Grochulska, Agnieszka; Sawicka, Małgorzata
Results of numerous epidemiological research prove that the development of civilization, density of population, constant changes of human diet based on increased consumption of processed, high-energy food rich in animal protein, sugar, saturated animal fat and change of life standard that is characterized by limiting physical activity and energy output and widespread pollution became favorable conditions (if not causative) increasing the rate circulatory system morbidity, including ischemic heart disease and myocardium infraction. The purpose of presented research is an attempt to answer a question how the patients after myocardium infraction self-estimate their previous style of life. The paper also tries to find the relation between family record of sickness with dietary preferences and physical activity. In purpose to collect the empiric material the scientists used a method of diagnostic soundings. The author's questionnaire was used as a technique of the survey that was performed on a group of 100 patients after myocardium infraction. The patients were chosen randomly and the survey was accomplished in hospitals of Słupsk and Koszalin. Taking care of proper health condition by patients after myocardium infraction is highly unsatisfactory. The results show that in spite of myocardium infraction, 30% of respondents still smoke, 30% use alcohol and 40% use inappropriate diet. Dietary references of the respondents prove the necessity of providing more education concerning healthy diet in everyday life. The respondents ceased systematic physical exercises and the majority of them (62%) does not exercise regularly (32% cured by preservative method and 30% invasion method).
McLean, K H; Bett, J N; Saltups, A
In 1505 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) serious ventricular arrhythmias were commoner in those with transmural ECG changes, and were associated with an increase in mortality and in the incidence of left ventricular failure (LVF) as well as higher peak serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurred more often in older patients and in those with LVF and clinical evidence of pericarditis.
Tilouche, Samia; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Sahnoun, Maha; Chkirbène, Youssef; Mestiri, Sarra; Boughamoura, Lamia; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel
Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and progression. In clinical practice, although there are many methods of diagnosis of acute myocarditis, the diagnosis remains an embarrassing dilemma for clinicians. The authors report the case of 9-month-old infant who was brought to the Pediatric Emergency Department with sudden onset dyspnea. Examination disclosed heart failure and resuscitation was undertaken. The electrocardiogram showed an ST segment elevation in the anterolateral leads with a mirror image. Cardiac enzyme tests revealed a significant elevation of troponin and creatine phosphokinase levels. A diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was made, and heparin therapy was prescribed. The infant died on the third day after admission with cardiogenic shock. The autopsy showed dilatation of the ventricles and massive edema of the lungs. Histological examinations of myocardium samples revealed the presence of a marked lymphocytic infiltrate dissociating myocardiocytes. Death was attributed to acute myocarditis. The authors call attention to the difficulties of differential diagnosis between acute myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction especially in children, and to the important therapeutic implications of a correct diagnosis. PMID:28210569
Bana, A; Yadava, O P; Ghadiok, R; Selot, N
One hundred and twenty-three patients had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) within 30 days of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from May 1992 to November 1997. Commonest infarct was anterior transmural (61.8%) and commonest indication of surgery was post-infarct persistent or recurrent angina (69.1%). Ten patients were operated within 48 h and 36 between 48 h to 2 weeks of having MI. Out of these, nine patients were having infarct extension and cardiogenic shock at the time of surgery. Pre-operatively fourteen patients were on inotropes of which six also had intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support. All patients had complete revascularisation with 3.8+/-1.2 distal anastomoses per patient. By multivariate analysis, we found that independent predictors of post-operative morbidity [inotropes >48 h, use of IABP, ventilation >24 h, ICU stay >5 days] and complications [re-exploration, arrhythmias, pulmonary complications, wound infection, cerebrovascular accident (CVA)] were left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <30%, Q-wave MI, surgery <48 h after AMI, presence of pre-operative cardiogenic shock and age >60 years (P < or = 0.01). Mortality at 30 days was 3.3%. LVEF <30%, Q-wave MI, surgery <48 h after AMI, presence of pre-operative cardiogenic shock and age >60 years were found to be independent predictors of 30 days mortality (P < or = 0.01). Ninety patients were followed up for a mean duration of 33 months (1 to 65 months). There were three late deaths and five patients developed recurrence of angina. To conclude, CABG can be carried out with low risk following AMI in stable patients for post-infarct angina. Patients who undergo urgent or emergent surgery and who have pre-operative cardiogenic shock, IABP, poor left ventricular functions, age >60 years and Q-wave MI are at increased risk.
Introduction: Chlorophenoxy herbicides are widely used in the U.S. for maintenance of home lawns, parks, road sides, and for broadleaf weed control in wheat farming. Approximately 90% of spring wheat acreage is treated with predominantly chlorophenoxy herbicides, in contrast to...
Thallium-201 scintigraphy provides a sensitive and reliable method of detecting acute myocardial infarction and ischemia when imaging is performed with understanding of the temporal characteristics and accuracy of the technique. The results of scintigraphy are related to the time interval between onset of symptoms and time of imaging. During the first 6 hr after chest pain almost all patients with acute myocardial infarction and approximately 50% of the patients with unstable angina will demonstrate /sup 201/TI pefusion defects. Delayed imaging at 2-4 hr will permit distinction between ischemia and infarction. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the size of the perfusion defect accurately reflects the extent of the infarcted and/or jeopardized myocardium, which may be used for prognostic stratification. In view of the characteristics of /sup 201/TI scintigraphy, the most practical application of this technique is in patients in whom myocardial infarction has to be ruled out, and for early recognition of patients at high risk for complications.
Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI); Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS); ST Elevation (STEMI) Myocardial Infarction; Ischemic Reperfusion Injury; Non-ST Elevation (NSTEMI) Myocardial Infarction; Angina, Unstable
Kok, F.J.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; de Bruijn, A.M.; Kruyssen, D.H.C.M.; de Bruin, M.; Valkenburg, H.A. )
To study the association between selenium status and the risk of myocardial infarction, the authors compared plasma, erythrocyte, and toenail selenium levels and the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase among 84 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 84 population controls. Mean concentrations of all selenium measurements were lower in cases than controls. The differences were statistically significant, except for the plasma selenium level. A positive trend in the risk of acute myocardial infarction from high to low toenail selenium levels was observed, which persisted after adjustment for other risk factors for myocardial infarction. In contrast, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in cases than controls. Because toenail selenium level reflects blood levels up to one year before sampling, these findings suggest that a low selenium status was present before the infarction and, thus, may be of etiologic relevance. The higher glutathione peroxidase activity in the cases may be interpreted as a defense against increased oxidant stress either preceding or following the acute event.
Laszewski, M; Trigg, M; de Alarcon, P; Giller, R
An increased frequency of disseminated aspergillosis has been observed in the last decade, mostly occurring in immunocompromised patients including the bone marrow transplant population. Cardiac involvement by Aspergillus remains rare. We report the clinical and postmortem findings of an unusual case of Aspergillus pancarditis in a 7-year-old bone marrow transplant patient with Aspergillus embolization to the coronary arteries leading to a massive acute myocardial infarction. This case suggests that myocardial injury secondary to disseminated aspergillosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of chest pain in the immunocompromised pediatric patient.
Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels
Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose, and subsequent episodes of myocardial injury due to the use and misuse of methylphenidate over a period of two years. We recommend an increased attention to the subscription of methylphenidate to patients, who are at risk of misuse and patients, who have a cardiovascular history.
McAlpine, H M; Morton, J J; Leckie, B; Rumley, A; Gillen, G; Dargie, H J
The extent of neuroendocrine activation, its time course, and relation to left ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmias were investigated in 78 consecutive patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. High concentrations of arginine vasopressin were found within six hours of symptoms, even in the absence of myocardial infarction (n = 18). Plasma catecholamine concentrations also were highest on admission, whereas renin and angiotensin II concentrations rose progressively over the first three days, not only in those with heart failure but also in patients with no clinical complications. Heart failure, ventricular tachycardia, and deaths were associated with extensive myocardial infarction, low left ventricular ejection fraction, and persistently high concentrations of catecholamines, renin, and angiotensin II up to 10 days after admission, whereas in uncomplicated cases concentrations had already returned to normal. PMID:3415870
Khosoosi Niaki, Mohammad Reza; Hamid, Mahdizadeh; Farshidi, Fatemeh; Mohammadpour, Mehdi; Salehi Omran, Mohammad Taghi
Background: More than half of myocardial infracted (MI) patients have no conventional risk factors. Regarding the belief that opium addiction has a protective effect on heart diseases, addiction prevalence has unfortunately increased in recent years. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of opium addiction on patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 118 patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to CCU ward (case group), and 118 patients with no history of MI to other wards (control group) of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Babol, Iran. Opium addiction conventional risk factors were evaluated for both groups, and the data were analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression model was used to adjust the conventional risk factor effects. Moreover, demographic variables as well as the extent of MI (extensive or non-extensive), and infarction type (ST-elevated or non-ST elevated) also were evaluated. Results: Sixty-seven patients in MI and 6 subjects in control group had a history of opium consumption (p<0.0001, OR=24.5). Blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and smoking showed a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05), whereas, no significant difference was observed for diabetes and family history. The results of adjusted model report a significant effect of opium consumption with the development of MI (OR=26.3). No significant difference was found in terms of infarction type and the extent between the addicts and non addicts in MI group. Conclusion: The results show that opium addiction is a strong risk factor for myocardial infarction. PMID:24009941
Kumar, Andreas; Bagur, Rodrigo; Béliveau, Patrick; Potvin, Jean-Michel; Levesque, Pierre; Fillion, Nancy; Tremblay, Benoit; Larose, Éric; Gaudreault, Valérie
A 24-year-old healthy man consulted to our center because of typical on-and-off chest-pain and an electrocardiogram showing ST-segment elevation in inferior leads. An urgent coronary angiography showed angiographically normal coronary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging confirmed acute myocarditis. Although acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm is an uncommon association, it is important to recognize it, particularly for the management for those patients presenting with ST-segment elevation and suspect myocardial infarction and angiographically normal coronary arteries. The present report highlights the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to identify acute myocarditis as the underlying cause. PMID:25276306
Kumar, Andreas; Bagur, Rodrigo; Béliveau, Patrick; Potvin, Jean-Michel; Levesque, Pierre; Fillion, Nancy; Tremblay, Benoit; Larose, Eric; Gaudreault, Valérie
A 24-year-old healthy man consulted to our center because of typical on-and-off chest-pain and an electrocardiogram showing ST-segment elevation in inferior leads. An urgent coronary angiography showed angiographically normal coronary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging confirmed acute myocarditis. Although acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm is an uncommon association, it is important to recognize it, particularly for the management for those patients presenting with ST-segment elevation and suspect myocardial infarction and angiographically normal coronary arteries. The present report highlights the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to identify acute myocarditis as the underlying cause.
Myocardial scintigraphic techniques available presently allow a sensitive and relatively specific diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction when they are used correctly, although every technique has definite limitations. Small myocardial infarcts (less than 3 gm.) may be missed, and there are temporal limitations in the usefulness of the scintigraphic techniques. The development of tomographic methodology that may be used with single-photon radionuclide emitters (including technetium and /sup 201/Tl will allow the detection of relatively small abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and regions of myocardial infarction and will help to provide a more objective interpretation of the myocardial scintigrams. The use of overlay techniques allowing simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion, infarct-avid imaging, and radionuclide ventriculograms will provide insight into the relevant aspects of the extent of myocardial damage, the relationship of damage to myocardial perfusion, and the functional impact of myocardial infarction on ventricular performance.
Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H.
Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary. PMID:26998366
Jamal, Nasiruddin; Rajhy, Mubina; Bapumia, Mustaafa
An individual experiencing dyspnoea or syncope at high altitude is commonly diagnosed to have high-altitude pulmonary edema or cerebral edema. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is generally not considered in the differential diagnosis. There have been very rare cases of AMI reported only from Mount Everest. We report a case of painless ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) that occurred while climbing Mount Kilimanjaro. A 51-year-old man suffered dyspnoea and loss of consciousness near the mountain peak, at about 5600 m. At a nearby hospital, he was treated as a case of high-altitude pulmonary edema. ECG was not obtained. Two days after the incident, he presented to our institution with continued symptoms of dyspnoea, light-headedness and weakness, but no pain. He was found to have inferior wall and right ventricular STEMI complicated by complete heart block. He was successfully managed with coronary angioplasty, with good recovery.
Sinha, Archana; Lewis, O'Dene; Kumar, Rajan; Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Curry, Bryan H
Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED) with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary.
Desai, Ketaki V; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H; Cox, Charles S; Quick, Christopher M; Allen, Steven J; Fischer, Uwe M
Myocardial interstitial edema forms as a result of several disease states and clinical interventions. Acute myocardial interstitial edema is associated with compromised systolic and diastolic cardiac function and increased stiffness of the left ventricular chamber. Formation of chronic myocardial interstitial edema results in deposition of interstitial collagen, which causes interstitial fibrosis. To assess the effect of myocardial interstitial edema on the mechanical properties of the left ventricle and the myocardial interstitium, we induced acute and chronic interstitial edema in dogs. Acute myocardial edema was generated by coronary sinus pressure elevation, while chronic myocardial edema was generated by chronic pulmonary artery banding. The pressure-volume relationships of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium and left ventricular chamber for control animals were compared with acutely and chronically edematous animals. Collagen content of nonedematous and chronically edematous animals was also compared. Generating acute myocardial interstitial edema resulted in decreased left ventricular chamber compliance compared with nonedematous animals. With chronic edema, the primary form of collagen changed from type I to III. Left ventricular chamber compliance in animals made chronically edematous was significantly higher than nonedematous animals. The change in primary collagen type secondary to chronic left ventricular myocardial interstitial edema provides direct evidence for structural remodeling. The resulting functional adaptation allows the chronically edematous heart to maintain left ventricular chamber compliance when challenged with acute edema, thus preserving cardiac function over a wide range of interstitial fluid pressures.
Alsancak, Y; Sezenöz, B; Duran, M; Unlu, S; Turkoglu, S; Yalcın, R
Coronary artery anomalies are rare and mostly silent in clinical practice. First manifestation of this congenital abnormality can be devastating as syncope, acute coronary syndrome, and sudden cardiac death. Herein we report a case with coronary artery anomaly complicated with ST segment myocardial infarction in both inferior and anterior walls simultaneously diagnosed during primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
Luo, Huanhuan; Li, Qiong; Pramanik, Jogen; Luo, Jiankai; Guo, Zhikun
Nanog is a potential stem cell marker and is considered a regeneration factor during tissue repair. In the present study, we investigated expression patterns of nanog in the rat heart after acute myocardial infarction by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. Our results show that nanog at both mRNA and protein levels is positively expressed in myocardial cells, fibroblasts and small round cells in different myocardial zones at different stages after myocardial infarction, showing a spatio-temporal and dynamic change. After myocardial infarction, the nanog expression in fibroblasts and small round cells in the infarcted zone (IZ) is much stronger than that in the margin zone (MZ) and remote infarcted zone (RIZ). From day 7 after myocardial infarction, the fibroblasts and small cells strongly expressed nanog protein in the IZ, and a few myocardial cells in the MZ and the RIZ and the numbers of nanog-positive fibroblasts and small cells reached the highest peak at 21 days after myocardial infarction, but in this period the number of nanog-positive myocardial cells decreased gradually. At 28 days after myocardial infarction, the numbers of all nanog-positive cells decreased into a low level. Therefore, our data suggest that all myocardial cells, fibroblasts and small round cells are involved in myocardial reconstruction after cardiac infarction. The nanog-positive myocardial cells may respond to early myocardial repair, and the nanog-positive fibroblasts and small round cells are the main source for myocardial reconstruction after cardiac infarction.
Perl, Leor; Daniels, David; Schwartz, Jonathan; Tanaka, Shige; Yeung, Alan; Tremmel, Jennifer A.; Schnittger, Ingela
A myocardial bridge (MB) is a common anatomic variant, most frequently located in the left anterior descending coronary artery, where a portion of the coronary artery is covered by myocardium. Importantly, MBs are known to result in a proximal atherosclerotic lesion. It has recently been postulated that these lesions predispose patients to acute coronary events, even in cases of otherwise low-risk patients. One such mechanism may involve acute plaque rupture. In this article, we report 2 cases of patients with MBs who presented with acute coronary syndromes despite having low cardiovascular risk. Their presentation was life-risking and both were treated urgently and studied with coronary angiographies and intravascular ultrasound. This latter modality confirmed a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque proximal to the MB as a likely cause of the acute events. These cases, of unexplained acute coronary syndrome in low-risk patients, raise the question of alternative processes leading to the event and the role MB play as an underlying cause of ruptured plaques. In some cases, an active investigation for this entity may be warranted, due to the prognostic implications of the different therapeutic modalities, should an MB be discovered. PMID:28251167
Bennett, D H
Sotalol, a beta adrenoceptor antagonist, was given intravenously to 15 patients with accessory atrioventricular pathways during intracardiac electrophysiological studies. Eleven patients had the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and four patients had concealed left sided accessory pathways. Four patients were restudied while receiving oral sotalol. In contrast to the actions typical of beta blocking agents, intravenous sotalol prolonged the effective refractory periods of the ventricles and accessory pathways and reduced the ventricular response to atrial fibrillation in the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Similar results were obtained with oral administration. These findings support the observation that sotalol, unlike other beta blocking agents. causes acute prolongation of the myocardial action potential and suggest that this action might be of therapeutic use. PMID:7082500
Eleawa, Samy M; Alkhateeb, Mahmoud; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Al-Hashem, Fahaid; Shatoor, Abdullah S; Alhejaily, Abdulmohsen; Khalil, Mohammad A
Aim: Myocardial infarction (MI) due to sudden occlusion of a major coronary artery leads to a complex series of events that result in left ventricle (LV) impairment eventual heart failure. Therapeutic options are limited to reverse such trends post MI. The aim of this study was to compare the acute cardioprotective effects of the antioxidants, resveratrol (RES) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), either individually or in combination, on infracts size, LV hemodynamics, inflammation and oxidative stress markers in rats with experimentally induced MI. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: control without surgery, sham without occlusion, MI without antioxidants, RES pre-treated then MI (20 mg/kg, orally), CoQ10 then MI (20 mg/kg, intramuscular.), and combined RES and CoQ10 then MI with (each group n = 10). Pretreatment commenced 7 days prior to the permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Infarct area, hemodynamics, inflammation and oxidative stress markers were assessed 24 hours post-MI. Results: Compared to RES alone, CoQ10 pre-administration either by itself or in combination with RES, significantly reduced LV infarct area (57%), and normalized LV hemodynamic parameters like LVEDP (100%), LVSP (95.4%), LV +dp/dt and -dp/dt (102 and 73.1%, respectively). CoQ10 also decreased serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (70%), and various circulating inflammatory markers like TNF-α (83.2%) and IL-6 (83.2%). Regarding oxidative stress, TBARS scores were lowered with a concurrent increase in both superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities with CoQ10 alone or in combination with RES. Conclusion: Coenzyme Q10 protects against the acute sequelae of myocardial infarction. It profoundly reduced infarct area, inflammation and oxidative stress while normalizing LV hemodynamics post MI. PMID:26069524
Lorenzo, Natalia; Antuña, Paula; Dominguez, Lourdes; Rivero, Fernando; Bastante, Teresa; Alfonso, Fernando
The use of isotretinoin has been associated with mild changes in the metabolic profile of adolescents. In very rare cases, a possible association with myocardial infarction, stroke and thromboembolic events has been reported. In this report we describe the potential association of isotretinoin with the occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction in a very young girl. OCT provided unique visualization of the culprit lesion.
Lai Yiliang; Chang Weichou; Kuo Wuhsien; Huang Tienyu; Chu Hengcheng; Hsieh Tsaiyuan; Chang Weikuo
Transarterial chemoembolization has been widely used to treat unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Various complications have been reported, but they have not included acute myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction results mainly from coronary artery occlusion by plaques that are vulnerable to rupture or from coronary spasm, embolization, or dissection of the coronary artery. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case report that describes a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent transarterial chemoembolization and died subsequently of acute myocardial infarction. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of this complication induced by transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. This case illustrates the need to be aware of acute myocardial infarction when transarterial chemoembolization is planned for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in patients with underlying coronary artery disease.
Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.; Shah, P.K.
Technical advances in radionuclide imaging have important implications for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Single-photon emission computerized tomography with thallium 201 (TI-201) offers greater accuracy than planar imaging in detecting, localizing and sizing myocardial perfusion defects. Use of single-photon emission computerized tomography with TI-201 should allow for a more accurate assessment of prognosis after myocardial infarction. A new radiopharmaceutical, technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, provides a number of advantages over TI-201, including higher quality images, lack of redistribution, and the ability to assess first-pass ventricular function. Applications of TI-201 and technetium 99-m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile include assessment of arterial patency and myocardial salvage immediately after thrombolytic therapy, detection of resting ischemia after thrombolytic therapy, targeting of subsets of patients for further intervention, and predischarge assessment to predict the future course of patients after an acute myocardial infarction.
Mahon, N; O'Rorke, C; Codd, M; McCann, H; McGarry, K; Sugrue, D
OBJECTIVE—To examine the management and outcome of an unselected consecutive series of patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction to a tertiary referral centre. DESIGN—A historical cohort study over a three year period (1992-94) of consecutive unselected admissions with acute myocardial infarction identified using the HIPE (hospital inpatient enquiry) database and validated according to MONICA criteria for definite or probable acute myocardial infarction. SETTING—University teaching hospital and cardiac tertiary referral centre. RESULTS—1059 patients were included. Mean age was 67 years; 60% were male and 40% female. Rates of coronary care unit (CCU) admission, thrombolysis, and predischarge angiography were 70%, 28%, and 32%, respectively. Overall in-hospital mortality was 18%. Independent predictors of hospital mortality by multivariate analysis were age, left ventricular failure, ventricular arrhythmias, cardiogenic shock, management outside CCU, and reinfarction. Hospital mortality in a small cohort from a non-tertiary referral centre was 14%, a difference largely explained by the lower mean age of these patients (64 years). Five year survival in the cohort was 50%. Only age and left ventricular failure were independent predictors of mortality at follow up. CONCLUSIONS—In unselected consecutive patients the hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction remains high (18%). Age and the occurrence of left ventricular failure are major determinants of short and long term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Keywords: myocardial infarction; mortality; thrombolysis PMID:10212164
Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Mbaye, Alassane; Kagambega, Larissa Justine; Dioum, Momar; Diagne-Sow, Dior; Kane, Moussa; Diack, Bouna; Kane, Abdoul
Acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication of dobutamine stress echocardiography. We describe the case of a diabetic patient who presented with an anterior myocardial infarction complicated by an acute pulmonary oedema and cardiogenic collapse during dobutamine stress echocardiography, requiring five days' hospitalisation. Coronarography could not be performed because of inadequate medical facilities.
Banerjee, Amal Kumar; Kumar, Soumitra
These Guidelines summarize and evaluate all currently available evidence on Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) with the aim of assisting physicians in selecting the best management strategies for a typical patient, suffering from AMI, taking into account the impact on outcome, as well as the risk/benefit ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means. Rapid diagnosis and early risk stratification of patients presenting with AMI are important to identify patients in whom early interventions can improve outcome. AMI can be defined from a number of different perspectives related to clinical, electrocardiographic (ECG), biochemical, and pathological characteristics. Quantitative assessment of risk is useful for clinical decision making. For patients with the clinical presentation of AMI within 12 h after symptom onset, early mechanical (PCI) or pharmacological reperfusion should be performed. Platelet activation and subsequent aggregation play a dominant role in the propagation of arterial thrombosis and consequently are the key therapeutic targets in the management of AMI. Adjunctive therapy with antiplatelets and antithrombotics is essential. A recommendation for routine urgent PCI (within 24 h) following successful fibrinolysis seems to be most practical option. In India, pharmacoinvasive therapy is the best option.
Murín, J; Kasper, J; Bulas, J; Uhliar, R
In the period of two years the authors treated at the coronary care unit 146 patients inflicted by the acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In 15 of them (13 men, 2 women, 13 times Q and twice non-Q, 5 times anterior, 10 times inferior) they performed intravenous thrombolytic treatment by use of streptokinase. The success rate of the thrombolytic therapy was evaluated by noninvasive markers: 1.) rapid withdrawal of chest pain, 2.) rapid (in 6 hours) and essential improvement of ST segment elevation and 3.) presence of reperfusion arrhythmias (in 6 hours). The authors detected insufficient medicinal conciousness among their health district population as regard to their response after the AMI origin (absolute majority of patients delayed their arrival). Minor complications due to therapy (allergy and minor local hemorrhage) occurred in 4 patients. Nobody died. Only those cases were considered as being successful, in which all three success rate markers were present. This condition was fulfilled in 8 patients (i.e. in 53% of cases) and with minor insufficiencies in further two patients (which would increase the percentage of the success rate to 67%). This success rate of the thrombolytic therapy ranges within the limits given by literature. In five patients the authors evaluated the behaviour of the left ventricular asynergy (its range and index) prior to and following the thrombolytic therapy and this examination they consider to be appropriate for observance of the thrombolytic therapy success rate in patients with AMI. (Tab. 3, Ref. 20.).
Milazzo, Valentina; De Metrio, Monica; Cosentino, Nicola; Marenzi, Giancarlo; Tremoli, Elena
Vitamin D deficiency is a prevalent condition, cutting across all ethnicities and among all age groups, and occurring in about 30%-50% of the population. Besides vitamin D established role in calcium homeostasis, its deficiency is emerging as a new risk factor for coronary artery disease. Notably, clinical investigations have suggested that there is an association between hypovitaminosis D and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Not only has it been linked to incident AMI, but also to increased morbidity and mortality in this clinical setting. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency seems to predispose to recurrent adverse cardiovascular events, as it is associated with post-infarction complications and cardiac remodeling in patients with AMI. Several mechanisms underlying the association between vitamin D and AMI risk can be involved. Despite these observational and mechanistic data, interventional trials with supplementation of vitamin D are controversial. In this review, we will discuss the evidence on the association between vitamin D deficiency and AMI, in terms of prevalence and prognostic impact, and the possible mechanisms mediating it. Further research in this direction is warranted and it is likely to open up new avenues for reducing the risk of AMI. PMID:28163832
In vivo increased sensitivity to heparin has been demonstrated in patients following an acute myocardial infarction. An intravenous injection of 10,000 units of heparin was given to each of 18 patients with recent myocardial infarction in order to compare them with 17 patients who were not suffering from any acute illness. The changes in whole blood clotting time, recalcified plasma clotting time and prothrombin time were greater and more prolonged in the patients with recent myocardial infarction. Of the three tests, the one-stage prothrombin time provided the simplest and the most precise measurement of heparin sensitivity. The reason for this was not clear: it is possible that it is related to shock and congestive heart failure which were complications of the clinical course following myocardial infarction. PMID:14216140
Assey, M.E.; Walters, G.L.; Hendrix, G.H.; Carabello, B.A.; Usher, B.W.; Spann, J.F. Jr.
Fifty-five patients with angiographically proved coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent Bruce protocol exercise stress testing with thallium-201 imaging. Twenty-seven patients (group I) showed myocardial hypoperfusion without angina pectoris during stress, which normalized at rest, and 28 patients (group II) had a similar pattern of reversible myocardial hypoperfusion but also had angina during stress. Patients were followed for at least 30 months. Six patients in group I had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 3 of whom died, and only 1 patient in group II had an AMI (p = 0.05), and did not die. Silent myocardial ischemia uncovered during exercise stress thallium testing may predispose to subsequent AMI. The presence of silent myocardial ischemia identified in this manner is of prognostic value, independent of angiographic variables such as extent of CAD and left ventricular ejection fraction.
Kakkar, V V; Iyengar, S S; De Lorenzo, F; Hargreaves, J R; Kadziola, Z A
The benefit of using subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin sodium) for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction in patients not treated with thrombolytic therapy. Twenty-nine cardiological centres from leading hospitals in India participated in this prospective, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in two phases which included 1128 patients with acute myocardial infarction. In the acute phase (between day 1 and 3 of admission) all the patients received a weight-adjusted dose of subcutaneous dalteparin (120 IU/kg twice daily). In the second, double-blind phase of acute myocardial infarction, patients were randomised to receive a fixed dose of dalteparin (7,500 IU) or an identical placebo injection for 30 days. A composite primary endpoint of death, reinfarction, recurrence of angina and emergency revascularisation was used. All the 1128 patients with acute myocardial infarction were included in the trial. In the acute phase, the composite primary endpoint was observed in 58 (5.1%) patients. Of 1037 paients who were randomly assigned to receive a fixed dose of dalteparin (n=519) or placebo (n=518), the composite primary event rate was 6.7 percent and 7.0 percent, respectively (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.62-1.52; p=0.90). To conclude, treatment with dalteparin administered subcutaneously in a weight-adjusted dose of 120 IU/kg twice daily resulted in a lower than expected mortality during the acute phase of myocardial infarction. A lower fixed once daily dose of 7,500 IU during the chronic phase did not confer additional protection.
Myocardial thallium-201 scintigraphy is being increasingly employed as a method for assessing the efficacy of coronary reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction. New thallium uptake after intracoronary tracer administration after successful recanalization indicates that nutrient blood flow has been successfully restored. One may also presume that some myocardial salvage occurred if thallium administered in this manner is transported intracellularly by myocytes with intact sarcolemmal membranes. However, if one injects thallium by way of the intracoronary route immediately after reperfusion, the initial uptake of thallium in reperfused myocardium may predominantly represent hyperemic flow and regional thallium counts measured may not be proportional to the mass of viable myocytes. When thallium is injected intravenously during the occlusion phase the degree of redistribution after thrombolysis is proportional to the degree of flow restoration and myocardial viability. When thallium is injected for the first time intravenously immediately after reperfusion, an overestimation of myocardial salvage may occur because of excess thallium uptake in the infarct zone consequent to significant hyperemia. Another approach to myocardial thallium scintigraphy in patients undergoing thrombolytic therapy is to administer two separate intravenous injections before and 24 hours or later after treatment. Finally, patients with acute myocardial infarction who receive intravenous thrombolytic therapy are candidates for predischarge exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy for risk stratification and detection of residual ischemia.
Yamagishi, H; Akioka, K; Takagi, M; Tanaka, A; Takeuchi, K; Yoshikawa, J; Ochi, H
Objective—To investigate the relations between myocardial metabolism and the kinetics of thallium-201 in myocardial scintigraphy. Methods—46 patients within six weeks after the onset of acute myocardial infarction underwent resting myocardial dual isotope, single acquisition, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioiodinated 15-iodophenyl 3-methyl pentadecaenoic acid (BMIPP) and thallium-201, exercise thallium-201 SPECT, and positron emission tomography (PET) using nitrogen-13 ammonia (NH3) and [F18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) under fasting conditions. The left ventricle was divided into nine segments, and the severity of defects was assessed visually. Results—In the resting SPECT, less BMIPP uptake than thallium-201 uptake was observed in all of 40 segments with reverse redistribution of thallium-201, and in 21 of 88 segments with a fixed defect of thallium-201 (p < 0.0001); and more FDG uptake than NH3 uptake (NH3-FDG mismatch) was observed in 35 of 40 segments with reverse redistribution and in 38 of 88 segments with fixed defect (p < 0.0001). Less BMIPP uptake in the resting SPECT was observed in 49 of 54 segments with slow stress redistribution in exercise SPECT, and in nine of 17 segments with rapid stress redistribution (p < 0.0005); NH3-FDG mismatch was observed in 42 of 54 segments with slow stress redistribution and in five of 17 segments with rapid stress redistribution (p < 0.0005). Conclusions—Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy provides information about not only myocardial perfusion and viability but also about myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Keywords: thallium-201 SPECT; BMIPP SPECT; FDG PET; myocardial infarction; redistribution PMID:9764055
Hritani, Abdulwahab; Antoun, Patrick
Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient's choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions. PMID:27516911
Fernández Valadez, E; García y Otero, J M; Escobar, G P; Frutos Rangel, E; Zúñiga Sedano, J; García García, R; Verduzco Bazavilvazo, S; López Aranda, J; López Ruiz, J
Ventricular dysfunction is the most common cause of in-hospital death in patients with acute myocardial infarction. When cardiogenic shock is manifested the mortality is very high. Seven patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction were treated with emergency coronary angioplasty. Four patients required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 2 intraaortic balloon pump support and one femoro-femoral bypass pump support during the coronary angioplasty. The angiography success rate was 86%. Two patients died, one in the catheterization laboratory and the other one 24 hours later. The hospital mortality was 29%. Of the patients who survived 4 are in functional class I and one in functional class II (NYHA). Coronary angioplasty therapy in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction plays a decisive role in the reduction of mortality.
Sáez, P.; Kuhl, E.
Myocardial infarction, commonly known as heart attack, is caused by reduced blood supply and damages the heart muscle because of a lack of oxygen. Myocardial infarction initiates a cascade of biochemical and mechanical events. In the early stages, cardiomyocytes death, wall thinning, collagen degradation, and ventricular dilation are the immediate consequences of myocardial infarction. In the later stages, collagenous scar formation in the infarcted zone and hypertrophy of the non-infarcted zone are auto-regulatory mechanisms to partly correct for these events. Here we propose a computational model for the short-term adaptation after myocardial infarction using the continuum theory of multiplicative growth. Our model captures the effects of cell death initiating wall thinning, and collagen degradation initiating ventricular dilation. Our simulations agree well with clinical observations in early myocardial infarction. They represent a first step towards simulating the progression of myocardial infarction with the ultimate goal to predict the propensity toward heart failure as a function of infarct intensity, location, and size. PMID:26583449
Sáez, P; Kuhl, E
Myocardial infarction, commonly known as heart attack, is caused by reduced blood supply and damages the heart muscle because of a lack of oxygen. Myocardial infarction initiates a cascade of biochemical and mechanical events. In the early stages, cardiomyocytes death, wall thinning, collagen degradation, and ventricular dilation are the immediate consequences of myocardial infarction. In the later stages, collagenous scar formation in the infarcted zone and hypertrophy of the non-infarcted zone are auto-regulatory mechanisms to partly correct for these events. Here we propose a computational model for the short-term adaptation after myocardial infarction using the continuum theory of multiplicative growth. Our model captures the effects of cell death initiating wall thinning, and collagen degradation initiating ventricular dilation. Our simulations agree well with clinical observations in early myocardial infarction. They represent a first step toward simulating the progression of myocardial infarction with the ultimate goal to predict the propensity toward heart failure as a function of infarct intensity, location, and size.
Figueredo, V M
The prognosis for a patient who has survived an acute myocardial infarction depends on three general prognostic factors: (1) residual left ventricular function, (2) remaining viable myocardium at risk (residual ischemia), and (3) presence of substrate for the development of malignant arrhythmias. Multiple clinical and historical factors predict the presence of one or more of these prognostic indicators. Electrocardiographic exercise treadmill testing needs to be done in all patients with uncomplicated infarctions. Guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force are recommended for risk stratification in most patients after acute myocardial infarction.
Ismail, Sahar; Wong, Cynthia; Rajan, Priya; Vidovich, Mladen I
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during pregnancy or the early postpartum period is rare, but can be devastating for both the mother and the fetus. There have been major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndromes in the general population, but there is little consensus on the approach to diagnosis and treatment of pregnant women. This article reviews the literature relating to the pathophysiology of AMI in pregnant patients and the challenges in diagnosis and treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in this unique population. From a cardiologist, maternal-fetal medicine specialist, and anesthesiologist's perspective, we provide recommendations for the diagnosis and management of STEMI occurring during pregnancy.
Perez-Cárceles, M D; Osuna, E; Vieira, D N; Martínez, A; Luna, A
AIMS--To evaluate the efficacy of biochemical parameters in different fluids in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction of different causes, analysed after death. METHODS--The myoglobin concentration and total creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) activities were measured in serum, pericardial fluid, and vitreous humour from seven diagnostic groups of cadavers classified according to the severity of myocardial ischaemia and cause of death. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and myosin were measured only in serum and pericardial fluid, and cathepsin D only in pericardial fluid. Routine haematoxylin and eosin and acridine orange staining were used for microscopy studies of heart tissue. RESULTS--In pericardial fluid there were substantial differences between the different groups with respect to CK, CK-MB, and LDH activities and myosin concentrations. The highest values were found in cases with morphological evidence of myocardial ischaemia. CONCLUSIONS--Biochemical parameters, which reach the pericardial fluid via passive diffusion and ultrafiltration due to a pressure gradient, were thus detectable in this fluid earlier than in serum in cases with myocardial ischaemia. These biochemical parameters may be of use for ruling out myocardial ischaemia in those controversial cases in which reliable morphological findings are lacking. PMID:7745110
Rathbone, B.; Martin, D.; Stephens, J.; Thompson, J. R.; Samani, N. J.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk of myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. METHODS: Serological evidence of H pylori infection was determined in 342 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted into the coronary care unit and in 236 population-based controls recruited from visitors to patients on medical and surgical wards. RESULTS: 206/342 (60.2%) of cases were H pylori positive compared with 132/236 (55.9%) of controls (P = 0.30). Age and sex stratified odds ratio for myocardial infarction associated with H pylori seropositivity was 1.05 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.53, P = 0.87) and this remained non-significant (P = 0.46) when other risk factors for ischaemic heart disease were taken into account using logistic regression analysis. H pylori seropositivity was not associated with several coronary risk factors in either cases or controls. CONCLUSION: No increase was found in H pylori seropositivity in subjects with acute myocardial infarction. This suggests that previous H pylori infection is not a major risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. Images PMID:8983674
Steiness, E; Bille-Brahe, N E; Hansen, J F; Lomholt, N; Ring-Larsen, H
The myocardial blood flow was measured by the 133Xenon disappearance curve from the left ventricular wall following an injection of 133Xenon in the left coronary artery in 8 dogs without digoxin pretreatment and in 8 chronically digitalized dogs. The myocardial blood flow was significantly less (30%) in the digitalized dogs than in the dogs without pretreatment. In the digitalized dogs as well as in those without pretreatment an intravenous injection of digoxin resulted in a further significant decrease of the myocardial blood flow of about 20% and a significant increase of the coronary vascular resistance. The reduced myocardial blood flow both during acute and chronic digitalization is beleived to be of clinical importance.
Sikri, Nikhil; Bardia, Amit
A serendipitous discovery by William Smith Tillett in 1933, followed by many years of work with his student Sol Sherry, laid a sound foundation for the use of streptokinase as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. The drug found initial clinical application in combating fibrinous pleural exudates, hemothorax, and tuberculous meningitis. In 1958, Sherry and others started using streptokinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction and changed the focus of treatment from palliation to “cure.” Initial trials that used streptokinase infusion produced conflicting results. An innovative approach of intracoronary streptokinase infusion was initiated by Rentrop and colleagues in 1979. Subsequently, larger trials of intracoronary infusion achieved reperfusion rates ranging from 70% to 90%. The need for a meticulously planned and systematically executed randomized multicenter trial was fulfilled by the Gruppo Italiano per la Sperimentazione della Streptochinasi nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI) trial in 1986, which not only validated streptokinase as an effective therapeutic method but also established a fixed protocol for its use in acute myocardial infarction. Currently, despite the wide use of tissue plasminogen activator in developed nations, streptokinase remains essential to the management of acute myocardial infarction in developing nations. PMID:17948083
Wysoczanski, Mariusz; Rachko, Maurice; Bergmann, Steven R
Anabolic-androgenic steroids are used worldwide to help athletes gain muscle mass and strength. Their use and abuse is associated with numerous side effects, including acute myocardial infarction (MI). We report a case of MI in a young 31-year-old bodybuilder. Because of the serious cardiovascular complications of anabolic steroids, physicians should be aware of their abuse and consequences.
Romero Ibarra, C; Bueno Campaña, M; Barriuso Lapresa, L M; de Miguel Medina, C; Maraví Poma, E
We present the case of a child five and half years-old that died suddenly due to an acute myocardial infarction. The anatomopathological study showed a total obstruction of the left coronary ostium by mixoide dysplasia of the aortic valve. We revise the literature and briefly expose the more frequent causes of infarction in infancy.
Joshi, Nikhil V; Toor, Iqbal; Shah, Anoop S V; Carruthers, Kathryn; Vesey, Alex T; Alam, Shirjel R; Sills, Andrew; Hoo, Teng Y; Melville, Adam J; Langlands, Sarah P; Jenkins, William S A; Uren, Neal G; Mills, Nicholas L; Fletcher, Alison M; van Beek, Edwin J R; Rudd, James H F; Fox, Keith A A; Dweck, Marc R; Newby, David E
Background Preclinical data suggest that an acute inflammatory response following myocardial infarction (MI) accelerates systemic atherosclerosis. Using combined positron emission and computed tomography, we investigated whether this phenomenon occurs in humans. Methods and Results Overall, 40 patients with MI and 40 with stable angina underwent thoracic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose combined positron emission and computed tomography scan. Radiotracer uptake was measured in aortic atheroma and nonvascular tissue (paraspinal muscle). In 1003 patients enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events, we assessed whether infarct size predicted early (≤30 days) and late (>30 days) recurrent coronary events. Compared with patients with stable angina, patients with MI had higher aortic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (tissue-to-background ratio 2.15±0.30 versus 1.84±0.18, P<0.0001) and plasma C-reactive protein concentrations (6.50 [2.00 to 12.75] versus 2.00 [0.50 to 4.00] mg/dL, P=0.0005) despite having similar aortic (P=0.12) and less coronary (P=0.006) atherosclerotic burden and similar paraspinal muscular 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (P=0.52). Patients with ST-segment elevation MI had larger infarcts (peak plasma troponin 32 300 [10 200 to >50 000] versus 3800 [1000 to 9200] ng/L, P<0.0001) and greater aortic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (2.24±0.32 versus 2.02±0.21, P=0.03) than those with non–ST-segment elevation MI. Peak plasma troponin concentrations correlated with aortic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (r=0.43, P=0.01) and, on multivariate analysis, independently predicted early (tertile 3 versus tertile 1: relative risk 4.40 [95% CI 1.90 to 10.19], P=0.001), but not late, recurrent MI. Conclusions The presence and extent of MI is associated with increased aortic atherosclerotic inflammation and early recurrent MI. This finding supports the hypothesis that acute MI exacerbates systemic atherosclerotic inflammation and remote plaque destabilization
Kook, Hyun Yi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Oh, Sangeun; Yoo, Sung-Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Ju Han; Chai, Leem Soon; Kim, Young Jo; Kim, Chong Jin; Chan Cho, Myeong
Although the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Korea has been rapidly changed because of westernization of diet, lifestyle, and aging of the population, the recent trend of the myocardial infarction have not been reported by classification. We investigated recent trends in the incidence and mortality associated with the 2 major types of AMI. We reviewed 39,978 patients registered in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry for either ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) from 2006 to 2013. When the rate for AMI were investigated according to each year, the incidence rates of STEMI decreased markedly from 60.5% in 2006 to 48.1% in 2013 (p <0.001). In contrast, a gradual increase in the incidence rates of NSTEMI was observed from 39.5% in 2006 to 51.9% in 2013 (p <0.001). As risk factors, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were much more common in patients with NSTEMI than STEMI. Among medical treatments, the use of β blockers, angiotensin receptor blocker, and statin were increased from 2006 to 2013 in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. Patients with STEMI and NSTEMI were more inclined to be increasingly treated by invasive treatments with percutaneous coronary intervention. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the trend of myocardial infarction has been changed rapidly in the aspect of risk factors, ratio of STEMI versus NSTEMI, and therapeutic strategies during the recent 8 years in Korea.
Topaz, On; Luxenberg, Michael; Schumacher, Audrey
Patients who sustain complicated acute myocardial infarction in whom thrombolytic agents either fail or are contraindicated often need mechanical revascularization other than PTCA. In 24 patients with acute infarction complicated by continuous chest pain and ischemia who either received lytics or with contraindication to lytics, a holmium:YAG laser (Eclipse Surgical Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) was utilized for thrombolysis and plaque ablation. Clinical success was achieved in 23/24 patients, with 23 patients (94%) surviving the acute infarction. Holmium:YAG laser is very effective and safe in thrombolysis and revascularization in this complicated clinical setting.
Curcio Ruigómez, A; Martín Jiménez, J; Wilhelmi Ayza, M; Soria Delgado, J L
We present a case of double post acute myocardial infarction complication: ventricular septal defect and acute and severe mitral insufficiency. As a consequence of the delay in the diagnosis, the patient developed pulmonary hypertension with values at the systemic level. The patient underwent surgery in order to close the ventricular septal defect and aneurysmectomy, resulting in posterior regression of mitral insufficiency and pulmonary circuit values became normal. The ethology, diagnosis, evolution and treatment of this exceptional association of acute post myocardial infarction complications are discussed.
Wei, Jingkai; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola
Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task), and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS), obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores. Results There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30), p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56), p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress. Conclusion Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological) stress. PMID:25061993
Popma, J J; Chuang, Y C; Satler, L F; Kleiber, B; Leon, M B
In some patients with acute myocardial infarction, thrombolytic therapy may be limited by its failure to reperfuse the occluded artery, by recurrent ischemia (despite initially successful reperfusion), and by major hemorrhagic complications. Primary coronary angioplasty may circumvent these limitations. This article reviews the results of primary angioplasty reported in patients with myocardial infarction and makes recommendations for its use. The review includes pertinent articles found in the English language literature from July 1987 to July 1993 on MEDLINE. Nonrandomized series of primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction have demonstrated high procedural success rates (86% to 99%) and infrequent recurrent ischemia (4%). Two randomized trials comparing primary angioplasty and thrombolytic therapy have shown that primary angioplasty results in lower mortality, less recurrent ischemia, shorter length of hospital stay, and improved left ventricular function. Two other randomized studies have shown little benefit from primary angioplasty on myocardial salvage, recurrent ischemia, or ventricular function. One major limitation of primary angioplasty is that it requires 24-hour availability of a catheterization laboratory and experienced surgical personnel. Primary angioplasty may be the preferred approach in patients with extensive myocardial infarction who have immediate (< 120 min) access to a cardiac catheterization laboratory with experienced personnel. Patients having 1) contraindications to thrombolytic therapy, 2) cardiogenic shock, 3) prior coronary bypass surgery, or 4) "stuttering" onset of pain may also benefit from primary angioplasty. Poor candidates for this procedure are those with a small myocardial infarction, those in whom undue delays in access to a cardiac catheterization facility would be expected, or those with complex coronary anatomy, including left main coronary artery disease. PMID:8061539
Li, Yu-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qian; Li, Yuan-Xin; Feng, Quan-Zhou; Zhu, Ping
Acute myocardial infarction complicated by bleeding colon tumor is problematic with regard to management, and appropriate balance of antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy and hemostasis or surgery is crucial for effective treatment. Here, we present a case of concomitant acute myocardial infarction and bleeding tumor in the transverse colon, and share our experience of successfully balancing anticoagulation therapy and hemostasis. PMID:26937182
Casado Dones, Ma J; de Andrés Gimeno, B; Moreno González, C; Fernández Balcones, C; Cruz Martín, R Ma; Colmenar García, C
We as nurses in the Coronary Unit we do not see the sexuality of the patients sufficiently addressed neither by us nor by the patients themselves. In this article we are trying to analize the reasons and to emphasize the need to include this subject in our Nursing Problem List. In it we explaine the fears and the wrong ideas that we have identified in our patients. The sexual function is not affected by a myocardial infarction but psychological factors, age, drugs and other associated diseases might be a reason. A quiet enviroment, a fit training plan and looking for personalise proper alternatives may help the patient to start a satisfactory sexual life again.
Godkar, Darshan; Stensby, Jessica; Sinnapunayagam, Selvaratnam; Niranjan, Selva
We describe the case of a 51-year-old female with no risk factors for coronary artery disease who had an episode of a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in association with an overdose of Venlafaxine. Cardiac catheterization revealed normal coronary arteries. Because no other obvious exacerbating factors for ischemia were observed, we assume that this drug may have contributed to the development of an acute ischemic event because of its pharmacologic properties.
Fornet, I; Calvo, M; Gimeno, M; Canser, E; Alonso, E; Gilsanz, F
Ritodrine, a beta2-adrenergic agonist with a selective effect on the uterine muscle, is prescribed to prevent premature labor and to treat a hypertonic uterus. At therapeutic doses ritodrine has chronotropic and peripheral vasodilator effects. At high doses it has been related to sporadic cases of subendocardial necrosis, pulmonary edema, and death in pregnancy. We report the case of a pregnant woman who had a non-Q wave acute myocardial infarction after administration of ritodrine.
Akinci, Sinan; Arslan, Uğur; Karakurt, Kamber; Cengel, Atiye
An unusual type of food poisoning is commonly seen in the Black Sea coast of Turkey due to grayanotoxin containing toxic honey so called "mad honey" ingestion. In cases of toxication bradycardia and rhythm disturbances are commonly observed. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was admitted to the hospital because of acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries after "mad honey" ingestion.
D’Aloia, Antonio; Vizzardi, Enrico; Bugatti, Silvia; Magatelli, Marco; Bonadei, Ivano; Rovetta, Riccardo; Quinzani, Filippo; Curnis, Antonio; Cas, Livio Dei
We describe a case of a 54 years old man in whom an initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) revealed to be finally an acute aortic dissection. This case report stresses the importance to maintain a high grade of suspicion of aortic dissection as a possible alternative in presence of eletrocardiographic myocardial ischemic signs. In many medical centers where thrombolitic therapy, antiplatelets receptor blockers, heparin or percutaneous coronary angioplasty is the first line therapy for ACS the outcome may be catastrophic in situation such as aortic dissection.
Ressl, J; Jandová, R; Jebavý, P; Kasalický, J; Widimský, J
Left ventricular function was investigated at rest and during exercise by heart catheterization in 15 patients 3-5 months after acute myocardial infarction. The effect of 1 mg digoxin i.v. in ten patients was correlated to placebo (saline solution) in five patients. A significant decrease of the left ventricular enddiastolic pressure, increase of left ventricular systolic ejection fraction and a shift of the left ventricular function curve to left upwards was found after digoxin with no changes in the placebo group. This beneficial effect of acute digitalization in patients convalescing from uncomplicated myocardial infarction without clinical signs of manifest heart failure could have therapeutic implication.
Leclercq, F; Messner-Pellenc, P; Descours, Q; Daures, J; Pasquie, J; Hager, F; Davy, J; Grolleau-Raoux, R
OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow by myocardial contrast echocardiography after myocardial infarction. DESIGN—Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed in patients with acute myocardial infarction shortly after successful coronary reperfusion (TIMI 3 patency) by direct angioplasty. Collateral flow was assessed before coronary angioplasty, and contrast reflow was evaluated 15 minutes after reperfusion. The presence of contractile reserve was assessed by low dose dobutamine echocardiography (5 to 15 µg/kg/min) at (mean (SD)) 3 (2) days after myocardial infarction. Recovery of segmental function (myocardial viability) was evaluated by resting echocardiography at a two month follow up. The study was prospective. PATIENTS—35 consecutive patients referred for acute transmural myocardial infarction. RESULTS—Contrast reflow was observed in 20 patients (57%) and collateral flow in 14 (40%). Contrast reflow and collateral contrast flow were both correlated with reversible dysfunction on initial dobutamine echocardiography and at follow up (p < 0.05). The presence of reflow or collateral flow on myocardial contrast echocardiography was a highly sensitive (100%) but weakly specific (60%) indicator of segmental dysfunction recovery. Simultaneous presence of contrast reflow and collateral flow was more specific of reversible dysfunction than reflow alone (90% v 60%). CONCLUSIONS—Combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow enhanced the sensitivity of myocardial contrast echocardiography in predicting myocardial viability after acute, reperfused myocardial infarction. The simultaneous presence of reflow and collateral blood flow was highly specific of recovery of segmental dysfunction. Keywords: contrast echocardiography; coronary reflow; collateral blood flow; dobutamine echocardiography; myocardial dysfunction PMID:10377311
Wang, Chuang; Wang, Shao-Xin; Dong, Ping-Shuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Duan, Na-Na; Wang, Yan-Yu; Wang, Ke; Li, Zhuan-Zhen; Wei, Li-Juan; Meng, Ya-Li; Cheng, Jian-Xin
The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model in Chinese miniswine was built by percutaneous coronary artery occlusion. Pathological observation of AMI was performed, and the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the infarct sites was detected at different days after modeling in Chinese miniswine. The experimental findings may be used as the basis for blood flow reconstruction and intervention after AMI. Seven experimental Chinese miniswine were subjected to general anesthesia and Seldinger right femoral artery puncture. After coronary angiography, the gelfoam was injected via the microtube to occlude the obtuse marginal branch (OM branch). At 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 10 d, 14 d and 17 d after modeling, hetatoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed to observe the pathological changes and to detect the expression of TNF-α in the myocardial tissues. Cytoplasmic acidophilia of the necrotic myocardial tissues at 1 d after modeling was enhanced, and cytoplasmic granules were formed; at 3 d, the margins of the necrotic myocardial tissues were infiltrated by a large number of inflammatory cells; at 5 d, the nuclei of the necrotic myocardial cells were fragmented; at 7 d, extensive granulation tissues were formed at the margin of the necrotic myocardial tissues; at 10 d, part of the granulation tissues were replaced by fibrous scar tissues; at 14-17 d, all granulation tissues were replaced by fibrous scar tissues. Immunohistochemical detection indicated that no TNF-α expression in normal myocardial tissues. The TNF-α expression was first detected at 3 d in the necrotic myocardial tissues and then increased at 5 d and 7 d. After reaching the peak at 10 d, the expression began to decrease at 14 d and the decrease continued at 17 d. Coronary angiography showed the disappearance of blood flow at the distal end of OM branch occluded by gelfoam, indicating that AMI model was constructed successfully. The repair of the infarcted myocardium began at 10-17 d after
Bahbahani, Hussain; Aljenaee, Khaled; Bella, Abdelhaleem
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is usually seen in the setting of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors. Myocardial infarction in the young poses a particular challenge, as the disease is less likely, due to atherosclerosis. We report the case of a 37-year-old female patient who presented with ST segment elevation anterolateral AMI. The only abnormality on routine blood investigation was raised hemoglobin and hematocrit. After further testing, she was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria with polycythemia vera. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing polycythemia vera as an important cause of thrombosis, which can present initially as AMI, and to emphasize the early recognition of the disease in order to initiate appropriate management strategies. PMID:25544823
Garcia, Larissa Ferraz; Mataveli, Fábio D’Aguiar; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva
Objective Evaluate the effects of VEGF165 gene transfer in the process of remodeling of the extracellular matrix after an acute myocardial infarct. Methods Wistar rats were submitted to myocardial infarction, after the ligation of the left descending artery, and the left ventricle ejection fraction was used to classify the infarcts into large and small. The animals were divided into groups of ten, according to the size of infarcted area (large or small), and received or not VEGF165 treatment. Evaluation of different markers was performed using immunohistochemistry and digital quantification. The primary antibodies used in the analysis were anti-fibronectin, anti-vimentin, anti-CD44, anti-E-cadherin, anti-CD24, anti-alpha-1-actin, and anti-PCNA. The results were expressed as mean and standard error, and analyzed by ANOVA, considering statistically significant if p≤0.05. Results There was a significant increase in the expression of undifferentiated cell markers, such as fibronectin (protein present in the extracellular matrix) and CD44 (glycoprotein present in the endothelial cells). However, there was decreased expression of vimentin and PCNA, indicating a possible decrease in the process of cell proliferation after treatment with VEGF165. Markers of differentiated cells, E-cadherin (adhesion protein between myocardial cells), CD24 (protein present in the blood vessels), and alpha-1-actin (specific myocyte marker), showed higher expression in the groups submitted to gene therapy, compared to non-treated group. The value obtained by the relation between alpha-1-actin and vimentin was approximately three times higher in the groups treated with VEGF165, suggesting greater tissue differentiation. Conclusion The results demonstrated the important role of myocytes in the process of tissue remodeling, confirming that VEGF165 seems to provide a protective effect in the treatment of acute myocardial infarct. PMID:25993074
Zhou, M X; Fu, J H; Zhang, Q; Wang, J Q
This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroxy safflower yellow A (HSYA) on myocardial apoptosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats. We randomly divided 170 male Wistar rats into 6 groups (N = 23): normal control, sham, control, SY (90 mg/kg), HSYA high-dose (HSYA-H, 40 mg/kg), and HSYA low-dose groups (HSYA-L, 20 mg/kg). Myocardial ischemic injury was induced by ligating the anterior descending coronary artery, and the degree of myocardial ischemia was evaluated using electrocardiography and nitroblue tetrazolium staining. Bax and Bcl-2 expressions in the ischemic myocardium were determined using immunohistochemical analysis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression in the myocardium of rats with AMI was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Compared to rats in the control group, those in the HYSA-H, HSYA-L, and SY groups showed a decrease in the elevated ST segments and an increase in the infarct size. The rats in the drug-treated groups showed a significantly lower percentage of Bax-positive cells and a significantly higher percentage of Bcl-2-positive cells than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, mRNA expression of PPAR-γ in the ischemic myocardium of rats in the SY, HSYA-L, and HSYA-H groups was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Thus, HSYA and SY can attenuate myocardial ischemia in rats, possibly by increasing the level of Bcl-2/Bax, and PPAR-γ may be not a necessary link in this process.
Zeren, Sezgin; Bayhan, Zülfü; Sönmez, Yalcın; Mestan, Metin; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Kadıoglu, Emine; Ucar, Bercis Imge; Devir, Cigdem; Ekici, Fatih Mehmet; Sanal, Bekir
Spontaneous splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is a rare but a life-threatening condition. Thus, early diagnoses may increase the chance of survival. A 52-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with a pain that starts from the chest and epigastric region and radiates to back and left arm. The patient prediagnosed as having acute myocardial infarct and was under observation when acute abdomen and hemorrhagic shock developed. After further investigation, the patient was diagnosed as having SAA and has undergone a successful surgery. The patient was fully cured and discharged from the hospital on the seventh postoperative day. The patient originally presented with SAA, although she was primarily observed in the emergency department with acute myocardial infarct diagnosis because of similar symptoms and clinical findings to cardiovascular diseases. When changes in the clinical picture occurred, the patient was reevaluated and had undergone an operation because of SAA rupture. Therefore, physicians should take into consideration of aneurysm rupture in the differential diagnosis of the cardiovascular conditions; otherwise, the patient may lose his/her life.
We report our clinical experience with a group of 14 patients who presented with acute myocardial infarction. A holmium:YAG laser was applied to the infarct-related artery. This laser emits 250 - 600 mJ per pulse, with a pulse length of 250 microseconds and repetition rate of 5 Hz. Potential benefits of acute thrombolysis by lasers include the absence of systemic lytic state; a shortened thrombus clearing time relative to using thrombolytics; safe removal of the intracoronary thrombus and facilitation of adjunct balloon angioplasty. Potential clinical difficulties include targeting the obstructive clot and plaque, creation of debris and distal emboli and laser-tissue damage. It is conceivable that holmium:YAG laser can be a successful thrombolytic device as its wave length (2.1 microns) coincides with strong water absorption peaks. Since it is common to find an atherosclerotic plaque located under or distal to the thrombotic occlusion, this laser can also be applied for plaque ablation, and the patient presenting with acute myocardial infarction can clearly benefit from the combined function of this laser system.
Some methodological aspects are discussed of the investigation of acute infarct myocarditis (AIM) in relation to weather fronts. Results of a new method of analysis are given. Data were analysed from about the hour of the onset of symptoms, and led to the diagnosis of AIM either immediately or within a few hours or days (3019 cases observed over 4.5 years during 1982 1986 in Plzen, Czechoslovakia). Weather classification was based on three factors (the type of the foregoing front, the type of the subsequent front, the time section of the time interval demarcated by the passage of the surfaces of the fronts). AIM occurrence increased in particular types of weather fronts: (i) by 30% during 7 12 h after a warm front, if the time span between fronts exceeded 24 h; (ii) by 10% in time at least 36 h distant from the foregoing cold or occlusion front and from the succeeding warm or occlusion front; (iii) by 20% during 0 2 h before the passage of the front, provided the foregoing front was not warm and the interval between fronts exceeded 5 h. AIM occurrence decreased by 15% 20% for time span between fronts > 24 h at times 6 11, 6 23 and 6 35 h before a coming warm or occlusion front (for interfrontal intervals 25 48, 49 72 and possibly > 72 h), and also at 12 23 and possibly 12 35 h before a cold front (for intervals 49 72 and possibly > 72 h), if the foregoing front was cold or an occlusion front.
Bucholz, Emily M.; Rathore, Saif S.; Reid, Kimberly J.; Jones, Philip G.; Chan, Paul S.; Rich, Michael W.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.
Background Previous studies have described an “obesity paradox” with heart failure, whereby higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality. However, little is known about the impact of obesity on survival after acute myocardial infarction. Methods Data from 2 registries of patients hospitalized in the United States with acute myocardial infarction between 2003–04 (PREMIER) and 2005–08 (TRIUMPH) were used to examine the association of BMI with mortality. Patients (n=6359) were categorized into BMI groups (kg/m2) using baseline measurements. Two sets of analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression with fractional polynomials to model BMI as categorical and continuous variables. To assess the independent association of BMI with mortality, analyses were repeated adjusting for 7 domains of patient and clinical characteristics. Results Median BMI was 28.6. BMI was inversely associated with crude 1-year mortality (normal, 9.2%; overweight, 6.1%; obese, 4.7%; morbidly obese; 4.6%; p<0.001), which persisted after multivariable adjustment. When BMI was examined as a continuous variable, the hazards curve declined with increasing BMI and then increased above a BMI of 40. Compared with patients with a BMI of 18.5, patients with higher BMIs had a 20% to 68% lower mortality at 1 year. No interactions between age (p=0.37), gender (p=0.87) or diabetes mellitus (p=0.55) were observed. Conclusions There appears to be an “obesity paradox” among acute myocardial infarction patients such that higher BMI is associated with lower mortality, an effect that was not modified by patient characteristics and was comparable across age, gender, and diabetes subgroups. PMID:22483510
Ljungdahl, L; Gerhardt, W; Hofvendahl, S
The value of serum creatine kinase B subunit activity (CK B) in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was studied in 238 consecutive cases. All were admitted to a coronary care unit because of suspected acute myocardial infarction. Serum CK B activity was determined by an immunoinhibition procedure, using a CK M subunit inhibiting antibody (anti-M). For the evaluation of serum CK B, patients were classified into acute myocardial infarction and non-acute myocardial infarction groups. This classification was based on electrocardiographic findings, on quantitative determinations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total serum creatine kinase (CK) activities, and on qualitative electrophoretic determinations of serum CK and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes. The prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in the patient material was 0.47. Serum CK B subunit activity was found to be a highly selective indicator of acute myocardial infarction with a predictive value of a positive test result of 0.97 and a predictive value of a negative test result of 0.99. The serum CK B activity increased above the acute myocardial infarction discrimination limit within 12 hours from onset of symptoms. Two non-acute myocardial infarction patients, who were resuscitated after cardiac arrest, had increased serum CK B values caused by the transient presence of CK isoenzyme BB in serum. PMID:7378210
de Matos Soeiro, Alexandre; Ruppert, Aline D; Canzian, Mauro; Capelozzi, Vera L; Serrano, Carlos V
OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory failure is present in 5% of patients with acute myocardial infarction and is responsible for 20% to 30% of the fatal post-acute myocardial infarction. The role of inflammation associated with pulmonary edema as a cause of acute respiratory failure post-acute myocardial infarction remains to be determined. We aimed to describe the demographics, etiologic data and histological pulmonary findings obtained through autopsies of patients who died during the period from 1990 to 2008 due to acute respiratory failure with no diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction during life. METHODS: This study considers 4,223 autopsies of patients who died of acute respiratory failure that was not preceded by any particular diagnosis while they were alive. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was given in 218 (4.63%) patients. The age, sex and major associated diseases were recorded for each patient. Pulmonary histopathology was categorized as follows: diffuse alveolar damage, pulmonary edema, alveolar hemorrhage and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial pneumonia. The odds ratio of acute myocardial infarction associated with specific histopathology was determined by logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, 147 men were included in the study. The mean age at the time of death was 64 years. Pulmonary histopathology revealed pulmonary edema as well as the presence of diffuse alveolar damage in 72.9% of patients. Bacterial bronchopneumonia was present in 11.9% of patients, systemic arterial hypertension in 10.1% and dilated cardiomyopathy in 6.9%. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant positive association between acute myocardial infarction with diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary edema. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that in autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure as the cause of death, 5% were diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. Pulmonary histology revealed a significant inflammatory response, which has
Gabbasov, Zufar; Ivanova, Oxana; Kogan-Yasny, Victor; Ryzhkova, Evgeniya; Saburova, Olga; Vorobyeva, Inna; Vasilieva, Elena
It has been found that in 15% of acute myocardial infarction patients' platelets generate reactive oxygen species that can be detected with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of platelet-rich plasma within 8-10 days after acute myocardial infarction. This increase in generate reactive oxygen species production coincides with the emergence of CD45(+) platelets. The ability of platelets to carry surface leukocyte antigen implies their participation in exchange of specific proteins in the course of acute myocardial infarction. Future studies of CD45(+) platelets in peripheral blood of acute myocardial infarction patients in association with generate reactive oxygen species production may provide a new insight into the complex mechanisms of cell-cell interactions associated with acute myocardial infarction.
Li, B; Yang, M; Liu, J W; Yin, G T
To investigate the protective mechanism of quercetin on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rats, an AMI rat model was established by ligating the left coronary anterior descending branch. The rats were randomly divided into the model group and low- and high-dose quercetin groups. The control group comprised sham-operated rats. The rats in the low- and high-dose quercetin groups were administered 100 and 400 mg/kg quercetin, respectively, by gavage. The rats in the control and model groups were administered isometric normal saline once daily for one week. The mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the myocardial tissue of rats were detected in each group by real time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the myocardial tissue and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were detected using a colorimetric method. The level of apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Compared with those in the control group, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA content in the model, low-, and high-dose groups significantly increased. SOD and CAT activities decreased significantly. The cell apoptosis index increased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with those in the model group, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and IL-1β and MDA content in myocardial tissue of rats in the low-dose and high-dose groups decreased significantly. SOD and CAT activities increased significantly. The cell apoptosis index significantly reduced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, quercetin has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects on AMI rats and can effectively protect against myocardium damage.
de Couto, Geoffrey; Liu, Weixin; Tseliou, Eleni; Sun, Baiming; Makkar, Nupur; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Arditi, Moshe; Marbán, Eduardo
Ischemic injury in the heart induces an inflammatory cascade that both repairs damage and exacerbates scar tissue formation. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are a stem-like population that is derived ex vivo from cardiac biopsies; they confer both cardioprotection and regeneration in acute myocardial infarction (MI). While the regenerative effects of CDCs in chronic settings have been studied extensively, little is known about how CDCs confer the cardioprotective process known as cellular postconditioning. Here, we used an in vivo rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury–induced MI and in vitro coculture assays to investigate how CDCs protect stressed cardiomyocytes. Compared with control animals, animals that received CDCs 20 minutes after IR had reduced infarct size when measured at 48 hours. CDCs modified the myocardial leukocyte population after ischemic injury. Specifically, introduction of CDCs reduced the number of CD68+ macrophages, and these CDCs secreted factors that polarized macrophages toward a distinctive cardioprotective phenotype that was not M1 or M2. Systemic depletion of macrophages with clodronate abolished CDC-mediated cardioprotection. Using both in vitro coculture assays and a rat model of adoptive transfer after IR, we determined that CDC-conditioned macrophages attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reduced infarct size, thereby recapitulating the beneficial effects of CDC therapy. Together, our data indicate that CDCs limit acute injury by polarizing an effector macrophage population within the heart. PMID:26214527
de Couto, Geoffrey; Liu, Weixin; Tseliou, Eleni; Sun, Baiming; Makkar, Nupur; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Arditi, Moshe; Marbán, Eduardo
Ischemic injury in the heart induces an inflammatory cascade that both repairs damage and exacerbates scar tissue formation. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are a stem-like population that is derived ex vivo from cardiac biopsies; they confer both cardioprotection and regeneration in acute myocardial infarction (MI). While the regenerative effects of CDCs in chronic settings have been studied extensively, little is known about how CDCs confer the cardioprotective process known as cellular postconditioning. Here, we used an in vivo rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury-induced MI and in vitro coculture assays to investigate how CDCs protect stressed cardiomyocytes. Compared with control animals, animals that received CDCs 20 minutes after IR had reduced infarct size when measured at 48 hours. CDCs modified the myocardial leukocyte population after ischemic injury. Specifically, introduction of CDCs reduced the number of CD68+ macrophages, and these CDCs secreted factors that polarized macrophages toward a distinctive cardioprotective phenotype that was not M1 or M2. Systemic depletion of macrophages with clodronate abolished CDC-mediated cardioprotection. Using both in vitro coculture assays and a rat model of adoptive transfer after IR, we determined that CDC-conditioned macrophages attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reduced infarct size, thereby recapitulating the beneficial effects of CDC therapy. Together, our data indicate that CDCs limit acute injury by polarizing an effector macrophage population within the heart.
Damani, Samir; Bacconi, Andrea; Libiger, Ondrej; Chourasia, Aparajita H.; Serry, Rod; Gollapudi, Raghava; Goldberg, Ron; Rapeport, Kevin; Haaser, Sharon; Topol, Sarah; Knowlton, Sharen; Bethel, Kelly; Kuhn, Peter; Wood, Malcolm; Carragher, Bridget; Schork, Nicholas J.; Jiang, John; Rao, Chandra; Connelly, Mark; Fowler, Velia M.; Topol, Eric J.
Acute myocardial infarction (MI), which involves the rupture of existing atheromatous plaque, remains highly unpredictable despite recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. Accordingly, a biomarker that can predict an impending MI is desperately needed. Here, we characterize circulating endothelial cells (CECs) using the first automated and clinically feasible CEC 3-channel fluorescence microscopy assay in 50 consecutive patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 44 consecutive healthy controls. CEC counts were significantly elevated in MI cases versus controls with median numbers of 19 and 4 cells/ml respectively (p = 1.1 × 10−10). A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated an area under the ROC curve of 0.95, suggesting near dichotomization of MI cases versus controls. We observed no correlation between CECs and typical markers of myocardial necrosis (ρ=0.02, CK-MB; ρ=−0.03, troponin). Morphologic analysis of the microscopy images of CECs revealed a 2.5-fold increase (P<0.0001) in cellular area and 2-fold increase (P<0.0001) in nuclear area of MI CECs versus healthy control, age-matched CECs, as well as CECs obtained from patients with preexisting peripheral vascular disease. The distribution of CEC images containing from 2 up to 10 nuclei demonstrates that MI patients are the only group to contain more than 3 nuclei/image, indicating that multi-cellular and multi-nuclear clusters are specific for acute MI. These data indicate that CECs may serve as promising biomarkers for the prediction of atherosclerotic plaque rupture events. PMID:22440735
Pitt, B.; Thrall, J.H.
Thallium-201 myocardial imaging is of value in the early detection and evaluation of patients with suspected acute infarction. Thallium imaging may have a special value in characterizing patients with cardiogenic shock and in detecting patients at risk for subsequent infarction or death or death or both, before hospital discharge. Approximately 95 percent of pateints with transmural or nontransmural myocardial infarction can be detected with technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial imaging if the imaging is performed 24 to 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Pyrophosphate imaging may have an important role in the evaluation of patients during the early follow-up period after hospital discharge from an episode of acute infarction. The finding of a persistently positive pyrophosphate image suggests a poor prognosis and is associated with a relatively large incidence of subsequent myocardial infarction and death.
Jin, Jiyang; Chen, Min; Li, Yongjun; Wang, YaLing; Zhang, Shijun; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Ju, Shenghong
We used a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction to study the signal evolution of ischemic myocardium on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DWI). Eight Chinese miniature pigs underwent percutaneous left anterior descending or left circumflex coronary artery occlusion for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion, which induced acute myocardial infarction. We used DWI preprocedurally and hourly for 4 hours postprocedurally. We acquired turbo inversion recovery magnitude T2-weighted images (TIRM T2WI) and late gadolinium enhancement images from the DWI slices. We measured the serum myocardial necrosis markers myoglobin, creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme, and cardiac troponin I at the same time points as the magnetic resonance scanning. We used histochemical staining to confirm injury. All images were analyzed qualitatively. Contrast-to-noise ratio (the contrast between infarcted and healthy myocardium) and relative signal index were used in quantitative image analysis. We found that DWI identified myocardial signal abnormity early (<4 hr) after acute myocardial infarction and identified the infarct-related high signal more often than did TIRM T2WI: 7 of 8 pigs (87.5%) versus 3 of 8 (37.5%) (P=0.046). Quantitative image analysis yielded a significant difference in contrast-to-noise ratio and relative signal index between infarcted and normal myocardium on DWI. However, within 4 hours after infarction, the serologic myocardial injury markers were not significantly positive. We conclude that DWI can be used to detect myocardial signal abnormalities early after acute myocardial infarction-identifying the infarction earlier than TIRM T2WI and widely used clinical serologic biomarkers.
Chen, Min; Li, Yongjun; Wang, YaLing; Zhang, Shijun; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Ju, Shenghong
We used a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction to study the signal evolution of ischemic myocardium on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DWI). Eight Chinese miniature pigs underwent percutaneous left anterior descending or left circumflex coronary artery occlusion for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion, which induced acute myocardial infarction. We used DWI preprocedurally and hourly for 4 hours postprocedurally. We acquired turbo inversion recovery magnitude T2-weighted images (TIRM T2WI) and late gadolinium enhancement images from the DWI slices. We measured the serum myocardial necrosis markers myoglobin, creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme, and cardiac troponin I at the same time points as the magnetic resonance scanning. We used histochemical staining to confirm injury. All images were analyzed qualitatively. Contrast-to-noise ratio (the contrast between infarcted and healthy myocardium) and relative signal index were used in quantitative image analysis. We found that DWI identified myocardial signal abnormity early (<4 hr) after acute myocardial infarction and identified the infarct-related high signal more often than did TIRM T2WI: 7 of 8 pigs (87.5%) versus 3 of 8 (37.5%) (P=0.046). Quantitative image analysis yielded a significant difference in contrast-to-noise ratio and relative signal index between infarcted and normal myocardium on DWI. However, within 4 hours after infarction, the serologic myocardial injury markers were not significantly positive. We conclude that DWI can be used to detect myocardial signal abnormalities early after acute myocardial infarction—identifying the infarction earlier than TIRM T2WI and widely used clinical serologic biomarkers. PMID:27777517
REN, MANYI; ZHANG, CHUNSHENG; ZHANG, XIAOJUAN; ZHONG, JINGQUAN
A number of cases of acute myopericarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have previously been reported in the literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, such a case resulting from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has not previously been described. The present study reports the case of a 21-year-old male patient presenting with acute chest pain, in whom focal ST-segment elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes mimicked a diagnosis of AMI. However, acute tuberculous myopericarditis was diagnosed on the basis of a variety of imaging examinations, laboratory tests, as well as the changes observed in electrocardiograms (ECGs) and in the cardiac enzyme levels. The case highlights the importance of a detailed collection of medical history, comprehensive explanations of serial ECGs, thoracic computed tomography, echocardiogram and coronary angiography in the diagnosis and differentiation of acute tuberculous myopericarditis mimicking AMI. PMID:27284323
Dhillon, Sandeep K; Lee, Edwin; Fox, John; Rachko, Maurice
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is rare. We describe a case of AMI in patient with ITP. An 81-year-old woman presented with acute inferoposterior MI with low platelet count on admission (34,000/µl). Coronary angiography revealed significant mid right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis with thrombus, subsequently underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In some patients with immune thrombocytopenia purpura and acute myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention is a therapeutic option.
Paventi, S; Bevilacqua, U; Parafati, M A; Di Luzio, E; Rossi, F; Pelliccioni, P R
It has been suggested that QT dispersion (maximal minus minimal QT interval calculated on a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram) could reflect regional variations of ventricular repolarization and could provide a substrate for reentry ventricular arrhythmias. The present study evaluates QT dispersion in patients with acute myocardial infarction, assessing its relation with early severe ventricular arrhythmias and some clinical features. Three hundred three patients with acute myocardial infarction and a control group of 297 healthy subjects were studied. QT and QTc dispersion were determined on the electrocardiogram taken after 12 hours and on days 3 and 10 after symptoms onset and on the electrocardiogram taken in the control group. The average values of QT and QTc dispersions (ms) were as follows: 70.5 +/- 42.5-87 +/- 45.6 (12th hour), 66.7 +/- 37.6-76.8 +/- 43.6 (day 3), 68.8 +/- 42.7-76.8 +/- 42.8 (day 10), versus 43 +/- 13.2-53.9 +/- 16.2 (control group). There were statistically significant differences between QT and QTc dispersion recorded in normal subjects and in each of the three electrocardiograms taken in patients with infarction. A greater QT dispersion was recorded in patients with anterior infarction (78.9 +/- 38.5 vs 64.9 +/- 42.8 in inferior/lateral infarction). In the first 3 days QT dispersion was not different in patients treated and untreated with thrombolysis, whereas on day 10 it was greater in untreated patients (74.9 +/- 45.3 vs 60.5 +/- 37.2). Creatine kinase peak level did not influence QT dispersion. In the first 72 hours of infarction, 37 patients developed ventricular fibrillation or sustained ventricular tachycardia. Higher early values of QT and QTc dispersion were found in patients who developed severe ventricular arrhythmias (107.8 +/- 62 and 124.8 +/- 67.5 ms) than in patients without serious arrhythmias (62.9 +/- 32.2 and 80.1 +/- 37.9 ms). These data suggest that: (1) QT dispersion increased during acute myocardial infarction. (2
Ruder, Thomas D; Ebert, Lars C; Khattab, Ahmed A; Rieben, Robert; Thali, Michael J; Kamat, Pranitha
The aim of this study was to investigate if acute myocardial infarction can be detected by post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMMR) at an earlier stage than by traditional autopsy, i.e., within less than 4 h after onset of ischemia; and if so, to determine the characteristics of PMMR findings in early acute infarcts. Twenty-one ex vivo porcine hearts with acute myocardial infarction underwent T2-weighted cardiac PMMR imaging within 3 h of onset of iatrogenic ischemia. PMMR imaging findings were compared to macroscopic findings. Myocardial edema induced by ischemia and reperfusion was visible on PMMR in all cases. Typical findings of early acute ischemic injury on PMMR consist of a central zone of intermediate signal intensity bordered by a rim of increased signal intensity. Myocardial edema can be detected on cardiac PMMR within the first 3 h after the onset of ischemia in porcine hearts. The size of myocardial edema reflects the area of ischemic injury in early acute (per-acute) myocardial infarction. This study provides evidence that cardiac PMMR is able to detect acute myocardial infarcts at an earlier stage than traditional autopsy and routine histology.
Fletcher, J.W.; Mueller, H.S.; Rao, P.S.
Three sequential Tl-201 myocardial perfusion studies were performed in 21 patients (18 men, 3 women) with first acute transmural myocardia infarction. The Tl-201 image defect size was determined with a semiquantitative visual scoring method and temporal changes in image defect size were compared to CK-MB infarct size and enzymatic evidence of progressive myocardial necrosis and infarct extension. Progressive decreases in Tl-201 image defect size were observed and the visual score in all 21 patients decreased significantly from 6.5 +- 3.7 (mean +- SD) on day 1 to 4.9 +- 3.5 on day 12. Eleven patients without evidence of infarct extension had significantly lower infarct size, a significant decrease in visual score by the 12th day and had significantly smaller Tl-201 defects at all three study times compared to 10 patients with infarct extension. Seven of 10 (70%) with extension had an initial visual score greater than or equal to 7 compared to only 2/11 (18%) without extension. The temporal behavior of Tl-201 image defects is related to the size of the infarction and presence or absence of extension. Sequential studies comparing early initial and subsequent defect size may assist in evaluating the behavior of ischemic and infarcted myocardium in the postinfarction period.
Amritsar, Jeetender; Stiharu, Ion G.; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Balagopal, Ganesharam; Li, Xing
Biomedical applications of MOEMS are limited only by the mankind imagination. Precision measurements on minute amounts of biological material could be performed by optical means with a remarkable accuracy. Although available in medical laboratories for general purposes, such analyzers are making their way directly to the users in the form of dedicated equipment. Such an example is a test kit to detect the existence of cardiac enzymes in the blood stream. Apart from the direct users, the medical personnel will make use of such tools given the practicality of the kit. In a large proportion of patients admitted to the hospital suspected of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), the symptoms and electrocardiographic changes are inconclusive. This necessitates the use of biochemical markers of myocardial damage for correct exclusion or conformation of AMI. In this study the concept of MOEMS is applied for the detection of enzyme reaction, in which glass spectrums are scanned optically when enzyme molecules adsorb on their surface. This paper presents the optical behavior of glass spectrums under Horseradish Peroxide (HRP) enzyme reaction. The reported experimental results provide valuable information that will be useful in the development of biosensors for enzymatic detection. This paper also reports the dynamic behavior of different glass spectrums.
Dinicolantonio, James J; Niazi, Asfandyar K; McCarty, Mark F; Lavie, Carl J; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; O'Keefe, James H
Although the therapeutic strategies available for treating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have evolved dramatically in recent decades, coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of death in our society, and the rates of recurrent myocardial infarction and mortality are still unacceptably high. Therefore, exploration of alternative therapeutic strategies for AMI is of utmost importance. One such strategy is to target metabolic pathways via L-carnitine supplementation. L-carnitine is a physiologically essential metabolic cofactor that has been shown to provide a plethora of benefits when administered after AMI. L-carnitine has been shown to lessen infarct size, to reduce ventricular arrhythmias, left ventricular dilation, and heart failure incidence, as well as improve survival. These benefits may, in part, be related to its ability to boost glucose oxidation in ischemic tissues, while moderating increases in fatty acyl-coenzyme A levels that can impair mitochondrial efficiency and promote oxidative stress and inflammation. This article summarizes the evidence pertinent to the therapeutic use of L-carnitine for AMI.
Özkurt, Zübeyde N; Aypar, Eda; Sarifakiogullari, Serpil; Taçoy, Gülten; Özdag, Murat; Kahraman, Seda; Çengel, Atiye
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has one of the most favorable prognoses among other leukemia subtypes. However, the major cause of mortality in APL is disseminated intravascular coagulation at the presentation. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction (MI) at the time of APL diagnosis before treatment. The patient suffered from chest pain, sweating and giddiness. He was hypoxic, hypotensive and bradycardic. ECG showed inferior MI. Unfractioned heparin infusion (850 U/h) was started and 5 min after the previous ECG showed total ST resolution. We suggest that in this case, MI was not related to atherosclerotic plaque rupture but related to DIC manifestation.
Noureddine, Samar; Dumit, Nuhad Y; Saab, Mohammad
The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore how patients who experience acute myocardial infarction (AMI) decide to seek emergency care. Fifty patients with AMI were interviewed at two hospitals in Lebanon. The perspective of 22 witnesses of the attack was also sought about the cardiac event. The themes that transpired from the data were as follows: making sense of the symptoms, waiting to see what happens, deciding to come to the hospital, and the family influenced the decision to seek care. The witnesses of the cardiac event, mostly family members, supported the decision to seek emergency care. Deciding to seek emergency care for AMI is complex. Nurses must solicit their patients' perception of the cardiac event to provide them with tailored education and counseling about heart attack symptoms and how to respond to them in case they recur. Family members must be included in the education process.
Tu, Yan; Zeng, Qing-Chun; Huang, Ying; Li, Jian-Yong
Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Current evidences suggest that revascularization of the culprit vessels with percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting can be beneficial for relieving IMR. A 2.5-year follow-up data of a 61-year-old male patient with ST-segment elevation AMI complicated with IMR showed that mitral regurgitation area increased five days after PCI, and decreased to lower steady level three months after PCI. This finding suggest that three months after PCI might be a suitable time point for evaluating the possibility of IMR recovery and the necessity of surgical intervention of the mitral valve for AMI patient. PMID:27582769
Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Weng, Guo-Xing; Chen, Rong
Raman spectroscopy is a rapidly non-invasive technique with great potential for biomedical research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on two groups of saliva samples: one group from patients (n=30) with confirmed AMI and the other group from healthy controls (n=31). The diagnostic performance for differentiating AMI saliva from normal saliva was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) of the measured Raman spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps, rendering the sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 80.6%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy of human saliva can serve as a potentially clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.
Canale, Maria Laura; Camerini, Andrea; Stroppa, Stefano; Porta, Romana Prosperi; Caravelli, Paolo; Mariani, Mario; Balbarini, Alberto; Ricci, Sergio
Cardiac toxicity is an uncommon side-effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment, consisting mainly of chest pain episodes with or without electrocardiographic changes and dysrhythmias. Here, we describe the case of a 56-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of advanced colorectal cancer who developed an acute myocardial infarction during 5-FU infusion. The patient was not affected by prior heart disease and did not show any classic risk factors for coronary heart disease. Coronary angiography examination revealed no evidence of coronary stenosis, supporting the hypothesis of a coronary artery spasm related to 5-FU infusion. Given the great number of cancer patients receiving 5-FU containing chemotherapeutic regimens, this rare but severe cardiac side-effect may be observed in both cardiologic and oncologic clinical practice. We suggest a tight clinical monitoring of all patients receiving 5-FU infusions, even in those without a prior history of heart disease.
Golikov, A P; Davydov, B V; Rudnev, D V; Klychnikova, E V; Bykova, N S; Riabinin, V A; Polumiskov, V Iu; Nikolaeva, N Iu; Golikov, P P
Mexicor (5% solution and capsules) was used in 40 of 80 conventionally treated patients with acute myocardial infarction. The drug was given intravenously for 5 days, than intramuscularly (6-9 mg/kg) for 9 days and orally (0.1 mg t.i.d.) thereafter until discharge. Severity of oxidative stress was evaluated by K coefficient. Calculation of this coefficient required data on degree of oxidation of lipids in blood serum, serum levels of diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin. These parameters as well as activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in erythrocytes were measured at admission, on days 2, 3, 7, 14 and at discharge. Mexicor treated compared with untreated (n=40) patients were characterized by diminished severity of oxidative stress at the account of lower levels of lipid peroxidation products and augmented compensatory potential of the endogenous antioxidant system.
Jurado, Margarita; Porres-Aguilar, Mateo; Olivas-Chacon, Cristina; Porres-Muñoz, Mateo; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Taveras, Juan
Acute myocarditis can be induced by various concomitant disease processes including infections. Most of these cases are viral in origin; however, bacterial infections are also implicated to a lesser degree. Group A streptococcus is a frequent culprit in bacterial-induced myocarditis. Its diagnosis is suspected by the presence of signs and symptoms of rheumatic fever as established by the Jones criteria. The development and refinement of current diagnostic tools has improved our ability to identify specific pathogens. It has been found that group A streptococcus may be responsible for more cases of infection-induced acute myocarditis than previously thought, and often without the clinical features of rheumatic fever. We present the case of a 43-year-old man hospitalized with chest pain that was initially diagnosed as an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Further evaluation confirmed that his chief complaint was due to acute nonrheumatic streptococcal myocarditis. PMID:25829649
Aguirre, Jose L; Jurado, Margarita; Porres-Aguilar, Mateo; Olivas-Chacon, Cristina; Porres-Muñoz, Mateo; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Taveras, Juan
Acute myocarditis can be induced by various concomitant disease processes including infections. Most of these cases are viral in origin; however, bacterial infections are also implicated to a lesser degree. Group A streptococcus is a frequent culprit in bacterial-induced myocarditis. Its diagnosis is suspected by the presence of signs and symptoms of rheumatic fever as established by the Jones criteria. The development and refinement of current diagnostic tools has improved our ability to identify specific pathogens. It has been found that group A streptococcus may be responsible for more cases of infection-induced acute myocarditis than previously thought, and often without the clinical features of rheumatic fever. We present the case of a 43-year-old man hospitalized with chest pain that was initially diagnosed as an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Further evaluation confirmed that his chief complaint was due to acute nonrheumatic streptococcal myocarditis.
Willerson, J. T.; Parkey, R. W.; Bonte, F. J.; Stokely, E. M.; Buja, E. M.
The ability of technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams to aid diagnostically in recognizing, localizing, and identifying extension of acute myocardial infarction in patients was evaluated. The present study is an extension of previous animal and patient evaluations that were recently performed utilizing this myocardial imaging agent.
Qian, Yuanyu; Liu, Jie; Ma, Jinling; Meng, Qingyi; Peng, Chaoying
In the present study, the effect of initial body temperature changes on myocardial enzyme levels and cardiac function in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients was investigated. A total of 315 AMI patients were enrolled and the mean temperature was calculated based on their body temperature within 24 h of admission to hospital. The patients were divided into four groups according to their normal body temperature: Group A, <36.5°C; group B, ≥36.5°C and <37.0°C; group C, ≥37.0°C and <37.5°C and group D, ≥37.5°C. The levels of percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial enzymes and troponin T (TNT), as well as cardiac ultrasound images, were analyzed. Statistically significant differences in the quantity of creatine kinase at 12 and 24 h following admission were identified between group A and groups C and D (P<0.01). A significant difference in TNT at 12 h following admission was observed between groups A and D (P<0.05), however, this difference was not observed with groups B and C. The difference in TNT between the groups at 24 h following admission was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Significant differences in lactate dehydrogenase at 12 and 24 h following admission were observed between groups A and D (P<0.05), however, differences were not observed with groups B and C (P>0.05). Significant differences in glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase at 12 and 24 h following admission were observed between groups A and D (P<0.05), however, differences were not observed in groups B and C (P>0.05). However, no significant differences were identified in cardiac function index between all the groups. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that AMI patients with low initial body temperatures exhibited decreased levels of myocardial enzymes and TNT. Thus, the observation of an initially low body temperature may be used as a protective factor for AMI and may improve the existing clinical program.
Since Herrick's description of the clinical picture of acute myocardial infarction exactly one century ago (1912), there have been three phases of therapy: Phase 1 (1912-1961, bed rest and 'expectant' treatment); Phase 2 (1961-1974, the coronary care unit); and Phase 3 (1975-present, myocardial reperfusion). We are now on the cusp of Phase 4, which comprises efforts to reduce myocardial perfusion injury as well as regenerative medicine.
Radchenko, E N; Nizov, A A; Ivanova, A Yu; Sidorova, Yu S
The level of blood plasma selenium was analyzed by microfluorimetric method in in-patients and out-patients with acute coronary syndrome with ST-elevation resulting in acute Q-wave myocardial infarction. 72 patients, 40-75 years old, with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction were followed during a month. The initial decreased concentration of blood plasma selenium was recorded in most patients in the acute period of the myocardial infarction: deficiency of the microelement (< 90 mcg/l) was found in 30 subjects, the critical ranges (< 70 mcg/l) were stated in 33 patients. Just 2 patients had optimal concentration and 7 patients had a suboptimal one (90-114 mcg/l). Blood plasma level of the microelement increased in 2 weeks after myocardial infarction (in subacute stage) but it was still within deficient or critical levels. No difference was detected in selen concentration depending on gender, age, location on myocardial infarction, accompanying diseases, presence of some risk factors (smoking, alcohol abuse, hereditary predisposition to coronary artery disease). At the same time we revealed a significant Spearman rank correlation in patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction between basal level of blood serum selenium on the one hand, and electrocardiography indices (reflecting the rate of myocardial lesion and necrosis), echocardiography. data (which characterize myocardium reparation processes and remodeling), CPK (a prognostic marker of the myocardial necrosis), HDL-cholesterol (lipid profile index), blood potassium level and BMI on the other.
Ahmad, M.; Johnson, R.F. Jr.; Fawcett, H.D.; Schreiber, M.H.
The role of magnetic resonance imaging in characterizing normal, ischemic and infarcted segments of myocardium was examined in 8 patients with unstable angina, 11 patients with acute myocardial infarction, and 7 patients with stable angina. Eleven normal volunteers were imaged for comparison. Myocardial segments in short axis magnetic resonance images were classified as normal or abnormal on the basis of perfusion changes observed in thallium-201 images in 22 patients and according to the electrocariographic localization of infarction in 4 patients. T2 relaxation time was measured in 57 myocardial segments with abnormal perfusion (24 with reversible and 33 with irreversible perfusion changes) and in 25 normally perfused segments. T2 measurements in normally perfused segments of patients with acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina and stable angina were within normal range derived from T2 measurements in 48 myocardial segments of 11 normal volunteers (42 +/- 10 ms). T2 in abnormal myocardial segments of patients with stable angina also was not significantly different from normal. T2 of abnormal segments in patients with unstable angina (64 +/- 14 in reversibly ischemic and 67 +/- 21 in the irreversibly ischemic segments) was prolonged when compared to normal (p less than 0.0001) and was not significantly different from T2 in abnormal segments of patients with acute myocardial infarction (62 +/- 18 for reversibly and 66 +/- 11 for irreversibly ischemic segments). The data indicate that T2 prolongation is not specific for acute myocardial infarction and may be observed in abnormally perfused segments of patients with unstable angina.
Schiele, Francois; Gale, Chris P; Bonnefoy, Eric; Capuano, Frederic; Claeys, Marc J; Danchin, Nicolas; Fox, Keith Aa; Huber, Kurt; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Lettino, Maddalena; Quinn, Tom; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Bøtker, Hans E; Swahn, Eva; Timmis, Adam; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zeymer, Uwe; Bueno, Hector
Evaluation of quality of care is an integral part of modern healthcare, and has become an indispensable tool for health authorities, the public, the press and patients. However, measuring quality of care is difficult, because it is a multifactorial and multidimensional concept that cannot be estimated solely on the basis of patients' clinical outcomes. Thus, measuring the process of care through quality indicators (QIs) has become a widely used practice in this context. Other professional societies have published QIs for the evaluation of quality of care in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but no such indicators exist in Europe. In this context, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) has reflected on the measurement of quality of care in the context of AMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)) and created a set of QIs, with a view to developing programmes to improve quality of care for the management of AMI across Europe. We present here the list of QIs defined by the ACCA, with explanations of the methodology used, scientific justification and reasons for the choice for each measure.
Wang, Haidong; Li, Xi; Zhang, Wenting; Liu, Yao; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Xiaoquan; He, Hua
1. Salvianolic acid A (SalA) was found to attenuate plasma uric acid (UA) concentration and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in acute myocardial infraction (AMI) rats, which was characterized with developed mechanism-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model. 2. AMI was induced in rats by coronary artery ligation. Surviving AMI rats received a single intravenous dose of 5 mg/kg of SalA and normal saline. The plasma SalA concentrations were determined by HPLC-MS/MS method. The plasma UA concentrations were determined by HPLC method and plasma XO activity were measured spectrophotometrically. An integrated mathematical model characterized the relationship between plasma UA and SalA. 3. Pharmacokinetics was described using two-compartment model for SalA with linear metabolic process. In post-AMI rats, XO activity and UA concentrations were increased, while SalA dosing palliated this increase. These effects were well captured by using two series of transduction models, simulating the delay of inhibition on XO driven by SalA and UA elevation resulted from the multiple factors, respectively. 4. The effect was well described by the developed PK-PD model, indicating that SalA can exert cardiovascular protective effects by decreasing elevated plasma UA levels induced by AMI.
Isbister, G K; Warner, G
A 67-year-old female suffered envenoming by a Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus), complicated by ST elevation and elevated troponin levels consistent with an acute myocardial injury. She was treated primarily with funnel-web spider antivenom, admission to intensive care and initial respiratory support for acute pulmonary oedema. The mechanism by which funnel-web spider envenomation caused myocardial injury is unclear but follow-up nuclear studies in the patient demonstrated that she had minimal atherosclerotic disease.
Ferrara, Francesco; Baldi, Cesare; Malinconico, Marisa; Acri, Edvige; Cirillo, Annapaola; Citro, Rodolfo; Bossone, Eduardo
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an acute reversible clinical condition mimicking an acute myocardial infarction. Although a normal coronary artery tree is frequently detected, the concurrence of coronary artery disease is a common finding in a substantial proportion of patients. We report an unusual case of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in post-menopausal women after emotional stress, occurring after inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The possible association between takotsubo cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease is discussed.
Papadopoulos, Dimitris P. Moyssakis, Ioannis; Perakis, Alexandros; Athanasiou, Andreas; Anagnostopoulou, Sophia; Benos, Ioannis; Votteas, Vassilios E.
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction. We report a case of a 33-year-old male who presented with an acute inferior myocardial infarction. Coronary arteriography performed 3 hours after the episode revealed a dissection involving the middle segment of right coronary artery. Because of a spiral form of dissection and the TIMI 3 flow grade, our patient was treated medically and repeat coronary angiography 6 months later was decided.
Nucifora, Gaetano; Delgado, Victoria; Bertini, Matteo; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Van de Veire, Nico R; Ng, Arnold C T; Siebelink, Hans-Marc J; Schalij, Martin J; Holman, Eduard R; Sengupta, Partho P; Bax, Jeroen J
Left ventricular (LV) diastolic filling is characterized by the formation of intraventricular rotational bodies of fluid (termed "vortex rings") that optimize the efficiency of LV ejection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphology and dynamics of LV diastolic vortex ring formation early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in relation to LV diastolic function and infarct size. A total of 94 patients with a first ST-segment elevation AMI (59 ± 11 years; 78% men) were included. All patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. After 48 hours, the following examinations were performed: 2-dimensional echocardiography with speckle-tracking analysis to assess the LV systolic and diastolic function, the vortex formation time (VFT, a dimensionless index for characterizing vortex formation), and the LV untwisting rate; contrast echocardiography to assess LV vortex morphology; and myocardial contrast echocardiography to identify the infarct size. Patients with a large infarct size (≥ 3 LV segments) had a significantly lower VFT (p <0.001) and vortex sphericity index (p <0.001). On univariate analysis, several variables were significantly related to the VFT, including anterior AMI, LV end-systolic volume, LV ejection fraction, grade of diastolic dysfunction, LV untwisting rate, and infarct size. On multivariate analysis, the LV untwisting rate (β = -0.43, p <0.001) and infarct size (β = -0.33, p = 0.005) were independently associated with VFT. In conclusion, early in AMI, both the LV infarct size and the mechanical sequence of diastolic restoration play key roles in modulating the morphology and dynamics of early diastolic vortex ring formation.
Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Mishnev, O D; Kakturskiĭ, L V
The review gives the definitions and classification of and diagnostic criteria for myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome in accordance with the "The third universal definition of myocardial infarction" adopted in 2012 (Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction, 2012). It also discusses the clinical and morphological comparisons of and the problems in the differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction as a nosological entity within coronary heart disease with other coronarogenic and non-coronarogenic necroses of the myocardium.
Akdemir, Ramazan; Karakurt, Özlem; Orcan, Salih; Karakoyunlu, Nihat; Mucahit Balci, Mustafa; Sağnak, Levent; Ersoy, Hamit; Bulent Vatan, Mehmet; Kilic, Harun; Yeter, Ekrem
Acute ST elevation myocardial infarction has high mortality and morbidity rates. The majority of patients with this condition face erectile dysfunction in addition to other health problems. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of two different reperfusion strategies, primary angioplasty and thrombolytic therapy, on the prevalence of erectile dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. Of the 71 patients matching the selection criteria, 45 were treated with primary coronary angioplasty with stenting, and 26 were treated with thrombolytic agents. Erectile function was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function in the hospital to characterize each patient's sexual function before the acute myocardial infarction and 6 months after the event. The time required to restore blood flow to the artery affected by the infarct was found to be associated with the occurrence of erectile dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. The increase in the prevalence of erectile dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction was 44.4% in the angioplasty group and 76.9% in the thrombolytic therapy group (P=0.008). In conclusion, this study has shown that reducing the time of reperfusion decreases the erectile dysfunction prevalence, and primary angioplasty is superior to thrombolytic therapy for decreasing the prevalence of erectile dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:22796737
Zhu, Gang-jie; Sun, Li-na; Li, Xing-hai; Wang, Ning-fu; Wu, Hong-hai; Yuan, Chen-xing; Li, Qiao-qiao; Xu, Peng; Ren, Ya-qi; Mao, Bao-gen
The aim of this study was to explore myocardial protection of early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in pigs. 24 male pigs (34.6 ± 1.3 kg) were randomly divided into three groups-control group, drug therapy group, and ECMO group. Myocardial infarction model was created in drug therapy group and ECMO group by ligating coronary artery. When cardiogenic shock occurred, drugs were given in drug therapy group and ECMO began to work in ECMO group. The pigs were killed 24 h after cardiogenic shock. Compared with in drug therapy group, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in ECMO group decreased significantly 6 h after ligation (P < 0.05). At the end of the experiments, LV - dp/dt among three groups was significantly different, drug therapy group < ECMO group < control group. There was no difference in LV + dp/dt between drug therapy group and ECMO group. Compared with drug group, myocardial infarct size of ECMO group did not reduce significantly, but myocardial enzyme and troponin-I decreased significantly. Compared with drug therapy, ECMO improves left ventricular diastolic function, and may improve systolic function. ECMO cannot reduce myocardial infarct size without revascularization, but may have positive effects on ischemic areas by avoiding further injuring.
Suzuki, A.; Matsushima, H.; Satoh, A.; Hayashi, H.; Sotobata, I.
A cohort of 76 patients with acute myocardial infarction was studied with infarct-avid scan, radionuclide ventriculography, and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Infarct area, left ventricular ejection fraction, and defect score were calculated as radionuclide indices of the extent of myocardial infarction. The correlation was studied between these indices and cardiac events (death, congestive heart failure, postinfarction angina, and recurrence of myocardial infarction) in the first postinfarction year. High-risk patients (nonsurvivors and patients who developed heart failure) had a larger infarct area, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and a larger defect score than the others. Univariate linear discriminant analysis was done to determine the optimal threshold of these parameters for distinguishing high-risk patients from others. Radionuclide parameters obtained in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction were useful for detecting both patients with grave complications and those with poor late prognosis during a mean follow-up period of 2.6 years.
Hendel, R.C.; McSherry, B.A.; Leppo, J.A. )
Indium-111-labeled antimyosin has been utilized in the diagnosis and localization of acute transmural myocardial infarction. The present report describes a patient who presented with a massive subendocardial infarction. Two days after the injection of antimyosin, the patient's clinical status markedly deteriorated and he expired. Postmortem examination demonstrated severe three-vessel coronary artery disease with extensive myocyte death in the endocardium. Autoradiography and histochemical staining of the prosected heart demonstrated high correlation for myocardial necrosis and corresponded to clinical evidence for diffuse subendocardial infarction.
Forty-seven patients younger than 40 years at the time of the diagnosis, and irradiated to the mediastinum for Hodgkin's disease at Turku University Central Hospital from 1977 to 1982, were regularly followed for 56 to 127 months after therapy. Two patients developed an acute myocardial infarction ten and 50 months after cardiac irradiation at the age of only 28 and 24 years, respectively. None of the patients died from lymphoma within five years from the diagnosis, but one of the infarctions was eventually fatal. Since acute myocardial infarction is rare in this age group, the result suggests strongly that prior cardiac irradiation is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. The possibility of radiation-induced myocardial infarction should be taken into account both in treatment planning and follow-up of patients with Hodgkin's disease.
Chia-Yu Chang, Julia; Peng, Chian-Ze; How, Chorng-Kuang; Huang, Mu-Shun
We report a case of silent acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction associated with amphetamine use in a 62 years old diabetic man. The patient was devoid of chest pain and had a normal cardiac enzyme analysis at the initial presentation. A routine electrocardiogram demonstrated acute inferior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography confirmed a total occlusion of the posterior lateral branch of right coronary artery. The patient underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stent placement. Amphetamine abuse may play a role in acute myocardial infarction. Adverse cardiovascular manifestations of amphetamine can occur with sudden overt chest pain or present insidiously. In view of the potential association of amphetamine and myocardial infarction, physicians should not rely only upon clinical symptoms. This report highlights the diabetic patients with amphetamine abuse should undergo a routine electrocardiogram in such circumstances.
Mangion, Kenneth; Corcoran, David; Carrick, David; Berry, Colin
Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging enables the assessment of left ventricular function and pathology. In addition to established contrast-enhanced methods for the assessment of infarct size and microvascular obstruction, other infarct pathologies, such as myocardial edema and myocardial hemorrhage, can be identified using innovative CMR techniques. The initial extent of myocardial edema revealed by T2-weighted CMR has to be stable for edema to be taken as a retrospective marker of the area-at-risk, which is used to calculate myocardial salvage. The timing of edema assessment is important and should be focused within 2 - 7 days post-reperfusion. Some recent investigations have called into question the diagnostic validity of edema imaging after acute STEMI. Considering the results of these studies, as well as results from our own laboratory, we conclude that the time-course of edema post-STEMI is unimodal, not bimodal. Myocardial hemorrhage is the final consequence of severe vascular injury and a progressive and prognostically important complication early post-MI. Myocardial hemorrhage is a therapeutic target to limit reperfusion injury and infarct size post-STEMI.
Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar
Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.
Fiechter, Danielle; Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; van Middelaar, Ben; Pasterkamp, Gerard; de Kleijn, Dominique; Seinen, Willem
Background There has been increasing evidence suggesting that lipopolysaccharide or endotoxin may be an important activator of the innate immune system after acute myocardial infarction. Bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase reduces inflammation in several endotoxin mediated diseases by dephosphorylation of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase on reducing inflammation after acute myocardial infarction. Methods Just before permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) artery to induce acute myocardial infarction in Balb/c mice, bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP) was administrated intravenously. After 4 hours, mice were sacrificed and the inflammatory response was assessed. Acute myocardial infarction induced the production of different cytokines, which were measured in blood. Results Treatment with bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase resulted in a significant reduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and the chymase mouse mast cell protease-1. No difference in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was observed between the control group and the bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase treated group. Conclusion In a mouse model of permanent LAD coronary artery ligation, bIAP diminishes the pro-inflammatory responses but does not have an effect on the anti-inflammatory response in the acute phase after acute myocardial infarction.
Willerson, J T; Watson, J T; Hutton, I; Fixler, D E; Curry, G C; Templeton, G H
The influence of hypertonic mannitol on regional myocardial blood flow and ventricular performance was studied during acute myocardial ischemia in awake, unsedated and in anesthesized dogs and after myocardial infarction in awake unsedated dogs. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres. Generalized increases in regional myocardial blood flow occurred after mannitol in all of the different animal models studied. The increases in coronary blood flow after mannitol were just as impressive in the nonischemic regions as in the ischemic portion of the left ventricle in all of the different models that were examined in this study. Improvement in regional myocardial blood flow to the ischemic area of the left ventricle after mannitol was associated with a reduction in ST segment elevation during acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs. The increases in regional myocardial flow after mannitol were also associated with increases in contractility, but the increases in flow appeared to be more impressive than the changes in contractility. The data obtained demonstrate that mannitol increases regional coronary blood flow to both ischemic and nonischemic myocardium in both anesthetized and awake, unsedated, intact dogs with acute and chronic myocardial ischemia and that mannitol reduces ST segment elevation during acute myocardial ischemia in anesthetized dogs. Thus the results suggest that under these circumstances the increases in regional myocardial blood flow after mannitol are of physiological importance in reducing the extent of myocardial injury. Since coronary blood flow increased to nonischemic regions the increases in regional myocardial flow demonstrated in this study after mannitol cannot be entirely explained by the mechanism of reduction in ischemic cell swelling. PMID:1123427
Al-Fakhouri, Ahmad; Janjua, Muhammad; DeGregori, Michele
Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) caused by left atrial myxoma is very rare. Catheter-based approaches or thrombolytic therapy are mostly the first step in the management of STEMI with less time delay. We report a case of acute anterior/lateral STEMI caused by a left atrial myxoma. The patient was successfully treated by intracoronary aspiration with an Export aspiration catheter, with excellent distal coronary flow. Intracoronary catheter aspiration in acute myocardial infarction caused by a left atrial myxoma may help to salvage the infarcting myocardium with less time delay.
Ekoé, J M; Cunningham, M; Jaques, O; Balague, F; Baumann, R P; Humair, L; de Torrenté, A
A 24-year-old woman was struck by lightning and suffered 20% second degree burns. She was admitted after cardiac and respiratory arrest. Despite intensive supportive care she died 24 h later of cardiogenic shock complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation. At autopsy there was myocardial necrosis. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and myocardial necrosis are only rarely described as complications of lightning.
Erdal, Cenk; Karakülah, Gökhan; Fermancı, Emel; Kunter, İmge; Silistreli, Erdem; Canda, Tülay; Erdal, Esra; Hepaguslar, Hasan
Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains as one of the most common lethal diseases in the world and therefore it is necessary to understand its effect on molecular basis. Genome-wide microarray analysis provides us to predict potential biomarkers and signaling pathways for this purpose. Objectives: The aim of this study is to understand the molecular basis of the immediate right ventricular cellular response to left ventricular AMI. Material and Methods: A rat model of left anterior descending coronary artery ligation was used to assess the effect of left ventricular AMI on both the right ventricle as a remote zone and the left ventricle as an ischemic/infarct zone. Microarray technology was applied to detect the gene expression. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathways analysis were done to identify effected pathways and related genes. Results: We found that immune response, cell chemotaxis, inflammation, cytoskeleton organization are significantly deregulated in ischemic zone as early response within 30 min. Unexpectedly, there were several affected signaling pathways such as cell chemotaxis, regulation of endothelial cell proliferation, and regulation of caveolea regulation of anti-apoptosis, regulation of cytoskeleton organization and cell adhesion on the remote zone in the right ventricle. Conclusion: This data demonstrates that there is an immediate molecular response in both ventricles after an AMI. Although the ischemia did not histologically involve the right ventricle; there is a clear molecular response to the infarct in the left ventricle. This provides us new insights to understand molecular mechanisms behind AMI and to find more effective drug targets. PMID:22211093
Dimitrova, S.; Babayev, E. S.; Mustafa, F. R.; Stoilova, I.; Taseva, T.; Georgieva, K.
Results of collaborative studies on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and pre-hospital acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data from Bulgaria and Azerbaijan. Bulgarian data, covering the period from 01.12.1995 to 31.12.2004, concerned daily distribution of number of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia Region on the day of admission at the hospital. Azerbaijani data contained 4479 pre-hospital AMI incidence cases for the period 01.01.2003-31.12.2005 and were collected from 21 emergency and first medical aid stations in Grand Baku Area (including Absheron Economical Region with several millions of inhabitants). Data were "cleaned" as much as possible from social and other factors and were subjected to medical and mathematical/statistical analysis. Medical analysis showed reliability of the used data. Method of ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms - those caused by magnetic clouds (MC) and by high speed solar wind streams (HSSWS) - on AMI incidences. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results were outlined for both considered data. Results obtained for the Sofia data showed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI occurrence. ANOVA revealed that AMI incidence number was significantly increased from the day before till the day after geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day for the period 1995-2004. Results obtained for the Baku data revealed trends similar to those obtained for Sofia data. AMI morbidity increment was observed on the days with higher GMA intensity and after these days
Ranjith, Mangalachulli Pottammal; DivyaRaj, Rajendran; Mathew, Dolly; George, Biju; Krishnan, Mangalath Narayanan
Objective High levels of mean platelet volume (MPV) may be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the association between MPV and the risk of death and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with MI. Methods We studied consecutive patients with MI admitted to a tertiary-care hospital during a period of 1 year. MPV was measured at admission and at third month. Patients were followed up for 1-year primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, stroke, fatal or non-fatal MI and cardiac failure. Patients were classified according to tertile of baseline MPV. Results A total of 1206 patients with MI, including 934 men (77.4%) and 272 women (22.6%) were studied. The mean age of the study population was 56 years. At 1-year follow-up, 292 (28.57%) primary outcome occurred: cardiovascular mortality 78 (7.6%), fatal or non-fatal MI 153 (15.0%), stroke 30 (2.9%) and cardiac failure 128 (12.52%). Patients with the highest tertile MPV had higher primary outcome as compared with those with MPV in the lowest tertile (adjusted OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.60 to 3.35; p<0.001). Total mortality was also more in high-MPV group (adjusted OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.47 to 4.70; p<0.001). There were no significant changes in mean MPV values at admission from those at third month interval (9.15, (SD 0.99) vs 9.19 (SD 0.94); p=0.2). Conclusions Elevated MPV was associated with worse outcome in patients with acute MI. Elevated MPV in these patients may be due to inherently large platelets. Trial registration number http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/rmaindet.php?trialid=5485&EncHid=98036.61144&modid=1&compid=19; CTRI/2012/12/003222. PMID:27326224
Puletti, M; Zingales, L D; Borgia, C; La Rosa, A; Curione, M; Pozzar, F; Righetti, G; Jacobellis, G F
Following a brief outline on problems concerning methodology, the cause of death is analysed in 110 patients dying from acute myocardial infarction during hospitalization. Autopsy studied were carried out in 78 cases. Of the various causes, the most frequent were forms of contractile insufficiency (EPA, shock, shock + EPA, biventricular congestive heart failure) which were responsible for 50.90% of cases; followed by cardiac rupture (considered in a single group with electromechanic dissociations of the patients not submitted to autopsy studies since in the experience of the Authors cardiac rupture almost always presents with this pattern) with a frequency of 29%. The frequency of arrhythmias, on the other hand, is very low, particularly in the coronary care unit where it is practically a negligible causa mortis 2.72%): even if sudden death, in patients who were not monitored, is included amongst the arrhythmias, the percentage is still only about 10%. Embolism (usually pulmonary, but systemic in one case) was the cause of death in 5 patients (4.54%). Three patients over 80 years of age died from ischemic cerebral episodes. Age, sex, and site of infarction, do not appear, in the present series, to have a determinant effect in the cause of death; a higher frequency of rupture in the female sex was not, for example, confirmed. On the basis of the observations in the present series, any relationship between cardiac rupture and anticoagulating therapy, steroid treatment, application of endocavitary stimulators, or early ambulation is excluded. It is also excluded that reanimation, as hypothesized by some Authors, may be responsible for rupture.
Lai, Vincent; Hau, K C; Lau, H Y; Chan, W C
Well-documented potential cardiovascular complications associated with the use of contrast media include bradycardia, hypotension, arrhythmia, and conduction disturbances. Rupture of the myocardium after acute myocardial infarction is a known cause of death, but has yet to be recognised as a potential complication of the use of a bolus injection of contrast medium. On the contrary, contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies have been performed widely for the diagnosis and evaluation of myocardial infarction. We report a case of complicated myocardial rupture after a single bolus injection of contrast medium during a computed tomographic study in an elderly woman with acute myocardial infarction, which led to cardiac tamponade and rapid death. Although rare, this should alert us to the need for cautious use of contrast medium in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Rømer, F K; Kornerup, H J
Serum activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was measured by serial analysis in 19 patients with acute myocardial infarction and in eight patients with angina pectoris. As a rule no changes in enzyme activity occurred during 6 days observations. However, two patients with infarction exhibited a pronounced fall of enzyme activity which could not be related to clinical events. The analysis seems to have no place in the diagnosis and management of patients with myocardial infarction.
Hurtado Buen Abad, L; De la Ree, R; Contreras, M; González-Hermosillo, J A; Salinas, L; Cárdenas, M
Twenty four cases with myocardial rupture among 259 patients with autopsy after death due to myocardial infarction, were compared with patients with acute myocardial infarction and death secondary to other causes. Myocardial rupture occured during the first 72 hours in 58% of the patients and all cases within the first five days. Two thirds of the patients were males and 46% were 70 years of age. There were 24 myocardial ruptures (9.5%). Previous history of arterial hypertension and un-remittent anginal pain were predisposing factors for rupture (p=0.05). Other previously reported bad prognostic factors such as persistent hipertension after acute infarction, severe exercise before infarction and history of Diabetes Mellitus were not statistically significant in this study. Ruptured myocardium was not influenced by a previous history of myocardial infarction, hospitalization delay in the C.C.U., administration of anticoagulants, digitalis or pressor amines. There was no significant difference among the groups compared in enzyme curves or magnitude of leucocytosis. Electromechanic dissociation, sinus bradycardia, nodal rhythm followed by idioventricular rhythm and asystole, were observed following myocardial rupture.
Cakmak, Mahmut; Cakmak, Nazmiye; Cetemen, Sebnem; Tanriverdi, Halil; Enc, Yavuz; Teskin, Onder; Kilic, I Dogu
BACKGROUND: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level on admission is a prognostic factor for mortality in patients with and without diabetes after myocardial infarction. In the present study, the authors examined the relationship between admission HbA1c level and myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction who were treated with thrombolytic therapy were included in the present prospective study. Blood glucose and HbA1c levels of all patients were measured within 3 h of admission. Patients were divided into three groups according to HbA1c level: 4.5% to 6.4% (n=25), 6.5% to 8.5% (n=28) and higher than 8.5% (n=47). All patients then underwent exercise thallium-201 imaging and coronary angiography to determine ischemic scores and the number of diseased coronary arteries four weeks after admission. RESULTS: Seven patients died within the four-week follow-up period. There was a significant relationship between admission HbA1c level and mortality (P=0.009). Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between HbA1c level and total ischemic scores in patients with acute myocardial infarction (r=0.482; P=0.001). Ischemic scores increased as HbA1c levels increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that admission plasma glucose and HbA1c levels are prognostic factors associated with mortality after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:18464942
Ling, Lin; Gu, Shaohua; Cheng, Yan
Stem cell antigen-1-positive (Sca-1+) cardiac stem cells (CSCs) therapy for myocardial regeneration following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is limited by insufficient cell viability and a high rate of apoptosis, due to the poor regional microenvironment. Resveratrol, which is a compound extracted from red wine, has been reported to protect myocardial tissue post-AMI by increasing the expression of angiogenic and chemotactic factors. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on Sca-1+ CSCs, and to optimize Sca-1+ CSCs therapy for myocardial regeneration post-AMI. C57/BL6 mice (age, 6 weeks) were divided into two groups, which received intragastric administration of PBS or 2.5 mg/kg.d resveratrol. The endogenous expression of Sca-1+ CSCs in the heart was assessed on day 7. Furthermore, C57/BL6 mice underwent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for the construction of an AMI model, and received an injection of 1×106 CSCs into the peri-ischemic area (n=8/group). Mice received intragastric administration of PBS or resveratrol (2.5 mg/kg.d) for 4 weeks after cell transplantation. Echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac function 4 weeks after cell transplantation. Capillary density and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the peri-ischemic myocardium were assessed by cluster of differentiation 31 immunofluorescent staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, respectively. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect the protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α in the myocardium. Treatment with resveratrol increased the number of endogenous Sca-1+ CSCs in heart tissue after 7 days (PBS vs. Res, 1.85±0.41/field vs. 3.14±0.26/field, P<0.05). Furthermore, intragastric administration of resveratrol significantly increased left ventricle (LV) function 4 weeks after AMI, as determined by an increase in LV fractional
Mehta, Laxmi S; Beckie, Theresa M; DeVon, Holli A; Grines, Cindy L; Krumholz, Harlan M; Johnson, Michelle N; Lindley, Kathryn J; Vaccarino, Viola; Wang, Tracy Y; Watson, Karol E; Wenger, Nanette K
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in American women. Since 1984, the annual cardiovascular disease mortality rate has remained greater for women than men; however, over the last decade, there have been marked reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality in women. The dramatic decline in mortality rates for women is attributed partly to an increase in awareness, a greater focus on women and cardiovascular disease risk, and the increased application of evidence-based treatments for established coronary heart disease. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on acute myocardial infarction in women. Sex-specific differences exist in the presentation, pathophysiological mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of women with acute myocardial infarction.
Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778
Homburger, H.A.; Jacob, G.L.
We compared, in 116 patients, the relative usefulness of results of tests for creatine kinase B-isoenzymes, as measured by radioimmunoassay, and the MB isoenzyme, as measured by electrophoresis, in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The radioimmunoassay was specific for isoenzymes of creatine kinase containing the B subunit. All patients with acute transmural infarcts had positive test results by both techniques, but concentrations of B-isoenzymes were more frequently above normal than were MB bands in the case of patients with acute subendocardial infarcts and in the case of all patients with acute myocardial infarcts from whom sera were collected more than 24 h after onset of chest pain. Concentrations of B-isoenzymes also were increased, even when MB bands were not electrophoretically detectable in specimens from several patients without documented acute myocardial infarcts. These abnormal results presumably were caused by increased concentrations of the BB isoenzyme in serum. Accordingly, an increased concentration of B-isoenzymes had less diagnostic specificity and predictive value for acute myocardial infarction than did a detectable MB band. Results of isoenzyme electrophoresis were more reliable for establishing this diagnosis, but the results of radioimmunoassay were more reliable for excluding it in patients with chest pain as the primary symptom.
Meister, Rebecca E; Weber, Tania; Princip, Mary; Schnyder, Ulrich; Barth, Jürgen; Znoj, Hansjörg; Schmid, Jean-Paul; von Känel, Roland
Objectives Myocardial infarction (MI) may be experienced as a traumatic event causing acute stress disorder (ASD). This mental disorder has an impact on the daily life of patients and is associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Trait resilience has been shown to be a protective factor for post-traumatic stress disorder, but its association with ASD in patients with MI is elusive and was examined in this study. Methods We investigated 71 consecutive patients with acute MI within 48 h of having stable haemodynamic conditions established and for 3 months thereafter. All patients completed the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and the Resilience Scale to self-rate the severity of ASD symptoms and trait resilience, respectively. Results Hierarchical regression analysis showed that greater resilience was associated with lower symptoms of ASD independent of covariates (b=−0.22, p<0.05). Post hoc analysis revealed resilience level to be inversely associated with the ASD symptom clusters of re-experiencing (b=−0.05, p<0.05) and arousal (b=−0.09, p<0.05), but not with dissociation and avoidance. Conclusions The findings suggest that patients with acute MI with higher trait resilience experience relatively fewer symptoms of ASD during MI. Resilience was particularly associated with re-experiencing and arousal symptoms. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of resilience as a potentially important correlate of ASD in the context of traumatic situations such as acute MI. These results emphasise the importance of identifying patients with low resilience in medical settings and to offer them adequate support. PMID:26568834
Sari, Ibrahim; Delil, Kenan; Ileri, Cigdem; Samadov, Fuad
ST elevation acute myocardial infarction in patients with a mechanical prosthetic valve is rare and usually due to inadequate anticoagulation. We present a case of acute inferior myocardial infarction in a patient with a prosthetic aortic valve and high international normalized ratio, which has not been reported previously. PMID:24799934
Park, Jae-Hyeong; Yoon, Jung Yeon; Ko, Seon Mi; Jin, Seon Ah; Kim, Jun Hyung; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Si Wan; Seong, In-Whan; Jeong, Jin Ok
Cardiac lymphatic system in the remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been overlooked. We wanted to investigate the role of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and their contribution to lymphatic distribution in myocardial remodeling after AMI. Mouse (C57bl/6J) MI models were created by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and were treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or EPCs. Real-time RT-PCR with 2- to 4-week myocardial tissue samples revealed that lymphangiogenetic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C (8.5 fold, P < 0.05), VEGF-D (6.1 fold, P < 0.05), Lyve-1 (15 fold, P < 0.05), and Prox-1 (11 fold, P < 0.05) were expressed at significantly higher levels in the PBS group than the EPC group. The PBS group also showed a significantly higher density of lymphatic vessels in the peri-infarction area. Echocardiography showed that from 2 weeks after the treatment, left ventricle (LV) dimensions at both systole and diastole were significantly smaller in the EPC group than in the PBS group (P < 0.01) and LV fractional shortening was higher in the EPC group accordingly (P < 0.01). Lymphangiogenic markers increased in a mouse MI model. EPC transplantation decreased lymphangiogenesis and adverse ventricular remodeling after AMI. These novel findings suggest that new lymphatic vessels may be formed in severely damaged myocardium, and may be involved in adverse myocardial remodeling after AMI.
Graf, Tobias; Desch, Steffen; Eitel, Ingo; Thiele, Holger
Cardiogenic shock (CS) is still the predominant cause of in-hospital death in patients with acute myocardial infarction, although mortality has been reduced in recent years. Early percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting are causal therapies implemented in CS, supported by catecholamines, fluids, intra-aortic balloon pumping, and also active percutaneous assist devices. There is only limited evidence from randomized studies of any of these treatments in CS, except for early revascularization and the relative ineffectiveness of intra-aortic balloon pumping. This review will present treatment pathways of CS complicating acute myocardial infarction, with a major focus on revascularization, intensive care unit treatment, and mechanical support devices.
Yadav, Sankalp; Kumar, Raj
Paclitaxel, is a frequently used anti-neoplastic agent and is included in various chemotherapy regimens. The life threatening cardio toxicity associated with its use and the still unclear pathophysiology, has limited the use of this drug. Acute myocardial infarction is a rare adverse event associated with this drug. We report a case of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction induced by paclitaxel infusion in a patient of oesophageal carcinoma who was saved by percutaneous primary intervention. The authors emphasize the awareness of this side effect of Paclitaxel among the clinicians. PMID:27891444
Pawula, Maria; Altintas, Zeynep; Tothill, Ibtisam E
A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor developed for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) in serum samples is reported in this work. An extensive optimisation of assay parameters was conducted to achieve optimal detection strategy. Both direct and sandwich immunoassay formats were investigated and optimised. The response obtained was enhanced further by the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) conjugated to the anti-cTnT detection antibody. A regeneration method was developed to enable the reuse of the SPR sensor for multiple sample application. The SPR immunosensor showed good reproducibility for cTnT detection in the concentration range of 25-1000 ng mL(-1) and 5-400 ng mL(-1) for the direct and sandwich assays in buffer, respectively. The linear regression analysis was performed and R(2) value was found as 0.99 for both assays. In order to optimise the sensor for serum analysis, nonspecific binding of serum proteins was reduced through the use of additives in the dilution buffer. To achieve greater sensitivity, the performance of the cTnT immunosensor sandwich assay in human serum was evaluated using non-modified and AuNP modified detector antibodies. A detection limit (LOD) for the immunosensor in 50% serum was assessed as 5 ng mL(-1) cTnT for the standard sandwich assay and 0.5 ng mL(-1) cTnT when using AuNP conjugated detector antibodies with a linear dynamic range of 0.5-40 ng mL(-1). The dissociation constant was found as 3.28 × 10(-9) M using Langmuir binding model which indicates high affinity between cTnT and its antibody. The proposed SPR immunosensor has a promising potential to be developed for point-of-care testing for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This method can also be used for the rapid detection of biomarkers in central nervous system diseases.
Thadani, Udho; Ripley, Toni L
Nitrates are potent venous dilators and anti-ischemic agents. They are widely used for the relief of chest pain and pulmonary congestion in patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure. Nitrates, however, do not reduce mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Combination of nitrates and hydralazine when given in addition to beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality and heart failure hospitalizations in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction who are of African-American origin. Side effects during nitrate therapy are common but are less well described in the literature compared with the reported side effects in patients with stable angina pectoris. The reported incidence of side effects varies highly among different studies and among various disease states. Headache is the most commonly reported side effect with an incidence of 12% in acute heart failure, 41-73% in chronic heart failure, 3-19% in unstable angina and 2-26% in acute myocardial infarction. The reported incidence of hypotension also differs: 5-10% in acute heart failure, 20% in chronic heart failure, 9% in unstable angina and < 1-48% in acute myocardial infarction, with the incidence being much higher with concomitant nitrate therapy plus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Reported incidence of dizziness is as low as 1% in patients with acute myocardial infarction to as high as 29% in patients with heart failure. Severe headaches and/or symptomatic hypotension may necessitate discontinuation of nitrate therapy. Severe life threatening hypotension or even death may occur when nitrates are used in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction associated with right ventricular dysfunction or infarction, or with concomitant use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine. Despite the disturbing observational reports in the literature that continuous and prolonged use of nitrates may lead to
Abid, Leila; Frikha, Faten; Bahloul, Zouhir; Kammoun, Samir
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is rarely associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. The treatment of these patients is a clinical challenge. We report the observations of 2 young adults (1 woman and 1 man), admitted in our acute care unit for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A coagulopathy work-up concludes the existence of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in the 2 cases. APS syndrome was considered primary in 2 cases. All patients presented an intense inflammatory syndrome (high level of CRP). Anticardiolipine was present in the 2 cases. However, anti B2 glycoprotein I antibodies were detected in only one case. Emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with direct stenting had been performed successfully only in the first case, and the follow-up was uncomplicated. Thereafter, long-term oral anticoagulant appeared to be effective. The last patient was admitted because of peripheral acute ischemia of legs. Standard electrocardiogram showed signs of previous silent anteroseptal wall myocardial infarction confirmed by echocardiography. The latter revealed an apical thrombus and a very low left ventricular ejection fraction. Amputation of the right leg was necessary because of consultation occurred too late. However, he died four weeks later. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome should be considered as a cause of acute myocardial infarction in young adults, and PTCA with anticoagulant treatment is effective for initial treatment of this complication.
Kang, Dong Goo; Ahn, Yongkeun; Chae, Shung Chull; Hur, Seung Ho; Hong, Taek Jong; Kim, Young Jo; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Rhew, Jay Young; Chae, In Ho; Cho, Myeong Chan; Bae, Jang Ho; Rha, Seung Woon; Kim, Chong Jin; Jang, Yang Soo; Yoon, Junghan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung
The incidence of ischemic heart disease has been increased rapidly in Korea. However, the clinical effects of antecedent hypertension on acute myocardial infarction have not been identified. We assessed the relationship between antecedent hypertension and clinical outcomes in 7,784 patients with acute myocardial infarction in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry during one-year follow-up. Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease were more prevalent in hypertensives (n=3,775) than nonhypertensives (n=4,009). During hospitalization, hypertensive patients suffered from acute renal failure, shock, and cerebrovascular event more frequently than in nonhypertensives. During follow-up of one-year, the incidence of major adverse cardiac events was higher in hypertensives. In multi-variate adjustment, old age, Killip class ≥III, left ventricular ejection fraction <45%, systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg on admission, post procedural TIMI flow grade ≤2, female sex, and history of hypertension were independent predictors for in-hospital mortality. However antecedent hypertension was not significantly associated with one-year mortality. Hypertension at the time of acute myocardial infarction is associated with an increased rate of in-hospital mortality. PMID:19794974
Tabuchi, Masaki; Negishi, Jun; Yamashita, Akitatsu; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio; Funamoto, Seiichi
Many research groups are currently investigating new treatment modalities for myocardial infarction. Numerous aspects need to be considered for the clinical application of these therapies, such as low cell integration and engraftment rates of cell injection techniques. Decellularized tissues are considered good materials for promoting regeneration of traumatic tissues. The properties of the decellularized tissues are sustained after processing to powder form. In this study, we examined the use of decellularized tissue powder in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The decellularized tissue powders, especially liver powder, promoted cell integration and neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Decellularized liver powder induced neovascularization in the infarct area, resulting in the suppression of myocardial necrosis. The results of this study suggest that decellularized liver powder has good potential for application as a blood supply material for the treatment of myocardial infarction.
Imaizumi, T; Takeshita, A; Makino, N; Ashihara, T; Yamamoto, K; Nakamura, M
The baroreflex control of vascular resistance and heart rate was studied in 11 patients to determine whether it is impaired in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Reflex forearm vasoconstriction in response to lower body negative pressure at 40 mm Hg was less in the early convalescent phase (mean seven days) than in the late convalescent phase (mean 41 days). Pressor as well as vasoconstricting responses to the cold pressor test did not differ between the early and late convalescent phases. The slope of the regression line relating systolic blood pressure and the RR interval during a transient rise in blood pressure produced by intravenous phenylephrine was appreciably reduced in the early convalescent phase of myocardial infarction. These results suggest that baroreflex control of vascular resistance and heart rate is impaired in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:6477780
Parviz, Yasir; Vijayan, Sethumadhavan; Lavi, Shahar
Advances in medical and interventional therapy over the last few decades have revolutionized the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Despite the ability to restore epicardial coronary artery patency promptly through percutaneous coronary intervention, tissue level damage may continue. The reported 30-day mortality after all acute coronary syndromes is 2 to 3%, and around 5% following myocardial infarction. Post-infarct complications such as heart failure continue to be a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Inadequate microvascular reperfusion leads to worse clinical outcomes and potentially strategies to reduce infarct size during periods of ischemia-reperfusion can improve outcomes. Many strategies have been tested, but no single strategy alone has shown a consistent result or benefit in large scale randomised clinical trials. Herein, we review the historical efforts, current strategies, and potential novel concepts that may improve myocardial protection and reduce infarct size.
Beyranvand, Mohammad-Reza; Namazi, Mohammad-Hassan; Mohsenzadeh, Yusef; Assadpour Piranfar, Mohammad
A 37-year-old man, a known case of Behcet's disease with its vascular complications such as abdominal and thoracic artery aneurysms, was admitted with the diagnosis of acute anterior myocardial infarction and received thrombolytic therapy. Coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention via transradial approach were performed for the patient on the eighth day of admission. The patient did not suffer from any symptoms, myocardial infarction, or readmission in the nine-month follow-up. About 25 cases of myocardial infarction associated with Behcet's disease have been reported previously. Although coronary involvement is rare in Behcet's disease, it is especially important because it affects young individuals and often presents as acute coronary syndromes.
Badui, E; Rangel, A; Enciso, R; Espinosa, R; Bermudez, G; Luna, P; Lepe, L; Martinez, L
The authors present 2 cases: 1 of a thirty-two-year-old woman and another of a thirty-eight-year-old woman, both Hispanic and athletic, with no identifiable precipitating or coronary risk factors, such as previous heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, hyperlipoproteinemia, oral contraceptive use, coagulation disorders, thyroid disease, collagen tissue disorder, or family history of premature myocardial infarction, who both developed an acute posteroinferior wall myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries, one during pregnancy, from which normal twin girls were born, and another, during the postpartum period. After reviewing the literature the authors consider the present cases as unique due to the rare association of pregnancy with intrapartum and postpartum acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries in athletic women.
Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D. )
Although exercise ECG testing has been shown to have important prognostic value after acute myocardial infarction, exercise 201Tl scintigraphy offers several potential advantages, including: (1) increased sensitivity for detecting residual myocardial ischemia; (2) the ability to localize ischemia to a specific area or areas subtended by a specific coronary artery; (3) the ability to identify exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction, which is manifested by increased lung uptake or transient left ventricular dilation; and (4) more reliable risk stratification of individual patients. The more optimal prognostic efficiency of 201Tl scintigraphy partially results from the fact that the error rate in falsely classifying patients as low risk is significantly smaller with 201Tl scintigraphy than with stress ECG. Because of these substantial advantages, there seems to be adequate rationale for recommending exercise perfusion imaging rather than exercise ECG alone as the preferred method for evaluating mortality and morbidity risks after acute myocardial infarction.
García y Otero, J M; Frutos Rangel, E; García García, R; Fernández Valadez, E; Zúñiga Sedano, J; Orendain González, V M; Briseño Ramírez, H
The purpose of this study is to describe a single-center experience in primary coronary angioplasty in 304 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. Sixty-seven percent were men and 33% women, the mean age was 69 years. The time from onset to treatment was 3.5 hours, 14% had previous bypass surgery and 23% prior myocardial infarction, 11% arrived in cardiogenic shock. Coronary angiography showed multivessel disease in 56% of patients, 73% had TIMI 0-1 flow. Successful PTCA occurred in 95% and in hospital mortality was 6.5%. Primary coronary angioplasty is a successful reperfusion method in acute myocardial infarction and it is associated with low mortality even in high risk groups. The rates of success and major complications in this series are similar to other publications.
Rosencher, J; Zuily, S; Varenne, O; Spaulding, C; Weber, S
Platelet donation by plateletpheresis is known to induce platelet and coagulation activation but there is no clear relationship between this acquired pre-thrombotic state and acute coronary syndrome in healthy donors. We report an acute myocardial infarction immediately following plateletpheresis in a 57-year-old donor with low atherosclerotic risk profile and no angiographic evidence of atherosclerotic disease strongly suggesting a causal relationship.
Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.
There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…
Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Bhimaraj, Arvind; Perpich, Denise
One in 4 Americans lives in a rural community and relies on rural hospitals and medical systems for emergent care of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI). The infrastructure and organization of AMI care in rural and urban Kansas hospitals was examined. Using a nominal group process, key elements within hospitals that might influence quality of AMI…
Cytryn, Kayla N.; Yoskowitz, Nicole A.; Cimino, James J.; Patel, Vimla L.
Despite public health initiatives targeting rapid action in response to symptoms of myocardial infarction (MI), people continue to delay in going to a hospital when experiencing these symptoms due to lack of recognition as cardiac-related. The objective of this research was to characterize lay individuals' knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial…
Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.
Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; MacLehose, Richard F.; Hart, L. Gary; Beaver, Shelli K.; Every,Nathan; Chan,Leighton
Context: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common and important cause of admission to US rural hospitals, as transport of patients with AMI to urban settings can result in unacceptable delays in care. Purpose: To examine the quality of care for patients with AMI in rural hospitals with differing degrees of remoteness from urban centers.…
Abrams, Thad E.; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter J.
Introduction: Annually, over 3,000 rural veterans are admitted to Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet no studies of AMI have utilized the VA rural definition. Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified 15,870 patients admitted for AMI to all VA hospitals. Rural residence was identified…
Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Seltmann, Martin; Muschiol, Gerd; Achenbach, Stephan
A 61-year-old female patient presented with sub acute myocardial infarction with an occluded right coronary artery on invasive evaluation and a ventricular septal rupture on echocardiogram. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) was performed to better define the septal anatomy. As the anatomy on cardiac CT was considered unfavorable for percutaneous intervention, the patient underwent successful surgical repair.
Witherspoon, L R; Shuler, S E; Genre, C F; Gilbert, S S; Moore, R J; Meihaus, V; Hurry, E K
Results with a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) reagent kit for quantification of the creatine kinase B subunit (CK-B) (Nuclear-Medical Laboratories, Irving, TX 75061) were compared with results obtained by electrophoresis for patients consecutively admitted to our coronary care unit for suspected acute myocardial infarction. Analytical sensitivity, precision, and specificity of the RIA were satisfactory. Its clinical efficacy was assessed in 97 patients suspected of having had an acute myocardial infarction. Of 30 patients who had had an acute myocardial infarction, increased CK-B was detected by RIA in 30 and by electrophoresis in 27. The temporal relationship between CK-B by RIA and CK-MB by electrophoresis was similar. Of 66 admissions where infarction was not established, CK-B was negligibly increased in samples from four patients by RIA, and from one by electrophoresis. Although not abnormally increased (greater than 5 U/L), CK-MB was detected by electrophoresis in samples from another five of these 66 patients. We conclude that estimation of CK-B by this RIA is an excellent alternative to estimation of CK-MB by electrophoresis in patients suspected of having had an acute myocardial infarction.
Pelaz, Alejandro; Bayón, Jeremías; Gallego, Lorena; Junquera, Luis
We report the case of an 80-year-old man who developed a haematoma in the floor of the mouth after receiving alteplase in the treatment of an acute myocardial infarction. Both the treatment received and appropriate preventive measures to avoid such haematomas are described.
Lim, Snag Yup; Lee, Se Ryeon; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Seong Hwan; Ahn, Jeong Chun; Song, Woo Hyuk
Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia is a life-threatening complication, affecting the morbidity and mortality of the patient if not properly treated. We report a case of a 75-year-old female patient who experienced enoxaparininduced thrombocytopaenia during medical treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction due to thrombotic total occlusion in the large right coronary artery.
Condén, Emelie; Rosenblad, Andreas; Wagner, Philippe; Leppert, Jerzy; Ekselius, Lisa; Åslund, Cecilia
Background Type D personality refers to a combination of simultaneously high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The present study aimed to examine whether type D personality was independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. Design This was a prospective cohort study. Methods Utilising data from the Västmanland Myocardial Infarction Study, 946 post-acute myocardial infarction patients having data on the DS14 instrument used to measure type D personality were followed-up for recurrent myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality until 9 December 2015. Data were analysed using Cox regression, adjusted for established risk factors. Results In total, 133 (14.1%) patients suffered from type D personality. During a mean follow-up time for recurrent myocardial infarction of 5.7 (3.2) years, 166 (17.5%) patients were affected by recurrent myocardial infarction, of which 26 (15.7%) had type D personality, while during a mean follow-up time for all-cause mortality of 6.3 (2.9) years, 321 (33.9%) patients died, of which 42 (13.1%) had type D personality. After adjusting for established risk factors, type D personality was not significantly associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. A weak association was found between the social inhibition part of type D personality and a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, but this association was not significant after taking missing data into account in a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions No support was found for type D personality being independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality.
Hayano, Shinji; Takefuji, Mikito; Maeda, Kengo; Noda, Tomonori; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Enomoto, Atsushi; Asai, Naoya; Takahashi, Masahide; Murohara, Toyoaki
Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of death, and cardiac rupture following myocardial infarction leads to extremely poor prognostic feature. A large body of evidence suggests that Akt is involved in several cardiac diseases. We previously reported that Akt-mediated Girdin phosphorylation is essential for angiogenesis and neointima formation. The role of Girdin expression and phosphorylation in myocardial infarction, however, is not understood. Therefore, we employed Girdin-deficient mice and Girdin S1416A knock-in (Girdin(SA/SA)) mice, replacing the Akt phosphorylation site with alanine, to address this question. We found that Girdin was expressed and phosphorylated in cardiac fibroblasts in vitro and that its phosphorylation was crucial for the proliferation and migration of cardiac fibroblasts. In vivo, Girdin was localized in non-cardiomyocyte interstitial cells and phosphorylated in α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells, which are likely to be cardiac myofibroblasts. In an acute myocardial infarction model, Girdin(SA/SA) suppressed the accumulation and proliferation of cardiac myofibroblasts in the infarcted area. Furthermore, lower collagen deposition in Girdin(SA/SA) mice impaired cardiac repair and resulted in increased mortality attributed to cardiac rupture. These findings suggest an important role of Girdin phosphorylation at serine 1416 in cardiac repair after acute myocardial infarction and provide insights into the complex mechanism of cardiac rupture through the Akt/Girdin-mediated regulation of cardiac myofibroblasts.
Dumont, L; Stanley, P; Chartrand, C
Since the hemodynamic consequences of acute hypercalcemia are altered by numerous interferences we have evaluated the role of peroperative myocardial ischemia on the adaptability to rapid calcium increment. Twenty-two dogs served as control and 16 were submitted to 1 hour of myocardial ischemia along with topical myocardial cooling. Each animal was equipped with blood flow transducer positioned around the ascending aorta and with central venous and aortic catheters. During each study 0.90 mEq of calcium was rapidly injected and hemodynamic data were recorded until base-line resetting. This experimental protocol was carried out 3 hours postoperatively and then daily during one month. Base-line hemodynamic data indicated the presence of myocardial failure in the experimental group in the immediate postoperative period only. Rapid calcium administration elicited transient positive inotropic response, widening of the arterial pulse pressure, reflex bradycardia and no evidence of peripheral vasoconstriction. In the early postoperative period (3 hours after surgery) the failing myocardium is more sensitive to the inotropic effect of hypercalcemia. Twenty-four hours after surgery both groups of animals have the same hemodynamic response to this stress; thereafter for both groups this response gradually decreased and finally stabilized by the 6th to 10th day after surgery. Acute hypercalcemia bears hemodynamic consequences that are amplified early after peroperative myocardial ischemia. However in long term this surgical component widely used clinically does not interfered with the cardiovascular adaptability to this pharmacological stress.
Otterspoor, Luuk C; van Nunen, Lokien X; Rosalina, Tilaï T; Veer, Marcel van’t; Tuijl, Sjoerd Van; Stijnen, Marco; Rutten, Marcel CM; van de Vosse, Frans N; Pijls, Nico HJ
Hypothermia may attenuate reperfusion injury and thereby improve acute myocardial infarction therapy. Systemic cooling trials failed to reduce infarct size, perhaps because the target temperature was not reached fast enough. The use of selective intracoronary hypothermia combined with intracoronary temperature monitoring allows for titrating to target temperature and optimizing the cooling rate. We aimed to the test the feasibility of intracoronary cooling for controlled, selective myocardial hypothermia in an isolated beating pig heart. In five porcine hearts the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was occluded by an over-the-wire balloon (OTWB). After occlusion, saline at 22°C was infused through the OTWB lumen for 5 minutes into the infarct area at a rate of 30 ml/min. Thereafter the balloon was deflated but infusion continued with saline at 4°C for 5 minutes. Distal coronary temperature was continuously monitored by a pressure/temperature guidewire. Myocardial temperature at several locations in the infarct and control areas was recorded using needle thermistors. In the occlusion phase, coronary temperature decreased by 11.4°C (range 9.4-12.5°C). Myocardial temperature throughout the infarct area decreased by 5.1°C (range 1.8-8.1°C) within three minutes. During the reperfusion phase, coronary temperature decreased by 6.2°C (range 4.1-10.3°C) and myocardial temperature decreased by 4.5°C (range 1.5-7.4°C). Myocardial temperature outside the infarct area was not affected. In the isolated beating pig heart with acute occlusion of the LAD, we were able to rapidly “induce, maintain, and control” a stable intracoronary and myocardial target temperature of at least 4°C below body temperature without side effects and using standard PCI equipment, justifying further studies of this technique in humans. PMID:28337283
Keltai, M; Dékány, P; Németh, J; Palik, I; Sitkei, E; Szente, A; Arvay, A
The authors participated in the European multicenter investigation, ESPRIT, organized by the Wellcome Research Laboratories. Thrombolytic treatment by intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was performed in 25 patients with early (less than 6h) myocardial infarction. The efficacy of the treatment was controlled by repeat coronary arteriography at 60 minutes, at 90 minutes and at 24 hours of the tpA treatment. The infarct related artery was reperfused in 9/25 patients at 60 minutes, in 16/25 at 90 minutes and 17/18 at 24 hours. Four patients died after unsuccessful treatment or reocclusion. In two patients significant bleeding occurred at the puncture site but no transfusion was required. No other untoward effect was registered. The left ventricular function did not change significantly during the first day of infarction. It is concluded, that tpA is a safe thrombolytic agent in myocardial infarction. Its thrombolytic efficacy is similar to that of streptokinase.
Mowakeaa, Samer; Snyder, Branden; Kakouros, Nikolaos
Severe coronary artery calcifications pose an ongoing challenge when performing percutaneous coronary interventions, resulting in an increased likelihood of procedural complications. Orbital atherectomy (OA) has emerged as a promising technology that helps improve outcomes in this complex patient population. Its safety and efficacy are yet to be demonstrated in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of a patient with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) evaluated with emergent transradial coronary angiography. The culprit lesion was a severely stenotic, heavily calcified, segment of the right coronary artery. The use of OA facilitated lesion expansion and implantation of a drug-eluting stent. Although OA should be considered as contraindicated for the management of soft-ruptured plaque, which accounts for the majority of STEMI presentations, it may be well applied to the small subset of patients with calcified nodule pathology, even in the acute setting. PMID:28180008
Puanglumyai, Supot; Thamtakerngkit, Somboon; Lekawanvijit, Suree
Blunt thoracic trauma is a common occurrence in automobile accidents. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) caused by coronary dissection following blunt thoracic trauma is rare. We report a case of healthy 24-year-old man with a history of blunt thoracic injury with subsequent undetected AMI who died of acute decompensated heart failure 4 days after the insult. The autopsy findings showed a 90% luminal narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery by dissecting hematoma, 3 cm in length. The myocardium revealed transmural myocardial infarction affecting apex, most part of left ventricular free wall, and interventricular septum. Both lungs were heavy, wet, and noncrepitant. Histological findings of the infarcted myocardium were consistent with 3-5 days post-AMI. Sections from both lungs revealed massive pulmonary edema, reflecting acute decompensated heart failure following a large AMI secondary to coronary dissection. Blunt thoracic trauma may obscure typical chest pain associated with cardiac ischemia especially in cases with a high tolerance for pain.
Martí, Vicens; Seixo, Filipe; Santaló, Miguel; Serra, Antonio
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune coagulation disorder that manifests clinically as venous and arterial thrombosis, and may affect any tissue or organ. Coronary artery involvement, however, is very rare. Case reports in the literature describing patients with coronary acute syndrome and APS treated with coronary angioplasty show conflicting results. We report an adult male patient with APS who presented with an acute myocardial infarction. Given the high risk of thrombosis in these patients, he was treated percutaneously with thrombectomy and abciximab. We review the few cases of coronary angioplasty in patients with APS reported to date. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which acute myocardial infarction due to thrombotic coronary occlusion was treated with thrombectomy and abciximab without stenting the artery.
kidneys of dogs and cats , and suggest some element present in whole blood, but not present in filtered blood may serve to further damage ischemic...minutes of myocardial ischemia in the dog as Krug et al. (66) has reported in the cat . Finally, in this experiment the relationship of inhibited reflow...transient inhibition of flow. One has to wonder if their 6 cats with smaller areas of risk are more like the dogs in this study and may also have had
Dadpour, Bita; Gholoobi, Arash; Tajoddini, Shahrad; Habibi, Amir
Cardiovascular effects of opioid withdrawal have long been studied. It was reported that patients with underlying ischemic heart disease and atherosclerotic vessels may be complicated by a sudden physical and emotional stress due to withdrawal syndrome. But some other believes sudden increase in catecholamine level as a sympathetic overflow might effect on heart with and without underlying ischemia. In the current study, a patient on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) who experienced myocardial infarction (MI) after taking naltrexone was described. PMID:28286852
Marfil-Álvarez, R.; Mesa, F.; Arrebola-Moreno, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, J.A.; Magán-Fernández, A.; O’Valle, F.; Galindo-Moreno, P.; Catena, A.
Cardiovascular disease has been associated with 40% of deaths in high-income countries and 28% in lower-income countries. The relationship between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction is well documented, but it has not been established whether the extent and severity of periodontitis influence the infarct size. This cross-sectional and analytic study was designed to investigate the association of chronic periodontitis extent and severity with acute myocardial infarct size as indicated by serum cardiac troponin I and myoglobin levels. Sociodemographic, periodontal, cardiologic, and hematologic variables were gathered in 112 consecutive patients with myocardial infarction. The extent (Arbes Index) and severity (Periodontal Inflammatory Severity Index) of the chronic periodontitis were significantly associated with troponin I levels after controlling for sociodemographic and clinical confounders (change in R2 = .041, p < .02, and R2 = .031, p = .04). However, only the extent index accounted for levels of myoglobin (change in R2 = .030, p < .05), total leukocytes (change in R2 = .041 p < .02), and neutrophils (change in R2 = .059, p < .01). Mediated regression analysis showed that leukocytes and neutrophils may underlie these observed relationships of chronic periodontitis with troponin I and myoglobin. To our knowledge, this study contributes the first research data demonstrating that the extent and severity of periodontitis is positively associated with acute myocardial infarct size as measured by serum troponin I and myoglobin levels. PMID:25139359
Maciel, Bruno Araújo; Cidrão, Alan Alves de Lima; Sousa, Ítalo Bruno dos Santos; Ferreira, José Adailson da Silva; Messias Neto, Valdevino Pedro
Takotsubo syndrome is characterized by predominantly medial-apical transient left ventricular dysfunction, which is typically triggered by physical or emotional stress. The present article reports the case of a 61-year-old female patient presenting with dizziness, excessive sweating, and sudden state of ill feeling following an episode involving intense emotional stress. The physical examination and electrocardiogram were normal upon admission, but the troponin I and creatine kinase-MB concentrations were increased. Acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation was suspected, and coronary angiography was immediately performed, which showed severe diffuse left ventricular hypokinesia, medial-apical systolic ballooning, and a lack of significant coronary injury. The patient was referred to the intensive care unit and was successfully treated with supportive therapy. As this case shows, Takotsubo syndrome might simulate the clinical manifestations of acute myocardial infarction, and coronary angiography is necessary to distinguish between both myocardial infarction and myocardial infarction in the acute stage. The present patient progressed with spontaneous resolution of the ventricular dysfunction without any sequelae. PMID:23887762
Khaw, B.A.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Johns, J.A.; Kanke, M.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Strauss, H.W.; Haber, E.
Indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin Fab scintigraphy was used to detect myocardial necrosis in 52 of 54 patients (96.3%) with acute myocardial infarction. Infarcts were visualized when coronary arteries were persistently occluded (n = 10), became patent after thrombolysis (n = 33), or became patent after spontaneous reperfusion (n = 7). Posteroinferolateral visualizations were obtained in two patients with clinical and enzymatic evidence of infarction but normal electrocardiograms. Of the two patients in whom no infarcts were visualized, one had an anterior myocardial infarct. This patient underwent successful thrombolytic therapy, with attendant minimization of creatine kinase release. The other patient had a small, nonreperfused inferior myocardial infarct. Five patients with a history of remote infarction and acute necrosis showed antimyosin uptake only in regions concordant with the acute episodes of infarction, and radiolabeled antimyosin Fab localized in neither old infarcts nor normal, noninfarcted myocardium. Antimyosin Fab scintigraphy, thus, appears to be a highly specific means of delineating necrotic myocardium, at least in this limited and selected group of patients.
Verani, M.S.; Tortoledo, F.E.; Batty, J.W.; Raizner, A.E.
The effects of coronary artery recanalization by intracoronary administration of streptokinase on left ventricular function during acute myocardial infarction have received increasing attention in recent years. Although myocardial dysfunction is often more pronounced in the right ventricle than in the left ventricle in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction, the effect of coronary artery recanalization on right ventricular dysfunction has not been previously addressed. Accordingly, in this investigation, 54 patients who participated in a prospective, controlled, randomized trial of recanalization during acute myocardial infarction were studied. Among 30 patients with inferior wall infarction, 19 had right ventricular dysfunction on admission; 11 of these 19 had positive uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the right ventricle, indicative of right ventricular infarction. Patients with successful recanalization exhibited improved right ventricular ejection fraction from admission to day 10. However, control patients and patients who did not undergo recanalization also exhibited improvement. These data indicate that the right ventricular dysfunction commonly associated with inferior wall infarction is often transient, and improvement is the rule, irrespective of early recanalization of the infarct vessel.
Khan, Jamal N; McCann, Gerry P
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging uniquely characterizes myocardial and microvascular injury in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), providing powerful surrogate markers of outcomes. The last 10 years have seen an exponential increase in AMI studies utilizing CMR based endpoints. This article provides a contemporary, comprehensive review of the powerful role of CMR imaging in the assessment of outcomes in AMI. The theory, assessment techniques, chronology, importance in predicting left ventricular function and remodelling, and prognostic value of each CMR surrogate marker is described in detail. Major studies illustrating the importance of the markers are summarized, providing an up to date review of the literature base in CMR imaging in AMI. PMID:28289525
Bachour, G; Hochrein, H
Haemodynamic changes after intravenous administration of 0.4 mg beta-methyldigoxin or 0.4 mg digoxin daily were measured on the first to fourth day in 42 patients in heart failure after onset of transmural myocardial infarction. Regular reduction in filling pressure and increased stroke volume while arterial blood pressure remained unaltered pointed to improved contractility. Digitalization in the first few days after infarction achieved sustained tendency towards improved haemodynamics. It is concluded that early digitalization is indicated in patients with acute myocardial infarction if there are signs of heart failure.
Serpytis, Pranas; Kibarskis, Aleksandras; Katkus, Rimgaudas; Samalavicius, Robertas; Glaveskaite, Sigita; Rackauskas, Gediminas
Therapeutic hypothermia is method used to improve the neurological status of patients who are at risk of ischaemia after myocardial infarction. We report a case of a 28-year-old woman who suffered acute myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular fibrillation. The patient was successfully resuscitated. Invasive and non-invasive medical treatment was applied including therapeutic hypothermia. Success was achieved due to adequate public reaction, fast transportation, blood vessel revascularization and application of therapeutic hypothermia. The patient was successfully discharged after one week of treatment, and just minor changes in heart function were present. PMID:24570755
Jao, Geoffrey T; Knovich, Mary Ann; Savage, Rodney W; Sane, David C
Acute myocardial infarction and acute myeloid leukemia are rarely reported as concomitant conditions. The management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients who have acute myeloid leukemia is challenging: the leukemia-related thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, and systemic coagulopathy increase the risk of bleeding, and the administration of thrombolytic agents can be fatal. We report the case of a 76-year-old man who presented emergently with STEMI, myelodysplastic syndrome, and newly recognized acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Standard antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy were contraindicated by the patient's thrombocytopenia and by his reported ecchymosis and gingival bleeding upon admission. He declined cardiac catheterization, was provided palliative care, and died 2 hours after hospital admission. We searched the English-language medical literature, found 8 relevant reports, and determined that the prognosis for patients with concomitant STEMI and acute myeloid leukemia is clearly worse than that for either individual condition. No guidelines exist to direct the management of STEMI and concomitant acute myeloid leukemia. In 2 reports, dual antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulation, and drug-eluting stent implantation were used without an increased risk of bleeding in the short term, even in the presence of thrombocytopenia. However, we think that a more conservative approach--balloon angioplasty with the provisional use of bare-metal stents--might be safer. Simultaneous chemotherapy for the acute myeloid leukemia is crucial. Older age seems to be a major risk factor: patients too frail for emergent treatment can die within hours or days.
Wisneski, J A; Stanley, W C; Neese, R A; Gertz, E W
The effects of hyperglycemia on myocardial glucose metabolism were investigated in seven healthy male subjects (age 24 +/- 4 yr). [6-14C]Glucose and [U-13C]lactate were infused as tracers. Circulating glucose was elevated to two hyperglycemic levels using a clamp technique for 1 h at each level. The mean arterial glucose concentration was 4.95 +/- 0.29 (control), 8.33 +/- 0.31 and 10.84 +/- 0.60 mumols/ml, respectively. Glucose extraction increased significantly from control (0.15 +/- 0.13 mumols/ml) during each level of the glucose clamp (0.28 +/- 0.12, P less than 0.02, and 0.54 +/- 0.14 mumols/ml, P less than 0.005, respectively). Myocardial production of 14CO2 showed that during control 9 +/- 10% of exogenous glucose was oxidized immediately upon extraction. Despite a significant increase in the amount of exogenous glucose oxidized with level II hyperglycemia, it represented only 32 +/- 10% of the glucose extracted. [13C]Lactate analysis showed that the myocardium was releasing lactate; during control 40 +/- 30% of this lactate was derived from exogenous glucose and during hyperglycemia this value increased to 97 +/- 37% (P less than 0.005). Thus, these data show that during short-term hyperglycemia, myocardial glucose extraction is enhanced. However, despite increases in exogenous glucose oxidation and the contribution of exogenous glucose to lactate release, the majority of the extracted glucose (i.e., 57%) is probably stored as glycogen. PMID:2185277
Marwick, T.H.; Hollman, J. )
This report describes the occurrence of chest pain and electrocardiographic features of acute myocardial infarction following intravenous dipyridamole-handgrip stress. Myocardial perfusion imaging (Rb-82 PET) demonstrated a stress-induced perfusion defect. Following failure to respond to medical therapy, urgent cardiac catheterization demonstrated total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The vessel was revascularized, with limitation of myocardial damage evidenced by failure to develop anterior Q waves and only modest elevation of cardiac enzyme levels. Complications of intravenous dipyridamole stress are rare, this case constituting the first major problem in over 500 such procedures at this institution. However, this experience demonstrates the importance of vigilant observation during the performance of this technique.
Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Bozbeyoğlu, Emrah; Akyüz, Şükrü; Yıldırımtürk, Özlem; Bozbay, Mehmet; Bakhshaliyev, Nijad; Renda, Emir; Gök, Gülay; Eren, Mehmet; Pehlivanoğlu, Seçkin
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) and pulmonary embolism canal one lead to life-threatening conditions such as sudden cardiac death and congestive heart failure. We discuss a case of a 74-year-old man presented to the emergency department with acute dyspnea and chest pain. Acute anterior MI and pulmonary embolism concomitantly were diagnosed. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention performed because of preliminary acute anterior MI diagnosis. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to determine further complications caused by acute MI because patient had a continuous tachycardia and dyspnea although hemodynamically stable. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a thrombus that was stuck into the patent foramen ovale with parts in right and left atria. Anticoagulation therapy was started; neither fibrinolytic therapy nor operation was performed because of low survey expectations of the patient's recently diagnosed primary disease stage IV lung cancer. Patient was discharged on his 20th day with oral anticoagulation and antiagregant therapy.
Khosravi Samani, Mahmoud; Jalali, Farzad; Seyyed Ahadi, Seyyed Masud; Hoseini, Seyyed Reza; Dabbagh Sattari, Farhad
Background: Periodontitis is common in adults and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of adult death in the world. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CVD and periodontitis. Methods: Sixty patients with myocardial infarction (MI) as case and 63 subjects with periodontitis without MI as control were studied. Periodontitis was assessed according to Ramfjord periodontal diseases index and the number of missing teeth besides classic risk factors of MI were recorded. Results: The patients who lost more than 10 teeth were at more risk of myocardial infarction (OR=2.73). There was a significant relationship between mean attachment loss and MI (p=0.0001). There was also a relation between attachment loss more than 3 mm and MI with OR of 4. Significant difference between mean PDI (periodontal disease index) was seen in case and control groups (p=0.0001). Subjects with PDI>4 were at more risk of periodontal diseases (OR=7.87). Conclusion: The results show the presence of significant relation between periodontitis and MI which could serve as an alarm to treat periodontitis carefully. PMID:24009957
Ober, Camelia Diana; Ober, Mihai Claudiu; Iancu, Adrian Corneliu
"No reflow" phenomenon is a common complication with significant prognostic repercussions after reperfused acute myocardial infarction. Previous studies have shown the feasibility and prognostic significance of coronary microcirculation assessment by transthoracic Doppler of left anterior descending artery (LAD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course of the coronary microcirculation status after acute anterior myocardial infarction reperfused by primary angioplasty with stent on LAD.
Mongiovì, Maurizio; Alaimo, Annalisa; Vernuccio, Federica; Pieri, Daniele
We report a case of acute myocardial infarction in an 8-year-old boy with a history of Kawasaki disease and giant coronary aneurysms in the right and left coronary arteries. We performed coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention 4 hours after the onset of symptoms. This case suggests that primary percutaneous coronary intervention might be safe and effective in the long-term treatment of acute myocardial infarction due to coronary sequelae of Kawasaki.
So, Aaron; Hsieh, Jiang; Li, Jian-Ying; Hadway, Jennifer; Kong, Hua-Fu; Lee, Ting-Yim
We validated a CT perfusion technique with beam hardening (BH) correction for quantitative measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF). Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was created in four pigs by occluding the distal LAD for 1 h followed by reperfusion. MBF was measured from dynamic contrast enhanced CT (DCE-CT) scanning of the heart, with correction of cardiac motion and BH, before ischemic insult and on day 7, 10 and 14 post. On day 14 post, radiolabeled microspheres were injected to measure MBF and the results were compared with those measured by CT perfusion. Excised hearts were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to determine the relationship between MBF measured by CT Perfusion and myocardial viability. MBF measured by CT perfusion was strongly correlated with that by microspheres over a wide range of MBF values (R = 0.81, from 25 to 225 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1)). While MBF in the LAD territory decreased significantly from 98.4 ± 2.5 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1) at baseline to 32.2 ± 9.1 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1), P < 0.05 at day 7 and to 49.4 ± 9.3 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1), P < 0.05 at day 14, the decrease in remote myocardium (LCx territory) from baseline (103.9 ± 1.9 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1)) was minimal throughout the study (90.6 ± 5.1 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1) on day 14 post, P > 0.05). TTC staining confirmed incomplete infarction in the LAD territory and no infarction in the LCx territory. Microvascular obstruction in infarcted tissue resulted in no-reflow and hence persistently low MBF in the reperfused LAD territory which contained a mixture of viable and non-viable tissue. CT perfusion measurement of MBF was accurate and correlated well with histology and microspheres measurements.
Hazini, Ahmet; Işıldak, İbrahim; Alpdağtaş, Saadet; Önül, Abdullah; Şenel, Ünal; Kocaman, Tuba; Dur, Ali; Iraz, Mustafa; Uyarel, Hüseyin
Introduction Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is still one of the most common causes of death worldwide. In recent years, for diagnosis of myocardial ischemia, a new parameter, called ischemia modified albumin (IMA), which is thought to be more advantageous than common methods, has been researched. Aim In this study, systematic analysis of parameters considered to be related to myocardial ischemia has been performed, comparing between control and myocardial ischemia groups. Material and methods We selected 40 patients with AMI and 25 healthy controls for this study. Ischemia modified albumin levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) antioxidant enzyme activities and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid levels were investigated in both groups. Glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, which are indicators of oxidative stress, were compared between patient and control groups. Results Ischemia modified albumin levels were found significantly higher in the AMI diagnosed group when compared with controls. The MDA level was elevated in the patient group, whereas the GSH level was decreased. SOD, GPx and CAT enzyme levels were decreased in the patient group, where it could be presumed that oxidative stress causes the cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Due to the increased oxidative stress, non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant capacity was affected. Systematic investigation of parameters related to myocardial infarction has been performed, and it is believed that such parameters can contribute to protection and early diagnosis of AMI and understanding the mechanism of development of the disease. PMID:26677379
Rizk, Sherif R Y; El Said, Galal; Daniels, Lori B; Burns, Jane C; El Said, Howaida; Sorour, Khaled A; Gharib, Soliman; Gordon, John B
Coronary artery aneurysms that occur in 25% of untreated Kawasaki disease (KD) patients may remain clinically silent for decades and then thrombose resulting in myocardial infarction. Although KD is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in Asia, the United States, and Western Europe, the incidence of KD in Egypt is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that young adults in Egypt presenting with acute myocardial ischemia may have coronary artery lesions because of KD in childhood. We reviewed a total of 580 angiograms of patients ≤40 years presenting with symptoms of myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery aneurysms were noted in 46 patients (7.9%), of whom 9 presented with myocardial infarction. The likelihood of antecedent KD as the cause of the aneurysms was classified as definite (n = 10), probable (n = 29), or equivocal (n = 7). Compared with the definite and probable groups, the equivocal group had more traditional cardiovascular risk factors, smaller sized aneurysms, and fewer coronary arteries affected. In conclusion, in a major metropolitan center in Egypt, 6.7% of adults aged ≤40 years who underwent angiography for evaluation of possible myocardial ischemia had lesions consistent with antecedent KD. Because of the unique therapeutic challenges associated with these lesions, adult cardiologists should be aware that coronary artery aneurysms in young adults may be because of missed KD in childhood.
Rizk, Sherif RY; El Said, Galal; Daniels, Lori B; Burns, Jane C; El Said, Howaida; Sorour, Khaled A; Gharib, Soliman; Gordon, John B
Coronary artery aneurysms that occur in 25% of untreated Kawasaki disease (KD) patients may remain clinically silent for decades and then thrombose resulting in myocardial infarction. Although KD is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in Asia, the United States, and Western Europe, the incidence of KD in Egypt is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that young adults in Egypt presenting with acute myocardial ischemia may have coronary artery lesions due Kawasaki disease (KD) in childhood. We reviewed a total of 580 angiograms of patients ≤ 40 years of age presenting with symptoms of myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery aneurysms were noted in 46 patients (7.9 %) of whom nine presented with myocardial infarction. The likelihood of antecedent KD as the cause of the aneurysms was classified as definite (n=10), probable (n=29), or equivocal (n=7). Compared to the definite and probable groups, the equivocal group had more traditional cardiovascular risk factors, smaller sized aneurysms, and fewer coronary arteries affected. In conclusion, in a major metropolitan center in Egypt, 6.7% of adults age 40 years or younger undergoing angiography for evaluation of possible myocardial ischemia had lesions consistent with antecedent KD. Because of the unique therapeutic challenges associated with these lesions, adult cardiologists should be aware that coronary artery aneurysms in young adults may be due to missed KD in childhood. PMID:25555655
Neri, Margherita; Pascale, Natascha; Pomara, Cristoforo
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Reperfusion strategies are the current standard therapy for AMI. However, they may result in paradoxical cardiomyocyte dysfunction, known as ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI). Different forms of IRI are recognized, of which only the first two are reversible: reperfusion-induced arrhythmias, myocardial stunning, microvascular obstruction, and lethal myocardial reperfusion injury. Sudden death is the most common pattern for ischemia-induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias during AMI. The exact mechanisms of IRI are not fully known. Molecular, cellular, and tissue alterations such as cell death, inflammation, neurohumoral activation, and oxidative stress are considered to be of paramount importance in IRI. However, comprehension of the exact pathophysiological mechanisms remains a challenge for clinicians. Furthermore, myocardial IRI is a critical issue also for forensic pathologists since sudden death may occur despite timely reperfusion following AMI, that is one of the most frequently litigated areas of cardiology practice. In this paper we explore the literature regarding the pathophysiology of myocardial IRI, focusing on the possible role of the calpain system, oxidative-nitrosative stress, and matrix metalloproteinases and aiming to foster knowledge of IRI pathophysiology also in terms of medicolegal understanding of sudden deaths following AMI. PMID:28286377
Deng, Long; Hong, Tao; Lin, Jinyi; Ding, Suling; Huang, Zheyong; Chen, Jinmiao; Jia, Jianguo; Zou, Yunzeng; Wang, Timothy C; Yang, Xiangdong; Ge, Junbo
Histamine is a biogenic amine that is widely distributed and has multiple functions, but the role it plays in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the origin and contribution of endogenous histamine to AMI. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is the unique enzyme responsible for histamine generation. Using HDC-EGFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice in which EGFP expression is controlled by the HDC promoter, we identified HDC expression primarily in CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs) that markedly increase in the early stages of AMI. Deficiency of histamine in HDC knockout mice (HDC(-/-)) reduced cardiac function and exacerbated the injury of infarcted heart. Furthermore, administering either an H1 receptor antagonist (pyrilamine) or an H2 receptor antagonist (cimetidine) demonstrated a protective effect of histamine against myocardial injury. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays showed that histamine deficiency promotes the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and inhibits macrophage infiltration. In conclusion, CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) IMCs are the predominant HDC-expressing sites in AMI, and histamine plays a protective role in the process of AMI through inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and facilitation of macrophage infiltration.
Stoliarova, V V
The frequency of myocardial ischemia onsets, QT interval dispersion, homeostasis characteristics, and lipid peroxidation parameters were studied in a group of 49 patients with acute disturbance of cerebral circulation (ADCC). The Holter ECG monitoring revealed myocardial ischemia episodes in 42% of patients, and myocardial instability manifested by the QT interval variance in 82% of patients. The control group (30 patients) received standard complex therapy, while the test group (19 patients) additionally received emoxypine. The administration of emoxypine reduced the incidence of myocardial ischemia and positively influenced the QT interval variance and the main parameters of homeostasis.
Rezakovic, D; Rutishauser, W; Pavicic, L; Popadic, M; Bloch, A; Imhoff, E W
The hemodynamic effects of intravenously administered trinitroglycerin (TNT) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) in stechiometric equivalent doses were studied in 30 patients with acute myocardial infarction. Both drugs were given over 30 min in every patient, and the stability of the condition of the patient was checked by administering the initial drug again. Measurements were made by right heart catheterization using a balloon tip thermodilution catheter and a catheter in the radial artery. TNT and ISDN have different hemodynamic effects. By multivariate analysis it could be shown that TNT is a venous dilator, lowering mainly pulmonary capillary pressure, while ISDN acts more as a mixed vasodilator, diminishing mainly peripheral vascular resistance and increasing cardiac output. These drugs have, therefore, a different spectrum of indications in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Nakazone, Marcelo A.; Machado, Maurício N.; Barbosa, Raphael B.; Santos, Márcio A.; Maia, Lilia N.
Cardiovascular abnormalities are well-known manifestations of tertiary syphilis infections which although not frequent, are still causes of morbidity and mortality. A less common manifestation of syphilitic aortitis is coronary artery ostial narrowing related to aortic wall thickening. We report a case of a 46-year-old male admitted due to acute anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction submitted to primary percutaneous coronary intervention successfully. Coronary angiography showed a suboccluded ostial lesion of left main coronary artery. VDRL was titrated to 1/512. The patient was discharged with treatment including benzathine penicillin. Previous case reports of acute myocardial infarction in association with syphilitic coronary artery ostial stenosis have been reported, but the fact that the patient was treated by percutaneous coronary intervention is unique in this case. PMID:21052501
Varga, T; Szabó, A
Myocardial lesions occuring in diseases with acute increase of intracranial pressure were investigated. Morphologic alterations in heart muscle in spite of different lengh of surviving and various causes of the death were of similar type. In every case subendocardial haemorrhage could be observed on the septal surface and on the papillary muscle of the left ventricle. Focal intracellular edema, myocytolysis were revealed in 76%, focal necrosis of hypercontractic type developed in 52% of the cases. Cellular infiltration occurred around the alternations observed in 3 cases. It is concluded, that damage to the heart muscle is not caused directly by the increased intracranial pressure or catecholamine mobilisation, but seems to be the consequence of the acute myocardial hypoxia.
Sochman, J; Fabiían, J; Englis, M; Belán, A
The authors criticize contemporary views on creatine kinase kinetics in relation to the patency or occlusion of the coronary artery in the area of the infarction focus. In the investigation proper the time needed to achieve the peak plasma creatine kinase activity after the onset of infarction pain in patients with necroses in different areas of the left ventricle is assessed. Although the interpretation of the observed phenomenon is not clear so far, this finding makes the informative value of the hitherto used time parameter of the kinetics of this enzyme doubtful, in particular in thrombolytic treatment of myocardial infarction. In practice it is thus not possible to evaluate the restored patency of the artery to the necrotic focus on the basis of the above parameter.
Sulaiman, Wahinuddin; Seung, Ong Ping; Noor, Sabariah Mohd
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare primary vasculitic disease characterized by hypereosinophilia, late onset asthma and extravascular eosinophil granulomas. We report a case presented initially with acute myocardial infarction which later only proceed with asthma, skin manifestations and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory parameters showed hypereosinohpilia with negative perinuclear pattern of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (p-ANCA). Skin biopsy showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis with eosinophilic infiltration while coronary angiography was normal. The patient's symptoms improved with IV methylprednisolone, pulse cyclophosphamide and azathioprine.
Rains, Martin G; Laney, Charles A; Bailey, Alison L; Campbell, Charles L
In the broadest context, biological markers, or biomarkers, are molecules that characterize a biological system or process. In the setting of cardiovascular disease, a number of biomarkers have become an integral part of diagnostic and risk stratification strategies. In this review, we will discuss classic and emerging biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and the role of these biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of elderly patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25053882
Safi, Morteza; Khaheshi, Isa; Memaryan, Mehdi; Naderian, Mohammadreza
Hemorrhagic complications of thrombolytic therapy are rare but also serious and sometimes life-threatening. Liver hematoma is a very uncommon complication following thrombolytic therapy. We present a rare case of sub-capsular liver hematoma following streptokinase therapy of acute myocardial infarction as a challenging condition. This case report highlights that emergency physicians and cardiologists should be familiar with the significant and uncommon complications of thrombolytic agents, particularly streptokinase which is used generally in under- developed countries.
Dorsch, M; Lawrance, R; Sapsford, R; Oldham, J; Greenwood, D; Jackson, B; Morrell, C; Ball, S; Robinson, M; Hall, A
OBJECTIVE—To develop a simple risk model as a basis for evaluating care of patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS—From coronary care registers, biochemistry records and hospital management systems, 2153 consecutive patients with confirmed acute myocardial infarction were identified. With 30 day all cause mortality as the end point, a multivariable logistic regression model of risk was constructed and validated in independent patient cohorts. The areas under receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated as an assessment of sensitivity and specificity. The model was reapplied to a number of commonly studied subgroups for further assessment of robustness. RESULTS—A three variable model was developed based on age, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure on admission. This produced an individual probability of death by 30 days (P30) where P30 = 1/(1 + exp(−L30)) and L30 = −5.624 + (0.085 × age) + (0.014 × heart rate) − (0.022 × systolic blood pressure). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the reference and test cohorts were 0.79 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.82) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.79), respectively. To aid application of the model to routine clinical audit, a normogram relating observed mortality and sample size to the likelihood of a significant deviation from the expected 30 day mortality rate was constructed. CONCLUSIONS—This risk model is simple, reproducible, and permits quality of care of acute myocardial infarction patients to be reliably evaluated both within and between centres. Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; risk model PMID:11454829
Casaccia, Michele; Sicuro, Marco; Scacciatella, Paolo
A unidirectional clinical pathway for acute myocardial infarction from out-of-hospital setting to the coronary care unit and catheterization laboratory could lead to mortality reduction. The ongoing "Progetto Torino Network. Gestione globale dell'infarto miocardico acuto prime ore dal territorio all'ospedale" is based on this statement and described in the three-structural, diagnostic-therapeutical, multimedial issues. This project represents the historical evolution of our involvement in out-of-hospital cardiac emergency management.
Paraskevaidis, Stelios; Theofilogiannakos, Efstratios K; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Mantziari, Lilian; Economou, Fotis; Ziakas, Antonios; Hadjimiltiades, Stavros; Styliadis, Ioannis H
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute ischemic coronary events and sudden cardiac death. It usually occurs in young women without traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease during pregnancy or postpartum period. However, it has also been reported in patients with atherosclerotic coronary disease. We present a case of spontaneous right coronary artery dissection in a 48-year male with recent myocardial infarction and previous percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:21127744
Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Meenakshisundaram, Ramachandran; Michaels, Andrew D; Suresh, Ponuswamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following a centipede bite has been very rarely reported. Here, we describe a 22 year-old man who had ST-segment elevation AMI after a centipede bite. He presented with typical chest pain, electro and echocardiographic abnormalities, and elevated cardiac enzymes with normal coronary angiography. The probable mechanisms were described. Practitioners treating centipede bites shall not consider it lightly, as centipede envenomation may produce a variety of systemic and local manifestations in susceptible individuals.
Li, Xiao; Wang, Yi-Ning; Jin, Zheng-Yu
Stem cell therapy has a unique potential and promises hope for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Preclinical studies have identified barriers to clinical translation, one of which involves the monitoring of transplanted cells and the elucidation of their fates in vivo. Molecular imaging may help the solutions for these challenges. In this review, we illustrate the mechanisms by which molecular imaging enables insights into and the development of stem cell therapy. PMID:26309546
Ahmed, Khurshid; Chakraborty, Rabin; Hong, Young Joon; Sim, Doo Sun; Ahmed, Sumera; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Lee, Min Goo; Park, Keun Ho; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee
The aim of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of 4 homogenous overlapping drug-eluting stents (DES) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. We selected 1,349 consecutive patients (62.1 ± 14.9 yr, 69.4% male) who received homogenous overlapping DESs in diffuse de novo coronary lesions from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from April 2006 through September 2010. They were divided into 4 groups based on type of DES implanted - Paclitaxel (PES), Sirolimus (SES), Zotarolimus (ZES) and Everolimus (EES)-eluting stents. Primary endpoint was 12-month MACE. We also studied EES versus other DESs (PES + SES + ZES). Mean stent length was 26.2 ± 7.5 mm and mean stent diameter was 3.1 ± 0.4 mm. Average number of stents used per vessel was 2.2 ± 0.5. Incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in PES, SES, ZES, and EES groups were 9.5%, 9.2%, 7.5%, and 3.8%, respectively (P = 0.013). In EES group, overall MACE and repeat revascularization were lowest, and no incidence of stent thrombosis was observed. Non-fatal MI was highest in PES, almost similar in SES and EES with no incidence in ZES group (P = 0.044). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed no differences in the incidence of primary endpoint (P = 0.409). This study shows no significant differences in 12-month MACE among 4 groups. PMID:23166415
Perna, Avio-Maria; Masini, Emanuela; Nistri, Silvia; Bani Sacchi, Tatiana; Bigazzi, Mario; Bani, Daniele
This study shows that relaxin can be effective in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. In a swine model of heart ischemia-reperfusion currently used to test cardiotropic drugs because of its similarities with human myocardial infarction, human recombinant relaxin (2.5 and 5 microg/kg body weight), given at reperfusion after a 30-min ischemia, markedly reduced the main serum markers of myocardial damage (myoglobin, CK-MB, and troponin T) and the metabolic and histopathologic parameters of myocardial inflammation and cardiomyocyte injury, resulting in overall improvement of ventricular performance (increased cardiac index) compared to the controls. These results provide a background for future clinical trials with human relaxin as adjunctive therapy to catheter-based coronary angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Golubeva, A V; Gavrilova, S A; Lipina, T V; Shornikova, M V; Postnikov, A B; Andreeva, L A; Chentsov, Iu S; Koshelev, V B
Semax, a member of ACTH-derived peptides family, has been employed in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in patients. It decreased neurological deficit and reduced NO hyperproduction in the rat brain, caused by acute cerebral hypoperfusion. We suggested that semax is also able to protect rat heart from ischemic damage in acute myocardial infaction (AMI). AMI was induced by left coronary artery occlusion, myocardial ischemic area averaged 30 % of left ventricle. In 2 hours after coronary occlusion, the AMI group developed 11 % reduced mean arterial blood pressure and 48 % increased diastolic blood pressure in left ventricle in comparison with sham-operated control group. However, infusion of either dobutamine, which directly stimulates myocardial contractility, or sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, that change vascular resistance and thus cardiac afterload, did not reveal distinctions in hemodynamic parameters between groups. These data indicate absense or only moderate cardiac dysfunction in rats with AMI and are consistent wih morphometrical and histochemical studies that did not detect any necrotic or apoptotic (TUNEL-test) changes in left ventricular cardiomyocytes in spite of development of distinct ischemic disturbances of mitochondria and nuclear in about 50 % of cardiomyocytes in 2 hours after AMI. Semax (150 microg/kg), given i. p. 15 min and 2 hours after coronary occlusion, caused no effect on cardiac function, but completely prevented ischemia-induced ultrastructural changes of cardiomyocytes. This protective effect was accompanied by the ability of peptide to blunt the increase in plasma concentrations of nitrates, observed in AMI group.
Younis, L.T.; Byers, S.; Shaw, L.; Barth, G.; Goodgold, H.; Chaitman, B.R.
Seventy-seven patients recovering from an acute coronary event were studied by intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy to evaluate the prognostic value and safety of the test in this patient subset. Forty-four patients (58%) had unstable angina and 33 (42%) had an acute myocardial infarction. One death occurred within 24 hours of testing. Sixty-eight patients were followed for an average of 12 months; 25, 31 and 23% had a fixed, reversible or combined thallium defect on their predischarge thallium scan. During follow-up, 10 patients died or had a nonfatal myocardial infarction; in each case, a reversible or combined myocardial thallium defect was present. Univariate analysis of 17 clinical, scintigraphic and angiographic variables showed that a reversible thallium defect and the angiographically determined extent of coronary artery disease were predictors of future cardiac events. The extent of coronary disease and global left ventricular ejection fraction were predictors of subsequent reinfarction or death. Logistic regression analyses revealed that a reversible thallium defect (p less than 0.001) and the extent of coronary disease (p less than 0.009) were the only significant predictors of a cardiac event. When death or reinfarction were the outcome variables, the extent of coronary disease (p less than 0.02) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p less than 0.06) were the only variables selected. Thus, intravenous dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy after an acute coronary ischemic syndrome is a useful and relatively safe noninvasive test to predict subsequent cardiac events.
Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Feit, Frederick
The evolution of the management of acute myocardial infarction (MI) has been one of the crowning achievements of modern medicine. At the turn of the twentieth century, MI was an often-fatal condition. Prolonged bed rest served as the principal treatment modality. Over the past century, insights into the pathophysiology of MI revolutionized approaches to management, with the sequential use of surgical coronary artery revascularization, thrombolytic therapy, and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with primary coronary angioplasty, and placement of intracoronary stents. The benefits of prompt revascularization inspired systems of care to provide rapid access to PCI. This review provides a historical context for our current approach to primary PCI for acute MI.
Sim, Doo Sun; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung
Background and Objectives The benefit of early statin treatment following acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated with cardiogenic shock (CS) has not been well studied. We sought to assess the effect of early statin therapy in patients with CS complicating acute MI. Subjects and Methods We studied 553 statin-naive patients with acute MI and CS (Killip class IV) who underwent revascularization therapy between November 2005 and January 2008 at 51 hospitals in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received statins during hospitalization (n=280) and those who did not (n=273). The influence of statin treatment on a 12-month clinical outcome was examined using a matched-pairs analysis (n=200 in each group) based on the propensity for receiving statin therapy during hospitalization. Results Before adjustment, patients receiving statin, compared to those not receiving statin, had a more favorable clinical profile, were less likely to suffer procedural complications, and more likely to receive adequate medical therapy. Patients receiving statin had lower unadjusted in-hospital mortality and composite rate of mortality, MI, and repeat revascularization at 12 months, which remained significantly lower after adjustment for patient risk, procedural characteristics, and treatment propensity. Conclusion In CS patients with acute MI undergoing revascularization therapy, early statin treatment initiated during hospitalization was associated with lower rates of in-hospital death and 12-month adverse cardiac events. PMID:23508129
Nomura, Tetsuya; Kusaba, Tetsuro; Kodama, Naotoshi; Terada, Kensuke; Urakabe, Yota; Nishikawa, Susumu; Keira, Natsuya; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Tatsumi, Tetsuya
It is well known that silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) often complicates patients with cerebral infarction and that stroke patients often die of ischemic heart disease. Therefore, it is considered important to treat myocardial ischemia in stroke patients. This study investigated SMI complicating Japanese patients with fresh stroke, using (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy with pharmacologic stress testing to elucidate their clinical manifestations. This study included 41 patients (26 men, mean age 76.0 ± 10.7 years) with acute cerebral infarction and no history of coronary artery disease. All patients underwent (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy with intravenous administration of adenosine to diagnose SMI. Of the 41 patients, myocardial ischemia was confirmed in 17 patients (41.5%). Atherosclerotic etiology was the major cause of stroke in the ischemia(+) group and embolic origin was the major cause in the ischemia(-) group. Patients with myocardial ischemia had a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus (52.9 vs 20.8%; P = 0.0323) and more than two conventional cardiovascular risk factors (64.7 vs 25.0%; P = 0.0110) compared with the nonischemic patients. Infarction subtype of atherosclerotic origin was an independent positive predictor of asymptomatic myocardial ischemia in patients with stroke. These findings indicate that the prevalence of asymptomatic myocardial ischemia is relatively high, especially in patients with stroke of atherosclerotic origin. Therefore, it is beneficial for us to narrow the target population who are at the highest risk when screening for SMI in Japanese patients with acute cerebral infarction.
Bakker, A J; Gorgels, J P; van Vlies, B; Koelemay, M J; Smits, R; Tijssen, J G; Haagen, F D
OBJECTIVE--To assess the diagnostic value at admission of creatine kinase MB mass concentration, alone or in combination with electrocardiographic changes, in suspected myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Prospective study of all consecutive patients admitted within 12 hours after onset of chest pain to a coronary care unit for evaluation of suspected myocardial infarction. SETTING--Large regional hospital. PATIENTS--In 297 patients creatine kinase and creatine kinase MB activities and creatine kinase MB mass concentration were determined. Myocardial infarction according to the criteria of the World Health Organisation was diagnosed in 154 patients and excluded in 143 patients (including 70 with unstable angina pectoris). RESULTS--Sensitivity/specificity for creatine kinase MB mass concentration in patients admitted within 4 hours and 4-12 hours after onset of chest pain were 45%/94% and 76%/79% respectively. Corresponding values for creatine kinase activity were 20%/89% and 59%/83%, and for creatine kinase MB activity 16%/87% and 53%/87%. Raised creatine kinase MB mass concentration was seen in 17% of patients with unstable angina pectoris. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that independent predictors of acute myocardial infarction in patients admitted within 4 hours after onset of chest pain were electrocardiographic changes and creatine kinase MB mass concentration on admission; in patients admitted 4-12 hours after the onset of pain independent predictors were electrocardiographic changes and creatine kinase MB mass concentration and activity. CONCLUSION--Creatine kinase MB mass concentration is a more sensitive marker for myocardial infarction than the activity of creatine kinase and its MB isoenzyme. Electrocardiographic changes on admission in combination with creatine kinase MB mass concentration (instead of creatine kinase and creatine kinase MB activities) are best in diagnosing myocardial infarction. PMID:7917680
Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; de Almeida, Eros Antonio
Background In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Objective Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Methods Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. Results No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN. PMID:25494017
Taniyama, Yoshiaki; Katsuragi, Naruto; Sanada, Fumihiro; Azuma, Junya; Iekushi, Kazuma; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Okayama, Keita; Ikeda-Iwabu, Yuka; Muratsu, Jun; Otsu, Rei; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi
We previously reported that overexpression of full-length periostin, Pn-1, resulted in ventricular dilation with enhanced interstitial collagen deposition in a rat model. However, other reports have documented that the short-form splice variants Pn-2 (lacking exon 17) and Pn-4 (lacking exons 17 and 21) promoted cardiac repair by angiogenesis and prevented cardiac rupture after acute myocardial infarction. The apparently differing findings from those reports prompted us to use a neutralizing antibody to selectively inhibit Pn-1 by blockade of exon 17 in a rat acute myocardial infarction model. Administration of Pn neutralizing antibody resulted in a significant decrease in the infarcted and fibrotic areas of the myocardium, which prevented ventricular wall thinning and dilatation. The inhibition of fibrosis by Pn neutralizing antibody was associated with a significant decrease in gene expression of fibrotic markers, including collagen I, collagen III, and transforming growth factor-β1. Importantly, the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts was significantly reduced in the hearts of animals treated with Pn neutralizing antibody, whereas cardiomyocyte proliferation and angiogenesis were comparable in the IgG and neutralizing antibody groups. Moreover, the level of Pn-1 expression was significantly correlated with the severity of myocardial infarction. In addition, Pn-1, but not Pn-2 or Pn-4, inhibited fibroblast and myocyte attachment, which might account for the cell slippage observed during cardiac remodeling. Collectively, these results indicate that therapeutics that specifically inhibit Pn exon-17, via a neutralizing antibody or drug, without suppressing other periostin variants might offer a new class of medication for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction patients.
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Ahmed, Nadeem; Carrick, David; Layland, Jamie; Oldroyd, Keith G; Berry, Colin
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, despite the rate having significantly declined over the past decade. The aim of this review is to consider the emerging diagnostic and clinical utility of cardiac MRI in patients with recent AMI. Cardiac MRI has high reproducibility and accuracy, allowing detailed functional assessment and characterisation of myocardial tissue. In addition to traditional measures including infarct size (IS), transmural extent of necrosis and microvascular obstruction (MVO), other infarct characteristics can now be identified using innovative MRI techniques. These novel pathologies include myocardial oedema and myocardial haemorrhage which also have functional and prognostic implications for patients. In addition to its diagnostic utility in ordinary clinical practice, cardiac MRI has been increasingly used to provide information on surrogate outcome measures, such as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes, in clinical trials. MRI is becoming more available in secondary care, however, the potential clinical utility and cost effectiveness of MRI in post-MI patients remains uncertain. Cardiac MRI is most likely to be useful in high risk patients with risk factors for heart failure (HF). This includes individuals with early signs of pump failure and risk factors for adverse remodelling, such as MVO. This review focuses on the role of cardiac MRI in the assessment of patients with AMI.
Simari, Robert D.; Bell, M. R.; Pao, Y. C.; Gersh, B. J.; Ritman, Erik L.
Clinical and experimental data suggest that delayed reperfusion of the infarct related artery may limit infarct expansion without increasing myocardial salvage. In order to assess the potential mechanisms involved, an acute closed chest canine model of myocardial infarction and delayed reperfusion was studied. Nineteen dogs underwent 3D computed tomography in the Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor (a fast, volume imaging, CT scanner) at baseline and three and four hours later to estimate left ventricular chamber volumes, global distensibility and regional myocardial stiffness. A control group was scanned without intervention. An occlusion group underwent four hours of coronary artery occlusion. A reperfusion group underwent three hours of coronary artery occlusion followed by one hour of reperfusion. Similar infarct sizes were seen in the occlusion and reperfusion groups. Globally reperfusion was associated with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure and prolongation of global relaxation. Regionally reperfusion was associated with increased myocardial stiffness, intramyocardial blood volume and wall thickness within the infarct zone relative to the not reperfused myocardium.
Hannachi, N; Derbel, F; Ben Ismail, M
The objective is to study the clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics as well as the course of myocardial infarction complicated by atrio-ventricular block (AVB), and to propose a management to acute myocardial infarction with A-V block. This study concerns 90 patients (78 men and 12 women), with a mean age of 58 years. The overall frequency of AVB is 7.6 p. cent. The infarction is most of the time found posteriorly (51 p. cent of the cases). Syncopes are essentially seen in complete AVB (81 p. cent) and with deep antero-septal necrosis (73 p. cent). Heart failure is especially the complication of anterior (73 p. cent) and deep septal (78 p. cent) necrosis. The mortality of myocardial infarction complicated by A-V block (41 p. cent) is higher than that of uncomplicated necroses (15 p. cent). The prognosis is usually favorable in posteriorly located infarctions where the A-V block is usually regressive and benign while it is much more severe in other locations where the conduction disorders associated with severe myocardial lesions. Temporary and/or permanent electrosystolic stimulation must be well codified in its indications which should be broadened, especially in case of anterior or deep septal necrosis.
Ramachandran, Padmakumar; Krishnan, Anand Muthu; Chowdary, Ravella Keerthika; Malpe, Umesh Pai
The anomalous origin of the entire coronary system from the right coronary sinus is a very rare anomaly. Here a patient with this rare anomaly, who developed acute coronary syndrome, requiring revascularization, is presented and treated successfully. His coronary angiographic findings are also discussed. We would like to highlight the rarity of the origin of all 3 coronary arteries from a single coronary trunk. The case also highlights the importance of using Amplantzer AR1 guiding catheter for such anatomical variations arising in the right coronary cusp. PMID:28208910
Yanık, Ahmet; Akçay, Murat; Menekşe, Serdar; Yazgan, Uğur Gökmen
A 70-year-old man with hypertension was admitted to our coronary ICU with acute anterior MI. Emergent primary PCI was planned and coronary angiography was performed. LAD artery was totally occluded in the proximal segment just after a huge 32 × 26 mm sized aneurysm. Emergent CABG operation was performed in 75 minutes because of multivessel disease including the RCA and left circumflex artery. Aneurysm was ligated and coronary bypass was performed using LIMA and saphenous grafts. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. He was discharged with medical therapy including ASA, clopidogrel, and atorvastatin. He was asymptomatic at his polyclinic visit in the first month. PMID:27891151
Drossner, David M; Chappell, Clay; Rab, Tanveer; Kim, Dennis
We report the case of an acutely ill 3-year-old female, with a previous medical history of Kawasaki disease, who presented to care with an acute myocardial infarction. We describe the coordinated therapies employed by pediatric and adult cardiologists aimed to establish coronary revascularization.
Fujino, Masashi; Ishihara, Masaharu; Honda, Satoshi; Kawakami, Shoji; Yamane, Takafumi; Nagai, Toshiyuki; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Kanaya, Tomoaki; Kumasaka, Leon; Asaumi, Yasuhide; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Tahara, Yoshio; Nakanishi, Michio; Noguchi, Teruo; Kusano, Kengo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Goto, Yoichi; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao
This study was undertaken to assess the impact of acute hyperglycemia (acute-HG) and chronic hyperglycemia (chronic-HG) on short-term outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study consisted of 696 patients with AMI. Acute-HG was defined as admission plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl and chronic-HG as hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%. Acute-HG was associated with higher peak serum creatine kinase (4,094 ± 4,594 vs 2,526 ± 2,227 IU/L, p <0.001) and in-hospital mortality (9.8% vs 1.6%, p <0.001). On the contrary, there was no significant difference in peak creatine kinase (2,803 ± 2,661 vs 2,940 ± 3,181 IU/L, p = 0.59) and mortality (3.3 vs 3.7%, p = 0.79) between patients with chronic-HG and those without. Multivariate analysis showed that admission plasma glucose was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.27, p <0.001), but hemoglobin A1c was not. When only patients with acute-HG were analyzed, chronic-HG was associated with a significantly smaller infarct size (3,221 ± 3,001 vs 5,904 ± 6,473 IU/L, p <0.001) and lower in-hospital mortality (5.5 vs 18.9%, p = 0.01). In conclusion, these results suggested that acute-HG, but not chronic-HG, was associated with adverse short-term outcomes after AMI. Paradoxically, in patients with acute-HG, chronic-HG might abate the adverse effects of acute-HG.
O'Neill, W W; Brodie, B R; Ivanhoe, R; Knopf, W; Taylor, G; O'Keefe, J; Grines, C L; Weintraub, R; Sickinger, B G; Berdan, L G
During a 14-month period, 6 experienced centers prospectively enrolled 271 patients into a registry in which percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was the primary treatment for acute myocardial infarction. Patients age > 18 years who presented with ST-segment elevation on the 12-lead electrocardiogram were enrolled if symptom duration was < 12 hours and there was no proclivity for bleeding. An independent core angiographic laboratory processed the angiographic data. Of 271 patients giving informed consent, 245 (90%) were deemed anatomically suitable and underwent angioplasty therapy. Upon leaving the catheterization laboratory 98% of patients had achieved reperfusion; 92% had a residual visual stenosis < or = 50%. Emergency bypass surgery was required in 14 patients (5%) for either failed angioplasty (n = 3) or presumed life-threatening anatomy (n = 11). The in-hospital mortality rate was 4%, whereas the reinfarction rate was 3% and the stroke rate was 1%, with 1 intracranial hemorrhage and 2 embolic events. Bleeding requiring > or = 2 units of blood occurred in 46 patients (18%); 14 of these transfusions were related to coronary artery bypass surgery. Primary angioplasty is associated with a high reperfusion rate, low in-hospital mortality and few recurrent myocardial ischemic events. These results point to the need for a large-scale trial comparing angioplasty with thrombolytic therapy in the setting of acute myocardial infarction.
Leach, C.N. Jr.; Linden, J.V.; Hopfer, S.M.; Crisostomo, M.C.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.
Nickel was measured, by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry, in sera from (a) 30 healthy adults, (b) 54 patients with acute myocardial infarction, (c) 33 patients with unstable angina pectoris without infarction, and (d) five patients with coronary atherosclerosis who developed cardiac ischemia during treadmill exercise. Mean (and SD) concentrations in Group a were 0.3 (0.3) ..mu..g/L (range <0.05-1.1 ..mu..g/L). Within 72 h after hospital admission, hypernickelemia (Ni greater than or equal to 1.2 ..mu..g/L) was found in 41 patients of group b (76%) and in 16 patients of group c (48%). Hypernickelemia was found before and after exercise in one patient of Group d (20%). Peak values averaged 3.0 ..mu..g/L (range 0.4-21 ..mu..g/L) in Group b, 1.5 ..mu..g/L (range <0.05-3.3 ..mu..g/L) in Group c. In Group b, the mean time interval between the peak values for creatine kinase activity and for nickel was 18 h. Serum nickel concentrations were unrelated to age, sex, time of day, cigarette smoking, medications, clinical complications, or outcome. Mechanisms and sources of release of nickel into the serum of patients with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris are conjectural, but hypernickelemia may be related to the pathogenesis of ischemic myocardial injury. 25 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.
Opaleva-Stegantseva, V A; Ivanov, A G; Gavrilina, I A; Khar'kov, E I; Ratovskaia, V I
The impact of improvements in prehospital cardiologic service on total and prehospital mortality associated with acute coronary insufficiency (ACI) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the causes of fatal outcomes is illustrated by a study based on the acute myocardial infarction register involving populations from two city districts between 20 and 69 years of age. Prehospital mortality caused by ACI and AMI is shown to decline with the progress of cardiologic care. The decline is attributed to reduced incidence of some causes of death, such as heart failure and cardiogenic shock. Sudden coronary death (85.1%) remains the principal cause of prehospital mortality.
Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Di Bella, Gianluca; Cerrito, Marco; Coglitore, Sebastiano
Chili peppers are rich in capsaicin. The potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is stored in a population of C-fiber afferents that are sensitive to capsaicin. CGRP and peptides released from cardiac C fibers have a beneficial effect in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It has been reported that capsaicin pretreatment deplete cardiac C-fiber peptide stores. Furthermore, it has also been reported that capsaicin-treated pigs significantly increase mean arterial blood pressure compared with controls and that the decrease in CGRP synthesis and release contributes to the elevated blood pressure. It has also been reported that sub-clinical hypothyroidism is associated with a significant risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We present a case of arterial hypertensive crisis and acute myocardial infarction in a 59-year-old Italian man with high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone and with an abundant ingestion of peppers and of chili peppers which occurred the day before.
Su, Wenrong; Wang, Shuguang; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jungang; Chen, Yanbo; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Aiyuan
We reported three cases of ventricular septal rupture (VSR) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI), focusing on the causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. These three cases were diagnosed based on the findings of electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and blood myocardial markers, and were treated with conservative methods. These three cases were female, and all had history of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. In one case with age over 70, AMI was related to percutaneous coronary intervention of left anterior descending branch, and the stenosis of LAD resulted in AMI and subsequently VSR occurred, the patient’s condition worsened rapidly and the patient died after. Only one of the three cases survived the VSR. We concluded that the prognosis of VSR complicating AMI is associated with the causes, age, sex and comorbidities, and the prevention is critically important.
Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula
Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold.
Hindle, H.; Norheim, J. K.; Renger, R.
OBJECTIVE: To determine current practice patterns for managing acute myocardial infarction in rural Alberta, particularly to examine the availability of thrombolytic therapy. DESIGN: Mailed questionnaire based on a clinical vignette. SETTING: All 104 acute care hospitals in rural Alberta with fewer than 100 beds. PARTICIPANTS: The Chief of Staff at each hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of hospitals providing thrombolytic therapy, choice of thrombolytic agent, rates of elective transfer after thrombolysis, and barriers preventing universal use of thrombolytic therapy. RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by 101 physicians. Three hospitals had no medical staff. Thrombolytic therapy was available in 80.8% of the hospitals. Hospitals that did not offer thrombolysis were smaller (average bed capacity 21.9 versus 37.7, P < 0.001), had fewer medical staff (average number 2.4 versus 5.5, P < 0.001), and had fewer nurses holding Advanced Cardiac Life Support certification (P = 0.015) than hospitals providing thrombolysis. Physicians identified inadequate nursing resources as the greatest barrier to providing thrombolysis. Of physicians using thrombolysis, 71.4% chose streptokinase. Half of the physicians preferred elective transfer after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction is standard practice in small hospitals in Alberta. PMID:7647623
Schiele, Francois; Puymirat, Etienne; Bonello, Laurent; Meneveau, Nicolas; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Motreff, Pascal; Ravan, Ramin; Leclercq, Florence; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Ferrières, Jean; Simon, Tabassome; Danchin, Nicolas
Objective In acute coronary syndromes, switching between thienopyridines is frequent. The aims of the study were to assess the association between switching practices and quality of care. Methods Registry study performed in 213 French public university, public non-academic and private hospitals. All consecutive patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (MI; <48 hours) between 1/10/2010 and 30/11/2010 were eligible. Clinical and biological data were recorded up to 12 months follow-up. Results Among 4101 patients receiving thienopyridines, a switch was performed in 868 (21.2%): 678 (16.5%) from clopidogrel to prasugrel and 190 (4.6%) from prasugrel to clopidogrel. Predictors of switch were ST segment elevation MI presentation, admission to a cardiology unit, previous percutaneous coronary intervention, younger age, body weight >60 kg, no history of stroke, cardiac arrest, anaemia or renal dysfunction. In patients with a switch, eligibility for prasugrel was >82% and appropriate use of a switch was 86% from clopidogrel to prasugrel and 20% from prasugrel to clopidogrel. Quality indicators scored higher in the group with a switch and also in centres where the switch rate was higher. Conclusions As applied in the French Registry on Acute ST-elevation and non ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI) registry, switching from one P2Y12 inhibitor to another led to a more appropriate prescription and was associated with higher scores on indicators of quality of care. PMID:27252877
Maeda, K; Tsutamoto, T; Wada, A; Mabuchi, N; Hayashi, M; Hisanaga, T; Kamijo, T; Kinoshita, M
To investigate the secretion of the plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we evaluated the relationship between plasma levels of ANP and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in 45 consecutive patients during the acute phase of AMI ( approximately 12 h after the attack) (group 1) and compared data with those obtained after 1 mo (group 2). In both groups 1 and 2, plasma ANP levels significantly correlated with PCWP. The slope of the linear regression line between the PCWP and ANP in group 1 was significantly lower, by about one-third, than that in group 2. In addition, we examined changes in ANP levels and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) over 180 min after AMI induced by injection of microspheres into the left coronary arteries of three dogs. The LVEDP and ANP levels 30 min after AMI were significantly higher than those before; however, despite the persistent high LVEDP during the 180 min after AMI, ANP levels decreased gradually and significantly to 63% of the peak level at 150 min. These findings suggest that the secretion of ANP during the acute phase of myocardial infarction may be insufficient relative to the chronic phase.
Branch, Kelley R.; Busey, Janet; Mitsumori, Lee M.; Strote, Jared; Caldwell, James H.; Busch, Joshua H.; Shuman, William P.
OBJECTIVE Coronary CT angiography has high sensitivity, but modest specificity, to detect acute coronary syndrome. We studied whether adding resting CT myocardial perfusion imaging improved the detection of acute coronary syndrome. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Patients with low-to-intermediate cardiac risk presenting with possible acute coronary syndrome received both the standard of care evaluation and a research thoracic 64-MDCT examination. Patients with an obstructive (> 50%) stenosis or a nonevaluable coronary segment on CT were diagnosed with possible acute coronary syndrome. CT perfusion was determined by applying gray and color Hounsfield unit maps to resting CT angiography images. Adjudicated patient diagnoses were based on the standard of care and 3-month follow-up. Patient-level diagnostic performance for acute coronary syndrome was calculated for coronary CT, CT perfusion, and combined techniques. RESULTS A total of 105 patients were enrolled. Of the nine (9%) patients with acute coronary syndrome, all had obstructive CT stenoses but only three had abnormal CT perfusion. CT perfusion was normal in all other patients. To detect acute coronary syndrome, CT angiography had 100% sensitivity, 89% specificity, and a positive predictive value of 45%. For CT perfusion, specificity and positive predictive value were each 100%, and sensitivity was 33%. Combined cardiac CT and CT perfusion had similar specificity but a higher positive predictive value (100%) than did CT angiography. CONCLUSION Resting CT perfusion using CT angiographic images may have high specificity and may improve CT positive predictive value for acute coronary syndrome without added radiation and contrast. However, normal resting CT perfusion cannot exclude acute coronary syndrome. PMID:23617513
Tomioka, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Ito, Yoshitaka; Shioiri, Hiroki; Koyama, Jiro; Inoue, Kanichi
Patient: Female, 78 Final Diagnosis: Acute myocardial infarction Symptoms: Chest discomfort Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can be caused not only by plaque rupture/erosion, but also by many other mechanisms. Thromboembolism due to atrial fibrillation and coronary thrombosis due to coronary artery ectasia are among the causes. Here we report on a case of recurrent myocardial infarction with coronary artery ectasia. Case Report: Our case was a 78-year-old woman with hypertension. Within a one-month interval, she developed AMI twice at the distal portion of her right coronary artery along with coronary artery ectasia. On both events, emergent coronary angiography showed no obvious organic stenosis or trace of plaque rupture at the culprit segment after thrombus aspiration. After the second acute event, we started anticoagulation therapy with warfarin to prevent thrombus formation. In the chronic phase, we confirmed, by using coronary angiography, optimal coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound, that there was no plaque rupture and no obvious thrombus formation along the coronary artery ectasia segment of the distal right coronary artery, which suggested effectiveness of anticoagulant. Furthermore, by Doppler velocimetry we found sluggish blood flow only in the coronary artery ectasia lesion but not in the left atrium which is generally the main site of systemic thromboembolism revealed by transesophageal echocardiography. Conclusions: These results suggest that the two AMI events at the same coronary artery ectasia segment were caused by local thrombus formation due to local stagnant blood flow. Although it has not yet been generally established, anticoagulation therapy may be effective to prevent thrombus formation in patients with coronary artery ectasia regardless of the prevalence of atrial fibrillation. PMID:27941711
Moreira-Santos, Thyego Mychell; Godoy, Irma; de Godoy, Ilda
Among all causes of preventable deaths, smoking is responsible for the greatest number of deaths worldwide and predisposes to fatal, noncommunicable diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle changes are effective in the treatment of patients with smoking-related diseases and assist in the prevention of premature mortality. Our objective was to investigate the available scientific evidence regarding the psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients who have had acute myocardial infarction. To that end, we conducted an integrative review of the literature in order to summarize relevant studies on this topic. The selected databases were Scopus, PubMed Central, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science (Core Collection), ScienceDirect, EMBASE, SciELO, LILACS e PsycINFO. On the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria adopted for this study, 14 articles were selected for analysis. Those studies showed that the prevalence of psychological distress is higher among smokers than among nonsmokers, and distress-related symptoms are much more common in smokers with acute myocardial infarction than in those without. Smoking cessation depends on the active participation of the smoker, whose major motivation is the underlying disease. Most studies have shown that there is a need to create treatment subgroups as a means of improving the treatment provided. This review article expands the knowledge regarding smoking cessation and shows the need to invest in future research that investigates subgroups of smokers diagnosed with the major smoking-related comorbidities, such as acute myocardial infarction, in order to develop specific interventions and psychological support strategies. PMID:26982043
Zeymer, U; Zahn, R; Senges, J; Gitt, A
Current national and international guidelines for patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are mainly based on the results of randomised clinical trials. However, it is well perceived that patients in such trials often represent a low risk population. Therefore the results of randomised clinical trials are not necessarily applicable to patients in clinical practice. This gap can be filled by prospective registries. Since the early nineties a number of prospective large registries in patients with STEMI have been performed in Germany. It could be shown that guideline adherent acute therapies and secondary prevention therapies were associated with an improvement in inhospital and mid-term outcomes. The benefit of guideline adherent therapy observed was especially high in patients with higher baseline risk. Registries are not able to replace randomised clinical trials, but can help to test if the results of these trials are comprehensible in clinical practice. Therefore prospective STEMI registries are an important part of clinical research to optimize therapies and improve outcome in patients with STEMI.
Avegliano, Gustavo; Conde, Diego; González Ruiz, María Isabel; Kuschnir, Paola; Sciancalepore, Agustina; Castro, Florencia; Ronderos, Ricardo
Lateral left ventricular wall rupture (LVWR) is a rare complication following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) less than 1%. After cardiogenic shock, LVWR constitutes the most common cause of in-hospital death in AMI patients. Around 40% of all LVWR occurred during the first 24 hours and 85% within the first week. In the present case, 76 hours following the intervention, LVWR was observed likely due to a small infarction at the lateral left ventricular wall possibly due to the marginal lesion. Our patient refused surgery and was followed clinically. Eighteen months later, real time three-dimensional echocardiography showed a pseudoaneurysm.
Indraratna, Praveen; Alexopoulos, Chris; Celermajer, David; Alford, Kevin
A 28-year-old male was admitted to hospital with an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. This was in the context of recreational abuse of nitrous oxide. The prevalence of nitrous oxide use in Australia has not been formally quantified, however it is the second most commonly used recreational drug in the United Kingdom. Nitrous oxide has previously been shown to increase serum homocysteine levels. This patient was discovered to have an elevated homocysteine level at baseline, which was further increased after nitrous oxide consumption. Homocysteine has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and coronary atherosclerosis and this case report highlights one of the dangers of recreational abuse of nitrous oxide.
Collins, R.; MacMahon, S.; Flather, M.; Baigent, C.; Remvig, L.; Mortensen, S.; Appleby, P.; Godwin, J.; Yusuf, S.; Peto, R.
OBJECTIVES: Most randomised trials of anticoagulant therapy for suspected acute myocardial infarction have been small and, in some, aspirin and fibrinolytic therapy were not used routinely. A systematic overview (meta-analysis) of their results is needed, in particular to assess the clinical effects of adding heparin to aspirin. DESIGN: Computer aided searches, scrutiny of reference lists, and inquiry of investigators and companies were used to identify potentially eligible studies. On central review, 26 studies were found to involve unconfounded randomised comparisons of anticoagulant therapy versus control in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Additional information on study design and outcome was sought by correspondence with study investigators. SUBJECTS: Patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. INTERVENTIONS: No routine aspirin was used among about 5000 patients in 21 trials (including half of one small trial) that assessed heparin alone or heparin plus oral anticoagulants, and aspirin was used routinely among 68,000 patients in six trials (including the other half of one small trial) that assessed the addition of intravenous or high dose subcutaneous heparin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Death, reinfarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, and major bleeds (average follow up of about 10 days). RESULTS: In the absence of aspirin, anticoagulant therapy reduced mortality by 25% (SD 8%; 95% confidence interval 10% to 38%; 2P = 0.002), representing 35 (11) fewer deaths per 1000. There were also 10 (4) fewer strokes per 1000 (2P = 0.01), 19 (5) fewer pulmonary emboli per 1000 (2P < 0.001), and non-significantly fewer reinfarctions, with about 13 (5) extra major bleeds per 1000 (2P = 0.01). Similar sized effects were seen with the different anticoagulant regimens studied. In the presence of aspirin, however, heparin reduced mortality by only 6% (SD 3%; 0% to 10%; 2P = 0.03), representing just 5 (2) fewer deaths per 1000. There were 3 (1.3) fewer
Klemenc, Matjaz; Budihna, Gregor; Bedencic, Mateja; Bartolic, Andrej; Kranjec, Igor
Objectives: We report on a young male athlete who suffered from acute myocardial infarction immediately after a vigorous training. Methods: A comprehensive optical coherence tomographic investigation of the culprit coronary artery was performed after the combined mechanical and pharmacological thrombus removal. Results and Conclusion: The imaging discovered a tear at the junction of the non-obstructive, largely fibrotic plaque with the normal arterial wall. This exertion-related vessel damage resulted in a dynamic thrombosis that almost completely occluded the culprit artery. As the vessel obstruction was not considered flow-limiting, the stent implantation was not required and the patient was discharged on the double antiplatelet therapy and statin. PMID:27489712
Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.
With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.
Belen, Erdal; Tipi, Fatih Fahri; Bayyiğit, Akif; Helvacı, Ayşen Şerife
The use of conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) by legal security forces and in civil society is rapidly increasing. While they are generally considered safe devices, and fatal complications are rare, it is possible to see a small number of complications. In the present case, we describe the detection of acute inferior myocardial infarction in a patient who experienced chest pain after being exposed to a CEW. In such cases, multiple factors should be considered, and the choice of treatment and follow-up should be decided accordingly.
Lim, Sang Yup
Recently, percutaneous coronary intervention has been the treatment of choice in most acute myocardial infarction cases. Although the results of percutaneous coronary interventions have ben good, the no-reflow phenomenon and distal embolization of intracoronary thrombus are still major problems even after successful interventions. In this article, we will briefly review the deleterious effects of no-reflow and distal embolization of intracoronary thrombus during percutaneous coronary interventions. The current trials focused on the prevention and treatment of the no-reflow phenomenon and intracoronary thrombus.
Skinner, Jonathan S; Staiger, Douglas O; Fisher, Elliott S
We examine Medicare costs and survival gains for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during 1986-2002. As David Cutler and Mark McClellan did in earlier work, we find that overall gains in post-AMI survival more than justified the increases in costs during this period. Since 1996, however, survival gains have stagnated, while spending has continued to increase. We also consider changes in spending and outcomes at the regional level. Regions experiencing the largest spending gains were not those realizing the greatest improvements in survival. Factors yielding the greatest benefits to health were not the factors that drove up costs, and vice versa.
Shugman, Ibrahim Meloud; Diu, Patrick; Gohil, Jayesh; Kadappu, Krishna Kishor; Leung, Melissa; Lo, Sidney; Leung, Dominic Y; Hopkins, Andrew P; Juergens, Craig P; French, John K
In patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the diagnosis of periprocedural myocardial infarction is often problematic when the pre-PCI levels of cardiac troponin T (TnT) are elevated. Thus, we examined different TnT criteria for periprocedural myocardial infarction when the pre-PCI TnT levels were elevated and also the associations between the post-PCI cardiac marker levels and outcomes. We established the relation between the post-PCI creatine kinase-MB (CKMB) and TnT levels in 582 patients (315 with acute coronary syndromes and 272 with stable coronary heart disease). A post-PCI increase in the CKMB levels to 14.7 μg/L (3 × the upper reference limit [URL] in men) corresponded to a TnT of 0.23 μg/L. In the 85 patients with acute coronary syndromes and normal CKMB, but elevated post peak TnT levels before PCI (performed at a median of 5 days, interquartile range 3 to 7), the post-PCI cardiac marker increases were as follows: 21 (24.7%) with a ≥ 20% increase in TnT, 10 (11.8%) with an CKMB level >3 × URL, and 12 (14%) with an absolute TnT increase of >0.09 μg/L (p <0.005 for both). In the patients with stable coronary heart disease and post-PCI cardiac markers > 3× URL compared to those without markers elevations, the rate of freedom from death or nonfatal myocardial infarction was 88% for those with TnT elevations versus 99% (p <0.001, log-rank) and 84% for those with CKMB elevations versus 98% (p <0.001, log-rank). Of the patients with acute coronary syndromes, the post-PCI marker levels did not influence the outcomes. In conclusion, in patients with acute coronary syndromes and elevated TnT levels undergoing PCI several days later, ≥20% increases in TnT were more common than absolute increments in the TnT or CKMB levels of >3× URL. Also, periprocedural cardiac marker elevations in patients with acute coronary syndromes did not have prognostic significance.
Carpeggiani, C.; L'Abbate, A.; Marzullo, P.; Buzzigoli, G.; Parodi, O.; Sambuceti, G.; Marcassa, C.; Boni, C.; Moscarelli, E.; Distante, A.
The present study investigated whether the lack of enzyme increase is reason enough to exclude necrosis in patients with ischemic heart disease who develop electrocardiographic sustained ST-T changes in the absence of Q waves. In 15 consecutive patients with angina who developed sustained ST-T changes during hospitalization, the presence of myocardial necrosis was investigated by a prospective multiparametric approach. Serum enzymes and myoglobin, pyrophosphate uptake, 2-dimensional echocardiography, perfusion scintigraphy, left ventriculography and coronary angiography were evaluated. According to creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB peak at twice the upper normal value, the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction applied only to 40% of patients. However, myoglobin was positive in 80% and a perfusion defect could be documented by an electrocardiographic gated microsphere technique in 100% of patients. The positivity of myoglobin increased to 100% and of creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB to 87 and 60%, respectively, when a peak value twice the individual lowest value was considered for positivity. The 100% presence of perfusion defects associated with the high prevalence of both positive pyrophosphate uptake (87%) and regional dyssynergies (87 and 73%, respectively, by left ventriculography and echocardiography) strongly suggest that sustained (greater than or equal to 7 days) ST-T changes in this population were indicative of myocardial necrosis. Thus, by conventional enzymatic approach, diagnosis of non-Q-wave infarction can be missed in a sizable number of patients and present important clinical implications.
Moradi-Arzeloo, Masoumeh; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak
In the present study, we investigated the effects of histidine and vitamin C (alone or in combination) treatments against isoproterenol (a β-adrenergic receptor agonist)-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats. We used propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor blocker) to compare the results. Rats were given intraperitoneal injections of histidine (40 mg kg-1) and vitamin C (40 mg kg-1) alone and combined daily for 21 days. Propranolol (10 mg kg-1) was orally administered daily for 10 days (from day 11 to day 21). Myocardial infarction was induced by subcutaneous injections of 150 mg kg-1 of isoproterenol at an interval of 24 hr on days 20 and 21. Blood and tissue samples were taken for histopathological and biochemical evaluations following electrocardiography recording on day 21. Isoproterenol elevated ST segment, increased heart weight, heart rate, serum activities of aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-MB and heart tissue content of malondialdehyde, and decreased R wave amplitude and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities of heart tissue. Necrosis, edema and inflammatory cells infiltration were observed in myocardial tissue sections. Our results indicated that histidine and vitamin C alone, and especially in combination prevent isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity and have similar protective effects with propranolol. Cardioprotective effects of histidine and vitamin C may be associated with their ability to reduce free radical-induced toxic effects. PMID:27226887
Li, Fang; Xu, Qian; Zheng, Ting; Huang, Fang; Han, Lintao
Myocardial ischemia (MI) refers to a pathological state of the heart caused by reduced cardiac blood perfusion, which leads to a decreased oxygen supply in the heart and an abnormal myocardial energy metabolism. Acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) has posed a significant health risk for humans. Allium macrostemon Bunge (AMB), a popular traditional Chinese medicine, is used for MI treatment. The therapeutic effects of AMB were assessed and the detailed mechanisms of AMB for AMI treatment were investigated. We characterized the metabonomic variations in rats from the sham surgery, AMI, and AMB-pretreated AMI groups through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. Thirty-five metabolites including carbohydrates, a range of amino acids, and organic acids were detected. The (1)H NMR spectra of the rat serum were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). Results showed that AMI induced some physiological changes in rats and also led to metabolic disorders related to glycolysis promotion, amino acid metabolism disruption, and other metabolite metabolism perturbation. AMB pretreatment reduced the AMI injury and maintained metabolic balance, possibly by limiting the change in energy metabolism and regulating amino acid metabolism. These findings provide a comprehensive insight on the metabolic response of AMI rats to AMB pretreatment and are important for the use of AMB for AMI therapy.
Tanaka, T.; Kimata, S.; Hirosawa, K.; Kusakabe, K.; Shigeta, T.; Ito, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Abe, M.; Matsuda, M.
To determine whether thallium lung uptake images (TLI) can be used as a noninvasive method to estimate any of hemodynamic changes in patients (pts) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) TLI were evaluated in 23 pts with AMI. All pts underwent multigated blood pool imaging and cardiac catheterization. TLI were estimated by comparing the intensity of T1-201 activity in the lower right lung with maximal myocardial count (thallium lung heart ratio; LHR). Pts with AMI were classified to 3 grades according to LHR. The classifications were hemodynamically significant. The specificity of LHR <0.6 for mPw <18mmHg was 100% (10/10). The specificity of LHR greater than or equal to 0.8 for mPw greater than or equal to 18mmHg was 85% (11/13) and for EF greater than or equal to 30% was 100% (13/13). The pts with LHR 0.8 showed high mortality (4/9) and high morbidity (all survivors were in NYHA class 2-3 and receiving digitalis and diuretics). TLI were easily obtained after routine T1-myocardial imaging, i.e. another 5 minutes imaging yielded clinically useful information for separating high and low-risk groups of pts with AMI.
Cheng, Songyi; Yu, Peng; Yang, Li; Shi, Haibo; He, Anxia; Chen, Hanyu; Han, Jie; Xie, Liang; Chen, Jiandong; Chen, Xiaohu
Background: Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) has been shown to be a practical method for protecting the heart from ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In the present study, we investigated whether or not the combination of RIC and Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) could improve cardioprotection against acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-induced heart failure (HF) when compared with individual treatments. Material and Methods: A rat model of AMI was established via permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Postoperatively, the rats were randomly grouped into a sham group (n=10), a model group (n=15), an AS-IV alone group (n=15), an RIC alone group (n=15) and a combined treatment group (AS-IV+RIC; n=15). All treatments were administered for 2 weeks. Results: After treatment for 2 weeks, the survival rate was improved, the cardiac function was preserved and the infarcted size was limited in AS-IV alone and RIC alone treatment groups compared to the model group, whereas the combined treatment yielded the most optimal protective effects. Additional studies suggested that AS-IV enhanced the cardioprotective effects of RIC by alleviating myocardial fibrosis, suppressing inflammation, attenuating apoptosis and ameliorating impairment of the myocardial ultrastructural. Conclusion: AS-IV enhances the cardioprotective effects of RIC against AMI-induced HF and ventricular remodeling, which represents a potential therapeutic approach for preserving cardiac function and improving the prognosis of AMI. PMID:27904669
Kamat, Pranitha; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Christen, Stephan; Bongoni, Anjan K.; Meier, Bernhard; Rieben, Robert; Khattab, Ahmed A.
Calcium and iron overload participate in the mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during myocardial infarction (MI). Calcium overload induces cardiomyocyte death by hypercontraction, while iron catalyses generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We therefore hypothesized that dexrazoxane, an intracellular metal chelator, would attenuate I/R injury. MI was induced in pigs by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 1 hour followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Thirty minutes before reperfusion either 5 mg/ml dexrazoxane (n = 5) or saline (n = 5) was infused intravenously. Myocardial necrosis as percentage of the area at ischemic risk was found to be similar in both groups (77.2 ± 18% for dexrazoxane and 76.4 ± 14% for saline group) as determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of the ischemic myocardium. Also, serum levels of troponin-I were similar in both groups. A conductance catheter was used to measure left ventricular pressure and volume at all times. Markers for tissue damage due to ROS (HNE), endothelial cell activation (CD31) and inflammation (IgG, C3b/c, C5b9, MCP-1) were assessed on tissue and/or in serum. No significant differences were observed between the groups for the parameters analyzed. To conclude, in this clinically relevant model of early reperfusion after acute myocardial ischemia, dexrazoxane lacked attenuating effects on I/R injury as shown by the measured parameters. PMID:28002439
Wang, Xing-Hua; Li, Guang-Ping; Yang, Wan-Song; Jiao, Zhan-Quan; Liu, Hong-Mei; Ni, Yan-Ping
Guanmaitong (GMT) is a traditional Chinese herbal compound that has been used for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other cardiovascular diseases. However, the efficacy of GMT in treating cardiovascular diseases remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanisms and identify the targeted proteins and signaling networks associated with the physiological activity of GMT in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: Control group (sham-operated), the model group, and small, medium, and large dosage GMT groups. The rat model of AMI was established via ligation of the coronary artery. The results indicate that GMT was able to reduce myocardial infarction size and improve the activities of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin-1. Furthermore, the reduced apoptotic index of the GMT-treated cardiocytes (P<0.05 vs. model group) was in accordance with the downregulated expression of Bax and the upregulated expression of Bcl-2. In conclusion, GMT may exert a protective potential against myocardial infarction injury by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation of cardiomyocytes, and may offer a promising adjunct treatment for CHD. PMID:28105124
Husebye, Trygve; Eritsland, Jan; Arnesen, Harald; Bjørnerheim, Reidar; Mangschau, Arild; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Andersen, Geir Øystein
Background No data from controlled trials exists regarding the inflammatory response in patients with de novo heart failure (HF) complicating ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and a possible role in the recovery of contractile function. We therefore explored the time course and possible associations between levels of inflammatory markers and recovery of impaired left ventricular function as well as levosimendan treatment in STEMI patients in a substudy of the LEvosimendan in Acute heart Failure following myocardial infarction (LEAF) trial. Methods A total of 61 patients developing HF within 48 hours after a primary PCI-treated STEMI were randomised double-blind to a 25 hours infusion of levosimendan or placebo. Levels of IL-6, CRP, sIL-6R, sgp130, MCP-1, IL-8, MMP-9, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and TNF-α were measured at inclusion (median 22 h, interquartile range (IQR) 14, 29 after PCI), on day 1, day 2, day 5 and 6 weeks. Improvement in left ventricular function was evaluated as change in wall motion score index (WMSI) by echocardiography. Results Only circulating levels of IL-8 at inclusion were associated with change in WMSI from baseline to 6 weeks, r = ÷0.41 (p = 0.002). No association, however, was found between IL-8 and WMSI at inclusion or peak troponin T. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in change in WMSI from inclusion to 6 weeks between patients with IL-8 levels below, compared to above median value, ÷0.44 (IQR÷0.57, ÷0.19) vs. ÷0.07 (IQR÷0.27, 0.07), respectively (p<0.0001). Levosimendan did not affect the levels of inflammary markers compared to control. Conclusion High levels of IL-8 in STEMI patients complicated with HF were associated with less improvement in left ventricular function during the first 6 weeks after PCI, suggesting a possible role of IL-8 in the reperfusion-related injury of post-ischemic myocardium. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00324766
Hung, J.; Gordon, E.P.; Houston, N.; Haskell, W.L.; Goris, M.L.; DeBusk, R.F.
The effects of exercise training on exercise myocardial perfusion and left ventricular (LV) function in the first 6 months after clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were assessed in 53 consecutive men aged 55 +/- 9 years. Symptom-limited treadmill exercise with thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and symptom-limited upright bicycle ergometry with equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography were performed 3, 11 and 26 weeks after AMI by 23 men randomized to training and 30 randomized to no training. Peak cycle capacity increased in both groups between 3 and 26 weeks (p less than 0.01), but reached higher levels in trained than in untrained patients (803 +/- 149 vs 648 +/- 182 kg-m/min, p less than 0.01). Reversible thallium perfusion defects were significantly more frequent at 3 than at 26 weeks: 59% and 36% of patients, respectively (p less than 0.05), without significant inter-group differences. Values of LV ejection fraction at rest, submaximal and peak exercise did not change significantly in either group. The increase in functional capacity, i.e., peak treadmill or bicycle workload, that occurred 3 to 26 weeks after infarction was significantly correlated with the increase in peak exercise heart rate (p less than 0.001), but not with changes in myocardial perfusion or LV function determined by radionuclide techniques. Changes in myocardial perfusion or LV function do not appear to account for the improvement in peak functional capacity that occurs within the first 6 months after clinically uncomplicated AMI.
Noad, Rebecca; Stevenson, Michael; Herity, Niall A
Objectives Several publications have demonstrated increased 30-day mortality in patients admitted on Saturdays or Sundays compared with weekdays. We sought to determine whether this was true for two different cohorts of patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results Thirty-day mortality data were obtained for 3757 patients who had been admitted to the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust with acute MI between 2009 and 2015. They were subdivided into those presenting with ST elevation MI (n=2240) and non-ST elevation MI (n= 1517). We observed no excess 30-day mortality in those admitted over weekends. Conclusion Excess mortality in patients admitted at weekends is not a universal finding. This may mean that that there are patient subgroups with proportionately greater weekend hazard and points to the need for more detailed understanding of the weekend effect.
Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Ikitimur, Baris; Karadag, Bilgehan; Ongen, Zeki
Myocardial infarction (MI) associated with sildenafil citrate is seen rarely in patients without any history of coronary artery disease. We report a nitrate-free patient with a history of cardiovascular risk factors who developed acute MI after taking sildenafil. A 44-year-old man diagnosed with acute anterior ST segment elevation MI 120 min after self-administration of 150 mg sildenafil was admitted before attempting any sexual intercourse. The coronary angiography revealed 99% occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and a bare-metal stent was implanted. He was discharged after 5 days without any complication. Sildenafil may cause coronary steal or may lead to vasodilation causing hypotension in patient with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, especially in patients on nitrate therapy. Our patient was nitrate free, with normal blood pressure values. Emotional stimulation associated with anticipated sexual activity may have been a triggering factor for vulnerable coronary plaque rupture.
Zhu, Guiyue; Yao, Yucai; Pan, Lingyun; Zhu, Wei; Yan, Suhua
BACKGROUND This study aimed to decrease leukocytes counts by hydroxyurea (Hu) in an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rat model and examine its effect on the inflammatory response of myocardial infarction and cardiac functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS AMI was successfully caused in 36 rats, and 12 control rats received sham operation. Rats in the AMI group were then randomly divided into Hu and vehicle group with 18 rats each. Rats in the Hu AMI group received Hu (200 mg/kg) intragastrically while vehicle AMI group received saline. Leukocytes counts, cardiac functions, myocardial tissue morphology, and levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), P-selectin and platelet activating factor (PAF) were measured and compared among the three groups four weeks after AMI induction. RESULTS Leukocytes, neutrophils, and leukomonocyte counts in vehicle AMI rats were significantly higher than that of the normal control group (p<0.05). However, Hu treatment decreased their counts significantly (p<0.05). sICAM, P-selectin, and PAF level in vehicle AMI group were significantly higher than those of the normal group, and their level was also decreased by Hu treatment (p<0.05). Echocardiography analysis showed that Hu treatment increased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) compared to that of vehicle AMI group (p<0.05). Histopathological examination showed that Hu significantly reduced the swelling of the heart muscle fiber in necrotic foci and the number of inflammatory cells infiltrated into myocardial interstitium compared to vehicle AMI group. CONCLUSIONS Decrease leukocytes counts by Hu significantly reduced inflammatory reaction and improved cardiac functions in AMI rats.
Guo, Rui; Scott, Glenda I.; Ren, Jun
Objectives Binge alcohol drinking often triggers myocardial contractile dysfunction although the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. This study was designed to examine the impact of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced change in cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, insulin and AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling. Methods ADH transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Oral glucose tolerance test, cardiac AMP/ATP levels, cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ handling and AMPK signaling (including ACC and LKB1) were examined. Results Ethanol exposure led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma insulin, compromised cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties, downregulated protein phosphatase PP2A subunit and PPAR-γ, as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and LKB1, all of which except plasma insulin were overtly accentuated by ADH transgene. Interestingly, myocardium from ethanol-treated FVB mice displayed enhanced expression of PP2Cα and PGC-1α, decreased insulin receptor expression as well as unchanged expression of Glut4, the response of which was unaffected by ADH. Cardiac AMP-to-ATP ratio was significantly enhanced by ethanol exposure with a more pronounced increase in ADH mice. In addition, the AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 µM) abrogated acute ethanol exposure-elicited cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction. Conclusions In summary, these data suggest that the ADH transgene exacerbated acute ethanol toxicity-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, intracellular Ca2+ mishandling and glucose intolerance, indicating a role of ADH in acute ethanol toxicity-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly related to altered cellular fuel AMPK signaling cascade. PMID:20585647
Izawa, Shuhei; Eto, Yumi; Yamada, Kosuke C; Nakano, Masako; Yamada, Haruyo; Nagayama, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Takenori; Nomura, Shinobu
Studies using American and European populations have demonstrated that high levels of anger/ hostility are predictive of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. However, Japanese studies did not show consistent relationship between anger/hostility and CHD. This study examines the association of cynical hostility and anger expression style with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in middle-aged Japanese men through a case-control study. The patients with acute myocardial infarction (N = 96, mean age = 50.8 years) and the healthy participants in a health check-up program (N = 77, mean age = 50.3 years) were studied. Both groups completed the Cynicism Questionnaire (CQ) and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). The patients exhibited higher scores on CQ than the healthy controls. Logistic regression analyses controlling for biological risk factors revealed that the CQ score was associated with increased risk of AMI (OR = 1.11 [95% CI 1.00-1.22]). In addition, the score of Anger-control, a subscale of STAXI, was associated with decreased risk of AMI (OR = 0.75 [95% CI 0.62-0.92]). These results indicated that higher levels of cynical hostility increased the risk of AMI and that anger-control strategies could have some benefit in reducing the risk of AMI in middle-aged Japanese men.
Amin, E.M.; Karimeddini, M.K.; El-Haieg, M.O.; Dey, H.M.; Antar, M.A.
To assess myocardial performance in diabetics following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), resting gated radionuclide studies with Tc-99m were performed within two weeks of the onset of symptoms in matched groups of 18 type-II diabetics with their first clinical AMI (D-AMI), 20 nondiabetics with their first AMI (ND-AMI), and 20 nondiabetic noncardiac controls. Eighty-three percent of D-AMI and 50% of ND-AMI had left ventricular ejection fractions below 2 SD of normal. Diabetics had a significantly lower resting LVEF than nondiabetics (p<0.05). All patients with LVEF < 35% were diabetics. LV mean ejection and filling rates were similar in diabetics and nondiabetics. While 72% of diabetics showed abnormal wall motion in 5 or more segments (out of 9), only 45% of the nondiabetics were this extensively affected. Seventy-two percent of the diabetics showed one or more of akinesis and 39% had one or more areas of dyskinesis, compared to 30% and 5% of the nondiabetics respectively. The authors conclude that the extent, as well as the severity of the left ventricular impairment is more evident in the diabetics than in the nondiabetics, following the first acute MI.
Stergiopoulos, Kathleen; Brennan, Joseph J; Mathews, Robin; Setaro, John F; Kort, Smadar
The association between testosterone-replacement therapy and cardiovascular risk remains unclear with most reports suggesting a neutral or possibly beneficial effect of the hormone in men and women. However, several cardiovascular complications including hypertension, cardiomyopathy, stroke, pulmonary embolism, fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction have been reported with supraphysiologic doses of anabolic steroids. We report a case of an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with traditional cardiac risk factors using supraphysiologic doses of supplemental, intramuscular testosterone. In addition, this patient also had polycythemia, likely secondary to high-dose testosterone. The patient underwent successful percutaneous intervention of the right coronary artery. Phlebotomy was used to treat the polycythemia acutely. We suggest that the chronic and recent "stacked" use of intramuscular testosterone as well as the resultant polycythemia and likely increased plasma viscosity may have been contributing factors to this cardiovascular event, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Physicians and patients should be aware of the clinical consequences of anabolic steroid abuse.
Comparison of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II risk scores in patients with acute myocardial infarction who require mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours.
Eran, Oren; Novack, Victor; Gilutz, Harel; Zahger, Doron
The ability to provide an accurate prognosis in an intensive care unit is of major importance. Numerous risk scores have been developed to predict hospital mortality based on demographic, physiologic, and clinical data. These scores were universally developed in general medical or surgical intensive care units. Patients admitted to a cardiac care unit differ in many aspects from those admitted to general medical intensive care units. Few patients require mechanical ventilation and prolonged intensive care. Performance of risk scores developed for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in this subgroup is unknown. We prospectively studied 51 consecutive patients who were admitted to a cardiac care unit from September 2006 to March 2008 for AMI and received mechanical ventilation for >24 hours. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction, and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk scores were calculated for each patient. Mortality rates were extrapolated based on these 3 risk scores. Twenty-two of 51 patients (43%) died in hospital. Age, mean arterial pressure, urea, albumin, hemoglobin, need for vasopressors, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were predictive of mortality. APACHE II and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events scores were higher in nonsurvivors but Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score was not predictive of mortality. APACHE II score had the highest value for area under receiver operator characteristics curve for mortality prediction. In conclusion, patients with AMI requiring mechanical ventilation have a high mortality rate. This risk is predicted by co-morbidities better than by direct cardiac parameters. Consequently, conventional AMI risk scores do not perform well in this very sick population and the APACHE II score better predicts their short-term outcome.
Sim, Doo Sun; Kim, Ju Han
In Korea, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction has been increasing rapidly. Twelve-month clinical outcomes for 13,133 patients with acute myocardial infarction enrolled in the nationwide prospective Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry study were analyzed according to the presence or absence of ST-segment elevation. Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were younger, more likely to be men and smokers, and had poorer left ventricular function with a higher incidence of cardiac death compared to patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). NSTEMI patients had a higher prevalence of 3-vessel and left main coronary artery disease with complex lesions, and were more likely to have co-morbidities. The in-hospital and 1-month survival rates were higher in NSTEMI patients than in STEMI patients. However, 12-month survival rates was not different between the two groups. In conclusion, NSTEMI patients have worse clinical outcomes than STEMI patients, and therefore should be treated more intensively during clinical follow-up. PMID:19949634
Lew, A.S.; Weiss, A.T.; Shah, P.K.; Maddahi, J.; Peter, T.; Ganz, W.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.
To investigate the myocardial perfusion correlates of precordial ST segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction, a rest thallium-201 scintigram and a closely timed 12 lead electrocardiogram were obtained within 6 hours of the onset of infarction in 44 patients admitted with their first acute inferior myocardial infarction. Thirty-six patients demonstrated precordial ST segment depression (group 1) and eight did not (group 2). A perfusion defect involving the inferior wall was present in all 44 patients. Additional perfusion defects of the adjacent posterolateral wall (n . 20), the ventricular septum (n . 9) or both (n . 6) were present in 35 of 36 patients from group 1 compared with only 1 of 8 patients from group 2 (p less than 0.001). There was no significant difference in the frequency of multivessel coronary artery disease or disease of the left anterior descending artery between group 1 and group 2 or between patients with and those without a thallium-201 perfusion defect involving the ventricular septum. Thus, precordial ST segment depression during an acute inferior myocardial infarction is associated with thallium-201 scintigraphic evidence of more extensive involvement of the adjacent posterolateral or inferoseptal myocardial segments, which probably reflects the extent and pattern of distribution of the artery of infarction, rather than the presence of coexistent multivessel coronary artery disease or disease of the left anterior descending artery.
LIU, FANG; LIU, GUANG-JIE; LIU, NA; ZHANG, GANG; ZHANG, JIAN-XIN; LI, LAN-FANG
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is believed to be involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes, and now it is recognized as the third endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide; however, the effects of H2S on inflammatory factors in acute myocardial ischemia injury in rats have not been clarified. In the present study, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was used as the H2S donor. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Sham, ischemia, ischemia + low-dose (0.78 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + medium-dose (1.56 mg/kg) NaHS, ischemia + high-dose (3.12 mg/kg) NaHS and ischemia + propargylglycine (PPG) (30 mg/kg). The rats in each group were sacrificed 6 h after the surgery for sample collection. Compared with the ischemia group, the cardiac damage in the rats in the ischemia + NaHS groups was significantly reduced, particularly in the high-dose group; in the ischemia + PPG group, the myocardial injury was aggravated compared with that in the ischemia group. Compared with the ischemia group, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum of rats in the ischemia + medium- and high-dose NaHS groups were significantly reduced, and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) protein in the myocardial tissues of rats was significantly reduced. In the ischemia + PPG group, the TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the serum were significantly increased, the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased, although without a significant difference, and the expression of NF-κB was increased. The findings of the present study provide novel evidence for the dual effects of H2S on acute myocardial ischemia injury via the modulation of inflammatory factors. PMID:25667680
Askari, Arman T; Lincoff, A Michael
The combination of abciximab in full doses and reteplase in half doses did not significantly reduce the rate of mortality at 30 days in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) when compared with reteplase in full doses in the Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO V) trial. However, subgroup analysis indicates that the combined regimen reduced the complications of acute MI, representing an important alternative strategy for pharmacologic reperfusion.
Lim, Sang Yup; Bae, Eun Hui; Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Chang Seong; Ma, Seong Kwon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Weon; Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Soo Wan
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on short- and long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in elderly (>75 yr old) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with renal dysfunction. As part of Korea AMI Registry (KAMIR), elderly patients with AMI and renal dysfunction (GFR<60 mL/min) received either medical (n=439) or PCI (n=1,019) therapy. Primary end point was in-hospital death. Secondary end point was MACE during a 1 month and 1 yr follow-up. PCI group showed a significantly lower incidence of in-hospital death (20.0% vs 14.3%, P=0.006). Short-term and long-term MACE rates were higher in medical therapy group (31.9% vs 19.0%; 57.7% vs 31.3%, P<0.001), and this difference was mainly attributed to cardiac death (29.3% vs 17.6%; 51.9% vs 25.0%, P<0.001). MACE-free survival time after adjustment was also higher in PCI group on short-term (hazard ratio, 0.67; confidence interval, 0.45-0.98; P=0.037) and long-term follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.61, confidence interval, 0.45-0.83; P=0.002). In elderly AMI patients with renal dysfunction, PCI therapy yields favorable in-hospital and short-term and long-term MACE-free survival.
Altıntaş, Bernas; Uğurlu, Murat; Kaya, İlyas; Uçaman, Berzal; Uluğ, Ali Veysel; Altındağ, Rojhat; Altaş, Yakup; Adıyaman, Mehmet Şahin; Öztürk, Önder
Background It is known that QRS duration is related to prognosis in acute myocardial infarction. The relation between QRS duration and coronary collateral circulation is uncertain. In the present study, we aimed to determine the relation between QRS duration and coronary collateral circulation in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction. Methods The present study was composed of 109 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. All patients had total occlusion in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Electrocardiographic recordings on admission were obtained for the assessment of QRS duration. The Rentrop classification was used to define coronary collateral circulation on coronary angiography. Patients were divided into two groups as follows: Group 1 with poor coronary collateral circulation (Rentrop 0–1) and Group 2 with good coronary collateral circulation (Rentrop 2–3). Results Of all patients, 62 patients were included in group 1 and 47 patients in group 2, respectively. In the present study, patients in the group 1 had longer QRS duration than patients in the group 2 (p < 0.005). Additionally, we found that Rentrop grading had negative correlation with both QRS duration and white blood cell count (r: −0.28; p < 0.005 and r: −0.35; p < 0.001). Conclusion Our study showed that there was an inverse relationship between QRS duration on admission and presence of coronary collateral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27570619
Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua
Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on…
Burg, Matthew M.; Meadows, Judith; Shimbo, Daichi; Davidson, Karina W.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Soufer, Robert
Background Depression is prevalent in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and increases risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) recurrence and mortality despite optimal medical care. The pathways underlying this risk remain elusive. Psychological stress (PS) can provoke impairment in myocardial perfusion and trigger ACS. A confluence of acute PS with depression might reveal coronary vascular mechanisms of risk. We tested whether depression increased risk for impaired myocardial perfusion during acute PS among patients with stable CHD. Methods and Results Patients (N=146) completed the Beck Depression Inventory‐I (BDI‐I), a measure of depression linked to recurrent ACS and post‐ACS mortality, and underwent single‐photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging at rest and during acute PS. The likelihood of new/worsening impairment in myocardial perfusion from baseline to PS as a function of depression severity was tested. On the BDI‐I, 41 patients scored in the normal range, 48 in the high normal range, and 57 in the depressed range previously linked to CHD prognosis. A BDI‐I score in the depressed range was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of new/worsening impairment in myocardial perfusion from baseline to PS (odds ratio =2.89, 95% CI: 1.26 to 6.63, P=0.012). This remained significant in models controlling ACS recurrence/mortality risk factors and medications. There was no effect for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications. Conclusions Depressed patients with CHD are particularly susceptible to impairment in myocardial perfusion during PS. The confluence of PS with depression may contribute to a better understanding of the depression‐associated risk for ACS recurrence and mortality. PMID:25359402
Vladan, Peric; Markovic-Jovanovic, Snezana; Stolic, Radojica; Mitic, Jadranka; Smilic, Tanja
Background. Increased lactate production is frequent in unregulated/complicated diabetes mellitus. Methods. Three groups, each consisting of 40 patients (type 2 diabetics with myocardial infarction, DM+AMI, nondiabetics suffering myocardial infarction, MI, and diabetics with no apparent cardiovascular pathology, DM group), were tested for pH, serum bicarbonate and electrolytes, blood lactate, and CK-MB. Results. Blood lactate levels were markedly higher in AMI+DM compared to MI group (4.54 ± 1.44 versus 3.19 ± 1.005 mmol/L, p < 0.05); they correlated with the incidence of heart failure (ρ = 0.66), cardiac rhythm disorders (ρ = 0.54), oxygen saturation (ρ = 0.72), CK-MB levels (ρ = 0.62), and poor short-term outcome. Lactic acidosis in DM+AMI group was not always related to lethal outcome. Discussion. The lactate cutoff value associated with grave prognosis depends on the specific disease. While some authors proposed cutoff values ranging from 0.76 to 4 mmol/L, others argued that only occurrence of lactic acidosis may be truly predictive of lethal outcome. Conclusion. Both defective glucose metabolism and low tissue oxygenation may contribute to the lactate production in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction; high lactate levels indicate increased risk for poor outcome in this population comparing to nondiabetic patients. The rise in blood lactate concentration in diabetics with AMI was associated with increased incidence of heart failure, severe arrhythmias, cardiogenic shock, and high mortality rate. PMID:27975067
Romeo, Francesco; Acconcia, Maria Cristina; Sergi, Domenico; Romeo, Alessia; Francioni, Simona; Chiarotti, Flavia; Caretta, Quintilio
AIM: To assess the impact of percutaneous cardiac support in cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI), treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: We selected all of the studies published from January 1st, 1997 to May 15st, 2015 that compared the following percutaneous mechanical support in patients with CS due to AMI undergoing myocardial revascularization: (1) intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) vs Medical therapy; (2) percutaneous left ventricular assist devices (PLVADs) vs IABP; (3) complete extracorporeal life support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) plus IABP vs IABP alone; and (4) ECMO plus IABP vs ECMO alone, in patients with AMI and CS undergoing myocardial revascularization. We evaluated the impact of the support devices on primary and secondary endpoints. Primary endpoint was the inhospital mortality due to any cause during the same hospital stay and secondary endpoint late mortality at 6-12 mo of follow-up. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred and seventy-two studies met the initial screening criteria. After detailed review, only 30 were selected. There were 6 eligible randomized controlled trials and 24 eligible observational studies totaling 15799 patients. We found that the inhospital mortality was: (1) significantly higher with IABP support vs medical therapy (RR = +15%, P = 0.0002); (2) was higher, although not significantly, with PLVADs compared to IABP (RR = +14%, P = 0.21); and (3) significantly lower in patients treated with ECMO plus IABP vs IABP (RR = -44%, P = 0.0008) or ECMO (RR = -20%, P = 0.006) alone. In addition, Trial Sequential Analysis showed that in the comparison of IABP vs medical therapy, the sample size was adequate to demonstrate a significant increase in risk due to IABP. CONCLUSION: Inhospital mortality was significantly higher with IABP vs medical therapy. PLVADs did not reduce early mortality. ECMO plus IABP significantly reduced inhospital mortality compared to IABP. PMID
Yan, Chen; Qin, Ma; Juan, Yang S; Tao, Li Y; dong, Gao M; Zechun, Zeng; Chun, Yang X; Liang, Cong H; Yin, Liu
Background Only a few information is available on the risk of stress hyperglycemia following acute myocardial infarction after statin use. We investigate the association of stress-induced hyperglycemia following statin use in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods An observational analysis of 476 consecutive patients who suffered acute myocardial infarction was carried out. All selected patients were divided into diabetes mellitus and non-diabetes based on the presence or absence of diabetes. The cardiac incidence of in-hospital and stress-induced hyperglycemia was recorded. Results Among patients with stress hyperglycemia in non-diabetes mellitus subgroups, the average fasting plasma glucose values in statin users were higher than in non-statin users (P < 0.05). But in diabetes mellitus subgroups, the average fasting plasma glucose did not have a significant difference between statin users and non-statin users (P > 0.05). In non-diabetes mellitus patients, the incidence of stress hyperglycemia with statin therapy was significantly higher than with non-statin therapy (P = 0.003). But in diabetes mellitus patients group, there is no significant difference in incidence of stress hyperglycemia between patients with statin therapy and patients without statin therapy (P = 0.902).The incidence of heart failure and in-hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction in patients with stress-induced hyperglycemia was significantly higher than in non-hyperglycemia patients (P < 0.05). Conclusion Statins are related to higher stress hyperglycemia and cardiac incidences after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27158481
Lichtman, Judith H.; Leifheit-Limson, Erica C.; Watanabe, Emi; Allen, Norrina B.; Garavalia, Brian; Garavalia, Linda S.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Curry, Leslie A.
Background Prompt recognition of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) symptoms and timely care-seeking behavior are critical to optimize acute medical therapies. Relatively little is known about the symptom presentation and care-seeking experiences of women aged ≤55 years with AMI, a group shown to have increased mortality risk as compared with similarly aged men. Understanding symptom recognition and experiences engaging the healthcare system may provide opportunities to reduce delays and improve acute care for this population. Methods and Results We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 30 women (aged 30-55 years) hospitalized with AMI to explore their experiences with prodromal symptoms and their decision-making process to seek medical care. Five themes characterized their experiences: 1) prodromal symptoms varied substantially in both nature and duration; 2) they inaccurately assessed personal risk of heart disease and commonly attributed symptoms to non-cardiac causes; 3) competing and conflicting priorities influenced decisions about seeking acute care; 4) the healthcare system was not consistently responsive to them, resulting in delays in workup and diagnosis; and 5) they did not routinely access primary care, including preventive care for heart disease. Conclusions Participants did not accurately assess their cardiovascular risk, reported poor preventive health behaviors, and delayed seeking care for symptoms, suggesting that differences in both prevention and acute care may be contributing to young women's elevated AMI mortality relative to men. Identifying factors that promote better cardiovascular knowledge, improved preventive health care, and prompt care-seeking behaviors represent important targets for this population. PMID:25714826
Mosleh, Wassim; Adib, Keenan; Natdanai, Punnanithinont; Carmona-Rubio, Andres; Karki, Roshan; Paily, Jacienta; Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel-Aal; Vakkalanka, Sujit; Madam, Narasa; Gudleski, Gregory D; Chung, Charles; Sharma, Umesh C
Prior studies identified the incremental value of non-invasive imaging by CT-angiogram (CTA) to detect high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Due to their superficial locations, larger calibers and motion-free imaging, the carotid arteries provide the best anatomic access for the non-invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to assess the ability of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-risk carotid plaque features identified by CTA. We retrospectively examined carotid CTAs of 492 patients that presented with acute stroke to characterize the atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries and examined development of acute MI and obstructive CAD within 12-months. Carotid lesions were defined in terms of calcifications (large or speckled), presence of low-attenuation plaques, positive remodeling, and presence of napkin ring sign. Adjusted relative risks were calculated for each plaque features. Patients with speckled (<3 mm) calcifications and/or larger calcifications on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year compared to patients without (adjusted RR of 7.51, 95%CI 1.26-73.42, P = 0.001). Patients with low-attenuation plaques on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year than patients without (adjusted RR of 2.73, 95%CI 1.19-8.50, P = 0.021). Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques also portended higher sensitivity (100 and 79.17%, respectively) for the development of acute MI. Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques can predict the risk of developing acute MI and/or obstructive CAD within 12-months. Given their high sensitivity, their absence can reliably exclude 12-month events.
Princip, Mary; Scholz, Marco; Meister-Langraf, Rebecca E.; Barth, Jürgen; Schnyder, Ulrich; Znoj, Hansjörg; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Thayer, Julian F.; von Känel, Roland
Objective: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported to be a predictor of mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). Patients' beliefs and perceptions concerning their illness may play a role in decreased HRV. This study investigated if illness perceptions predict HRV at 3 months following acute MI. Methods: 130 patients referred to a tertiary cardiology center, were examined within 48 h and 3 months following acute MI. At admission, patients' cognitive representations of their MI were assessed using the German version of the self-rated Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ). At admission and after 3 months (follow-up), frequency and time domain measures of HRV were obtained from 5-min electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during stable supine resting. Results: Linear hierarchical regression showed that the Brief IPQ dimensions timeline (β coefficient = 0.29; p = 0.044), personal control (β = 0.47; p = 0.008) and illness understanding (β = 0.43; p = 0.014) were significant predictors of HRV, adjusted for age, gender, baseline HRV, diabetes, beta-blockers, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), attendance of cardiac rehabilitation, and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: As patients' negative perceptions of their illness are associated with lower HRV following acute MI, a brief illness perception questionnaire may help to identify patients who might benefit from a specific illness perceptions intervention. PMID:27917140
Schiele, François; Seronde, Marie France; Descotes-Genon, Vincent; Blonde, Marie-Cecile; Legalery, Pierre; Meneveau, Nicolas; Ecarnot, Fiona; Penfornis, Alfred; Ducloux, Didier; Bassand, Jean-Pierre
Patients with impaired glucometabolic status or renal function have a higher mortality after acute myocardial infarction. It is unclear whether this higher risk is independent or related to the quality of care. In a prospective registry, stress hyperglycaemia (SH) was defined as glucose level>140 mg/dl. Renal function was assessed by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR): normal (>/=60), mild (30-60) and severe dysfunction (<30 ml/min/1.72 m(2)). The level of risk was assessed by the TIMI risk index and the quality of care by the rate of use of five guidelines-recommended treatments. Among the 1388 patients included, 23% had diabetes, 16% had SH, renal function was normal in 55%, mildly impaired in 35% and severely impaired in 9.5%. At one month, the mortality rate was higher in patients with SH (18%) as compared with diabetics (9%) or those with normal glucometabolic status (5%). Similarly, the mortality rate was higher in those with impaired renal function. Multivariable analysis identified SH, GFR group, TIMI risk index, ST segment elevation MI and quality of care as independent predictors of one-month mortality. In patients with acute MI, SH and GFR<30 ml/min/m(2) are independent predictors of mortality after adjustment for the level of risk and acute care.
Pereg, David; Gow, Rachel; Mosseri, Morris; Lishner, Michael; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan; Koren, Gideon
Acute stress is increasingly recognized as a precipitant of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the role of chronic stress in developing AMI is less clear. We have developed a method to measure cortisol in hair, which allows longitudinal assessment of cortisol levels prior to an acute event. We aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that chronic stress, as assessed by hair cortisol content, is associated with the development of AMI. A prospective case-control study included 56 patients admitted to hospital with AMI and 56 control patients, admitted to internal medicine wards for other indications. An enzyme immunoassay technique was used to measure cortisol in the most proximal 3 cm of hair, considered to represent the most recent 3 months of exposure. Median hair cortisol contents (range) were 295.3 (105.4-809.3)ng/g in AMI patients and 224.9 (76.58-949.9)ng/g in controls (p = 0.006, Mann-Whitney U-test). After controlling for other risk factors for AMI using multiple logistic regression, log-transformed hair cortisol content remained the strongest predictor (OR 17.4, 95% CI 2.15-140.5; p = 0.007). We demonstrated elevated hair cortisol concentrations in patients with AMI. This suggests that chronic stress, as assessed by increased hair cortisol in the 3 months prior to the event, may be a contributing factor for AMI.
Li, Yongle; Wu, Chengcheng; Liu, Wennan
Abstract Rationale: Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is characterized by an abnormal dilatation of the coronary arteries. CAE is often associated with the presence of slow coronary flow and may lead to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), even without total occlusion. Patient concerns and diagnosis: We report a case of a 24-year-old male patient with CAE suffering from AMI. Interventions: Percutaneous coronary intervention with aspiration thrombectomy failed to restore adequate blood flow. Heparin and antiplatelet treatment were provided for pharmacological management, but follow-up angiography 15 days later still revealed a poor result. This patient was ultimately treated with antiplatelet therapy in combination with warfarin treatment. Outcomes: Follow-up coronary angiography 15 months later showed a restored normal Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade (TIMI) 3 flow. Lessons: CAE-related infarct is often associated with high-burden thrombus formation. Long-term warfarin in combination with antiplatelet therapy may be a good alternative intervention to decrease thrombus burden and enhance blood flow. PMID:28121950
Wahl, J.M.; Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Yacone, L.
This study examines the scintigraphic features of patients in Killip class I or II after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with relation to ECG changes. The 41 consecutively studied patients (23 men and 18 women) with first AMI were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 25) had Q wave AMI, and group 2 (n = 16) had non-Q wave AMI. Rest thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams and radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained 10 days (mean) after AMI. The thallium images were divided into 15 segments in three projections and assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Fixed perfusion defects were present in at least one segment in 23 patients (92%) in group 1 and in eight patients (50%) in group 2 (p = 0.007). All but one patient in group 1 (4%) and three patients in group 2 (19%) had perfusion defects (fixed or reversible). The number of segments with perfusion defects was 5.6 +/- 2.6 in group 1 and 2.9 +/- 2.3 in group 2 (p = 0.002); the peak creatine kinase was 1280 +/- 880 Units/L in group 1 and 360 +/- 340 Units/L in group 2 (p less than 0.001); the left ventricular ejection fraction was 38 +/- 14% in group 1 vs 43 +/- 15% in group 2 (p = NS). Thus fixed perfusion defects are present in 92% of patients with Q waves and in 50% of patients with no Q waves.
Kreiner, Marcelo; Álvarez, Ramón; Michelis, Virginia; Waldenström, Anders; Isberg, Annika
We recently found craniofacial pain to be the sole symptom of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 4% of patients. We hypothesized that this scenario is also true for symptoms of prodromal (pre-infarction) angina. We studied 326 consecutive patients who experienced myocardial ischemia. Intra-individual variability analyses with respect to ECG findings and pain characteristics were performed for those 150 patients who experienced at least one recurrent ischemic episode. AMI patients (n=113) were categorized into two subgroups: "abrupt onset" (n=81) and "prodromal angina" (n=32). Age, gender and risk factor comparisons were performed between groups. Craniofacial pain constituted the sole prodromal symptom of an AMI in 5% of patients. In those who experienced two ischemic episodes, women were more likely than men to experience craniofacial pain in both episodes (p<0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between episodes regarding either ECG findings or the use of the two typical pain quality descriptors "pressure" and "burning". This study is to our knowledge the first to report that craniofacial pain can be the only symptom of a pre-infarction angina. Craniofacial pain constitutes the sole prodromal AMI symptom in one out of 20 AMI patients. Recognition of this atypical symptom presentation is low because research on prodromal AMI symptoms has to date studied only patients with chest pain. To avoid a potentially fatal misdiagnosis, awareness of this clinical presentation needs to be brought to the attention of clinicians, researchers and the general public.
Russell, Richard O.; Rackley, Charles E.; Pombo, Jaoquin; Hunt, David; Potanin, Constantine; Dodge, Harold T.
Left ventricular performance in 19 patients with acute myocardial infarction has been evaluated by measuring left ventricular response in terms of cardiac output, stroke volume, work, and power to progressive elevation of filling pressure accomplished by progressive expansion of blood volume with rapid infusion of low molecular weight dextran. Such infusion can elevate the cardiac output, stroke volume, work, and power and thus delineate the function of the left ventricle by Frank-Starling function curves. Left ventricular filling pressure in the range of 20-24 mm Hg was associated with the peak of the curves and when the filling pressure exceeded this range, the curves became flattened or decreased. An increase in cardiac output could be maintained for 4 or more hr. Patients with a flattened function curve had a high mortality in the ensuing 8 wk. The function curve showed improvement in myocardial function during the early convalescence. When left ventricular filling pressure is monitored directly or as pulmonary artery end-diastolic pressure, low molecular weight dextran provides a method for assessment of left ventricular function. Images PMID:5431663
Oidor-Chan, Víctor Hugo; Hong, Enrique; Pérez-Severiano, Francisca; Montes, Sergio; Torres-Narváez, Juan Carlos; del Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Pastelín-Hernández, Gustavo; Sánchez-Mendoza, Alicia
We investigated whether fenofibrate, metformin, and their combination generate cardioprotection in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic- (DB-) rats received 14 days of either vehicle, fenofibrate, metformin, or their combination and immediately after underwent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Fenofibrate plus metformin generated cardioprotection in a DBI/R model, reported as decreased coronary vascular resistance, compared to DBI/R-Vehicle, smaller infarct size, and increased cardiac work. The subchronic treatment with fenofibrate plus metformin increased, compared with DBI/R-Vehicle, total antioxidant capacity, manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase activity (MnSOD), guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH-I) expression, tetrahydrobiopterin : dihydrobiopterin (BH4 : BH2) ratio, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, and decreased inducible NOS (iNOS) activity. These findings suggest that PPARα activation by fenofibrate + metformin, at low doses, generates cardioprotection in a rat model of T2D and AMI and may represent a novel treatment strategy to limit I/R injury in patients with T2D. PMID:27069466
Montisci, M; Ruscazio, M; Snenghi, R; Nalin, S; Montisci, R; Iliceto, S; Ferrara, S D
The authors' aim is to outline some of the main medico-legal problems in cardiology, especially those regarding the premature hospital discharge of patients with undefined chest pain and/or with acute myocardial infarction. After a brief overview on the etiology and clinical definition of chest pain and myocardial infarction, premature hospital discharge is defined and the incidental medico-legal risks that physicians operating in such situations are exposed to are pointed out. Next, the profiles regarding both the positive and negative views of professional medical responsibility are described. In the negative frame, the authors outline the most frequent civil and penal aspects of the unpremeditated responsibility. Then the physician's error, in both qualitative (generic or specific guilt) and quantitative (degree) terms, is considered; particularly, negligence, imprudence and inexperience, as qualitatively accepted meanings of generic guilt, are dealt with by adopting illustrative cases settled in the light of the right legal interpretation. The phases of the diagnostic or prognostic error are evaluated, and clinical protocols, as a reference parameter for the identification of error, are considered. Lastly, the problem of causality, essential condition for the judgment about the professional responsibility, and the problem of the patient's consent, including an evaluation of the legal capability or incapability about the declaration of consent, are examined closely.
Barzelai, Sharon; Dayan, Anat; Feinberg, Micha S; Holbova, Radka; Laniado, Shlomo; Scheinowitz, Mickey
Previous studies have shown that pre-exposure of the heart to weak magnetic field reduces infarct size shortly after induction of myocardial ischemia. To investigate the role of AC magnetic field with a frequency of 15.95-16 Hz and 80 mT on left ventricular (LV) remodeling following chronic coronary occlusion and a short episode of ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R). LV dimension and function were measured using echocardiography. Femur bone marrow was isolated and cells were phenotyped for endothelial linage and immuno stained for endothelial cells. The area at risk was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. A significant reduction of 27% in shortening fraction (SF) was measured following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with a 7% decrease in animals exposed to magnetic field (p < 0.04). A significantly higher number of colony forming units and endothelial progenitor cells were counted within the treated groups subjected to magnetic field (p < 0.02). Exposing the heart to magnetic field prior to reperfusion did not show any preservation either on SF or on infarct size. Magnetic field was protective in the AMI but not in the I/R model. The mechanisms underlying cardiac protection induced by AC magnetic field following chronic injury deserves further investigation.
Ahumada, G G; Karlsberg, R P; Jaffe, A S; Ambos, H D; Sobel, B E; Roberts, R
To assess the effects of intravenously administered acebutolol (1-20 mg every 4 hours for 24 hours) on cardiac rhythm and performance, we studied 72 patients with evolving myocardial infarction. Twenty-five patients were treated with acebutolol beginning 6 hours after the first increase in the level of plasma creatine kinase. Enzymatically estimated infarct size was compared with that of 25 controls matched for predicted infarct size. Observed infarct sizes were not significantly different in the 2 groups (37 +/- 5 and 30 +/- 5 CK-gram equivalents, respectively). Mean heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, and cardiac output declined from control values during treatment with acebutolol, but remained within the normal range. Mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery occlusive pressure were unchanged. In a group of 22 treated patients matched with 22 control subjects for frequency of ventricular extrasystoles, acebutolol effected a prompt reduction in frequencies of ventricular extrasystoles and repetitive arrhythmias, whereas values were not significantly changed in controls during the corresponding intervals. Accordingly, acebutolol may be a useful antiarrhythmic agent in selected patients with acute myocardial infarction with adversely altering haemodynamic stability or enzymatically estimated infarct size. PMID:465240
Jeong, Hae Chang; Jeong, Myung Ho; Chae, Shung Chull; Hur, Seung Ho; Hong, Taek Jong; Kim, Young Jo; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Rhew, Jay Young; Chae, In Ho; Cho, Myeong Chan; Bae, Jang Ho; Rha, Seung Woon; Kim, Chong Jin; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yang Soo; Yoon, Junghan; Chung, Wook Sung; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung
Purpose There is still debate about the timing of revascularization in patients with acute non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). We analyzed the long-term clinical outcomes of the timing of revascularization in patients with acute NSTEMI obtained from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR). Materials and Methods 2,845 patients with acute NSTEMI (65.6 ± 12.5 years, 1,836 males) who were enrolled in KAMIR were included in the present study. The therapeutic strategy of NSTEMI was categorized into early invasive (within 48 hours, 65.8 ± 12.6 years, 856 males) and late invasive treatment (65.3 ± 12.1 years, 979 males). The initial- and long-term clinical outcomes were compared between two groups according to the level of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score. Results There were significant differences in-hospital mortality and the incidence of major adverse cardiac events during one-year clinical follow-up between two groups (2.1% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001, 10.0% vs. 13.5%, p = 0.004, respectively). According to the TIMI risk score, there was no significant difference of long-term clinical outcomes in patients with low to moderate TIMI risk score, but significant difference in patients with high TIMI risk score (≥ 5 points). Conclusions The old age, high Killip class, low ejection fraction, high TIMI risk score, and late invasive treatment strategy are the independent predictors for the long-term clinical outcomes in patients with NSTEMI. PMID:20046515
Esber, Christopher; Breathett, Khadijah; Sachak, Taha; Moore, Stephen; Lilly, Scott M.
A 47-year-old woman with breast cancer suffered progressive chest pain and flushing within 5 minutes of her second exposure to paclitaxel. Her symptoms progressed and she became pulseless. Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) was initiated, and after a series of chest compressions the cardiac monitor revealed ventricular fibrillation. With ongoing ACLS she was transferred to the emergency department where she regained a pulse. Review of electrocardiogram revealed prominent ST elevation in leads V1, V2 and V3 with reciprocal ST depression. She was transferred urgently to the catheterization laboratory. Angiography revealed a high-grade stenosis in the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD), and drug-eluting stents were placed without complications. She was then transferred to the floor and shortly thereafter suffered pulseless electrical activity and died despite prolonged attempts at resuscitation. Herein, we describe the development of acute myocardial infarction after paclitaxel administration, discuss potential etiologies and review evidence for an allergic component. PMID:28348706
Kipshidze, N N; Korotkov, A A; Marsagishvili, L A; Prigolashvili, T Sh; Bokhua, M R
The effect of various doses of dopamine on the values of cardiac contractile and hemodynamic function under conditions of acute two-hour ischemia complicated by cardiogenic shock was studied in 27 experiments on dogs. In a dose of 5 microgram/kg/min dopamine caused an optimum increase in cardiac productive capacity, reduction of peripheral resistance, adequate increase in coronary circulation and decrease in ST segment depression on the ECG. Infusion of 10 microgram/kg/min dopamine usually caused myocardial hyperfunction with an increase in total peripheral resistance and cardiac performance. Maximum dopamine doses (10 microgram/kg/min and more) were effective in the areactive form of cardiogenic shock. In longterm dopamine infusion it is necessary to establish continuous control over the hemodynamic parameters and the ECG to prevent aggravation of ischemia and for stage-by-stage reduction of the drug concentration and determination of the minimum maintenance dose.
Shin, Jeong Hun; Kim, Seok Hwan; Park, Jinkyu; Lim, Young-Hyo; Park, Hwan-Cheol; Choi, Sung Il; Shin, Jinho; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon-Gil; Hong, Mun K; Lee, Jae Ung
Cardiogenic unilateral pulmonary edema (UPE) is a rare clinical entity that is often misdiagnosed at first. Most cases of cardiogenic UPE occur in the right upper lobe and are caused by severe mitral regurgitation (MR). We present an unusual case of right-sided UPE in a patient with cardiogenic shock due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without severe MR. The patient was successfully treated by percutaneous coronary intervention and medical therapy for heart failure. Follow-up chest Radiography showed complete resolution of the UPE. This case reminds us that AMI can present as UPE even in patients without severe MR or any preexisting pulmonary disease affecting the vasculature or parenchyma of the lung.
Destro-Filho, J. B.; Machado, S. J. S.; Fonseca, G. T.
This paper presents a comparison among the three principal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) scores (Selvester, Aldrich, Anderson-Wilkins) as they are automatically estimated from digital electrocardiographic (ECG) files, in terms of memory occupation and processing time. Theoretical algorithm complexity is also provided. Our simulation study supposes that the ECG signal is already digitized and available within a computer platform. We perform 1000 000 Monte Carlo experiments using the same input files, leading to average results that point out drawbacks and advantages of each score. Since all these calculations do not require either large memory occupation or long processing, automatic estimation is compatible with real-time requirements associated with AMI urgency and with telemedicine systems, being faster than manual calculation, even in the case of simple costless personal microcomputers.
Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Okada, Hideshi; Morishita, Kentaro; Imai, Hajime; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Nawa, Takahide; Suzuki, Kodai; Ikeshoji, Haruka; Kato, Hisaaki; Yoshida, Takahiro; Yoshida, Shozo; Shirai, Kunihiro; Toyoda, Izumi; Hara, Akira; Ogura, Shinji
An 84-year-old woman, who was followed up as hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) in a local hospital, was transferred to our center because of anterior chest pain and diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Coronary angiography showed total occlusion of the mid-left anterior descending, and flow was restored after endovascular thrombectomy. An autopsy was performed after she died on hospital day 6. At autopsy, there was no significant stenosis in this vessel and the absence of plaque rupture was confirmed. Likewise, it was unclear asymmetric hypertrophy at autopsy, it could not deny that a sigmoid deformity of the basal septum occurs in elderly patients and can mimic the asymmetric septal hypertrophy of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. MI was thought to be caused by coronary spasm or squeezing in HOCM-like heart. Therefore, it may be necessary antithrombosis therapy in HOCM-like patients with no history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
Campisi, D; Paterna, S; Bivona, A; Cricchio, I; Cilluffo, P; Cannistraro, F; Furitano, G
20 (12 men and 8 women) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and 17 (14 men and 3 women) patients with arterial hypertension (II degrees stage according to OMS) in comparison to controls age and sex matched, were studied, serum IgA, IgG, IgM were evaluated with radial immunodiffusion and serum IgE with RIA. Ho significant changes ef immunoglobulins were observed between hypertensive patients and controls; whereas a significant increase of IgM, IgG and IgE, with out changes of IgA, were shown in AMI patients. Serum Ig and IgM were significantly augmented in AMI patients in comparison to hypertensive patients.
Zhang, Yuwei; Zheng, Kai; Zheng, Miao; Liu, Qigong; Meng, Li
Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. This case report details an old male ES patient with acute myocardial infarction. He was successfully treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the case of low hemoglobin level (60 g/L). Considering ES recurrence after surgery, he was given human immunoglobulin, methyl prednisolone and TPO treatment. On the basis of his platelet count, the patient was required to take only one anti-platelet drug or stop all anti-platelet drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ES with AMI. This case suggests that primary PCI can be a useful therapeutic strategy even if patient has low hemoglobin level, but careful balance between anti-platelet therapy and efforts to raise platelet count are needed after surgery. PMID:26309630
Anders, Maria M; Comignani, Pablo D; Couce, Rocio; Prini, Nadia; Zerega, Alina R; Santopinto, Mariano; Devetach, Gustavo; Quinonez, Emilio G; Goldaracena, Nicolas; McCormack, Lucas; Mastai, Ricardo C
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a rare clinical syndrome defined as a profound but reversible left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of coronary artery disease. We describe the clinical features and management of TC manifesting in the postoperative period in a patient undergoing liver transplantation. Two days after surgery, the patient developed clinical features of acute myocardial infarction. Ecochardiography revealed hypokinesis of the left ventricle. Coronary angiography revealed normal arteries without any stenosis or obstruction. The patient required vasopressor and inotropic support. The placement of intra-aortic balloon pump had a beneficial effect on the management of heart failure. The patient had a complete recovery of cardiac function 40 days after surgery. TC is a possible occurrence after liver transplant. Awareness of this condition is essential as early diagnosis and prompt management can save the patient’s life.
Cano, J. Francisco; Baena-Diez, Jose M.; Franch, Josep; Vila, Joan; Tello, Susana; Sala, Joan; Elosua, Roberto; Marrugat, Jaume
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term cardiovascular risk differs in type 2 diabetic patients compared with first acute myocardial infarction patients in a Mediterranean region, considering therapy, diabetes duration, and glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective population-based cohort study with 10-year follow-up was performed in 4,410 patients aged 30–74 years: 2,260 with type 2 diabetes without coronary heart disease recruited in 53 primary health care centers and 2,150 with first acute myocardial infarction without diabetes recruited in 10 hospitals. We compared coronary heart disease incidence and cardiovascular mortality rates in myocardial infarction patients and diabetic patients, including subgroups by diabetes treatment, duration, and A1C. RESULTS The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for 10-year coronary heart disease incidence and for cardiovascular mortality were significantly lower in men and women with diabetes than in myocardial infarction patients: HR 0.54 (95% CI 0.45–0.66) and 0.28 (0.21–0.37) and 0.26 (0.19–0.36) and 0.16 (0.10–0.26), respectively. All diabetic patient subgroups had significantly fewer events than myocardial infarction patients: the HR of cardiovascular mortality ranged from 0.15 (0.09–0.26) to 0.36 (0.24–0.54) and that of coronary heart disease incidence ranged from 0.34 (0.26–0.46) to 0.56 (0.43–0.72). CONCLUSIONS Lower long-term cardiovascular risk was found in type 2 diabetic and all subgroups analyzed compared with myocardial infarction patients. These results do not support equivalence in coronary disease risk for diabetic and myocardial infarction patients. PMID:20530746
Bayón, J; Fidalgo, M L; Calabozo, R; Alonso-Orcajo, N; Porrero, E; Rodríguez, M A; Suárez, G; Santos, I; Ramos, G; González, C
An acute myocardial infarction, is an infrequent complication in pregnant women. We present the case of a 29-years-old patient who suffered 2 acute myocardial infarction in relation with her two pregnancies. The first acute myocardial infarction occurred the third day after delivery, and the second, during the seventh month of the second pregnancy. In the latter, delivery was vaginal, with epidural anaesthesia. A coronary angiogram showed coronary arteries without significant narrowings, as well as an aneurysm of the left ventricle. A review of the literature published so far is made in the discussion.
da Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Vieira, Liana Lima; Jardim, Thiago Veiga; de Souza, Jacqueline Danesio
Background Obesity affects a large part of elderly individuals worldwide and is considered a risk predictor for the development of chronic diseases such as cardiac diseases, the leading causes of death in the elderly population. Objective To investigate the prevalence of obesity and associated factors, with emphasis on the occurrence of other diseases and on food consumption in elderly individuals treated at the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS). Methods Cross-sectional sampling study performed in the city of Goiânia (Brazil) including elderly individuals (≥ 60 years) receiving primary care. During home visits, we performed anthropometric measurements and applied a structured, standardized, and pre-tested questionnaire assessing socioeconomic, demographic and lifestyle conditions, occurrence of diseases, and food consumption. We performed multiple Poisson regression analysis using a hierarchical model and adopting a significance level of 5%. Results We evaluated 418 elderly patients with a mean age of 70.7 ± 7 years. Their body mass indices had a mean value of 27.0 kg/m2 and were higher in women than in men (27.4 kg/m2 versus 26.1 kg/m2, respectively, p = 0.017). Obesity had a prevalence of 49.0%, a risk 1.87 times higher between the ages of 60-69 years and 70-79 years, and a rate 1.4 times higher among individuals with more than four morbidities. On multivariate analysis, the factors associated with obesity were age 60-69 and 70-79 years, inadequate consumption of whole-wheat grains and adequate consumption of fruit, musculoskeletal diseases, diabetes mellitus, and acute myocardial infarction. Conclusions Obesity had a high prevalence in the evaluated elderly population and was associated with food consumption, musculoskeletal disease, diabetes mellitus, and acute myocardial infarction.
McNamara, M T; Higgins, C B; Schechtmann, N; Botvinick, E; Lipton, M J; Chatterjee, K; Amparo, E G
To evaluate the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection and characterization of alterations in signal intensity and T2 relaxation time in acutely infarcted relative to normal myocardium 16 adult patients and normal volunteers were studied by electrocardiographically gated proton MRI. The seven volunteers were entirely asymptomatic and had no history of cardiovascular abnormality. The nine patients had each suffered an acute myocardial infarction within 5 to 12 days before the MRI studies. The diagnosis in each patient was confirmed by electrocardiographic (ECG) criteria and elevated levels of fractionated creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes. Electrocardiographically gated MRI was performed with a superconducting system operating at 0.35 tesla. MRI demonstrated infarcted myocardium as a region of high signal intensity relative to that of adjacent normal myocardium; regions of high intensity corresponded anatomically to the site of infarction as defined by the ECG changes. The mean percent difference between normal and infarcted myocardium was substantially greater on 56 msec images (70.2 +/- 21.3%) compared with 28 msec images (27.1 +/- 13.6%). Region of interest analysis revealed that infarcted myocardium had a significantly (p less than .01) prolonged T2 relaxation time (mean T2 = 80.9 msec) relative to that in normal myocardium (mean T2 = 42.3 msec) and relative to the mean T2 of left ventricular myocardium in the volunteers (mean T2 = 42.4 msec). An additional finding for each patient with myocardial infarction was a high intraluminal flow signal on 56 msec images, but this was also observed in normal subjects and is therefore a nonspecific finding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Okyay, Kaan; Poyraz, Fatih; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye
We investigated the prognostic importance of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at long-term follow-up, and we analyzed the correlations between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and other biochemical values. We evaluated 73 consecutive patients (56 men; mean age, 56 ±11 yr) diagnosed with acute STEMI and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median myeloperoxidase level (Group 1: plasma myeloperoxidase ≤68 ng/mL; and Group 2: plasma myeloperoxidase >68 ng/mL). Patients were monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were defined as cardiac death; reinfarction; new hospital admission for angina; heart failure; and revascularization procedures. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 16 months. Plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in STEMI patients than in control participants (82 ± 34 vs 20 ±12 ng/mL; P=0.001). Composite MACE occurred in 12 patients with high myeloperoxidase levels (33%) and in 4 patients with low myeloperoxidase levels (11%) (P=0.02). The incidences of nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction and verified cardiac death were higher in the high-mye-loperoxidase group. In multivariate analysis, high plasma myeloperoxidase levels were independent predictors of MACE (odds ratio = 3.843; <95% confidence interval, 1.625–6.563; P=0.003). High plasma myeloperoxidase levels identify patients with a worse prognosis after acute STEMI at 2-year follow-up. Evaluation of plasma myeloperoxidase levels might be useful in determining patients at high risk of death and MACE who can benefit from further aggressive treatment and closer follow-up. PMID:22949765
Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Okyay, Kaan; Poyraz, Fatih; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye
We investigated the prognostic importance of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at long-term follow-up, and we analyzed the correlations between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and other biochemical values. We evaluated 73 consecutive patients (56 men; mean age, 56 ± 11 yr) diagnosed with acute STEMI and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median myeloperoxidase level (Group 1: plasma myeloperoxidase ≤ 68 ng/mL; and Group 2: plasma myeloperoxidase > 68 ng/mL). Patients were monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were defined as cardiac death; reinfarction; new hospital admission for angina; heart failure; and revascularization procedures. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 16 months. Plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in STEMI patients than in control participants (82 ± 34 vs 20 ± 12 ng/mL; P = 0.001). Composite MACE occurred in 12 patients with high myeloperoxidase levels (33%) and in 4 patients with low myeloperoxidase levels (11%) (P = 0.02). The incidences of nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction and verified cardiac death were higher in the high-myeloperoxidase group. In multivariate analysis, high plasma myeloperoxidase levels were independent predictors of MACE (odds ratio = 3.843; <95% confidence interval, 1.625-6.563; P = 0.003). High plasma myeloperoxidase levels identify patients with a worse prognosis after acute STEMI at 2-year follow-up. Evaluation of plasma myeloperoxidase levels might be useful in determining patients at high risk of death and MACE who can benefit from further aggressive treatment and closer follow-up.
Askari, Alireza; Zakeri, Habib; Farjam, Mojtaba; Dehghan, Azizallah; Zendehdel, Kazem
Background Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of death in Iran. Every attempt to improve treatment patterns and patient outcomes needs a surveillance system to both consider the efficacy and safety measures. Fasa Registry on Myocardial Infarction (FaRMI) is the first population-based registry for acute MI in Iran targeted to provide meticulous description of patients’ characteristics, to explore the management patterns of these patients, to discover the degree of adherence to the practice guidelines, and to investigate the determinants of poor in-hospital and later outcomes. Methods A diagnosis of acute MI (type I, II and III) was made upon the accepted criteria by the attending cardiologists and types IV and V MI were excluded. Two registrar nurses gathered data on demographics, place of residence and ethnicity, past medical history, risk factors, and the clinical course. Management patterns in the pre-hospital setting, during the hospital stay and at the discharge time were recorded. Routine laboratory results and cardiac biomarkers on three consecutive days were registered. Results pilot phase included the first 95 patients, 63.5% of whom were men and 31.5% were women. With a mean age of 62.89±13.75 years among participants, the rate of premature MI was 31.8%. ST segment elevation MI accounted for 68.2% cases and inferior wall was the most prevalent region involved followed by anterior and posterior walls. Discussion Obtained data on the characteristics of patients suffering an MI event revealed the major determinants of delay in initiation of therapies and contributors of poor outcome. Completeness of data was guaranteed upon involvement of multiple checkpoints and data quality was secured by means of automatic validation processes in addition to weekly physicians’ roundups. Conclusion Execution of FaRMI in the form presented is feasible and it will build up a comprehensive population-based registry for MI in the region. PMID:27907128
Summary Angina pectoris in pregnancy is unusual and Prinzmetal’s angina is much rarer. It accounts for 2% of all cases of angina. It is caused by vasospasm, but the mechanism of spasm is unknown but has been linked with hyperthyroidism in some studies. Patients with thyrotoxicosis-induced acute myocardial infarction are unusual and almost all reported cases have been associated with Graves’ disease. Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone-induced hyperthyroidism occurs in about 1.4% of pregnant women, mostly when hCG levels are above 70–80 000 IU/L. Gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is transient and generally resolves spontaneously in the latter half of pregnancy, and specific antithyroid treatment is not required. Treatment with calcium channel blockers or nitrates reduces spasm in most of these patients. Overall, the prognosis for hyperthyroidism-associated coronary vasospasm is good. We describe a very rare case of an acute myocardial infarction in a 27-year-old female, at 9 weeks of gestation due to right coronary artery spasm secondary to gestational hyperthyroidism with free thyroxine of 7.7 ng/dL and TSH <0.07 IU/L. Learning points: AMI and cardiac arrest due to GTT despite optimal medical therapy is extremely rare. Gestational hyperthyroidism should be considered in pregnant patients presenting with ACS-like symptoms especially in the setting of hyperemesis gravidarum. Our case highlights the need for increased awareness of general medical community that GTT can lead to significant cardiac events. Novel methods of controlling GTT as well as medical interventions like ICD need further study. PMID:27933173
Loughnan, Margaret E; Nicholls, Neville; Tapper, Nigel J
Background Seasonal patterns in cardiac disease in the northern hemisphere are well described in the literature. More recently age and gender differences in cardiac mortality and to a lesser extent morbidity have been presented. To date spatial differences between the seasonal patterns of cardiac disease has not been presented. Literature relating to seasonal patterns in cardiac disease in the southern hemisphere and in Australia in particular is scarce. The aim of this paper is to describe the seasonal, age, gender, and spatial patterns of cardiac disease in Melbourne Australia by using acute myocardial infarction admissions to hospital as a marker of cardiac disease. Results There were 33,165 Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) admissions over 2186 consecutive days. There is a seasonal pattern in AMI admissions with increased rates during the colder months. The peak month is July. The admissions rate is greater for males than for females, although this difference decreases with advancing age. The maximal AMI season for males extends from April to November. The difference between months of peak and minimum admissions was 33.7%. Increased female AMI admissions occur from May to November, with a variation between peak and minimum of 23.1%. Maps of seasonal AMI admissions demonstrate spatial differences. Analysis using Global and Local Moran's I showed increased spatial clustering during the warmer months. The Bivariate Moran's I statistic indicated a weaker relationship between AMI and age during the warmer months. Conclusion There are two distinct seasons with increased admissions during the colder part of the year. Males present a stronger seasonal pattern than females. There are spatial differences in AMI admissions throughout the year that cannot be explained by the age structure of the population. The seasonal difference in AMI admissions warrants further investigation. This includes detailing the prevalence of cardiac disease in the community and examining
Taylor, G.J.; Crampton, R.S.; Gibson, R.S.; Stebbins, P.T.; Waldman, M.T.; Beller, G.A.
The prospectively assessed time course of changes in ventricular repolarization during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is reported in 32 patients admitted 2.0 +/- 1.8 (SD) hours after AMI onset. The initial corrected QT interval (QTc) upon hospitalization was longer in the 14 patients developing ventricular tachycardia (VT) within the first 48 hours as compared to QTc in the eight patients with frequent ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and to QTc in the 10 patients with infrequent VPBs. By the fifth day after AMI onset, the QTc shortened significantly only in the VT group, suggesting a greater initial abnormality of repolarization in these patients. All 32 patients had coronary angiography, radionuclide ventriculography, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy before hospital discharge. Significant discriminating factors related to early phase VT in AMI included initially longer QT and QTc intervals, faster heart rate, higher peak serum levels of creatine kinase, acute anterior infarction, angiographically documented proximal stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and scintigraphic evidence of hypoperfusion of the interventricular septum. Prior infarction, angina pectoris, hypertension, multivessel coronary artery disease, and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction did not provide discrimination among the three different ventricular arrhythmia AMI groups. Researchers conclude that (1) the QT interval is frequently prolonged early in AMI, (2) the initial transiently prolonged ventricular repolarization facilitates and predicts complex ventricular tachyarrhythmias within the first 48 hours of AMI, (3) jeopardized blood supply to the interventricular septum frequently coexists, and (4) therapeutic enhancement of rapid recovery of the ventricular repolarization process merits investigation for prevention of VT in AMI.
Yunoki, Kei; Naruko, Takahiko; Sugioka, Kenichi; Inaba, Mayumi; Itoh, Akira; Haze, Kazuo; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Ueda, Makiko
Inflammation and oxidative stress play key roles in atherosclerotic plaque instability, and plaque rupture/erosion and subsequent thrombus formation constitute the principal mechanisms of total vessel occlusion and acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Plaque disruption triggers the formation of initial platelet aggregates that grow in association with an increase in fibrin formation, leading to persistent coronary flow obstruction and blood coagulation. The fibrin network may trap large numbers of erythrocytes and inflammatory cells to form an erythrocyte-rich thrombus. In fact, previous clinical studies have shown that not only platelet-rich white thrombi, but also erythrocyte-rich red thrombi can be visualized using angioscopy in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Recently, the development of thrombus aspiration and distal protection devices has significantly improved the clinical outcomes of percutaneous intervention in STEMI patients and has enabled the evaluation of antemortem coronary artery thrombi. This is important because previous autopsy studies were unable to differentiate coronary thrombi responsible for myocardial ischemia from postmortem clots. Using frozen samples of aspirated thrombi and specific monoclonal antibodies, we investigated the cellular components of thrombi (platelets, erythrocytes, fibrin and inflammatory cells, such as myeloperoxidase-positive cells) and pathologically evaluated the relationships between erythrocyte-rich thrombi and inflammation, oxidative stress and clinical outcomes in STEMI patients. Therefore, this review article focuses on the efficacy of thrombus aspiration therapy and the components of aspirated intracoronary thrombi in STEMI patients and presents the results of recent studies regarding the relationship between the composition of aspirated intracoronary thrombi and clinical outcomes.
Jain, Siddhant; Sarkar, Piyabi; Modi, Nitin; Tilkar, Mahendra
Introduction Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is a life threatening medical emergency which needs urgent medical attention. It is one of the major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the coronary artery status by Coronary Angiography (CAG) after first survival of the Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and to correlate the CAG findings with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Risk Factor (RF) and effect of early thrombolysis. Materials and Methods CAG was done on 870 patients consecutively from June 2013 to May 2015. Age, Gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), CAD risk factors (RF) such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM), hypertension, dyslipidaemia, smoking status and history of thrombolyctic status were recorded. The correlation between the CAD risk factors (RF) and the CAG findings were statistically analyzed. Results Coronary heart disease risk factors analysis revealed ≥ three RF in 23.88%, two RF in 29.88% and one RFin 45.86% of patients. CAG showed Single Vessel Disease (SVD) in 236 (27.1%) patients, double vessel disease (DVD) in 220(25.2%) patients, Triple Vessel Disease (TVD) in 252 (28.9%) patients. Multiple coronary artery involvement were found in the high risk group patients, which was found statistically significant (p-value<0.0001). A total of 348/870 (40%) patients were thrombolysed amongst them 80 (22.9%) revealed minimal and/or normal coronary artery which was found statistically significant (p-value<0.0001). Conclusion Higher the coronary risk factors, more the chance of the multiple coronary arteries involvement. All AMI patients should be thrombolysed as early as possible to get the benefit of recanalization of the culprit vessel. PMID:26816930
Salisbury, Adam C; Chan, Paul S; Gosch, Kensey L; Buchanan, Donna M; Spertus, John A
Although fast food is affordable and convenient, it is also high in calories, saturated fat, and sodium. The frequency of fast food intake at the time of and after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is modifiable. However, patterns of fast food intake and characteristics associated with its consumption in patients with AMI are unknown. The aim of this study was to study fast food consumption at the time of AMI and 6 months later in 2,481 patients from the prospective, 24-center Translational Research Investigating Underlying Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients' Health Status (TRIUMPH) study of patients with AMI. Fast food intake was categorized as frequent (weekly or more often) or infrequent (less than weekly). Multivariate log-binomial regression was used to identify patient characteristics associated with frequent fast food intake 6 months after AMI. At baseline, 884 patients (36%) reported frequent fast food intake, which decreased to 503 (20%) 6 months after discharge (p <0.001). Male gender, white race, lack of college education, current employment, and dyslipidemia were independently associated with frequent fast food intake 6 months after AMI. In contrast, older patients and those who underwent coronary bypass surgery were less likely to eat fast food frequently. Documentation of discharge dietary counseling was not associated with 6-month fast food intake. In conclusion, fast food consumption by patients with AMI decreased 6 months after the index hospitalization, but certain populations, including younger patients, men, those currently working, and less educated patients were more likely to consume fast food, at least weekly, during follow-up. Novel interventions that go beyond traditional dietary counseling may be needed to address continued fast food consumption after AMI in these patients.
Recchioni, Rina; Marcheselli, Fiorella; Olivieri, Fabiola; Ricci, Stefano; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Antonicelli, Roberto
Biomarkers play a critical role in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), especially in patients with atypical clinical and/or electrocardiographic presentation or co-morbidities, like the elderly. High-sensitivity assays based on specific biomarkers (e.g. cardiac troponins) enabling earlier AMI diagnosis have recently become available in clinical practice. Although no single biomarker of myocardial necrosis is ever likely to afford AMI diagnosis, a combination including different biomarkers for necrosis and ischemia, like new circulating molecules (microRNAs), could enhance diagnostic specificity. We review the recent literature on conventional and novel AMI biomarkers, with special emphasis on circulating microRNAs.
Lee, Min Goo; Ahn, Youngkeun; Chae, Shung Chull; Hur, Seung Ho; Hong, Taek Jong; Kim, Young Jo; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Rhew, Jay Young; Chae, In Ho; Cho, Myeong Chan; Bae, Jang Ho; Rha, Seung Woon; Kim, Chong Jim; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yang Soo; Yoon, Junghan; Chung, Wook Sung; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung
Background and Objectives It is thought that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a poor prognosis after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but the effect of diabetes on the outcomes of hypertensive patients with AMIs has not been elucidated in the Korean population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of diabetes on long-term clinical outcomes following AMIs in patients with hypertension. Subjects and Methods Using data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (November 2005 to December 2006), 2,233 hypertensive patients with AMIs were grouped as follows based on the presence of DM: group I, diabetic hypertension (n=892, 544 men, mean age=66.2±10.9 years); and group II, non-diabetic hypertension (n=1341, 938 men, mean age=63.9±12.8 years). The primary study outcomes included in-hospital death and major adverse cardiac events (MACE; cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), repeat percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass surgery) at the 1 year follow-up. Results Hypertensive patients with DM were older and more likely to be women. The diabetic group had lower blood pressure (p<0.001), a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001), a more severe degree of heart failure (p<0.001), a longer duration of coronary care unit admission (p<0.001), and a higher incidence of hyperlipidemia (p=0.007). The N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level (4602.5±8710.6 pg/mL vs. 2320.8±5837.9 pg/mL, p<0.001) was higher and the creatinine clearance (62.4±29.9 mL/min vs. 73.0±40.8 mL/min, p<0.001) was lower in the diabetic group than the non-diabetic group. Coronary angiographic findings revealed more frequent involvement of the left main stem (p=0.002) and multiple vessels (p<0.001) in the diabetic group. The rate of in-hospital death was higher in the diabetic group (p<0.001). During follow-up, the rates of composite MACE at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months were higher in the diabetic group (p<0
Background Diabetes mellitus and renal dysfunction are prognostic factors after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, few studies have assessed the effects of renal insufficiency in association with diabetes in the context of AMI. Here, we investigated the clinical outcomes according to the concomitance of renal dysfunction and diabetes mellitus in patients with AMI. Methods From November 2005 to August 2008, 9905 patients (63 ± 13 years; 70% men) with AMI were enrolled in a nationwide prospective Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) and were categorized into 4 groups: Group I (n = 5700) had neither diabetes nor renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), Group II (n = 1730) had diabetes but no renal insufficiency, Group III (n = 1431) had no diabetes but renal insufficiency, and Group IV (n = 1044) had both diabetes and renal insufficiency. The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including a composite of all cause-of-death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and coronary artery bypass graft after 1-year clinical follow-up. Results Primary endpoints occurred in 1804 (18.2%) patients. There were significant differences in composite MACE among the 4 groups (Group I, 12.5%; Group II, 15.7%; Group III, 30.5%; Group IV, 36.5%; p < 0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, after adjusting for multiple covariates, the 1-year mortality increased stepwise from Group III to IV as compared with Group I (hazard ratio [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-2.86; p = 0.001; and HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.62-3.62; p < 0.001, respectively). However, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no significant difference in probability of death at 1 year between Group III and IV (p = 0.288). Conclusions Renal insufficiency, especially in association with diabetes, is associated with the occurrence of composite MACE and indicates poor prognosis in patients with AMI. Categorization of patients with
Lim, Sang Yup; Bae, Eun Hui; Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Chang Seong; Ma, Seong Kwon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Weon; Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on short- and long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in elderly (>75 yr old) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with renal dysfunction. As part of Korea AMI Registry (KAMIR), elderly patients with AMI and renal dysfunction (GFR<60 mL/min) received either medical (n=439) or PCI (n=1,019) therapy. Primary end point was in-hospital death. Secondary end point was MACE during a 1 month and 1 yr follow-up. PCI group showed a significantly lower incidence of in-hospital death (20.0% vs 14.3%, P=0.006). Short-term and long-term MACE rates were higher in medical therapy group (31.9% vs 19.0%; 57.7% vs 31.3%, P<0.001), and this difference was mainly attributed to cardiac death (29.3% vs 17.6%; 51.9% vs 25.0%, P<0.001). MACE-free survival time after adjustment was also higher in PCI group on short-term (hazard ratio, 0.67; confidence interval, 0.45-0.98; P=0.037) and long-term follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.61, confidence interval, 0.45-0.83; P=0.002). In elderly AMI patients with renal dysfunction, PCI therapy yields favorable in-hospital and short-term and long-term MACE-free survival. PMID:23853485
Background Insulin resistance (IR) assessed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) index in the acute phase of myocardial infarction in non-diabetic patients was recently established as an independent predictor of intrahospital mortality. In this study we postulated that acute IR is a dynamic phenomenon associated with the development of myocardial and microvascular injury and larger final infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Methods In 104 consecutive patients with the first anterior STEMI without diabetes, the HOMA index was determined on the 2nd and 7th day after pPCI. Worst-lead residual ST-segment elevation (ST-E) on postprocedural ECG, coronary flow reserve (CFR) determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography on the 2nd day after pPCI and fixed perfusion defect on single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) determined six weeks after pPCI were analyzed according to HOMA indices. Results IR was present in 55 % and 58 % of patients on day 2 and day 7, respectively. Incomplete post-procedural ST-E resolution was more frequent in patients with IR compared to patients without IR, both on day 2 (p = 0.001) and day 7 (p < 0.001). The HOMA index on day 7 correlated with SPECT-MPI perfusion defect (r = 0.331), whereas both HOMA indices correlated well with CFR (r = -0.331 to -0.386) (p < 0.01 for all). In multivariable backward logistic regression analysis adjusted for significant univariate predictors and potential confounding variables, IR on day 2 was an independent predictor of residual ST-E ≥ 2 mm (OR 11.70, 95% CI 2.46-55.51, p = 0.002) and CFR < 2 (OR = 5.98, 95% CI 1.88-19.03, p = 0.002), whereas IR on day 7 was an independent predictor of SPECT-MPI perfusion defect > 20% (OR 11.37, 95% CI 1.34-96.21, p = 0.026). Conclusion IR assessed by the HOMA index during the
Sen, Taner; Astarcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Beton, Osman; Asarcikli, Lale Dinc; Kilit, Celal
Background According to common belief, most myocardial infarctions (MIs) are due to the rupture of nonsevere, vulnerable plaques with < 70% obstruction. Data from recent trials challenge this belief, suggesting that the risk of coronary occlusion is, in fact, much higher after severe stenosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not acute ST-elevation MIs result from high-grade stenoses by evaluating the presence of coronary collateral circulation (CCC). Methods We retrospectively included 207 consecutive patients who had undergone primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-elevation MI. Collateral blood flow distal to the culprit lesion was assessed by two investigators using the Rentrop scoring system. Results Out of the 207 patients included in the study, 153 (73.9%) had coronary collateral vessels (Rentrop 1-3). The Rentrop scores were 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 54 (26.1%), 50 (24.2%), 51 (24.6%), and 52 (25.1%) patients, respectively. Triglycerides, mean platelet volume (MPV), white cell (WBC) count, and neutrophil count were significantly lower in the group with good collateral vessels (p = 0.013, p = 0.002, p = 0.003, and p = 0.021, respectively). Conclusion More than 70% of the patients with acute MI had CCC with Rentrop scores of 1-3 during primary coronary angiography. This shows that most cases of acute MI in our study originated from underlying high-grade stenoses, challenging the common believe. Higher serum triglycerides levels, greater MPV, and increased WBC and neutrophil counts were independently associated with impaired development of collateral vessels. PMID:28099589
Wei, L; Lang, C C; Sullivan, F M; Boyle, P; Wang, J; Pringle, S D; MacDonald, T M
Objective: To investigate the effect of distance between home and acute hospital on mortality outcome of patients experiencing an incident myocardial infarction (MI). Design: Cohort study using a record linkage database. Setting: Tayside, Scotland, UK. Patients: 10 541 patients with incident acute MI between 1994 and 2003 were identified from Tayside hospital discharge data and from death certification data. Main outcome measures: MI mortality in the community, all-cause mortality in hospital and all-cause mortality during follow-up. Results: 4133 subjects died following incident MI in the community (that is, were not hospitalised), 6408 patients survived to be hospitalised and 1010 of these (15.8%) died in hospital. Of 5398 discharged from hospital, 1907 (35.3%) died during a median of 3.2 years of follow-up. After adjustment for rurality and other known risk factors, distance between home and admitting hospital was significantly associated with increased mortality both before hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 4.21 for >9 miles and 1.46, 1.09 to 1.95 for 3–9 miles when compared to <3 miles) and after hospitalisation (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.90, 1.19 to 3.02 and 1.27, 0.96 to 1.68). However, there was no effect of distance on in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 0.95, 0.45 to 2.03 and 1.02, 0.66 to 1.58). Conclusion: The distance between home and hospital of admission may predict mortality in subjects experiencing a first acute MI. This association was found both before and after hospitalisation. Further studies are needed to explore the reasons for this association. However these data provide support for policies that locate services for acute MI closer to where patients live. PMID:17984217
Ciruzzi, M; Schargrodsky, H; Rozlosnik, J; Pramparo, P; Delmonte, H; Rudich, V; Piskorz, D; Negri, E; Soifer, S; La Vecchia, C
The relation between family history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the risk of AMI was analyzed using data of a case-control study conducted in Argentina between 1992 and 1994. Case patients were 1,060 subjects with AMI admitted to 35 coronary care units, and controls were 1,071 subjects admitted to the same network of hospitals where cases had been identified, for a wide spectrum of acute conditions unrelated to known or likely risk factors for AMI: 31% of cases versus 15% of controls reported > or = 1 first-degree relative with history of AMI. Compared with subjects without family history of AMI, the odds ratio (OR) of AMI, after allowance for age, sex, cholesterolemia, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, education, social class, and physical exercise, was 2.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74 to 2.74) for those with family history of AMI. The OR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.60 to 2.60) for subjects with 1 relative, and 3.18 (95% C 1.86 to 5.44) for those reporting > or = 2 relatives with AMI. In women the OR for any family history of AMI was 2.83, and in men 2.01. The association was of similar magnitude if the mother (OR 1.98), the father (OR 2.13), or a sibling (OR 2.48) had had an AMI. The association with family history was stronger at a younger age because the OR for subjects reporting > or = 2 more relatives with a history of AMI was 4.42 for subjects aged < 55 years, and 3.00 for those aged > or = 55 years. The association between AMI and family history of AMI was consistent across separate strata of education, social class, smoking, and serum cholesterol, but was less strong in subjects with history of diabetes and hypertension. When the interaction of known risk factors with family history of AMI was analyzed, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and smoking had approximately multiplicative effects on the relative risk. The OR was 4.50 for subjects with family history and cholesterol > or = 240 ml/dl, 4.52 for those with hypertension, and
Philippe, F; Lacombe, C; Bucherer, C; Drobinski, G; Montalescot, G; Thomas, D
Thrombolytic agents and new antiplatelet drugs used in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) could change whole blood viscosity. The aim of this pilot trial is to compare blood viscosity at four shear rate levels among three groups of patients: AMI receiving thrombolysis with alteplase (n: 10), AMI eligible for primary angioplasty with abciximab (n: 10), healthy volunteers (n: 10). Viscosity measurement was obtained in 30 minutes with a Couette hemoviscosimeter. At baseline, blood viscosity level was higher in patients with acute coronary syndromes than in healthy volunteers (72 +/- 32 mPa.s versus 51 +/- 13 mPa.s, p<0.05). After thrombolysis, viscosity was higher at 90 minutes than at third day, paradoxically with fibrinogen elevation (72 +/- 32 mPa.s versus 58 +/- 27 mPa.s, p=0.01). In primary angioplasty with abciximab, viscosity decreased significantly (56 +/- 28 mPa.s versus 43 +/- 13 mPa.s, p=0.01). The effects of ionic contrast agent and abciximab are discussed. In healthy volunteers group, 100 mg aspirin once a day during 7 days reduces blood viscosity at high shear stress. The small size of the study population restricts correlation analysis with major clinical adverse events. A larger trial is necessary to evaluate the predictive value of whole blood viscosity in reocclusive and/or hemorrhagic events in those reperfusion strategies but also in case of thrombolytic agent and abciximab combination.
White, H D; Cross, D B; Williams, B F; Norris, R M
Thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction increases the risk of subsequent reocclusion of the infarct related artery. The efficacy and safety of repeat thrombolytic treatment was assessed in 31 patients treated with streptokinase (n = 13) or tissue plasminogen activator (n = 18) a median of five days (1-716) after the first infusion. The indication for readministration was prolonged chest pain with new ST segment elevation. Efficacy was assessed by infarct artery patency at angiography at a median of eight days after readministration in 22 patients and by non-invasive criteria in 23 patients (reperfusion was deemed to be likely if serum creatine kinase was not increased or reached a peak less than 12 hours after infarction). Angiography showed patency of 70% of the infarct arteries after readministration of streptokinase and of 75% after tissue plasminogen activator. The corresponding patency rates assessed noninvasively were 73% and 75%. Reinfarction was prevented in nine (29%) patients. Allergic reactions occurred in four of eight patients who received streptokinase twice (plasmacytosis and acute reversible renal failure developed in one patient). Two patients had major bleeding and two minor bleeding, all after tissue plasminogen activator, and one of them died of cerebral haemorrhage. Repeat thrombolytic treatment results in late patency rates similar to the rates after the initial administration. Allergic reactions were common in those treated twice with streptokinase. PMID:2119665
Liao, Wen-I; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Wu, Ya-Chieh; Chang, Wei-Chou; Hsu, Chin-Wang; Wang, Jen-Chun; Tsai, Shih-Hung
Acute hyperglycemia is a frequent finding in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The prognostic role of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients with AMI remains controversial. We retrospectively reviewed patients’ medical records to obtain demographic data, clinical presentation, major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), several clinical scores and laboratory data, including the plasma glucose level at initial presentation and HbA1c levels. The glycemic gap, which represents changes in serum glucose levels during the index event, was calculated from the glucose level upon ED admission minus the HbA1c-derived average glucose (ADAG). We enrolled 331 patients after the review of medical records. An elevated glycemic gap between admission serum glucose levels and ADAG were associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients. The glycemic gap showed superior discriminative power regarding the development of MACEs when compared with the admission glucose level. The calculation of the glycemic gap may increase the discriminative powers of established clinical scoring systems in diabetic patients presenting to the ED with AMI. In conclusion, the glycemic gap could be used as an adjunct parameter to assess the severity and prognosis of diabetic patients presenting with AMI. However, the usefulness of the glycemic gap should be further explored in prospective longitudinal studies. PMID:27291987
Cabigas, E Bernadette; Somasuntharam, Inthirai; Brown, Milton E; Che, Pao Lin; Pendergrass, Karl D; Chiang, Bryce; Taylor, W Robert; Davis, Michael E
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and new treatment options are greatly needed. Oxidative stress is increased following myocardial infarction and levels of antioxidants decrease, causing imbalance that leads to dysfunction. Therapy involving catalase, the endogenous scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), has been met with mixed results. When over-expressed in cardiomyocytes from birth, catalase improves function following injury. When expressed in the same cells in an inducible manner, catalase showed a time-dependent response with no acute benefit, but a chronic benefit due to altered remodeling. In myeloid cells, catalase over-expression reduced angiogenesis during hindlimb ischemia and prevented monocyte migration. In the present study, due to the large inflammatory response following infarction, we examined myeloid-specific catalase over-expression on post-infarct healing. We found a significant increase in catalase levels following infarction that led to a decrease in H2O2 levels, leading to improved acute function. This increase in function could be attributed to reduced infarct size and improved angiogenesis. Despite these initial improvements, there was no improvement in chronic function, likely due to increased fibrosis. These data combined with what has been previously shown underscore the need for temporal, cell-specific catalase delivery as a potential therapeutic option.
Montague, T J; MacKenzie, B R; Henderson, M A; Macdonald, R G; Forbes, C J; Chandler, B M
Despite the increasing incidence of acute non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, controversy remains regarding its validity as a distinct pathophysiologic physiologic and clinical entity. Review of the data indicates that the controversy is more apparent than real. The pathophysiologic factor discriminating best between non-Q-wave and Q-wave infarction is the incidence rate of total occlusion of the infarct-related artery, approximately 30% in non-Q-wave infarction and 80% in Q-wave infarction. Patients with non-Q-wave infarction have a higher incidence of pre-existing angina than patients with Q-wave infarction; they also have lower peak creatine kinase levels, higher ejection fractions and lower wall-motion abnormality scores, which suggests a smaller area of acute infarction damage. However, patients with non-Q-wave infarction have a significantly shorter time to peak creatine kinase level and more heterogeneous ventriculographic and electrocardiographic infarct patterns. The in-hospital death rate is lower in non-Q-wave than in Q-wave infarction (approximately 12% v. 19%). The long-term death rates are similar for the two groups (27% and 23%), but the incidence of subsequent coronary events is higher among patients with non-Q-wave infarction; in particular, reinfarction is an important predictor of risk of death. Most of the differences in biologic and clinical variables between the two types of acute infarction can be related to a lower incidence of total occlusion, earlier reperfusion or better collateral supply in non-Q-wave infarction. Further study is needed to better characterize the long-term risk and to define the most appropriate therapies. PMID:3044553
Pérez Castrillón, José Luis; San Miguel, Angel; Vega, Gemma; Abad, Laura; Andres Domingo, María; Gonzalez Sagredo, Manuel; de Luis, Daniel; Duenas-Laita, Antonio
The Wnt-LPR5 signalling pathway plays an important role in skeletal homeostasis, especially in regulating osteoblastic activity. Activation of this pathway is regulated by various inhibitors, including DKK1. The objective of this study was to evaluate DKK1 levels in patients with ischemic heart disease, the response to atorvastatin and the relationship with bone mass. Twenty-one patients with acute myocardial infarction and twenty-three controls with a mean age of 61 ± 9 years with acute coronary syndrome were included. Patients were allocated to low (10-20mg) and high doses (40-80 mg) of atorvastatin according to baseline levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and the index of vascular risk. Patients were studied at hospital admission (baseline) and at 12 months of follow up. DKK1 was determined in all patients at baseline and at 12 months of follow up. Densitometric studies were conducted in the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the femoral neck and trochanter using an X-ray densitometer. Patients had higher levels of DKK1 than controls, (111 ± 41 nmol/l versus 84 ± 27 nmol/l, p=0.014). Osteoporotic patients had higher levels of DKK1 (137.5 ± 33 nmol/l versus 95.4 ± 36 nmol/l, p=0.021). Analysis of the response to atorvastatin showed reduced DKK1 levels. In conclusion, in patients with acute coronary syndrome, atorvastatin decreases DKK1 levels. This may be a previously unreported mechanism of action of atorvastatin on bone, stimulating the Wnt signalling pathway and increasing bone mass.
Arós, F; Loma-Osorio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, J J; Cabadés, A; Coma-Canella, I; García-Castrillo, L; García, E; López de Sá, E; Pabón, P; San José, J M; Vera, A; Worner, F
In the recent years, new possibilities have emerged in the diagnosis and management of acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation and its complications. Moreover, a deep transformation has taken place in the health care system organization, particularly in aspects related to care of patients presenting non-traumatic chest pain, both in pre-hospital and hospital areas. All these issues warrant a consensus document in Spain dealing with the role that these important changes should play in the whole management of myocardial infarction patients. This document revises and updates all the main clinical issues of acute myocardial infarction patients from the moment they contact with the health care system outside the hospital until they return home, after staying at the coronary care unit and the general hospitalization ward. All those aspects are considered not only in the uncomplicated myocardial infarction but also in the complicated one. This review also includes a set of recommendations on structural and organisational aspects, mainly referred to the prehospital and emergency levels.
Man, Changfeng; Gong, Dandan; Zhou, Yongjing; Fan, Yu
Effects of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients remain conflicting. We performed this meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to evaluate the benefits of the RIC in patients with AMI. Potentially relevant RCTs were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, VIP, CNKI, and Wanfang database until November 2016. RCTs evaluating RIC using intermittent limb ischemia-reperfusion in AMI patients were included. Thirteen RCTs were identified and analyzed. Meta-analysis showed that RIC significantly reduced the area under the curve (AUC) of creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) (standardized mean difference [SMD] −0.29; 95% confidence intervals [CI] −0.44 to −0.14; P = 0.0002) and AUC of troponin T (SMD −0.22; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.08; P = 0.003). Risk ratio (RR) for ≥70% ST-segment resolution favored RIC group than the control group (RR 1.39; 95% CI 1.03–1.86; P = 0.03). RIC also significantly reduced all-cause mortality (RR 0.33; 95%CI 0.17–0.64; P = 0.001). Subgroup analyses on the CK-MB AUC and ST-segment resolution ≥70% rate showed that the effects of RIC appeared to be affected by the limb used, duration of RIC, and clinical setting. RIC may offer cardioprotective effects by improving ST-segment resolution and reducing the infarct size in AMI patients. PMID:28272470
Cuadrado, Irene; Piedras, Maria Jose Garcia Miguel; Herruzo, Irene; Turpin, Maria del Carmen; Castejón, Borja; Reventun, Paula; Martin, Ana; Saura, Marta; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Zaragoza, Carlos
Inhibition of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation may represent a mechanism for cardiac protection against ischemia. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is highly expressed in response to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and induces activation of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. We targeted EMMPRIN with paramagnetic/fluorescent micellar nanoparticles conjugated with the EMMPRIN binding peptide AP-9 (NAP9), or an AP-9 scrambled peptide as a negative control (NAPSC). We found that NAP9 binds to endogenous EMMPRIN in cultured HL1 myocytes and in mouse hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (IR). Injection of NAP9 at the time of or one day after IR, was enough to reduce progression of myocardial cell death when compared to Control and NAPSC injected mice (infarct size in NAP9 injected mice: 32%±6.59 vs Control: 46%±9.04 or NAPSC injected mice: 48%±7.64). In the same way, cardiac parameters were recovered to almost healthy levels (LVEF NAP9 63% ± 7.24 vs Control 42% ± 4.74 or NAPSC 39% ± 6.44), whereas ECM degradation was also reduced as shown by inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) scans have shown a signal enhancement in the left ventricle of NAP9 injected mice with respect to non-injected, and to mice injected with NAPSC. A positive correlation between CMR enhancement and Evans-Blue/TTC staining of infarct size was calculated (R:0.65). Taken together, these results point to EMMPRIN targeted nanoparticles as a new approach to the mitigation of ischemic/reperfusion injury. PMID:26941847
McGhie, A.I.; Corbett, J.R.; Akers, M.S.; Kulkarni, P.; Sills, M.N.; Kremers, M.; Buja, L.M.; Durant-Reville, M.; Parkey, R.W.; Willerson, J.T. )
The effect of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on regional cardiac adrenergic function was studied in 27 patients mean +/- standard deviation 10 +/- 4 days after AMI. Regional adrenergic function was evaluated noninvasively with I-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) using a dedicated 3-detector tomograph. Four hours after its administration, there was reduced MIBG uptake in the region of infarction, 0.38 +/- 0.31 counts/pixel/mCi x 103 compared with 0.60 +/- 0.30 counts/pixel/mCi x 103 and 0.92 +/- 0.35 counts/pixel/mCi x 103 in the zones bordering and distant from the infarct area, respectively, p less than 0.001. In all patients, the area of reduced MIBG uptake after 4 hours was more extensive that the associated thallium-201 perfusion defect with defect scores of 52 +/- 22 and 23 +/- 18%, respectively, p less than 0.001. After anterior wall AMI, the 4-hour MIBG defect score was 70 +/- 13% and the degree of mismatch between myocardial perfusion and MIBG uptake was 30 +/- 9% compared with 39 +/- 17 and 21 +/- 17% after inferior AMI, p less than 0.001 and p = 0.016, respectively. The 4-hour MIBG defect score correlated inversely with the predischarge left ventricular ejection fraction, r = -0.73, p less than 0.001. Patients with ventricular arrhythmia of greater than or equal to 1 ventricular premature complexes per hour, paired ventricular premature complexes or ventricular tachycardia detected during the late hospital phase had higher 4-hour MIBG defect scores, 62.5 +/- 15.0%, than patients with no detectable complex ventricular ectopic activity and a ventricular premature complex frequency of less than 1 per hour, 44.6 +/- 23.4%, p = 0.036.
Xu, Lin; Cai, Zekun; Xiong, Meihua; Li, Yekuo; Li, Guoying; Deng, Yu; Hau, William Kongto; Li, Shuo; Huang, Wenhua; Qiu, Jian
Abstract Background: The effect of an early short-term home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program on ventricular function in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients is not yet clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of our CR program on the improvement of myocardial function using three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) in AMI patients. Methods: Fifty-two AMI patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups after discharge: the rehabilitation group, which participated in an early, home-based CR program, and the control group, which received only usual care. All subjects in both groups underwent 3D-STE examinations of the left ventricle within 48 hours of percutaneous coronary intervention and again 4 weeks after discharge. Global longitudinal strain (GLS), global radial strain (GRS), global area strain (GAS), global circumferential strain (GCS), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and segmental strains were computed. The CR program was initially conducted with supervised inpatient training, followed by an unsupervised home-based training program during a 4-week follow-up. Results: We obtained segmental strains from 832 segments, of which 319 were defined as interventional segments, 179 as ischemic segments, and the remaining segments as normal segments. At the 4-week follow-up, when controlling for baseline values, the rehabilitation group showed significant improvements in GLS, GRS, GCS, GAS, LVEF, and in all of the segmental strains of the 3 subgroups compared with the control group (P <0.05). Conclusion: Our study suggests that an early, home-based CR program can greatly improve the ventricular function of AMI patients in a short period of time. PMID:28033254
Bang, Woo-Dae; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kwon, Hyukchan; Park, Yongki; Pak, Hui-Nam; Ko, Young-Guk; Lee, Moonhyoung
Purpose Magnetocardiography (MCG) has been proposed as a noninvasive, diagnostic tool for risk-stratifying patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study evaluated whether MCG predicts long-term prognosis in AMI. Materials and Methods In 124 AMI patients (95 males, mean age 60±11 years), including 39 with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, a 64-channel MCG was performed within 2 days after AMI. During a mean follow-up period of 6.1 years, major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were evaluated. Results MACE occurred in 31 (25%) patients, including 20 revascularizations, 8 deaths, and 3 re-infarctions. Non-dipole patterns were observed at the end of the T wave in every patients. However, they were observed at T-peak in 77% (24/31) and 54% (50/93) of patients with and without MACE, respectively (p=0.03). Maximum current, field map angles, and distance dynamics were not different between groups. In the multivariate analysis, patients with non-dipole patterns at T-peak had increased age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratios for MACE (hazard ratio 2.89, 95% confidence interval 1.20–6.97, p=0.02) and lower cumulative MACE-free survival than those with dipole patterns (p=0.02). Conclusion Non-dipole patterns at T-peak were more frequently observed in patients with MACE and were related to poor long-term prognosis. Thus, repolarization heterogeneity measured by MCG may be a useful predictor for AMI prognosis. PMID:27593860
Cao, Cheng-Fu; Li, Su-Fang; Chen, Hong; Song, Jun-Xian
Objective To investigate the contributing factors and in-hospital prognosis of patients with or without recurrent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods A total of 1686 consecutive AMI patients admitted to Peking University People's Hospital from January 2010 to December 2015 were recruited. Their clinical characteristics were retrospectively compared between patients with or without a recurrent AMI. Then multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the predictors of recurrent myocardial infarction. Results Recurrent AMI patients were older (69.3 ± 11.5 vs. 64.7 ± 12.8 years, P < 0.001) and had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) (52.2% vs. 35.0%, P < 0.001) compared with incident AMI patients, they also had worse heart function at admission, more severe coronary disease and lower reperfusion therapy. Age (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02–1.05; P < 0.001), DM (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.37–2.52; P < 0.001) and reperfusion therapy (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.52–0.89; P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for recurrent AMI. Recurrent AMI patients had a higher in-hospital death rate (12.1% vs. 7.8%, P = 0.039) than incident AMI patients. Conclusions Recurrent AMI patients presented with more severe coronary artery conditions. Age, DM and reperfusion therapy were independent risk factors for recurrent AMI, and recurrent AMI was related with a high risk of in-hospital death. PMID:27928225
Voss, A; Hnatkova, K; Wessel, N; Kurths, J; Sander, A; Schirdewan, A; Camm, A J; Malik, M
A multiparametric heart rate variability analysis was performed to prove if combined heart rate variability (HRV) measures of different domains improve the result of risk stratification in patients after myocardial infarction. In this study, standard time domain, frequency domain and non-linear dynamics measures of HRV assessment were applied to 572 survivors of acute myocardial infarction. Three parameter sets each consisting of 4 parameters were applied and compared with the standard measurement of global heart rate variability HRVi. Discriminant analysis technique and t-test were performed to separate the high risk groups from the survivors. The predictive value of this approach was evaluated with receiver operator (ROC) and positive predictive accuracy (PPA) curves. Results--The discriminant analysis shows a separation of patients suffered by all cause mortality in 80% (best single parameter 74%) and sudden arrhythmic death in 86% (73%). All parameters of set 1 show a high significant difference (p < 0.001) between survivors and non-survivors based on two-tailed t-test. The specificity level of the multivariate parameter sets is at the 70% sensitivity level (ROC) about 85-90%, whereas HRVi shows maximum levels of 70%. The PPA in the all cause mortality group is at the 70% sensitivity level twice as high as the univariate HRV measure and increases to more than fourfold as high within the VT/VF group. In conclusion, in this population, the multiparametric approach with the combination of four parameters from all domains especially from NLD seems to be a better predictor of high arrhythmia risk than the standard measurement of global heart rate variability.
Guo, Jiahua; Yong, Yonghong; Aa, Jiye; Cao, Bei; Sun, Runbin; Yu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jingqiu; Yang, Na; Yan, Lulu; Li, Xinxin; Cao, Jing; Aa, Nan; Yang, Zhijian; Kong, Xiangqing; Wang, Liansheng; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Ma, Xiaohui; Guo, Zhixin; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Wang, Guangji
The continuous administration of compound danshen dripping pills (CDDP) showed good efficacy in relieving myocardial ischemia clinically. To probe the underlying mechanism, metabolic features were evaluated in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol (ISO) and administrated with CDDP using a metabolomics platform. Our data revealed that the ISO-induced animal model showed obvious myocardial injury, decreased energy production, and a marked change in metabolomic patterns in plasma and heart tissue. CDDP pretreatment increased energy production, ameliorated biochemical indices, modulated the changes and metabolomic pattern induced by ISO, especially in heart tissue. For the first time, we found that ISO induced myocardial ischemia was accomplished with a reduced fatty acids metabolism and an elevated glycolysis for energy supply upon the ischemic stress; while CDDP pretreatment prevented the tendency induced by ISO and enhanced a metabolic shift towards fatty acids metabolism that conventionally dominates energy supply to cardiac muscle cells. These data suggested that the underlying mechanism of CDDP involved regulating the dominant energy production mode and enhancing a metabolic shift toward fatty acids metabolism in ischemic heart. It was further indicated that CDDP had the potential to prevent myocardial ischemia in clinic.
Ferrera, René; Hadour, Guylaine; Tamion, Fabienne; Henry, Jean-Paul; Mulder, Paul; Richard, Vincent; Thuillez, Christian; Ovize, Michel; Derumeaux, Geneviève
Our objective was to evaluate immediate acute changes in myocardial function during the autonomic storm of brain death (BD). Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8/group): controls without any treatment, β-blocker (Esmolol®, 10 mg/kg), calcium channel blocker (Diltiazem®, 10 mg/kg), or alpha-blocker (Prazosin®, 0.3 mg/kg). Treatments were administered intravenously 5 min before BD induction. Echocardiography (ATL-5000, 8 MHz) was performed to measure left ventricular (LV) dimensions and fractional shortening at baseline, during BD induction and 5 min and 15 min after BD. In controls, BD was immediately associated with an increase in wall thickness and a decrease in LV cavity dimension. This myocardial wall hypertrophy was completely prevented by β-blockers, but not with calcium- and alpha-blockers. Extensive myocardial interstitial edema was found in all groups, except in the β-blocker group. Myocardial wall hypertrophy was also prevented during a longer follow-up of 180 min after BD in β-blocker group as opposed to controls. In conclusion, BD is associated with an immediate and severe myocardial damage related to an important interstitial edema which is prevented by β-blockers.
Guo, Jiahua; Yong, Yonghong; Aa, Jiye; Cao, Bei; Sun, Runbin; Yu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jingqiu; Yang, Na; Yan, Lulu; Li, Xinxin; Cao, Jing; Aa, Nan; Yang, Zhijian; Kong, Xiangqing; Wang, Liansheng; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Ma, Xiaohui; Guo, Zhixin; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Wang, Guangji
The continuous administration of compound danshen dripping pills (CDDP) showed good efficacy in relieving myocardial ischemia clinically. To probe the underlying mechanism, metabolic features were evaluated in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol (ISO) and administrated with CDDP using a metabolomics platform. Our data revealed that the ISO-induced animal model showed obvious myocardial injury, decreased energy production, and a marked change in metabolomic patterns in plasma and heart tissue. CDDP pretreatment increased energy production, ameliorated biochemical indices, modulated the changes and metabolomic pattern induced by ISO, especially in heart tissue. For the first time, we found that ISO induced myocardial ischemia was accomplished with a reduced fatty acids metabolism and an elevated glycolysis for energy supply upon the ischemic stress; while CDDP pretreatment prevented the tendency induced by ISO and enhanced a metabolic shift towards fatty acids metabolism that conventionally dominates energy supply to cardiac muscle cells. These data suggested that the underlying mechanism of CDDP involved regulating the dominant energy production mode and enhancing a metabolic shift toward fatty acids metabolism in ischemic heart. It was further indicated that CDDP had the potential to prevent myocardial ischemia in clinic. PMID:27905409
Spencer, Frederick A.; Montalescot, Gilles; Fox, Keith A.A.; Goodman, Shaun G.; Granger, Christopher B.; Goldberg, Robert J.; Oliveira, Gustavo B.F.; Anderson, Frederick A.; Eagle, Kim A.; Fitzgerald, Gordon; Gore, Joel M.
Aims To examine the extent of delay from initial hospital presentation to fibrinolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), characteristics associated with prolonged delay, and changes in delay patterns over time in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and results We analysed data from 5170 patients with STEMI enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events from 2003 to 2007. The median elapsed time from first hospital presentation to initiation of fibrinolysis was 30 min (interquartile range 18–60) and to primary PCI was 86 min (interquartile range 53–135). Over the years under study, there were no significant changes in delay times to treatment with either strategy. Geographic region was the strongest predictor of delay to initiation of fibrinolysis >30 min. Patient's transfer status and geographic location were strongly associated with delay to primary PCI. Patients treated in Europe were least likely to experience delay to fibrinolysis or primary PCI. Conclusion These data suggest no improvements in delay times from hospital presentation to initiation of fibrinolysis or primary PCI during our study period. Geographic location and patient transfer were the strongest predictors of prolonged delay time, suggesting that improvements in modifiable healthcare system factors can shorten delay to reperfusion therapy even further. PMID:20231154
Sonne, Carolin; Stempfle, Hans-Ulrich; Klauss, Volker; Schiele, Thomas M
Cocaine use is a major problem worldwide and there are numerous reports about cocaine-associated myocardial infarction. Nevertheless minimal data are available from randomised clinical trials to suggest evidence-based approaches to the management of cocaine-associated myocardial ischemia. Moreover, most reports have been limited to conservative management of cocaine-associated myocardial infarction. We report a case of a young male cocaine user with acute myocardial infarction, undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound revealing severe atherosclerosis, followed by successful stent implantation.
Tiwari, Ram P; Jain, Anubhav; Khan, Zakir; Kohli, Veena; Bharmal, R N; Kartikeyan, S; Bisen, Prakash S
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of death worldwide, with early diagnosis still being difficult. Promising new cardiac biomarkers such as troponins and creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are being studied and integrated into clinical practice for early diagnosis of AMI. The cardiac-specific troponins I and T (cTnI and cTnT) have good sensitivity and specificity as indicators of myocardial necrosis and are superior to CK and its MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) in this regard. Besides being potential biologic markers, cardiac troponins also provide significant prognostic information. The introduction of novel high-sensitivity troponin assays has enabled more sensitive and timely diagnosis or exclusion of acute coronary syndromes. This review summarizes the available information on the potential of troponins and other cardiac markers in early diagnosis and prognosis of AMI, and provides perspectives on future diagnostic approaches to AMI.
Zeng, Chunlai; Hu, Wuming; Zhu, Ning; Zhao, Xuyong; Xu, Jian; Ye, Shiyong; Xiang, Yijia; Lv, Linchun
Coronary artery dissection and aneurysm culminating in acute myocardial infarction are rare after blunt chest trauma. We are reporting a case of a previously healthy 52-year-old man who presented with right inferior lobe contusion, pleural effusion, right interlobar fissure effusion, bone fracture of right fourth rib, and acute inferior wall myocardial infarction and who experienced blunt trauma in his right chest wall by an airbag deployment in a car accident. Coronary angiography showed an aneurysm in the middle of right coronary artery with 70% afferent narrowing just distal to the aneurysm with no visible atherosclerotic lesion. A 4.0×20 mm TEXUS Liberté stent in the lesion was deployed, and a good coronary flow was obtained without residual stenosis and the aneurysm vanished.
Pesaro, Antonio Eduardo; de Matos Soeiro, Alexandre; Serrano, Carlos Vicente; Giraldez, Roberto Rocha; Ladeira, Renata Teixeira; Nicolau, José Carlos
INTRODUCTION: Oral β-blockers improve the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction, while atrial fibrillation worsens the prognosis of this population. The reduction of atrial fibrillation incidence in patients treated with β-blockers could at least in part explain the benefits of this drug. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of β-blockers on the incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We analyzed 1401 patients with acute myocardial infarction and evaluated the occurrence or absence of atrial fibrillation, the use of oral β-blockers and mortality during the first 24 hours. RESULTS: a) The use of β-blockers was inversely correlated with the presence of atrial fibrillation (ρ = 0.004; OR = 0.54). b) Correlations with mortality were as follows: 31.5% in patients with atrial fibrillation, 9.2% in those without atrial fibrillation (ρ < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 4.52), and 17.5% in patients not treated with β-blockers and 6.7% in those who received the drug (ρ < 0.001; OR = 0.34). c) Adjusted Models: The presence of atrial fibrillation was independently correlated with mortality (OR = 2.48, ρ = 0.002). The use of β-blockers was inversely and independently correlated with mortality (OR = 0.53; ρ = 0.002). The patients who used β-blockers showed a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (OR = 0.59; ρ = 0.029) in the adjusted model. CONCLUSION: The presence of atrial fibrillation and the absence of oral β-blockers increased in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Oral β-blockers reduced the incidence of atrial fibrillation, which might be at least partially responsible for the drug’s benefit. PMID:20360916
Okonogi, Taichi; Otsuka, Yoritaka; Saito, Taro
Left ventricular free wall rupture is a rare, but occasionally lethal, complication after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This case report describes a patient who presented with cardiogenic shock due to oozing-type rupture secondary to AMI and successfully underwent percutaneous intrapericardial fibrin-glue injection therapy. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the thin layer of fibrin that covered the ruptured infarct myocardium immediately after fibrin-glue injection and its disappearance without any complications at 6 months.
Sheikh, Irtiza N.
This minireview describes 6 previously reported patients with left ventricular free wall rupture and/or aneurysm complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with aortic stenosis. The findings suggest that left ventricular rupture and/or aneurysm is more frequent in patients with AMI associated with aortic stenosis than in patients with AMI unassociated with aortic stenosis, presumably because of retained elevation of the left ventricular peak systolic pressure after the appearance of the AMI.
Shehata, A R; Gillam, L D; Mascitelli, V A; Herman, S D; Ahlberg, A W; White, M P; Chen, C; Waters, D D; Heller, G V
Beta-blocker therapy may delay or completely prevent myocardial ischemia during exercise testing, as assessed by ST-segment shifts, myocardial perfusion defects, or echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities. However, the impact of beta-blocker therapy on these end points during dobutamine stress testing has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of propranolol on dobutamine stress testing with ST-segment monitoring, technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, and echocardiography. In 17 patients with known reversible perfusion defects, dobutamine stress tests with and without propranolol were performed in randomized order and on separate days, following discontinuation of oral beta blockers and calcium antagonists. Propronolol was administered intravenously to a cumulative dose of 8 mg or to a maximum heart rate reduction of 25% and dobutamine was infused in graded doses in 3 minute stages until a standard clinical end point or the maximum dose of 40 microg/kg/min was achieved. The dobutamine stress test after propranolol was associated with a lower maximum heart rate (83 +/- 18 vs 125 +/- 17, p <0.001) and rate pressure product (14,169 +/- 4,248 vs 19,894 +/- 3,985, p <0.001) despite a higher infusion dose. The SPECT myocardial ischemia score was also lower (6.9 +/- 5.8 vs 10.1 +/- 7.1, p = 0.047) and fewer echocardiographic segments were abnormal (3.4 +/- 3.0 vs 4.6 +/- 3.4, p = 0.042). In 4 of 17 patients, reversible perfusion defects and echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities were detected during the control but not during the propranolol test. Thus, during dobutamine stress testing, beta-blocker therapy attenuates, and in some cases eliminates, evidence of myocardial ischemia.
Topaz, On; Ebersole, Douglas; Das, Tony; Alderman, Edwin L; Madyoon, Hooman; Vora, Kishor; Baker, John D; Hilton, David; Dahm, Johannes B
Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with thrombus-laden lesions constitute a revascularization challenge. Thrombus and atherosclerotic plaque absorb laser energy; thus, we studied the safety and efficacy of excimer laser in AMI. In a multicenter trial, 151 patients with AMI underwent excimer laser angioplasty. Baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 44 +/- 13%, and 13% of patients were in cardiogenic shock. A saphenous vein graft was the target vessel in 21%. Quantitative coronary angiography and statistical analysis were performed by independent core laboratories. A 95% device success, 97% angiographic success, and 91% overall procedural success rate were recorded. Maximal laser gain was achieved in lesions with extensive thrombus burden (p <0.03 vs small burden). Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) trial flow increased significantly by laser: 1.2 +/- 1.1 to 2.8 +/- 0.5 (p <0.001), reaching a final 3.0 +/- 0.2 (p <0.001 vs baseline). Minimal luminal diameter increased by laser from 0.5 +/- 0.5 to 1.6 +/- 0.5 mm (mean +/- SD, p <0.001), followed by 2.7 +/- 0.6 mm after stenting (p <0.001 vs baseline and vs after laser). Laser decreased target stenosis from 83 +/- 17% to 52 +/- 15% (mean +/- SD, p <0.001 vs baseline), followed by 20 +/- 16% after stenting (p <0.001 vs baseline and vs after laser). Six patients (4%) died, each presented with cardiogenic shock. Complications included perforation (0.6%), dissection (5% major, 3% minor), acute closure (0.6%), distal embolization (2%), and bleeding (3%). In a multivariant regression model, absence of cardiogenic shock was a significant factor affecting procedural success. Thus, in the setting of AMI, gaining maximal thrombus dissolution in lesions with extensive thrombus burden, combined with a considerable increase in minimal luminal diameter and restoration of anterograde TIMI flow, support successful debulking by excimer laser. The presence of thrombus does not adversely affect procedural
Lee, Min Goo; Ahn, Youngkeun; Chae, Shung Chull; Hur, Seung Ho; Hong, Taek Jong; Kim, Young Jo; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Rhew, Jay Young; Chae, In Ho; Cho, Myeong Chan; Bae, Jang Ho; Rha, Seung Woon; Kim, Chong Jin; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yang Soo; Yoon, Junghan; Chung, Wook Sung; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung
We sought to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with acute myocardial infarction and its effect on clinical outcomes. Employing data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry, a total of 1,990 patients suffered from acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) between November 2005 and December 2006 were categorized according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria of MS. Primary study outcomes included major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during one-year follow-up. Patients were grouped based on existence of MS: group I: MS (n=1,182, 777 men, 62.8±12.3 yr); group II: Non-MS (n=808, 675 men, 64.2±13.1 yr). Group I showed lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (P=0.005). There were no differences between two groups in the coronary angiographic findings except for multivessel involvement (P=0.01). The incidence of in-hospital death was higher in group I than in group II (P=0.047), but the rates of composite MACE during one-year clinical follow-up showed no significant differences. Multivariate analysis showed that low LVEF, old age, MS, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol and multivessel involvement were associated with high in-hospital death rate. In conclusion, MS is an important predictor for in-hospital death in patients with STEMI. PMID:20890426
Roa-Castro, Víctor Hugo; Molina-Bello, Ervin; Valenzuela-Suárez, Hector; Rotberg-Jagode, Tobías; Espinola-Zavaleta, Nilda
Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle is rare and may occur as a result of transmural myocardial infarction. The course of rupture after acute myocardial infarction varies from a catastrophic event, with an acute tear leading to immediate death (acute rupture), or slow and incomplete tear leading to a late rupture (subacute rupture). Incomplete rupture may occur when the thrombus and haematoma together with the pericardium seal the rupture of the left ventricle and may develop into a pseudoaneurysm. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential in this condition. Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography is the first-choice method for most patients with suspected left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (LVP) and suggests left ventricular rupture in 85% to 90% of patients. We report the case of an 87-year-old woman presenting with symptoms and findings of myocardial infarction and left ventricular free wall rupture with a pseudoaneurysm formation diagnosed by echocardiography and confirmed on CT, MRI, and NM. She received only intense medical treatment, because she refused surgery with a favorable outcome. After 24-month followup, she is in NYHA functional class II. The survival of this patient is due to the contained pseudoaneurysm by dense pericardial adhesions, related to her previous coronary bypass surgery. PMID:22953155
Amin, Fatemeh; Jahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaedi, Hamid; Alipoor, Behnam; Fatemi, Ahmad; Tajik, Michael; Sharifi, Zohreh; Golmohammadi, Taghi; Askari, Mohammad; Azarnejad, Asaad; Alipoor, Sadegh; Valipour, Aliasghar; Mousavizadeh, Kazem
Summary Background Oxidative stress induced by superoxide anion plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) and hence acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The major source of superoxide production in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells is the NADPH oxidase complex. An essential component of this complex is p22phox, that is encoded by the cytochrome b-245, alpha polypeptide (CYBA) gene. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CYBA variants (rs1049255 and rs4673) and premature acute myocardial infarction risk in an Iranian population. Methods The study population consisted of 158 patients under the age of 50 years, with a diagnosis of premature AMI, and 168 age-matched controls with normal coronary angiograms. Genotyping of the polymorphisms was performed by the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results There was no association between the genotypes and allele frequencies of rs4673 polymorphism and premature acute myocardial infarction (P>0.05). A significant statistical association was observed between the genotypes distribution of rs1049255 polymorphism and AMI risk (P=0.037). Furthermore, the distribution of AA+AG/GG genotypes was found to be statistically significant between the two groups (P=0.011). Conclusions Our findings indicated that rs1049255 but not rs4673 polymorphism is associated with premature AMI. PMID:28356848
Altieri, P I; González, R; de Mello, W; Escobales, N
The present study shows that enalapril prevents the excessive remodeling of the left ventricle after acute myocardial infarction. This randomized and double blind clinical study analysed 50 patients with an inferior myocardial infarction. The effect of enalapril was evaluated through cardiac volumes, ejection fraction, neurohormonal levels and incidence of the left ventricle disfunction after acute myocardial infarction. The patients treated with enalapril showed a significant reduction on the values of nor-epinefrine, angiotensine II, natriuretic hormone and vasopressine, four weeks after initiation of treatment. The ejection fraction and the level of the wall movement was more favourable, four weeks after infarction, in the group treated with enalapril. The incidence of congestive heart failure and arrhythmias was lower in the group treated with enalapril. So, we conclude that enalapril is a drug that prevents the excessive remodelling of the left ventricle after an acute myocardial infarction.
Reddy, Koushik; Khaliq, Asma; Henning, Robert J
The Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) requires cardiac myocyte necrosis with an increase and/or a decrease in a patient’s plasma of cardiac troponin (cTn) with at least one cTn measurement greater than the 99th percentile of the upper normal reference limit during: (1) symptoms of myocardial ischemia; (2) new significant electrocardiogram (ECG) ST-segment/T-wave changes or left bundle branch block; (3) the development of pathological ECG Q waves; (4) new loss of viable myocardium or regional wall motion abnormality identified by an imaging procedure; or (5) identification of intracoronary thrombus by angiography or autopsy. Myocardial infarction, when diagnosed, is now classified into five types. Detection of a rise and a fall of troponin are essential to the diagnosis of acute MI. However, high sensitivity troponin assays can increase the sensitivity but decrease the specificity of MI diagnosis. The ECG remains a cornerstone in the diagnosis of MI and should be frequently repeated, especially if the initial ECG is not diagnostic of MI. There have been significant advances in adjunctive pharmacotherapy, procedural techniques and stent technology in the treatment of patients with MIs. The routine use of antiplatelet agents such as clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor, in addition to aspirin, reduces patient morbidity and mortality. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a timely manner is the primary treatment of patients with acute ST segment elevation MI. Drug eluting coronary stents are safe and beneficial with primary coronary intervention. Treatment with direct thrombin inhibitors during PCI is non-inferior to unfractionated heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists and is associated with a significant reduction in bleeding. The intra-coronary use of a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist can reduce infarct size. Pre- and post-conditioning techniques can provide additional cardioprotection. However, the incidence and
Duan, Su-Yan; Xing, Chang-Ying; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Yan
The prevalence of type 1 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is increasing and strongly associated with long-term mortality. However, lack of reliable animal models and well-defined measures of renoprotection, made early diagnosis and therapy difficult. We previously successfully established the swine acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model of ischemia-reperfusion by blocking left anterior descending branch (LAD). Reperfusion was performed after 90-minute occlusion of the LAD. AMI was confirmed by ECG and left ventricular angiography (LVG). Then those 52 survived AMI reperfusion swine, including ventricular fibrillation-cardiac arrest after restoration of blood flow, were randomly divided into four groups (four/group) according to different interventions: resuscitation in room temperature, resuscitation with 500 ml saline in room temperature, resuscitation with 4°C 500 ml saline and normal control (with no intervention of resuscitation). Each group was further observed in four groups according to different time of resuscitation after ventricular arrhythmias: 1, 3, 5, 10-minute reperfusion after ventricular arrhythmias. Plasma and random urine were collected to evaluate renal function and test renal biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI). Our swine AMI model of ischemia-reperfusion provoked subclinical AKI with the elevation of the tubular damage biomarker, NGAL, IL-18 and L-FABP. Renal damage rapidly observed after hemodynamic instability, rather than observation after several hours as previously reported. The increasing rate of biological markers declined after interventions, however, its impact on the long-term prognosis remains to be further studied. These data show that elevation of tubular damage biomarkers without glomerular function loss may indicate appropriate timing for effective renoprotections like hypothermia resuscitation in type 1 CRS.
McSweeney, Jean C.; O’Sullivan, Patricia; Cleves, Mario A.; Lefler, Leanne L.; Cody, Marisue; Moser, Debra K.; Dunn, Kelly; Kovacs, Margaret; Crane, Patricia B.; Ramer, Lois; Messmer, Patricia R.; Garvin, Bonnie J.; Zhao, Weizhi
Background Minority women, especially Black and Hispanic, have higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) and resulting disability and death than Whites. Because most studies have included insufficient numbers of Blacks and Hispanics for meaningful analyses, lack of knowledge of minority women’s CHD symptoms may contribute to these disparities. Objective To compare Black, Hispanic and White women’s prodromal CHD and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) symptoms. Methods Retrospective telephone surveys were conducted with 1270 (545 Black; 539 White, 186 Hispanic) cognitively intact women post AMI at 15 sites. Using general linear models, symptom severity and frequency were compared among racial groups, controlling for cardiovascular risk factors. Using logistic regression models, we examined individual prodromal or AMI symptoms by race, adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. Results Ninety-six percent of all women reported prodromal symptoms. Unusual fatigue (73%) and sleep disturbance (50%) were the most frequent prodromal symptoms. Eighteen symptoms differed significantly by race (p<0.01); Blacks reported higher frequencies of 10 symptoms than Hispanics or Whites. Less than 37% reported prodromal chest discomfort; Hispanics reported more pain/discomfort symptoms than Black or White women. Minority women reported more acute symptoms (p<0.01). The most frequent symptom, regardless of race, was shortness of breath (62.8%); 22 symptoms differed by race (p<0.01). Twenty-eight percent of Hispanics, 38% Blacks, and 42% Whites reported no chest pain/discomfort. Conclusions Significant racial differences existed in prodromal and AMI symptoms reported by women in this study. Racial descriptions of women’s CHD and AMI symptoms should assist providers in interpreting women’s symptoms. PMID:20045850
Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Curry, Leslie A.; Spatz, Erica S.; Herrin, Jeph; Cherlin, Emily J.; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Thompson, Jennifer W.; Ting, Henry H.; Wang, Yongfei; Krumholz, Harlan M.
Background Despite recent improvements in survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), U.S. hospitals vary 2-fold in their 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs). Nevertheless, information is limited on hospital-level factors that may be associated with RSMRs. Objective To identify hospital strategies that were associated with lower RSMRs. Design Cross-sectional survey of 537 hospitals (91% response rate) and weighted multivariate regression by using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to determine the associations between hospital strategies and hospital RSMRs. Setting Acute care hospitals with an annualized AMI volume of at least 25 patients. Participants Patients hospitalized with AMI between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2009. Measurements Hospital performance improvement strategies, characteristics, and 30-day RSMRs. Results In multivariate analysis, several hospital strategies were significantly associated with lower RSMRs and in aggregate were associated with clinically important differences in RSMRs. These strategies included holding monthly meetings to review AMI cases between hospital clinicians and staff who transported patients to the hospital (RSMR lower by 0.70 percentage points), having cardiologists always on site (lower by 0.54 percentage points), fostering an organizational environment in which clinicians are encouraged to solve problems creatively (lower by 0.84 percentage points), not cross-training nurses from intensive care units for the cardiac catheterization laboratory (lower by 0.44 percentage points), and having physician and nurse champions rather than nurse champions alone (lower by 0.88 percentage points). Fewer than 10% of hospitals reported using at least 4 of these 5 strategies. Limitation The cross-sectional design demonstrates statistical associations but cannot establish causal relationships. Conclusion Several strategies, which are currently implemented by relatively few hospitals, are
Ali, Sara E.; Farag, Mohamed A.; Holvoet, Paul; Hanafi, Rasha S.; Gad, Mohamed Z.
Discovery of novel biomarkers is critical for early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Serum metabolite profiling of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), unstable angina (UA) and healthy controls was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS), solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Multivariate data analysis revealed a metabolic signature that could robustly discriminate STEMI patients from both healthy controls and UA patients. This panel of biomarkers consisted of 19 metabolites identified in the serum of STEMI patients. One of the most intriguing biomarkers among these metabolites is hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gasotransmitter with profound effect on the heart. Serum H2S absolute levels were further investigated using a quantitative double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This highly sensitive immunoassay confirmed the elevation of serum H2S in STEMI patients. H2S level discriminated between UA and STEMI groups, providing an initial insight into serum-free H2S bioavailability during ACS. In conclusion, the current study provides a detailed map illustrating the most predominant altered metabolic pathways and the biochemical linkages among the biomarker metabolites identified in STEMI patients. Metabolomics analysis may yield novel predictive biomarkers that will potentially allow for an earlier medical intervention. PMID:27821850
Murabayashi, Taizo; Fetics, Barry; Kass, David; Nevo, Erez; Gramatikov, Boris; Berger, Ronald D
Beat-to-beat QT interval variability (QTV) quantifies lability in ventricular repolarization. We hypothesized that myocardial ischemia destabilizes ventricular repolarization and increases QTV. We analyzed 2-hour 2-lead digitized electrocardiogram records of 68 patients in the European ST-T Database. All patients had ischemic episodes during the 2-hour record, annotated by the developers of the database. We determined the normalized QTV (QTVnorm), QT variability index (QTVI), and normalized heart rate variability (HRVnorm) for each 5-minute epoch by automated analysis. QTVnorm was greater during ischemic episodes than during nonischemic episodes (1.41 +/- 0.77 vs. 0.88 +/- 0.23, P <.0001). There was no significant difference in HRVnorm between ischemic and nonischemic episodes (1.22 +/- 0.63 vs. 0.94 +/- 0.18, not significant). The QTVI was higher during ischemic episodes than during nonischemic episodes (0.14 +/- 0.31 vs. -0.051 +/- 0.12, P <.0001). Acute ischemia is associated with labile ventricular repolarization, which manifests as enhanced beat-to-beat QT interval variability. The association between ischemic repolarization liability and arrhythmic risk deserves further study.
Tepeköylü, Can; Primessnig, Uwe; Pölzl, Leo; Graber, Michael; Lobenwein, Daniela; Nägele, Felix; Kirchmair, Elke; Pechriggl, Elisabeth; Grimm, Michael; Holfeld, Johannes
Shock wave treatment (SWT) was shown to induce regeneration of ischaemic myocardium via Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). The antimicrobial peptide LL37 gets released by mechanical stress and is known to form complexes with nucleic acids thus activating Toll-like receptors. We suggested that SWT in the acute setting prevents from the development of heart failure via RNA/protein release. Myocardial infarction in mice was induced followed by subsequent SWT. Heart function was assessed 4 weeks later via transthoracic echocardiography and pressure-volume measurements. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with SWT in the presence of RNase and proteinase and analysed for proliferation, tube formation and LL37 expression. RNA release and uptake after SWT was evaluated. We found significantly improved cardiac function after SWT. SWT resulted in significantly higher numbers of capillaries and arterioles and less left ventricular fibrosis. Supernatants of treated cells activated TLR3 reporter cells. Analysis of the supernatant revealed increased RNA levels. The effect could not be abolished by pre-treatment of the supernatant with RNase, but only by a sequential digestion with proteinase and RNase hinting strongly towards the involvement of RNA/protein complexes. Indeed, LL37 expression as well as cellular RNA uptake were significantly increased after SWT. We show for the first time that SWT prevents from left ventricular remodelling and cardiac dysfunction via RNA/protein complex release and subsequent induction of angiogenesis. It might therefore develop a potent regenerative treatment alternative for ischaemic heart disease.
Chen, Jiaqi; Yu, Ling; Zhang, Siwei; Chen, Xia
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a severe cardiovascular disease that is a serious threat to human life. However, the specific diagnostic biomarkers have not been fully clarified and candidate regulatory targets for AMI have not been identified. In order to explore the potential diagnostic biomarkers and possible regulatory targets of AMI, we used a network analysis-based approach to analyze microarray expression profiling of peripheral blood in patients with AMI. The significant differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by Limma and constructed a gene function regulatory network (GO-Tree) to obtain the inherent affiliation of significant function terms. The pathway action network was constructed, and the signal transfer relationship between pathway terms was mined in order to investigate the impact of core pathway terms in AMI. Subsequently, constructed the transcription regulatory network of DEGs. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was employed to identify significantly altered gene modules and hub genes in two groups. Subsequently, the transcription regulation network of DEGs was constructed. We found that specific gene modules may provide a better insight into the potential diagnostic biomarkers of AMI. Our findings revealed and verified that NCF4, AQP9, NFIL3, DYSF, GZMA, TBX21, PRF1 and PTGDR genes by RT-qPCR. TBX21 and PRF1 may be potential candidates for diagnostic biomarker and possible regulatory targets in AMI. PMID:28018242
Villalbí, Joan R; Castillo, Antonia; Cleries, Montse; Saltó, Esteve; Sánchez, Emília; Martínez, Rosa; Tresserras, Ricard; Vela, Emili
Recent research suggests that the introduction of antismoking regulations reduces the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to analyze changes in AMIs in the Barcelona metropolitan area in Spain following implementation of the 2006 antismoking law. Data was collected on all discharges from hospitals funded by the Catalan Health Service in 2004-2006. All patients aged over 24 years who lived in the area and who received a primary diagnosis of AMI were included. Annual AMI hospitalization rates, with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for each year and stratified according to age and sex. The 2004 rate was higher than the 2005 rate for most age and sex groups, though confidence intervals overlapped. The 2006 rates were lower than the 2005 rates for all age groups, and there was no overlap in confidence intervals in men. In conclusion, the introduction of regulations on smoke-free areas was accompanied by a reduction in the AMI hospitalization rate.
Sipilä, Jussi Olli Tapani; Gunn, Jarmo Mikael; Kauko, Tommi; Rautava, Päivi; Kytö, Ville
Objective To describe the changes in nationwide acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence following the implementation of a law banning smoking indoors in restaurants on 1 June 2007. Methods Retrospective registry study of all hospitalisations for AMI in Finland. All 34 887 hospitalisations for AMI between 1 June 2005 and 31 May 2009 were identified from the Care Register for Health Care (CRHC) and statistics for tobacco consumption were obtained from the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Comorbidities for individual hospitalisations were searched from the CRHC. Results The incidence rate of AMI was reduced by 6.3% (95% CI 4.1% to 8.6%; p<0.0001) in the latter half of the study period following the smoking ban when adjusted for age, gender and overall population prevalence of smoking. Short-term incidence of AMI (6-month prior vs 6 months after the smoking ban) was also reduced (4.5%, 95% CI 0.2% to 9.0%; p=0.0399) and was largest in the working middle-aged group (40–50 years) but observed also in the oldest age group (>70 years). The incidence rates declined similarly for men and women. Conclusions Banning indoor tobacco smoking in restaurants was associated with a mild additional reduction in AMI incidence on a nationwide level in Finland. PMID:26826146
Puletti, M; Trappolini, M; Di Palma, A; Curione, M; Schiavone, R A; Matteoli, S; Borgia, C
The authors have studied the behaviour of ubidecorenone (Co Q10) in the acute phase of myocardial infarction in 24 patients, 19 male and 5 female, mean age 56.8 +/- 3.3. Ubidecorenone level was determined on admittance, after 48 hours and on the 7th and 30th days. A significant decrease was observed from the first to the 3rd day (mean values 0.90 +/- 0.18 microgram/ml vs 0.72 +/- 0.22, p less than 0.01). Thereafter a progressive rise was observed, but at the 30th day mean values were still below the basal ones. No significant differences were observed between patients treated with fibrinolytic agents and those not so treated, nor between those in whom reperfusion was obtained and the others. Nor was there a proven correlation with changes in creatinkinase. The behaviour of ubidecorenone may be associated with increased consumption for metabolic needs and increased destruction in scavenger action, and also to a lesser extent to decreased production due to lower food intake.
Aliberti, Stefano; Ramirez, Julio; Cosentini, Roberto; Valenti, Vincenzo; Voza, Antonio; Rossi, Paolo; Stolz, Daiana; Legnani, Delfino; Pesci, Alberto; Richeldi, Luca; Peyrani, Paula; Massari, Fernando Maria; Blasi, Francesco
The aim of the present study was to define the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and impact on clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus other cardiovascular events (CVEs) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This was an international, multicentre, observational, prospective study of CAP patients hospitalised in eight hospitals in Italy and Switzerland. Three groups were identified: those without CVEs, those with AMI and those with other CVEs. Among 905 patients, 21 (2.3%) patients experienced at least one AMI, while 107 (11.7%) patients experienced at least one other CVE. Patients with CAP and either AMI or other CVEs showed a higher severity of the disease than patients with CAP alone. Female sex, liver disease and the presence of severe sepsis were independent predictors for the occurrence of AMI, while female sex, age >65 years, neurological disease and the presence of pleural effusion predicted other CVEs. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among those who experienced AMI in comparison to those experiencing other CVEs (43% versus 21%, p=0.039). The presence of AMI showed an adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital mortality of 3.57 (p=0.012) and for other CVEs of 2.63 (p=0.002). These findings on AMI versus other CVEs as complications of CAP may be important when planning interventional studies on cardioprotective medications.
Kriszbacher, Ildikó; Bódis, József; Csoboth, Ildikó; Boncz, Imre
The spatial and temporal changes of weather factors depend on geographical location, seasons and the time of the day. Our study examines the relationships of meteorological factors and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with AMI between 2000 and 2004 in Hungary (n = 81,956 patients) was carried out. Data were collected by the National Health Insurance Fund Administration (OEP) and the National Meteorology Service (OMSZ). A peak period of the occurrence of AMI was found during spring, while minimum number of events were recorded during summer. Significant difference was observed between the number of events each season (F = 34.741; p < 0.001; N = 81,956). A medium level negative correlation was found between the monthly average temperature and the occurrence of AMI (r = -0.404) during the period examined. A positive correlation was shown between front movements and the number of events per season (r = 0.053). Average barometric pressure changes, the number of front movements and the number of AMI events also showed a nearly similar seasonal deviation. Our findings show that certain meteorological factors may be related to the onset of AMI, however other factors also play an important role.
Ramirez, Julio; Cosentini, Roberto; Valenti, Vincenzo; Voza, Antonio; Rossi, Paolo; Stolz, Daiana; Legnani, Delfino; Pesci, Alberto; Richeldi, Luca; Peyrani, Paula; Massari, Fernando Maria; Blasi, Francesco
The aim of the present study was to define the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and impact on clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus other cardiovascular events (CVEs) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This was an international, multicentre, observational, prospective study of CAP patients hospitalised in eight hospitals in Italy and Switzerland. Three groups were identified: those without CVEs, those with AMI and those with other CVEs. Among 905 patients, 21 (2.3%) patients experienced at least one AMI, while 107 (11.7%) patients experienced at least one other CVE. Patients with CAP and either AMI or other CVEs showed a higher severity of the disease than patients with CAP alone. Female sex, liver disease and the presence of severe sepsis were independent predictors for the occurrence of AMI, while female sex, age >65 years, neurological disease and the presence of pleural effusion predicted other CVEs. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among those who experienced AMI in comparison to those experiencing other CVEs (43% versus 21%, p=0.039). The presence of AMI showed an adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital mortality of 3.57 (p=0.012) and for other CVEs of 2.63 (p=0.002). These findings on AMI versus other CVEs as complications of CAP may be important when planning interventional studies on cardioprotective medications. PMID:27730139
Sakka, Shotaro; Kawai, Koji; Tsujimoto, Ippei; Kurobe, Masahiro; Ichioka, Daishi; Kantori, Shuya; Kojima, Takahiro; Suetomi, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akira; Miyazaki, Jun; Hoshi, Tomoya; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki
A 37-year-old man presented at our hospital. Pathological examination of a right orchiectomy specimen, radiographic examination, and tumor marker profile resulted in a diagnosis of retroperitoneal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (intermediate risk according to IGCC classification). Laboratory testing revealed mild elevation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Induction chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) was started, but he complained of chest pain on day 10 of the second cycle of BEP. We immediately started cardiac monitoring. One hour later, he suffered cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. Fortunately, sinus rhythm was restored after defibrillation. A diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with total occlusion at the mid-portion of the left anterior descending coronary artery was established by coronary angiography. After percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was successfully performed, he recovered uneventfully. The induction chemotherapy was re-started 19 days after AMI. To avoid endothelial damage by bleomycin, we elected to treat with etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin (VIP). After two further courses of VIP, the patient underwent resection of retoperitoneal tumor and achieved complete remission. The patient has remained disease-free during 3 years follow up without recurrence of AMI.
TAN, Mei-Yun; XIA, Bo; XIAO, Zhun; FAN, Zhong-Wei; ZHOU, Hong; GUO, Xing; HUANG, Yong-Can
The rabbit left anterior descending coronary artery is not macroscopically apparent; this often leads to failure in creation of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model. In order to devise a simple method with good reproducibility and high success rate for use as a rabbit AMI model, a new surgical technique was developed, in which the obtuse marginal (OM) branch of the left circumflex coronary artery was coagulated with an electric knife using a left parasternal approach. Four weeks after OM branch coagulation, an electrocardiogram (ECG), blood biochemistry analysis, echocardiographic measurements and pathologic analysis were performed. The left parasternal approach provided the surgeon clear visualization of the targeted blood vessel to accurately identify the proper site to occlude. The successful development of AMI was confirmed by ST segment elevation on the ECG, by high levels of AMI-related markers in blood samples, by cardiac functional damage reflected on echocardiographic images and by changes in pathological sections. Furthermore, an acceptable success rate and low mortality were achieved. Hence, this surgical technique was suggested to be a highly reliable and reproducible method to induce AMI in rabbits for the assessment of new therapeutic interventions or regenerative approaches. PMID:28111375
Interest in early thrombolysis has prompted a study on the feasibility and time course of prehospital thrombolysis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in six centres in Belgium. Patients with clinically suspected AMI and with typical ECG changes presenting within 4 h after onset of pain were treated with 30 units of Anisoylated Plasminogen Streptokinase Activator Complex (APSAC, eminase) intravenously by a mobile intensive care unit (MICU). Sixty-two patients were included in the study and an AMI was confirmed in 60. The mean time (+/- 1 SD) from onset of pain to injection of APSAC was 95 +/- 47 min and the mean estimated time gain, calculated as the time difference between the arrival of the MICU at home and the arrival of the MICU at the emergency department, was 50 +/- 17 min. In the prehospital period four patients developed ventricular fibrillation and one cardiogenic shock. During hospital stay severe complications were observed in four patients. Two events were fatal, one diffuse haemorrhage and one septal rupture; two events were non fatal, one feasible and that an estimated time gain of 50 min can be obtained. Potential risks and benefits remain to be demonstrated in a large controlled clinical trial.
Background Previous studies indicate that decreased heart-rate variability (HRV) is related to the risk of death in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the conventional indices of HRV have poor predictive value for mortality. Our aim was to develop novel predictive models based on support vector machine (SVM) to study the integrated features of HRV for improving risk stratification after AMI. Methods A series of heart-rate dynamic parameters from 208 patients were analyzed after a mean follow-up time of 28 months. Patient electrocardiographic data were classified as either survivals or cardiac deaths. SVM models were established based on different combinations of heart-rate dynamic variables and compared to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and deceleration capacity (DC) of heart rate. We tested the accuracy of predictors by assessing the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC). Results We evaluated a SVM algorithm that integrated various electrocardiographic features based on three models: (A) HRV complex; (B) 6 dimension vector; and (C) 8 dimension vector. Mean AUC of HRV complex was 0.8902, 0.8880 for 6 dimension vector and 0.8579 for 8 dimension vector, compared with 0.7424 for LVEF, 0.7932 for SDNN and 0.7399 for DC. Conclusions HRV complex yielded the largest AUC and is the best classifier for predicting cardiac death after AMI. PMID:24886422
Wake, Ryotaro; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Haze, Kazuo; Otani, Shinichiro; Yoshimura, Takayoshi; Toda, Iku; Nishimoto, Masaki; Kawarabayashi, Takahiko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimada, Kenei; Iida, Hidetaka; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Yoshiyama, Minoru
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a social burden. However, being able to predict AMI could lead to prevention. A previous study showed only the relation between the lunar phase and the occurrence of AMI, but the period it takes for the moon to orbit around the earth and the period of the lunar phase differ. This study investigated the effect of the gravitation of the moon on AMI. Data was comprised of 1369 consecutive patients with first AMI at 5 hospitals from October, 1984 to December, 1997. The universal gravitation of the moon was calculated and compared to the earth onset time of AMI. Universal gravitation of the moon was derived by G*m/d(2) (G: universal gravitation constant, m: the mass of the moon, d: the distance between the center of the moon and the center of the earth). The relationship between m/d(2) and the cases of AMI was determined. There was an increase in cases, when there is a distance of more than 399864 km from the center of the earth to the center of the moon. The gravitation of more than 399864 km was determined to be weaker gravitation. It is confirmed that the number of AMI patients significantly increases at weaker gravitation periods in this multicenter trial. In conclusion, these results suggest that the gravitation of the moon may have an influence on the occurrence of AMI.
Hammerman, H; Kloner, R A; Alker, K J; Schoen, F J; Braunwald, E
Alterations in afterload may occur during acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but it is unknown whether such alterations cause long-term changes in the left ventricular topography or alter healing of the AMI. AMI was produced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in open-chest dogs. Eight dogs were randomized to a methoxamine group with an infusion dose of 30 micrograms/kg/min starting 1 hour after ligation for 4 hours to increase systemic systolic pressure by 40 to 50 mm Hg, and 8 were randomized to a saline control group (n = 8). Seven days later the dogs were killed and the hearts examined. The ratio of infarct wall thickness to noninfarct wall thickness was 1.13 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) in control dogs and was 0.98 +/- 0.03 in the dogs treated with methoxamine (p less than 0.005). An expansion index was determined as previously reported and expansion was considered to have occurred if this index exceeded 1.09. The expansion index was 0.98 +/- 0.06 in the control group and 1.18 +/- 0.07 in the methoxamine group (p less than 0.05). Histologic analysis suggested a lag in the healing rate in the methoxamine-treated dogs. Thus, early, brief increases in afterload cause infarct expansion and thinning and appears to slow the early healing phase of AMI in dogs.
Kwon, Bo Yeon; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Suji; Heo, Seulkee; Jo, Kyunghee; Kim, Jinsun; Park, Man Sik
Most previous studies have focused on the association between acute myocardial function (AMI) and temperature by gender and age. Recently, however, concern has also arisen about those most susceptible to the effects of temperature according to socioeconomic status (SES). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI by subpopulations (gender, age, living area, and individual SES) in South Korea. The Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) database was used to examine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI during 2004-2012. We analyzed the increase in AMI hospital admissions both above and below a threshold temperature using Poisson generalized additive models (GAMs) for hot, cold, and warm weather. The Medicaid group, the lowest SES group, had a significantly higher RR of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07-1.76) for heat and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04-1.20) for cold among subgroups, while also showing distinctly higher risk curves than NHI for both hot and cold weather. In additions, females, older age group, and those living in urban areas had higher risks from hot and cold temperatures than males, younger age group, and those living in rural areas.
Chen, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Chen; Meng, Qing-Tao; Peng, Yong; Chen, Mao
Abstract Rationale: Ventricular double rupture (VDR) is a rare but lethal mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The early identification and timely treatment of VDR remain challenging problems. We present a case of AMI with VDR and briefly review the characteristics and prognosis of this life-threatening disease. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: A 77-year-old male presented to our hospital with a 4-day history of severe dizziness, mild chest tightness, and dyspnea. An inferior AMI was diagnosed. Interventions and Outcomes: On the second hospital day, hypotension and a new cardiac murmur was found. The emergency echocardiographic study disclosed a ventricular septal defect. Soon after that the patient suddenly died of ventricular free-wall rupture. Lessons: In patients with AMI complicated by a septal perforation in the apical region, close to the septum-free wall junction, special attention should be paid to the great risk of VDR. Other high risk factors included advanced age, delayed reperfusion, and inferior infarction. Sufficient evaluation of the risk factors, close monitoring of vital signs, early identification of the specific symptoms, and timely treatment are the key points for the effective prediction and prevention of VDR. PMID:28033290
van der Horst, I.C.C.; Zijlstra, F.
In the time-span of almost a century, a large amount of experimental evidence has been accumulated that underlines the importance of glucose metabolism during ischaemia/reperfusion of the heart. As early as 1912, Goulston suggested that treatment with glucose could be beneficial in several heart diseases. The first experimental results on the mechanical effects of insulin and glucose in the isolated heart were reported by Visscher and Muller in 1926. In 1935, Evans and colleagues showed that the uptake of glucose is increased in the ischaemic myocardium. Almost 30 years later, Sodi-Pallares and colleagues suggested that metabolic interference during myocardial ischaemia with GIK infusion decreased electrocardiographic signs of ischaemia. They also showed that glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) infusion resulted in a lower occurrence of arrhythmias. They attributed this effect mainly to the influx of potassium in ischaemic cardiomyocytes. In order to further stimulate potassium transport into the cell, insulin was administered. Consequently, the rise of intercellular calcium is curtailed by the influx of potassium and so the incidence of arrhythmias is reduced. However, systemic infusion of insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose in many celltypes, which may result in hypoglycaemic episodes. Consequently, it is not possible to administer potassium and insulin in high concentrations without adding glucose. Interventions in the glucose metabolism in the clinical arena, whether or not used to correct acute hyperglycaemia, encompass three potentially effective elements: glucose, insulin and potassium. PMID:25696497
Huaman, M A; Kryscio, R J; Fichtenbaum, C J; Henson, D; Salt, E; Sterling, T R; Garvy, B A
Several pathogens have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Whether this occurs with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is unclear. We assessed if tuberculosis disease increased the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We identified patients with tuberculosis index claims from a large de-identified database of ~15 million adults enrolled in a U.S. commercial insurance policy between 2008 and 2010. Tuberculosis patients were 1:1 matched to patients without tuberculosis claims using propensity scores. We compared the occurrence of index AMI claims between the tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis cohorts using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox Proportional Hazard models. Data on 2026 patients with tuberculosis and 2026 propensity-matched patients without tuberculosis were included. AMI was more frequent in the tuberculosis cohort compared with the non-tuberculosis cohort, 67 (3·3%) vs. 32 (1·6%) AMI cases, respectively, P < 0·01. Tuberculosis was associated with an increased risk of AMI (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1·98, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1·3-3·0). The results were similar when the analysis was restricted to pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted HR 2·43, 95% CI 1·5-4·1). Tuberculosis was associated with an increased risk of AMI. CVD risk assessment should be considered in tuberculosis patients. Mechanistic studies of tuberculosis and CVD are warranted.
Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chang, Chih-Ching; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Hui-Fen
Many studies have examined the association between cardiovascular disease mortality and water hardness. However, the results have not been consistent. This report examines whether calcium and magnesium in drinking water are protective against acute myocardial infarction (AMI). All eligible AMI deaths (10,094 cases) of Taiwan residents from 1994 to 2003 were compared with deaths from other causes (10,094 controls), and the levels of calcium and magnesium in drinking water of these residents were determined. Data on calcium and magnesium levels in drinking water throughout Taiwan have been obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and the controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. The adjusted odd ratios (95% confidence interval) were 0.79 (0.73-0.86) for the group with water calcium levels between 25.1 and 42.4 mg/L and 0.71 (0.65-0.77) for the group with calcium levels of 42.6 mg/L or more. After adjustment for calcium levels in drinking water, there was no difference between the groups with different levels of magnesium. The results of the present study show that there is a significant protective effect of calcium intake from drinking water on the risk of death from AMI.
Rasoul, S.; Svilaas, T.; Ottervanger, J-P.; Timmer, J.R.; van 't Hof, A.W.J.; Zijlstra, F.
Objective To review the currently available data to investigate the clinical benefit of high- and low-dose glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Design Quantitative analysis of all randomised trials on GIK in patients with STEMI. Electronic and manual searches for randomised controlled trials of GIK in STEMI were performed with regard to inclusion criteria, dose of GIK and additional use of reperfusion therapy, and a meta-analysis with the primary endpoint 30-day mortality was performed. Patients Data from 16 randomised trials, involving 26,273 patients, were included. Results Studies were conducted between 1962 and 2005. Overall, hospital mortality was 9.6% after GIK compared with 10.2% in controls (p=0.088). GIK infusion was not associated with an increase in major adverse events. Conclusion This quantitative analysis of GIK in patients with STEMI did not show a beneficial or detrimental effect of GIK infusion on 30-day mortality. GIK infusion should not be part of the standard therapy for patients with STEMI. PMID:25696550
Chen, Serene I.; Wang, Yongfei; Dreyer, Rachel; Strait, Kelly M.; Spatz, Erica S.; Xu, Xiao; Smolderen, Kim G.; Desai, Nihar R.; Lorenze, Nancy P.; Lichtman, Judith H.; Spertus, John A.; D’Onofrio, Gail; Bueno, Héctor; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.
This prospective study assessed whether gender differences in health insurance help explain gender differences in delay in seeking care for US patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We also assessed gender differences in such prehospital delay for AMI in Spain, a country with universal insurance. We used data from 2,951 US and 496 Spanish patients aged 18–55 years with AMI. US patients were grouped by insurance status: adequately insured, underinsured, or uninsured. For each country, we assessed the association between gender and prehospital delay (symptom onset to hospital arrival). For the US cohort, we modeled the relationship between insurance groups and delay of >12 hours. US women were less likely than men to be uninsured, but more likely to be underinsured and a larger proportion of women than men experienced delays of >12 hours (38% versus 29%). We found no association between insurance status and delays of >12 hours in men or women. Only 17.3% of Spanish patients had delays of >12 hours and there were no significant gender differences. In conclusion, women were more likely than men to delay, though it was not explained by differences in insurance status. The lack of gender differences in prehospital delays in Spain suggests that these differences may vary by health care system and culture. PMID:26541907
Ramadan, Mahmoud M.; Khan, Iqbal S.; Mahdi, Ousama
Patient: Male, 48 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous hemarthrosis of right knee Symptoms: A rapidly growing knee swelling was “witnessed” associated with severe tenderness, hotness and profound agony but without color change Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Suprapatellar arthrocentesis of the right knee joint Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Despite the widespread use of fibrinolytic therapy and the numerous reports on its bleeding complications, spontaneous hemarthrosis following fibrinolytic therapy is quite rare. Case Report: We describe in this report a patient with no previous history of articular disease who developed a spontaneous right knee bloody effusion following fibrinolytic therapy using rt-PA for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Furthermore, we provide a review of all cases of spontaneous hemarthrosis documented so far in the literature. Conclusions: Several pre-existing joint diseases may predispose to hemarthrosis following fibrinolytic therapy, even in patients who deny previous or current articular disorders. Therefore, hemorrhage should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mono-arthritis following fibrinolytic therapy for STEMI. PMID:25417208
Hansson, Jenny; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Hergens, Maria-Pia; Fredlund, Peeter; Ahlbom, Anders; Alfredsson, Lars; Bellocco, Rino; Eriksson, Marie; Hallqvist, Johan; Hedblad, Bo; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Nilsson, Peter; Pedersen, Nancy; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Magnusson, Cecilia
The use of snus (also referred to as Scandinavian or Swedish moist smokeless tobacco), which is common in Sweden and increasing elsewhere, is receiving increasing attention since considered a tobacco smoke "potential reduction exposure product". Snus delivers a high dose of nicotine with possible hemodynamic effects, but its impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether snus use is associated with risk of and survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Data from eight prospective cohort studies set in Sweden was pooled and reanalysed. The relative risk of first time AMI and 28-day case-fatality was calculated for 130,361 men who never smoked. During 2,262,333 person-years of follow-up, 3,390 incident events of AMI were identified. Current snus use was not associated with risk of AMI (pooled multivariable hazard ratio 1.04, 95 % confidence interval 0.93 to 1.17). The short-term case fatality rate appeared increased in snus users (odds ratio 1.28, 95 % confidence interval 0.99 to 1.68). This study does not support any association between use of snus and development of AMI. Hence, toxic components other than nicotine appear implicated in the pathophysiology of smoking related ischemic heart disease. Case fatality after AMI is seemingly increased among snus users, but this relationship may be due to confounding by socioeconomic or life style factors.
Lin, Mao-Jen; Chen, Chun-Yu; Lin, Hau-De
Cardiogenic shock (CS) is uncommon in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Long-term outcome and adverse predictors for outcomes in AMI patients with CS receiving percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are unclear. A total of 482 AMI patients who received PCI were collected, including 53 CS and 429 non-CS. Predictors for AMI patients with CS including recurrent MI, cardiovascular (CV) mortality, all-cause mortality, and repeated-PCI were analyzed. The CS group had a lower central systolic pressure and central diastolic pressure (both P < 0.001). AMI patients with hypertension history were less prone to develop CS (P < 0.001). Calcium channel blockers and statins were less frequently used by the CS group than the non-CS group (both P < 0.05) after discharge. Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score, CV mortality, and all-cause mortality were higher in the CS group than the non-CS group (all P < 0.005). For patients with CS, stroke history was a predictor of recurrent MI (P = 0.036). CS, age, SYNTAX score, and diabetes were predictors of CV mortality (all P < 0.05). CS, age, SYNTAX score, and stroke history were predictors for all-cause mortality (all P < 0.05). CS, age, and current smoking were predictors for repeated-PCI (all P < 0.05). PMID:28251160
Fisher, Jared A; Jiang, Chengsheng; Soneja, Sutyajeet I; Mitchell, Clifford; Puett, Robin C; Sapkota, Amir
Few studies have examined the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or demonstrated which populations are most vulnerable to the effects of extreme heat. We defined extreme heat events as days when the daily maximum temperature (TMAX) exceeded the location- and calendar day-specific 95th percentile of the distribution of daily TMAX during the 30-year baseline period (1960-1989). We used a time-stratified case-crossover design to analyze the association between exposure to extreme heat events and risk of hospitalization for AMI in the summer months (June-August) with 0, 1, or 2 lag days. There were a total of 32,670 AMI hospitalizations during the summer months in Maryland between 2000 and 2012. Overall, extreme heat events on the day of hospitalization were associated with an increased risk of AMI (lag 0 OR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.05-1.17). Results considering lag periods immediately before hospitalization were comparable, but effect estimates varied among several population subgroups. As extreme weather events are expected to become more frequent and intense in response to our changing climate, community-specific adaptation strategies are needed to account for the differential susceptibility across ethnic subgroups and geographic areas.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 8 February 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.83.
Andrechuk, Carla Renata Silva; Ceolim, Maria Filomena
Objectives: to stratify the risk for obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acute myocardial infarction, treated at a public, tertiary, teaching hospital of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify related sociodemographic and clinical factors. Method: cross-sectional analytical study with 113 patients (mean age 59.57 years, 70.8% male). A specific questionnaire was used for the sociodemographic and clinical characterization and the Berlin Questionnaire for the stratification of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Results: the prevalence of high risk was 60.2% and the outcome of clinical worsening during hospitalization was more frequent among these patients. The factors related to high risk were body mass index over 30 kg/m2, arterial hypertension and waist circumference indicative of cardiovascular risk, while older age (60 years and over) constituted a protective factor. Conclusion: considering the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and its relation to clinical worsening, it is suggested that nurses should monitor, in their clinical practice, people at high risk for this syndrome, guiding control measures of modifiable factors and aiming to prevent the associated complications, including worsening of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26487128
Baars, Theodor; Neumann, Ursula; Jinawy, Mona; Hendricks, Stefanie; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Kälsch, Julia; Riemenschneider, Mona; Gerken, Guido; Erbel, Raimund; Heider, Dominik; Canbay, Ali
Abstract Detection of high-risk subjects in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by noninvasive means would reduce the need for intracardiac catheterization and associated complications. Liver enzymes are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. A potential predictive value for liver serum markers for the severity of stenosis in AMI was analyzed. Patients with AMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; n = 437) were retrospectively evaluated. Minimal lumen diameter (MLD) and percent stenosis diameter (SD) were determined from quantitative coronary angiography. Patients were classified according to the severity of stenosis (SD ≥ 50%, n = 357; SD < 50%, n = 80). Routine heart and liver parameters were associated with SD using random forests (RF). A prediction model (M10) was developed based on parameter importance analysis in RF. Age, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and MLD differed significantly between SD ≥ 50 and SD < 50. Age, AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and troponin correlated significantly with SD, whereas MLD correlated inversely with SD. M10 (age, BMI, AP, AST, ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, troponin) reached an AUC of 69.7% (CI 63.8–75.5%, P < 0.0001). Routine liver parameters are associated with SD in AMI. A small set of noninvasively determined parameters can identify SD in AMI, and might avoid unnecessary coronary angiography in patients with low risk. The model can be accessed via http://stenosis.heiderlab.de. PMID:26871849
Cho, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Min-Ha; Mok, Rak-Sun; Jeon, Jin-Woo; Lim, Guei-Sam; Chai, Chan-Young; Paek, Se-Hwan
A novel washing scheme following antigen-antibody reactions with analyte was used during construction of a fluorescent immunosensor to resolve the background problem in the lateral flow assay with human serum. An immuno-membrane strip was devised to simultaneously measure cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatinine kinase-MB isoform (CK-MB), and myoglobin to diagnose acute myocardial infarction. This strip was then installed within a cartridge containing a built-in washing solution tank, which was used to supply the solution across the signal generation pad of the strip after the immune reactions. Such cross-flow washing was initiated by onset-signaling from the internal control and began to run automatically upon sample addition. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor displayed a stably suppressed background baseline, enabling us to attain a low detection limit for cTnI (0.05 ng/mL) as well as favorable reproducibility for repetitive measurements (relative standard deviation <10%). No interference was observed among the different complex formations at the respective analyte sites, and no artifacts were caused by sample matrices. We tested the performance relationship with the Pathfast reference system for positive serum samples (36 for cTnI, 58 for CK-MB, and 17 for myoglobin), and the correlation coefficients were >0.98. This result suggests that the new immunosensor system based on two-dimensional chromatography can be used for clinical testing.
Atanasov, K; Dzhurdzhev, A; Kichukov, N; Ivanov, I; Mineva, Zh
Streptokinase treatment was carried out in the intensive care unit of III Internal Clinic, the Higher Medical Institute--Plovdiv, on 54 patients, 51 of them with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 3 with intermediary coronary syndrome, making use of the preparations streptase (GFR) and avelysin (GDR). A control group of 35 patients with AMI was used. The treatment was initiated with stream administration of heparin 10,000 U and urbazon 20 mg, whereafter streptokinase 1,250,000 U per 1 h was included on that background. The results were determined according to ECG in 30 leads, recorded by 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h, according to creatine-phosphokinase activity and the outcome of the disease. The treatment was uninterrupted up to 24 h with the determination of the individual fibrinolytic activity. Normalization of S-T segment was established by 4 h with restoration of ECG in 10 patients, and in the rest--maintaining QS or QR forms. Re-perfusion arrhythmias were observed in 66.67% and data about re-thrombosis--in 13.61%. Lethality was 5.89%. The method is emphasized to be a reliable means for the treatment of AMI.
Tao, Lichan; Shen, Sutong; Fu, Siyi; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Das, Saumya; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Zhou, Yonglan; Kong, Xiangqing; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli
In a multicenter randomized double-blind study we demonstrated that Qiliqiangxin (QLQX), a traditional Chinese medicine, had a protective effect in heart failure patients. However, whether and via which mechanism QLQX attenuates cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is still unclear. AMI was created by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice. Treating the mice in the initial 3 days after AMI with QLQX did not change infarct size. However, QLQX treatment ameliorated adverse cardiac remodeling 3 weeks after AMI including better preservation of cardiac function, decreased apoptosis and reduced fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) was down-regulated in control animals after AMI and up-regulated by QLQX administration. Interestingly, expression of AKT, SAPK/JNK, and ERK was not altered by QLQX treatment. Inhibition of PPARγ reduced the beneficial effects of QLQX in AMI remodeling, whereas activation of PPARγ failed to provide additional improvement in the presence of QLQX, suggesting a key role for PPARγ in the effects of QLQX during cardiac remodeling after AMI. This study indicates that QLQX attenuates cardiac remodeling after AMI by increasing PPARγ levels. Taken together, QLQX warrants further investigation as as a therapeutic intervention to mitigate remodeling and heart failure after AMI. PMID:25669146
Vidart, Josi; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Leite, Rogério Sarmento; Manica, André; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Larsen, P. Reed
Context: The acute phase of the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is characterized by low T3 and high rT3 levels, affecting up to 75% of critically ill patients. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a causative factor of the disturbed peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent intracellular antioxidant, can prevent NTIS in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Design: This was a randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Settings: Consecutive patients admitted to the emergency and intensive care units of two tertiary hospitals in southern Brazil were recruited. Patients and intervention included 67 patients were randomized to receive NAC or placebo during 48 hours. Baseline characteristics and blood samples for thyroid hormones and oxidative parameters were collected. Main Outcome: Variation of serum T3 and rT3 levels was measured. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups (all P > .05). T3 levels decreased in the placebo group at 12 hours of follow-up (P = .002) but not in NAC-treated patients (P = .10). Baseline rT3 levels were elevated in both groups and decreased over the initial 48 hours in the NAC-treated patients (P = .003) but not in the control group (P = .75). The free T4 and TSH levels were virtually identical between the groups throughout the study period (P > .05). Measurement of total antioxidant status and total carbonyl content demonstrated that oxidative balance was deranged in acute myocardial infarction patients, whereas NAC corrected these alterations (P < .001). Conclusions: NAC administration prevents the derangement in thyroid hormone concentrations commonly occurring in the acute phase of acute myocardial infarction, indicating that oxidative stress is involved in the NTIS pathophysiology. PMID:25148231
Mayorga, Mari; Kiedrowski, Matthew; Shamhart, Patricia; Forudi, Farhad; Weber, Kristal; Chilian, William M; Penn, Marc S; Dong, Feng
The stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1):CXCR4 is important in myocardial repair. In this study we tested the hypothesis that early upregulation of cardiomyocyte CXCR4 (CM-CXCR4) at a time of high myocardial SDF-1 expression could be a strategy to engage the SDF-1:CXCR4 axis and improve cardiac repair. The effects of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) on CXCR4 expression was tested on H9c2 cells. In mice a myocardial infarction (MI) was produced in CM-CXCR4 null and wild-type controls. Mice were randomized to receive injection of DMOG (DMOG group) or saline (Saline group) into the border zone after MI. Protein and mRNA expression of CM-CXCR4 were quantified. Echocardiography was used to assess cardiac function. During hypoxia, DMOG treatment increased CXCR4 expression of H9c2 cells by 29 and 42% at 15 and 24 h, respectively. In vivo DMOG treatment increased CM-CXCR4 expression at 15 h post-MI in control mice but not in CM-CXCR4 null mice. DMOG resulted in increased ejection fraction in control mice but not in CM-CXCR4 null mice 21 days after MI. Consistent with greater cardiomyocyte survival with DMOG treatment, we observed a significant increase in cardiac myosin-positive area within the infarct zone after DMOG treatment in control mice, but no increase in CM-CXCR4 null mice. Inhibition of cardiomyocyte death in MI through the stabilization of HIF-1α requires downstream CM-CXCR4 expression. These data suggest that engagement of the SDF-1:CXCR4 axis through the early upregulation of CM-CXCR4 is a strategy for improving cardiac repair after MI.
Brown, N.; Young, T.; Gray, D.; Skene, A. M.; Hampton, J. R.
OBJECTIVE: To assess longitudinal trends in admissions, management, and inpatient mortality from acute myocardial infarction over 10 years. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis based on the Nottingham heart attack register. SETTING: Two district general hospitals serving a defined urban and rural population. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with a confirmed acute myocardial infarction during 1982-4 and 1989-92 (excluding 1991, when data were not collected). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of patients, background characteristics, time from onset of symptoms to admission, ward of admission, treatment, and inpatient mortality. RESULTS: Admissions with acute myocardial infarction increased from 719 cases in 1982 to 960 in 1992. The mean age increased from 62.1 years to 66.6 years (P < 0.001), the duration of stay fell from 8.7 days to 7.2 days (P < 0.001), and the proportion of patients aged 75 years and over admitted to a coronary care unit increased significantly from 29.1% to 61.2%. A higher proportion of patients were admitted to hospital within 6 hours of onset of their symptoms in 1989-92 than in 1982-4, but 15% were still admitted after the time window for thrombolysis. Use of beta blockers increased threefold between 1982 and 1992, aspirin was used in over 70% of patients after 1989, and thrombolytic use increased 1.3-fold between 1989 and 1992. Age and sex adjusted odds ratios for inpatient mortality remained unchanged over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increasing uptake of the "proved" treatments, inpatient mortality from myocardial infarction did not change between 1982 and 1992. PMID:9251546
Poulsen, S H
abnormal myocardial relaxation which can be reversed to normal by restoring normal myocardial blood flow. The diastolic abnormality is present within seconds and a characteristic impaired relaxation filling pattern are identified by mitral and pulmonary venous flow analysis. Diastolic dysfunction has been recognized during the early as well during the post-MI phase with or without LV systolic dysfunction. In the acute phase both an abnormal relaxation pattern and restrictive LV filling pattern are present which has been related to in-hospital heart failure. The identification of a pseudonormal or restrictive LV filling pattern are associated with later readmission to hospital with heart failure and cardiac death. Abnormal relaxation filling is the most pronounced filling pattern after one year which might be related to the remodeling process including compensatory hypertrophy, scarring of the infarct zone leading to a non-uniform relaxation of the LV. Remodeling of the LV following a MI is subject to several factors which might involve diastolic function. This is supported by the presence of an impaired relaxation and restrictive filling pattern are associated with progressive LV dilatation following Ml. Furthermore, the LV remodeling process following the very early phase includes the scarring process with collagen deposition in the infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium. The extent and quality of the repair process involving collagen deposition are believed to influence the remodeling process. Increased collagen deposition in the subacute phase of Ml indicated by elevated values of the collagen marker PIIINP is found to be related to LV dilation, depressed systolic function and restrictive LV filling. Development of a restrictive filling in patients with increased collagen deposition might be due to increasing LV volume but also to increased myocardial stiffness. Regarding prognosis diastolic dysfunction seems to be an important marker of outcome as abnormal diastolic
Zhang, Hao; Wang, Zheng; Feng, Shou-Jie; Xu, Lei; Shi, He-Xian; Chen, Li-Li; Yuan, Guang-Da; Yan, Wei; Zhuang, Wei; Zhang, Yi-Qian; Zhang, Zhong-Ming; Dong, Hong-Yan
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a pleiotropic gene with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties. However, recent reports about the effects of PEDF on cardiomyocytes are controversial, and it is not known whether and how PEDF acts to inhibit hypoxic or ischemic endothelial injury in the heart. In the present study, adult Sprague-Dawley rat models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were surgically established. PEDF-small interfering RNA (siRNA)-lentivirus (PEDF-RNAi-LV) or PEDF-LV was delivered into the myocardium along the infarct border to knockdown or overexpress PEDF, respectively. Vascular permeability, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, myocardial infarct size and animal cardiac function were analyzed. We also evaluated PEDF's effect on the suppression of the endothelial permeability and cardiomyocyte apoptosis under hypoxia in vitro. The results indicated that PEDF significantly suppressed the vascular permeability and inhibited hypoxia-induced endothelial permeability through PPARγ-dependent tight junction (TJ) production. PEDF protected cardiomyocytes against ischemia or hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro via preventing the activation of caspase-3. We also found that PEDF significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and enhanced cardiac function in rats with AMI. These data suggest that PEDF could protect cardiac function from ischemic injury, at least by means of reducing vascular permeability, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial infarct size.
Zhou, Weina; Wang, Xiangcheng; He, Yulin; Nie, Yongzhen; Zhang, Guojian; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Chunmei; Wang, Xuemei
Objective. Using a swine model of acute myocardial ischemia, we sought to validate N-11C-methyl-dopamine (11C-MDA) as an agent capable of imaging cardiac sympathetic nerve injury. Methods. Acute myocardial ischemia was surgically generated in Chinese minipigs. ECG and serum enzyme levels were used to detect the presence of myocardial ischemia. Paired 11C-MDA PET and 13N-ammonia PET scans were performed at baseline, 1 day, and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery to relate cardiac sympathetic nerve injury to blood perfusion. Results. Seven survived the surgical procedure. The ECG-ST segment was depressed, and levels of the serum enzymes increased. Cardiac uptake of tracer was quantified as the defect volume. Both before and immediately after surgery, the images obtained with 11C-MDA and 13N-ammonia were similar. At 1 to 6 months after surgery, however, 11C-MDA postsurgical left ventricular myocardial defect volume was significantly greater compared to 13N-ammonia. Conclusions. In the Chinese minipig model of acute myocardial ischemia, the extent of the myocardial defect as visualized by 11C-MDA is much greater than would be suggested by blood perfusion images, and the recovery from myocardial sympathetic nerve injury is much slower than the restoration of blood perfusion. 11C-MDA PET may provide additional biological information during recovery from ischemic heart disease. PMID:27034950
Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Rosmini, Stefania; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; Bhuva, Anish N; Treibel, Thomas A; Fontana, Marianna; Weinmann, Shane; Sirker, Alex; Herrey, Anna S; Manisty, Charlotte; Moon, James C; Hausenloy, Derek J
Aims The four most promising semiautomated techniques (5-SD, 6-SD, Otsu and the full width half maximum (FWHM)) were compared in paired acute and follow-up cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), taking into account the impact of microvascular obstruction (MVO) and using automated extracellular volume fraction (ECV) maps for reference. Furthermore, their performances on the acute scan were compared against manual myocardial infarct (MI) size to predict adverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling (≥20% increase in end-diastolic volume). Methods 40 patients with reperfused ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with a paired acute (4±2 days) and follow-up CMR scan (5±2 months) were recruited prospectively. All CMR analysis was performed on CVI42. Results Using manual MI size as the reference standard, 6-SD accurately quantified acute (24.9±14.0%LV, p=0.81, no bias) and chronic MI size (17.2±9.7%LV, p=0.88, no bias). The performance of FWHM for acute MI size was affected by the acquisition sequence used. Furthermore, FWHM underestimated chronic MI size in those with previous MVO due to the significantly higher ECV in the MI core on the follow-up scans previously occupied by MVO (82 (75–88)% vs 62 (51–68)%, p<0.001). 5-SD and Otsu were precise but overestimated acute and chronic MI size. All techniques were performed with high diagnostic accuracy and equally well to predict adverse LV remodelling. Conclusions 6-SD was the most accurate for acute and chronic MI size and should be the preferred semiautomatic technique in randomised controlled trials. However, 5-SD, FWHM and Otsu could also be used when precise MI size quantification may be adequate (eg, observational studies). PMID:28008358
Background The clinical outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are poor in patients with renal insufficiency. This study investigated changes in the likelihood that patients received optimal medical care throughout the entire process of myocardial infarction management, on the basis of their glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods This study analyzed 7,679 patients (age, 63 ± 13 years; men 73.6%) who had STEMI and were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) from November 2005 to August 2008. The study subjects were divided into 5 groups corresponding to strata used to define chronic kidney disease stages. Results Patients with lower GFR were less likely to present with typical chest pain. The average symptom-to-door time, door-to-balloon time, and symptom-to-balloon time were longer with lower GFR than higher GFR. Primary reperfusion therapy was performed less frequently and the results of reperfusion therapy were poorer in patients with renal insufficiency; these patients were less likely to receive adjunctive medical treatment, such as treatment with aspirin, clopidogrel, β-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB), or statin, during hospitalization and at discharge. Patients who received less intense medical therapy had worse clinical outcomes than those who received more intense medical therapy. Conclusions Patients with STEMI and renal insufficiency had less chance of receiving optimal medical care throughout the entire process of MI management, which may contribute to worse outcomes in these patients. PMID:22966970
Lucinda, Luciane Boreki; Prosdócimo, Ana Claudia Merchan Giaxa; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Francisco, Julio Cesar; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; do Amaral, Vivian Ferreira; Faria, José Rocha; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César
Introduction Acute myocardial infarction is a social health problem of epidemiological relevance, with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Stress is one of the modifiable risk factors that triggers acute myocardial infarction. Stress is a result of a set of physiological reactions, which when exaggerated in intensity or duration can lead to imbalances in one's organism, resulting in vulnerability to diseases. Objective To identify the presence of stress and its phases in hospitalized and active labor market patients with unstable myocardial infarction and observe its correlation with the life of this population with stress. Methods The methodology used was a quantitative, descriptive and transversal research approach conducted with a total of 43 patients, who were still active in the labor market, presenting or not morbidities. Data collection occurred on the fourth day of their hospitalization and patients responded to Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory for adults. Results Thirty-one patients (72.1%) presented stress and twelve (27.8%) did not. In patients with stress, the identified phases were: alert - one patient (3.2%); resistance -twenty-two patients (71.0%); quasi-exhaustion - six patients (19.4%) and exhaustion - two patients (6.5%). All women researched presented stress. Conclusion The results suggest a high level of stress, especially in the resistance phase, in the male infarcted population, hospitalized and active in the labor market. PMID:25859863
Ernst, N.; Zijlstra, F.; de Boer, M.J.; Dambrink, J.H.E.; Gosselink, A.T.M.; Henriques, J.P.S.; van 't Hof, A.W.J.; Hoorntje, J.C.A.; van der Horst, J.C.C.; Suryapranata, H.
Objective To study the impact of patency of the infarct-related artery on the coronary angiogram, both before and after primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction, on 30-day mortality. Method Data of 1702 consecutive patients treated with primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction were collected prospectively from 1994 to 2000. Results Patients with a (partially) patent infarct artery before primary angioplasty had less damage to the myocardium and a lower 30-day mortality (1.6% versus 3.4%, p=0.04) compared with patients with an occluded artery. Patients with pre-hospital treatment with aspirin and heparin more often presented with a patent artery before angioplasty (31% versus 20%, p<0.001). After primary angioplasty, 95% of patients had a patent artery with a 30-day mortality of 2.2%. The 5% of patients with failed angioplasty had extensive myocardial damage and a 30-day mortality rate of 17%. Conclusion Patency of the infarct-related artery on the coronary angiogram, both before and after primary angioplasty, has a major impact on 30-day mortality. PMID:25696139
Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.
Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.
Hsiao, Ju-Feng; Chung, Chang-Min; Chu, Chi-Ming; Lin, Yu-Shen; Pan, Kuo-Li; Chang, Shih-Tai
Objectives Left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction increases cardiovascular events and mortality. But few study was done in patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF > 40%). We investigate whether the strain and strain rate by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography could predict left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in this cohort. Methods The 83 patients (average age 60.7 ± 12.3 y, 75 [90.4%] male) with new-onset acute myocardial infarction receiving echocardiography immediately, and 6 months after admission were grouped by the presence or absence of left ventricular remodeling. Strain and strain rate including longitudinal, circumferential, and radial direction were calculated. The average of strain and strain rate of which segmental longitudinal strains > – 15% were defined as the injury longitudinal strain (InjLS). Results Left ventricular remodeling occurred in 24 of 83 patients (28.9%). In univariate logistic regression analyses, gender, peak CK-MB, log BNP, use of statin before discharge, wall motion score index, and InjLS were significantly associated with left ventricular remodeling (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis using the forward stepwise method, gender, CK-MB, and InjLS were independent predictors. The hazard ratio for InjLS was 1.48 (p = 0.04). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses showed the area under the curve (AUC) of InjLS was largest (AUC = 0.75, cut-off value = –11.7%, sensitivity = 81%, specificity = 71%, p < 0.01). In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction subgroup, InjLS was the only predictor according to ROC analysis (AUC = 0.79, p < 0.01, cut-off value = –11.4%, sensitivity = 88%, specificity = 77%) and multivariate logistic regression analysis (hazard ratio = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22–2.88, p < 0.01). Conclusions InjLS was an excellent predictor for left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in patient with preserved ejection fraction. PMID
Vaccarino, Viola; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Nye, Jonathon A.; Pimple, Pratik; Salerno, Amy; D'Marco, Luis; Karohl, Cristina; Bremner, J. Douglas; Raggi, Paolo
Objectives Emotional stress may disproportionally affect young women with ischemic heart disease. We sought to examine whether mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI), but not exercise-induced ischemia, is more common in young women with previous myocardial infarction (MI) than men. Methods We studied 98 post-MI patients (49 women and 49 men) aged 38-60 years. Women and men were matched for age, MI type, and months since MI. Patients underwent [99mTc]sestamibi perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress, and after exercise/pharmacological stress. Perfusion defect scores were obtained with observer-independent software. A summed difference score (SDS), the difference between stress and rest scores, was used to quantify ischemia under both stress conditions. Results Women aged 50 or younger, but not older women, showed a more adverse psychosocial profile than age-matched men, but did not differ for conventional risk factors and tended to have less angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD). Compared with age-matched men, women aged 50 or younger exhibited a higher SDS with mental stress (3.1 vs. 1.5, p=0.029) and had twice the rate of MSIMI (SDS ≥3), 52% vs. 25%, while ischemia with physical stress did not differ (36% vs 25%). In older patients there were no sex differences in MSIMI. The higher prevalence of MSIMI in young women persisted when adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, CAD severity and depression. Conclusions MSIMI post-MI is more common in women aged 50 or younger compared to age-matched men. These sex differences are not observed in post-MI patients who are older than 50 years. PMID:24608039
Messner, T; Häggström, I; Sandahl, I; Lundberg, V
This study was undertaken to investigate whether there was any relation between the aurora borealis (measured as the geomagnetic activity) and the number of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in the northern, partly polar, area of Sweden. The AMI cases were collected from The Northern Sweden MONICA (multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) AMI registry between 1985 and 1998, inclusive, and the information on the geomagnetic activity from continuous measurements at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna. In the analyses, both the relation between the individual AMI case and ambient geomagnetic activity, and the relation between the mean daily K index and the daily number of AMI cases were tested. We found no statistically significant relation between the number of fatal or non-fatal AMI cases, the number of sudden deaths or the number of patients with chest pain without myocardial damage, and geomagnetic activity. Our data do not support a relation between the geomagnetic activity and AMI.
Messner, T.; Häggström, I.; Sandahl, I.; Lundberg, V.
This study was undertaken to investigate whether there was any relation between the aurora borealis (measured as the geomagnetic activity) and the number of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in the northern, partly polar, area of Sweden. The AMI cases were collected from The Northern Sweden MONICA (multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) AMI registry between 1985 and 1998, inclusive, and the information on the geomagnetic activity from continuous measurements at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna. In the analyses, both the relation between the individual AMI case and ambient geomagnetic activity, and the relation between the mean daily K index and the daily number of AMI cases were tested. We found no statistically significant relation between the number of fatal or non-fatal AMI cases, the number of sudden deaths or the number of patients with chest pain without myocardial damage, and geomagnetic activity. Our data do not support a relation between the geomagnetic activity and AMI.
This Act sets forth infractions and sanctions with respect to labor and social security. Among other things, it classifies the following as very serious offenses: 1) unilateral decisions of employers involving discrimination, either favorable or adverse, in the matter of compensation, hours, training, promotion, and other labor conditions with respect to sex and kinship with other workers; and 2) establishment of conditions through advertising, offers of work, or any other means that constitute discrimination, either favorable or adverse, with respect to access to employment for reasons of sex or kinship with other workers. The following persons will also be considered to have committed very serious infractions: 1) employers who use foreign workers without having first obtained the proper work permit or its renewal; they will incur an infraction for each foreign worker so employed; 2) foreigners who exercise in Spain any lucrative, labor, or professional activity for themselves without having obtained the proper permit or renewed it; and 3) real or legal persons who promote, facilitate, or protect the work of foreigners in Spain without the proper work permit. The Act sets penalties for these infractions ranging from 500,001 pesetas to 15,000,000 pesetas depending on attenuating or aggravating circumstances. In addition, employers committing these infractions are 1) automatically to lose benefits derived from employment programs from the time the infraction was committed and 2) to be excluded from access to such benefits for a maximum period of one year.
Prospective randomised study of intensive insulin treatment on long term survival after acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus. DIGAMI (Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction) Study Group.
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that intensive metabolic treatment with insulin-glucose infusion followed by multidose insulin treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction improves the prognosis. DESIGN: Patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction were randomly allocated standard treatment plus insulin-glucose infusion for at least 24 hours followed by multidose insulin treatment or standard treatment (controls). SUBJECTS: 620 patients were recruited, of whom 306 received intensive insulin treatment and 314 served as controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Long term all cause mortality. RESULTS: The mean (range) follow up was 3.4 (1.6-5.6) years. There were 102 (33%) deaths in the treatment group compared with 138 (44%) deaths in the control group (relative risk (95% confidence interval) 0.72 (0.55 to 0.92); P = 0.011). The effect was most pronounced among the predefined group that included 272 patients without previous insulin treatment and at a low cardiovascular risk (0.49 (0.30 to 0.80); P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Insulin-glucose infusion followed by intensive subcutaneous insulin in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction improves long term survival, and the effect seen at one year continues for at least 3.5 years, with an absolute reduction in mortality of 11%. This means that one life was saved for nine treated patients. The effect was most apparent in patients who had not previously received insulin treatment and who were at a low cardiovascular risk. PMID:9169397
Jain, A.; Hicks, R.R.; Myers, G.H.; McCarthy, J.J.; Perry, J.R.; Adams, K.F. )
We evaluated 50 consecutive patients who received thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction using thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography in combination with oral dipyridamole to assess the frequency of residual myocardial ischemia. Thallium studies were performed early after myocardial infarction at a mean of 4.6 days. The time from the onset of chest pain to the administration of thrombolytic therapy was 2.6 hours (range 0.5 to 5.5). Q wave myocardial infarction was evident in 46 patients; four patients had a non-Q wave infarction (anterior infarction in 31 patients and inferior infarction in 19 patients). The serum mean peak creatinine kinase was 1503 IU/L (range 127 to 6500). Coronary angiography was performed in all patients at a mean of 3.1 days (range 2 to 10) and revealed the infarct-related vessel to be patent in 36 patients (72%). The ejection fraction was 48% (range 26% to 67%). After dipyridamole administration, 13 patients (26%) developed angina that was easily reversed with the administration of intravenous aminophylline. Systolic blood pressure decreased from 122 to 115 mm Hg (p less than 0.05) and the heart rate increased from 76 to 85 beats/min (p less than 0.05). None of the patients had significant hypotension, arrhythmias, or evidence of infarct extension. Perfusion abnormalities were present on the initial thallium images in 48 patients. Redistribution suggestive of ischemia was present in 36 patients (72%). Ischemia confined to the vascular distribution of the infarct vessel was evident in 22 patients. Seven patients had ischemia in the infarct zone as well as in a remote myocardial segment. Thus 29 patients (58%) had ischemia in the distribution of the infarct vessel. Ischemia in the infarct zone was evident in 19 of 36 patients with open infarct vessels and in 10 of 14 patients with occluded infarct vessels.
Li, Nan; Tian, Ying; Wang, Chunli; Zhang, Peng; You, Shengyi
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction on myocardial injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). In total, 30 rats were randomly divided into sham, SAP and decoction treatment groups. SAP was induced by a retrograde pancreatic duct injection of 5% sodium taurocholate in the SAP and decoction treatment groups. Rats in decoction treatment group also received intragastric administration of Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction. The serum levels of creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer. In addition, myocardial Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was analyzed using a spectrophotometric method and the mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by flow cytometry. Myocardial apoptosis was assessed using a TUNEL assay and pathological changes to the heart and pancreas were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Compared with the rats in the sham group, rats in the SAP and decoction treatment groups exhibited significantly higher levels of serum CK-MB and LDH, apoptosis index and pathological scores, and had significantly lower levels of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. However, when compared with the SAP group, the serum levels of CK-MB and LDH, the pathological scores of the pancreas and heart, and the myocardial cell apoptosis index in the decoction treatment group were significantly lower. Furthermore, the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly increased in the decoction treatment group when compared with the SAP group. Therefore, Lai Fu Cheng Qi decoction was shown to exert a protective effect on myocardial injury induced by SAP in rats.
Liu, Kuan-Liang; Lee, Hsin-Fu; Chou, Shing-Hsien; Lin, Yen-Chen; Lin, Chia-Pin; Wang, Chun-Li; Chang, Chi-Jen; Hsu, Lung-An
Large epidemiologic studies have associated gouty arthritis with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, there has been a lack of information regarding the outcomes for patients who have gout attacks during hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction. We reviewed the data of 444 consecutive patients who were admitted to our hospital between 2005 and 2008 due to acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The clinical outcomes were compared between patients with gout attack and those without. Of the 444, 48 patients with acute STEMI developed acute gouty arthritis during hospitalization. The multivariate analysis identified prior history of gout and estimated glomerular filtration rate as independent risk factors of gout attack for patients with acute STEMI (odds ratio (OR) 21.02, 95 % CI 2.96-149.26, p = 0.002; OR 0.92, 95 % CI 0.86-0.99, p = 0.035, respectively). The in-hospital mortality and duration of hospital stay did not differ significantly between the gouty group and the non-gouty group (controls). During a mean follow-up of 49 ± 28 months, all-cause mortality and stroke were similar for both groups. Multivariate Cox regression showed that gout attack was independently associated with short- and long-term adverse non-fatal cardiac events (hazard ratio (HR) 1.88, 95 % CI 1.09-3.24, p = 0.024; HR 1.82, 95 % CI 1.09-3.03, p = 0.022, respectively). Gout attack among patients hospitalized due to acute STEMI was independently associated with short-term and long-term rates of adverse non-fatal cardiac events.
Maggioni, Aldo Pietro
Objective This research sought to assess whether and to what extent the ongoing economic crisis in Italy impacted hospitalizations, in-hospital mortality and expenditures associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods The data were obtained from the hospital discharge database of the Italian Health Ministry and aggregated at the hospital level. Each hospital (n = 549) was observed for 4 years and was geographically located within a “Sistema Locale del Lavoro” (SLL, i.e., clusters of neighboring towns with a common economic structure). For each SLL, the intensity of the crisis was determined, defined as the 2012–2008 increase in the area-specific unemployment rate. A difference-in-differences (DiD) approach was employed to compare the increases in AMI-related outcomes across different quintiles of crisis intensity. Results Hospitals located in areas with the highest intensity of crisis (in the fifth quintile) had an increase of approximately 30 AMI cases annually (approximately 13%) compared with hospitals in area with lower crisis intensities (p<0.001). A significant increase in total hospital days was observed (13%, p<0.001) in addition to in-hospital mortality (17%, p<0.001). As a consequence, an increase of around €350.000 was incurred in annual hospital expenditures for AMI (approximately 36%, p<0.001). Conclusions More attention should be given to the increase in health needs associated with the financial crisis. Policies aimed to contrast unemployment in the community by keeping and reintegrating workers in jobs could also have positive impacts on adverse health outcomes, especially in areas of high crisis intensity. PMID:26574745
Zheng, Guian; Li, Yuxin; Takayama, Tadateru; Nishida, Toshihiko; Sudo, Mitsumasa; Haruta, Hironori; Fukamachi, Daisuke; Okubo, Kimie; Higuchi, Yoshiharu; Hiro, Takafumi; Saito, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi
Objective Although the plaque characteristics have been recognized in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the plaque spatial distribution is not well clarified. Using color-mapping intravascular ultrasound (iMAP-IVUS), we examined culprit lesions to clarify plaque morphology, composition and spatial distribution of the sites of potential vulnerability. Methods Sixty-eight culprit lesions in 64 consecutive AMI patients who underwent angiography and IVUS examinations before intervention were analyzed. Plaque morphology and composition were quantified with iMAP-IVUS. The spatial distribution of the sites of potential vulnerability was assessed with longitudinal reconstruction of the consecutive IVUS images. The plaque characteristics were also compared between ruptured and non-ruptured lesions, and between totally occlusive (TO) and non-TO lesions. Results The sites with maximum necrotic area (maxNA), maximum plaque burden (maxPB) and most severely narrowed (minimal luminal area, MLA) were recognized vulnerability. In the majority of cases, maxNA sites were proximal to the maxPB sites, and MLA sites were distal to the maxNA and maxPB sites. Ruptures usually occurred close to maxNA sites and proximal to maxPB and MLA sites. The average distance from the site of rupture to the maxNA site was 0.33 ± 4.04 mm. Ruptured lesions showed significant vessel remodeling, greater plaque volume, and greater lipidic volume compared to those of non-ruptured lesions. Both the length and plaque burden (PB) of TO lesions were greater than those of non-TO lesions. Conclusions Instead of overlapping on maxPB sites, most maxNA sites are proximal to the maxPB sites and are the sites most likely to rupture. Plaque morphology and composition play critical roles in plaque rupture and coronary occlusion. PMID:27031514
Cruz-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Pabón, Pedro; Rodríguez-Barbero, Alicia; Martín-Moreiras, Javier; Pericacho, Miguel; Sánchez, Pedro L; Ramirez, Victor; Sánchez-Ledesma, María; Martín-Herrero, Francisco; Jiménez-Candil, Javier; Maree, Andrew O; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Angel; Martín-Luengo, Cándido; López-Novoa, José M
Abstract Endoglin is a proliferation-associated and hypoxia-inducible protein expressed in endothelial cells. The levels of soluble circulating endoglin and their prognostic significance in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not known. In this observational prospective study serum endoglin levels were measured by ELISA in 183 AMI patients upon admission to hospital and 48 hrs later and in 72 healthy controls. Endoglin levels in AMI patients on admission were significantly lower than in healthy controls (4.25 ± 0.99 ng/ml versus 4.59 ± 0.87 ng/ml; P= 0.013), and decreased further in the first 48 hours (3.65 ± 0.76 ng/ml, P < 0.001). Upon follow-up (median 319 days), patients who died had a significantly greater decrease in serum endoglin level over the first 48 hrs than those who survived (1.03 ± 0.91 versus 0.54 ± 0.55 ng/ml; P= 0.025). Endoglin decrease was an independent predictor of short-term (30 days) (hazard ratio 2.33;95% CI = 1.27–4.23; P= 0.006) cardiovascular mortality, and also predicts overall cardiovascular mortality during the follow-up (median 319 days) in AMI patients (hazard ratio 2.13;95% CI = 1.20–3.78; P= 0.01). In conclusion, early changes in serum endoglin may predict mortality after AMI. PMID:18494936
Hilbert, John P; Zasadil, Scott; Keyser, Donna J; Peele, Pamela B
To improve healthcare quality and reduce costs, the Affordable Care Act places hospitals at financial risk for excessive readmissions associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), and pneumonia (PN). Although predictive analytics is increasingly looked to as a means for measuring, comparing, and managing this risk, many modeling tools require data inputs that are not readily available and/or additional resources to yield actionable information. This article demonstrates how hospitals and clinicians can use their own structured discharge data to create decision trees that produce highly transparent, clinically relevant decision rules for better managing readmission risk associated with AMI, HF, and PN. For illustrative purposes, basic decision trees are trained and tested using publically available data from the California State Inpatient Databases and an open-source statistical package. As expected, these simple models perform less well than other more sophisticated tools, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (or AUC) of 0.612, 0.583, and 0.650, respectively, but achieve a lift of at least 1.5 or greater for higher-risk patients with any of the three conditions. More importantly, they are shown to offer substantial advantages in terms of transparency and interpretability, comprehensiveness, and adaptability. By enabling hospitals and clinicians to identify important factors associated with readmissions, target subgroups of patients at both high and low risk, and design and implement interventions that are appropriate to the risk levels observed, decision trees serve as an ideal application for addressing the challenge of reducing hospital readmissions.
Radišauskas, Ričardas; Vaičiulis, Vidmantas; Ustinavičienė, Rūta; Bernotienė, Gailutė
OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of meteorological variables (atmospheric temperature and pressure) on the daily occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study used the daily values of atmospheric temperature and pressure in 2000-2007. The meteorological data were obtained from the Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service for Kaunas. The relative risks of event occurrence were computed for 5°C atmospheric temperature and for 10-hPa atmospheric pressure variations by means of the Poisson regression model. RESULTS. The occurrence of AMI and atmospheric temperature showed an inverse linear relationship, while the occurrence of AMI and atmospheric pressure, a positive linear relationship. Among the youngest subjects (25-44 years old), no relationships were detected. Contrary, among the subjects aged 45-64 years and those aged 65 years and older, the occurrence of AMI significantly decreased with higher temperature (P=0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). A decrease in atmospheric temperature by 10ºC reduced the risk of AMI by 8.7% in the age groups of 45-64 and 65 years and older and by 19% in the age group of 25 years and older. Among the first AMI cases, the risk increased by 7.5% in the age group of 45-64-year olds and by 6.4% in the age group of 25-64-year olds. The relationship between atmospheric temperature and pressure, and AMI occurrence was found to be linear but inverse. An increase in atmospheric pressure by 10 hPa resulted in an increase in risk by 4% among the subjects aged 65 years and more and by 3% among the subjects aged 25 years and more. CONCLUSIONS. Atmospheric temperature and pressure variations had the greatest effect on middle-aged and aging subjects (starting from 45 years). At younger age, the effect of such factors on the AMI risk was considerably lower.
Betancourt, Blas Y; Marrero-Miragaya, María A; Jiménez-López, Giset; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen; García-Iglesias, Elizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Debesa-García, Francisco; González-López, Tania; Alvarez-Falcón, Leovaldo; López-Saura, Pedro A
Background Streptokinase (SK) is an effective fibrinolytic agent for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of the present study was to assess the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with intravenous recombinant SK in patients with AMI in routine clinical practice. Methods A national, prospective and spontaneous reporting-based pharmacovigilance program was conducted in Cuba. Patient demographics, suspected ADR description, elements to define causality, and outcomes were documented and analyzed. Results A total of 1496 suspected ADRs identified in 792 patients out of the 1660 (47.7 %) prescriptions reported in the program, were received from July 1995 to July 2002. Most of the patients (71.3%) were male, 67.2% were white and mean age was 61.6 ± 13.0 years. The mean time interval between the onset of symptoms and the start of the SK infusion was 4.9 ± 3.7 h. The most frequently reported ADRs were hypotension, arrhythmias, chills, tremors, vomiting, nauseas, allergy, bleeding and fever. ADR severity was 38% mild, 38% moderate, 10% severe, and 4% very severe. Only 3 patients with hemorrhagic stroke were reported. Seventy-two patients died in-hospital mainly because of cardiac causes associated with the patient's underlying clinical condition. Mortality was 3 times more likely in patients suffering arrhythmias than in those without this event (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI: 1.8 to 5.1). Most of the reported ADRs were classified as possibly or probably associated with the study medication. Conclusion Recombinant SK was associated with a similar post-marketing safety profile to those suggested in previous clinical trials. PMID:16262910
de Mello, Bruno Henrique Gallindo; Oliveira, Gustavo Bernardes F.; Ramos, Rui Fernando; Lopes, Bernardo Baptista C.; Barros, Cecília Bitarães S.; Carvalho, Erick de Oliveira; Teixeira, Fabio Bellini P.; Arruda, Guilherme D'Andréa S.; Revelo, Maria Sol Calero; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares
Background The classification or index of heart failure severity in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was proposed by Killip and Kimball aiming at assessing the risk of in-hospital death and the potential benefit of specific management of care provided in Coronary Care Units (CCU) during the decade of 60. Objective To validate the risk stratification of Killip classification in the long-term mortality and compare the prognostic value in patients with non-ST-segment elevation MI (NSTEMI) relative to patients with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI), in the era of reperfusion and modern antithrombotic therapies. Methods We evaluated 1906 patients with documented AMI and admitted to the CCU, from 1995 to 2011, with a mean follow-up of 05 years to assess total mortality. Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves were developed for comparison between survival distributions according to Killip class and NSTEMI versus STEMI. Cox proportional regression models were developed to determine the independent association between Killip class and mortality, with sensitivity analyses based on type of AMI. Results: The proportions of deaths and the KM survival distributions were significantly different across Killip class >1 (p <0.001) and with a similar pattern between patients with NSTEMI and STEMI. Cox models identified the Killip classification as a significant, sustained, consistent predictor and independent of relevant covariables (Wald χ2 16.5 [p = 0.001], NSTEMI) and (Wald χ2 11.9 [p = 0.008], STEMI). Conclusion The Killip and Kimball classification performs relevant prognostic role in mortality at mean follow-up of 05 years post-AMI, with a similar pattern between NSTEMI and STEMI patients. PMID:25014060
Thomas, C N; Titus, G; Williams, D; Simeon, D; Pitt-Miller, P
The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of coronary artery disease risk factors in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to a tertiary care institution in Trinidad and to determine the factors associated with increased mortality following AMI. All patients admitted to the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex (EWMSC) between January 1 and December 31, 1996, with a diagnosis of AMI were identified using the hospital admissions and discharge diagnosis databases. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were extracted from the hospital case records of patients with confirmed AMI. Sixty-one AMI patients (38 men) were admitted during the study period. Mean age at admission was 60 +/- 11 years with an ethnic case mix of thirty-nine (62%) of East Indian descent, eight (13%) of African descent, twelve (20%) mixed ethnicity and three (5%) of Caucasian descent. Thirty patients (49%) were hypertensive. Thirty-two patients (53%) were diabetic and eighteen patients (30%) gave a history of cigarette smoking. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 53 +/- 14%. The mean serum cholesterol from 29 patients was 228.2 +/- 49.0 mg/dl. Increasing age, female gender, an ejection fraction less than 40%, non treatment with streptokinase and in-hospital ventricular fibrillation were associated with poor survival. Multiple regression analyses identified three independent predictors of mortality. These were gender (p = 0.04), in-hospital ventricular fibrillation (p = 0.001) and an ejection fraction less than 40% (p = 0.02). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and cigarette smoking were prevalent amongst patients presenting with AMI. Ventricular function was a major determinant of two-year mortality following AMI. Aggressive risk factor modification is recommended to prevent both first and recurrent coronary events.
Capriglione, Luiz Guilherme Achcar; Barchiki, Fabiane; Ottoboni, Gabriel Sales; Miyague, Nelson Itiro; Suss, Paula Hansen; Rebelatto, Carmen Lúcia Kuniyoshi; Pimpão, Cláudia Turra; Senegaglia, Alexandra Cristina; Brofman, Paulo Roberto
Objective To perform a comparative assessment of two surgical techniques that are used creating an acute myocardial infarc by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery in order to generate rats with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%. Methods The study was completely randomized and comprised 89 halothane-anaesthetised rats, which were divided into three groups. The control group (SHAM) comprised fourteen rats, whose left anterior descending coronary artery was not occluded. Group 1 (G1): comprised by 35 endotracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated rats, whose left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded. Group 2 (G2): comprised 40 rats being manually ventilated using a nasal respirator whose left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded. Other differences between the two techniques include the method of performing the thoracotomy and removing the pericardium in order to expose the heart, and the use of different methods and suture types for closing the thorax. Seven days after surgery, the cardiac function of all surviving rats was determined by echocardiography. Results No rats SHAM group had progressed to death or had left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%. Nine of the 16 surviving G1 rats (56.3%) and six of the 20 surviving G2 rats (30%) had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%. Conclusion The results indicate a tendency of the technique used in G1 to be better than in G2. This improvement is probably due to the greater duration of the open thorax, which reduces the pressure over time from the surgeon, allowing occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery with higher accuracy. PMID:25714202
Sacks, Naomi C.; Ash, Arlene S.; Ghosh, Kaushik; Rosen, Amy K.; Wong, John B.; Rosen, Allison B.
Background Payers and policy makers rely on studies of trends in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) hospitalizations and spending that count only hospitalizations where the AMI is the principal discharge diagnosis. Hospitalizations with AMI coded as a secondary diagnosis are ignored. The effects of excluding these hospitalizations on estimates of trends are unknown. Methods Observational study of all AMI hospitalizations in Fee-for-Service Medicare beneficiaries ages 65 and over, from 2002 through 2011. Results We studied 3,663,137 hospitalizations with any AMI discharge diagnosis over 288,873,509 beneficiary-years. Of these, 66% had AMI coded as principal (versus secondary). From 2002 to 2011, AMI hospitalization rates declined 24.5% (from 1,485 per 100,000 beneficiary-years in 2002 to 1,122 in 2011). Meanwhile, the proportion of these hospitalizations with a secondary AMI diagnosis increased from 28% to 40%; by 2011 these secondary AMI hospitalizations accounted for 43% of all expenditures for hospitalizations with AMI, or $2.8 billion. Major changes in comorbidities, principal diagnoses and mean costs for hospitalizations with a non-principal AMI diagnosis occurred in the 2006-2008 timeframe. Conclusions Current estimates of the burden of AMI ignore an increasingly large proportion of overall AMI hospitalizations and spending. Changes in the characteristics of hospitalizations that coincided with major payment and policy changes suggest that non-clinical factors affect AMI coding. Failing to consider all AMIs could inflate estimates of population health improvements, underestimate current and future AMI burden and expenditures, and overestimate the value of AMI prevention and treatment. PMID:26678643
Lee, Jang Hoon; Bae, Myung Hwan; Yang, Dong Heon; Park, Hun Sik; Cho, Yongkeun; Lee, Won Kee; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Jo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Chae, Shung Chull
Background/Aims: Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have not been adequately evaluated in patients without left ventricular (LV) dysfunction or heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: Between November 2005 and January 2008, 6,781 patients who were not receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or ARBs were selected from the Korean AMI Registry. The primary endpoints were 12-month major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) including death and recurrent AMI. Results: Seventy percent of the patients were Killip class 1 and had a LV ejection fraction ≥ 40%. The prescription rate of ARBs was 12.2%. For each patient, a propensity score, indicating the likelihood of using ARBs during hospitalization or at discharge, was calculated using a non-parsimonious multivariable logistic regression model, and was used to match the patients 1:4, yielding 715 ARB users versus 2,860 ACEI users. The effect of ARBs on in-hospital mortality and 12-month MACE occurrence was assessed using matched logistic and Cox regression models. Compared with ACEIs, ARBs significantly reduced in-hospital mortality(1.3% vs. 3.3%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.379; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.190 to0.756; p = 0.006) and 12-month MACE occurrence (4.6% vs. 6.9%; HR, 0.661; 95% CI, 0.457 to 0.956; p = 0.028). However, the benefit of ARBs on 12-month mortality compared with ACEIs was marginal (4.3% vs. 6.2%; HR, 0.684; 95% CI, 0.467 to 1.002; p = 0.051). Conclusions: Our results suggest that ARBs are not inferior to, and may actually be better than ACEIs in Korean patients with AMI. PMID:26701233
Lee, Min Goo; Jeong, Myung Ho; Lee, Ki Hong; Park, Keun Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Nam Sik; Kim, Kye Hun; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee
Chronic kidney disease increases the risk for developing ischemic heart disease, but it has not been well known whether it also affects the manifestation of painless acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which has important clinical implications. The aim of this study was to identify whether chronic kidney disease is associated with the presentation of painless AMI. A total of 2,656 consecutively hospitalized patients with AMI from January 2008 to February 2012 were enrolled. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using calibrated serum creatinine and the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. Patient clinical characteristics, angiographic findings, and the use of medications were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of reduced eGFR and presentation with painless AMI. A total of 2,176 adults with painful AMI and 480 adults with painless AMI were studied, and baseline eGFR was calculated. Mean eGFR was lower in subjects with painless AMI compared to those with painful AMI. Compared to an eGFR >90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), a strong, graded, independent association was observed between reduced eGFR and presentation with painless AMI, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.65 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 2.36) for an eGFR of 60 to 89 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 2.92 (95% confidence interval 1.89 to 4.52) for an eGFR of 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and 3.44 (95% confidence interval 2.20 to 5.38) for an eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). In conclusion, lower eGFR was a strong, independent predictor of presentation with painless AMI versus painful AMI.
Ding, Wenhui; Wang, Fang
Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been described as a metabolic hormone critical for glucose and lipid metabolism. Previously, high levels of FGF21 were observed in patients with coronary heart disease and non-acute myocardial infarction (non-AMI). In this study, we investigated the changes in FGF21 levels in Chinese patients with AMI. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ELISA to measure circulating FGF21 levels in 55 AMI patients and 45 non-AMI control patients on the 1st day after syndrome onset. All patients were followed-up within 30 days. FGF21 levels in AMI patients were significantly higher than those in non-AMI controls (0.25 (0.16–0.34) vs. 0.14 (0.11–0.20) ng/mL, P < 0.001). FGF21 levels reached the maximum within approximately 24 h after the onset of AMI and remained at high for 7 days, and the FGF21 level (OR: 16.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.65–108.05; P = 0.003) was identified as an independent factor associated with the presence of AMI. On the 7th day, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in the patients who subsequently developed re-infarction within 30 days than in the patients who did not develop re-infarction (with vs. without re-infarction: 0.45 (0.22–0.64) vs. 0.21 (0.15–0.29) ng/mL, P = 0.014). Conclusions/Significance The level of serum FGF21 is independently associated with the presence of AMI in Chinese patients. High FGF21 levels might be related to the incidence of re-infarction within 30 days after onset. PMID:26091256
Hayano, Junichiro; Carney, Robert M.; Watanabe, Eiichi; Kawai, Kiyohiro; Kodama, Itsuo; Stein, Phyllis K.; Watkins, Lana L.; Freedland, Kenneth E.; Blumenthal, James A.
Objective Depression and sleep apnea (SA) are common among patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and both are associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that there is an interaction between depression and SA in relation to prognosis in post-AMI patients. Methods Participants were 337 depressed and 379 nondepressed post-AMI patients who participated in a substudy of the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial. SA was identified from Holter ECG at the entry by an algorithm that detects cyclic variation of heart rate. Results During a median follow-up of 25 months, 43 (6.0%) of patients died and 83 (11.6%) either died or experienced a recurrent AMI. Among 94 patients with both depression and SA, these endpoints occurred in 20 (21.3%) and 25 (26.6%), the prevalence that was 6.9 and 3.9 times higher than predicted probabilities by ENRICHD clinical risk scores (P <.001 for both). In the patients with depression alone, SA alone, or neither, the frequencies did not differ significantly from the predicted probability. Although both depression and SA predicted death and the combined endpoint, we observed depression by SA interactions (P = .03 and .02). SA independently predicted these endpoints in depressed (P <.001 and P = .001), but not in nondepressed patients (P = .73 and .84). Similarly, depression independently predicted these endpoints in SA (P <.001 for both), but not in non-SA patients (P = .61 and .12). Conclusion The combination of depression and SA estimated by CVHR is associated with long-term adverse clinical outcomes after AMI. PMID:23023681
Lavin, F.; Kane, M.; Forde, A.; Gannon, F.; Daly, K.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate and compare the clinical usefulness of serial measurements of five cardiac marker proteins, namely creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB mass, myoglobin, troponin T, and myosin light chain 1, in the early detection of reperfusion after thrombolytic treatment. METHOD--Serial blood samples were taken from 26 patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Concentrations of the five markers were assayed in each sample. Thrombolytic treatment was given to the patients who were divided into those who reperfused (n = 17, group A) and those who failed to reperfuse (n = 9, group B) on the basis of clinical signs and angiography within 24 h. RESULTS--The release profiles of CK, CK-MB mass, myoglobin, and troponin T for patients in group A differed from those of patients in group B. No difference was observed in the release profile of myosin light chain 1 between the two groups. The time to peak concentration of CK, CK-MB mass, myoglobin, and troponin T occurred significantly earlier in patients of group A than in those of group B, with myoglobin peaking earlier than the other markers. An index, defined as the ratio of the concentration of each marker immediately before and 2 h after the start of thrombolytic treatment, was calculated for each marker in groups A and B. The 2 h myoglobin and troponin T indices were significantly different between groups A and B. The diagnostic efficiency of the myoglobin index, however, was best at 85%. CONCLUSIONS--These studies suggest that myoglobin has greater potential than the other markers examined in the detection of reperfusion after thrombolytic treatment. PMID:7786656
Silke, B; Frais, M A; Verma, S P; Reynolds, G W; Hafizullah, M; Kalra, P A; Jackson, N C; Taylor, S H
A prospective study evaluated the comparative haemodynamic effects of three Class I antiarrhythmics (lignocaine Class 1B, disopyramide Class 1A and flecainide Class 1C) in 30 patients with uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. Three groups, each of 10 patients, were allocated to lignocaine (Group I) 1.5 mg kg-1 i.v. loading dose over 10 min followed by infusion at 3 mg kg-1 h-1, disopyramide (Group II) or flecainide (Group III), both administered as a 1.0 mg kg-1 i.v. loading bolus over 10 min followed by a 1.6 mg kg-1 h-1 infusion for 120 min. The plasma levels of each drug were in the described therapeutic range. Lignocaine decreased cardiac index (-0.3 l min-1 m-2 (9%); P less than 0.05) and stroke volume index (-5 ml m-2 (11%); P less than 0.01). Systemic blood pressure, heart rate and systemic vascular resistance index were unchanged. There was a small increase (+3 mm Hg (30%); P less than 0.01) in pulmonary artery occluded pressure (PAOP). Both disopyramide and flecainide increased systemic blood pressure; the maximum increases for mean blood pressure were +10 mm Hg (11%) and +4 mm Hg (4%) respectively. Both drugs reduced cardiac index (-0.5 l min-1 m-2 (16%): -0.4 l min-1 m-2 (11%)) and stroke volume index (-11 ml m-2 (25%): -5 ml m-2 (11%)). There were increases in heart rate (+13: +5 beats min-1) pulmonary artery occluded pressure (+2: +3 mm Hg) and systemic vascular resistance index (+696: +275 dyn s cm-5 m2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3105568
Wang, Yong; Lin, Weili; Li, Chun; Singhal, Sarita; Jain, Gaurav; Zhu, Lixin; Lu, Linghui; Zhu, Ruixin; Wang, Wei
Background: Based on global gene expression profile, therapeutic effects of Qishenyiqi (QSYQ) on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were investigated by integrated analysis at multiple levels including gene expression, pathways involved and functional group. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham-operated, AMI model (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation) and QSYQ-treated group. Cardiac tissues were obtained for analysing digital gene expression. Sequencing and transcriptome analyses were performed collaboratively, including analyses of differential gene expression, gene co-expression network, targeted attack on network and functional grouping. In this study, a new strategy known as keystone gene-based group significance analysis was also developed. Results: Analysis of top keystone QSYQ-regulated genes indicated that QSYQ ameliorated ventricular remodeling (VR), which is an irreversible process in the pathophysiology of AMI. At pathway level, both well-known cardiovascular diseases and cardiac signaling pathways were enriched. The most remarkable finding was the novel therapeutic effects identified from functional group analysis. This included anti-inflammatory effects mediated via suppression of arachidonic acid lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway and elevation of nitric oxide (NO); and amelioration of dyslipidaemia mediated via fatty acid oxidation. The regulatory patterns of QSYQ on key genes were confirmed by western blot, immunohistochemistry analysis and measurement of plasma lipids, which further validated the therapeutic effects of QSYQ proposed in this study. Conclusions: QSYQ exerts multipronged therapeutic effects on AMI, by concurrently alleviating VR progression, attenuating inflammation induced by arachidonic acid LOX pathway and NO production; and ameliorating dyslipidaemia. PMID:28303103
Babińska, Magdalena; Holecki, Michał; Prochaczek, Fryderyk; Owczarek, Aleksander; Kokocińska, Danuta; Więcek, Andrzej
Introduction Urotensin II (UII) is a vasoactive peptide secreted by endothelial cells. Increased plasma UII concentration was observed in patients with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, diabetic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. In patients with myocardial infarction both increased and decreased plasma UII concentrations were demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze whether plasma UII concentration reflects the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Material and methods One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients with ACS, without age limit, were enrolled in the study. In all patients plasma concentration of creatinine, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), troponin C, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), and UII were assessed, and echocardiography was performed in order to assess the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy, ejection fraction (EF) and mass (LVM). Results In patients with the highest risk (TIMI 5-7) plasma UII concentration was significantly lower than in those with low risk (TIMI 1-2): 2.61±1.47 ng/ml vs. 3.60±2.20 ng/ml. Significantly lower plasma UII concentration was found in patients with increased concentration of troponin C (2.60±1.52 ng/ml vs. 3.41±2.09 ng/ml). There was a significant negative correlation between plasma UII concentration and TIMI score or concentration of troponin C, but not CK-MB. Borderline correlation between plasma UII and ejection fraction (R = 0.157; p=0.063) or NT-proBNP (R = − 0.156; p=0.058) was found. Conclusions Decreased plasma urotensin II concentration in patients with ACS could be associated with more severe injury of myocardium. PMID:22851999
Han, Qiu-Yue; Wang, Hong-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Guo, Cai-Xia; Hua, Qi; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Li, Nan; Yang, Yan-Zong; Du, Jie; Xia, Yun-Long; Li, Hui-Hua
Ubiquitin ligase (E3) is a decisive element of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), which is the main pathway for intracellular protein turnover. Recently, circulating E3 ligases have been increasingly considered as cancer biomarkers. In the present study, we aimed to determine if cardiac-specific E3 ligases in circulation can serve as novel predictors for early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). By screening and verifying their tissue expression patterns with microarray and real-time PCR analysis, six of 261 E3 ligases, including cardiac-specific Rnf207 and cardiac- and muscle-enriched Fbxo32/atrogin-1, Trim54/MuRF3, Trim63/MuRF1, Kbtbd10/KLHL41, Asb11 and Asb2 in mouse heart, were selected for the present study. In the AMI rats, the levels of five E3 ligases including Rnf207, Fbxo32, Trim54, Trim63 and Kbtbd10 in the plasma were significantly increased compared with control animals. Especially, the plasma levels of Rnf207 was markedly increased at 1 h, peaked at 3 h and decreased at 6-24 h after ligation. Further evaluation of E3 ligases in AMI patients confirmed that plasma Rnf207 level increased significantly compared with that in healthy people and patients without AMI, and showed a similar time course to that in AMI rats. Simultaneously, plasma level of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was measured by ELISA assays. Finally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that Rnf207 showed a similar sensitivity and specificity to the classic biomarker troponin I for diagnosis of AMI. Increased cardiac-specific E3 ligase Rnf207 in plasma may be a novel and sensitive biomarkers for AMI in humans.
Ojeda, Francisco; Renné, Thomas; Schnabel, Renate B.; Zeller, Tanja; Karakas, Mahir; Blankenberg, Stefan; Westermann, Dirk
Objective There is a clinical need for early and accurate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend diagnosis of non-ST-elevation AMI based on serial troponin measurements. We aimed to challenge the ESC guidelines using 1) a high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) baseline cutoff, 2) an absolute hs-TnI change after 1 hour and 3) additional application of an ischemic ECG. Methods 1,516 patients with suspected AMI presenting to the emergency department were included. Hs-TnI was measured directly at admission, after 1 and 3 hours. We investigated baseline concentrations, absolute changes of hs-TnI and additional application of an ischemic ECG to diagnose AMI. A positive predictive value (PPV) of more than 85% was targeted. Results The median age of the study population was 65 years; 291 patients were diagnosed with AMI. The PPV of the 3-hours ESC algorithm was 85.5% (CI 79.7, 90.1) and 65.8% (CI 60.5,70.8) for the 1-hour algorithm. Using a high baseline hs-TnI concentration of 150 ng/L resulted in a PPV of 87.8% (CI 80.9,92.9). Alternatively, a hs-TnI change of 20 ng/L after 1 hour, resulted in a PPV of 86.5% (80.9,91.0), respectively for the diagnosis of AMI. Additional use of an ischemic ECG increased the PPV to 90.5% (CI 83.2,95.3), while reducing the efficacy. Conclusion The diagnosis of AMI based on hs-TnI is challenging. The application of absolute hs-TnI changes after 1 hour may facilitate rapid rule-in of patients. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457). PMID:28333976
Bullón, Pedro; Cano-García, Francisco J; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roman-Malo, Lourdes; Ruiz-Salmerón, Rafael J; Quiles, José L; Navarro-Pando, José M; Battino, Maurizio; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis J; Cordero, Mario D
Conventional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) are accepted to identify asymptomatic individuals with high risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, AMI affects many patients previously classified at low risk. New biomarkers are needed to improve risk prediction. We propose to evaluate the NLRP3-inflammasome complex as a potential conventional cardiovascular risk (CVR) indicator in healthy males and post-AMI patients and compare both groups by known CVRFs. We included 109 men with no history of cardiovascular disease (controls) and 150 AMI patients attending a cardiac rehabilitation program. AMI patients had higher mean of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference than the controls. However, high percentages of the controls had a high BMI and a waist circumference >95 cm. The controls also had higher systolic blood pressure (p > 0.001), total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, dietary nutrient, and calorific intake. Fuster BEWAT score (FBS) correlated more closely than Framingham risk score (FRS) with most CVRF, groups. However, only the FBS showed a correlation with inflammasome cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β). Several CVRFs were significantly better in AMI patients; however, this group also had higher mRNA expression of the inflammasome gene NLRP3 and lower expression of the autophagy gene MAP-LC3. The controls had high levels of CVRF, probably reflecting unhealthy lifestyle. FBS reflects the efficiency of strategies to induce lifestyle changes such as cardiac rehabilitation programs, and could provide a sensitive evaluation CVR. These results lead to the hypothesis that NLRP3-inflammasome and associated IL-1β release have potential as CVR biomarkers, particularly in post-AMI patients with otherwise low risk scores. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
Croft, C.H.; Woodward, W.; Nicod, P.; Corbett, J.R.; Lewis, S.E.; Willerson, J.T.; Rude, R.E.
To assess various factors associated with anterior S-T segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction, 47 consecutive patients with electrocardiographic evidence of a first transmural inferior infarction were studied prospectively with radionuclide ventriculography an average of 7.3 hours (range 2.9 to 15.3) after the onset of symptoms. Thirty-nine patients (Group I) had anterior S-T depression in the initial electrocardiogram and 8 (Group II) did not have such reciprocal changes. There was no difference between the two groups in left ventricular end-diastolic or end-diastolic volume index or left ventricular ejection fraction. Stroke volume index was greater in Group I than in Group II. There were no group differences in left ventricular total or regional wall motion scores. A weak correlation existed between the quantities (mV) or inferior S-T segment elevation and reciprocal S-T depression. No relation between anterior S-T segment depression and the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index could be demonstrated; the extent of left ventricular apical and right ventricular wall motion abnormalities, both frequently associated with inferior infarction, did not correlate with the quantity of anterior S-T depression. These data show that anterior S-T segment depression occurs commonly during the early evolution of transmural inferior infarction, is not generally a marker of functionally significant anterior ischemia and cannot be used to predict left ventricular function in individual patients. Anterior S-T segment depression may be determined by reciprocal mechanisms.
Burek, K.A.; Kirscht, J.; Topol, E.J. )
In a randomized, controlled trial of early hospital discharge after acute myocardial infarction (MI), a heart rate, symptom-limited exercise thallium test was performed after the onset of MI. Patients' exercise capacity was evaluated by the exercise treadmill with accompanying thallium scintigraphy. Of 507 consecutive patients screened, the condition of 179 was classified as uncomplicated, which is defined as the absence of angina, heart failure, or serious arrhythmias at 72 hours from admission. Of the patients with uncomplicated conditions, 126 had an exercise test on day 3 and 53 did not exercise on day 3. Of the 126 patients who exercised on day 3, 36 had a positive test and 90 had a negative test for ischemia. The 36 patients with a positive test result exercised a mean time of 6.71 +/- 2.8 minutes, achieved a mean peak heart rate of 120.9 +/- 21.4 beats/min, reached a peak systolic blood pressure of 144.7 +/- 33.3 mm Hg, and achieved a double product (rate-pressure product) of 183.4 +/- 67.6. The 90 patients with a negative test result for ischemia exercised 9.45 +/- 12.7 minutes, achieved a peak heart rate of 130.2 +/- 14.4 beats/min, reached a mean systolic blood pressure of 155.5 +/- 29.4 mm Hg, and achieved a rate-pressure product of 210.5 +/- 44.0. Of the 90 patients with uncomplicated conditions who had a negative exercise test for ischemia, 85 patients received reperfusion therapy, which included thrombolysis or coronary angioplasty or both.
Yan, Wenwen; Song, Yanli; Zhou, Lin; Jiang, Jinfa; Yang, Fang; Duan, Qianglin; Che, Lin; Shen, Yuqin; Song, Haoming; Wang, Lemin
Background: To evaluate the natural innate and adaptive immunity through gene expression and cytology levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stable angina pectoris (SAP) and controls. Methods: 210 patients with AMI, 210 with SAP, and 250 clinical controls were recruited. Whole human genome microarray analysis was performed in 20 randomly chosen subjects per group were examined to detect the expressions of complement markers, natural killer cells, T cells and B cells. The quantity of these cells and related cytokines as well as immunoglobulin levels were measured in all subjects. Results: In AMI group, the mRNA expressions of late complement component, markers of natural killer cells, CD3+, CD8+ T cells and B cells were down-regulated, while those of early complement component and CD4+T cells were up-regulated (p<0.05). In both AMI and SAP patients, the quantity of natural killer cells, CD3+, CD8+ T cells, B cells, IgM and IgG were significantly lower than those of the controls. CD4+ T cells, CH50, C3, C4, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-γ were significantly higher (p<0.05). Conclusions: In AMI patients, both of gene expressions related to complement, natural killer cells, CD3+, CD8+ T cells, B cells and the quantity of these immune cells decreased while cell number reduced in SAP patients. Immune function in both AMI and SAP patients decreased especially in AMI patients with declined gene and protein levels. To improve the immune system is a potential target for medical interventions and prevention in AMI. PMID:28260995
Sánchez, Emília; Benet, Josep; Cabezas, Carmen; Castillo, Antonia; Guarga, Alex; Saltó, Esteve; Tresserras, Ricard
Objectives Recent studies suggest that comprehensive smoking regulations to decrease exposure to second-hand smoke reduce the rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of this paper is to analyse if deaths due to AMI in Spain declined after smoking prevention legislation came into force in January 2006. Design Information was collected on deaths registered by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística for 2004–2007. Age- and sex-specific annual AMI mortality rates with 95% CIs were estimated, as well as age-adjusted annual AMI mortality rates by sex. Annual relative risks of death from AMI were estimated with an age-standardised Poisson regression model. Results Adjusted AMI mortality rates in 2004 and 2005 are similar, but in 2006 they show a 9% decline for men and a 8.7% decline for women, especially among those over 64 years of age. In 2007 there is a slower rate of decline, which reaches statistical significance for men (−4.8%) but not for women (−4%). The annual relative risk of AMI death decreased in both sexes (p<0.001) from 1 to 0.90 in 2006, and to 0.86 in 2007. Conclusion The extension of smoke-free regulations in Spain was associated with a reduction in AMI mortality, especially among the elderly. Although other factors may have played a role, this pattern suggests a likely influence of the reduction in population exposure to second-hand smoke on AMI deaths. PMID:22021746
Merlini, Piera Angelica; Cugno, Massimo; Rossi, Marco L; Agricola, Pietro; Repetto, Alessandra; Fetiveau, Raffaella; Diotallevi, Paolo; Canosi, Umberto; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Ardissino, Diego
Thrombolytic therapy activates the contact system, and factor XII activation may activate the coagulation cascade and inflammation. It is not known whether an early inflammatory response is induced by thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We prospectively measured the plasma levels of activated factor XII, cleaved kininogen, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (as indexes of the contact phase and coagulation activation), and interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) (as indexes of inflammation) in 39 patients hospitalized for AMI within 12 hours of symptom onset: 26 receiving thrombolytic therapy and 13 heparin alone. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 90 minutes and 24 hours. Patients undergoing thrombolysis had a significant early increase in activated factor XII (from 2.2 ng/ml at baseline to 4.7 ng/ml after 90 minutes; p = 0.0001), cleaved kininogen (from 26% to 37%; p = 0.001), and fragment 1 + 2 (from 1.4 to 2.1 nmol/L; p = 0.0001), whereas the 24-hour levels were similar to baseline levels. The levels of interleukin-6 significantly increased during the first 90 minutes (from 3.9 to 6.3 microg/ml; p = 0.001), and were even higher after 24 hours (11.9 ng/ml, p = 0.0001). CRP levels increased only after 24 hours (p = 0.0001). There were no changes in these parameters in patients receiving heparin alone, except for a 24-hour increase in interleukin-6 and CRP levels. Thus, in patients with AMI receiving thrombolytic therapy, early activation of inflammation parallels the activation of the contact system and the coagulation cascade, which might contribute to microvascular obstruction and reperfusion injury.
Manolis, Antonis S
Unfortunately, of all patients experiencing acute myocardial infarction (MI), usually in the form of ST-elevation MI, 25-35% will die of sudden cardiac death (SCD) before receiving medical attention, most often from ventricular fibrillation. For patients who reach the hospital, prognosis is considerably better and has improved over the years. Reperfusion therapy, best attained with primary percutaneous coronary intervention compared to thrombolysis, has made a big difference in reducing the risk of SCD early and late after ST-elevation MI. In-hospital SCD due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias is manageable, with either preventive measures or drugs or electrical cardioversion. There is general agreement for secondary prevention of SCD post-MI with implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) when malignant ventricular arrhythmias occur late (>48 h) after an MI, and are not due to reversible or correctable causes. The major challenge remains that of primary prevention, that is, how to prevent SCD during the first 1-3 months after ST-elevation MI for patients who have low left ventricular ejection fraction and are not candidates for an ICD according to current guidelines, due to the results of two studies, which did not show any benefits of early (<40 days after an MI) ICD implantation. Two recent documents may provide direction as to how to bridge the gap for this early post-MI period. Both recommend an electrophysiology study to guide implantation of an ICD, at least for those developing syncope or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, who have an inducible sustained ventricular tachycardia at the electrophysiology study. An ICD is also recommended for patients with indication for a permanent pacemaker due to bradyarrhythmias, who also meet primary prevention criteria for SCD.
Executive Summary One of the longest running debates in cardiology is about the best reperfusion therapy for patients with evolving acute myocardial infarction (MI). Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY) is a surgical treatment to reopen a blocked coronary artery to restore blood flow. It is a type of percutaneous (through-the-skin) coronary intervention (PCI) also known as balloon angioplasty. When performed on patients with acute myocardial infarction, it is called primary angioplasty. Primary angioplasty is an alternative to thrombolysis, clot-dissolving drug therapy, for patients with acute MI associated with ST-segment elevation (STEMI), a change recorded with an electrocardiogram (ECG) during chest pain. This review of the clinical benefits and policy implications of primary angioplasty was requested by the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee and prompted by the recent publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in the New England Journal of Medicine (1) that compared referred primary angioplasty with on-site thrombolysis. The Medical Advisory Secretariat reviewed the literature comparing primary angioplasty with thrombolysis and other therapies (pre-hospital thrombolysis and facilitated angioplasty, the latter approach consisting of thrombolysis followed by primary angioplasty irrespective of response to thrombolysis) for acute STEMI. There have been many RCTs and meta-analyses of these RCTs comparing primary angioplasty with thrombolysis and these were the subject of this analysis. Results showed a statistically significant reduction in mortality, reinfarction, and stroke for patients receiving primary angioplasty. Although the individual trials did not show significant improvements in mortality alone, they did show it for the outcomes of nonfatal reinfarction and stroke, and for an end point combining mortality, reinfarction, and stroke. However, researchers have raised concerns about these studies. A main concern
Cyr, Derek D.; Lucas, Joseph E.; Zaas, Aimee K.; Woods, Christopher W.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kraus, William E.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.
Background Influenza infection is associated with myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that respiratory viral infection may induce biologic pathways that contribute to MI. We tested the hypotheses that 1) a validated blood gene expression signature of respiratory viral infection (viral GES) was associated with MI and 2) respiratory viral exposure changes levels of a validated platelet gene expression signature (platelet GES) of platelet function in response to aspirin that is associated with MI. Methods A previously defined viral GES was projected into blood RNA data from 594 patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization and used to classify patients as having evidence of viral infection or not and tested for association with acute MI using logistic regression. A previously defined platelet GES was projected into blood RNA data from 81 healthy subjects before and after exposure to four respiratory viruses: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) (n=20), Human Rhinovirus (HRV) (n=20), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (H1N1) (n=24), Influenza A Virus subtype H3N2 (H3N2) (n=17). We tested for the change in platelet GES with viral exposure using linear mixed-effects regression and by symptom status. Results In the catheterization cohort, 32 patients had evidence of viral infection based upon the viral GES, of which 25% (8/32) had MI versus 12.2% (69/567) among those without evidence of viral infection (OR 2.3; CI [1.03-5.5], p=0.04). In the infection cohorts, only H1N1 exposure increased platelet GES over time (time course p-value = 1e-04). Conclusions A viral GES of non-specific, respiratory viral infection was associated with acute MI; 18% of the top 49 genes in the viral GES are involved with hemostasis and/or platelet aggregation. Separately, H1N1 exposure, but not exposure to other respiratory viruses, increased a platelet GES previously shown to be associated with MI. Together, these results highlight specific genes and pathways that link viral infection
Schneider, Henrik; Ince, Hüseyin; Rehders, Tim; Körber, Thomas; Weber, Frank; Kische, Stephan; Chatterjee, Tuchaar; Nienaber, Christoph A
Management of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) demands rapid and complete reperfusion of the infarct-related artery (IRA). With postinfarction prognosis depending on time delay from onset of symptoms to complete reperfusion (TIMI 3 flow) of the IRA, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) performed by an experienced team has been shown to be superior to thrombolytic therapy with lower mortality, less frequent occurrence of nonfatal reinfarction and stroke, and thus represents the preferred treatment strategy according to the national and international guidelines. For regional implementation of PPCI, particularly in rural areas, information and transfer logistics within networks of care and direct transport of an infarction patient to a PCI hospital rather than to the closest hospital are a challenge. With successful implementation of network logistics and standardized therapeutic pathways, current guidelines and requested timelines versus thrombolysis could be met. The implemented logistics comprised 24 h/7 days stand-by services of an experienced PCI team, direct telephone hotline contact between rescue service/emergency physician and interventional cardiologist on call, and direct open access to a catheterization laboratory at any time. Within the Drip&Ship network Rostock, to date (July 2007) 1,022 consecutive patients with PCI for STEMI were documented and analyzed over 5 years; of these, 490 patients were transferred from a community hospital to the PCI center and 532 patients were admitted directly to the interventional center. In 95.1% of all transferred and in 94.8% of all directly admitted patients, PCI was successfully accomplished upon arrival. A normalized flow to the IRA after PCI was documented in 96% of both groups, no patient was subjected to thrombolytic therapy. At 12-month follow-up, there were no differences between both groups with respect to infarct size and mortality. Moreover, there was no evidence of differences in
Dharma, Surya; Hapsari, Rosmarini; Siswanto, Bambang B; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Jukema, J Wouter
We aim to test the hypothesis that blood leukocyte count adds prognostic information in patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI). A total of 585 patients with acute non-STEMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score ≥ 3) were enrolled in this cohort retrospective study. Blood leukocyte count was measured immediately after admission in the emergency department. The composite of death, reinfarction, urgent revascularization, and stroke during hospitalization were defined as the primary end point of the study. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 9.6 years and most of them were male (79%). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis involving seven variables (history of smoking, hypertension, heart rate > 100 beats/minute, serum creatinine level > 1.5 mg/dL, blood leukocyte count > 11,000/µL, use of β-blocker, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), leukocyte count > 11,000/µL demonstrated to be a strong predictor of the primary end point (hazard ratio = 3.028; 95% confidence interval = 1.69-5.40, p < 0.001). The high blood leukocyte count on admission is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute non-STEMI.
Taheri, Leila; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar; Charkhandaz, Maryam; Hojat, Mohsen
Introduction: Emergency treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction is very important. Streptokinase in Iran is often as the only clot-busting medication is used. The purpose of using streptokinase medication is to revive the ischemic heart tissue, although has dangerous complications too. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of streptokinase on reperfusion after acute myocardial infarction and its complications, has been designed and conducted. Materials and Methods: This is an Ex-post facto study. The study population included patients who suffer from acute myocardial infarction. The sample size was 300 patients, and 2 groups were matched, in variables of age, sex, underlying disease, frequencies and area of MI. Data collection did by researcher making questionnaire, that accept face and content validity by 10 expert researcher, the reliability was conducted with Spearman’s test (r=0.85) by Test-retest method. Data analysis did by SPSS software: V 12. Findings: Mean of EF in SK group was (46.15±8.11) and in control group was (43.11±12.57). Significant relationship was seen between SK, arrhythmia occurring and improve EF reperfusion by chi-square test (p=0.028), (p=0.020). The most arrhythmia in SK group was Ventricular Tachycardia (20.7%). Significant statistical relation between SK and mortality were found by Chi-square test (p=0.001). But a meaningful statistical relation was not found between SK and pulmonary edema incidence (p=0.071). Conclusions: Nurses of CCU should be aware about SK complications such as hypotension, bleeding and arrhythmias. Proposed compare SK and tissue plasminogen drug in reperfusion and complications effect. PMID:25946921
Lee, Hye Won; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Bo Won; Ahn, Jinhee; Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Jin Sup; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Sang-Pil; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Ji Yeon; Park, Mi Hwa; Jung, Jin Sup
Purpose Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are known to be potentially effective in regeneration of damaged tissue. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of intracoronary administration of ADSCs in reducing the infarction area and improving function after acute transmural myocardial infarction (MI) in a porcine model. Materials and Methods ADSCs were obtained from each pig's abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue by simple liposuction. After 3 passages of 14-days culture, 2 million ADSCs were injected into the coronary artery 30 min after acute transmural MI. At baseline and 4 weeks after the ADSC injection, 99mTc methoxyisobutylisonitrile-single photon emission computed tomography (MIBI-SPECT) was performed to evaluate the left ventricular volume, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; %), and perfusion defects as well as the myocardial salvage (%) and salvage index. At 4 weeks, each pig was sacrificed, and the heart was extracted and dissected. Gross and microscopic analyses with specific immunohistochemistry staining were then performed. Results Analysis showed improvement in the perfusion defect, but not in the LVEF in the ADSC group (n=14), compared with the control group (n=14) (perfusion defect, -13.0±10.0 vs. -2.6±12.0, p=0.019; LVEF, -8.0±15.4 vs. -15.9±14.8, p=0.181). There was a tendency of reducing left ventricular volume in ADSC group. The ADSCs identified by stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) staining were well co-localized by von Willebrand factor and Troponin T staining. Conclusion Intracoronary injection of cultured ADSCs improved myocardial perfusion in this porcine acute transmural MI model. PMID:26446632
Tanveer, Syed; Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen Rehumathbeevi; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Manjunath, Nanjappa Cholenahally; Tabrez, Shams
Vascular inflammation and associated ongoing inflammatory responses are considered as the critical culprits in the pathogenesis of acute atherothrombotic events such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and myocardial infarction (MI). ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is considered as one of the prominent clinical forms of ACS. Moreover, C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important acute phase prsotein, which may be estimated using high-sensitivity methods (hs-CRP), and its elevated level in body fluids reflects chronic inflammatory status. The circulating hs-CRP level has been proposed as a promising inflammatory marker of coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study investigated the correlation of hs-CRP level with clinical and angiographic features of STEMI, various other traditional risk factors, complications of myocardial infarction and angiographically significant CAD. Out of 190 patients with STEMI that were analyzed, the interval between symptom onset and reperfusion therapy (window period) varied from 0.5 to 24 h. The hs-CRP value was found to be higher in non-diabetic patients (0.61 mg/dl) compared with diabetic patients (0.87 mg/dl). Moreover, a significant correlation between hs-CRP and hs-troponin T was also recorded (P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the mean hs-CRP values in patients with or without mortality. It is considered that the present study will increase the understanding of atherosclerosis in general and may also have clinical applications in the targeting of therapy for this harmful disease. PMID:28105138
Unai, Shinya; Tanaka, Daizo; Ruggiero, Nicholas; Hirose, Hitoshi; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in our institution resulted in near total mortality prior to the establishment of an algorithm-based program in July 2010. We hypothesized that an algorithm-based ECMO program improves the outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated with cardiogenic shock. Between March 2003 and July 2013, 29 patients underwent emergent catheterization for acute myocardial infarction due to left main or proximal left anterior descending artery occlusion complicated with cardiogenic shock (defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg despite multiple inotropes, with or without intra-aortic balloon pump, lactic acidosis). Of 29 patients, 15 patients were treated before July 2010 (Group 1, old program), and 14 patients were treated after July 2010 (Group 2, new program). There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics, including age, sex, coronary risk factors, and left ventricular ejection fraction between the two groups. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation prior to ECMO was performed in two cases (13%) in Group 1 and four cases (29%) in Group 2. ECMO support was performed in one case (6.7%) in Group 1 and six cases (43%) in Group 2. The 30-day survival of Group 1 versus Group 2 was 40 versus 79% (P = 0.03), and 1-year survival rate was 20 versus 56% (P = 0.01). The survival rate for patients who underwent ECMO was 0% in Group 1 versus 83% in Group 2 (P = 0.09). In Group 2, the mean duration on ECMO was 9.8 ± 5.9 days. Of the six patients who required ECMO in Group 2, 100% were successfully weaned off ECMO or were bridged to ventricular assist device implantation. Initiation of an algorithm-based ECMO program improved the outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.
Lugrin, Jérôme; Parapanov, Roumen; Rosenblatt-Velin, Nathalie; Rignault-Clerc, Stéphanie; Feihl, François; Waeber, Bernard; Müller, Olivier; Vergely, Catherine; Zeller, Marianne; Tardivel, Aubry; Schneider, Pascal; Pacher, Pal; Liaudet, Lucas
Myocardial infarction (MI) induces a sterile inflammatory response that contributes to adverse cardiac remodeling. The initiating mechanisms of this response remain incompletely defined. We found that necrotic cardiomyocytes released a heat-labile proinflammatory signal activating MAPKs and NF-κB in cardiac fibroblasts, with secondary production of cytokines. This response was abolished in Myd88(-/-) fibroblasts but was unaffected in nlrp3-deficient fibroblasts. Despite MyD88 dependency, the response was TLR independent, as explored in TLR reporter cells, pointing to a contribution of the IL-1 pathway. Indeed, necrotic cardiomyocytes released IL-1α, but not IL-1β, and the immune activation of cardiac fibroblasts was abrogated by an IL-1R antagonist and an IL-1α-blocking Ab. Moreover, immune responses triggered by necrotic Il1a(-/-) cardiomyocytes were markedly reduced. In vivo, mice exposed to MI released IL-1α in the plasma, and postischemic inflammation was attenuated in Il1a(-/-) mice. Thus, our findings identify IL-1α as a crucial early danger signal triggering post-MI inflammation.
Rohe, G; Feyerherd, F; Möx, B; Hachenberg, T
A 41-year-old man suffered severe polytrauma and developed a traumatic myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. Thrombolysis as well as coronary bypass grafting was contraindicated due to accompanying injuries. An attempted early coronary revascularization by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) failed due to dissection of the left interventricular coronary artery. Treatment of cardiac insufficiency was complicated by intraabdominal haemorrhage enforcing emergency laparotomy. Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation proved to be efficient in supporting circulation in these circumstances. The case report documents the practicability and importance of treating both myocardial ischaemia and attending injuries in an equivalent and coordinated manner in traumatic myocardial infarction.
Boeckel, Jes-Niels; Oppermann, Jana; Anadol, Remzi; Fichtlscherer, Stephan; Zeiher, Andreas M.; Keller, Till
Copeptin is the C-terminal end of pre-provasopressin released equimolar to vasopressin into circulation and recently discussed as promising cardiovascular biomarker amendatory to established markers such as troponins. Vasopressin is a cytokine synthesized in the hypothalamus. A direct release of copeptin from the heart into the circulation is implied by data from a rat model showing a cardiac origin in hearts put under cardiovascular wall stress. Therefore, evaluation of a potential release of copeptin from the human heart in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been done. PMID:26864512
Boeckel, Jes-Niels; Oppermann, Jana; Anadol, Remzi; Fichtlscherer, Stephan; Zeiher, Andreas M; Keller, Till
Copeptin is the C-terminal end of pre-provasopressin released equimolar to vasopressin into circulation and recently discussed as promising cardiovascular biomarker amendatory to established markers such as troponins. Vasopressin is a cytokine synthesized in the hypothalamus. A direct release of copeptin from the heart into the circulation is implied by data from a rat model showing a cardiac origin in hearts put under cardiovascular wall stress. Therefore, evaluation of a potential release of copeptin from the human heart in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been done.
Edelev, N S; Obuhova, L M; Edelev, I S; Katirkina, A A
The objective of the present study was to analyze the possibilities for the use of the low and medium molecular weight substances for differential diagnostics of deaths from acute small-focal myocardial infarction and other forms of cardiac pathology. We determined the amount of the low and medium molecular weight substances in the urine obtained from the subjects who had died as a result of chronic coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and alcoholic cardiomyopathy. The levels of the low and medium molecular weight substances in the urine were measured by the method of N.Ya. Malakhov in the modification of T.V. Kopytova . The study has demonstrated the appearance of the products of cardiomyocyte degradation (giving rise to a peak at a wavelength of 278 nm) in the fraction of the low and medium molecular weight substances of the urine from the patients suffering from acute small-focal myocardial infarction and some other forms of cardiac pathology.
Naydenov, S.; Donova, T.; Matveev, M.; Gegova, A.; Popdimitrova, N.; Zlateva, G.; Vladimirova, D.
The analysis of the received digital signal by computer microprocessor in high-frequency electrocardiography, used in our research, makes possible synthesis of vectorcardiographic images and loops, allowing improved qualitative and quantitative diagnosing of the myocardial injury.
ten Kate, C.I.; van Kroonenburgh, M.J.; Schipperheyn, J.J.; Doornbos, J.; Hoedemaeker, P.J.; Maes, A.; v.d. Nat, K.H.; Camps, J.A.; Huysmans, H.A.; Pauwels, E.K. )
Indium-111 antimyosin F(ab')2 was used in a series of scintigraphic studies on experimentally induced myocardial infarctions in pigs. Antimyosin distribution recorded by planar images of in vivo pigs and by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of excised hearts delineated areas of myocardial necrosis if infarct volume exceeded 3.3 cm3. Scintigraphic images were compared with magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained from excised hearts and with photographs of slices of the hearts. Infarct size and localization determined with antimyosin were compared. The MR images, with or without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA), of the in vivo pigs were all false-negative; some myocardial wall thinning and high bloodpool signals were visible. Results show that both the antimyosin and the MR technique are specific methods for the visualization of induced myocardial necrosis in this animal model. However, the use of antimyosin is limited to a period ranging from 24 to 72 hours after infarction.
Li, Junxia; Wu, Longmei; Tian, Xinli; Zhang, Jian; Shi, Yujie
Objective To study the mechanism of the no-reflow phenomenon using coronary angiography (CAG) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods A total of 120 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who successfully underwent indwelling intracoronary stent placement by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). All patients underwent pre- and post-PCI CAG and pre-IVUS. No-reflow was defined as post-PCI thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) grade 0, 1, or 2 flow in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Normal reflow was defined as TIMI grade 3 flow. The pre-operation reference vascular area, minimal luminal cross-sectional area, plaque cross-sectional area, lesion length, plaque volume and plaque traits were measured by IVUS. Results The no-reflow group was observed in 14 cases (11.6%) and normal blood-flow group in 106 cases (89.4%) based on CAG results. There was no statistically significant difference in the patients’ medical history, reference vascular area (no-flow vs. normal-flow; 15.5 ± 3.2 vs. 16.2 ± 3.3, p> 0.05) and lesion length (21.9 ± 5.1 vs. 19.5 ± 4.8, p> 0.05) between the two groups. No-reflow patients had a longer symptom onset to reperfusion time compared to normal blood-flow group [(6.6 ± 3.1) h vs (4.3 ± 2.7) h; p< 0.05] and higher incidence of TIMI flow grade< 3 (71.4% vs 49.0%, p< 0.05). By IVUS examination, the no-reflow group had a significantly increased coronary plaque area and plaque volume compared to normal blood-flow group [(13.7 ± 3.0) mm2 vs (10.2 ± 2.9) mm2; (285.4 ± 99.8) mm3 vs (189.7 ± 86.4) mm3; p< 0.01]. The presence of IVUS-detected soft plaque (57.1% vs. 24.0%, p< 0.01), eccentric plaque (64.2% vs. 33.7%, p< 0.05), plaque rupture (50.0% vs. 21.2%, p< 0.01), and thrombosis (42.8% vs. 15.3%) were significantly more common in no-reflow group. Conclusion There was no obvious relationship between the coronary risk factors and no-reflow phenomenon. The symptom onset to reperfusion time, TIMI flow grade before
Zhang, Lihua; Li, Jing; Li, Xi; Nasir, Khurram; Zhang, Haibo; Wu, Yongjian; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Qing; Downing, Nicholas S.; Desai, Nihar R.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Jiang, Lixin
Background Statin therapy is among the most effective treatments to improve short- and long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. The use of statin, and the intensity of their use, has not been described in acute myocardial infarction patients in China, a country with a rapidly growing burden of cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Using a nationally representative sample of patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to 162 Chinese hospitals in 2001, 2006 and 2011, we identified 14,958 patients eligible for statin therapy to determine rates of statin use and the intensity of statin therapy, defined as those statin regimens with expected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering of at least 40%, to identify factors associated with the use of statin therapy. Statin use among hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction increased from 27.9% in 2001 to 72.5% in 2006, and 88.8% in 2011 (P<0.001 for trend). Regional variation in statin use correspondingly decreased over time. Among treated patients, those receiving intensive statin therapy increased from 1.0% in 2001 to 24.2% in 2006 to 57.2% in 2011(P<0.001 for trend). Patients without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol measured were less likely to be treated with statin or to receive intensive therapy. Conclusions The use of statin therapy has dramatically increased over the past decade in Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, half of patients still did not receive intensive statin therapy in 2011.Given that guidelines strongly endorse intensive statin therapy for acute myocardial infarction patients, initiatives promoting the use of statin therapy, with attention to treatment intensity, would support further improvements in practice. PMID:27058862
Bialik, S; Geenen, D L; Sasson, I E; Cheng, R; Horner, J W; Evans, S M; Lord, E M; Koch, C J; Kitsis, R N
Significant numbers of myocytes die by apoptosis during myocardial infarction. The molecular mechanism of this process, however, remains largely unexplored. To facilitate a molecular genetic analysis, we have developed a model of ischemia-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis in the mouse. Surgical occlusion of the left coronary artery results in apoptosis, as indicated by the presence of nucleosome ladders and in situ DNA strand breaks. Apoptosis occurs mainly in cardiac myocytes, and is shown for the first time to be limited to hypoxic regions during acute infarction. Since hypoxia-induced apoptosis in other cell types is dependent on p53, and p53 is induced by hypoxia in cardiac myocytes, we investigated the necessity of p53 for myocyte apoptosis during myocardial infarction. Myocyte apoptosis occurs as readily, however, in the hearts of mice nullizygous for p53 as in wild-type littermates. These data demonstrate the existence of a p53-independent pathway that mediates myocyte apoptosis during myocardial infarction. PMID:9294101
Tomescu, Dana; Vişan, Anca; Popescu, I; Tulbure, D
We report the case of a 56 years old male patient, smoker, obese, with untreated arterial hypertension, hospitalized on 16.02.07 with the diagnosis of inferior acute myocardial infarction, for which he received thrombolysis with streptokinase, followed by anticoagulation with non fractioned heparin. Two days later he started to complain of acute abdominal pain, and laboratory findings showed a low hemoglobin level. Imaging findings (ultrasonography and CT scan) showed evidence of subcapsular liver haematoma, caused by bleeding at hepatic and splenic level. He received red blood packed cells, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, activated factor VII and was transferred by helicopter to Fundeni Clinical Institute--Intensive care unit (ICU). On admission, the patient was conscious, anxious, dyspneic, with mild hypoxia, with no signs of low cardiac output and with a painful abdomen. ECG, echocardiography and elevated myocardial necrosis enzymes confirmed myocardial infarction. Shortly after admission there was a worsening of his clinical condition, with a decrease in hemoglobin level despite red blood packed cells administration (Hb=7.8 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (82000/mmc), with normal coagulation tests, thus suggesting active intraabdominal bleeding. Echography and CT scan confirmed bleeding. Emergency surgery was performed, showing massive haemoperitoneum (approx 4.5 L of blood), due to spontaneous rupture of a subcapsular hematoma in the liver. The surgical hemostasis was performed on the liver parenchyma laceration. Duration of surgery was 4 hours. There were no significant cardiac events during surgery (no signs of ischemia on ECG, no ST elevation), despite the need for inotropic agent. After surgery, the patient was referred to the ICU, intubated and ventilated, with inotropic support - dobutamine. Sequential ECG's, enzymatic trend and echocardiographies were performed to monitor myocardial ischemia. The outcome was favourable, no further bleeding and no
Kirchberger, Inge; Heier, Margit; Amann, Ute; Kuch, Bernhard; Thilo, Christian; Meisinger, Christa
Increasing attention is paid on functional limitations and disability among people with chronic diseases. However, only few studies have explored disability in persons with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of this study was to provide a description of disability and to identify determinants of disability in a population-based sample of long-term AMI survivors. The sample consisted of 1943 persons (35-85years) with AMI from the German population-based MONICA/KORA Myocardial Infarction Registry, who responded to a postal follow-up survey in 2011. Disability was assessed with the 12-item version of the World Health Organization Disability Schedule (WHODAS). Multivariate linear regression models were established in order to identify socioeconomic and clinical factors, risk factors and comorbidities which are associated with disability. The mean WHODAS score for the total sample was 7.86±9.38. The regression model includes 26 variables that explained 37.2% of the WHODAS variance. Most of the explained variance could be attributed to the presence of depression, female sex, joint disorders, digestive disorders, and stroke. Depression was the most important determinant of disability in both sexes. Replacement of single comorbidities by the total number of comorbidities resulted in a model with 15 variables explaining 31.9% of the WHODAS variance. Most of the variance was explained by the number of comorbidities. Further significant determinants of disability were female sex, low education level, angina pectoris, and no revascularization therapy. In AMI patients, the number of comorbidities and particularly the presence of depression are important determinants of disability and should be considered in post-AMI health care.
Gong, Lei; Li, Dongye; Chen, Junhong; Wang, Xiaoping; Xu, Tongda; Li, Wenhua; Ren, Shaoyang; Wang, Cheng
It is clinically important to determine the myocardial viability of regional wall motion abnormality segments in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The purpose of this study was to ascertain the ability and value of a combination of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (LDDSE) for the evaluation of viable myocardium in patients with AMI. Forty-two hospitalized patients with AMI and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction <50%) were underwent STE in conjunction with LDDSE and dual isotope simultaneous acquisition single photon emission computed tomography (DISA-SPECT). Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed subsequently in all patients. STE was used to measure radial, circumferential, and longitudinal end-systolic strain and peak systolic strain rate. The movement of each segment was observed by routine echocardiography 1, 3, and 6 months after PCI, and its improvement over time was the criterion of viable myocardium. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of DISA-SPECT for the assessment of viable myocardium were 83.6, 74.4, and 80.7%, respectively. Among the radial, circumferential, and longitudinal strain and strain rate parameters, only longitudinal strain (LS) and longitudinal strain rate (LSr) at rest and LDDSE emerged as independent predictors of viable myocardium, When combining LS and LSr at LDDSE, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the assessment of viable myocardium rose to 89.8, 90.2 and 89.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of STE in conjunction with LDDSE was similar to DISA-SPECT for detecting viable myocardium in patients with AMI, but the specificity and accuracy of STE performed with LDDSE were higher than DISA-SPECT.
Comparative value of maximal treadmill testing, exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and exercise radionuclide ventriculography for distinguishing high- and low-risk patients soon after acute myocardial infarction
Hung, J.; Goris, M.L.; Nash, E.; Kraemer, H.C.; DeBusk, R.F.; Berger, W.E.; Lew, H.
The prognostic value of symptom-limited treadmill exercise electrocardiography, exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography was compared in 117 men, aged 54 +/- 9 years, tested 3 weeks after a clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (MI). During a mean follow-up period of 11.6 months, 8 men experienced ''hard'' medical events (cardiac death, nonfatal ventricular fibrillation or recurrent MI) and 14 were hospitalized for unstable angina pectoris, congestive heart failure or coronary bypass surgery (total of 22 combined events). By multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model), peak treadmill work load and the change in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) during exercise were significant (p less than 0.01) predictors of hard medical events; these 2 risk factors and recurrent ischemic chest pain in the coronary care unit were also significantly predictive (p less than 0.001) for combined events. A peak treadmill work load of 4 METs or less or a decrease in EF of 5% or more below the value at rest during submaximal effort distinguished 22 high-risk patients (20% of the study population) from 89 low-risk patients. The rate of hard medical events within 12 months was 23% (5 of 22 patients), vs 2% (2 of 89 patients) in the high- and low-risk patient subsets, respectively (p less than 0.001). Thus, in patients who underwent evaluation 3 weeks after a clinically uncomplicated MI, exercise radionuclide ventriculography contributed independent prognostic information to that provided by symptom-limited treadmill testing and was superior to exercise thallium scintigraphy for this purpose.
McHugh, Matthew D.; Ma, Chenjuan
Background Provisions of the Affordable Care Act that increase hospitals’ financial accountability for preventable readmissions have heightened interest in identifying system-level interventions to reduce readmissions. Objectives To determine the relationship between hospital nursing; i.e. nurse work environment, nurse staffing levels, and nurse education, and 30-day readmissions among Medicare patients with heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and pneumonia. Method and Design Analysis of linked data from California, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that included information on the organization of hospital nursing (i.e., work environment, patient-to-nurse ratios, and proportion of nurses holding a BSN degree) from a survey of nurses, as well as patient discharge data, and American Hospital Association Annual Survey data. Robust logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between nursing factors and 30-day readmission. Results Nearly one-quarter of heart failure index admissions (23.3% [n=39,954]); 19.1% (n=12,131) of myocardial infarction admissions; and 17.8% (n=25,169) of pneumonia admissions were readmitted within 30-days. Each additional patient per nurse in the average nurse’s workload was associated with a 7% higher odds of readmission for heart failure (OR=1.07, [1.05–1.09]), 6% for pneumonia patients (OR=1.06, [1.03–1.09]), and 9% for myocardial infarction patients (OR=1.09, [1.05–1.13]). Care in a hospital with a good versus poor work environment was associated with odds of readmission that were 7% lower for heart failure (OR = 0.93, [0.89–0.97]); 6% lower for myocardial infarction (OR = 0.94, [0.88–0.98]); and 10% lower for pneumonia (OR = 0.90, [0.85–0.96]) patients. Conclusions Improving nurses’ work environments and staffing may be effective interventions for preventing readmissions. PMID:23151591
Gitsels, Lisanne A; Kulinskaya, Elena; Steel, Nicholas
Objectives Estimate survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the general population aged 60 and over and the effect of recommended treatments. Design Cohort study in the UK with routinely collected data between January 1987 and March 2011. Setting 310 general practices that contributed to The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Participants 4 cohorts who reached the age of 60, 65, 70, or 75 years between 1987 and 2011 included 16 744, 43 528, 73 728, and 76 392 participants, respectively. Participants with a history of AMI were matched on sex, year of birth, and general practice to 3 controls each. Outcome measures The hazard of all-cause mortality associated with AMI was calculated by a multilevel Cox's proportional hazards regression, adjusted for sex, year of birth, socioeconomic status, angina, heart failure, other cardiovascular conditions, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, alcohol consumption, body mass index, smoking status, coronary revascularisation, prescription of β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, calcium-channel blockers, aspirin, or statins, and general practice. Results Compared with no history of AMI by age 60, 65, 70, or 75, having had 1 AMI was associated with an adjusted hazard of mortality of 1.80 (95% CI 1.60 to 2.02), 1.71 (1.59 to 1.84), 1.50 (1.42 to 1.59), or 1.45 (1.38 to 1.53), respectively, and having had multiple AMIs with a hazard of 1.92 (1.60 to 2.29), 1.87 (1.68 to 2.07), 1.66 (1.53 to 1.80), or 1.63 (1.51 to 1.76), respectively. Survival was better after statins (HR range across the 4 cohorts 0.74–0.81), β-blockers (0.79–0.85), or coronary revascularisation (in first 5 years) (0.72–0.80); unchanged after calcium-channel blockers (1.00–1.07); and worse after aspirin (1.05–1.10) or ACE inhibitors (1.10–1.25). Conclusions The hazard of death after AMI is less than reported by previous studies, and standard treatments of aspirin or ACE inhibitors prescription
Cresci, Sharon; Depta, Jeremiah P.; Lenzini, Petra A.; Li, Allie Y.; Lanfear, David E.; Province, Michael A.; Spertus, John A.; Bach, Richard G.
Background Clopidogrel is recommended after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) but has variable efficacy and safety, in part related to the effect of cytochrome P450 (CYP) polymorphisms on its metabolism. The effect of CYP polymorphisms on cardiovascular events among clopidogrel-treated patients after AMI remains controversial, and no studies to date have investigated the association of CYP variants with outcomes in African American patients. Methods and Results 2732 subjects (2062 Caucasians; 670 African Americans) hospitalized with AMI enrolled in the prospective, multicenter TRIUMPH study were genotyped for CYP polymorphisms. The majority of Caucasians (79%) and African Americans (64.4%) were discharged on clopidogrel. Among Caucasians, carriers of the loss-of-function CYP2C19*2 allele had significantly increased 1-year mortality (adjusted HR: 1.70; CI: 1.01 to 2.86; p=0.046), and a trend toward increased rate of recurrent MI (adjusted HR: 2.10; CI 0.95 to 4.63; p= 0.066). Among African Americans, increased 1-year mortality was associated with the gain of function CYP2C19*17 allele (adjusted HR for *1/*17 vs. *1/*1: 2.02; CI: 0.92 to 4.44; *17/*17 vs. *1/*1: 8.97; CI: 3.34 to 24.10; p< 0.0001) and the CYP1A2*1C allele (adjusted HR for *1/*1C vs. *1/*1: 1.89; CI: 0.85 to 4.22; *1C/*1C vs. *1/*1: 4.96; CI: 1.69 to 14.56; p= 0.014). Bleeding events were significantly more common among African American carriers of CYP2C19*17 or CYP1A2*1C. Conclusions Both loss of function and gain of function CYP polymorphisms affecting clopidogrel metabolism are associated with increased mortality among clopidogrel treated patients following AMI; the specific polymorphism and the putative mechanism vary according to race. PMID:24762860
Mathews, Robin; Wang, Tracy Y.; Honeycutt, Emily; Henry, Timothy D.; Zettler, Marjorie; Chang, Michael; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Peterson, Eric D.
Background Persistent use of secondary prevention therapies after acute myocardial infarction (MI) is critical to optimizing long-term outcomes. Methods Medication persistence was assessed among 7,955 MI patients in 216 hospitals participating in the TRANSLATE-ACS study from 2010 to 2012. Persistence was defined as continuation of aspirin, adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors (ADPRi), beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and statins from discharge to 6 months post-MI. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine factors associated with non-persistence, defined as <80% persistence with all medication classes. Results Overall, 31% of MI patients stopped taking a least one medication by 6 months. The most common reasons cited for medications discontinuation were side effects and physician instruction (57%), while financial concerns were cited in 8% overall. After multivariable modeling, black race (odds ratio [OR] 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.62), older age (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.02–1.12), atrial fibrillation (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.33–2.09), dialysis (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.15–2.78), and depression (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.02–1.45) were associated with lower likelihood of persistence. Private insurance (OR 0.85, 95% 0.76–0.95), prescription cost assistance (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.54–0.75), and outpatient follow-up arranged prior to discharge (OR 0.89. 95% CI 0.80–0.99) were associated with higher persistence. Conclusions Nearly one-third of MI patients are no longer persistent with their prescribed medications by 6 months. Patients at high risk of non-persistence may be identified by clinical and sociodemographic features. These observations underscore key opportunities to optimize longitudinal use of secondary prevention therapies. PMID:26093865
Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto; Pellegrini, Barbara; Ravelli, Flavia; Del Greco, Maurizio; Disertori, Marcello; Antolini, Renzo
The interactions between systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and R-R interval (RR) fluctuations after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were investigated by measures of synchronization separating the feedback from the feedforward control and capturing both linear and nonlinear contributions. The causal synchronization, evaluating the ability of RR to predict SAP (chi(s/t)) or vice versa (chi(t/s)), and the global synchronization (chi) were estimated at rest and after head-up tilt in 35 post-AMI patients, 20 young and 12 old. Significance and nonlinearity of the coupling were assessed by surrogate data analysis. Tilting increased the number of young subjects in which RR-SAP link was significant (from 17 to 19) and linear (from 11 to 18). In AMI, both significance and linearity of the coupling were low at rest (26 significant and 24 nonlinear) and further reduced after tilt (17 significant and 16 nonlinear). Old subjects showed a partial recovery of linearity after tilt (rest: 1 linear of 7 significant; tilt: 5 linear of 8 significant). In young subjects, the causal synchronization indexes were balanced and increased from rest (chi(t/s) = 0.072 +/- 0.037 and chi(s/t) = 0.054 +/- 0.028) to tilt (chi(t/s) = 0.125 +/- 0.071 and chi(s/t) = 0.108 +/- 0.053). On the contrary, in old subjects and AMI patients, the feedforward was prevalent to the feedback coupling at rest (old: chi(t/s) = 0.041 +/- 0.023 and chi(s/t) = 0.069 +/- 0.042; AMI: chi(t/s) = 0.050 +/- 0.030 and chi(s/t) = 0.089 +/- 0.053). Tilting blunted the unbalance in old subjects (chi(t/s) = 0.065 +/- 0.052 and chi(s/t) = 0.069 +/- 0.044) but not in AMI patients (chi(t/s) = 0.040 +/- 0.019 and chi(s/t) = 0.060 +/- 0.040). Thus, after AMI, nonlinear mechanisms are elicited in RR-SAP interactions. Furthermore, the neural regulation of the cardiovascular system resulted in imbalance as a consequence of impaired feedback and enhanced feedforward control mechanisms.
Krogager, Maria Lukács; Eggers-Kaas, Lotti; Aasbjerg, Kristian; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Søgaard, Peter
Aims Diuretic treatment is often needed in acute heart failure following myocardial infarction (MI) and carries a risk of abnormal potassium levels. We examined the relation between different levels of potassium and mortality. Methods and results From Danish national registries we identified 2596 patients treated with loop diuretics after their first MI episode where potassium measurement was available within 3 months. All-cause mortality was examined according to seven predefined potassium levels: hypokalaemia <3.5 mmol/L, low normal potassium 3.5–3.8 mmol/L, normal potassium 3.9–4.2 mmol/L, normal potassium 4.3–4.5 mmol/L, high normal potassium 4.6–5.0 mmol/L, mild hyperkalaemia 5.1–5.5 mmol/L, and severe hyperkalaemia: >5.5 mmol/L. Follow-up was 90 days and using normal potassium 3.9–4.2 mmol/L as a reference, we estimated the risk of death with a multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model. After 90 days, the mortality rates in the seven potassium intervals were 15.7, 13.6, 7.3, 8.1, 10.6, 15.5, and 38.3%, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted risk for death was statistically significant for patients with hypokalaemia [hazard ratio (HR): 1.91, confidence interval (95%CI): 1.14–3.19], and mild and severe hyperkalaemia (HR: 2, CI: 1.25–3.18 and HR: 5.6, CI: 3.38–9.29, respectively). Low and high normal potassium were also associated with increased mortality (HR: 1.84, CI: 1.23–2.76 and HR: 1.55, CI: 1.09–2.22, respectively). Conclusion Potassium levels outside the interval 3.9–4.5 mmol/L were associated with a substantial risk of death in patients requiring diuretic treatment after an MI. PMID:27418967
Yaqub, Yasir; Perez-Verdia, Alejandro; Jenkins, Leigh A.; Sehli, Shermila; Paige, Robert L.; Nugent, Kenneth M.
Background Temporary pacemakers (TP) are used in emergency situations for severe bradyarrhythmias secondary to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to non-AMI related cardiac disorders. TP have been studied previously in AMI patients treated with thrombolytic therapy; limited information is available on current outcomes in AMI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods We reviewed the indications, complications, and mortality associated with TP insertion over a four year period (2003 - 2007) at a university hospital. Results Seventy-three temporary pacemakers were inserted (47 men, 26 women) during this period. The mean age was 65.2 years. TP were used in 29 AMI patients (39.7 % of total) and 44 non-AMI patients (60.3% of total). The duration of TP use was 2.6 ± 0.4 days in the whole cohort, 2.46 % of all AMI patients (29/1180) admitted during this period required a TP. Six of these patients requiring a TP required a permanent pacemaker. Eight patients with AMI and a TP died (27.6%). In contrast 8.9 % of AMI patients not requiring a TP died (P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between the AMI and non-AMI groups in the duration of temporary pacing (2.4 ± 0.6 days vs. 2.8 ± 0.4 days), in complications (27.6% vs. 29.5%), or in mortality (27.6% vs. 15.9%). The need for a permanent pacemaker (PPM) differed significantly between the AMI and non-AMI patients (20.7% vs. 54.5%; P < 0.05). Conclusion Our results indicate that AMI patients infrequently require a TP and that approximately 20% of these patients require a PPM. These results suggest that early revascularization of the conduction system with current interventional techniques has decreased the need for TP in AMI patients. However, this group requires more intensive monitoring as the mortality rate in this group of patients is significantly higher than the other AMI patients not requiring TP.
Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Azevedo, Ana Isabel; Sampaio, Francisco; Teixeira, Madalena; Bettencourt, Nuno; Campos, Lilibeth; Gonçalves, Francisco Rocha; Ribeiro, Vasco Gama; Azevedo, Ana; Leite-Moreira, Adelino
Abstract After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), diastolic dysfunction is frequent and an important determinant of adverse outcome. However, few interventions have proven to be effective in improving diastolic function. We aimed to determine the effect of exercise training on diastolic and systolic function after AMI. One month after AMI, 188 patients were prospectively randomized (1:1) to an 8-week supervised program of endurance and resistance exercise training (n = 86; 55.9 ± 10.8 years) versus standard of care (n = 89; 55.4 ± 10.3 years). All patients were submitted to detailed echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise test, at baseline and immediately after the study. Diastolic function was evaluated by the determination of tissue-Doppler derived early diastolic velocities (E′ velocity at the septal and lateral sides of mitral annulus) and by the E/E′ (ratio between the E wave velocity from mitral inflow and the E’ velocity) as recommended in the consensus document for diastolic function assessment. At the end of the study, there was no significant change in E′ septal velocity or E/E′ septal ratio in the exercise group. We observed a small, although nonsignificant, improvement in E′ lateral (mean change 0.1 ± 2.0 cm/s; P = 0.40) and E/E′ lateral ratio (mean change of −0.3 ± 2.5; P = 0.24), while patients in the control group had a nonsignificant reduction in E′ lateral (mean change −0.4 ± 1.9 cm/s; P = 0.09) and an increase in E/E′ lateral ratio (mean change + 0.3 ± 3.3; P = 0.34). No relevant changes occurred in other diastolic parameters. The exercise-training program also did not improve systolic function (either tissue Doppler systolic velocities or ejection fraction). Exercise capacity improved only in the exercise-training group, with an increase of 1.6 mL/kg/min in pVO2 (P = 0.001) and of 1.9 mL/kg/min in VO2 at anaerobic threshold (P < 0.001). After AMI
Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto; Martínez-Montañez, Olga Georgina; Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Estrada-Gallegos, Joel; Palacios-Jiménez, Norma Magdalena; Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Arizmendi-Uribe, Efraín; Arriaga-Dávila, Jesús
Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem because of their they impact on more than 30% of all deaths worldwide. In our country and in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) are also the leading cause of death and the main cause of lost of healthy life years due to disability or premature death. 50% of deaths are premature; most of them are due to acute myocardial infarct. However, the investment for cardiovascular health is poor and there are no comprehensive cares programs focused on the treatment of this diseases or the control of their risk factors. To address this problem, the first institutional care program was developed, called "A todo corazón", which aims to strengthen actions to promote healthy habits, prevention and care of cardiovascular diseases. The initial approach is to implement a protocol of care emergency services called "Código infarto", which is intended to ensure the diagnosis and treatment of patients demanding emergency care for acute myocardial infarction and receive reperfusion treatment with primary angioplasty in the first 90 minutes, or fibrinolytic therapy in the first 30 minutes after the admission to the IMSS emer