myocardial stunning, microvascular obstruction, and lethal myocardial reperfusion injury. Sudden death is the most common pattern for ischemia-induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias during AMI. The exact mechanisms of IRI are not fully known. Molecular, cellular, and tissue alterations such as cell death, inflammation, neurohumoral activation, and oxidative stress are considered to be of paramount importance in IRI. However, comprehension of the exact pathophysiological mechanisms remains a challenge for clinicians. Furthermore, myocardial IRI is a critical issue also for forensic pathologists since sudden death may occur despite timely reperfusion following AMI, that is one of the most frequently litigated areas of cardiology practice. In this paper we explore the literature regarding the pathophysiology of myocardial IRI, focusing on the possible role of the calpain system, oxidative-nitrosative stress, and matrix metalloproteinases and aiming to foster knowledge of IRI pathophysiology also in terms of medicolegal understanding of sudden deaths following AMI. PMID:28286377

  19. Acute Myocardial Ischemia in Adults Secondary to Missed Kawasaki Disease in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Sherif RY; El Said, Galal; Daniels, Lori B; Burns, Jane C; El Said, Howaida; Sorour, Khaled A; Gharib, Soliman; Gordon, John B

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery aneurysms that occur in 25% of untreated Kawasaki disease (KD) patients may remain clinically silent for decades and then thrombose resulting in myocardial infarction. Although KD is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in Asia, the United States, and Western Europe, the incidence of KD in Egypt is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that young adults in Egypt presenting with acute myocardial ischemia may have coronary artery lesions due Kawasaki disease (KD) in childhood. We reviewed a total of 580 angiograms of patients ≤ 40 years of age presenting with symptoms of myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery aneurysms were noted in 46 patients (7.9 %) of whom nine presented with myocardial infarction. The likelihood of antecedent KD as the cause of the aneurysms was classified as definite (n=10), probable (n=29), or equivocal (n=7). Compared to the definite and probable groups, the equivocal group had more traditional cardiovascular risk factors, smaller sized aneurysms, and fewer coronary arteries affected. In conclusion, in a major metropolitan center in Egypt, 6.7% of adults age 40 years or younger undergoing angiography for evaluation of possible myocardial ischemia had lesions consistent with antecedent KD. Because of the unique therapeutic challenges associated with these lesions, adult cardiologists should be aware that coronary artery aneurysms in young adults may be due to missed KD in childhood. PMID:25555655

  20. Acute myocardial ischemia in adults secondary to missed Kawasaki disease in childhood.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Sherif R Y; El Said, Galal; Daniels, Lori B; Burns, Jane C; El Said, Howaida; Sorour, Khaled A; Gharib, Soliman; Gordon, John B

    2015-02-15

    Coronary artery aneurysms that occur in 25% of untreated Kawasaki disease (KD) patients may remain clinically silent for decades and then thrombose resulting in myocardial infarction. Although KD is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in Asia, the United States, and Western Europe, the incidence of KD in Egypt is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that young adults in Egypt presenting with acute myocardial ischemia may have coronary artery lesions because of KD in childhood. We reviewed a total of 580 angiograms of patients ≤40 years presenting with symptoms of myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery aneurysms were noted in 46 patients (7.9%), of whom 9 presented with myocardial infarction. The likelihood of antecedent KD as the cause of the aneurysms was classified as definite (n = 10), probable (n = 29), or equivocal (n = 7). Compared with the definite and probable groups, the equivocal group had more traditional cardiovascular risk factors, smaller sized aneurysms, and fewer coronary arteries affected. In conclusion, in a major metropolitan center in Egypt, 6.7% of adults aged ≤40 years who underwent angiography for evaluation of possible myocardial ischemia had lesions consistent with antecedent KD. Because of the unique therapeutic challenges associated with these lesions, adult cardiologists should be aware that coronary artery aneurysms in young adults may be because of missed KD in childhood.

  1. Investigation of ischemia modified albumin, oxidant and antioxidant markers in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hazini, Ahmet; Işıldak, İbrahim; Alpdağtaş, Saadet; Önül, Abdullah; Şenel, Ünal; Kocaman, Tuba; Dur, Ali; Iraz, Mustafa; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is still one of the most common causes of death worldwide. In recent years, for diagnosis of myocardial ischemia, a new parameter, called ischemia modified albumin (IMA), which is thought to be more advantageous than common methods, has been researched. Aim In this study, systematic analysis of parameters considered to be related to myocardial ischemia has been performed, comparing between control and myocardial ischemia groups. Material and methods We selected 40 patients with AMI and 25 healthy controls for this study. Ischemia modified albumin levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) antioxidant enzyme activities and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid levels were investigated in both groups. Glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, which are indicators of oxidative stress, were compared between patient and control groups. Results Ischemia modified albumin levels were found significantly higher in the AMI diagnosed group when compared with controls. The MDA level was elevated in the patient group, whereas the GSH level was decreased. SOD, GPx and CAT enzyme levels were decreased in the patient group, where it could be presumed that oxidative stress causes the cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Due to the increased oxidative stress, non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacity was affected. Systematic investigation of parameters related to myocardial infarction has been performed, and it is believed that such parameters can contribute to protection and early diagnosis of AMI and understanding the mechanism of development of the disease. PMID:26677379

  2. Temporal Evolution of Myocardial Hemorrhage and Edema in Patients After Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Pathophysiological Insights and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Carrick, David; Haig, Caroline; Ahmed, Nadeem; Rauhalammi, Samuli; Clerfond, Guillaume; Carberry, Jaclyn; Mordi, Ify; McEntegart, Margaret; Petrie, Mark C; Eteiba, Hany; Hood, Stuart; Watkins, Stuart; Lindsay, M Mitchell; Mahrous, Ahmed; Welsh, Paul; Sattar, Naveed; Ford, Ian; Oldroyd, Keith G; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Berry, Colin

    2016-02-23

    The time course and relationships of myocardial hemorrhage and edema in patients after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are uncertain. Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging on 4 occasions: at 4 to 12 hours, 3 days, 10 days, and 7 months after reperfusion. Myocardial edema (native T2) and hemorrhage (T2*) were measured in regions of interest in remote and injured myocardium. Myocardial hemorrhage was taken to represent a hypointense infarct core with a T2* value <20 ms. Thirty patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (mean age 54 years; 25 [83%] male) gave informed consent. Myocardial hemorrhage occurred in 7 (23%), 13 (43%), 11 (33%), and 4 (13%) patients at 4 to 12 hours, 3 days, 10 days, and 7 months, respectively, consistent with a unimodal pattern. The corresponding median amounts of myocardial hemorrhage (percentage of left ventricular mass) during the first 10 days after myocardial infarction were 2.7% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.0-5.6%), 7.0% (IQR 4.9-7.5%), and 4.1% (IQR 2.6-5.5%; P<0.001). Similar unimodal temporal patterns were observed for myocardial edema (percentage of left ventricular mass) in all patients (P=0.001) and for infarct zone edema (T2, in ms: 62.1 [SD 2.9], 64.4 [SD 4.9], 65.9 [SD 5.3]; P<0.001) in patients without myocardial hemorrhage. Alternatively, in patients with myocardial hemorrhage, infarct zone edema was reduced at day 3 (T2, in ms: 51.8 [SD 4.6]; P<0.001), depicting a bimodal pattern. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased from baseline to 7 months in patients with myocardial hemorrhage (P=0.001) but not in patients without hemorrhage (P=0.377). The temporal evolutions of myocardial hemorrhage and edema are unimodal, whereas infarct zone edema (T2 value) has a bimodal pattern. Myocardial hemorrhage is prognostically important and represents a target for

  3. [Acute myocardial infarct and the kinetics of creatine kinase].

    PubMed

    Sochman, J; Fabiían, J; Englis, M; Belán, A

    1989-10-01

    The authors criticize contemporary views on creatine kinase kinetics in relation to the patency or occlusion of the coronary artery in the area of the infarction focus. In the investigation proper the time needed to achieve the peak plasma creatine kinase activity after the onset of infarction pain in patients with necroses in different areas of the left ventricle is assessed. Although the interpretation of the observed phenomenon is not clear so far, this finding makes the informative value of the hitherto used time parameter of the kinetics of this enzyme doubtful, in particular in thrombolytic treatment of myocardial infarction. In practice it is thus not possible to evaluate the restored patency of the artery to the necrotic focus on the basis of the above parameter.

  4. Different hemodynamic actions of trinitroglycerin and isosorbide dinitrate in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Rezakovic, D; Rutishauser, W; Pavicic, L; Popadic, M; Bloch, A; Imhoff, E W

    1983-10-01

    The hemodynamic effects of intravenously administered trinitroglycerin (TNT) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) in stechiometric equivalent doses were studied in 30 patients with acute myocardial infarction. Both drugs were given over 30 min in every patient, and the stability of the condition of the patient was checked by administering the initial drug again. Measurements were made by right heart catheterization using a balloon tip thermodilution catheter and a catheter in the radial artery. TNT and ISDN have different hemodynamic effects. By multivariate analysis it could be shown that TNT is a venous dilator, lowering mainly pulmonary capillary pressure, while ISDN acts more as a mixed vasodilator, diminishing mainly peripheral vascular resistance and increasing cardiac output. These drugs have, therefore, a different spectrum of indications in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  5. [Ventricular septal rupture and right ventricular free wall rupture after acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Masaki, Naoki; Fukasawa, Manabu; Toyama, Shuji; Kawahara, Yu; Inage, Yuichi

    2013-08-01

    Cardiac rupture is a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction with highly mortality rate. Three types of rupture are ventricular free wall rupture( VFR), ventricular septal rupture( VSR), and papillary muscle rupture( PMR). A combination of any 2 types of rupture is called ventricular double rupture (VDR), and very rare. We report a case of VDR (VSR and VFR) after acute myocardial infarction. A 76-year-old female with heart failure was admitted to our hospital. Echocardiography showed an apical VSR and pericardial effusion. She was diagnosed with VDR and emergent operation was performed. During operation, the site of VFR was right ventricle, which was the same infarction area of VSR. VSR was closed by infarction exclusion technique, concurrently excluding the site of VFR. VFR was successfully repaired by mattress sutures. Post-operative course was good without heart failure, though residual shunt was remained. The patient survived and was discharged from our hospital.

  6. Syphilitic Coronary Artery Ostial Stenosis Resulting in Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nakazone, Marcelo A.; Machado, Maurício N.; Barbosa, Raphael B.; Santos, Márcio A.; Maia, Lilia N.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular abnormalities are well-known manifestations of tertiary syphilis infections which although not frequent, are still causes of morbidity and mortality. A less common manifestation of syphilitic aortitis is coronary artery ostial narrowing related to aortic wall thickening. We report a case of a 46-year-old male admitted due to acute anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction submitted to primary percutaneous coronary intervention successfully. Coronary angiography showed a suboccluded ostial lesion of left main coronary artery. VDRL was titrated to 1/512. The patient was discharged with treatment including benzathine penicillin. Previous case reports of acute myocardial infarction in association with syphilitic coronary artery ostial stenosis have been reported, but the fact that the patient was treated by percutaneous coronary intervention is unique in this case. PMID:21052501

  7. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Coexisting with Acute Pericarditis and Myocardial Bridge

    PubMed Central

    Sezavar, Seyed Hashem; Riahi Beni, Hassan; Ghanavati, Reza; Hajahmadi, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a stress-induced cardiomyopathy that occurs primarily in postmenopausal women. It mimics clinical picture of acute coronary syndrome with nonobstructive coronary arteries and a characteristic transient left (or bi-) ventricular apical ballooning at angiography. The exact pathogenesis of TCM is not well recognized. Hereby we present an unusual case of TCM that presents with signs and symptoms of acute pericarditis and was also found to have a coexisting coronary muscle bridge on coronary angiography. We discuss the impact of these associations in better understanding of the pathogenesis of TCM. PMID:27437150

  8. Fifteen years of bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Micheu, Miruna Mihaela; Dorobantu, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In spite of modern treatment, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) still carries significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Even though standard of care therapy improves symptoms and also long-term prognosis of patients with AMI, it does not solve the critical issue, specifically the permanent damage of cardiomyocytes. As a result, a complex process occurs, namely cardiac remodeling, which leads to alterations in cardiac size, shape and function. This is what has driven the quest for unconventional therapeutic strategies aiming to regenerate the injured cardiac and vascular tissue. One of the latest breakthroughs in this regard is stem cell (SC) therapy. Based on favorable data obtained in experimental studies, therapeutic effectiveness of this innovative therapy has been investigated in clinical settings. Of various cell types used in the clinic, autologous bone marrow derived SCs were the first used to treat an AMI patient, 15 years ago. Since then, we have witnessed an increasing body of data as regards this cutting-edge therapy. Although feasibility and safety of SC transplant have been clearly proved, it’s efficacy is still under dispute. Conducted studies and meta-analysis reported conflicting results, but there is hope for conclusive answer to be provided by the largest ongoing trial designed to demonstrate whether this treatment saves lives. In the meantime, strategies to enhance the SCs regenerative potential have been applied and/or suggested, position papers and recommendations have been published. But what have we learned so far and how can we properly use the knowledge gained? This review will analytically discuss each of the above topics, summarizing the current state of knowledge in the field. PMID:28491241

  9. [Effect of emoxypine on myocardial electrical instability and homeostasis parameters in patients with acute disturbance of cerebrovascular circulation].

    PubMed

    Stoliarova, V V

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of myocardial ischemia onsets, QT interval dispersion, homeostasis characteristics, and lipid peroxidation parameters were studied in a group of 49 patients with acute disturbance of cerebral circulation (ADCC). The Holter ECG monitoring revealed myocardial ischemia episodes in 42% of patients, and myocardial instability manifested by the QT interval variance in 82% of patients. The control group (30 patients) received standard complex therapy, while the test group (19 patients) additionally received emoxypine. The administration of emoxypine reduced the incidence of myocardial ischemia and positively influenced the QT interval variance and the main parameters of homeostasis.

  10. Feasibility of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Myocardial Revascularization Therapy for Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients and Refractory Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Myojo, Masahiro; Ando, Jiro; Uehara, Masae; Daimon, Masao; Watanabe, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei

    2017-04-06

    Extracorporeal shockwave myocardial revascularization (ESMR) is one of the new treatment options for refractory angina pectoris (RAP), and some studies have indicated its effectiveness. A single-arm prospective trial to assess the feasibility of ESMR using Cardiospec for patients with post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and RAP was designed and performed. The patients were treated with 9 sessions of ESMR to the ischemic areas for 9 weeks. The feasibility measures included echocardiography; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; troponin T, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and brain natriuretic peptide testing; and a Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) survey. Three post-AMI patients and 3 RAP patients were enrolled. The post-AMI patients had already undergone revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the acute phase. In two patients, adverse events requiring admission occurred: one a lumbar disc hernia in a post-AMI patient and the other congestive heart failure resulting in death in an RAP patient. No apparent elevations in CK-MB and troponin T levels during the trial were observed. Echocardiography revealed no remarkable changes of ejection fraction; however, septal E/E' tended to decrease after treatments (11.6 ± 4.8 versus 9.2 ± 2.8, P = 0.08). Concerning the available SAQ scores for two RAP patients, one patient reported improvements in angina frequency and treatment satisfaction and the other reported improvements in physical limitations and angina stability. In this feasibility study, ESMR seems to be a safe treatment for both post-AMI patients and RAP patients. The efficacy of ESMR for post-AMI patients remains to be evaluated with additional studies.

  11. Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction from a centipede bite.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Meenakshisundaram, Ramachandran; Michaels, Andrew D; Suresh, Ponuswamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2011-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following a centipede bite has been very rarely reported. Here, we describe a 22 year-old man who had ST-segment elevation AMI after a centipede bite. He presented with typical chest pain, electro and echocardiographic abnormalities, and elevated cardiac enzymes with normal coronary angiography. The probable mechanisms were described. Practitioners treating centipede bites shall not consider it lightly, as centipede envenomation may produce a variety of systemic and local manifestations in susceptible individuals.

  12. [The Torino Network Project. Global management of acute myocardial infarction from the field to the hospital].

    PubMed

    Casaccia, Michele; Sicuro, Marco; Scacciatella, Paolo

    2002-02-01

    A unidirectional clinical pathway for acute myocardial infarction from out-of-hospital setting to the coronary care unit and catheterization laboratory could lead to mortality reduction. The ongoing "Progetto Torino Network. Gestione globale dell'infarto miocardico acuto prime ore dal territorio all'ospedale" is based on this statement and described in the three-structural, diagnostic-therapeutical, multimedial issues. This project represents the historical evolution of our involvement in out-of-hospital cardiac emergency management.

  13. A simple benchmark for evaluating quality of care of patients following acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dorsch, M; Lawrance, R; Sapsford, R; Oldham, J; Greenwood, D; Jackson, B; Morrell, C; Ball, S; Robinson, M; Hall, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To develop a simple risk model as a basis for evaluating care of patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction.
METHODS—From coronary care registers, biochemistry records and hospital management systems, 2153 consecutive patients with confirmed acute myocardial infarction were identified. With 30 day all cause mortality as the end point, a multivariable logistic regression model of risk was constructed and validated in independent patient cohorts. The areas under receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated as an assessment of sensitivity and specificity. The model was reapplied to a number of commonly studied subgroups for further assessment of robustness.
RESULTS—A three variable model was developed based on age, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure on admission. This produced an individual probability of death by 30 days (P30) where P30 = 1/(1 + exp(−L30)) and L30 = −5.624 + (0.085 × age) + (0.014 × heart rate) − (0.022 × systolic blood pressure). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the reference and test cohorts were 0.79 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.82) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.79), respectively. To aid application of the model to routine clinical audit, a normogram relating observed mortality and sample size to the likelihood of a significant deviation from the expected 30 day mortality rate was constructed.
CONCLUSIONS—This risk model is simple, reproducible, and permits quality of care of acute myocardial infarction patients to be reliably evaluated both within and between centres.


Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; risk model PMID:11454829

  14. Subcapsular liver hematoma after fibrinolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Safi, Morteza; Khaheshi, Isa; Memaryan, Mehdi; Naderian, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-16

    Hemorrhagic complications of thrombolytic therapy are rare but also serious and sometimes life-threatening. Liver hematoma is a very uncommon complication following thrombolytic therapy. We present a rare case of sub-capsular liver hematoma following streptokinase therapy of acute myocardial infarction as a challenging condition. This case report highlights that emergency physicians and cardiologists should be familiar with the significant and uncommon complications of thrombolytic agents, particularly streptokinase which is used generally in under- developed countries.

  15. Spontaneous Dissection of Right Coronary Artery Manifested with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevaidis, Stelios; Theofilogiannakos, Efstratios K; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Mantziari, Lilian; Economou, Fotis; Ziakas, Antonios; Hadjimiltiades, Stavros; Styliadis, Ioannis H

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute ischemic coronary events and sudden cardiac death. It usually occurs in young women without traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease during pregnancy or postpartum period. However, it has also been reported in patients with atherosclerotic coronary disease. We present a case of spontaneous right coronary artery dissection in a 48-year male with recent myocardial infarction and previous percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:21127744

  16. Intravenous sodium nitrite in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a randomized controlled trial (NIAMI).

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Nishat; Neil, Christopher; Bruce, Margaret; MacLennan, Graeme; Cotton, Seonaidh; Papadopoulou, Sofia; Feelisch, Martin; Bunce, Nicholas; Lim, Pitt O; Hildick-Smith, David; Horowitz, John; Madhani, Melanie; Boon, Nicholas; Dawson, Dana; Kaski, Juan Carlos; Frenneaux, Michael

    2014-05-14

    Despite prompt revascularization of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), substantial myocardial injury may occur, in part a consequence of ischaemia reperfusion injury (IRI). There has been considerable interest in therapies that may reduce IRI. In experimental models of AMI, sodium nitrite substantially reduces IRI. In this double-blind randomized placebo controlled parallel-group trial, we investigated the effects of sodium nitrite administered immediately prior to reperfusion in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A total of 229 patients presenting with acute STEMI were randomized to receive either an i.v. infusion of 70 μmol sodium nitrite (n = 118) or matching placebo (n = 111) over 5 min immediately before primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI). Patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 6-8 days and at 6 months and serial blood sampling was performed over 72 h for the measurement of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and Troponin I. Myocardial infarct size (extent of late gadolinium enhancement at 6-8 days by CMR-the primary endpoint) did not differ between nitrite and placebo groups after adjustment for area at risk, diabetes status, and centre (effect size -0.7% 95% CI: -2.2%, +0.7%; P = 0.34). There were no significant differences in any of the secondary endpoints, including plasma troponin I and CK area under the curve, left ventricular volumes (LV), and ejection fraction (EF) measured at 6-8 days and at 6 months and final infarct size (FIS) measured at 6 months. Sodium nitrite administered intravenously immediately prior to reperfusion in patients with acute STEMI does not reduce infarct size. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  17. Vasculitis complicating treatment with intravenous anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Bucknall, C; Darley, C; Flax, J; Vincent, R; Chamberlain, D

    1988-01-01

    Vasculitis developed in six of 253 patients treated with intravenous anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex (APSAC) after acute myocardial infarction. All patients recovered spontaneously with no evidence of renal impairment and no long term sequelae. Although leucocytoclastic vasculitis and serum sickness have been reported after streptokinase treatment, such allergic reactions have not been described as a complication of other thrombolytic agents. Images Figure PMID:2963655

  18. Educational Level and Long-term Mortality in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Melgarejo-Moreno, Antonio; Galcerá-Tomás, José; Alonso-Fernández, Nuria; Díaz-Pastor, Ángela; Escudero-García, Germán; Jaulent-Huertas, Leticia; Vicente-Gilabert, Marta

    2015-11-01

    The value of socioeconomic status as a prognostic marker in acute myocardial infarction is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of educational level, as a marker of socioeconomic status, on the prognosis of long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction. We conducted a prospective, observational study of 5797 patients admitted to hospital with acute myocardial infarction. We studied long-term all-cause mortality (median 8.5 years) using adjusted regression models. We found that 73.1% of patients had primary school education (n=4240), 14.5% had secondary school education (including high school) (n=843), 7.0% was illiterate (n=407), and 5.3% had higher education (n=307). Patients with secondary school or higher education were significantly younger, more were male, and they had fewer risk factors and comorbidity. These patients arrived sooner at hospital and had less severe heart failure. During admission they received more reperfusion therapy and their crude mortality was lower. Their drug treatment in hospital and at discharge followed guideline recommendations more closely. On multivariate analysis, secondary school or higher education was an independent predictor and protective factor for long-term mortality (hazard ratio=0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.98). Our study shows an inverse and independent relationship between educational level and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomarkers of acute myocardial infarction in the elderly: troponin and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Rains, Martin G; Laney, Charles A; Bailey, Alison L; Campbell, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    In the broadest context, biological markers, or biomarkers, are molecules that characterize a biological system or process. In the setting of cardiovascular disease, a number of biomarkers have become an integral part of diagnostic and risk stratification strategies. In this review, we will discuss classic and emerging biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and the role of these biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of elderly patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25053882

  20. Molecular imaging of stem cells for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Yi-Ning; Jin, Zheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has a unique potential and promises hope for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Preclinical studies have identified barriers to clinical translation, one of which involves the monitoring of transplanted cells and the elucidation of their fates in vivo. Molecular imaging may help the solutions for these challenges. In this review, we illustrate the mechanisms by which molecular imaging enables insights into and the development of stem cell therapy. PMID:26309546

  1. Risk of acute myocardial infarction with NSAIDs in real world use: bayesian meta-analysis of individual patient data

    PubMed Central

    Dendukuri, Nandini; Rich, Benjamin; Nadeau, Lyne; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Garbe, Edeltraut; Brophy, James M

    2017-01-01

    Objective To characterise the determinants, time course, and risks of acute myocardial infarction associated with use of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Design Systematic review followed by a one stage bayesian individual patient data meta-analysis. Data sources Studies from Canadian and European healthcare databases. Review methods Eligible studies were sourced from computerised drug prescription or medical databases, conducted in the general or an elderly population, documented acute myocardial infarction as specific outcome, studied selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors (including rofecoxib) and traditional NSAIDs, compared risk of acute myocardial infarction in NSAID users with non-users, allowed for time dependent analyses, and minimised effects of confounding and misclassification bias. Exposure and outcomes Drug exposure was modelled as an indicator variable incorporating the specific NSAID, its recency, duration of use, and dose. The outcome measures were the summary adjusted odds ratios of first acute myocardial infarction after study entry for each category of NSAID use at index date (date of acute myocardial infarction for cases, matched date for controls) versus non-use in the preceding year and the posterior probability of acute myocardial infarction. Results A cohort of 446 763 individuals including 61 460 with acute myocardial infarction was acquired. Taking any dose of NSAIDs for one week, one month, or more than a month was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction. With use for one to seven days the probability of increased myocardial infarction risk (posterior probability of odds ratio >1.0) was 92% for celecoxib, 97% for ibuprofen, and 99% for diclofenac, naproxen, and rofecoxib. The corresponding odds ratios (95% credible intervals) were 1.24 (0.91 to 1.82) for celecoxib, 1.48 (1.00 to 2.26) for ibuprofen, 1.50 (1.06 to 2.04) for diclofenac, 1.53 (1.07 to 2.33) for naproxen, and 1.58 (1.07 to 2

  2. Lunar phases are not related to the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Eisenburger, Philip; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Vergeiner, Gernot; Sterz, Fritz; Holzer, Michael; Herkner, Harald; Havel, Christof; Laggner, Anton N

    2003-02-01

    Mass media deliver pertinacious rumours that lunar phases influence the progress and long-term results in several medical procedures. Peer reviewed studies support this, e.g. in myocardial infarction, others do not. We looked retrospectively at the dates of cardiac arrests (CA; n=368) of cardiac origin and of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) with consecutive thrombolytic therapy or acute PTCA (n=872) and at the lunar phases at the corresponding dates. Medical data had been collected prospectively on the patient's admission. The lunar phases were defined as full moon+/-1 day, new moon+/-1 day and the days in between as waning and waxing moon. The incidence of these cardiac events at each phase was calculated as days with a case divided by the total number of days of the specific moon phase in the observation period (1992-1998). Wilcoxon Rank Test was used for statistical analysis. AMI and CA occurred on equal percentages of days within each lunar phase: AMI on 35% of all days with new moon, on 38% of full moon days, on 39% waning, and on 41% of the waxing moon days; CA on 19, 17, 16 and 16% of all days of the respective lunar phase. This difference was not significant. Lunar phases do not appear to correlate with acute coronary events leading to myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac death.

  3. Fabrication of Synthetic Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lan; Tang, Junnan; Nishi, Kodai; Yan, Chen; Dinh, Phuong-Uyen; Cores, Jhon; Kudo, Takashi; Zhang, Jinying; Li, Tao-Sheng; Cheng, Ke

    2017-05-26

    Stem cell therapy faces several challenges. It is difficult to grow, preserve, and transport stem cells before they are administered to the patient. Synthetic analogs for stem cells represent a new approach to overcome these hurdles and hold the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. We aim to fabricate synthetic analogs of stem cells and test their therapeutic potential for treatment of acute myocardial infarction in mice. We packaged secreted factors from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles and then coated them with MSC membranes. We named these therapeutic particles synthetic MSC (or synMSC). synMSC exhibited a factor release profile and surface antigens similar to those of genuine MSC. synMSC promoted cardiomyocyte functions and displayed cryopreservation and lyophilization stability in vitro and in vivo. In a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction, direct injection of synMSC promoted angiogenesis and mitigated left ventricle remodeling. We successfully fabricated a synMSC therapeutic particle and demonstrated its regenerative potential in mice with acute myocardial infarction. The synMSC strategy may provide novel insight into tissue engineering for treating multiple diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Prognostic value of intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy after an acute myocardial ischemic event

    SciTech Connect

    Younis, L.T.; Byers, S.; Shaw, L.; Barth, G.; Goodgold, H.; Chaitman, B.R.

    1989-07-15

    Seventy-seven patients recovering from an acute coronary event were studied by intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy to evaluate the prognostic value and safety of the test in this patient subset. Forty-four patients (58%) had unstable angina and 33 (42%) had an acute myocardial infarction. One death occurred within 24 hours of testing. Sixty-eight patients were followed for an average of 12 months; 25, 31 and 23% had a fixed, reversible or combined thallium defect on their predischarge thallium scan. During follow-up, 10 patients died or had a nonfatal myocardial infarction; in each case, a reversible or combined myocardial thallium defect was present. Univariate analysis of 17 clinical, scintigraphic and angiographic variables showed that a reversible thallium defect and the angiographically determined extent of coronary artery disease were predictors of future cardiac events. The extent of coronary disease and global left ventricular ejection fraction were predictors of subsequent reinfarction or death. Logistic regression analyses revealed that a reversible thallium defect (p less than 0.001) and the extent of coronary disease (p less than 0.009) were the only significant predictors of a cardiac event. When death or reinfarction were the outcome variables, the extent of coronary disease (p less than 0.02) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p less than 0.06) were the only variables selected. Thus, intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy after an acute coronary ischemic syndrome is a useful and relatively safe noninvasive test to predict subsequent cardiac events.

  5. The History of Primary Angioplasty and Stenting for Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Feit, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the management of acute myocardial infarction (MI) has been one of the crowning achievements of modern medicine. At the turn of the twentieth century, MI was an often-fatal condition. Prolonged bed rest served as the principal treatment modality. Over the past century, insights into the pathophysiology of MI revolutionized approaches to management, with the sequential use of surgical coronary artery revascularization, thrombolytic therapy, and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with primary coronary angioplasty, and placement of intracoronary stents. The benefits of prompt revascularization inspired systems of care to provide rapid access to PCI. This review provides a historical context for our current approach to primary PCI for acute MI.

  6. Fatty acids and the risk of death during acute myocardial ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    Plasma free fatty acids (non-esterified fatty acids) increase in the first hour of the onset of acute myocardial ischaemia. This results from catecholamine stimulation of adipose tissue lipolysis. It can lead to a metabolic crisis in the injured myocardium with the development of ventricular arrhythmias and increased early mortality. Preconditioning, β-adrenergic blockade and glucose-insulin-potassium are possible therapeutic approaches, but anti-lipolytic agents, such as some nicotinic acid derivatives, can reduce plasma free fatty acid concentrations within minutes and have untried potential. A clinical trial of their effectiveness is needed from the first moment when a patient with an acute coronary syndrome is seen by paramedics.

  7. α-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Diet Prevents Myocardial Damage and Expands Longevity in Cardiomyopathic Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Fiaccavento, Roberta; Carotenuto, Felicia; Minieri, Marilena; Masuelli, Laura; Vecchini, Alba; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea; Binaglia, Luciano; Fusco, Angelo; Bertoli, Aldo; Forte, Giancarlo; Carosella, Luciana; Di Nardo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that the increased intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly reduces the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, but no investigations have been performed in hereditary cardiomyopathies with diffusely damaged myocardium. In the present study, δ-sarcoglycan-null cardiomyopathic hamsters were fed from weaning to death with an α-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched versus standard diet. Results demonstrated a great accumulation of ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid and an increased eicosapentaenoic/arachidonic acid ratio in cardiomyopathic hamster hearts, correlating with the preservation of myocardial structure and function. In fact, ALA administration preserved plasmalemma and mitochondrial membrane integrity, thus maintaining proper cell/extracellular matrix contacts and signaling, as well as a normal gene expression profile (myosin heavy chain isoforms, atrial natriuretic peptide, transforming growth factor-β1) and a limited extension of fibrotic areas within ALA-fed cardiomyopathic hearts. Consequently, hemodynamic indexes were safeguarded, and more than 60% of ALA-fed animals were still alive (mean survival time, 293 ± 141.8 days) when all those fed with standard diet were deceased (mean survival time, 175.9 ± 56 days). Therefore, the clinically evident beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are mainly related to preservation of myocardium structure and function and the attenuation of myocardial fibrosis. PMID:17148657

  8. Acute management of unstable angina and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Fernando Morita Fernandes; Pesaro, Antonio Eduardo Pereira; Franken, Marcelo; Wajngarten, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Non-ST segment elevation coronary syndrome usually results from instability of an atherosclerotic plaque, with subsequent activation of platelets and several coagulation factors. Its treatment aims to reduce the ischemic pain, limiting myocardial damage and decreasing mortality. Several antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents have been proven useful, and new drugs have been added to the therapeutic armamentarium in the search for higher anti-ischemic efficacy and lower bleeding rates. Despite the advances, the mortality, infarction and readmission rates remain high. PMID:26466065

  9. In vivo effects of myocardial creatine depletion on left ventricular function, morphology, and energy metabolism--consequences in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lorentzon, Malin; Råmunddal, Truls; Bollano, Entela; Soussi, Bassam; Waagstein, Finn; Omerovic, Elmir

    2007-04-01

    The failing heart is characterized by disturbed myocardial energy metabolism and creatine (Cr) depletion. The aims of this study were to in vivo evaluate the effects of Cr depletion on: a) left ventricular (LV) function and morphology during rest and stress, b) LV energy metabolism, c) catecholamine in LV and plasma content, and d) incidence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias (MVA) during acute myocardial infarction (MI). Male rats weighing approximately 200 g were used. Two groups were studied: the rats treated with Cr analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (BGP) (n = 25) and controls (n = 23). BGP (1 M) was administered by subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps over 4 weeks. The rats (BGP n = 9, control n = 12) were than examined with transthoracic echocardiography at basal and at stress conditions induced by transesophageal pacing. In vivo (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used for evaluation of myocardial energy status (BGP n = 7, control n = 12). (31)P MRS, echocardiography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of myocardial Cr, total adenine nucleotides and catecholamines in myocardium and plasma were performed on noninfarcted hearts. Myocardial infarction was induced in a subgroup of animals (BGP n = 15, control n = 15) by ligation of the left coronary artery resulting in a large ( approximately 50%) anterolateral MI and acute HF. A computerized electrocardiogram tracing was obtained continuously before induction of MI and up to 60 minutes postinfarction. Qualitative and quantitative variables of ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed using arrhythmia score. Body weight (BW) was lower (P < .01), whereas LV/BW was higher (P < .01) in the BGP group. Total myocardial Cr pool was decreased for at least 50% (P < .01) compared with the controls. There was no difference in total nucleotide pool. Phosphocreatine/adenosine-3-phosphate ratio was lower in the BGP group (P < .01). LV systolic function was disturbed during rest and stress

  10. Relationship of ventricular arrhythmias to the angiographically and scintigraphically estimated extent of ventricular damage late after myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Huikuri, H.V.; Korhonen, U.R.; Linnaluoto, M.K.; Takkunen, J.T.

    1987-03-01

    In order to study the quantitative relationship of ventricular arrhythmias to myocardial damage and ischemia, 61 patients with a previous myocardial infarction (at least 6 months previously) were studied by 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, cardiac catheterization, and thallium-201 scintigraphy. Thirty-five patients (57%) had no ectopic beats or only infrequent, unifocal ones and 26 patients (43%) had complex ventricular arrhythmias. Left ventricular function was lower in the latter, but the number of diseased vessels did not differ in the two groups. The reduction of thallium activity in the infarct area was more marked in patients with complex arrhythmias. Multiple thallium defects were not more common in arrhythmia patients, however. These data support the view that complex ventricular arrhythmias are more closely related to the severity of ventricular damage than the presence of myocardial ischemia remote to the area of previous infarction.

  11. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Angiogenesis and Ameliorates Left Ventricular Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Tomohiko; Ito, Kenta; Ogata, Tsuyoshi; Hatanaka, Kazuaki; Kurosawa, Ryo; Eguchi, Kumiko; Kagaya, Yuta; Hanawa, Kenichiro; Aizawa, Kentaro; Shiroto, Takashi; Kasukabe, Sachie; Miyata, Satoshi; Taki, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling after acute myocardial infarction still remains an important issue in cardiovascular medicine. We have recently demonstrated that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) therapy improves myocardial ischemia in a pig model of chronic myocardial ischemia through enhanced myocardial angiogenesis. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate whether LIPUS also ameliorates LV remodeling after acute myocardial infarction and if so, to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of LIPUS. We examined the effects of LIPUS on LV remodeling in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction, where the heart was treated with either LIPUS or no-LIPUS 3 times in the first week (days 1, 3, and 5). The LIPUS improved mortality and ameliorated post-myocardial infarction LV remodeling in mice. The LIPUS upregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, phosphorylated ERK, and phosphorylated Akt in the infarcted area early after acute myocardial infarction, leading to enhanced angiogenesis. Microarray analysis in cultured human endothelial cells showed that a total of 1050 genes, including those of the vascular endothelial growth factor signaling and focal adhesion pathways, were significantly altered by the LIPUS. Knockdown with small interfering RNA of either β1-integrin or caveolin-1, both of which are known to play key roles in mechanotransduction, suppressed the LIPUS-induced upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor. Finally, in caveolin-1-deficient mice, the beneficial effects of LIPUS on mortality and post-myocardial infarction LV remodeling were absent. These results indicate that the LIPUS therapy ameliorates post-myocardial infarction LV remodeling in mice in vivo, for which mechanotransduction and its downstream pathways may be involved. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Review of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Diagnosis and Management of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Yee, Jimmy; Rajpurohit, Naveen; Khan, Muhammad A; Stys, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is a life-threatening event that affects millions of people each year and accounts for a big portion of hospital visits. With an ever-growing elderly patient population, ischemic heart disease is more prevalent than ever before. It is paramount that physicians of all fields are cognizant of the various presentations of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), as its prompt diagnosis and treatment profoundly decreases mortality and morbidity. Under the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, guidelines are published for the optimal management of patients with acute coronary syndromes. Guidelines are continuously evolving as more multicenter randomized trials, new medications and new technologies continue to change the way we treat acute coronary syndromes. The focus of this review is ST-elevation myocardial infarction and it provides answers to some of the fundamental questions through evidence-based guidelines.

  13. Comparison of two simplified severity scores (SAPS and APACHE II) for patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Moreau, R; Soupison, T; Vauquelin, P; Derrida, S; Beaucour, H; Sicot, C

    1989-05-01

    The Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), the Acute Physiology Score (APS), and the Coronary Prognostic Index (CPI), calculated within the first 24 h of ICU admission, were compared in 76 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sixteen (21%) patients subsequently died in the ICU. The nonsurvivors had significantly higher SAPS, APACHE II, and CPI scores than the survivors. ROC curves drawn for each severity index were in a discriminating position. There were no significant differences either between the areas under the ROC curves drawn for SAPS, APACHE II, and CPI, or between the overall accuracies of these indices. APS provided less homogeneous information. We conclude that SAPS and APACHE II, two severity indices which are easy to use, assess accurately the short-term prognosis, i.e., the ICU outcome, of patients with AMI.

  14. Reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide during ischemia protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Andrew; Bond, Richard; McLean, Peter; Uppal, Rakesh; Benjamin, Nigel; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2004-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to protect against the damaging effects of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, whereas xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) normally causes damage through the generation of reactive oxygen species. In the heart, inorganic nitrite has the potential to act as an endogenous store of NO, liberated specifically during ischemia. Using a detection method that we developed, we report that under ischemic conditions both rat and human homogenized myocardium and the isolated perfused rat heart (Langendorff preparation) generate NO from in a reaction that depends on XOR activity. Functional studies of rat hearts in the Langendorff apparatus showed that nitrite (10 and 100 µM) reduced infarct size from 47.3 ± 2.8% (mean percent of control ± SEM) to 17.9 ± 4.2% and 17.4 ± 1.0%, respectively (P < 0.001), and was associated with comparable improvements in recovery of left ventricular function. This protective effect was completely blocked by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazole-1-oxyl 3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO). In summary, the generation of NO from •, rather than damaging.

  15. Acute effects of angiotensin II on myocardial performance.

    PubMed

    Broomé, M; Haney, M; Häggmark, S; Johansson, G; Aneman, A; Biber, B

    2001-10-01

    Specific angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors exist in many organs including peripheral blood vessels, cardiac myocytes and the central nervous system. This suggests multiple sites of actions for Ang II throughout the cardiovascular system. Cardiac effects of Ang II are not completely understood, though its prominent vasoconstrictor actions are well described. This study was designed to assess left ventricular function during administration of Ang II using relatively load-independent methods in a whole-animal model. Ang II was infused in incremental doses (0-200 microg x h(-1)) in anaesthetised instrumented pigs (n=10). Cardiac systolic and diastolic function were evaluated by analysis of the left ventricular pressure-volume relationship. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) increased dose-dependently with Ang II, while cardiac output (CO) remained unchanged. Systolic function indices, end-systolic elastance (Ees) and preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW), demonstrated dose-dependent increases. The diastolic function parameter tau (tau) did not change with increasing Ang II dose. Ang II infusion caused increases in contractility indices in anaesthetised pigs in the doses used in this study. The mechanisms for these systolic function effects may be a direct myocardial effect or modulated through changes in autonomic nervous system activity.

  16. Ethnic differences in acute myocardial infarction in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Mak, K-H; Chia, K-S; Kark, J D; Chua, T; Tan, C; Foong, B-H; Lim, Y-L; Chew, S-K

    2003-01-01

    We compare the myocardial infarction (MI) event and mortality rates among Chinese, Malay and Indian residents of Singapore. Residents, aged 20 to 64 years, with an MI event were identified from hospital discharge listings, postmortem reports, and the Registry of Births and Deaths. All pathology laboratories flagged patients with elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. Modified MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) criteria were used for determining MI events. From 1991 to 1999, 12 481 MI events were identified. Chinese patients were older and less likely to have typical symptoms or previous MI. Malays had the highest peak CPK level. Among all three ethnic groups, MI event and age-adjusted case-fatality rates declined. Compared with Chinese, MI event rates were >2-fold and >3-fold higher, and age-standardized coronary mortality rates were 2.4 and 3.0 higher times for Malays and Indians, respectively. Malays have the highest 3.1-year case-fatality, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.38) compared with Chinese. We found strong ethnic differences in MI event, case-fatality and coronary mortality rates among the three ethnic groups in Singapore. While Indians have the greatest MI event rates, Malays have the highest case-fatality.

  17. CARDIOPROTECTIVE ROLES OF THE CHINESE MEDICINAL FORMULA BAO-XIN-TANG ON ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Weihao; Peng, Weijun; Liu, Weiping; Cai, Weijun; Xia, Zian; Zhang, Honggeng; Xing, And Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Bao-Xin-Tang (BXT) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula used for the treatment of coronary heart disease and known to have favorable therapeutic benefits. The current study was designed to determine whether BXT has a cardioprotective role for acute myocardial infarction. The underlying mechanisms were also explored. The Sprague-Dawley rat model of acute myocardial infarction was established by occluding the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. After a 3-h ischemic period, we determined the myocardial infarction size, inflammatory components, and antioxidant activities. The data showed that BXT could reduce the infarction size and lower the levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and myeloperoxidase, and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10. These results indicate that administration of BXT, following acute myocardial infarction, could reduce infarct size. The effects of BXT may be related to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties.

  18. Radiofrequency catheter ablation versus balloon cryoablation of atrial fibrillation: markers of myocardial damage, inflammation, and thrombogenesis.

    PubMed

    Antolič, Bor; Pernat, Andrej; Cvijić, Marta; Žižek, David; Jan, Matevž; Šinkovec, Matjaž

    2016-07-01

    Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that cryoablation might be associated with a lesser inflammatory response and activation of coagulation compared with radiofrequency ablation. The study was aimed at comparing the effect of cryoballoon and radiofrequency catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation on markers of myocardial damage, inflammation, and activation of coagulation. Forty-one patients received either cryoballoon (n = 23) or radiofrequency (n = 18) ablation of atrial fibrillation. We measured troponin I, high-sensitivity CRP, and interleukin 6 at baseline from the cubital vein, and from the right and left atrium before and after ablation, and from the cubital vein the following day. Prothrombin fragments 1 + 2, soluble P‑selectin, and D‑dimer were measured before and after ablation from both atria. We observed higher troponin I release in the cryoballoon than in the radiofrequency group (7.01 mcg/l (interquartile range [IQR]: 5.30-9.09) vs 2.32 mcg/l (IQR: 1.45-2.98), p < 0.001). The levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity CRP and interleukin 6) in the two groups were comparable, as were the levels of markers of coagulation activation. Procedure duration, fluoroscopy times, and mid-term success (23 months, IQR 7-32) of the two groups were also comparable. Cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation causes more significant myocardial damage, that is, more extensive ablation lesions, compared with radiofrequency catheter ablation. However, no major differences between these two ablation techniques with regard to the inflammatory response and activation of the coagulation system were observed.

  19. Clinical characteristics of silent myocardial ischemia diagnosed with adenosine stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy in Japanese patients with acute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Kusaba, Tetsuro; Kodama, Naotoshi; Terada, Kensuke; Urakabe, Yota; Nishikawa, Susumu; Keira, Natsuya; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) often complicates patients with cerebral infarction and that stroke patients often die of ischemic heart disease. Therefore, it is considered important to treat myocardial ischemia in stroke patients. This study investigated SMI complicating Japanese patients with fresh stroke, using (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy with pharmacologic stress testing to elucidate their clinical manifestations. This study included 41 patients (26 men, mean age 76.0 ± 10.7 years) with acute cerebral infarction and no history of coronary artery disease. All patients underwent (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy with intravenous administration of adenosine to diagnose SMI. Of the 41 patients, myocardial ischemia was confirmed in 17 patients (41.5%). Atherosclerotic etiology was the major cause of stroke in the ischemia(+) group and embolic origin was the major cause in the ischemia(-) group. Patients with myocardial ischemia had a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus (52.9 vs 20.8%; P = 0.0323) and more than two conventional cardiovascular risk factors (64.7 vs 25.0%; P = 0.0110) compared with the nonischemic patients. Infarction subtype of atherosclerotic origin was an independent positive predictor of asymptomatic myocardial ischemia in patients with stroke. These findings indicate that the prevalence of asymptomatic myocardial ischemia is relatively high, especially in patients with stroke of atherosclerotic origin. Therefore, it is beneficial for us to narrow the target population who are at the highest risk when screening for SMI in Japanese patients with acute cerebral infarction.

  20. Contribution of creatine kinase MB mass concentration at admission to early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, A J; Gorgels, J P; van Vlies, B; Koelemay, M J; Smits, R; Tijssen, J G; Haagen, F D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the diagnostic value at admission of creatine kinase MB mass concentration, alone or in combination with electrocardiographic changes, in suspected myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Prospective study of all consecutive patients admitted within 12 hours after onset of chest pain to a coronary care unit for evaluation of suspected myocardial infarction. SETTING--Large regional hospital. PATIENTS--In 297 patients creatine kinase and creatine kinase MB activities and creatine kinase MB mass concentration were determined. Myocardial infarction according to the criteria of the World Health Organisation was diagnosed in 154 patients and excluded in 143 patients (including 70 with unstable angina pectoris). RESULTS--Sensitivity/specificity for creatine kinase MB mass concentration in patients admitted within 4 hours and 4-12 hours after onset of chest pain were 45%/94% and 76%/79% respectively. Corresponding values for creatine kinase activity were 20%/89% and 59%/83%, and for creatine kinase MB activity 16%/87% and 53%/87%. Raised creatine kinase MB mass concentration was seen in 17% of patients with unstable angina pectoris. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that independent predictors of acute myocardial infarction in patients admitted within 4 hours after onset of chest pain were electrocardiographic changes and creatine kinase MB mass concentration on admission; in patients admitted 4-12 hours after the onset of pain independent predictors were electrocardiographic changes and creatine kinase MB mass concentration and activity. CONCLUSION--Creatine kinase MB mass concentration is a more sensitive marker for myocardial infarction than the activity of creatine kinase and its MB isoenzyme. Electrocardiographic changes on admission in combination with creatine kinase MB mass concentration (instead of creatine kinase and creatine kinase MB activities) are best in diagnosing myocardial infarction. PMID:7917680

  1. Hearts deficient in both Mfn1 and Mfn2 are protected against acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hall, A R; Burke, N; Dongworth, R K; Kalkhoran, S B; Dyson, A; Vicencio, J M; Dorn II, G W; Yellon, D M; Hausenloy, D J

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria alter their shape by undergoing cycles of fusion and fission. Changes in mitochondrial morphology impact on the cellular response to stress, and their interactions with other organelles such as the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Inhibiting mitochondrial fission can protect the heart against acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the role of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, Mfn1 and Mfn2, in the response of the adult heart to acute I/R injury is not clear, and is investigated in this study. To determine the effect of combined Mfn1/Mfn2 ablation on the susceptibility to acute myocardial I/R injury, cardiac-specific ablation of both Mfn1 and Mfn2 (DKO) was initiated in mice aged 4–6 weeks, leading to knockout of both these proteins in 8–10-week-old animals. This resulted in fragmented mitochondria (electron microscopy), decreased mitochondrial respiratory function (respirometry), and impaired myocardial contractile function (echocardiography). In DKO mice subjected to in vivo regional myocardial ischemia (30 min) followed by 24 h reperfusion, myocardial infarct size (IS, expressed as a % of the area-at-risk) was reduced by 46% compared with wild-type (WT) hearts. In addition, mitochondria from DKO animals had decreased MPTP opening susceptibility (assessed by Ca2+-induced mitochondrial swelling), compared with WT hearts. Mfn2 is a key mediator of mitochondrial/SR tethering, and accordingly, the loss of Mfn2 in DKO hearts reduced the number of interactions measured between these organelles (quantified by proximal ligation assay), attenuated mitochondrial calcium overload (Rhod2 confocal microscopy), and decreased reactive oxygen species production (DCF confocal microscopy) in response to acute I/R injury. No differences in isolated mitochondrial ROS emissions (Amplex Red) were detected in response to Ca2+ and Antimycin A, further implicating disruption of mitochondria/SR tethering as the protective mechanism. In summary, despite apparent

  2. Conditioned blood reperfusion during angioplasty (CoBRA) treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Patel, M B; Kilgore, K S; Ortolano, G A; Gryboski, C L; Qureshi, M A; Marcovitz, P; Naylor, K B; Park, J L; Wenz, B; Gikakis, N; Freedman, R J; Lucchesi, B R; O'Neill, W W

    2001-03-01

    Acute myocardial infarct (MI) results in ischemia distal to lesions which puts heart muscle at risk for reperfusion injury (RI). Neutrophils, platelets and complement are putative mediators of RI. Recent advances in filtration technology provide integrated neutrophil and platelet removal together with complement-attenuating properties in a single blood-conditioning device. The present study characterizes the properties of a blood-conditioning filter and describes its clinical effect when used in conjunction with active hemoperfusion for acute MI. The filter reduces leukocytes by 99.9998 +/- 0.0002% (p<0.0001) and platelets by 99.9934 +/- 0.0069% (p<0.0001). Human plasma, derived from heparinized blood that was 'conditioned' by filtration, was studied using the Langendorff isolated rabbit heart preparation. The deposition of membrane attack complex and the resultant functional myocardial impairments [reflected in hemodynamic and biochemical measurements, including developed pressure, coronary blood flow, lymph-derived myocardial creatine kinase (CK)] are significantly attenuated by blood conditioning. Integration of the blood-conditioning filter into an active hemoperfusion system during primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for acute MI (n=8) did not delay the procedure or cause any complications. Reperfusion of occluded coronary arteries with 300 cm3 of conditioned blood led to significant improvement in echocardiographic global wall motion scores (in standard deviations) following treatment (-1.64 +/- 0.18 to -1.45 +/- 0.15, p=0.02). Initial reperfusion of totally occluded coronary arteries with conditioned blood leads to acutely improved ventricular function. Collectively, these data provide a strong indication for continued investigation of conditioned blood reperfusion in angioplasty following acute MI for the long-term effect upon recovery of salvagable myocardium.

  3. Selective Blockade of Periostin Exon 17 Preserves Cardiac Performance in Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Yoshiaki; Katsuragi, Naruto; Sanada, Fumihiro; Azuma, Junya; Iekushi, Kazuma; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Okayama, Keita; Ikeda-Iwabu, Yuka; Muratsu, Jun; Otsu, Rei; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that overexpression of full-length periostin, Pn-1, resulted in ventricular dilation with enhanced interstitial collagen deposition in a rat model. However, other reports have documented that the short-form splice variants Pn-2 (lacking exon 17) and Pn-4 (lacking exons 17 and 21) promoted cardiac repair by angiogenesis and prevented cardiac rupture after acute myocardial infarction. The apparently differing findings from those reports prompted us to use a neutralizing antibody to selectively inhibit Pn-1 by blockade of exon 17 in a rat acute myocardial infarction model. Administration of Pn neutralizing antibody resulted in a significant decrease in the infarcted and fibrotic areas of the myocardium, which prevented ventricular wall thinning and dilatation. The inhibition of fibrosis by Pn neutralizing antibody was associated with a significant decrease in gene expression of fibrotic markers, including collagen I, collagen III, and transforming growth factor-β1. Importantly, the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts was significantly reduced in the hearts of animals treated with Pn neutralizing antibody, whereas cardiomyocyte proliferation and angiogenesis were comparable in the IgG and neutralizing antibody groups. Moreover, the level of Pn-1 expression was significantly correlated with the severity of myocardial infarction. In addition, Pn-1, but not Pn-2 or Pn-4, inhibited fibroblast and myocyte attachment, which might account for the cell slippage observed during cardiac remodeling. Collectively, these results indicate that therapeutics that specifically inhibit Pn exon-17, via a neutralizing antibody or drug, without suppressing other periostin variants might offer a new class of medication for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Determinants of adherence to evidence-based therapy after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hamood, Hatem; Hamood, Rola; Green, Manfred S; Almog, Ronit

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which drug adherence may be affected by patient characteristics remains unclear. This study investigated potential determinants of adherence to evidence-based cardioprotective medications in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Patient-based retrospective cohort study of 4655 elderly one-year survivors of acute myocardial infarction, members of a health organization in Israel, between 2005 and 2010. All patients filled at least one prescription for any key medication. Adherence was measured using the proportion-of-days-covered (PDC) metric and defined as PDC ≥ 80%. Nonadherence to aspirin, β-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers or statins approximated 50%, and 80% for combined therapy of all medications. In multivariable analyses, compared with nonadherents to all medications, adherers to at least one medication were more likely to be of Jewish origin (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.60-2.78), inhabitants of the central or northern districts, and attending a cardiologist at least once during the first year of follow-up (AOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.51). Increasing number of outpatient visits was associated with improved adherence and followed a significant dose-response gradient. Factors significantly associated with reduced adherence were presence of comorbid conditions, particularly chronic ischemic heart disease (AOR 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.83) and readmissions (AOR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55-0.78). Results were consistent when evaluating adherence to each medication separately. Outpatient adherence to recommended therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction is suboptimal and is related to health services utilization. Further research is needed to investigate patient subjective behavioral-related drivers for medication therapy discontinuation after myocardial infarction in the absence of a clinical reason. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  5. [Association between biochemical markers and left ventricular dysfunction in the ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    de Abreu, Maximiliano; Mariani, Javier; Guridi, Cristian; González-Villa-Monte, Gabriel; Gastaldello, Natalio; Potito, Mauricio; Reyes, Graciela; Antonietti, Laura; Tajer, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The association between biochemical markers and left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with myocardial infarction was not completely studied. Our goal is to study the association between biochemical markers and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. With an observational and prospective design we included patients with less than 24h ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Leukocytes, glucose, B-type natriuretic peptide and T troponin were measured at admission, and creatine-phosphokinase and creatine-phosphokinase-MB were measured at admission and serially, and correlated with the ejection fraction estimated by echocardiography. A total of 108 patients were included. The median left ventricular ejection fraction was 48% (interquartile range 41-57). Simple linear regression analysis showed that B-type natriuretic peptide (P=.005), peak creatine-phosphokinase-MB (P=.01), leukocyte count (P=.001) and glucose (P=.033) were inversely and significantly associated with the left ventricular ejection fraction. The other parameters showed no association. B-type natriuretic peptide (P=.01) and peak creatine-phosphokinase-MB (P=.02) were the only two variables significantly associated with the left ventricular ejection fraction in the multiple linear regression analysis. Both markers were significantly associated with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 50%, independently of other clinical variables. B-type natriuretic peptide and peak creatine-phosphokinase-MB showed significant association with left ventricular ejection fraction in the acute phase of ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. This association was independent of the presence of other biochemical markers and clinical variables related to ventricular dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Elevated serum concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules in coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zeitler, H; Ko, Y; Zimmermann, C; Nickenig, G; Glänzer, K; Walger, P; Sachinidis, A; Vetter, H

    1997-09-29

    Adhesion molecules are involved in a number of chronic conditions and diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, tumor growth and wound repair. Soluble adhesion molecules (SAM) play an important role in angiogenesis which is a common aspect of the conditions mentioned above and atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and the impact of elevated soluble adhesive molecule plasma concentrations in patients with atherosclerosis. In this study, we measured the soluble forms of intercellular adhesive molecule (sICAM), endothelial adhesive molecule (sELAM) and vascular adhesive molecule (sVCAM) using a sandwich ELISA technique in plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary heart disease (CHD) and in healthy subjects (HS). Patients suffering from CHD and AMI showed significant higher plasma concentrations of sICAM (p <0. 05 and p <0.005), sELAM (p <0.01 and p <0.001) and sVCAM (p <0.001 and p <0.005) than HS. In patients with fatal outcome of myocardial infarction the plasma concentrations of sICAM, sELAM and sVCAM were significantly elevated compared to surviving patients (p <0.005; p <0.005; p <0.05). In patients undergoing thrombolytic therapy there were no significant differences of plasma adhesive molecule concentrations. The levels of SAM were not related to other risk factors like diabetes, nicotin abuse, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and a familiary history of cardiovascular disease. Elevated levels of SAMs are found in patients with coronary heart disease. High SAM levels in plasma seem to be a prognostic factor in acute myocardial infarction. This effect is independent from other concomitant risk factors. Our results suggest that SAMs are involved both in acute phase of myocardial infarction and chronic process of atherosclerosis. It seems that similiar to other chronic inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis seems to be modulated by soluble forms of adhesive molecules.

  7. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; de Almeida, Eros Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Objective Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Methods Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. Results No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN. PMID:25494017

  8. The Outcomes of Emergency Pharmacist Participation During Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Acquisto, Nicole M.; Hays, Daniel P.; Fairbanks, Rollin J. (Terry); Shah, Manish N.; Delehanty, Joseph; Nobay, Flavia; Guido, Joseph; Haas, Curtis E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Current guidelines recommend door-to-balloon times of 90 minutes or less for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Objectives To determine if a clinical pharmacist for the ED (EPh) is associated with decreased door/diagnosis-to-cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) time and decreased door-to-balloon time. Methods A retrospective observational cohort study of ED patients with STEMI requiring urgent cardiac catheterization was conducted. Blinded data collection included timing of ED and CCL arrival, diagnostic ECG, and balloon angioplasty. For cases diagnosed after ED arrival, diagnosis time was substituted for door time. Diagnosis was the time ST-elevations were evident on serial ECG. EPh present and not present groups were compared. During the study period there were two emergency pharmacists and presence was determined by their scheduled time in the ED. Univariate and multivariate analyses was used to detect differences. Results Multivariate analysis of 120 patients, controlled for CCL staff presence and arrival by pre-hospital services, determined EPh presence is associated with a mean 13.1 minute (95% CI, 6.5, 21.9) and 11.5 minute (95% CI, 3.9, 21.5) decrease in door/diagnosis-to-CCL and door-to-balloon times, respectively. Patients were more likely to achieve a door/diagnosis-to-CCL time ≤ 30 minutes (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI, 1.3, 7.8) and ≤ 45 minutes (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI, 1.0, 8.5) and a door-to-balloon time ≤ 90 minutes (odds ratio, 1.9, 95% CI, 0.7, 5.5) times more likely when the EPh was present. Conclusions EPh presence during STEMI presentation to the ED is independently associated with a decrease in door/diagnosis-to-CCL and door-to-balloon times. PMID:20813484

  9. Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysm Causing Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yanık, Ahmet; Akçay, Murat; Menekşe, Serdar; Yazgan, Uğur Gökmen

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with hypertension was admitted to our coronary ICU with acute anterior MI. Emergent primary PCI was planned and coronary angiography was performed. LAD artery was totally occluded in the proximal segment just after a huge 32 × 26 mm sized aneurysm. Emergent CABG operation was performed in 75 minutes because of multivessel disease including the RCA and left circumflex artery. Aneurysm was ligated and coronary bypass was performed using LIMA and saphenous grafts. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. He was discharged with medical therapy including ASA, clopidogrel, and atorvastatin. He was asymptomatic at his polyclinic visit in the first month. PMID:27891151

  10. Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysm Causing Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Yanık, Ahmet; Arslan, Uğur; Akçay, Murat; Menekşe, Serdar; Yazgan, Uğur Gökmen

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with hypertension was admitted to our coronary ICU with acute anterior MI. Emergent primary PCI was planned and coronary angiography was performed. LAD artery was totally occluded in the proximal segment just after a huge 32 × 26 mm sized aneurysm. Emergent CABG operation was performed in 75 minutes because of multivessel disease including the RCA and left circumflex artery. Aneurysm was ligated and coronary bypass was performed using LIMA and saphenous grafts. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. He was discharged with medical therapy including ASA, clopidogrel, and atorvastatin. He was asymptomatic at his polyclinic visit in the first month.

  11. Anomalous Single Coronary Artery Presenting with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Padmakumar; Krishnan, Anand Muthu; Chowdary, Ravella Keerthika; Malpe, Umesh Pai

    2016-01-01

    The anomalous origin of the entire coronary system from the right coronary sinus is a very rare anomaly. Here a patient with this rare anomaly, who developed acute coronary syndrome, requiring revascularization, is presented and treated successfully. His coronary angiographic findings are also discussed. We would like to highlight the rarity of the origin of all 3 coronary arteries from a single coronary trunk. The case also highlights the importance of using Amplantzer AR1 guiding catheter for such anatomical variations arising in the right coronary cusp. PMID:28208910

  12. Acute effects of delayed reperfusion following myocardial infarction: a 3D x-ray imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simari, Robert D.; Bell, M. R.; Pao, Y. C.; Gersh, B. J.; Ritman, Erik L.

    1996-04-01

    Clinical and experimental data suggest that delayed reperfusion of the infarct related artery may limit infarct expansion without increasing myocardial salvage. In order to assess the potential mechanisms involved, an acute closed chest canine model of myocardial infarction and delayed reperfusion was studied. Nineteen dogs underwent 3D computed tomography in the Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor (a fast, volume imaging, CT scanner) at baseline and three and four hours later to estimate left ventricular chamber volumes, global distensibility and regional myocardial stiffness. A control group was scanned without intervention. An occlusion group underwent four hours of coronary artery occlusion. A reperfusion group underwent three hours of coronary artery occlusion followed by one hour of reperfusion. Similar infarct sizes were seen in the occlusion and reperfusion groups. Globally reperfusion was associated with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure and prolongation of global relaxation. Regionally reperfusion was associated with increased myocardial stiffness, intramyocardial blood volume and wall thickness within the infarct zone relative to the not reperfused myocardium.

  13. The role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nadeem; Carrick, David; Layland, Jamie; Oldroyd, Keith G; Berry, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, despite the rate having significantly declined over the past decade. The aim of this review is to consider the emerging diagnostic and clinical utility of cardiac MRI in patients with recent AMI. Cardiac MRI has high reproducibility and accuracy, allowing detailed functional assessment and characterisation of myocardial tissue. In addition to traditional measures including infarct size (IS), transmural extent of necrosis and microvascular obstruction (MVO), other infarct characteristics can now be identified using innovative MRI techniques. These novel pathologies include myocardial oedema and myocardial haemorrhage which also have functional and prognostic implications for patients. In addition to its diagnostic utility in ordinary clinical practice, cardiac MRI has been increasingly used to provide information on surrogate outcome measures, such as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes, in clinical trials. MRI is becoming more available in secondary care, however, the potential clinical utility and cost effectiveness of MRI in post-MI patients remains uncertain. Cardiac MRI is most likely to be useful in high risk patients with risk factors for heart failure (HF). This includes individuals with early signs of pump failure and risk factors for adverse remodelling, such as MVO. This review focuses on the role of cardiac MRI in the assessment of patients with AMI.

  14. [Auriculoventricular blocks in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. Course and prognosis. Apropos of 90 cases].

    PubMed

    Hannachi, N; Derbel, F; Ben Ismail, M

    1988-03-01

    The objective is to study the clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics as well as the course of myocardial infarction complicated by atrio-ventricular block (AVB), and to propose a management to acute myocardial infarction with A-V block. This study concerns 90 patients (78 men and 12 women), with a mean age of 58 years. The overall frequency of AVB is 7.6 p. cent. The infarction is most of the time found posteriorly (51 p. cent of the cases). Syncopes are essentially seen in complete AVB (81 p. cent) and with deep antero-septal necrosis (73 p. cent). Heart failure is especially the complication of anterior (73 p. cent) and deep septal (78 p. cent) necrosis. The mortality of myocardial infarction complicated by A-V block (41 p. cent) is higher than that of uncomplicated necroses (15 p. cent). The prognosis is usually favorable in posteriorly located infarctions where the A-V block is usually regressive and benign while it is much more severe in other locations where the conduction disorders associated with severe myocardial lesions. Temporary and/or permanent electrosystolic stimulation must be well codified in its indications which should be broadened, especially in case of anterior or deep septal necrosis.

  15. Acute myocardial ischemia causes a transmural gradient in glucose extraction but not glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Stanley, W C; Hall, J L; Stone, C K; Hacker, T A

    1992-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between myocardial glucose metabolism and blood flow during ischemia in eight open-chest swine. Coronary flow was controlled by an extracorporeal perfusion circuit. Left anterior descending coronary arterial (LAD) flow was reduced by 60%, while left circumflex flow was normally perfused. The rate of glucose uptake (Rg) was measured with a coronary infusion of 2-deoxy-D-[14C]glucose and myocardial blood flow with radiolabeled microspheres. Myocardial biopsies were taken after 50 min of ischemia. Regional arterial-venous glucose difference was calculated as Rg per myocardial blood flow. Subendocardial blood flow decreased from 1.27 +/- 0.19 to 0.25 +/- 0.11 ml.g-1.min-1 (P less than 0.0001). The subendocardial arterial-venous glucose difference was greater in the LAD bed (1.38 +/- 0.35 mumol/ml) than the left circumflex coronary arterial perfusion bed (0.10 +/- 03; P less than 0.01); however, there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of glucose uptake between the two beds. Subendocardial glycogen concentration in the LAD perfusion bed was reduced to 26% of circumflex bed values. In conclusion, acute ischemia stimulated a dramatic increase in glucose extraction; however, this did not compensate for the decrease in blood flow, and thus the rate of glucose uptake did not increase significantly. The high rate of glycolysis is primarily supported by accelerated net glycogen breakdown rather than increased glucose uptake.

  16. Acute Myocardial Response to Stretch: What We (don't) Know

    PubMed Central

    Neves, João S.; Leite-Moreira, André M.; Neiva-Sousa, Manuel; Almeida-Coelho, João; Castro-Ferreira, Ricardo; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial stretch, as result of acute hemodynamic overload, is one of the most frequent challenges to the heart and the ability of the heart to intrinsically adapt to it is essential to prevent circulatory congestion. In this review, we highlight the historical background, the currently known mechanisms, as well as the gaps in the understanding of this physiological response. The systolic adaptation to stretch is well-known for over 100 years, being dependent on an immediate increase in contractility—known as the Frank-Starling mechanism—and a further progressive increase—the slow force response. On the other hand, its diastolic counterpart remains largely unstudied. Mechanosensors are structures capable of perceiving mechanical signals and activating pathways that allow their transduction into biochemical responses. Although the connection between these structures and stretch activated pathways remains elusive, we emphasize those most likely responsible for the initiation of the acute response. Calcium-dependent pathways, including angiotensin- and endothelin-related pathways; and cGMP-dependent pathways, comprising the effects of nitric oxide and cardiac natriuretic hormones, embody downstream signaling. The ischemic setting, a paradigmatic situation of acute hemodynamic overload, is also touched upon. Despite the relevant knowledge accumulated, there is much that we still do not know. The quest for further understanding the myocardial response to acute stretch may provide new insights, not only in its physiological importance, but also in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26779036

  17. Acute tinnitus and permanent audiovestibular damage after hepatitis B vaccination.

    PubMed

    DeJonckere, P H; de Surgères, G G

    2001-01-01

    Yeast-derived recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine usage has been widely accepted since the early 1990s, especially for high-risk patients. Severe adverse effects have been reported infrequently. Certain neurological complications raise concern for hepatitis B vaccine: central nervous system demyelination, acute myelitis, acute cerebellar ataxia, and various peripheral mononeuropathies. Case reports on tinnitus, hearing loss, and vestibular damage are extremely scarce. The case presented here concerns a professionally active nurse, born in 1953, with a medical history of progressive renal failure and hemodialysis. Eleven hours after a second injection of the hepatitis B vaccine Engerix B, an acute left-sided tinnitus occurred and, a few hours later, severe left hearing loss and intense vertigo. Tinnitus and the sensation of vertigo regressed fairly quickly, but the hearing loss and the vestibular paresis were permanent. Increased interpeak intervals on auditory brain responses and lack of recruitment suggested that the lesion probably is located at the level of cranial nerve VIII. From a medicolegal point of view, this audiovestibular damage had to be considered an accident at work and not as an occupational disease.

  18. High-molecular-weight kininogen and the intrinsic coagulation pathway in patients with de novo acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cubedo, Judit; Ramaiola, Ilaria; Padró, Teresa; Martin-Yuste, Victoria; Sabate-Tenas, Manel; Badimon, Lina

    2013-12-01

    After an acute ischaemic event serum proteins may change reflecting the ischaemic damage. Proteomic studies could provide new insights into potential biomarkers in the evolution of ischaemic syndromes. In this study we have investigated the coordinated changes in coagulation-related proteins in the evolution after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Serum proteome (2D-electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF) of AMI-patients within the first 6 hours after event onset (admission-time) and 3 days after were compared to controls. Systems biology and bioinformatic analysis were performed to identify the differentially expressed canonical pathways. In silico analysis of differential proteins revealed changes in the intrinsic coagulation pathwa