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Sample records for acute nasolabial angle

  1. Surgical treatment of the nasolabial angle in balanced rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Honrado, Carlo P; Pearlman, Steven J

    2003-01-01

    Nasal analysis and surgical planning are crucial for a successful, aesthetically pleasing rhinoplasty. One of the key parameters for evaluation is the nasolabial angle. The nasal spine, caudal septum, and medial crura of the lower lateral cartilages provide the framework for this area. Alteration of these structures, as well as nasal tip rotation and projection, may affect the resultant nasolabial angle, length of the upper lip, and overall harmony of the nose. Fullness at the nasolabial junction caused by a pushing philtrum may also result in an unbalanced appearance. The literature is replete with methods for categorizing the nasal tip and with recommendations for surgical treatment. Treatment of the caudal septum and nasal spine is often an afterthought that is left up to the aesthetic judgment of the surgeon. To make this a more systematic decision, in 1990 we devised a classification for analysis and treatment of this area. This study included the length of the nose, the nasolabial angle, and the presence of a pushing philtrum, with suggested treatment to allow proper tip placement and to provide aesthetic balance to the nose. The only modification was in the order of presentation of nasal types. Since that publication, the senior author has consistently followed these guidelines and has found them to be a reliable tool in creating a harmonious result in rhinoplasty. PMID:12873873

  2. Varied Definitions of Nasolabial Angle: Searching for Consensus Among Rhinoplasty Surgeons and an Algorithm for Selecting the Ideal Method

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ryan; Nagarkar, Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nasolabial angle (NLA) is an important aesthetic metric for nasal assessment and correction. Although the literature offers many definitions, none has garnered universal acceptance. Methods: To gauge the consensus level among practitioners, surveys were administered to a convenience sample of rhinoplasty surgeons soliciting practice characteristics, self-assessment of rhinoplasty experience and expertise, and preferred NLA definition. Choices of NLA definition included the angle between: (A) columella and line intersecting subnasale and labrale superius; (B) columella and line tangent to philtrum; (C) nostril long axis and Frankfort perpendicular; and (D) nostril long axis and vertical facial plane. Results: Of the 82 total respondents, mean age was 50 years (range, 30–80years), and mean professional experience was 17 years (range, 0–67 years). Nineteen described themselves as novice rhinoplasty surgeons, 27 as intermediates, and 36 as experts. Mean number of lifetime rhinoplasties performed was 966 (range, 0–10,000). Twenty respondents (24%) agreed with definition A, 27 (33%) with B, 16 (20%) with C, and 13 (16%) with D. Six chose “other,” offering their own explanations of NLA. Self-identified novices were more likely to prefer definition D than were experts (P = 0.009). Conclusions: No majority consensus was reached regarding the definition of NLA. Each method has its benefits and drawbacks, and establishing a single one may be unnecessary and even counterproductive in some cases. Having options available means that surgeons can tailor to each encounter, as long as they adopt a systematic methodology. We submit an algorithm to facilitate this effort. PMID:27482491

  3. Bilateral nasolabial cysts: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Christmas, Peter I

    2009-06-01

    The nasolabial cyst is one of the rarer soft tissue cysts, and presents beneath the alae of the nose. There have been few reports of an association between nasolabial cysts and dacryocystitis (an infection of the nasolacrimal sac). This case report describes a female who presented with bilateral nasolabial cysts and longstanding symptoms of epiphora (watery eye).

  4. Bilateral nasolabial cysts - case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Aruna R; Singh, Abhinav Pratap; Nandikoor, Shrivalli; Meganathan, Prabhu

    2016-01-01

    Nasolabial cyst is a non-odontogenic, extraosseous, soft tissue cyst, commonly unilateral, located in the nasolabial fold. Bilateral nasolabial cysts are of rare occurrence. This case report describes the multimodality imaging appearance of bilateral nasolabial cysts with a review of literature. PMID:27413273

  5. Bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma after dexfenfluramine treatment.

    PubMed

    Denis, P; Charpentier, D; Berros, P; Touameur, S

    1995-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with narrow angles who had an attack of bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma precipitated by dexfenfluramine, a serotoninergic drug developed for appetite suppression. Although the exact mechanism remains uncertain, the pupillary block observed in our case may be the result of the serotoninergic or indirect parasympatholytic properties of the drug on the iris sphincter muscle. Serotonergic psychoactive drugs should be prescribed cautiously in patients with known narrow angles and should be monitored by an ophthalmologist.

  6. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  7. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection.

    PubMed

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  8. [Case with postoperative acute angle-closure glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Mihara, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Motoshige; Nakahira, Junko; Fujitate, Yasutaka; Minami, Toshiaki

    2011-08-01

    A 59-year-old man who had undergone biopsy of cervical lymph node under general anesthesia developed an attack of acute angle-closure glaucoma the night after the surgery. He had had no eye symptoms before. He complained of visual disorder, nausea, eye pain, and dizziness after the surgery. His intraocular pressure in the right eye was high (69 mmHg), and an ophthalmologist diagnosed it as acute angle-closure glaucoma. Dropping lotion in the eyes and the intravenous administration were not effective. His intraocular pressure decreased immediatery after laser iridotomy, and his symptoms improved. When the symptoms of eye pain and visual impairment appeared after the surgery, we should take acute angle-closure glaucoma into consideration and treat it as soon as possible.

  9. Three-dimensional Nasolabial Morphologic Alterations Following Le Fort I

    PubMed Central

    DeSesa, Christopher R.; Metzler, Philip; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Le Fort I osteotomy imparts significant changes to the nasolabial region. Past studies have relied on 2-dimensional data and have not delineated differences among various Le Fort I subtypes. The purpose of this study is to 3-dimensionally analyze Le Fort I–induced nasal and lip changes comparing advancement alone versus widening alone [surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SAME)] versus advancement and widening. We hypothesize that the combination of maxillary advancement with widening will result in the most profound changes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Included Le Fort I patients were grouped as: (1) nonsegmental straight advancement, (2) widening without advancement, and (3) segmental advancement and widening. Pre- and postoperative 3-dimensional photogrammetry (Canfield) were analyzed. Anthropometric landmarks were placed and measured by 2 independent observers. Statistics involved both paired and unpaired t tests (significance = P < 0.05). Results: One hundred eight photogrammetric data sets were analyzed, including 46 single-piece, 26 SAME, and 36 segmental. Significant postoperative nasal changes were observed within each intragroup analysis. The most dramatic changes were seen after segmental Le Fort I with advancement and widening, which included alar base width, alar width, nostril width, and soft triangle angle, all P < 0.05. Conclusions: Le Fort I osteotomy results in significant alteration of the nasolabial morphology. This is the first study to 3-dimensionally analyze nasal changes that occur comparing maxillary advancement alone versus widening alone (SAME) versus advancement with widening. These objective data permit improved patient counseling and surgical planning. PMID:27622116

  10. Three-dimensional Nasolabial Morphologic Alterations Following Le Fort I

    PubMed Central

    DeSesa, Christopher R.; Metzler, Philip; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Le Fort I osteotomy imparts significant changes to the nasolabial region. Past studies have relied on 2-dimensional data and have not delineated differences among various Le Fort I subtypes. The purpose of this study is to 3-dimensionally analyze Le Fort I–induced nasal and lip changes comparing advancement alone versus widening alone [surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SAME)] versus advancement and widening. We hypothesize that the combination of maxillary advancement with widening will result in the most profound changes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Included Le Fort I patients were grouped as: (1) nonsegmental straight advancement, (2) widening without advancement, and (3) segmental advancement and widening. Pre- and postoperative 3-dimensional photogrammetry (Canfield) were analyzed. Anthropometric landmarks were placed and measured by 2 independent observers. Statistics involved both paired and unpaired t tests (significance = P < 0.05). Results: One hundred eight photogrammetric data sets were analyzed, including 46 single-piece, 26 SAME, and 36 segmental. Significant postoperative nasal changes were observed within each intragroup analysis. The most dramatic changes were seen after segmental Le Fort I with advancement and widening, which included alar base width, alar width, nostril width, and soft triangle angle, all P < 0.05. Conclusions: Le Fort I osteotomy results in significant alteration of the nasolabial morphology. This is the first study to 3-dimensionally analyze nasal changes that occur comparing maxillary advancement alone versus widening alone (SAME) versus advancement with widening. These objective data permit improved patient counseling and surgical planning.

  11. Angle parameter changes of phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy for acute primary angle closure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Wei; Chen, Yan; Wu, Qiang; Lu, Bin; Wang, Wen-Qing; Fang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the difference in angle parameters and clinical outcome following phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy in patients with acute primary angle closure (APAC) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). METHODS Patients (n=23, 31 eyes) were randomized to receive phacoemulsification or combined phacotrabeculectomy (n=24, 31 eyes). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), the main complications following surgery, and indentation gonioscopy and angle parameters measured using UBM were documented preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS The improvement in BCVA in the phacoemulsification group was significantly greater than in the combined group (P<0.05). IOP in the phacoemulsification group was slightly higher than in the combined group following 1wk of follow-up (P<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups at the latter follow-up (P>0.05). Phacoemulsification alone resulted in a slight increase in the trabecular ciliary processes distance compared with the combined surgery (P<0.05), whereas the other angle parameters showed no significant difference between the groups. Complications in combined group were greater than phacoemulsification only group. CONCLUSION Both surgeries effectively opened the drainage angle and deepened the anterior chamber, and IOP was well controlled postoperatively. However, phacoemulsification showed better efficacy in improving visual function and showed reduced complications following surgery. PMID:26309873

  12. Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma with Capilllary Leak Syndrome Following Snake Bite

    PubMed Central

    George, Twinkle Ann; AV, Asha; Ravindran, Risha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute angle closure glaucoma is rarely seen as complication of snake bite.We report three cases of bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma with capillary leak syndrome and acute renal failure secondary to hematotoxic snake bites. We are also briefly discussing the association of capillary leak syndrome and angle closure glaucoma in hematotoxic snake bite. This is the first time an association between angle closure and capillary leak syndrome following snake bite is reported. Study type: Descriptive case series. Materials and Methods: Records of all patients admitted to ICU with snake bite were reviewed to identify cases developing acute angle closure glaucoma. These cases with acute angle closure glaucoma are analysed in detail for systemic condition. Diagnosis, management and outcome of cases are described Results: Of the 119 snake bites admitted, 47 patients had confirmed hematotoxic snake bite. Fifteen of these patients underwent hemodialysis for acute renal failure. Seven of them were diagnosed to have capillary leak syndrome and all of them complained of decreased vision. Three of the 7 cases had acute angle closure glaucoma on the second day of bite. One of the patients expired and other two recovered fully, both of them had normal IOP and good vision at one month follow-up. Conclusion: Acute angle closure glaucoma seems to be associated with systemic capillary leak syndrome in hematotoxic snake bite. High suspicion, early recognition, timely and appropriate treatment can prevent visual loss in this rare complication. PMID:25478432

  13. Nasolabial cyst: review of literature and a case report.

    PubMed

    Kajla, Paramjit; Lata, Jeevan; Agrawal, Reecha

    2014-06-01

    The nasolabial cyst is a rare non-odontogenic cyst that develops within the skin adjacent to the ala of nose around the uppermost portion of the nasolabial crease; its pathogenesis is uncertain. This lesion grows slowly and measures between 1.5 to 3.0 cm; it is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial sulcus, which elevates the upper lip. The diagnosis is essentially based on the clinical findings. Bi-digital palpation revealed fluctulance between the floor of nasal vestibule and the gingivobuccal sulcus, which helps to confirm the diagnosis. This paper reports a case of a 35-year-old female patient that presented a soft swelling in the right ala of the nose; the clinical features suggested a nasolabial cyst. Complete surgical excision of the cyst was done under local anesthesia and the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. In spite of the low occurrence of nasolabial cysts, it is important to recognize the clinical characteristics of this lesion. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and discuss the histopathology, etiology and different treatment options of this condition. PMID:24822020

  14. Nasolabial cyst: review of literature and a case report.

    PubMed

    Kajla, Paramjit; Lata, Jeevan; Agrawal, Reecha

    2014-06-01

    The nasolabial cyst is a rare non-odontogenic cyst that develops within the skin adjacent to the ala of nose around the uppermost portion of the nasolabial crease; its pathogenesis is uncertain. This lesion grows slowly and measures between 1.5 to 3.0 cm; it is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial sulcus, which elevates the upper lip. The diagnosis is essentially based on the clinical findings. Bi-digital palpation revealed fluctulance between the floor of nasal vestibule and the gingivobuccal sulcus, which helps to confirm the diagnosis. This paper reports a case of a 35-year-old female patient that presented a soft swelling in the right ala of the nose; the clinical features suggested a nasolabial cyst. Complete surgical excision of the cyst was done under local anesthesia and the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. In spite of the low occurrence of nasolabial cysts, it is important to recognize the clinical characteristics of this lesion. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and discuss the histopathology, etiology and different treatment options of this condition.

  15. Bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma following a snake bite: Are we missing it?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. V. Praveen; Kumar, S. Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We report a case series of acute angle closure following snake bite, their clinical features, treatment, and the outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ocular examination was done in all the snake bite victims admitted over 1-year period. The systemic status, presenting intraocular pressure (IOP), treatment instituted, and outcomes were recorded for all cases of acute angle closure. Results: Six patients developed angle closure following snake bite. Average IOP was in the range of 32–56 mmHg. Treatment was initiated as for cases of acute angle closure. Two patients succumbed and the other four recovered, had normal IOP at follow-up. Conclusion: Acute angle closure glaucoma is a rare complication of snake bite. Timely detection and management will result in good visual prognosis. Treating physicians should be aware of this rare sight-threatening complication so that a preliminary ophthalmic examination can be sought and the visual morbidity be prevented. PMID:26955216

  16. Dermofat graft in deep nasolabial fold and facial rhytidectomy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Han, Jin Yi; Kim, Dae Joong

    2003-01-01

    Fat and dermis or the combined tissues are used commonly in augmentation of the nasolabial fold. Guyuron obtained the dermofat graft from either the suprapubic or the groin region. The thickness of the preauricular skin was measured in seven Korean cadavers, five male and two female. We used the dermofat graft out of the preauricular skin remnant after facial rhytidectomy to augment the deep nasolabial fold in a patient. The average thickness of the epidermis was 56 +/- 12 microm, the dermis was 1820 +/- 265 microm thick, and the subcutaneous tissue was 4783 +/- 137 microm. More dense connective tissues, such as SMAS, are seen in the preauricular skin. The dermofat graft was easily obtained and prepared from the leftover preauricular skin after dissection of the lax skin in face lifting. This technique could be employed effectively and successfully to alleviate a deep nasolabial fold and concomitant facial rhytidectomy in an Asian with a thick preauricular skin.

  17. Do we really need to panic in all acute vision loss in ICU? Acute angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Akal, Ali; Kucuk, Ahmet; Yalcin, Funda; Yalcin, Saban

    2014-08-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is a sight-threatening situation characterized by a sudden and marked rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) due to obstruction of aqueous humour outflow. Many local (ocular drops, nasal and nebulized agents) and systemic drugs (e.g. atropine, adrenaline, ephedrine, some psychoactive and antiepileptic drugs) that are widely used in intensive care units have the potential to precipitate such an acute attack. In this case report, we describe progressive visual loss due to acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) in a 59 year old female patient followed in the ICU due to a massive pulmonary embolism.

  18. A review of drug-induced acute angle closure glaucoma for non-ophthalmologists

    PubMed Central

    Ah-kee, Elliott Yann; Egong, Eric; Shafi, Ahad; Lim, Lik Thai; Yim, James Li

    2015-01-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is an ophthalmic emergency and can lead to blindness if left untreated. Several types of drugs have the potential to precipitate acute angle closure glaucoma. These include adrenergic, cholinergic and anticholinergic, antidepressants, anticoagulants and sulfa-based agents. This article provides a basic overview of the risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in angle closure glaucoma and focuses on drug-induced angle closure glaucoma for the non-ophthalmologist. A PubMed search limited to the English language was conducted to find relevant literature for the purpose of this article. Most attacks occur in subjects unaware that they are at risk due to innately narrow iridocorneal angles. Clinicians should always review medications in patients presenting with symptoms of acute angle closure glaucoma. The aim of this article is to bring this ophthalmic condition to the attention of clinicians, particularly those outside the field of ophthalmology who commonly prescribe these medications or see these patients prior to referring to ophthalmologists. PMID:26535174

  19. A review of drug-induced acute angle closure glaucoma for non-ophthalmologists.

    PubMed

    Ah-Kee, Elliott Yann; Egong, Eric; Shafi, Ahad; Lim, Lik Thai; Yim, James Li

    2015-01-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is an ophthalmic emergency and can lead to blindness if left untreated. Several types of drugs have the potential to precipitate acute angle closure glaucoma. These include adrenergic, cholinergic and anticholinergic, antidepressants, anticoagulants and sulfa-based agents. This article provides a basic overview of the risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in angle closure glaucoma and focuses on drug-induced angle closure glaucoma for the non-ophthalmologist. A PubMed search limited to the English language was conducted to find relevant literature for the purpose of this article. Most attacks occur in subjects unaware that they are at risk due to innately narrow iridocorneal angles. Clinicians should always review medications in patients presenting with symptoms of acute angle closure glaucoma. The aim of this article is to bring this ophthalmic condition to the attention of clinicians, particularly those outside the field of ophthalmology who commonly prescribe these medications or see these patients prior to referring to ophthalmologists.

  20. Psychophysiological stress, elevated intraocular pressure, and acute closed-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Shily, B G

    1987-11-01

    The literature suggests that stress may play a part in the precipitation of acute closed-angle glaucoma because intraocular pressure (IOP) can be affected by the emotional state of the patient. This study considers this evidence in light of what is known concerning the possible relations between psychophysiological stress and elevated IOP. Two common threads run through these observations. The first is the suggestion that stress is a significant factor in the etiology of acute closed-angle glaucoma. The second is a growing suspicion concerning the role of stress in open-angle glaucoma. There is some evidence that glaucoma induction is associated with psychophysiological stress. The role of psychosomatic factors in precipitating angle closure in eyes with an anatomically narrow angle and in raising the IOP in eyes with open angles has been noted in the literature. The implication is that stress reduction might prevent angle closure and reduce the IOP. Suggested methods for achieving these results include biofeedback, meditation, and relaxation exercises.

  1. Bilateral, Simultaneous, Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma in Pseudophakia Induced by Chlorthalidone

    PubMed Central

    Durai, Indra; Mohan Dhavalikar, Mrunali; Anand, Chandran Prem; Ganesh, Venkatraman; Krishnadas, Ramaswami

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report two persons with acute, bilateral, and simultaneous angle closure glaucoma in pseudophakia secondary to uveal effusions induced by administration of chlorthalidone. Methods. Case reports. Results. Bilateral shallow anterior chambers and high intraocular pressure with decline in visual acuity were reported in two patients within days of intake of chlorthalidone for systemic hypertension. Gonioscopy confirmed appositional angle closure while choroidal detachment and ciliochoroidal detachment were revealed on ultrasonographic studies. Discontinuing chlorthalidone and institution of aqueous suppressants to reduce IOP and cycloplegics reversed angle closure and glaucoma. Conclusions. Reports of angle closure glaucoma in pseudophakic eyes induced by idiosyncratic reaction to chlorthalidone confirms that osmotic changes in the crystalline lens has no role in the pathogenesis of drug induced glaucoma and reaffirms that glaucoma is secondary to ciliochoroidal detachment and ciliary body rotation and edema. PMID:27274878

  2. Nasolabial Flap in Maxillofacial Gunshot Trauma: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The nasolabial flap (NLF) has many advantages in oromaxillary reconstruction, but the majority of cases are reconstructions after pathologic resections. Its usage in trauma surgery, especially in the management of gunshot wounds, is rarely mentioned. Case Presentation Three cases involving gunshot injuries to the face are presented: one for reconstruction of the nasal ala, another for bone graft coverage in mandibular reconstruction, and the third for the repair of premaxillary hard and soft tissue avulsive defects. Conclusions The NLF is a thin, pliable flap and is useful for intraoral and facial reconstruction of trauma patients with small to moderate soft tissue loss. PMID:27148497

  3. Growth patterns of the nasolabial region: a morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Farkas, L G; Posnick, J C; Hreczko, T M; Pron, G E

    1992-07-01

    Age-related growth changes in the nasolabial region were analyzed through six measurements taken between 1 year and 18 years of age in 1,593 North American Caucasians. By 1 year of age, the length of the cutaneous portion of the upper lip and the width of the nose showed the highest levels of development compared with their adult size, 80.3 and 79.5%, respectively. By 5 years, the developmental level of the nasolabial region except nasal tip protrusion approached their maturation level. Our nasal measurements indicated that growth of the nose between 5 and 18 years was significantly greater than that of the upper lip, which revealed significantly greater growth increments between 1 and 5 years of age. The cutaneous upper lip height reached its adult size in 3-year-old females (12.7 mm) and 6-year-old males (14.4 mm). Nose width and height were fully developed in females by age 12 and in males by age 14 or 15. Rapid growth occurred in the upper lip, nose height, and nasal tip protrusion between the ages of 1 and 4 years. Knowledge of these age-related morphologic variations within the nose and upper lip may be useful in planning the time and type of reconstructive surgery and in anticipating further change in the operated regions after the surgical reconstruction. PMID:1643060

  4. Growth patterns of the nasolabial region: a morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Farkas, L G; Posnick, J C; Hreczko, T M; Pron, G E

    1992-07-01

    Age-related growth changes in the nasolabial region were analyzed through six measurements taken between 1 year and 18 years of age in 1,593 North American Caucasians. By 1 year of age, the length of the cutaneous portion of the upper lip and the width of the nose showed the highest levels of development compared with their adult size, 80.3 and 79.5%, respectively. By 5 years, the developmental level of the nasolabial region except nasal tip protrusion approached their maturation level. Our nasal measurements indicated that growth of the nose between 5 and 18 years was significantly greater than that of the upper lip, which revealed significantly greater growth increments between 1 and 5 years of age. The cutaneous upper lip height reached its adult size in 3-year-old females (12.7 mm) and 6-year-old males (14.4 mm). Nose width and height were fully developed in females by age 12 and in males by age 14 or 15. Rapid growth occurred in the upper lip, nose height, and nasal tip protrusion between the ages of 1 and 4 years. Knowledge of these age-related morphologic variations within the nose and upper lip may be useful in planning the time and type of reconstructive surgery and in anticipating further change in the operated regions after the surgical reconstruction.

  5. Nasolabial symmetry and aesthetics in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Fudalej, Piotr; Katsaros, Christos; Hozyasz, Kamil; Borstlap, Wilfred A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between nasolabial symmetry and aesthetics in children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (CUCLP). Frontal and basal photographs of 60 consecutively treated children with CUCLP (cleft group: 41 boys and 19 girls, mean (SD) age 11 (2) years) and 44 children without clefts (control group: 16 boys and 28 girls, mean (SD) age 11(2) years), were used for evaluation of nasolabial symmetry and aesthetics. Nasal and labial measurements were made to calculate the coefficient of asymmetry (CA). The 5-grade aesthetic index described by Asher-McDade et al. was used to evaluate nasolabial appearance. Correlation and regression analysis were used to identify an association between aesthetics and CA, sex, and the presence of CUCLP. Ten measurements in the cleft, and 2 in the control, group differed significantly between the cleft and non-cleft (or right and left) sides, respectively. The significantly higher values of 9 of 11 CA in the children with CUCLP indicated that they had more asymmetrical nasolabial areas than children without clefts. However, the regression analyses showed that only a few CA were associated with nasolabial aesthetics. In conclusion, nasolabial aesthetics and nasolabial symmetry seem to be only weakly associated in patients with CUCLP.

  6. Increased Risk of Acute Angle Closure in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yu-Chieh; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hwang, De-Kuang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and acute angle closure during a 15-year follow-up period. Methods Using the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, we identified 382 RP patients based on the diagnostic code of RP (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) 362.74) made during 1996–2010, excluding subjects under age of 20 years at diagnosis or subjects undergoing lens extraction before the index date. The control group included 3820 randomly selected non-RP subjects matched with the RP patients in age, gender and the index date of diagnosis. The incidence of acute angle closure during the study period was observed based on an ICD-9-CM code of 365.22. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) of having acute angle closure in RP patients. Results The mean age at the diagnosis of RP was 51.1years (standard deviation [SD] 16.7). Acute angle closure occurred in 5 RP patients (1.3%) and in 15 controls (0.4%). The mean age with the acute angle closure was 53.3 years (SD 8.0) in RP patients and 64.6 years (SD 8.4) in controls (P = 0.015). After adjusting for age, gender and comorbid disorders, RP patients had 3.64-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29–10.25, P<0.001) greater odds of having acute angle closure. After stratification for gender and age, the risk of acute angle closure in RP was higher in patients under age of 60 years (adjusted OR 11.84; 95% CI, 2.84–49.48) and male patients (adjusted OR 19.36; 95% CI, 3.43–109.40)(both P = 0.001). Conclusions RP patients had increased risk of acute angle closure than controls. Contrary to the fact that angle closure disease is more prevalent in elderly females in general population, acute angle closure attack occurred earlier in life and the risk was higher in males among RP patients. PMID:25222486

  7. Characteristics of Ultrasonic Linear Motor that Incorporates Two Transducers at an Acute Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Tsunoji, Masaki; Tsujino, Jiromaru

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we have developed an ultrasonic linear motor that incorporates two transducers at an acute angle. The two transducers are used to generate the vertical and horizontal vibration components. The complex vibration is excited using two electrical sources with a phase shift. Ultrasonic motors have unique characteristics such as silent motion and absence of magnetic noise. These characteristics are suitable for use in hospitals and so on. Therefore, we focus on developing actuators for use in a medical bed, specifically a bedsore prevention bed. A study of the vibration characteristics of the motor showed that the resonant frequencies of the transducers were appropriate, although the vibration amplitude of one transducer was less than that of the other. A study of the load characteristics showed that a no-load speed of 267 mm/s and a maximum thrust of 40 N were obtained.

  8. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  9. Phaco-endocycloplasty: A novel technique for management of ring iridociliary cyst presenting as acute angle closure

    PubMed Central

    Pathak-Ray, Vanita; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K.

    2016-01-01

    Iridociliary cysts of pigment epithelium are rare, ring cysts being rarer still, and usually benign in their clinical course. Presented here is a case of ring iridociliary cyst that resulted in secondary synechial angle closure with an acutely elevated intraocular pressure, refractory to medical treatment. Primary endocycloplasty and cataract extraction with implant were used successfully to manage the case. PMID:27013833

  10. Soft tissue facial angles in Down's syndrome subjects: a three-dimensional non-invasive study.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Dellavia, Claudia; Serrao, Graziano; Sforza, Chiarella

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain quantitative information concerning the three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of the facial soft tissues of subjects with Down's syndrome. The 3D co-ordinates of 50 soft tissue facial landmarks were recorded by an electromechanical digitizer in 17 male and 11 female subjects with Down's syndrome aged 12-45 years, and in 429 healthy individuals of the same age, ethnicity and gender. From the landmark co-ordinates, geometric calculations were obtained of several 3D facial angles: facial convexity in the horizontal plane (upper facial convexity, mid facial convexity including the nose, and lower facial convexity), mandibular corpus convexity in the horizontal plane, facial convexity including the nose, facial convexity excluding the nose, interlabial angle, nasolabial angle, angle of nasal convexity, left and right soft tissue gonial angles. Data were compared with that collected for the normal subjects by computing the z-scores. Facial convexity in the horizontal plane (both in the upper and mid facial third), facial convexity in the sagittal plane and the angle of nasal convexity were significantly (P < 0.05) increased (flatter) in subjects with Down's syndrome than in the normal controls. Both left and right soft tissue gonial angles were significantly reduced (more acute) in the Down's syndrome subjects. Subjects with Down's syndrome had a more hypoplastic facial middle third with reduced nasal protrusion, and a reduced lower facial third (mandible) than reference, normal subjects.

  11. Bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma associated with the discontinuation of escitalopram: a case report.

    PubMed

    AlQuorain, Sara; Alfaraj, Sukayna; Alshahrani, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department complaining of severe headache for 3 hours duration associated with bilateral blurred vision, photophobia, and one attack of vomiting. Her clinical examination revealed normal vital signs and decrease in visual acuity with hazy cornea bilaterally. There were no signs of increased intracranial pressure and no neck rigidity or meningeal signs. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma (AACG) with intraocular pressure of 60 mmHg in both eyes. She was using escitalopram for the treatment of depression, which was the only known risk factor for her condition. Standard treatment for AACG was provided. It included topical β-blocker, α agonists, and acetazolamide. This was followed by bilateral peripheral iridotomy. Follow-up intraocular pressure measurement revealed a value of 5 mmHg after 24 hours, indicating complete recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to describe AACG after stopping the medication. It is highly important that clinicians be aware of this risk factor for AACG and have high index of suspicion in such patients with vision-threatening condition even after discontinuing the medication, because the risk persists for some time. PMID:27660499

  12. Bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma associated with the discontinuation of escitalopram: a case report

    PubMed Central

    AlQuorain, Sara; Alfaraj, Sukayna; Alshahrani, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department complaining of severe headache for 3 hours duration associated with bilateral blurred vision, photophobia, and one attack of vomiting. Her clinical examination revealed normal vital signs and decrease in visual acuity with hazy cornea bilaterally. There were no signs of increased intracranial pressure and no neck rigidity or meningeal signs. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma (AACG) with intraocular pressure of 60 mmHg in both eyes. She was using escitalopram for the treatment of depression, which was the only known risk factor for her condition. Standard treatment for AACG was provided. It included topical β-blocker, α agonists, and acetazolamide. This was followed by bilateral peripheral iridotomy. Follow-up intraocular pressure measurement revealed a value of 5 mmHg after 24 hours, indicating complete recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to describe AACG after stopping the medication. It is highly important that clinicians be aware of this risk factor for AACG and have high index of suspicion in such patients with vision-threatening condition even after discontinuing the medication, because the risk persists for some time.

  13. Bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma associated with the discontinuation of escitalopram: a case report

    PubMed Central

    AlQuorain, Sara; Alfaraj, Sukayna; Alshahrani, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department complaining of severe headache for 3 hours duration associated with bilateral blurred vision, photophobia, and one attack of vomiting. Her clinical examination revealed normal vital signs and decrease in visual acuity with hazy cornea bilaterally. There were no signs of increased intracranial pressure and no neck rigidity or meningeal signs. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral acute closed angle glaucoma (AACG) with intraocular pressure of 60 mmHg in both eyes. She was using escitalopram for the treatment of depression, which was the only known risk factor for her condition. Standard treatment for AACG was provided. It included topical β-blocker, α agonists, and acetazolamide. This was followed by bilateral peripheral iridotomy. Follow-up intraocular pressure measurement revealed a value of 5 mmHg after 24 hours, indicating complete recovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case to describe AACG after stopping the medication. It is highly important that clinicians be aware of this risk factor for AACG and have high index of suspicion in such patients with vision-threatening condition even after discontinuing the medication, because the risk persists for some time. PMID:27660499

  14. Microcatheter Looping Facilitates Access to Both the Acutely Angled Parent Artery and Cerebral Aneurysms for Effective Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong-Hui; Ye, Jian-Ya; Su, Xian-Hui; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Er-Wei; Han, Yong-Feng; Yang, Song-Tao; Gao, Bu-Lang

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aneurysms with an acutely angled parent artery are difficult to access for coiling. This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of microcatheter looping for embolization of cerebral aneurysms with access difficulty. Ten patients (male:female=5:5) with cerebral aneurysms treated with the microcatheter looping technique were analyzed retrospectively. The parent artery formed an acute angle with the major artery in five aneurysms. The microcatheter was looped into a “α” loop for treatment in the anterior temporal artery aneurysm and a “U” loop in the remaining nine aneurysms. All ten aneurysms were successfully treated with the microcatheter looping technique. The microcatheter tip was successfully navigated into the aneurysm sac and remained stable throughout the embolization process. All aneurysms were occluded with total occlusion in five and near-total occlusion in five, and the parent artery remained patent in all cases. No complications occurred peri-procedurally. The Glasgow Outcome Scale was 5 in all patients before discharge. Follow-up angiography six to 12 months later revealed a good occlusion status of the aneurysms. The microcatheter looping technique is effective when the conventional embolization technique fails to treat cerebral aneurysms with difficult access especially when the parent artery forming an acute angle with the major artery exacerbates difficult access to the aneurysms. PMID:25496676

  15. Acute Improvement of Vertical Jump Performance After Isometric Squats Depends on Knee Angle and Vertical Jumping Ability.

    PubMed

    Tsoukos, Athanasios; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Terzis, Gerasimos; Veligekas, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    Tsoukos, A, Bogdanis, GC, Terzis, G, and Veligekas, P. Acute improvement of vertical jump performance after isometric squats depends on knee angle and vertical jumping ability. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2250-2257, 2016-This study examined the acute effects of maximum isometric squats at 2 different knee angles (90 or 140°) on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in power athletes. Fourteen national-level male track and field power athletes completed 3 main trials (2 experimental and 1 control) in a randomized and counterbalanced order 1 week apart. Countermovement jump performance was evaluated using a force-plate before and 15 seconds, 3, 6, 9, and 12 minutes after 3 sets of 3 seconds maximum isometric contractions with 1-minute rest in between, from a squat position with knee angle set at 90 or 140°. Countermovement jump performance was improved compared with baseline only in the 140° condition by 3.8 ± 1.2% on the 12th minute of recovery (p = 0.027), whereas there was no change in CMJ height in the 90° condition. In the control condition, there was a decrease in CMJ performance over time, reaching -3.6 ± 1.2% (p = 0.049) after 12 minutes of recovery. To determine the possible effects of baseline jump performance on subsequent CMJ performance, subjects were divided into 2 groups ("high jumpers" and "low jumpers"). The baseline CMJ values of "high jumpers" and "low jumpers" differed significantly (CMJ: 45.1 ± 2.2 vs. 37.1 ± 3.9 cm, respectively, p = 0.001). Countermovement jump was increased only in the "high jumpers" group by 5.4 ± 1.4% (p = 0.001) and 7.4 ± 1.2% (p = 0.001) at the knee angles of 90 and 140°, respectively. This improvement was larger at the 140° angle (p = 0.049). Knee angle during isometric squats and vertical jumping ability are important determinants of the acute CMJ performance increase observed after a conditioning activity. PMID:26808841

  16. Effects of Jae-Seng Acupuncture Treatment on the Improvement of Nasolabial Folds and Eye Wrinkles

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Hyong; Lee, Ho Jin; Chung, Kyu Jin; Park, Byung Chun; Chang, Mun Seog; Park, Seong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The microneedle therapy system (MTS), a mechanical method involving making minute multiple holes in the skin, reportedly improves skin condition, such as by reducing flushing and melanin. A newly attempted bloodletting therapy, Jae-Seng Acupuncture, has several advantages over traditional mechanical punching methods because it allows the practitioner to regulate the depth and direction of needle stimulations and to choose whether to stimulate the muscle layers. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of Jae-Seng Acupuncture in the treatment of nasolabial folds and eye wrinkles. The nasolabial folds and eye wrinkles of 107 patients ranging in age from their 20s to their 70s were subjected to DermaVision, a digital skin image analyzer, before the treatment and one to six months after treatment. Additionally, stimulation of the meridians, such as Taeyang, Tongjaryo, Chongmyong, Sungup, Sabaek, Yonghyang, Chichang, Taeyong, was performed to improve the function of the stomach, large intestine. Analyses of the images indicate that Jae-Seng Acupuncture improved nasolabial folds and eye wrinkles, suggesting that this technique is a safe and effective method for the improvement of facial skin conditions. PMID:26064158

  17. From Sponges to Nanotubes: A Change of Nanocrystal Morphology for Acute-Angle Bent-Core Molecules.

    PubMed

    Gorecka, Ewa; Vaupotič, Nataša; Zep, Anna; Pociecha, Damian

    2016-09-26

    The crystalline (B4 ) phase made of acute-angle bent-core molecules (1,7-naphthalene derivatives), which exhibits an unusual, highly porous sponge-like morphology, is presented. However, if grown in the presence of low-weight mesogenic molecules, the same crystal forms nanotubes with a very high aspect ratio. The nanotubes become unstable upon increasing the amount of dopant molecules, and the sponge-like morphology reappears. The phase is optically active, and the optical activity is an order of magnitude smaller than in the B4 phase made of conventional bent-core molecules. The optical activity is related to the spatial inhomogeneity of the layered structure and is reduced due to the low apex angle and low tilt of the molecules. The arrangement of molecules within the layers was deduced from the bathochromic absorption shift in the B4 phase.

  18. From Sponges to Nanotubes: A Change of Nanocrystal Morphology for Acute-Angle Bent-Core Molecules.

    PubMed

    Gorecka, Ewa; Vaupotič, Nataša; Zep, Anna; Pociecha, Damian

    2016-09-26

    The crystalline (B4 ) phase made of acute-angle bent-core molecules (1,7-naphthalene derivatives), which exhibits an unusual, highly porous sponge-like morphology, is presented. However, if grown in the presence of low-weight mesogenic molecules, the same crystal forms nanotubes with a very high aspect ratio. The nanotubes become unstable upon increasing the amount of dopant molecules, and the sponge-like morphology reappears. The phase is optically active, and the optical activity is an order of magnitude smaller than in the B4 phase made of conventional bent-core molecules. The optical activity is related to the spatial inhomogeneity of the layered structure and is reduced due to the low apex angle and low tilt of the molecules. The arrangement of molecules within the layers was deduced from the bathochromic absorption shift in the B4 phase. PMID:27593198

  19. Skin necrosis after calcium hydroxylapatite injection into the glabellar and nasolabial folds.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Dan; Jones, Yian; McCann, John D; Anderson, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    Calcium hydroxylapatite-induced skin necrosis occurred in 2 patients after injection in the glabella and the nasolabial fold, respectively. Supportive treatment with oral steroids, nitroglycerin paste, and warm compresses was initiated more than 48 hours after injection, and its role in recovery is uncertain. Both patients underwent microdermabrasion and used hydrocortisone ointment to flatten the scar, which resulted in gradual improvement with a reasonable cosmetic outcome 4 months after injection. This is the first report of calcium hydroxylapatite-induced skin necrosis. Injectors should be aware of this potential adverse event and counsel their patients appropriately.

  20. Basal View Reference Photographs for Nasolabial Appearance Rating in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Marcie S; Lowe, Kristen M; Clouston, Sean; Shetye, Pradip R; Warren, Stephen M; Grayson, Barry H

    2015-07-01

    The Asher-McDade system is a 5-point ordinal scale frequently used to rate the components of nasolabial appearance, including nasal form and nasal symmetry, in unilateral cleft lip and palate. Although reference photographs illustrating this scale have been identified for the frontal and right profile view, no reference photographs exist for the basal view. The aim of this study was to identify reference photographs for nasal form and nasal symmetry from the basal view to illustrate this scale and facilitate its use. Four raters assessed nasolabial appearance (form and symmetry) on basal view photographs of 50 children (average age 8 years) with a repaired cleft lip. Intraclass correlation coefficients show fair to moderate inter-rater reliability. Cronbach α indicated strong agreement between raters (0.77 nasal form; 0.78 nasal symmetry; 0.80 overall), along with low duplicate measurement error and strong internal consistency between the measures. The photographs with the highest agreement among raters were selected to illustrate each point on the 5-point scale for nasal form and for nasal symmetry, resulting in the selection of 10 reference photographs. The basal view reference photograph set developed from this study may complement existing reference photograph sets for other views and facilitate rating tasks.

  1. Acute effect of constant torque and angle stretching on range of motion, muscle passive properties, and stretch discomfort perception.

    PubMed

    Cabido, Christian E T; Bergamini, Juliana C; Andrade, André G P; Lima, Fernando V; Menzel, Hans J; Chagas, Mauro H

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the acute effects of constant torque (CT) and constant angle (CA) stretching exercises on the maximum range of motion (ROMmax), passive stiffness (PS), and ROM corresponding to the first sensation of tightness in the posterior thigh (FSTROM). Twenty-three sedentary men (age, 19-33 years) went through 1 familiarization session and afterward proceeded randomly to both CA and CT treatment stretching conditions, on separate days. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to analyze hamstring muscles during passive knee extension. The subjects performed 4 stretches of 30 seconds each with a 15-second interval between them. In the CA stretching, the subject reached a certain ROM (95% of ROMmax), and the angle was kept constant. However, in the CT stretching exercise, the volunteer reached a certain resistance torque (corresponding to 95% of ROMmax) and it was kept constant. The results showed an increase in ROMmax for both CA and CT (p < 0.001), but the increase was greater for CT than for CA (CA vs. CT in poststretching, p = 0.002). Although the PS decreased for both CA and CT (p < 0.001), the decrease was greater for CT than for CA (CA vs. CT in poststretching, p = 0.002). The FSTROM increased for both CA and CT, but the increase for CT was greater than that for CA (CA vs. CT in poststretching, p = 0.003). The greater increase in ROMmax for the CT stretch may be explained by greater changes in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit and stretch tolerance, as indicated by the results of PS and FSTROM.

  2. Safety and efficacy of a novel injectable filler in the treatment of nasolabial folds: polymethylmethacrylate and cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Bok; Song, Eun Jong; Kim, Sang Seok; Kim, Jin Wou; Yu, Dong Soo

    2014-08-01

    Nasolabial folds are a sign of aging and increasing number of people want filler injections in their nasolabial folds to look younger. Various dermal fillers are used for the correction of nasolabial folds. Recently, a novel injectible filler, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, was introduced for facial contouring. This study was designed as a six-month, prospective, single-blinded, and open-label study in two centers located in Korea. Nineteen Korean patients received the novel filler injections on both nasolabial folds. At Weeks 4, 12, and 24, the efficacy and safety of the dermal filler were evaluated by blinded-investigators using clinical photographs. The mean Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale revealed significant decrease after dermal filler injections at each study visit. The decreased Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale was maintained for 6 months (p < 0.0001). The Global Aesthetic Improvement score showed an improvement greater than 2 in 95% of the per-proto col population 24 weeks after the injections. All patients (100%) experienced an improvement of their nasolabial folds at Week 24. There were no complications related to the novel filler injection. The novel dermal filler, PMMA, and cross-linked dextran in hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose, can be another safe and effective treatment option in the treatment of nasolabial folds.

  3. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test.

    PubMed

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Lehman, Gregory J; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson's r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = -1.39° (-5.53, +2.75); t(22) = -0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen's d = - 0.15 (-0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = -0.005 (-0.013, +0.003); t(22) = -1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen's d = - 0.27 (-0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol.

  4. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test.

    PubMed

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Lehman, Gregory J; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson's r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = -1.39° (-5.53, +2.75); t(22) = -0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen's d = - 0.15 (-0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = -0.005 (-0.013, +0.003); t(22) = -1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen's d = - 0.27 (-0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol. PMID:26421244

  5. Safety and Efficacy of Growth Factor Concentrate in the Treatment of Nasolabial Fold Correction: Split Face Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sevilla, Gema P; Dhurat, Rachita S; Shetty, Geetanjali; Kadam, Prashant P; Totey, Satish M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growth factors have long been known as an effective treatment for facial wrinkles. We developed growth factor concentrate (GFC) from the platelets and evaluated their clinical outcome in nasolabial folds. Aims and Objectives: We evaluated safety and efficacy of autologous GFC on patients with nasolabial folds. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 80 patients for nasolabial folds in two groups. Group I (20) received bilateral single injection of GFC and group II (60) received single injection of GFC on the right side of the face and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the left side of the face. Severity of nasolabial folds was determined at the baseline and 3 months of follow-up visits based on wrinkle severity rating scale (WSRS), Global aesthetic improvement scale (GAIS) and atlas photographic grading at rest and at full smile. Objective clinical assessment and subjective satisfaction scale was determined for overall improvement at the end of the study. Results: In group I, 2 subjects showed improvement after GFC treatment with the score of 3.1–4 (76–100%), 3 subjects with the score of 2.1–3 (51–75%), 14 with the score of 1.1–2 (26–50%) and 1 subject with the score of 0–1 (<25%) at the end of study. In group II, 51 subjects were evaluated at the end of study where, 34 (66%) showed superior improvements after GFC, 6 (11%) patients showed similar improvement on both side of the face, 10 (19.6%) patients showed no noticeable improvement on the either side of the face and only 1 patient (1.96%) showed superior improvement for PRP at the end of the study. Overall improvement score analysis showed that GFC was significantly superior to PRP (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Present study is a strong evidence to support the use of GFC for nasolabial folds. The results showed that the single application of GFC is highly effective and safe. PMID:26538718

  6. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J.; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson’s r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = −1.39° (−5.53, +2.75); t(22) = −0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen’s d = − 0.15 (−0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = −0.005 (−0.013, +0.003); t(22) = −1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen’s d = − 0.27 (−0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol. PMID:26421244

  7. Evaluation of Subcision for the Correction of the Prominent Nasolabial Folds

    PubMed Central

    Robati, R. M.; Abdollahimajd, F.; Robati, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. A prominent nasolabial fold (NLF) is a cosmetic problem. Currently, numerous therapeutic modalities are available for pronounced NLFs with variable efficacy. Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of subcision using a hypodermic needle for the correction of the prominent NLFs and its effect on skin elasticity. Methods. Sixteen patients with prominent NLFs underwent subcision. The investigators' assessment of improvement and the patients' satisfaction were both recorded 1 and 6 months after the procedure. Also, we evaluate the skin elasticity of NLFs before and after the treatment using a sensitive biometrologic device with the measurement of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Results. Thirteen (81.25%) patients showed a moderate improvement at 1st month and 13 (81.25%) patients had at least a mild improvement at 6th month. There was no persistent side effect lasting more than a few days. Mean CRRT at 1 and 6 months after the treatment was significantly higher compared to the baseline. Conclusion. Subcision may be considered effective for the correction of pronounced NLFs. However, further controlled studies with larger sample size are necessary to assess the efficacy of this technique in particular with use of more objective assessment of skin biometric characteristics. This trial is registered with IRCT201108097270N1 (registered on January 27, 2012). PMID:26788052

  8. Revisit of Nasolabial Flap in the Reconstruction of Defects Involving the Oral Floor

    PubMed Central

    Bhambar, Rohan Suhas; Baliga, Mohan; Kumar, Ashish; Jagannathan, Sudhir; Kumar, Harsh; Kumar, Rammohan; Pokhrel, Prenit; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to present the usefulness of the nasolabial flap (NL flap) along with a detailed review of the factors that lead to its selection for the reconstruction of post-ablative oral floor defects. Materials and Methods: The records of patients who underwent the procedure between June 2009 and June 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 16 reconstructive procedures were performed. NL flap was selected for reconstruction in all the cases due patient related factors mainly associated medical comorbidities, resource constraints, and the relatively small size of defects, which precluded the use of free flaps. Results: None of the flaps were lost, 26% of patients had flap related complications. Most of the complications were minor and managed conservatively. Conclusion: Data from this study suggest that NL flap is a reliable option for reconstruction of the oral floor, in form as well as function, without esthetic compromise and has a major role even in this era of free flaps. PMID:27013854

  9. Calcium Hydroxylapatite With Integral Lidocaine Provides Improved Pain Control for the Correction of Nasolabial Folds.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Daniel; Bertucci, Vince; Solish, Nowell

    2016-08-01

    Calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres in a carrier gel (CaHA; Radiesse®: Merz North America, Inc., Raleigh, NC) is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for subdermal implantation for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial wrinkles and folds, such as nasolabial folds (NLFs). Lidocaine is often mixed with injectable dermal fillers to reduce injection pain. A new formulation of CaHA has been developed with the convenience of integral 0.3% lidocaine, CaHA (+).
    This multicenter, split-face, double-blind study randomized subjects to receive treatment with CaHA (+) in one NLF and CaHA without lidocaine in the contralateral NLF. The pain level for each NLF was evaluated immediately following the injection using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS), and every 15 minutes for 60 minutes plus follow-up visits. Additional endpoints included aesthetic outcomes and subject preference. All subjects (N=102) received treatment.
    CaHA (+) treatment resulted in a statistically and clinically significant reduction in pain ratings immediately after injection compared with CaHA. The mean difference in VAS scores for pain was -4.41 (P<0.0001). In 90% of subjects, the VAS scores were ≥2.0 cm lower for the CaHA (+)-treated NLF. A significant reduction in pain ratings throughout the first hour after injection was observed with CaHA (+) compared with CaHA (P<0.0001). Both treatment groups achieved significant aesthetic improvement; however, the pain differential resulted in a subject-reported preference for CaHA (+). CaHA (+) with integral lidocaine significantly reduces pain and is as effective as CaHA.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):1005-1010.

  10. Calcium Hydroxylapatite With Integral Lidocaine Provides Improved Pain Control for the Correction of Nasolabial Folds.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Daniel; Bertucci, Vince; Solish, Nowell

    2016-08-01

    Calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres in a carrier gel (CaHA; Radiesse®: Merz North America, Inc., Raleigh, NC) is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for subdermal implantation for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial wrinkles and folds, such as nasolabial folds (NLFs). Lidocaine is often mixed with injectable dermal fillers to reduce injection pain. A new formulation of CaHA has been developed with the convenience of integral 0.3% lidocaine, CaHA (+).
    This multicenter, split-face, double-blind study randomized subjects to receive treatment with CaHA (+) in one NLF and CaHA without lidocaine in the contralateral NLF. The pain level for each NLF was evaluated immediately following the injection using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS), and every 15 minutes for 60 minutes plus follow-up visits. Additional endpoints included aesthetic outcomes and subject preference. All subjects (N=102) received treatment.
    CaHA (+) treatment resulted in a statistically and clinically significant reduction in pain ratings immediately after injection compared with CaHA. The mean difference in VAS scores for pain was -4.41 (P<0.0001). In 90% of subjects, the VAS scores were ≥2.0 cm lower for the CaHA (+)-treated NLF. A significant reduction in pain ratings throughout the first hour after injection was observed with CaHA (+) compared with CaHA (P<0.0001). Both treatment groups achieved significant aesthetic improvement; however, the pain differential resulted in a subject-reported preference for CaHA (+). CaHA (+) with integral lidocaine significantly reduces pain and is as effective as CaHA.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(8):1005-1010. PMID:27538003

  11. A Double-Lobe Flap Design Combined Nasolabial Advancement and Infraorbital Rotation for Reconstruction of Infraorbital Defect.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Ke; Sun, Yan-Fang; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Xiong, Xue-Peng

    2016-06-01

    Various adjacent flaps have been designed to close infraorbital defect, and each of them is trying to get an aesthetic outcome and meanwhile circumvent eyelid retraction, ectropion, and functional disability. Here, the authors report an adjacent double-lobe flap, which took advantage of nasolabial advancement and infraorbital rotation of the 2 lobes, combinatorially closed a pentagon infraorbital defect by removal of 2 small skin paddles as donor sites, and finally yielded an acceptable aesthetic and functional outcome. This flap may be a new option for closure of polygon infraorbital defects. PMID:27213736

  12. Evaluating aesthetics of the nasolabial region in children with cleft lip and palate: professional analysis and patient satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Tatiana Saito; Andre, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common deformities of the craniofacial region, and treatment of this deformity is essential for social reintegration. One of the major goals of surgery and treatment of craniofacial deformities is to improve the aesthetic appearance of the face, and thereby improve the patient’s social acceptability. Here, we present a critical review of the criteria for aesthetic evaluation of the nasolabial region in cleft patients by assessing publications with the highest level of evidence, including professional evaluation, and patient satisfaction. The findings indicate treatment of this condition represents a major challenge for multidisciplinary team care. PMID:23152672

  13. Comparative study of the effectiveness and safety of porcine and bovine atelocollagen in Asian nasolabial fold correction.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suk-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Jae; Rhie, Jong-Won; Suh, Dong-Sam; Oh, Deuk-Young; Lee, Joong-Ho; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Sue-Min; Jun, Young-Joon

    2015-06-01

    Bovine-derived collagen has been used for soft-tissue augmentation since 1977. However, there are issues regarding the possibility of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Researchers discovered that the histologic structure of porcine-derived collagen is similar to that of human dermal collagen and that it is free from the risk of BSE. This study was conducted to establish the effectiveness and safety of porcine-derived collagen compared to bovine-derived collagen. The 73 patients included in this study were healthy volunteers who responded to an advertisement approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). They had visited the authors' hospital complaining of wrinkles on their nasolabial fold. Either porcine (TheraFill®) or bovine atelocollagen was randomly injected into each side of their nasolabial folds, and the five-grade Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS) was used to evaluate the wrinkles before and after the injection. The average age of the 73 study patients was 46.18 years. The WSRS scores of the porcine and bovine atelocollagen-injected patients were 2.90 ± 0.71 and 2.85 ± 0.72 at the baseline and 2.15 ± 0.70 and 2.21 ± 0.67 after 6 months. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Adverse effects of the porcine atelocollagen injection were seen in 12 patients, with the most common symptom being redness. This study showed that porcine atelocollagen can be used easily and without the need for the skin testing which is necessary before bovine atelocollagen injection. The efficacy of porcine atelocollagen is also similar to that of bovine atelocollagen.

  14. Unilateral Acute Closed-Angle Glaucoma After Elective Lumbar Surgery Reveals Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms. A Case Report and Discussion on Workup of Differential Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Storey, Christopher; Menger, Richard; Hefner, Matthew; Keating, Patrick; Ahmed, Osama; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of our paper is to present a case of a rare complication of posterior lumbar surgery. Our patient presented for elective lumbar decompression, which was complicated by durotomy. She then developed sudden headache and right eye pain once upright on postoperative day 2. Then on postoperative day 3, she developed a dilated nonreactive pupil with extraocular movements intact. A computed tomography scan of the head was negative for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a possible right posterior communicating artery aneurysm. She was transferred to a tertiary center with a severe headache and a nonreactive pupil, raising concern for evolving third nerve palsy due to aneurysm. A cerebral angiogram was performed and showed multiple aneurysms. Aneurysm location did not explain the patient's symptoms, and ophthalmology was consulted. Elevated intraocular pressure was noted, and the patient was diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG). Our patient was medically treated and subsequently underwent laser peripheral iridotomy. She has had improved vision and pupillary function at 1 month follow-up. The diagnosis is complicated by a durotomy, which led to cascade in the differential diagnosis to rule out intracranial pathology. Her age and home medications, which had sympathomimetic effects, placed her at increased risk, but lying prone in the dark under the drapes was likely the lead causative factor. In conclusion, a postoperative posterior spine patient with eye pain and changes in vision and pupils should be evaluated with AACG in mind due to the devastating consequences if left untreated or treatment is delayed.

  15. Evaluation of the poly-L-lactic acid implant for treatment of the nasolabial fold: 3-year follow-up evaluation.

    PubMed

    Salles, A G; Lotierzo, P H; Gimenez, R; Camargo, C P; Ferreira, M C

    2008-09-01

    The search for an ideal filler for soft tissue augmentation still continues. Because aging changes are continuous, temporary fillers should be preferred against permanent ones. Since 1999, the poly-L-lactic acid filler (PLA) has been marketed in Europe as Newfill. As a synthetic biocompatible polymer, PLA originally was used in suture materials and screws. In 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved PLA under the name of Sculptra for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-related facial lipoatrophy. This study aimed to evaluate a 3-year follow-up investigation into the effect of PLA implant injection for the treatment of sunken nasolabial folds. Between October 2003 and February 2004, 10 women with a median age of 54 years (range, 43-60 years) were injected with polylactic acid hydrogel (Newfill) in the nasolabial fold area for aesthetic reasons. All the patients underwent three injections: one injection per month for 3 months. Evaluation of the results based on clinical examination and photography was performed at each session, at 6 months, and then 36 months after the third session. Injectable PLA was able to correct nasolabial folds successfully with a more lasting result than absorbable fillers commonly used in clinical practice, such as hyaluronic acid and collagen. Careful and standardized photographic documentation is indispensable.

  16. Efficacy and safety of porcine collagen filler for nasolabial fold correction in Asians: a prospective multicenter, 12 months follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ho; Choi, Yong Sung; Kim, Sue Min; Kim, Young Jin; Rhie, Jong Won; Jun, Young Joon

    2014-11-01

    Recently, injectable dermal fillers have become important alternatives to surgical procedures for the correction of facial wrinkles. Bovine collagen is the first approved material for filler injection, and several studies have shown its efficacy. However, the risk of developing an allergic reaction and xenogenic transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy remain among its disadvantages. In this randomized, double-blinded, split-face study, we compared the efficacy and safety of a porcine collagen filler (TheraFill®) with that of a bovine collagen filler (KOKEN®) for nasolabial fold correction. A total of sixty one patients with mild to severe nasolabial fold were randomized to receive TheraFill® and KOKEN® on contralateral sides of the face. During the 12-month follow-up period, improvement in the Wrinkle-Severity Rating Scale score was slightly higher in TheraFill® group than KOKEN® group, although the difference was not statistically significant. No serious adverse reactions were observed and both materials were tolerable in most cases. In conclusion, the long-term effect of TheraFill® on nasolabial fold correction was comparable to that of KOKEN®, and it may be a good alternative to bovine collagen filler.

  17. Nasolabial pedicled compared with island flaps for intraoral reconstruction of oncological defects: complications, recovery of sensitivity, and assessment of quality of life.

    PubMed

    Maria, Lazaridou; Konstantinos, Vaxtsevanos; Ioannis, Dimitrakopoulos; Nikolaos, Lazaridis; Konstantinos, Antoniades

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to compare pedicled and island nasolabial flaps used for reconstruction of oral defects in terms of postoperative complications, recovery of sensitivity, and quality of life. We organised a retrospective cohort study of 49 patients who had had intraoral reconstruction with nasolabial pedicled (n-=13) and island (n=36) flaps. Twenty- two patients filled in a validated quality-of-life (QoL) questionnaire and we did sensitivity tests (sharp discrimination with the aid of a Semmes-Weinstein™ aesthesiometer). Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed and probabilities of 0.05 were accepted as significant. There were 11 flap-related complications (22%), and the flap was totally necrotic in three patients (6%), all of whom had island flaps. There was a significant association between flap-related complications and the use of reconstruction plate p=0.001, 95% CI 2.36 to 11.37) and advanced stage (T3 and T4 p=0.01, 95% CI 1.45 to 5.26). Skin sensitivity recovered in both island and pedicled flaps. Patients treated with island flaps had significantly more problems with prosthetic rehabilitation than those treated with pedicled flaps. The relatively low morbidity and adequate functional and aesthetic results make the pedicled nasolabial flap a viable technique. De-epithelialisation of the pedicle in island flaps permits coverage of defects with unilateral flaps in a one-stage reconstruction. However, the pedicle may be excessively stretched, leading to ischaemic complications. PMID:27182010

  18. Solid-state 13C NMR study of banana liquid crystals - 3: Alkyl-tail-group packing environments of an acute-angle bent-core molecule in the hexagonal columnar and cubic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosu, Hiromichi; Endo, Yumi; Kimura, Saori; Hashimoto, Tomoko; Harada, Motoi; Lee, Eun-Woo; Sone, Masato; Watanabe, Junji; Kang, Sungmin

    2016-02-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were performed on the hexagonal columnar and cubic phases of an acute-angle banana-shaped molecule, N(1,7)-S30. In the hexagonal columnar phase, three peaks appear at the NMR chemical shifts assigned to the internal methylene carbons of alkyl tails, indicating that the two alkyl tails have different packing structures, and one of the tails has two different conformations within a single molecule. Combined cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning and pulse saturation transfer/magic-angle spinning measurements show that one of the alkyl chains is located inside and the other is located outside the columnar structure. In the cubic phase, pulse saturation transfer/magic-angle spinning measurement shows that only one peak appears at the NMR chemical shifts assigned to the internal methylene carbons of alkyl tails, indicating that both of the alkyl chains are located outside the cubic structure.

  19. Comparative follow-up of patients with acute and obtuse infundibulum-pelvic angle submitted to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for lower caliceal stones: preliminary report and proposed study design.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, F J; D'Anunciação, A L; Silva, E C

    1997-06-01

    Nowadays, there is a consensus that the poor success rate of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is in the treatment of lower caliceal stones. The gravity-dependent position of the lower-pole calices is postulated to be the main factor hindering the spontaneous passage of stone debris that results from SWL. Nevertheless, we proposed that there are some particular features of the inferior-pole collecting system anatomy that could contribute to fragment retention. We studied the influence of the lower infundibulum-pelvic angle on fragment retention, considering 74 patients submitted to SWL for the treatment of lower-pole nephrolithiasis in a Lithostar Plus machine. At a mean follow-up of 9 months, 75% of the patients presenting an angle of greater than 90 degrees between the lower infundibulum where the stone was located and the renal pelvis became stone-free within 3 months. On the other hand, only 23% of the patients presenting an angle smaller than 90 degrees between the lower infundibulum where the stone was located and the renal pelvis became stone-free during the follow-up. Determination of the angle between the renal pelvis and the infundibulum of the inferior pole calix where the stone is located is very important, because the angle will differ in the same kidney, depending on stone location. Although preliminary and based on a small series of patients, our data suggest that an acute pelvic-lower pole infundibular angle hinders the spontaneous discharge of fragments after SWL. Also, use of the proposed technique of pelvic-lower pole infundibular angle measurement will be important for unifying angle evaluation by other investigators.

  20. Effects of two alar base suture techniques suture techniques on nasolabial changes after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery in Taiwanese patients with class III malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y-H; Lin, C C-H; Ko, E W-C

    2015-07-01

    A randomized controlled trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of two alar base cinch techniques on the changes in nasolabial morphology after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Sixty patients requiring a Le Fort I osteotomy to correct skeletal discrepancies were selected randomly to receive either conventional or modified alar base cinching during the intraoral wound closure procedure. Conventional cinching passed through nasalis muscle and anterior nasal spine. Modified cinching also passed through dermis tissue to increase the anchorage. Postoperative hard and soft tissue changes were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography and three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry at predefined time points. Forty-eight patients with a skeletal class III malocclusion were included. In the conventional group, there was an increase of 0.31 ± 1.31 mm in nasal width and an increase of 0.97 ± 1.60mm in columellar length. In the modified group, there was an increase of 0.81 ± 1.87 mm in the cutaneous height of the upper lip and a decrease of 0.76 ± 1.56 mm in lower prolabial width. Patients with an initial narrow nasal width, alar base width, and less vertical nostril show were more susceptible to a greater degree of change after surgery. Both alar base suture techniques are effective at controlling nasolabial form changes resulting from class III dual-jaw orthognathic surgery.

  1. [Angle-closure chronic glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2003-10-01

    The incidence of chronic angle closure glaucoma is considerably greater than the incidence of the acute type. This type of glaucoma may mimic primary open angle glaucoma with visual field deterioration, optic nerve alteration and intraocular pressure elevation with a quiet painless eye. Its diagnosis is based on indentation gonioscopy showing peripheral anterior synechiae. The mechanisms of angle closure are the pupillary block, the plateau iris configuration and the creeping form. The treatment of chronic angle closure glaucoma is based on laser peripheral iridotomy. PMID:14646832

  2. Angle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, G. T. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An angle detector for determining a transducer's angular disposition to a capacitive pickup element is described. The transducer comprises a pendulum mounted inductive element moving past the capacitive pickup element. The capacitive pickup element divides the inductive element into two parts L sub 1 and L sub 2 which form the arms of one side of an a-c bridge. Two networks R sub 1 and R sub 2 having a plurality of binary weighted resistors and an equal number of digitally controlled switches for removing resistors from the networks form the arms of the other side of the a-c bridge. A binary counter, controlled by a phase detector, balances the bridge by adjusting the resistance of R sub 1 and R sub 2. The binary output of the counter is representative of the angle.

  3. A randomized, evaluator-blind, multicenter comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of Perlane versus Zyplast in the correction of nasolabial folds.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Christer; Tveten, Stein; Bondevik, Bjørn Eriksen; Fagrell, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Bovine collagen is widely used as a dermal filler for facial soft-tissue augmentation, but it provides only temporary cosmetic improvement. Nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid has reduced potential for immunogenicity and hypersensitivity and may provide a more durable aesthetic result. Sixty-eight patients with prominent nasolabial folds were randomized to intradermal treatment with nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid gel (Perlane) and bovine collagen (Zyplast) on contralateral sides of the face. On achievement of "optimal cosmetic result" (baseline), patients were followed up for 6 months; bilateral retreatment with Perlane was offered at 6 or 9 months after baseline. Responses were evaluated at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months after baseline. Investigator-based and patient-based ratings indicated that Perlane was more effective than Zyplast in maintaining cosmetic correction. According to investigator-based Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale assessments at 6 and 9 months after baseline, Perlane was superior in 50.0 percent and 48.8 percent of patients, respectively, whereas Zyplast was superior in 10.3 percent and 14.0 percent of patients, respectively (p < 0.0004). Investigator-based Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale assessment at 9 months after baseline indicated that Perlane was superior in 48.8 percent of patients, whereas Zyplast was superior in 14.0 percent of patients (p = 0.0025). "Optimal cosmetic result" was achieved with a smaller volume of Perlane than Zyplast (mean, 1.2 ml versus 2.1 ml). Local injection-site reactions (redness, swelling, pruritus, and induration) were less frequent with Perlane than with Zyplast. Delayed-onset reactions were rare and did not reoccur after Perlane retreatment. Perlane has acceptable long-term safety and offers a longer-lasting aesthetic improvement than Zyplast.

  4. Perception of Perspective Angles.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Casper J

    2015-06-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312

  5. [Chronic closed-angle glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Valtot, F

    2004-06-01

    Five times more frequent than the acute form, chronic closed-angle glaucoma often goes unrecognized for a long time, resulting in considerable visual field deficiencies, even in loss of the eye. It is sometimes confused with chronic glaucoma and treated as such, which is inadequate to halt the progression of the disease. Only gonioscopy can diagnose it. If doubt persists, UBM (ultrasound biomicroscopy) can detect goniosynechiae, a malposition of the ciliary body or of the lens, or the existence of iridociliary cysts. Nine times out of ten, pupillary block initiates the process and an iridotomy should always be done to remediate it, even if this procedure alone does not always suffice to solve the problem. PMID:15319750

  6. Reading Angles in Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  7. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  8. Angles, Time, and Proportion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an investigation making connections between the time on an analog clock and the angle between the minute hand and the hour hand. It was posed by a middle school mathematics teacher. (Contains 8 tables and 6 figures.)

  9. Reading angles in maps.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections appeared without any relevant length or distance information. Children were able to read these map fragments and compare two-dimensional to three-dimensional angles. However, this ability appeared both variable and fragile among the youngest children of the sample. These findings suggest that 4-year-old children begin to form an abstract concept of angle that applies both to two-dimensional and three-dimensional displays and that serves to interpret novel spatial symbols. PMID:23647223

  10. 'Magic Angle Precession'

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Bernd

    2008-01-21

    An advanced and exact geometric description of nonlinear precession dynamics modeling very accurately natural and artificial couplings showing Lorentz symmetry is derived. In the linear description it is usually ignored that the geometric phase of relativistic motion couples back to the orbital motion providing for a non-linear recursive precession dynamics. The high coupling strength in the nonlinear case is found to be a gravitomagnetic charge proportional to the precession angle and angular velocity generated by geometric phases, which are induced by high-speed relativistic rotations and are relevant to propulsion technologies but also to basic interactions. In the quantum range some magic precession angles indicating strong coupling in a phase-locked chaotic system are identified, emerging from a discrete time dynamical system known as the cosine map showing bifurcations at special precession angles relevant to heavy nuclei stability. The 'Magic Angle Precession' (MAP) dynamics can be simulated and visualized by cones rolling in or on each other, where the apex and precession angles are indexed by spin, charge or precession quantum numbers, and corresponding magic angles. The most extreme relativistic warping and twisting effect is given by the Dirac spinor half spin constellation with 'Hyperdiamond' MAP, which resembles quark confinement.

  11. A Randomized, Evaluator-Blinded, Split-Face Comparison Study of the Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Mannitol Containing Monophasic Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Filler for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Nasolabial Folds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Wook; Moon, Ik Jun; Yun, Woo Jin; Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Sang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Background Mannitol containing monophasic filler with higher crosslinking has not been well studied for moderate and severe nasolabial fold (NLF) correction. Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of a novel mannitol containing hyaluronic acid (HA) filler (HA-G) with biphasic HA filler (HA-P) for moderate and severe NLF correction. Methods Thirteen subjects with symmetric moderate to severe NLF received HA-G (in one NLF) and HA-P (in other NLF) and were evaluated for 24 weeks. Results At both 12 and 24 weeks, the mean improvement in Genzyme 6-point grading scale from baseline was significantly greater in the side of face that was treated with HA-G than HA-P (1.96±0.91 vs. 1.54±0.73 at week 12; p=0.044, 1.88±0.78 vs. 1.3±0.79 at week 24; p=0.027, respectively). At 12 weeks, the mean Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale score was 2.92±0.93 for HA-G and 2.31±0.95 for HA-P (p=0.008). Both fillers were well tolerated. Conclusion The HA filler HA-G provides better efficacy and similar local tolerability compared with HA-P in 6 months following treatment for moderate and severe NLF. PMID:27274627

  12. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  13. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

  14. An Iterative Angle Trisection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of angle trisection continues to fascinate people even though it has long been known that it can't be done with straightedge and compass alone. However, for practical purposes, a good iterative procedure can get you as close as you want. In this note, we present such a procedure. Using only straightedge and compass, our procedure…

  15. Interferometric measurement of angles.

    PubMed

    Malacara, D; Harris, O

    1970-07-01

    A new interferometric device for measuring small angles or rotations with high accuracy is described. This instrument works by counting fringes formed by the rotation of a flat-parallel plate of glass illuminated with a collimated beam from a gas laser. Some possible applications are given.

  16. A Different Angle on Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Marc

    2012-01-01

    When a plane figure is photographed from different viewpoints, lengths and angles appear distorted. Hence it is often assumed that lengths, angles, protractors, and compasses have no place in projective geometry. Here we describe a sense in which certain angles are preserved by projective transformations. These angles can be constructed with…

  17. Angle Sense: A Valuable Connector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Proposes angle sense as a fundamental connector between mathematical concepts for middle grade students. Introduces the use of pattern blocks and a goniometer, a tool to measure angles, to help students develop angle sense. Discusses connections between angle measurement and the concepts of rational numbers, circles, area, number theory,…

  18. Angles in the Sky?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Bradford

    2005-09-01

    Tycho Brahe lived and worked in the late 1500s before the telescope was invented. He made highly accurate observations of the positions of planets, stars, and comets using large angle-measuring devices of his own design. You can use his techniques to observe the sky as well. For example, the degree, a common unit of measurement in astronomy, can be measured by holding your fist at arm's length up to the sky. Open your fist and observe the distance across the sky covered by the width of your pinky fingernail. That is, roughly, a degree! After some practice, and knowing that one degree equals four minutes, you can measure elapsed time by measuring the angle of the distance that the Moon appears to have moved and multiplying that number by four. You can also figure distances and sizes of things. These are not precise measurements, but rough estimates that can give you a "close-enough" answer.

  19. Laser angle sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    A laser angle measurement system was designed and fabricated for NASA Langley Research Center. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the model. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. This report includes optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures.

  20. Ischemia detection from morphological QRS angle changes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Daniel; Martínez, Juan Pablo; Laguna, Pablo; Pueyo, Esther

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an ischemia detector is presented based on the analysis of QRS-derived angles. The detector has been developed by modeling ischemic effects on the QRS angles as a gradual change with a certain transition time and assuming a Laplacian additive modeling error contaminating the angle series. Both standard and non-standard leads were used for analysis. Non-standard leads were obtained by applying the PCA technique over specific lead subsets to represent different potential locations of the ischemic zone. The performance of the proposed detector was tested over a population of 79 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in one of the major coronary arteries (LAD (n  =  25), RCA (n  =  16) and LCX (n  =  38)). The best detection performance, obtained for standard ECG leads, was achieved in the LAD group with values of sensitivity and specificity of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], followed by the RCA group with [Formula: see text], Sp  =  94.4 and the LCX group with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], notably outperforming detection based on the ST series in all cases, with the same detector structure. The timing of the detected ischemic events ranged from 30 s up to 150 s (mean  =  66.8 s) following the start of occlusion. We conclude that changes in the QRS angles can be used to detect acute myocardial ischemia. PMID:27243441

  1. Wide Angle Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  2. Glancing angle RF sheaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    RF sheaths occur in tokamaks when ICRF waves encounter conducting boundaries. The sheath plays an important role in determining the efficiency of ICRF heating, the impurity influxes from the edge plasma, and the plasma-facing component damage. An important parameter in sheath theory is the angle θ between the equilibrium B field and the wall. Recent work with 1D and 2D sheath models has shown that the rapid variation of θ around a typical limiter can lead to enhanced sheath potentials and localized power deposition (hot spots) when the B field is near glancing incidence. The physics model used to obtain these results does not include some glancing-angle effects, e.g. possible modification of the angular dependence of the Child-Langmuir law and the role of the magnetic pre-sheath. Here, we report on calculations which explore these effects, with the goal of improving the fidelity of the rf sheath BC used in analytical and numerical calculations. Work supported by US DOE grants DE-FC02-05ER54823 and DE-FG02-97ER54392.

  3. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y K

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  4. Can a surgeon drill accurately at a specified angle?

    PubMed Central

    Brioschi, Valentina; Cook, Jodie; Arthurs, Gareth I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a surgeon can drill accurately a specified angle and whether surgeon experience, task repetition, drill bit size and perceived difficulty influence drilling angle accuracy. Methods The sample population consisted of final-year students (n=25), non-specialist veterinarians (n=22) and board-certified orthopaedic surgeons (n=8). Each participant drilled a hole twice in a horizontal oak plank at 30°, 45°, 60°, 80°, 85° and 90° angles with either a 2.5  or a 3.5 mm drill bit. Participants then rated the perceived difficulty to drill each angle. The true angle of each hole was measured using a digital goniometer. Results Greater drilling accuracy was achieved at angles closer to 90°. An error of ≤±4° was achieved by 84.5 per cent of participants drilling a 90° angle compared with approximately 20 per cent of participants drilling a 30–45° angle. There was no effect of surgeon experience, task repetition or drill bit size on the mean error for intended versus achieved angle. Increased perception of difficulty was associated with the more acute angles and decreased accuracy, but not experience level. Clinical significance This study shows that surgeon ability to drill accurately (within ±4° error) is limited, particularly at angles ≤60°. In situations where drill angle is critical, use of computer-assisted navigation or custom-made drill guides may be preferable. PMID:27547423

  5. Cerebellopontine Angle Lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Schuhmann, Martin U.; Lüdemann, Wolf O.; Schreiber, Hartwig; Samii, Madjid

    1997-01-01

    Intracranial lipomas in an infratentorial and extra-axial location are extremely rare. The presented case of an extensive lipoma of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) represents 0.05% of all CPA tumors operated on in our department from 1978 to 1996. The lipoma constitutes an important differential diagnosis because the clinical management differs significantly from other CPA lesions. The clinical presentation and management of the presented case are analyzed in comparison to all previously described cases of CPA lipomas. The etiology and the radiological features of CPA lipomas are reviewed and discussed. CPA lipomas are maldevelopmental lesions that may cause slowly progressive symptoms. Neuroradiology enables a reliable preoperative diagnosis. Attempts of complete lipoma resection usually result in severe neurological deficits. Therefore, we recommend a conservative approach in managing these patients. Limited surgery is indicated if the patient has an associated vascular compression syndrome or suffers from disabling vertigo. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17171031

  6. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  7. Narrow Angle movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief three-frame movie of the Moon was made from three Cassini narrow-angle images as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. The purpose of this particular set of images was to calibrate the spectral response of the narrow-angle camera and to test its 'on-chip summing mode' data compression technique in flight. From left to right, they show the Moon in the green, blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum in 40, 60 and 80 millisecond exposures, respectively. All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is the same in each image. The spatial scale in the blue and ultraviolet images is 1.4 miles per pixel (2.3 kilometers). The original scale in the green image (which was captured in the usual manner and then reduced in size by 2x2 pixel summing within the camera system) was 2.8 miles per pixel (4.6 kilometers). It has been enlarged for display to the same scale as the other two. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS) at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  8. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    PubMed

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.

  9. Small angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Fabrice

    2015-10-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ˜ 1 nm up to ˜ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ˜ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area…) through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer), form factor analysis (I(q→0), Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system), structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates), and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast). It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of spectrometer

  10. The Critical Angle Can Override the Brewster Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehle, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    As a culminating activity in their study of optics, my students investigate polarized light and the Brewster angle. In this exercise they encounter a situation in which it is impossible to measure the Brewster angle for light reflecting from a particular surface. This paper describes the activity and explains the students' observations.

  11. Evolution of Barb Angle and Filament Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, H. Q.; Kurokawa, H.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Shibata, K.; Bao, X. M.; Wang, G. P.; Li, C.

    2005-09-01

    Hα observations of a quiescent U-shaped filament were obtained at Big Bear Solar Observatory and at Hida Observatory with the Flare Monitoring Telescope. The filament was located in the southern hemisphere on 1998 November 4. We study the evolution of the angle of a barb with respect to the axis of the filament and find the evolution can be divided into two phases: a rise from the acute phase to the obtuse phase and a fall. Thus, this indicates that the chirality of this barb changes with time. Moreover, in the process of evolution, we find that interconnection of the part of the filament bearing the barb with the whole filament became either weakened or strengthened. We impute the final eruption of the filament to the chirality evolution of the barb.

  12. Measuring Angles in Physical Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeley, Nansee; Offerman, Theresa Reardon

    1997-01-01

    Features articles about physical therapy and its history as related to geometry through measurement of body angles. Includes open-ended worksheets for mathematics activities that introduce students to angle measurement, data analysis, and mathematical tools. Activities include: (1) Making Your Own Goniometer; (2) Range of Motion; (3) Active versus…

  13. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Stephen K.; Pratt, II, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  14. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, S.K.; Pratt, H.R. II.

    1989-09-12

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting and accurate reproducing of spinning magic angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the magic angle of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning magic angle of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position. 2 figs.

  15. Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D

    2010-03-15

    A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle.

  16. From plane to spatial angles: PTB's spatial angle autocollimator calibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranz, Oliver; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Krause, Michael; Osten, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Electronic autocollimators are utilised versatilely for non-contact angle measurements in applications like straightness measurements and profilometry. Yet, no calibration of the angle measurement of an autocollimator has been available when both its measurement axes are engaged. Additionally, autocollimators have been calibrated at fixed distances to the reflector, although its distance may vary during the use of an autocollimator. To extend the calibration capabilities of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) regarding spatial angles and variable distances, a novel calibration device has been set up: the spatial angle autocollimator calibrator (SAAC). In this paper, its concept and its mechanical realisation will be presented. The focus will be on the system's mathematical modelling and its application in spatial angle calibrations. The model considers the misalignments of the SAAC's components, including the non-orthogonalities of the measurement axes of the autocollimators and of the rotational axes of the tilting unit. It allows us to derive specific measurement procedures to determine the misalignments in situ and, in turn, to correct the measurements of the autocollimators. Finally, the realisation and the results of a traceable spatial angle calibration of an autocollimator will be presented. This is the first calibration of this type worldwide.

  17. Ring magnet firing angle control

    DOEpatents

    Knott, M.J.; Lewis, L.G.; Rabe, H.H.

    1975-10-21

    A device is provided for controlling the firing angles of thyratrons (rectifiers) in a ring magnet power supply. A phase lock loop develops a smooth ac signal of frequency equal to and in phase with the frequency of the voltage wave developed by the main generator of the power supply. A counter that counts from zero to a particular number each cycle of the main generator voltage wave is synchronized with the smooth AC signal of the phase lock loop. Gates compare the number in the counter with predetermined desired firing angles for each thyratron and with coincidence the proper thyratron is fired at the predetermined firing angle.

  18. Evaluation of Absorbable Mesh Fixation Devices at Various Deployment Angles

    PubMed Central

    Zihni, Ahmed M.; Cavallo, Jaime A.; Thompson, Dominic M.; Chowdhury, Nabeel H.; Frisella, Margaret M.; Matthews, Brent D.; Deeken, Corey R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hernia repair failure may occur due to suboptimal mesh fixation by mechanical constructs before mesh integration. Construct design and acute penetration angle may alter mesh-tissue fixation strength. We compared acute fixation strengths of absorbable fixation devices at various deployment angles, directions of loading, and construct orientations. METHODS Porcine abdominal walls were sectioned. Constructs were deployed at 30, 45, 60, and 90 degree angles to fix mesh to the tissue specimens. Lap-shear testing was performed in upward, downward, and lateral directions in relation to the abdominal wall cranial-caudal axis to evaluate fixation. Absorbatack™ (AT), SorbaFix™ (SF), and SecureStrap™ in vertical (SSV) and horizontal (SSH) orientations in relation to the abdominal wall cranial-caudal axis were tested. Ten tests were performed for each combination of device, angle, and loading direction. Failure types and strength data were recorded. ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer adjustments for multiple comparisons and chi-square tests were performed as appropriate (p<0.05 considered significant). RESULTS At 30 degrees, SSH and SSV had greater fixation strengths (12.95 N, 12.98 N, respectively) than SF (5.70 N; p=0.0057, p=0.0053, respectively). At 45 degrees, mean fixation strength of SSH was significantly greater than SF (18.14 N, 11.40 N; p=0.0002). No differences in strength were identified at 60 or 90 degrees. No differences in strength were noted between SSV and SSH with different directions of loading. No differences were noted between SS and AT at any angle. Immediate failure was associated with SF (p<0.0001) and the 30 degree tacking angle (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Mesh-tissue fixation was stronger at acute deployment angles with SS compared to SF constructs. The 30 degree angle and the SF device were associated with increased immediate failures. Varying construct and loading direction did not generate statistically significant differences in the fixation

  19. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  20. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, S.K.; Pratt, H.R.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes an optical calibration apparatus provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning magic angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the magic angle of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted.

  1. Relativistic Transformation of Solid Angle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Rederives the relativistic transformations of light intensity from compact sources (stars) to show where and how the transformation of a solid angle contributes. Discusses astrophysical and other applications of the transformations. (Author/CS)

  2. Acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Graves, Nancy S

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease syndrome, causing a combination of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. There are more than 350 million cases of acute gastroenteritis in the United States annually and 48 million of these cases are caused by foodborne bacteria. Traveler's diarrhea affects more than half of people traveling from developed countries to developing countries. In adult and pediatric patients, the prevalence of Clostridium difficile is increasing. Contact precautions, public health education, and prudent use of antibiotics are necessary goals in decreasing the prevalence of Clostridium difficle. Preventing dehydration or providing appropriate rehydration is the primary supportive treatment of acute gastroenteritis.

  3. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  4. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  5. The Semiotic and Conceptual Genesis of Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanguay, Denis; Venant, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we try to understand how students at the end of primary school conceive of angle: Is an angle a magnitude for them or a geometric figure, and how do they manage to coordinate the two aspects in their understanding of the concepts of angle and of angle measurement? With the aim of better grasping the way "angle" is…

  6. Metrology of angles in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevsky, Jean

    2004-10-01

    In astronomy, measurements of angles play a major role. After defining the units in use in astronomy, three methods of measuring angles are presented, with an application to the transit instrument. The interferometric techniques for measuring large angles are described in optical and radio wavelengths. Due to the atmospheric and mechanical limitation on ground, space astrometry has multiple advantages. The satellite Hipparcos is described and the data reduction procedures and results obtained are sketched. In the future, two new astrometric space missions are approved: GAIA, based on Hipparcos principles and SIM, a space interferometer. They are described and the expected accuracies are presented. To cite this article: J. Kovalevsky, C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  7. Unilateral angle-closure glaucoma with ciliochoroidal effusion after the consumption of cannabis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Rana; Tiosano, Beatrice; Dbayat, Noora; Gaton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old male patient, diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma, did not improve despite intensive treatment with antiglaucoma medications. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a ciliochoroidal effusion. Due to his past history of drug abuse, a urine test was analyzed and found to be positive for cannabis. After topical cycloplegia and oral steroid therapy, his symptoms improved substantially. The present case highlights the role of ultrasound biomicroscopy in evaluating patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma and the role of cannabis abuse in the development of ciliochoroidal effusion. PMID:25606036

  8. Unilateral angle-closure glaucoma with ciliochoroidal effusion after the consumption of cannabis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Rana; Tiosano, Beatrice; Dbayat, Noora; Gaton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old male patient, diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma, did not improve despite intensive treatment with antiglaucoma medications. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a ciliochoroidal effusion. Due to his past history of drug abuse, a urine test was analyzed and found to be positive for cannabis. After topical cycloplegia and oral steroid therapy, his symptoms improved substantially. The present case highlights the role of ultrasound biomicroscopy in evaluating patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma and the role of cannabis abuse in the development of ciliochoroidal effusion.

  9. Unilateral Angle-Closure Glaucoma with Ciliochoroidal Effusion after the Consumption of Cannabis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Rana; Tiosano, Beatrice; Dbayat, Noora; Gaton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old male patient, diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma, did not improve despite intensive treatment with antiglaucoma medications. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a ciliochoroidal effusion. Due to his past history of drug abuse, a urine test was analyzed and found to be positive for cannabis. After topical cycloplegia and oral steroid therapy, his symptoms improved substantially. The present case highlights the role of ultrasound biomicroscopy in evaluating patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma and the role of cannabis abuse in the development of ciliochoroidal effusion. PMID:25606036

  10. Large angle measurement by interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Dan; Blanaru, Constantin; Damian, Victor S.; Logofatu, Petre-Catalin; Tumbar, R.; Dobroiu, Adrian

    1995-03-01

    An interferometric set-up able to measure angles as large as +180 degree(s) is presented. The principle of the method is to measure a linear displacement (translation) produced by a crank-gear mechanism which converts the angular movement of a rotating table. The optical scheme and consideration on the accuracy of the method are presented.

  11. Discovering the Inscribed Angle Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Matt B.

    2012-01-01

    Learning to play tennis is difficult. It takes practice, but it also helps to have a coach--someone who gives tips and pointers but allows the freedom to play the game on one's own. Learning to act like a mathematician is a similar process. Students report that the process of proving the inscribed angle theorem is challenging and, at times,…

  12. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  13. Angle interferometer cross axis errors

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, J.B.; Carter, D.L.; Thompson, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    Angle interferometers are commonly used to measure surface plate flatness. An error can exist when the centerline of the double comer cube mirror assembly is not square to the surface plate and the guide bar for the mirror sled is curved. Typical errors can be one to two microns per meter. A similar error can exist in the calibration of rotary tables when the centerline of the double comer cube mirror assembly is not square to the axes of rotation of the angle calibrator and the calibrator axis is not parallel to the rotary table axis. Commercial double comer cube assemblies typically have non-parallelism errors of ten milli-radians between their centerlines and their sides and similar values for non-squareness between their centerlines and end surfaces. The authors have developed a simple method for measuring these errors and correcting them by remachining the reference surfaces.

  14. SEDIMENTATION IN THE ANGLE CENTRIFUGE.

    PubMed

    Pickels, E G

    1943-01-20

    1. Using hemocyanin from Limulus polyphemus as a test material, the process of sedimentation in the angle centrifuge, operating both in vacuum and in the open air, has been investigated. 2. Sedimentation in a given field of force was found less efficient when centrifugation was conducted in the open air, because of thermal convection. 3. Correlations have been made with results obtained in the analytical ultracentrifuge, and a theory of sedimentation in inclined tubes has been presented to explain the experimental results. 4. It has been shown that under proper conditions the angle centrifuge may be used for approximate determinations of particle size. 5. Recommendations, based mostly on experimental evidence, have been made for improving sedimentation and interpreting results. 6. To counteract convective disturbances of either thermal or inertial origin, a satisfactory method has been developed which consists of furnishing the fluid under study with a synthetic density gradient, formed with sucrose or some other non-sedimentable material.

  15. Gaia basic angle monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielesen, W.; de Bruijn, D.; van den Dool, T.; Kamphues, F.; Mekking, J.; Calvel, B.; Laborie, A.; Coatantiec, C.; Touzeau, S.; Erdmann, M.; Gare, P.; Monteiro, D.

    2013-09-01

    The Gaia mission1 will create an extraordinarily precise three-dimensional map of more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. The Gaia spacecraft2, built by EADS Astrium, is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision programme and scheduled for launch in 2013. Gaia measures the position, distance and motion of stars with an accuracy of 24 micro-arcsec using two telescopes at a fixed mutual angle of 106.5°, named the `Basic Angle', at an operational temperature of 100 K. This accuracy requires ultra-high stability at cryogenic conditions, which can only be achieved by using Silicon Carbide for both the optical bench and the telescopes. TNO has developed, built and space qualified the Silicon carbide Basic Angle Monitoring (BAM) on-board metrology system3 for this mission, measuring the relative motion of Gaia's telescopes with accuracies in the range of 0.5 micro-arcsec. This is achieved by a system of two laser interferometers able to detect Optical Path Differences (OPD) as small as 1.5 picometer rms. Following a general introduction on Gaia and the use of Silicon Carbide as base material this paper addresses the specific challenges towards the cryogenic application of the Gaia BAM including design, integration and verification/qualification by testing.

  16. OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by θ{sub j} ∼ 1/5Γ{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, Γ{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of θ{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle θ{sub j,{sub max}} ∼ 1/5 ∼ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

  17. Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan

    2015-08-01

    We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell’s law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications.

  18. Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave

    PubMed Central

    Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan

    2015-01-01

    We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell’s law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications. PMID:26244284

  19. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  20. [Acute diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Burgmann, Konstantin; Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Diarrhea, defined as three or more loose or watery stools per day, represents a frequent problem in outpatients as well as inpatients. As most of the patients with acute diarrhea show a self-limiting disease course, the main challenge for the physician is to discriminate patients for whom symptomatic therapy is sufficient from those with severe disease course and threatening complications. This review aims to provide a practical guidance for such decisions.

  1. Gaia basic angle monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielesen, W.; de Bruijn, D.; van den Dool, T.; Kamphues, F.; Meijer, E.; Calvel, B.; Laborie, A.; Monteiro, D.; Coatantiec, C.; Touzeau, S.; Erdmann, M.; Gare, P.

    2012-09-01

    The Gaia mission will create an extraordinarily precise three-dimensional map of more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. The Gaia spacecraft, built by EADS Astrium, is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision programme and scheduled for launch in 2013. Gaia measures the position, distance and motion of stars with an accuracy of 24 micro-arcsec using two telescopes at a fixed mutual angle of 106.5°, named the ‘Basic Angle’. This accuracy requires ultra-high stability, which can only be achieved by using Silicon Carbide for both the optical bench and the telescopes. TNO has developed, built and space qualified the Silicon carbide Basic Angle Monitoring (BAM) on-board metrology system for this mission. The BAM measures the relative motion of Gaia’s telescopes with accuracies in the range of 0.5 micro-arcsec. This is achieved by a system of two laser interferometers able to measure Optical Path Differences (OPD) as small as 1.5 picometer rms. Following a general introduction to the Gaia mission, the Payload Module (PLM) and the use of Silicon Carbide as base material, this presentation will address an overview of the challenges towards the key requirements, design, integration and testing (including space-level qualification) of the Gaia BAM.

  2. A new procedure for measuring contact angle

    SciTech Connect

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1994-05-01

    Described here are some recent work regarding the mathematic design of apparatus that exploits microgravity conditions for accurate experimental determination of contact angle. The underlying motivation for the procedures rests on a discontinuous dependence of the capillary free surface interface S on the contact angle {gamma}, in a cylindrical capillary tube whose section (base) {Omega} contains a protruding corner with opening angle 2{alpha}.

  3. 30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  5. Primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma in Chinese--a clinical exploration of its pathogenesis and natural course.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Ji, X; Zheng, Y; Guo, B

    1994-09-01

    Forty-three cases (86 eyes) of primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma were randomly selected. An additional 44 cases (77 eyes) of primary acute angle-closure glaucoma and 30 normal subjects (34 eyes) were also randomly enrolled as control groups for comparison in the clinical study. Ultrasonic biometric measurements of the anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and axial length of the eyeball were performed. Using an potic microgauge attached to the slit-lamp, the entrance of anterior chamber angle was also calculated. The clinical manifestations and the natural course, including the characteristic appearance of anterior chamber angle, the form of peripheral anterior synechia as well as the facility of outflow, were carefully investigated. There were significant differences in the biometric parameters of the anterior segment of eye among above three groups. The facts reveal that the anatomic features of eyeball, especially in the anterior segment differentiate from those of primary acute angle-closure glaucoma. Follow-up study for the early stage cases showed that topical administration of miotics and/or peripheral iridectomy can effectively prevent iris from forming peripheral anterior synechia and thus halt its development. The criteria of diagnosis and the principles of prevention and treatment at the early stage cases were presented. The pathogenesis was discussed. We emphasized that the progressive stage after intermittent attacks of primary acute angle-closure glaucoma should not be confused with primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma.

  6. Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

    2010-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques.

  7. Axial Tilt Angles of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Robert F.

    1996-12-01

    Separate Mount Wilson plage and sunspot group data sets are analyzed in this review to illustrate several interesting aspects of active region axial tilt angles. (1) The distribution of tilt angles differs between plages and sunspot groups in the sense that plages have slightly higher tilt angles, on average, than do spot groups. (2) The distributions of average plage total magnetic flux, or sunspot group area, with tilt angle show a consistent effect: those groups with tilt angles nearest the average values are larger (or have a greater total flux) on average than those farther from the average values. Moreover, the average tilt angles on which these size or flux distributions are centered differ for the two types of objects, and represent closely the actual different average tilt angles for these two features. (3) The polarity separation distances of plages and sunspot groups show a clear relationship to average tilt angles. In the case of each feature, smaller polarity separations are correlated with smaller tilt angles. (4) The dynamics of regions also show a clear relationship with region tilt angles. The spot groups with tilt angles nearest the average value (or perhaps 0-deg tilt angle) have on average a faster rotation rate than those groups with extreme tilt angles. All of these tilt-angle characteristics may be assumed to be related to the physical forces that affect the magnetic flux loop that forms the region. These aspects are discussed in this brief review within the context of our current view of the formation of active region magnetic flux at the solar surface.

  8. Acute sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Brent; Dion, Gregory R; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Sinusitis is a common patient complaint that carries with it a large economic burden. It is one of the most common reasons patients visit their primary care physician. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) can be distinguished from other forms of rhinosinusitis based on symptom duration of <4 weeks in a patient with purulent rhinorrhea associated with facial pain or pressure. Native upper aerodigestive tract bacteria are the most common etiologic agents. Treatment of ABRS is targeted primarily at symptom improvement. Amoxicillin can be used based on the clinical scenario and patient comorbidities. Computed tomographic scans are reserved for complicated presentations or when there is concern for intracranial extension or other complications. A systematic approach to ABRS will allow for improved patient quality of life and a decreased overall economic burden of this common entity.

  9. Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of a series of aqueous solutions were measured on a number of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces using a modified Wilhelmy plate technique. Superhydrophobic surfaces are hydrophobic surfaces with micron or nanometer sized surface roughness. These surfaces have very large static advancing contact angles and little static contact angle hysteresis. In this study, the dynamic advancing and dynamic receding contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces were measured as a function of plate velocity and capillary number. The dynamic contact angles measured on a smooth hydrophobic Teflon surface were found to obey the scaling with capillary number predicted by the Cox-Voinov-Tanner law, θD3 ∝ Ca. The response of the dynamic contact angle on the superhydrophobic surfaces, however, did not follow the same scaling law. The advancing contact angle was found to remain constant at θA = 160∘, independent of capillary number. The dynamic receding contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces were found to decrease with increasing capillary number; however, the presence of slip on the superhydrophobic surface was found to result in a shift in the onset of dynamic contact angle variation to larger capillary numbers. In addition, a much weaker dependence of the dynamic contact angle on capillary number was observed for some of the superhydrophobic surfaces tested.

  10. Angled Layers in Super Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researchers used a special imaging technique with the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity to get as detailed a look as possible at a target region near eastern foot of 'Burns Cliff.' The intervening terrain was too difficult for driving the rover closer. The target is the boundary between two sections of layered rock. The layers in lower section (left) run at a marked angle to the layers in next higher section (right).

    This view is the product of a technique called super resolution. It was generated from data acquired on sol 288 of Opportunity's mission (Nov. 14, 2004) from a position along the southeast wall of 'Endurance Crater.' Resolution slightly higher than normal for the panoramic camera was synthesized for this view by combining 17 separate images of this scene, each one 'dithered' or pointed slightly differently from the previous one. Computer manipulation of the individual images was then used to generate a new synthetic view of the scene in a process known mathematically as iterative deconvolution, but referred to informally as super resolution. Similar methods have been used to enhance the resolution of images from the Mars Pathfinder mission and the Hubble Space Telescope.

  11. Angiomas of the cerebellopontine angle.

    PubMed

    Viale, G L; Pau, A; Viale, E S; Turtas, S

    1981-01-01

    Angiomas situated within the pontocerebellar cistern lie superficially on the ventrolateral aspect of the brain stem. Occasionally, minor extensions penetrate into the adjacent nervous structures. Five patients bearing such lesions were operated upon, using a microsurgical technique. Radical excision was performed in all cases. Within 2 to 12 months the patients had returned to their previous occupations, being fully able to work or attend school. There is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of surgical treatment of angiomas of the ventrolateral aspect of the brain stem and the cerebellopontine angle. The illness usually presents with hemorrhages of varying severity, ranging from mild to devastating. Impairment of consciousness, contralateral hemiparesis and ipsilateral cranial nerve palsies are the most frequent neurological signs after bleeding. The outcome following excision is primarily related to the preoperative condition. No additional deficits or only minor further impairment can be expected from surgical interference. Exploration is advisable whenever the malformation appears to lie on the surface rather than within the brain stem.

  12. Chronic open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Adatia, Feisal A.; Damji, Karim F.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, including in Canada. It presents a challenge in diagnosis, as disease often progresses without symptoms; an estimated 50% of cases are undetected. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE searches, reference lists of articles, and expert knowledge from one of the authors (K.F.D.), a glaucoma specialist, were used. MAIN MESSAGE A casefinding approach using early referral to optometrists and ophthalmologists for early detection of COAG is helpful for patients with risk factors such as age above 50, a positive family history, black race, and myopia. Moderate evidence for referral also exists for the following risk factors: hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and sleep apnea. Treatment with intraocular pressure–lowering medication can arrest or slow the course of the disease, permitting patients to retain good visual function. Family physicians should be aware that some intraocular pressure–lowering medications, particularly topical beta-blockers, can pose iatrogenic harm to patients and result in or exacerbate such conditions as asthma, cardiovascular disturbances, depression, and sexual dysfunction. CONCLUSION Appropriate referral patterns and an understanding of common as well as serious side effects of glaucoma medications are important in optimizing management of patients at risk of developing, or who have, COAG. PMID:16190176

  13. Dual-view angle backlight module design.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Tsuen; Pan, Jui-Wen

    2015-10-01

    We propose a bilayer light guide plate (BLGP) with specially designed microstructures and two light source modules to achieve an adjustable viewing angle backlight for ecofriendly displays. The dual viewing angle backlight module has a thin, simple structure and a high optical efficiency. Comparison with the conventional edge-lit backlight module shows an improvement in the on-axis luminance of the narrow viewing angle mode of 4.3 times and a decrease in the half-luminance angle of 7° in the horizontal direction. When using the wide viewing angle mode, there is an improvement in the on-axis luminance of 1.8 times and an improvement in the half-luminance angle of 54° in the horizontal direction. The uniformity of illuminance can reach 80% in each mode. The backlight optical sheet number is reduced from 5 to 1. PMID:26479670

  14. Signature extension for sun angle, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A. (Principal Investigator); Berry, J. K.; Heimes, F.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Within a restricted zenith sun angle range of 35 - 50 degrees, it was empirically observed that canopy reflectance is mainly Lambertian. Reflectance changes with crop stage were simple shifts in scale in the sun angle range. It was noted that sun angle variations depend on canopy characteristics. Effects of the vegetative canopy were most pronounced at the larger solar zenith angles (20 %). The linear sun angle correction coefficients demonstrate a dependency on both crop stage (15-20 %) and crop type (10-20 %). The use of canopy reflectance modeling allowed for the generation of a simulated data set over an extremely broad envelope of sun angles.

  15. The Retroacetabular Angle Determines the Safe Angle for Screw Placement in Posterior Acetabular Fracture Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Tadros, Ayman M. A.; Oxland, Thomas R.; O'Brien, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. A method for the determination of safe angles for screws placed in the posterior acetabular wall based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) is described. It defines a retroacetabular angle and determines its variation in the population. Methods. The retroacetabular angle is the angle between the retroacetabular surface and the tangent to the posterior acetabular articular surface. Screws placed through the marginal posterior wall at an angle equal to the retroacetabular angle are extraarticular. Medial screws can be placed at larger angles whose difference from the retroacetabular angle is defined as the allowance angles. CT scans of all patients with acetabular fractures treated in our institute between September 2002 to July 2007 were used to measure the retroacetabular angle and tangent. Results. Two hundred thirty one patients were included. The average (range) age was 42 (15–74) years. The average (range) retroacetabular angle was 39 (30–47) degrees. The average (range) retroacetabular tangent was 36 (30–45) mm. Conclusions. Placing the screws at an average (range) angle of 39 (33–47) degrees of anterior inclination with the retroacetabular surface makes them extraarticular. Angles for medial screws are larger. Safe angles can be calculated preoperatively with a computer program. PMID:24959359

  16. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors.

    PubMed

    Khorramian, Koosha; Maleki, Shervin; Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N H

    2015-01-01

    According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type.

  17. Dynamic-angle spinning without sidebands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gann, S. L.; Baltisberger, J. H.; Pines, A.

    1993-07-01

    By means of rotor-synchronized π-pulses, it is possible to eliminate the spinning sidebands (while retaining their full intensity in the isotropic centerband) that usually arise in dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) NMR. The theory of this approach, dynamic-angle hopping (DAH-180), is described and illustrated with experimental results on quadrupolar nuclei. A magic-angle hopping (MAH-180) version of magic-angle spinning is also possible and can be used in a two-dimensional NMR experiment to produce sideband-free isotropic—anisotropic correlation spectra for spin- 1/2 nuclei.

  18. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors

    PubMed Central

    Khorramian, Koosha; Maleki, Shervin; Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N. H.

    2015-01-01

    According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type. PMID:26642193

  19. A Climbing Class' Reinvention of Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyhn, Anne Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    A previous study shows how a twelve-year-old girl discovers angles in her narrative from a climbing trip. Based on this research, the girl's class takes part in one day of climbing and half a day of follow-up work at school. The students mathematise their climbing with respect to angles and they express themselves in texts and drawings. Their…

  20. Automatic star-horizon angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerber, K.; Koso, D. A.; Nardella, P. C.

    1969-01-01

    Automatic star horizontal angle measuring aid for general navigational use incorporates an Apollo type sextant. The eyepiece of the sextant is replaced with two light detectors and appropriate circuitry. The device automatically determines the angle between a navigational star and a unique point on the earths horizon as seen on a spacecraft.

  1. The SU(2) action-angle variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellinas, Demosthenes

    1993-01-01

    Operator angle-action variables are studied in the frame of the SU(2) algebra, and their eigenstates and coherent states are discussed. The quantum mechanical addition of action-angle variables is shown to lead to a noncommutative Hopf algebra. The group contraction is used to make the connection with the harmonic oscillator.

  2. Let's Do It! Using Geostrips and "Angle-Fixers" to Develop Ideas About Shapes and Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruni, James V.; Silverman, Helene

    1975-01-01

    Homemade geostrips, "angle-fixers" (cardboard circular sectors) and brass fasteners can be used by students to explore properties of angles, triangles and other polygons. Several games and other activities are suggested. (SD)

  3. Experimental study of crossing angle collision

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Tigner, M.

    1993-05-01

    The non-linear coupling due to the beam-beam interaction with crossing angle has been studied. The major effect of a small ({approximately}12mrad) crossing angle is to excite 5Q{sub x}{plus_minus}Q{sub s}=integer coupling resonance family on large amplitude particles, which results in bad lifetime. On the CESR, a small crossing angle ({approximately}2.4mr) was created at the IP and a reasonable beam-beam tune-shift was achieved. The decay rate of the beam is measured as a function of horizontal tune with and without crossing angle. The theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental measurements have a good agreement. The resonance strength as a function of crossing angle is also measured.

  4. Caustic graphene plasmons with Kelvin angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Fei; Xu, Hongyi; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2015-08-01

    A century-long argument made by Lord Kelvin that all swimming objects have an effective Mach number of 3, corresponding to a Kelvin angle of 19.5° for ship waves, has been challenged recently with the conclusion that the Kelvin angle should gradually transit to the Mach angle as the ship's velocity increases. Here we show that a similar phenomenon can happen for graphene plasmons. By analyzing the caustic wave pattern of graphene plasmons stimulated by a swift charged particle moving uniformly above graphene, we show that at low velocities of the charged particle, the caustics of graphene plasmons form the Kelvin angle. At large velocities of the particle, the caustics disappear and the effective semiangle of the wave pattern approaches the Mach angle. Our study introduces caustic wave theory to the field of graphene plasmonics, and reveals a physical picture of graphene plasmon excitation during electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements.

  5. Trailing edge cooling using angled impingement on surface enhanced with cast chevron arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Heneveld, Benjamin E.; Brown, Glenn E.; Klinger, Jill

    2015-05-26

    A gas turbine engine component, including: a pressure side (12) having an interior surface (34); a suction side (14) having an interior surface (36); a trailing edge portion (30); and a plurality of suction side and pressure side impingement orifices (24) disposed in the trailing edge portion (30). Each suction side impingement orifice is configured to direct an impingement jet (48) at an acute angle (52) onto a target area (60) that encompasses a tip (140) of a chevron (122) within a chevron arrangement (120) formed in the suction side interior surface. Each pressure side impingement orifice is configured to direct an impingement jet at an acute angle onto an elongated target area that encompasses a tip of a chevron within a chevron arrangement formed in the pressure side interior surface.

  6. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  7. Branes at angles from worldvolume actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaspur, Reza

    2016-05-01

    We investigate possible stable configurations of two arbitrary branes at general angles using the dynamics of DBI + WZ action. The analysis naturally reveals two types of solutions which we identify as the "marginal" and "non-marginal" configurations. We characterize possible configurations of a pair of identical or non-identical branes in either of these two classes by specifying their proper intersection rules and allowed intersection angles. We also perform a partial analysis of configurations with multiple angles of a system of asymptotically flat curved branes.

  8. Phase-angle controller for Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Frosch, R.A.; McDougal, A.R.

    1980-12-23

    A first embodiment incorporating an actuator including a restraint link adapted to be connected with a pivotal carrier arm for a force transfer gear interposed between the crankshaft for an expander portion of a stirling engine and a crankshaft for the displacer portion of the engine is described. The restraint link is releasably supported against axial displacement by releasably trapped hydraulic fluid for selectively establishing a phase angle relationship between the crankshaft and a second embodiment incorporating a hydraulic coupler for use in varying the phase angle of gear-coupled crankshafts for a Stirling engine whereby phase angle changes are obtainable.

  9. Wide-angle vision for road views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, F.; Fehrs, K.-K.; Hartmann, G.; Klette, R.

    2013-03-01

    The field-of-view of a wide-angle image is greater than (say) 90 degrees, and so contains more information than available in a standard image. A wide field-of-view is more advantageous than standard input for understanding the geometry of 3D scenes, and for estimating the poses of panoramic sensors within such scenes. Thus, wide-angle imaging sensors and methodologies are commonly used in various road-safety, street surveillance, street virtual touring, or street 3D modelling applications. The paper reviews related wide-angle vision technologies by focusing on mathematical issues rather than on hardware.

  10. Phase-angle controller for Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, A. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An actuator includes a restraint link adapted to be connected with a pivotal carrier arm for a force transfer gear interposed between the crankshaft for an expander portion of a Stirling engine and a crankshaft for the displacer portion of the engine. The restraint link is releasably trapped hydraulic fluid for selectively establishing a phase angle relationship between the crankshaft. A second embodiment incorporates a hydraulic coupler for use in varying the phase angle of gear-coupled crank fpr a Stirling engine whereby phase angle changes are obtainable.

  11. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  12. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  13. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery ...

  14. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... virus. Viral infections that may cause this include chickenpox , Coxsackie disease, Epstein-Barr, and echovirus . Other causes ...

  15. High angle conveyors climb to the top

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.J.

    1984-11-01

    Descriptions are presented of various types of high angle conveyors, including pocket belt, fin belt, sandwich belt, snake sandwich conveyor, mechanically pressed sandwich conveyor, and pneumatically pressed sandwich conveyors. 10 references.

  16. High angle conveyors climb to the top

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.J.

    1984-11-01

    A major objective in the design of a storage facility is to have the least handling over the shortest distances and to optimize land usage by attaining the highest tons-per-acre value. The advantages of high angle conveyors become apparent when the height of lift is compared with the surface area. High angle conveyors achieve high capacities in the least amount of space. Continental Conveyor and Equipment Co., has conducted several studies that evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using high angle conveyors in conveyor systems. A few of the high angle conveying concepts reviewed are the bucket ladder or pocket belt, belts with partitions or fin belt, and the sandwich type belt conveyors.

  17. SOLARMAX/Electron Pitch Angle Anisotropy Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKenzie, David L.; Anderson, Phillip C.

    2002-01-01

    This final research report summarizes the scientific work performed by The Aerospace Corporation on SOLARMAX/Electron Pitch Angle Anisotropy Distributions. The period of performance was from June 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001.

  18. Nucleation of small-angle boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Nabarro, F.R.N. |; Wilsdorf, D.K.

    1996-12-01

    The internal stresses induced by the strain gradients in an array of lattice cells delineated by low-angle dislocation boundaries are partially relieved by the creation of new low-angle boundaries. This is shown to be a first-order transition, the new boundaries having finite misorientations. The calculated misorientations both of the new boundaries and of the existing boundaries which provoke the transition agree well with observations.

  19. Winding angles of long lattice walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov

    2016-07-01

    We study the winding angles of random and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on square and cubic lattices with number of steps N ranging up to 107. We show that the mean square winding angle <θ2> of random walks converges to the theoretical form when N → ∞. For self-avoiding walks on the square lattice, we show that the ratio <θ4>/<θ2>2 converges slowly to the Gaussian value 3. For self-avoiding walks on the cubic lattice, we find that the ratio <θ4>/<θ2>2 exhibits non-monotonic dependence on N and reaches a maximum of 3.73(1) for N ≈ 104. We show that to a good approximation, the square winding angle of a self-avoiding walk on the cubic lattice can be obtained from the summation of the square change in the winding angles of lnN independent segments of the walk, where the ith segment contains 2i steps. We find that the square winding angle of the ith segment increases approximately as i0.5, which leads to an increase of the total square winding angle proportional to (lnN)1.5.

  20. Neutron spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME)

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.; Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Fritzsche, H.; Gierlings, M.; Major, J.; Jason, A.

    2005-05-15

    We describe experiments in which the neutron spin echo technique is used to measure neutron scattering angles. We have implemented the technique, dubbed spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME), using thin films of Permalloy electrodeposited on silicon wafers as sources of the magnetic fields within which neutron spins precess. With 30-{mu}m-thick films we resolve neutron scattering angles to about 0.02 deg. with neutrons of 4.66 A wavelength. This allows us to probe correlation lengths up to 200 nm in an application to small angle neutron scattering. We also demonstrate that SESAME can be used to separate specular and diffuse neutron reflection from surfaces at grazing incidence. In both of these cases, SESAME can make measurements at higher neutron intensity than is available with conventional methods because the angular resolution achieved is independent of the divergence of the neutron beam. Finally, we discuss the conditions under which SESAME might be used to probe in-plane structure in thin films and show that the method has advantages for incident neutron angles close to the critical angle because multiple scattering is automatically accounted for.

  1. Modelling PTB's spatial angle autocollimator calibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranz, Oliver; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Krause, Michael

    2013-05-01

    The accurate and traceable form measurement of optical surfaces has been greatly advanced by a new generation of surface profilometers which are based on the reflection of light at the surface and the measurement of the reflection angle. For this application, high-resolution electronic autocollimators provide accurate and traceable angle metrology. In recent years, great progress has been made at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in autocollimator calibration. For an advanced autocollimator characterisation, a novel calibration device has been built up at PTB: the Spatial Angle Autocollimator Calibrator (SAAC). The system makes use of an innovative Cartesian arrangement of three autocollimators (two reference autocollimators and the autocollimator to be calibrated), which allows a precise measurement of the angular orientation of a reflector cube. Each reference autocollimator is sensitive primarily to changes in one of the two relevant tilt angles, whereas the autocollimator to be calibrated is sensitive to both. The distance between the reflector cube and the autocollimator to be calibrated can be varied flexibly. In this contribution, we present the SAAC and aspects of the mathematical modelling of the system for deriving analytical expressions for the autocollimators' angle responses. These efforts will allow advancing the form measurement substantially with autocollimator-based profilometers and approaching fundamental measurement limits. Additionally, they will help manufacturers of autocollimators to improve their instruments and will provide improved angle measurement methods for precision engineering.

  2. Winding angles of long lattice walks.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov

    2016-07-01

    We study the winding angles of random and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on square and cubic lattices with number of steps N ranging up to 10(7). We show that the mean square winding angle 〈θ(2)〉 of random walks converges to the theoretical form when N → ∞. For self-avoiding walks on the square lattice, we show that the ratio 〈θ(4)〉/〈θ(2)〉(2) converges slowly to the Gaussian value 3. For self-avoiding walks on the cubic lattice, we find that the ratio 〈θ(4)〉/〈θ(2)〉(2) exhibits non-monotonic dependence on N and reaches a maximum of 3.73(1) for N ≈ 10(4). We show that to a good approximation, the square winding angle of a self-avoiding walk on the cubic lattice can be obtained from the summation of the square change in the winding angles of lnN independent segments of the walk, where the ith segment contains 2(i) steps. We find that the square winding angle of the ith segment increases approximately as i(0.5), which leads to an increase of the total square winding angle proportional to (lnN)(1.5). PMID:27394124

  3. Management of Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jimmy; Choy, Bonnie N K; Shum, Jennifer W H

    2016-01-01

    Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a progressive optic nerve degeneration and is defined as a glaucomatous optic neuropathy with associated characteristic enlargement of optic disc cupping and visual field loss that is secondary to ocular hypertension caused by closure of the drainage angle. Angle closure is caused by appositional approximation or adhesion between the iris and the trabecular meshwork. The main treatment strategy for PACG lies in the reduction of intraocular pressure, reopening of the closed angle, and possible prevention of further angle closure. There is no universally agreed best surgical treatment for PACG. Trabeculectomy, goniosynechialysis (GSL), glaucoma implant, and cyclodestructive procedures are effective surgical options. Each of them plays an important role in the management of PACG with its own pros and cons. Accumulating evidence is available to show the effectiveness of visually significant and visually nonsignificant cataract extraction in the treatment of PACG. Trabeculectomy and GSL are often combined with cataract extraction, which may offer additional pressure control benefits to patients with PACG. This review article will discuss laser peripheral iridotomy, argon laser peripheral iridoplasty, and surgeries such as GSL, phacoemulsification, and phaco plus glaucoma surgeries that lower intraocular pressure and also alter the anterior segment and/or drainage angle anatomy. Currently, glaucoma implants and cyclodestruction are mainly reserved for PACG patients who have failed previous filtering operations. Their role as initial surgical treatment for PACG will not be discussed. PMID:26886121

  4. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  5. Branching angles reflect a trade-off between reducing trail maintenance costs or travel distances in leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro Gustavo; Chinchilla, Federico; Umaña, María Natalia; Ocasio-Torres, Maríia Elena; Chauta-Mellizo, Alexander; Acosta-Rojas, Diana; Marinaro, Sofía; Curth, Mónica de Torres; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2015-02-01

    The design of transport paths in consuming entities that use routes to access food should be under strong selective pressures to reduce costs and increase benefits. We studied the adaptive nature of branching angles in foraging trail networks of the two most abundant tropical leaf-cutting ant species. We mathematically assessed how these angles should reflect the relative weight of the pressure for reducing either trail maintenance effort or traveling distances. Bifurcation angles of ant foraging trails strongly differed depending on the location of the nests. Ant colonies in open areas showed more acute branching angles, which best shorten travel distances but create longer new trail sections to maintain than a perpendicular branch, suggesting that trail maintenance costs are smaller compared to the benefit of reduced traveling distance. Conversely, ant colonies in forest showed less acute branching angles, indicating that maintenance costs are of larger importance relative to the benefits of shortening travel distances. The trail pattern evident in forests may be attributable to huge amounts of litterfall that .increase trail maintenance costs, and the abundant canopy cover that reduces traveling costs by mitigating direct sunlight and rain. These results suggest that branching angles represent a trade-off between reducing maintenance work and shortening travel distances, illustrating how animal constructions can adjust to diverse environmental conditions. This idea may help to understand diverse networks systems, including urban travel networks. PMID:26240872

  6. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist.

  7. Longitudinal Changes of Angle Configuration in Primary Angle-Closure Suspects

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuzhen; Chang, Dolly S.; Zhu, Haogang; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Aung, Tin; Huang, Shengsong; Chen, Qianyun; Munoz, Beatriz; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine longitudinal changes in angle configuration in the eyes of primary angle-closure suspects (PACS) treated by laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) and in untreated fellow eyes. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Participants Primary angle-closure suspects aged 50 to 70 years were enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Methods Each participant was treated by LPI in 1 randomly selected eye, with the fellow eye serving as a control. Angle width was assessed in a masked fashion using gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) before and at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 18 months after LPI. Main Outcome Measures Angle width in degrees was calculated from Shaffer grades assessed under static gonioscopy. Angle configuration was also evaluated using angle opening distance (AOD250, AOD500, AOD750), trabecular-iris space area (TISA500, TISA750), and angle recess area (ARA) measured in AS-OCT images. Results No significant difference was found in baseline measures of angle configuration between treated and untreated eyes. At 2 weeks after LPI, the drainage angle on gonioscopy widened from a mean of 13.5° at baseline to a mean of 25.7° in treated eyes, which was also confirmed by significant increases in all AS-OCT angle width measures (P<0.001 for all variables). Between 2 weeks and 18 months after LPI, a significant decrease in angle width was observed over time in treated eyes (P<0.001 for all variables), although the change over the first 5.5 months was not statistically significant for angle width measured under gonioscopy (P = 0.18), AOD250 (P = 0.167) and ARA (P = 0.83). In untreated eyes, angle width consistently decreased across all follow-up visits after LPI, with a more rapid longitudinal decrease compared with treated eyes (P values for all variables ≤0.003). The annual rate of change in angle width was equivalent to 1.2°/year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8–1.6) in treated eyes and 1.6°/year (95% CI, 1

  8. Fractal Approach in Petrology: Combining Ultra-Small Angle (USANA) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS)

    SciTech Connect

    LoCelso, F.; Triolo, F.; Triolo, A.; Lin, J.S.; Lucido, G.; Triolo, R.

    1999-10-14

    Ultra small angle neutron scattering instruments have recently covered the gap between the size resolution available with conventional intermediate angle neutron scattering and small angle neutron scattering instruments on one side and optical microscopy on the other side. Rocks showing fractal behavior in over two decades of momentum transfer and seven orders of magnitude of intensity are examined and fractal parameters are extracted from the combined USANS and SANS curves.

  9. Patellar Tendon–Trochlear Groove Angle Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Hinckel, Betina B.; Gobbi, Riccardo G.; Kihara Filho, Eduardo N.; Demange, Marco K.; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background: The tibial tubercle–trochlear groove (TT-TG) is used as the gold standard for patellofemoral malalignment. Purpose: To assess 3 patellar tendon–trochlear groove (PT-TG) angle measurement techniques and the PT-TG distance measurement (tendinous cartilaginous TT-TG) as predictors of patellar instability. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three PT-TG angle measurements and the PT-TG distance were measured in 82 participants with patellar instability and 100 controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Measurement landmarks were the line tangent to the posterior femoral condyles, the deepest point of the trochlea, the transepicondylar line, and the patellar tendon center. All measurements were recorded once by 1 examiner, and the measurements were recorded twice by 2 examiners in a random group of 100 knees. Mean values and standard deviations (SDs) were obtained. Normality cutoff values were defined as 2 and 3 SDs above the mean in the control group. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio (LR+) were calculated. Inter- and intrarater reliability were assessed based on the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The measurements from the patellar instability and control groups, respectively, for angle 1 (16.4° and 8.4°), angle 2 (31° and 15.6°), angle 3 (30.8° and 15.7°), PT-TG distance (14.5 and 8.4 mm), and patellar tilt (21.1° and 7.5°) were significantly different (P < .05). The angle measurements showed greater sensitivity, specificity, and LR+ than the PT-TG distance. Inter- and intrarater ICC values were >0.95 for all measurements. Conclusion: The PT-TG angle and the PT-TG distance are reliable and are different between the patellar instability and control groups. PT-TG angles are more closely associated with patellar instability than PT-TG distance. Clinical Relevance: PT-TG angle measurements show high reliability and association with patellar instability and can

  10. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  11. Clinical Outcomes of Peripheral Iridotomy in Patients with the Spectrum of Chronic Primary Angle Closure

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Nagi, Kundandeep S.; Bell, Nicholas P.; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A.; Feldman, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate outcomes of peripheral iridotomy (PI) for initial management of primary angle closure suspects (PACS), chronic primary angle closure (CPAC), and chronic primary angle closure glaucoma (CPACG). Patients and Methods. Seventy-nine eyes with PACS, CPAC, or CPACG and better than 20/50 visual acuity that underwent PI as initial management were included. Eyes with previous acute angle closure attacks, laser trabeculoplasties, surgeries, or intraocular injections were excluded. Additional treatments, glaucomatous progression, intraocular pressure, visual acuity, and the number of medications were evaluated. Results. The mean followup was 57.1 ± 29.0 months (range 13.8–150.6 months). Sixty-eight eyes (86.1%) underwent additional medical, laser, or surgical treatment. Forty eyes (50.6%) underwent lens extraction due to reduced visual acuity. The mean 10× logMAR visual acuity score for all patients significantly declined from 0.94 ± 1.12 at baseline to 1.83 ± 3.49 (N = 79, P = 0.0261) at the last followup. Conclusions. Most patients who undergo PI for CPAC spectrum will require additional intervention for either IOP lowering or improvement of visual acuity. This suggests that a procedure that not only deepens the angle but also lowers IOP and improves visual acuity would be desirable as further intervention could be avoided. Evaluation of techniques that achieve all 3 goals is warranted. PMID:24558607

  12. Clinical outcomes of peripheral iridotomy in patients with the spectrum of chronic primary angle closure.

    PubMed

    Cumba, Ricardo J; Nagi, Kundandeep S; Bell, Nicholas P; Blieden, Lauren S; Chuang, Alice Z; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A; Feldman, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate outcomes of peripheral iridotomy (PI) for initial management of primary angle closure suspects (PACS), chronic primary angle closure (CPAC), and chronic primary angle closure glaucoma (CPACG). Patients and Methods. Seventy-nine eyes with PACS, CPAC, or CPACG and better than 20/50 visual acuity that underwent PI as initial management were included. Eyes with previous acute angle closure attacks, laser trabeculoplasties, surgeries, or intraocular injections were excluded. Additional treatments, glaucomatous progression, intraocular pressure, visual acuity, and the number of medications were evaluated. Results. The mean followup was 57.1 ± 29.0 months (range 13.8-150.6 months). Sixty-eight eyes (86.1%) underwent additional medical, laser, or surgical treatment. Forty eyes (50.6%) underwent lens extraction due to reduced visual acuity. The mean 10× logMAR visual acuity score for all patients significantly declined from 0.94 ± 1.12 at baseline to 1.83 ± 3.49 (N = 79, P = 0.0261) at the last followup. Conclusions. Most patients who undergo PI for CPAC spectrum will require additional intervention for either IOP lowering or improvement of visual acuity. This suggests that a procedure that not only deepens the angle but also lowers IOP and improves visual acuity would be desirable as further intervention could be avoided. Evaluation of techniques that achieve all 3 goals is warranted.

  13. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  14. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  15. Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Wald, Ellen R

    2011-05-01

    Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.

  16. Incident Angle Dependence of Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degeorge, Vincent; Valle, Brent; Singer, Kenneth

    2010-10-01

    We have been recently studying the use of interference effects to enhance optical absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells. These interference effects are expected to be angle dependent. We measure here the angle dependent absorption and compare with numerical simulations. The cells used were P3HT/PCBM active layer, organic photovoltaic cells. The angular dependence of the cells' reflection was measured using an Ocean Optics light source and spectrophotometer and a precision rotary stage apparatus. The experimental results were compared to a Matlab simulation of the characteristic matrix problem. Analysis showed that the reflection/absorption peaks predicted by the simulation largely coincided in wavelength to those observed in experiment. Moreover, no additional cavity resonance can be attributed to incidence angle.

  17. Bicycle helmet ventilation and comfort angle dependence.

    PubMed

    Brühwiler, Paul A; Ducas, Charline; Huber, Roman; Bishop, Phillip A

    2004-09-01

    Five modern bicycle helmets were studied to elucidate some of the variations in ventilation performance, using both a heated manikin headform and human subjects (n = 7). Wind speed and head angle were varied to test their influence on the measured steady-state heat exchange (cooling power) in the skull section of the headform. The cooling power transmitted by the helmets varied from about 60% to over 90% of that of the nude headform, illustrating the range of present manufacturer designs. Angling the head forward by 30 degrees was found to provide better cooling power to the skull (up to 25%) for three of the helmets and almost equal cooling power in the remaining two cases. Comparisons of skull ventilation at these angles with human subjects strongly supported the headform results.

  18. Flocking and invariance of velocity angles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Le; Huang, Lihong; Wu, Jianhong

    2016-04-01

    Motsch and Tadmor considered an extended Cucker-Smale model to investigate the flocking behavior of self-organized systems of interacting species. In this extended model, a cone of the vision was introduced so that outside the cone the influence of one agent on the other is lost and hence the corresponding influence function takes the value zero. This creates a problem to apply the Motsch-Tadmor and Cucker-Smale method to prove the flocking property of the system. Here, we examine the variation of the velocity angles between two arbitrary agents, and obtain a monotonicity property for the maximum cone of velocity angles. This monotonicity permits us to utilize existing arguments to show the flocking property of the system under consideration, when the initial velocity angles satisfy some minor technical constraints. PMID:27105986

  19. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-03-02

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm{sup −2 }sr{sup −1} is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  20. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-03-01

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm-2 sr-1 is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  1. Data for phase angle shift with frequency

    PubMed Central

    Paul, T.; Banerjee, D.; Kargupta, K.

    2016-01-01

    Phase angle shift between the current and voltage with frequency has been reported for a single phosphoric acid fuel cell in the cell temperature from 100 °C to 160 °C and the humidifier temperature from 40 °C to 90 °C. An electrochemical workbench is employed to find the shift. The figure of phase angle shift shows a peak in high humidifier temperatures. The peak in phase angle shift directs to lower frequency side with decreasing humidifier temperature. The estimation of electrochemical reaction time is also evaluated in the humidifier temperature zone from 50 °C to 90 °C. PMID:27158655

  2. Acute mastoiditis--revisited.

    PubMed

    Luntz, M; Keren, G; Nusem, S; Kronenberg, J

    1994-09-01

    The clinical course and causative organisms were studied in 18 patients with acute mastoiditis, 13 of whom (72%) had no previous history of middle ear disease. Their age ranged from 5 months to 21 years, and duration of middle ear symptoms immediately prior to admission ranged from 1 to 45 days (average 9.7 days). None had undergone a myringotomy prior to admission, while 13 (72%) had been receiving antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media. Three were admitted with intracranial complications. Bacteria were isolated in 10 of the 16 patients in whom samples were available for bacterial culture, and included Streptococcus pneumonia (2), Streptococcus pyogenes (2), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Staphlococcus coagulase negative (2), Klebsiella pneumonia (1), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). Of the 17 patients treated by us, 11 received surgery. Acute otitis media, secretory otitis media, acute mastoiditis, subacute mastoiditis and masked mastoiditis create a continuum. Antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media cannot be considered as an absolute safeguard against acute mastoiditis. When antibiotics are prescribed for acute mastoiditis before culture result is available, an anti-staphylococcal agent should be included. At least some patients with acute mastoiditis develop a primary infection of the bony framework of the middle ear cleft. The prevalence of the intracranial complications in acute mastoiditis is still high and may appear soon after or concomitant with the first sign of acute mastioditis.

  3. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three- dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  4. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FbG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three-dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  5. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 2: Openings and Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Ever wondered how to use technology to teach angles? This article follows on from an earlier article published last year, providing a range of ideas for integrating technology and concrete materials with the teaching of angle concepts. The authors also provide a comprehensive list of free online games and learning objects that can be used to teach…

  6. Understanding Angle and Angle Measure: A Design-Based Research Study Using Context Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are quickly becoming tools found in the educational environment. The researchers in this study use a form of mobile learning to support students in learning about angle concepts. Design-based research is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated local instruction theory about students' develop of angle and…

  7. [Pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Masashi

    2011-03-01

    Many aspects of the pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy have been clarified in this decade, although many unknown mechanisms remain to be elucidated. According to progress of MRI and neuroimmunological analysis and the observation of clinical findings, many new syndromes were found, which enhanced our understanding of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy. The pathogenesis of encephalitis is divided into infection and immune mediated mechanisms. The antibodies to neuronal surface antigens(NSA) such as NMDA receptors, leucin-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and aquaporin 4 were demonstrated in specific encephalitis, limbic encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica. Anti-NSA antibody encephalitis should be treated by immunotherapy such as corticosteroid and plasmapheresis. Acute encephalitis with refractory repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) is a devastating postinfectious disease in children and adults, although the pathogenesis of AERRPS is poorly understood. Influenza associated encephalopathy(IAE) is characterized by it's high incidence in Japanese children between 1 year and 5 years of age, its onset in the first or the second day of illness and its high mortality (15-30%) and morbidity (25-40%). We proposed the classification of IAE with poor prognosis from the neuroradiological findings. Four types of encephalopathy seem to be differentiated from each other, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) type, hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) type, acute brain swelling (ABS) type, febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) type. The notable radiological features are thalamic lesions in ANE, diffuse cerebral cortical cytotoxic edema in HSES, reversible cerebral swelling in ABS which sometimes reaches lethal brain herniation, and in FCSE type, dendritic high signal in subcortical white matter by DWI ("bright tree appearance") appears simultaneously with the later onset of repetitive focal seizure. These four types are

  8. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients.

  9. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients. PMID:26319342

  10. [Acute mastoiditis in children].

    PubMed

    Kajosaari, Lauri; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Jero, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Acute mastoiditis in children develops when acute otitis media (AOM) spreads into the mastoid air cells inside the temporal bone. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings of AOM with simultaneous signs of infection in the mastoid area. The most common pathogen causing acute mastoiditis in children is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intravenous antimicrobial medication, tympanostomy and microbial sample are the cornerstones of the treatment. If a complication of mastoiditis is suspected, imaging studies are needed, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging. The most common complication of acute mastoiditis is a subperiosteal abscess. PMID:24660384

  11. Anterior chamber angle in the exfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Wishart, P K; Spaeth, G L; Poryzees, E M

    1985-01-01

    The gonioscopic findings of 76 patients with the exfoliation syndrome were reviewed. A high frequency of narrowness of the anterior chamber (AC) angle was found (32%). 18% had angles considered occludable, and 14% had obvious angle-closure glaucoma as shown by the presence of peripheral anterior synechias (PAS). Increased pigmentation of the posterior trabecular meshwork (PTM) was noted in all cases. When this pigmentation was markedly asymmetrical, unilateral exfoliation with glaucoma was common in the more pigmented eye. In addition heavy angle pigmentation in the absence of exfoliation was noted in the fellow eye of patients with characteristic exfoliated material in the other eye. Increased pigmentation of the PTM may be the earliest detectable sign of the exfoliation syndrome (ES). The clinical significance of our estimating PTM pigmentation at the 12 o'clock position is discussed. In view of the accelerated optic nerve damage associated with the development of glaucoma secondary to ES, routine estimation of the pigmentation of the PTM at 12 o'clock is recommended in the hope of early detection of cases of otherwise inapparent ES. Images PMID:3966996

  12. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  13. Spirality: Spiral arm pitch angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Pfountz, Casey; Davis, Benjamin L.; Hartley, Matthew; Pour Imani, Hamed; Slade, Zac; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Spirality measures spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. Written in MATLAB, the code package also includes GenSpiral, which produces FITS images of synthetic spirals, and SpiralArmCount, which uses a one-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform to count the spiral arms of a galaxy after its pitch is determined.

  14. A Method for Measuring a Plane Angle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, George D.; Roberts, G. Gilbert

    1978-01-01

    Derivation of formulas and example problems for determining the size of a plane angle are given to help in drafting work. The authors state that a small hand calculator will provide greater accuracy in solving these problems than a protractor. (MF)

  15. Crank angle detecting system for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yuzawa, H.; Nishiyama, M.; Nakamura, K.; Ishigami, K.

    1987-04-14

    A crank angle detecting system is described for a multicylinder engine having at least three cylinders classified as groups, which comprises: (a) a disc connected for rotation with a crankshaft and formed with a first slit group having a large number of slits for detecting crankshaft angular positions and a second slit group having a small number of slits for detecting each predetermined piston stroke of each of at least three cylinders, the slits of the second group having at least three widths which are different from each other; (b) sensing means responsive to the slits on the disc for continuously detecting crankshaft angular positions by sensing the first group of slits and producing crank angle signals corresponding to the slits of the first group and for detecting each predetermined piston stroke of each engine cylinder by sensing the second group of slits and producing piston stroke signals representing the piston strokes, each piston stroke signal having a duration which corresponds to one of the different widths; and (c) means for identifying the piston stroke signals based on the duration thereof by counting crank angle signals occurring during the duration of each piston stroke signal and classifying the piston stroke signals based on the counted crank angle signals.

  16. Recent Results on the CKM Angle Alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalyi, A.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-10-18

    The method to measure the CKM angle {alpha} and the modes sensitive to it are discussed. It is shown that the B {yields} {rho}{rho} decays provide the most stringent constraint on {alpha}, which is found to be {alpha} = 96{sup o} {+-} 10{sup o}(stat) {+-} 4{sup o}(syst){+-} 13{sup o}(penguin).

  17. Sensor Tracks the Sun From Any Angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, M., M.; Bunker, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Sensor system locates Sun from any angle and generates error signals to point object toward Sun and follow its motion. Sun-sensor system includes three photodetectors, each with separate field of view defined by set of apertures. As equipment rotates about axis, detectors put out time-varying signals processed by external electronics to determine rotation rate and direction to Sun.

  18. Statistical analysis of Contact Angle Hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardan, Nachiketa; Panchagnula, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a new statistical approach to determining Contact Angle Hysteresis (CAH) by studying the nature of the triple line. A statistical distribution of local contact angles on a random three-dimensional drop is used as the basis for this approach. Drops with randomly shaped triple lines but of fixed volumes were deposited on a substrate and their triple line shapes were extracted by imaging. Using a solution developed by Prabhala et al. (Langmuir, 2010), the complete three dimensional shape of the sessile drop was generated. A distribution of the local contact angles for several such drops but of the same liquid-substrate pairs is generated. This distribution is a result of several microscopic advancing and receding processes along the triple line. This distribution is used to yield an approximation of the CAH associated with the substrate. This is then compared with measurements of CAH by means of a liquid infusion-withdrawal experiment. Static measurements are shown to be sufficient to measure quasistatic contact angle hysteresis of a substrate. The approach also points towards the relationship between microscopic triple line contortions and CAH.

  19. Compression failure of angle-ply laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peel, Larry D.; Hyer, Michael W.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1991-01-01

    The present work deals with modes and mechanisms of failure in compression of angle-ply laminates. Experimental results were obtained from 42 angle-ply IM7/8551-7a specimens with a lay-up of ((plus or minus theta)/(plus or minus theta)) sub 6s where theta, the off-axis angle, ranged from 0 degrees to 90 degrees. The results showed four failure modes, these modes being a function of off-axis angle. Failure modes include fiber compression, inplane transverse tension, inplane shear, and inplane transverse compression. Excessive interlaminar shear strain was also considered as an important mode of failure. At low off-axis angles, experimentally observed values were considerably lower than published strengths. It was determined that laminate imperfections in the form of layer waviness could be a major factor in reducing compression strength. Previously developed linear buckling and geometrically nonlinear theories were used, with modifications and enhancements, to examine the influence of layer waviness on compression response. The wavy layer is described by a wave amplitude and a wave length. Linear elastic stress-strain response is assumed. The geometrically nonlinear theory, in conjunction with the maximum stress failure criterion, was used to predict compression failure and failure modes for the angle-ply laminates. A range of wave length and amplitudes were used. It was found that for 0 less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 15 degrees failure was most likely due to fiber compression. For 15 degrees less than theta less than or equal to 35 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane transverse tension. For 35 degrees less than theta less than or equal to 70 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane shear. For theta less than 70 degrees, failure was most likely due to inplane transverse compression. The fiber compression and transverse tension failure modes depended more heavily on wave length than on wave amplitude. Thus using a single

  20. Probe Without Moving Parts Measures Flow Angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Vachon, M. Jake

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of local flow angle is critical in many fluid-dynamic applications, including the aerodynamic flight testing of new aircraft and flight systems. Flight researchers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center have recently developed, flight-tested, and patented the force-based flow-angle probe (FLAP), a novel, force-based instrument for the measurement of local flow direction. Containing no moving parts, the FLAP may provide greater simplicity, improved accuracy, and increased measurement access, relative to conventional moving vane-type flow-angle probes. Forces in the FLAP can be measured by various techniques, including those that involve conventional strain gauges (based on electrical resistance) and those that involve more advanced strain gauges (based on optical fibers). A correlation is used to convert force-measurement data to the local flow angle. The use of fiber optics will enable the construction of a miniature FLAP, leading to the possibility of flow measurement in very small or confined regions. This may also enable the tufting of a surface with miniature FLAPs, capable of quantitative flow-angle measurements, similar to attaching yarn tufts for qualitative measurements. The prototype FLAP was a small, aerodynamically shaped, low-aspect-ratio fin about 2 in. (approximately equal to 5 cm) long, 1 in. (approximately equal to 2.5 cm) wide, and 0.125 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) thick (see Figure 1). The prototype FLAP included simple electrical-resistance strain gauges for measuring forces. Four strain gauges were mounted on the FLAP; two on the upper surface and two on the lower surface. The gauges were connected to form a full Wheatstone bridge, configured as a bending bridge. In preparation for a flight test, the prototype FLAP was mounted on the airdata boom of a flight-test fixture (FTF) on the NASA Dryden F-15B flight research airplane.

  1. Development of the Angle Concept by Abstraction from Situated Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchelmore, Michael C.; White, Paul

    This paper explores a framework for research on the development of the angle concept based on theories of abstraction. The framework suggests that children initially acquire a body of disconnected angle knowledge situated in everyday experiences, group the situations to form angle contexts, and then form an abstract angle concept. The framework is…

  2. The Pluto System At Small Phase Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbiscer, Anne J.; Buie, Marc W.; Binzel, Richard; Ennico, Kimberly; Grundy, William M.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Showalter, Mark Robert; Spencer, John R.; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Leslie; New Horizons Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of the Pluto system acquired during the New Horizons encounter epoch (HST Program 13667, M. Buie, PI) span the phase angle range from 0.06 to 1.7 degrees, enabling the measurement and characterization of the opposition effect for Pluto and its satellites at 0.58 microns using HST WFC3/UVIS with the F350LP filter, which has a broadband response and a pivot wavelength of 0.58 microns. At these small phase angles, differences in the opposition effect width and amplitude appear. The small satellites Nix and Hydra both exhibit a very narrow opposition surge, while the considerably larger moon Charon has a broader opposition surge. Microtextural surface properties derived from the shape and magnitude of the opposition surge of each surface contain a record of the collisional history of the system. We combine these small phase angle observations with those made at larger phase angles by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), which also has a broadband response with a pivot wavelength of 0.61 microns, to produce the most complete disk-integrated solar phase curves that we will have for decades to come. Modeling these disk-integrated phase curves generates sets of photometric parameters that will inform spectral modeling of the satellite surfaces as well as terrains on Pluto from spatially resolved New Horizons Ralph Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA) data from 1.2 to 2.5 microns. Rotationally resolved phase curves of Pluto reveal opposition effects that only appear at phase angles less than 0.1 degree and have widths and amplitudes that are highly dependent on longitude and therefore on Pluto's diverse terrains. The high albedo region informally known as Sputnik Planum dominates the disk-integrated reflectance of Pluto on the New Horizons encounter hemisphere. These results lay the groundwork for observations at true opposition in 2018, when the Pluto system will be observable at phase angles so small that

  3. Measurements of Neutrino Oscillation Angle θ13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, Masahiro

    Neutrinos exhibit an interesting phenomenon called "neutrino oscillation", in which a neutrino changes its flavor after traveling some flight length. Many experiments measured the mixing angles and mass differences, but the angle θ13 had been unmeasured due to its smallness compared to others. During 2011 and 2012, series of new-generation neutrino experiments reported positive results in θ13 search, and its value has been determined to be just below the previous upper limit. The non-zero result of θ13 is a very good news for future of neutrino physics, since it opens a possibility of measuring the CP violation phase in the lepton sector. An introduction to neutrino oscillation and latest experimental results are presented. A detail is put on Double Chooz reactor experiment, in which the author is involved.

  4. Dancing droplets: Contact angle, drag, and confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu

    2015-11-01

    When deposited on a clean glass slide, a mixture of water and propylene glycol forms a droplet of given contact angle, when both pure liquids spread. (Cira, Benusiglio, Prakash: Nature, 2015). The droplet is stabilized by a gradient of surface tension due to evaporation that induces a Marangoni flow from the border to the apex of the droplets. The apparent contact angle of the droplets depends on both their composition and the external humidity as captured by simple models. These droplets present remarkable properties such as lack of a large pinning force. We discuss the drag on these droplets as a function of various parameters. We show theoretical and experimental results of how various confinement geometries change the vapor gradient and the dynamics of droplet attraction.

  5. Fan Stagger Angle for Dirt Rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Rose, Becky E. (Inventor); Brilliant, Lisa I. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, a propulsor coupled to be rotated about an axis by the turbine through the spool, and a gear assembly coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extend from the hub. Each of the propulsor blades has a span between a root at the hub and a tip, and a chord between a leading edge and a trailing edge. The chord forms a stagger angle alpha with the axis, and the stagger angle alpha is less than 15 deg. at a position along the propulsor blade that is within an inboard 20% of the span.

  6. Linkage studies in primary open angle glaucoma

    SciTech Connect

    Avramopoulos, D.; Grigoriadu, M.; Kitsos, G.

    1994-09-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The majority of glaucoma is associated with an open, normal appearing anterior chamber angle and is termed primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, MIM 137760). It is characterized by elevated intraocular pressure and onset in middle age or later. A subset of POAG with juvenile onset has recently been linked to chromosome 1q in two families with autosomal dominant inheritance. Eleven pedigrees with autosomal dominant POG (non-juvenile-onset) have been identified in Epirus, Greece. In the present study DNA samples have been collected from 50 individuals from one large pedigree, including 12 affected individuals. Preliminary results of linkage analysis with chromosome 1 microsatellites using the computer program package LINKAGE Version 5.1 showed no linkage with the markers previously linked to juvenile-onset POAG. Further linkage analysis is being pursued, and the results will be presented.

  7. A high sensitive roll angle interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Yanfen; Hou, Wenmei; Hu, Kai; Ju, Aisong

    2013-01-01

    A roll angle interferometer with high sensitivity is designed in this paper. Two sets of centrosymmetric beams are used to travel through the measurement and reference arms of the roll angle interferometer which contains two specific optical devices: wedge prism assembly and wedge mirror assembly. The optical path change in both arms caused by roll is converted into phase shift which can be measured by interferometer. Because of the adoption of the centrosymmetric measurement structure, the straightness errors, yaw error and pitch error can be avoided and the dead path is minimized, so that the stability and the accuracy of the measurement can be greatly enhanced. The resolution for the roll measurement is about 0.006″ with the measurement range of ±1°.

  8. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, A.; Biermann, M.; Bombrun, A.; Boyadjian, J.; Chassat, F.; Corberand, P.; Davidson, M.; Doyle, D.; Escolar, D.; Gielesen, W. L. M.; Guilpain, T.; Hernandez, J.; Kirschner, V.; Klioner, S. A.; Koeck, C.; Laine, B.; Lindegren, L.; Serpell, E.; Tatry, P.; Thoral, P.

    2016-07-01

    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  9. Comparison between angle interferometer and angle encoder during calibration of autocollimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yao; Xue, Zi; Wang, He Yan

    2015-02-01

    An angle interferometer was set up using concept `ratio of two lengths' and an angle encoder was set up using concept `subdivision of full circle (2π rad=360°)' at the National Institute of Metrology, China (NIM). For the analysis of the systematic errors of each device, two autocollimator calibration systems were separately set up based on the angle interferometer and the angle encoder with a similar measuring uncertainty (around 0.1″). An autocollimator was calibrated using two systems in the same measurement range (+/-1000″) and the same measurement step (10″). The systematic errors of each system were found through comparison between their original calibration results. The compensation curves were calculated using the analysis results, and two systems' original calibration results were compensated according to two systems' compensation curves. The maximum difference between the compensated calibration results of two systems was 0.05″ which is lower than measuring uncertainty of each system.

  10. Definition, transformation-formulae and measurements of tipvane angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruining, A.

    1987-10-01

    The theoretical background of different angle systems used to define tipvane attitude in 3-D space is outlined. Different Euler equations are used for the various, wind tunnel, towing tank, and full scale tipvane models. The influence of rotor blade flapping angle on tipvane angles is described. The tipvane attitude measuring method is outlined in relationship to the Euler angle system. Side effects on the angle of attack of the tipvane due to rotation, translation, and curving of the tipvane are described.

  11. Shuttle Program. Euler angles, quaternions, and transformation matrices working relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    A brief mathematical development of the relationship between the Euler angles and the transformation matrix, the quaternion and the transformation matrix, and the Euler angles and the quaternion is presented. The analysis and equations presented apply directly to current space shuttle problems. The twelve three-axis Euler transformation matrices are given as functions of the Euler angles, the equations for the quaternion as a funtion of the Euler angles, and the Euler angles as a function of the transformation matrix elements.

  12. Wireless Orbiter Hang-Angle Inclinometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Green, Eric; Byon, Jonathan; Burns, Bradley; Mata, Carlos; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman

    2011-01-01

    A document describes a system to reliably gather the hang-angle inclination of the orbiter. The system comprises a wireless handheld master station (which contains the main station software) and a wireless remote station (which contains the inclinometer sensors, the RF transceivers, and the remote station software). The remote station is designed to provide redundancy to the system. It includes two RF transceivers, two power-management boards, and four inclinometer sensors.

  13. Experimental Status of the CKM Angle β

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, James F.

    2009-12-01

    We summarize measurements of the CKM angle β at the B-factories emphasizing a comparison of β measured in the B0→cc¯K(*)0 decay channels and βeff measured in b→qq¯s decay channels, such as B0→ωKS0, B0→η'K0, B0→π0KS0, and B0→S0KS0KS0.

  14. Low angle resistivity anomaly in layered superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelev, A.E. |; Vinokur, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    The pinning effect of vortex lines by the layered structure (intrinsic pinning) on resistivity of high-T{sub c}, superconductors in the mixed state is investigated by means of perturbation theory. A sharp drop in the resistivity at small angles for which vortex lines are almost aligned with the ab-planes is shown to occur even in a high-temperature region where the pinning potential is reduced by thermal fluctuations.

  15. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, A.; /Orsay, LAL

    2009-06-25

    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle {alpha} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. They present constraints on {alpha} from B {yields} {pi}{pi}, B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B {yields} {rho}{pi} decays.

  16. Tool Indicates Contact Angles In Bearing Raceways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akian, Richard A.; Butner, Myles F.

    1995-01-01

    Tool devised for use in measuring contact angles between balls and races in previously operated ball bearings. Used on both inner and outer raceways of bearings having cross-sectional widths between approximately 0.5 and 2.0 in. Consists of integral protractor mounted in vertical plane on bracket equipped with leveling screws and circular level indicator. Protractor includes rotatable indicator needle and set of disks of various sizes to fit various raceway curvatures.

  17. Robust angle-independent blood velocity estimation based on dual-angle plane wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Fadnes, Solveig; Ekroll, Ingvild Kinn; Nyrnes, Siri Ann; Torp, Hans; Lovstakken, Lasse

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional blood velocity estimation has shown potential to solve the angle-dependency of conventional ultrasound flow imaging. Clutter filtering, however, remains a major challenge for large beam-to-flow angles, leading to signal drop-outs and corrupted velocity estimates. This work presents and evaluates a compounding speckle tracking (ST) algorithm to obtain robust angle-independent 2-D blood velocity estimates for all beam-to-flow angles. A dual-angle plane wave imaging setup with full parallel receive beamforming is utilized to achieve high-frame-rate speckle tracking estimates from two scan angles, which may be compounded to obtain velocity estimates of increased robustness. The acquisition also allows direct comparison with vector Doppler (VD) imaging. Absolute velocity bias and root-mean-square (RMS) error of the compounding ST estimations were investigated using simulations of a rotating flow phantom with low velocities ranging from 0 to 20 cm/s. In a challenging region where the estimates were influenced by clutter filtering, the bias and RMS error for the compounding ST estimates were 11% and 2 cm/s, a significant reduction compared with conventional single-angle ST (22% and 4 cm/s) and VD (36% and 6 cm/s). The method was also tested in vivo for vascular and neonatal cardiac imaging. In a carotid artery bifurcation, the obtained blood velocity estimates showed that the compounded ST method was less influenced by clutter filtering than conventional ST and VD methods. In the cardiac case, it was observed that ST velocity estimation is more affected by low signal-to-noise (SNR) than VD. However, with sufficient SNR the in vivo results indicated that a more robust angle-independent blood velocity estimator is obtained using compounded speckle tracking compared with conventional ST and VD methods. PMID:26470038

  18. Robust angle-independent blood velocity estimation based on dual-angle plane wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Fadnes, Solveig; Ekroll, Ingvild Kinn; Nyrnes, Siri Ann; Torp, Hans; Lovstakken, Lasse

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional blood velocity estimation has shown potential to solve the angle-dependency of conventional ultrasound flow imaging. Clutter filtering, however, remains a major challenge for large beam-to-flow angles, leading to signal drop-outs and corrupted velocity estimates. This work presents and evaluates a compounding speckle tracking (ST) algorithm to obtain robust angle-independent 2-D blood velocity estimates for all beam-to-flow angles. A dual-angle plane wave imaging setup with full parallel receive beamforming is utilized to achieve high-frame-rate speckle tracking estimates from two scan angles, which may be compounded to obtain velocity estimates of increased robustness. The acquisition also allows direct comparison with vector Doppler (VD) imaging. Absolute velocity bias and root-mean-square (RMS) error of the compounding ST estimations were investigated using simulations of a rotating flow phantom with low velocities ranging from 0 to 20 cm/s. In a challenging region where the estimates were influenced by clutter filtering, the bias and RMS error for the compounding ST estimates were 11% and 2 cm/s, a significant reduction compared with conventional single-angle ST (22% and 4 cm/s) and VD (36% and 6 cm/s). The method was also tested in vivo for vascular and neonatal cardiac imaging. In a carotid artery bifurcation, the obtained blood velocity estimates showed that the compounded ST method was less influenced by clutter filtering than conventional ST and VD methods. In the cardiac case, it was observed that ST velocity estimation is more affected by low signal-to-noise (SNR) than VD. However, with sufficient SNR the in vivo results indicated that a more robust angle-independent blood velocity estimator is obtained using compounded speckle tracking compared with conventional ST and VD methods.

  19. Dynamic contact angle cycling homogenizes heterogeneous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Belibel, R; Barbaud, C; Mora, L

    2016-12-01

    In order to reduce restenosis, the necessity to develop the appropriate coating material of metallic stent is a challenge for biomedicine and scientific research over the past decade. Therefore, biodegradable copolymers of poly((R,S)-3,3 dimethylmalic acid) (PDMMLA) were prepared in order to develop a new coating exhibiting different custom groups in its side chain and being able to carry a drug. This material will be in direct contact with cells and blood. It consists of carboxylic acid and hexylic groups used for hydrophilic and hydrophobic character, respectively. The study of this material wettability and dynamic surface properties is of importance due to the influence of the chemistry and the potential motility of these chemical groups on cell adhesion and polymer kinetic hydrolysis. Cassie theory was used for the theoretical correction of contact angles of these chemical heterogeneous surfaces coatings. Dynamic Surface Analysis was used as practical homogenizer of chemical heterogeneous surfaces by cycling during many cycles in water. In this work, we confirmed that, unlike receding contact angle, advancing contact angle is influenced by the difference of only 10% of acidic groups (%A) in side-chain of polymers. It linearly decreases with increasing acidity percentage. Hysteresis (H) is also a sensitive parameter which is discussed in this paper. Finally, we conclude that cycling provides real information, thus avoiding theoretical Cassie correction. H(10)is the most sensible parameter to %A. PMID:27612817

  20. Angle sensitive single photon avalanche diode

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changhyuk Johnson, Ben Molnar, Alyosha

    2015-06-08

    An ideal light sensor would provide exact information on intensity, timing, location, and angle of incoming photons. Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) provide such desired high (single photon) sensitivity with precise time information and can be implemented at a pixel-scale to form an array to extract spatial information. Furthermore, recent work has demonstrated photodiode-based structures (combined with micro-lenses or diffraction gratings) that are capable of encoding both spatial and angular information of incident light. In this letter, we describe the implementation of such a grating structure on SPADs to realize a pixel-scale angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) built in a standard CMOS process. While the underlying SPAD structure provides high sensitivity, the time information of the two layers of diffraction gratings above offers angle-sensitivity. Such a unique combination of SPAD and diffraction gratings expands the sensing dimensions to pave a path towards lens-less 3-D imaging and light-field time-of-flight imaging.

  1. Off-Angle Iris Correction Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Thompson, Joseph T; Karakaya, Mahmut; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2016-01-01

    In many real world iris recognition systems obtaining consistent frontal images is problematic do to inexperienced or uncooperative users, untrained operators, or distracting environments. As a result many collected images are unusable by modern iris matchers. In this chapter we present four methods for correcting off-angle iris images to appear frontal which makes them compatible with existing iris matchers. The methods include an affine correction, a retraced model of the human eye, measured displacements, and a genetic algorithm optimized correction. The affine correction represents a simple way to create an iris image that appears frontal but it does not account for refractive distortions of the cornea. The other method account for refraction. The retraced model simulates the optical properties of the cornea. The other two methods are data driven. The first uses optical flow to measure the displacements of the iris texture when compared to frontal images of the same subject. The second uses a genetic algorithm to learn a mapping that optimizes the Hamming Distance scores between off-angle and frontal images. In this paper we hypothesize that the biological model presented in our earlier work does not adequately account for all variations in eye anatomy and therefore the two data-driven approaches should yield better performance. Results are presented using the commercial VeriEye matcher that show that the genetic algorithm method clearly improves over prior work and makes iris recognition possible up to 50 degrees off-angle.

  2. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOEpatents

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., q.sub.max /q.sub.min.congruent.100.

  3. Quantifying foot deformation using finite helical angle.

    PubMed

    Pothrat, Claude; Goislard de Monsabert, Benjamin; Vigouroux, Laurent; Viehweger, Elke; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume

    2015-10-15

    Foot intrinsic motion originates from the combination of numerous joint motions giving this segment a high adaptive ability. Existing foot kinematic models are mostly focused on analyzing small scale foot bone to bone motions which require both complex experimental methodology and complex interpretative work to assess the global foot functionality. This study proposes a method to assess the total foot deformation by calculating a helical angle from the relative motions of the rearfoot and the forefoot. This method required a limited number of retro-reflective markers placed on the foot and was tested for five different movements (walking, forefoot impact running, heel impact running, 90° cutting, and 180° U-turn) and 12 participants. Overtime intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to quantify the helical angle pattern repeatability for each movement. Our results indicated that the method was suitable to identify the different motions as different amplitudes of helical angle were observed according to the flexibility required in each movement. Moreover, the results showed that the repeatability could be used to identify the mastering of each motion as this repeatability was high for well mastered movements. Together with existing methods, this new protocol could be applied to fully assess foot function in sport or clinical contexts.

  4. Angle sensitive single photon avalanche diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changhyuk; Johnson, Ben; Molnar, Alyosha

    2015-06-01

    An ideal light sensor would provide exact information on intensity, timing, location, and angle of incoming photons. Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) provide such desired high (single photon) sensitivity with precise time information and can be implemented at a pixel-scale to form an array to extract spatial information. Furthermore, recent work has demonstrated photodiode-based structures (combined with micro-lenses or diffraction gratings) that are capable of encoding both spatial and angular information of incident light. In this letter, we describe the implementation of such a grating structure on SPADs to realize a pixel-scale angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) built in a standard CMOS process. While the underlying SPAD structure provides high sensitivity, the time information of the two layers of diffraction gratings above offers angle-sensitivity. Such a unique combination of SPAD and diffraction gratings expands the sensing dimensions to pave a path towards lens-less 3-D imaging and light-field time-of-flight imaging.

  5. Manifold angles, the concept of self-similarity, and angle-enhanced bifurcation diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Beims, Marcus W.; Gallas, Jason A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Chaos and regularity are routinely discriminated by using Lyapunov exponents distilled from the norm of orthogonalized Lyapunov vectors, propagated during the temporal evolution of the dynamics. Such exponents are mean-field-like averages that, for each degree of freedom, squeeze the whole temporal evolution complexity into just a single number. However, Lyapunov vectors also contain a step-by-step record of what exactly happens with the angles between stable and unstable manifolds during the whole evolution, a big-data information permanently erased by repeated orthogonalizations. Here, we study changes of angles between invariant subspaces as observed during temporal evolution of Hénon’s system. Such angles are calculated numerically and analytically and used to characterize self-similarity of a chaotic attractor. In addition, we show how standard tools of dynamical systems may be angle-enhanced by dressing them with informations not difficult to extract. Such angle-enhanced tools reveal unexpected and practical facts that are described in detail. For instance, we present a video showing an angle-enhanced bifurcation diagram that exposes from several perspectives the complex geometrical features underlying the attractors. We believe such findings to be generic for extended classes of systems. PMID:26732416

  6. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  7. Uncomplicated acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, R; Sande, M A

    2000-12-19

    Acute bronchitis is an acute cough illness in otherwise healthy adults that usually lasts 1 to 3 weeks. This review describes the pathophysiology of the condition and provides a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis. Practical points to be made are:1. Respiratory viruses appear to cause the large majority of cases of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.2. Pertussis infection is present in up to 10% to 20% of adults with cough illness of more than 2 to 3 weeks' duration. No clinical features distinguish pertussis from nonpertussis infection in adults who were immunized against pertussis as children.3. Transient bronchial hyperresponsiveness appears to be the predominant mechanism of the bothersome cough of acute bronchitis.4. Ruling out pneumonia is the primary objective in evaluating adults with acute cough illness in whom comorbid conditions and occult asthma are absent or unlikely. In the absence of abnormalities in vital signs (heart rate > 100 beats/min, respiratory rate > 24 breaths/min, and oral body temperature > 38 degrees C), the likelihood of pneumonia is very low.5. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials do not support routine antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.6. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have shown that inhaled albuterol decreases the duration of cough in adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis.7. Intervention studies suggest that antibiotic treatment of acute bronchitis can be reduced by using a combination of patient and physician education. Decreased rates of antibiotic treatment are not associated with increased utilization, return visits, or dissatisfaction with care.

  8. Acute mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sise, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is uncommon and always occurs in the setting of preexisting comorbidities. Mortality rates remain high. The 4 major types of acute mesenteric ischemia are acute superior mesenteric artery thromboembolic occlusion, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, including ischemic colitis. Delays in diagnosis are common and associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis requires attention to history and physical examination, a high index of suspicion, and early contract CT scanning. Selective use of nonoperative therapy has an important role in nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia of the small bowel and colon.

  9. Perceptions of tilt angles of an agricultural tractor.

    PubMed

    Görücü, Serap; Cavallo, Eugenio; Murphy, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    A tractor stability simulator has been developed to help study tractor operators' perceptions of angles when the simulator is tilted to the side. The simulator is a trailer-mounted tractor cab equipped with hydraulic lift that can tilt the tractor cabin up to 30 degrees. This paper summarizes data from 82 participants who sat in the simulator while it was tilted. Demographic variables, estimates of tilt angles, and measured tilt angles were collected. The effects of age, gender, tractor driving experience, and frequency of operation on the estimated and measured tilt angles were analyzed. The results showed that about 50% of the participants reported estimations of side tilt angles within ±5 degrees of the actual angles, and nearly the same percentage overestimated the actual side tilt angles. Only a small percentage underestimated the angles. Older, more experienced, and male participants set higher limits on the actual angle at which they felt uncomfortable and would not drive. PMID:24417527

  10. Angle amplifier based on multiplexed volume holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liangcai; Zhao, Yifei; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2008-03-01

    Angle amplifier of laser beam scanner is a widely used device in optical systems. Volume holographic optical elements can be applied in the angle amplifier. Compared with the traditional angle amplifier, it has the advantages of high angle resolution, high diffraction efficiency, small size, and high angle magnification and flexible design. Bragg anglewavelength- compensating recording method is introduced. Because of the Bragg compensatory relation between angle and wavelength, this device could be recorded at another wavelength. The design of the angle amplifier recording at the wavelength of 514.2nm for the working wavelength of 632.8nm is described. An optical setup for recording the angle amplifier device is designed and discussed. Experimental results in the photorefractive crystal Fe:LiNbO 3 demonstrate the feasibility of the angle amplifier scheme.

  11. Angle Closure Scoring System (ACSS)-A Scoring System for Stratification of Angle Closure Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Aparna; Padhy, Debananda; Sarangi, Sarada; Das, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the angle closure scoring system (ACSS) for stratifying primary angle course disease. Methods This observational cross sectional institutional study included patients with primary open angle glaucoma suspects (n = 21) and primary angle closure disease (primary angle closure, PAC, n = 63 and primary angle course glaucoma, PACG, n = 58 (defined by International society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology, ISGEO). Two independent examiners blinded to clinical details, graded good quality pre-laser goniophotographs of the patients incorporating quadrants of peripheral anterior synechieae (PAS), non-visibility of posterior trabecular meshwork (PTM) and blotchy pigments (ranging from 1–4 quadrants), iris configuration, angle recess (sum of above depicting ACSSg) and lens thickness/axial length ratio (LT/AL), cup disc ratio and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) to give total score (ACSSt). Result There were significant differences in ACSSg scores within the same ISGEO stage of PAC and PACG between eyes that required nil or >1medicines after laser iridotomy, p<0.001. The ACSSg was associated with need for >1 medicines in both PAC and PACG eyes, p<0.001. An ACSSg score>12 and 14 in PAC (odds ratio = 2.7(95% CI-1.7–5.9) and PACG (Odds ratio = 1.6(95%CI-1.19–2.2) predicted need for single medicines while ACSSg scores >14 and 19 predicted need for ≥2 medicines in PAC and PACG eyes, respectively. The LT/Al ratio, IOP score or cup disc score did not influence the need for medical treatment independently. Conclusion The ACSS can be a useful clinical adjunct to the ISGEO system to predict need for medicines and prognosticate each stage more accurately. PMID:27788183

  12. Determining surface wave arrival angle anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Erik W. F.; Ekström, Göran

    2002-06-01

    A new method for measuring arrival angles of teleseismic Love and Rayleigh waves is developed. The new method utilizes estimates of surface wave dispersion to create a phase-matched filter to isolate the Love or Rayleigh wave in three-component recordings. The polarization of the filtered wave group is determined in the time domain by application of a variation of the complex polarization method of Vidale [1986]. Orientation, linearity, and ellipticity of particle motion are estimated in several frequency bands to determine the frequency-dependent polarization. The method employs an iterative scheme, by which a predicted Love wave, based on the estimated dispersion and polarization, is subtracted from the three-component data prior to the estimation of Rayleigh wave polarization, and vice versa. The method is applied to an extensive set of Global Seismographic Network data covering the years 1989-1998. Between 4244 and 15,075 measurements are collected for fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh waves at nine different periods (37 to 150 s). Measurement uncertainties are estimated using the statistics of observations for pairwise similar paths and are generally of the order of 15-50% of the total signal, depending on the period and the wave type. Large and azimuthally invariant angle anomalies are documented for several stations and are consistent with misorientation of the horizontal seismometers. Two schemes are employed to determine the misorientations: (1) an azimuthally weighted average at each station, and (2) a joint inversion for seismometer misorientation and globally heterogeneous phase velocities. The determined corrections are robust and correlate well with those reported in earlier studies. Azimuthally varying arrival angle anomalies are shown to agree qualitatively with predictions of wave refraction calculated for recent phase velocity maps, which explain up to 30% of the variance in the new measurements.

  13. Neurenteric cysts of the cerebellopontine angle.

    PubMed

    Roder, Constantin; Ebner, Florian H; Schuhmann, Martin U

    2013-12-01

    Neurenteric cysts in the central nervous system are rare developmental malformations. Usually the cysts are located ventral to the high thoracic or low cervical spinal cord. Only a few cases of intracranial neurenteric cysts have been reported in the literature to date. We report two cases of intracranial neurenteric cysts in the cerebellopontine angle with totally different radiographic, macroscopic, and microscopic appearance. As seen in these cases, the imaging spectrum of neurenteric cysts can be diverse, including malignancy-suspecting partial rim-enhancement or low-grade glioma features. Microsurgical therapy should include endoscopic assistance to ensure complete removal of cyst content. PMID:23397125

  14. Junctional angle of a bihanded helix.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Wolgemuth, Charles W; Huber, Greg

    2014-10-01

    Helical filaments having sections of reversed chirality are common phenomena in the biological realm. The apparent angle between the two sections of opposite handedness provides information about the geometry and elasticity of the junctional region. In this paper, the governing differential equations for the local helical axis are developed, and asymptotic solutions of the governing equations are solved by perturbation theory. The asymptotic solutions are compared with the corresponding numerical solutions, and the relative error at second order is found to be less than 1.5% over a range of biologically relevant curvature and torsion values from 0 to 1/2 in dimensionless units.

  15. Narrow-angle Astrometry with SUSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Y.; Ireland, M. J.; Robertson, J. G.; Tuthill, P. G.; Warrington, B. A.; Tango, W. J.

    2014-09-01

    SUSI (Sydney University Stellar Interferometer) is currently being fitted with a 2nd beam combiner, MUSCA (Micro-arcsecond University of Sydney Companion Astrometry), for the purpose of narrow-angle astrometry. With an aim to achieve ˜10 micro-arcseconds of angular resolution at its best, MUSCA allows SUSI to search for planets around bright binary stars, which are its primary targets. While the first beam combiner, PAVO (Precision Astronomical Visible Observations), is used to track stellar fringes during an observation, MUSCA will be used to measure separations of binary stars. MUSCA is a Michelson interferometer and its setup at SUSI will be described in this poster.

  16. Euler angles as torsional flat spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejo-Mandujano, Hector A.

    In this work we use general tensor calculus to compare the geodesic equation of motion and Newton's first law for force-free classical systems that are described by an arbitrary number of generalized coordinates in spaces with and without torsion. We choose as objects of study the flat torsional Euler angle metric spaces for rigid rotators. We tested the equivalence of the two motion equations using computational software that allowed algebraic manipulation. The main result is that the equivalence only holds for torsion-free spaces, and for isotropic force-free rotators. We present analytical calculations for the isotropic case and computational results for the general case.

  17. Magic angle spinning NMR of viruses.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Caitlin M; Lu, Manman; Suiter, Christopher L; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    Viruses, relatively simple pathogens, are able to replicate in many living organisms and to adapt to various environments. Conventional atomic-resolution structural biology techniques, X-ray crystallography and solution NMR spectroscopy provided abundant information on the structures of individual proteins and nucleic acids comprising viruses; however, viral assemblies are not amenable to analysis by these techniques because of their large size, insolubility, and inherent lack of long-range order. In this article, we review the recent advances in magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy that enabled atomic-resolution analysis of structure and dynamics of large viral systems and give examples of several exciting case studies. PMID:25919197

  18. Magic Angle Spinning NMR of Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Caitlin; Lu, Manman; Suiter, Christopher L.; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Viruses, relatively simple pathogens, are able to replicate in many living organisms and to adapt to various environments. Conventional atomic-resolution structural biology techniques, X-ray crystallography and solution NMR spectroscopy provided abundant information on the structures of individual proteins and nucleic acids comprising viruses; however, viral assemblies are not amenable to analysis by these techniques because of their large size, insolubility, and inherent lack of long-range order. In this article, we review the recent advances in magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy that enabled atomic-resolution analysis of structure and dynamics of large viral systems and give examples of several exciting case studies. PMID:25919197

  19. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  20. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested clinically by abdominal pain, nausea and dehydration that is usually self-limiting ... room for evaluation should they develop any abnormal abdominal pain symptoms. Conclusions While a rare event, acute pancreatitis ...

  1. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  2. Treatment of acute gout.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the treatment of acute gout. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments, monotherapy versus combination therapy, suggested recommendations, guidelines for treatment, and drugs under development are discussed.

  3. Acute interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bouros, D; Nicholson, A C; Polychronopoulos, V; du Bois, R M

    2000-02-01

    The term "acute interstitial pneumonia" (AIP) describes an idiopathic clinicopathological condition, characterized clinically by an interstitial lung disease causing rapid onset of respiratory failure, which is distinguishable from the other more chronic forms of interstitial pneumonia. It is synonymous with Hamman-Rich syndrome, occurring in patients without pre-existing lung disease. The histopathological findings are those of diffuse alveolar damage. AIP radiologically and physiologically resembles acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is considered to represent the small subset of patients with idiopathic ARDS. It is frequently confused with other clinical entities characterized by rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia, especially secondary acute interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbations and accelerated forms of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis . Furthermore, many authors use the above terms, both erroneously and interchangeably. It has a grave prognosis with >70% mortality in 3 months, despite mechanical ventilation. This review aims to clarify the relative clinical and pathological issues and terminology.

  4. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  5. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  6. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  7. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  8. Pitch-angle scattering in magnetostatic turbulence. II. Analytical considerations and pitch-angle isotropization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautz, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    Aims: The process of pitch-angle isotropization is important for many applications ranging from diffusive shock acceleration to large-scale cosmic-ray transport. Here, the basic analytical description is revisited on the basis of recent simulation results. Methods: Both an analytical and a numerical investigation were undertaken of the Fokker-Planck equation for pitch-angle scattering. Additional test-particle simulations obtained with the help of a Monte-Carlo code were used to verify the conclusions. Results: It is shown that the usual definition of the pitch-angle Fokker-Planck coefficient via the mean-square displacement is flawed. The reason can be traced back to the assumption of homogeneity in time which does not hold for pitch-angle scattering. Conclusions: Calculating the mean free path via the Fokker-Planck coefficient has often proven to give an accurate description. For numerical purposes, accordingly, it is the definition that has to be exchanged in favor of the pitch-angle correlation function.

  9. Study on self-calibration angle encoder using simulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Xue, Zi; Huang, Yao; Wang, Xiaona

    2016-01-01

    The angle measurement technology is very important in precision manufacture, optical industry, aerospace, aviation and navigation, etc. Further, the angle encoder, which uses concept `subdivision of full circle (2π rad=360°)' and transforms the angle into number of electronic pulse, is the most common instrument for angle measurement. To improve the accuracy of the angle encoder, a novel self-calibration method was proposed that enables the angle encoder to calibrate itself without angle reference. An angle deviation curve among 0° to 360° was simulated with equal weights Fourier components for the study of the self-calibration method. In addition, a self-calibration algorithm was used in the process of this deviation curve. The simulation result shows the relationship between the arrangement of multi-reading heads and the Fourier components distribution of angle encoder deviation curve. Besides, an actual self-calibration angle encoder was calibrated by polygon angle standard in national institute of metrology, China. The experiment result indicates the actual self-calibration effect on the Fourier components distribution of angle encoder deviation curve. In the end, the comparison, which is between the simulation self-calibration result and the experiment self-calibration result, reflects good consistency and proves the reliability of the self-calibration angle encoder.

  10. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  11. Wide-angle imaging system with fiberoptic components providing angle-dependent virtual material stops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Arthur H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A strip imaging wide angle optical system is provided. The optical system is provided with a 'virtual' material stop to avoid aberrational effects inherent in wide angle optical systems. The optical system includes a spherical mirror section for receiving light from a 180 deg strip or arc of a target image. Light received by the spherical mirror section is reflected to a frustoconical mirror section for subsequent rereflection to a row of optical fibers. Each optical fiber transmits a portion of the received light to a detector. The optical system exploits the narrow cone of acceptance associated with optical fibers to substantially eliminate vignetting effects inherent in wide angle systems. Further, the optical system exploits the narrow cone of acceptance of the optical fibers to substantially limit spherical aberration. The optical system is ideally suited for any application wherein a 180 deg strip image need be detected, and is particularly well adapted for use in hostile environments such as in planetary exploration.

  12. Hidden Topological Angles in Path Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behtash, Alireza; Sulejmanpasic, Tin; Schäfer, Thomas; Ünsal, Mithat

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the existence of hidden topological angles (HTAs) in a large class of quantum field theories and quantum mechanical systems. HTAs are distinct from theta parameters in the Lagrangian. They arise as invariant angles associated with saddle points of the complexified path integral and their descent manifolds (Lefschetz thimbles). Physical effects of HTAs become most transparent upon analytic continuation in nf to a noninteger number of flavors, reducing in the integer nf limit to a Z2 valued phase difference between dominant saddles. In N =1 super Yang-Mills theory we demonstrate the microscopic mechanism for the vanishing of the gluon condensate. The same effect leads to an anomalously small condensate in a QCD-like S U (N ) gauge theory with fermions in the two-index representation. The basic phenomenon is that, contrary to folklore, the gluon condensate can receive both positive and negative contributions in a semiclassical expansion. In quantum mechanics, a HTA leads to a difference in semiclassical expansion of integer and half-integer spin particles.

  13. Weight factors for limited angle photoacoustic tomography

    PubMed Central

    Paltauf, G; Nuster, R; Burgholzer, P

    2011-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is based on the generation of ultrasound waves by heating an object with short light pulses. A three-dimensional image of the distribution of absorbed energy within the object is reconstructed from signals measured around the object with either point like or extended, linear sensors. Limited angle artefacts arise when the curve or surface connecting neighbouring detectors is not closed around the object. For this case there exists a “detection region” in which all boundaries of an object are visible in the reconstruction. All straight lines passing through each point in this region intersect the detection curve or surface at least once. Although for these points an accurate reconstruction is possible, direct back projection leads to artefacts when some of the straight lines intersect the detection surface twice and others just once. In this work special weight functions for direct, non iterative back projection are presented that reduce these kinds of artefacts. A clear improvement of image quality is shown in simulations for three-dimensional (3D) imaging with point detectors and for two-dimensional (2D) imaging using line detectors compared to reconstruction without weight factors. For the 2D case also an experiment is shown. The presented weight factors make commonly used back projection formulas suitable for more accurate reconstruction of the initial pressure distribution in cases where the detection aperture only covers a limited angle and the region of interest lies within the detection region. PMID:19430108

  14. Diphotons, new vacuum angles, and strong CP

    DOE PAGES

    Draper, Patrick; McKeen, David

    2016-04-20

    The Standard Model contains a well-understood, natural, spin-0 diphoton resonance: the π0. Numerous studies have pointed out that the hint of a new diphoton resonance at 750 GeV could be a pion analog, identified with the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of a chiral symmetry spontaneously broken by new strong dynamics at the TeV scale. These “hypercolor” models are generically expected to violate parity through a topological angle θ~. We discuss the physics of θ~ and its impact on the phenomenology of the new sector. We also describe some of the theoretical implications of a nonzero θ~. In particular, θ~ can generate anmore » O(1) threshold correction to the QCD vacuum angle θ near the TeV scale, sharply constraining ultraviolet solutions to the strong CP problem. Furthermore, finding that θ~ is small may be interpreted as evidence in favor of UV solutions to strong CP, particularly those based on spontaneously broken P or CP symmetries.« less

  15. Active limited-angle tomographic phase microscope.

    PubMed

    Kus, Arkadiusz; Krauze, Wojciech; Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an active, holographic tomography system, working with limited angle of projections, realized by optical-only, diffraction-based beam steering. The system created for this purpose is a Mach–Zehnder interferometer modified to serve as a digital holographic microscope with a high numerical aperture illumination module and a spatial light modulator (SLM). Such a solution is fast and robust. Apart from providing an elegant solution to viewing angle shifting, it also adds new capabilities of the holographic microscope system. SLM, being an active optical element, allows wavefront correction in order to improve measurement accuracy. Integrated phase data captured with different illumination scenarios within a highly limited angular range are processed by a new tomographic reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed sensing technique: total variation minimization, which is applied here to reconstruct nonpiecewise constant samples. Finally, the accuracy of full measurement and the proposed processing path is tested for a calibrated three-dimensional micro-object as well as a biological object--C2C12 myoblast cell.

  16. Wave-angle control of delta evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, Andrew D.; Giosan, Liviu

    2011-07-01

    Wave-influenced deltas, with large-scale arcuate shapes and demarcated beach ridge complexes, often display an asymmetrical form about their river channel. Here, we use a numerical model to demonstrate that the angles from which waves approach a delta can have a first-order influence upon its plan-view morphologic evolution and sedimentary architecture. The directional spread of incoming waves plays a dominant role over fluvial sediment discharge in controlling the width of an active delta lobe, which in turn affects the characteristic rates of delta progradation. Oblique wave approach (and a consequent net alongshore sediment transport) can lead to the development of morphologic asymmetry about the river in a delta's plan-view form. This plan-form asymmetry can include the development of discrete breaks in shoreline orientation and the appearance of self-organized features arising from shoreline instability along the downdrift delta flank, such as spits and migrating shoreline sand waves—features observed on natural deltas. Somewhat surprisingly, waves approaching preferentially from one direction tend to increase sediment deposition updrift of the river. This ‘morphodynamic groin effect’ occurs when the delta's plan-form aspect ratio is sufficiently large such that the orientation of the shoreline on the downdrift flank is rotated past the angle of maximum alongshore sediment transport, resulting in preferential redirection of fluvial sediment updrift of the river mouth.

  17. Reactor mixing angle from hybrid neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; de Medeiros Varzielas, I.

    2014-07-01

    In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure with small deviations, as demanded by data. If neutrino masses originate from at least two different mechanisms, referred to as "hybrid neutrino masses", the experimentally observed structure naturally emerges provided one mechanism accounts for the dominant tribimaximal structure while the other is responsible for the deviations. We demonstrate the feasibility of this picture in a fairly model-independent way by using lepton-number-violating effective operators, whose structure we assume becomes dictated by an underlying A 4 flavor symmetry. We show that if a second mechanism is at work, the requirement of generating a reactor angle within its experimental range always fixes the solar and atmospheric angles in agreement with data, in contrast to the case where the deviations are induced by next-to-leading order effective operators. We prove this idea is viable by constructing an A 4-based ultraviolet completion, where the dominant tribimaximal structure arises from the type-I seesaw while the subleading contribution is determined by either type-II or type-III seesaw driven by a non-trivial A 4 singlet (minimal hybrid model). After finding general criteria, we identify all the N symmetries capable of producing such A 4-based minimal hybrid models.

  18. Large Angle Transient Dynamics (LATDYN) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. Louis; Chang, Che-Wei; Powell, Michael G.; Wu, Shih-Chin; Bingel, Bradford D.; Theophilos, Paula M.

    1991-01-01

    A computer code for modeling the large angle transient dynamics (LATDYN) of structures was developed to investigate techniques for analyzing flexible deformation and control/structure interaction problems associated with large angular motions of spacecraft. This type of analysis is beyond the routine capability of conventional analytical tools without simplifying assumptions. In some instances, the motion may be sufficiently slow and the spacecraft (or component) sufficiently rigid to simplify analyses of dynamics and controls by making pseudo-static and/or rigid body assumptions. The LATDYN introduces a new approach to the problem by combining finite element structural analysis, multi-body dynamics, and control system analysis in a single tool. It includes a type of finite element that can deform and rotate through large angles at the same time, and which can be connected to other finite elements either rigidly or through mechanical joints. The LATDYN also provides symbolic capabilities for modeling control systems which are interfaced directly with the finite element structural model. Thus, the nonlinear equations representing the structural model are integrated along with the equations representing sensors, processing, and controls as a coupled system.

  19. Tilt angle control of nanocolumns grown by glancing angle sputtering at variable argon pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Martin, J. M.; Cebollada, A.; Alvarez, R.; Romero-Gomez, P.; Palmero, A.

    2010-10-25

    We show that the tilt angle of nanostructures obtained by glancing angle sputtering is finely tuned by selecting the adequate argon pressure. At low pressures, a ballistic deposition regime dominates, yielding high directional atoms that form tilted nanocolumns. High pressures lead to a diffusive regime which gives rise to vertical columnar growth. Monte Carlo simulations reproduce the experimental results indicating that the loss of directionality of the sputtered particles in the gas phase, together with the self-shadowing mechanism at the surface, are the main processes responsible for the development of the columns.

  20. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children. PMID:27613655

  1. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.

  2. A brittle-ductile high- and low-angle fault related to the Kea extensional detachment (W Cyclades., Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockenschaub, M.; Grasemann, B.; Iglseder, C.; Rice, A. H. N.; Schneider, D.; Zamolyi, A.

    2010-05-01

    Roll-back of the African Plate within the Eurasian-African collision zone since the Oligocene/Miocene led to extension in the Cyclades along low-angle normal fault zones and exhumation of rocks from near the brittle-ductile transition zone. On the island of Kea (W Cyclades), which represents such a crustal scale low-angle fault zone with top-to-SSW kinematics, remote sensing analysis of brittle fault lineaments in the Pissis area (W Kea) demonstrates two dominant strike directions: ca. NE-SW and NW-SE. From the north of Pisses southwards, the angle between the two main fault directions changes gradually from a rhombohedral geometry (ca. 50°/130° angle between faults, with the acute angle facing westwards) to an orthogonal geometry. The aim of this study is the development of this fault system. We investigate, if this fault system is related to the Miocene extension or if it is related to a later overprinting event (e.g. the opening of the Corinth) Field observations revealed that the investigated lineaments are high-angle (50-90° dip) brittle/ductile conjugate, faults. Due to the lack of marker layers offsets could only rarely be estimated. Locally centimetre thick marble layers in the greenschists suggest a displacement gradient along the faults with a maximum offset of less than 60 cm. Large displacement gradients are associated with a pronounced ductile fault drag in the host rocks. In some instances, high-angle normal faults were observed to link kinematically with low-angle, top-to-SSW brittle/ductile shear bands. Both the high- and the low-angle faults have a component of ductile shear, which is overprinted by brittle deformation mechanisms. In thin-section, polyphase mode-2 cracks are filled mainly with calcite and quartz (ultra)cataclasites, sometimes followed by further opening with fluid-related iron-rich carbonate (ankeritic) precipitation. CL analysis reveals several generations of cements, indicating multiple phases of cataclastic deformation and

  3. 14 CFR 23.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... described in this section. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the... formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the airplane... longitudinal axis. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... described in this section. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the... formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the airplane... longitudinal axis. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... this section. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first... two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft, and... longitudinal axis. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... described in this section. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the... formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft... longitudinal axis. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... this section. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first... two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft, and... longitudinal axis. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... this section. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first... two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the airplane, and the... axis. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... this section. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first... two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft, and... longitudinal axis. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... this section. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first... two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the airplane, and the... axis. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... this section. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first... two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the airplane, and the... axis. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... described in this section. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the... formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the airplane... longitudinal axis. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... described in this section. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the... formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft... longitudinal axis. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1387 - Position light system dihedral angles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... described in this section. (b) Dihedral angle L (left) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the... formed by two intersecting vertical planes, the first parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft... longitudinal axis. (d) Dihedral angle A (aft) is formed by two intersecting vertical planes making angles of...

  15. Spray coating of superhydrophobic and angle-independent coloured films.

    PubMed

    Ge, Dengteng; Yang, Lili; Wu, Gaoxiang; Yang, Shu

    2014-03-01

    Angle-independent coloured films with superhydrophobicity were fabricated from quasi-amorphous arrays of monodispersed fluorinated silica nanoparticles via one-step spray coating. The film exhibited a high contact angle (>150°) and a low roll-off angle (~2°) and the colour could be tuned to blue, green and moccasin by varying the size of the nanoparticles.

  16. Turn vs. Shape: Teachers Cope with Incompatible Perspectives on Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontorovich, Igor'; Zazkis, Rina

    2016-01-01

    This study is concerned with tensions between the two different perspectives on the concept of angle: angle as a static shape and angle as a dynamic turn. The goal of the study is to explore how teachers cope with these tensions. We analyze scripts of 16 in-service secondary mathematics teachers, which feature a dialogue between a teacher and…

  17. The Effect of Training on Accuracy of Angle Estimation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, T. Gary; Wright, Robert H.

    This report describes a study to determine the effect of training on accuracy in estimating angles. The study was part of a research program directed toward improving navigation techniques for low-level flight in Army aircraft and was made to assess the feasibility of visually estimating angles on a map in order to determine angles of drift.…

  18. Lag Angle Compensation in a Space Borne Scanning Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissinger, A. B.

    1992-01-01

    The so-called 'lag angle' is inherent in any spaceborne scanning lidar system. It is also important in systems where the scanning causes a significant pointing error during the laser interrogating pulse echo time. In a heterodyne lidar system, the lag angle, if uncompensated, will significantly reduce the signal-to-noise ratio. An investigation of lag angle is presented.

  19. Impedance Scaling for Small Angle Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; Bane, Karl; Zagorodnov, I.; /DESY

    2010-10-27

    Based on the parabolic equation approach to Maxwell's equations we have derived scaling properties of the high frequency impedance/short bunch wakefields of structures. For the special case of small angle transitions we have shown the scaling properties are valid for all frequencies. Using these scaling properties one can greatly reduce the calculation time of the wakefield/impedance of long, small angle, beam pipe transitions, like one often finds in insertion regions of storage rings. We have tested the scaling with wakefield simulations of 2D and 3D models of such transitions, and found that the scaling works well. In modern ring-based light sources one often finds insertion devices having extremely small vertical apertures (on the order of millimeters) to allow for maximal undulator fields reaching the beam. Such insertion devices require that there be beam pipe transitions from these small apertures to the larger cross-sections (normally on the order of centimeters) found in the rest of the ring. The fact that there may be many such transitions, and that these transitions introduce beam pipe discontinuities very close to the beam path, means that their impedance will be large and, in fact, may dominate the impedance budget of the entire ring. To reduce their impact on impedance, the transitions are normally tapered gradually over a long distance. The accurate calculation of the impedance or wakefield of these long transitions, which are typically 3D objects (i.e. they do not have cylindrical symmetry), can be quite a challenging numerical task. In this report we present a method of obtaining the impedance of a long, small angle transition from the calculation of a scaled, shorter one. Normally, the actual calculation is obtained from a time domain simulation of the wakefield in the structure, where the impedance can be obtained by performing a Fourier transform. We shall see that the scaled calculation reduces the computer time and memory requirements

  20. Distinguishing features of shallow angle plunging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Suraj S.; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2013-08-01

    Numerical simulations employing an algebraic volume-of-fluid methodology are used to study the air entrainment characteristics of a water jet plunging into a quiescent water pool at angles ranging from θ = 10° to θ = 90° measured from the horizontal. Our previous study of shallow angled jets [S. S. Deshpande, M. F. Trujillo, X. Wu, and G. L. Chahine, "Computational and experimental characterization of a liquid jet plunging into a quiescent pool at shallow inclination," Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 34, 1-14 (2012)], 10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2012.01.011 revealed the existence of a clearly discernible frequency of ingestion of large air cavities. This is in contrast with chaotic entrainment of small air pockets reported in the literature in case of steeper or vertically plunging jets. In the present work, the differences are addressed by first quantifying the cavity size and entrained air volumes for different impingement angles. The results support the expected trend - reduction in cavity size (D43) as θ is increased. Time histories of cavity volumes in the vicinity of the impingement region confirm the visual observations pertaining to a near-periodic ingestion of large air volumes for shallow jets (10°, 12°), and also show that such cavities are not formed for steep or vertical jets. Each large cavity (defined as Dc/Dj ≳ 3) exists in close association with a stagnation point flow. A local mass and momentum balance shows that the high stagnation pressure causes a radial redirection of the jet, resulting in a flow that resembles the initial impact of a jet on the pool. In fact, for these large cavities, their speed matches closely Uimpact/2, which coincides with initial cavity propagation for sufficiently high Froude numbers. Furthermore, it is shown that the approximate periodicity of air entrainment scales linearly with Froude number. This finding is confirmed by a number of simulations at θ = 12°. Qualitatively, for steeper jets, such large stagnation

  1. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  2. Superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Xiao-Wei

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice are investigated. Incident waves above the critical angles of the Snell law usually inevitably induce total reflection. However, incident waves with big oblique angles through the liquid—solid superlattice will produce a superwide angle transmission in a certain frequency range so that total reflection does not occur. Together with the simulation by finite element analysis, theoretical analysis by using transfer matrix method suggests the Bragg scattering of the Lamb waves as the physical mechanism of acoustic wave super-propagation far beyond the critical angle. Incident angle, filling fraction, and material thickness have significant influences on propagation. Superwide-angle propagation phenomenon may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation of layered structures and controlling of energy flux.

  3. Acute unilateral parotid gland swelling after lateral decubitus position under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Postaci, Aysun; Aytac, Ismail; Oztekin, Cetin Volkan; Dikmen, Bayazit

    2012-07-01

    Acute swelling of the parotid gland after general anesthesia (commonly known as anesthesia mumps or acute postoperative sialadenitis) is a rare but declared complication of anesthesia. The etiology is not clear, but some possible causes such as obstruction of glandular excretory ducts caused by patient position and increase in the viscosity of the saliva because of acute dehydratation and/or medications like atropin have been proposed. We report a swelling in the left preauricular and postauricular region extending to the angle of the mandibule in a 35-year-old patient after left lateral decubitus position for laparoscopic nephrectomy.

  4. Acute unilateral parotid gland swelling after lateral decubitus position under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Postaci, Aysun; Aytac, Ismail; Oztekin, Cetin Volkan; Dikmen, Bayazit

    2012-01-01

    Acute swelling of the parotid gland after general anesthesia (commonly known as anesthesia mumps or acute postoperative sialadenitis) is a rare but declared complication of anesthesia. The etiology is not clear, but some possible causes such as obstruction of glandular excretory ducts caused by patient position and increase in the viscosity of the saliva because of acute dehydratation and/or medications like atropin have been proposed. We report a swelling in the left preauricular and postauricular region extending to the angle of the mandibule in a 35-year-old patient after left lateral decubitus position for laparoscopic nephrectomy. PMID:23162409

  5. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 1: Corners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In Part 1 of their article, Erin Host, Emily Baynham and Heather McMaster use a combination of digital technology and concrete materials to explore the concept of "corners". They provide a practical, easy to follow sequence of activities that builds on students' understandings. [For "Using Digital Technology to See Angles from…

  6. Compression failure of angle-ply laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peel, L. D.; Hyer, M. W.; Shuart, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    Test results from the compression loading of (+ or - Theta/ - or + Theta)(sub 6s) angle-ply IM7-8551-7a specimens, 0 less than or = Theta less than or = 90 degs, are presented. The observed failure strengths and modes are discussed, and typical stress-strain relations shown. Using classical lamination theory and the maximum stress criterion, an attempt is made to predict failure stress as a function of Theta. This attempt results in poor correlation with test results and thus a more advanced model is used. The model, which is based on a geometrically nonlinear theory, and which was taken from previous work, includes the influence of observed layer waviness. The waviness is described by the wave length and the wave amplitude. The theory is briefly described and results from the theory are correlated with test results. It is shown that by using levels of waviness observed in the specimens, the correlation between predictions and observations is good.

  7. Wide Angle View of Arsia Mons Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Arsia Mons (above) is one of the largest volcanoes known. This shield volcano is part of an aligned trio known as the Tharsis Montes--the others are Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons. Arsia Mons is rivaled only by Olympus Mons in terms of its volume. The summit of Arsia Mons is more than 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) higher than the surrounding plains. The crater--or caldera--at the volcano summit is approximately 110 km (68 mi) across. This view of Arsia Mons was taken by the red and blue wide angle cameras of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) system. Bright water ice clouds (the whitish/bluish wisps) hang above the volcano--a common sight every martian afternoon in this region. Arsia Mons is located at 120o west longitude and 9o south latitude. Illumination is from the left.

  8. Large angle magnetic suspension test fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.

    1993-01-01

    Progress made under the subject grant in the period from 1 Nov. 1992 to 31 May 1993 is presented. The research involves the continued development of the Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture (LAMSTF) and also the recommissioning of an additional piece of exisiting hardware. During the period in question, the initial configuration of LAMSTF was completed and made routinely and reliably operational. A digital phase advance controller was completed and documented. The goal of a controlled 360 deg rotation was achieved. Work started on the recommissioning of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS). Work completed during the report period included: modeling; position sensing; controller; support of the Second International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology; and recommissioning of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System.

  9. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, James R.; Anastas, George V., Jr.; Bushko, Dariusz A.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Goldie, James H.; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Hockney, Richard L.; Torti, Richard P.

    1992-12-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demonstration of the control technology required to develop an advanced momentum exchange effector. The Phase 2 research was directed toward the demonstration for the key technology required for the advanced concept CMG, the controller. The Phase 2 hardware consists of a superconducting solenoid ('source coils') suspended within an array of nonsuperconducting coils ('control coils'), a five-degree-of-freedom positioning sensing system, switching power amplifiers, and a digital control system. The results demonstrated the feasibility of suspending the source coil. Gimballing (pointing the axis of the source coil) was demonstrated over a limited range. With further development of the rotation sensing system, enhanced angular freedom should be possible.

  10. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Torti, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The component technologies were developed required for an advanced control moment gyro (CMG) type of slewing actuator for large payloads. The key component of the CMG is a large-angle magnetic suspension (LAMS). The LAMS combines the functions of the gimbal structure, torque motors, and rotor bearings of a CMG. The LAMS uses a single superconducting source coil and an array of cryoresistive control coils to produce a specific output torque more than an order of magnitude greater than conventional devices. The designed and tested LAMS system is based around an available superconducting solenoid, an array of twelve room-temperature normal control coils, and a multi-input, multi-output control system. The control laws were demonstrated for stabilizing and controlling the LAMS system.

  11. Pivoting micromirror designs for large orientation angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes mechanical designed concepts for a class of pivoting micromirrors that permit relatively large angles of orientation to be obtained when configured in large arrays. Micromirror arrays can be utilized in a variety of applications ranging from optical switching to beam-front correction in a variety of technologies. This particular work is concerned with silicon surface micromachining. The multi-layer polysilicon surface micromachined process developed at Sandia National Laboratories is used to fabricate micromirror arrays that consists of capacitive electrode pairs which are used to electrostatically actuator mirrors to their desired positions and suitable elastic suspensions which support the 2 micrometers thick mirror structures. The designs described have been fabricated and successfully operated.

  12. An optical angle of attack sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDevitt, T. Kevin; Owen, F. Kevin

    A major source of transonic and supersonic wind-tunnel test data uncertainty is due to angle of attack (alpha) measurement errors caused by unknown sting and balance deflections under load. A novel laser-based instrument has been developed to enable continuous time-dependent alpha measurements to be made without signal dropout. Detectors capable of 0.01-deg resolution over an 18-deg range and 0.03-deg resolution over a 44-deg range with time-dependent outputs of 60 Hz have been developed. This capability is sufficient to provide accurate real-time alpha information for correlation with model balance measurements during transport and fighter model testing. Proof-of-concept experiments, along with the results of recent measurements conducted at the NASA Ames 9 x 7-ft supersonic wind tunnel, are presented. Experiments were also conducted to determine the reliable range, sensitivity, and long-term stability of the instrument.

  13. Experimental determination of the quark mixing angles

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, G.L. )

    1991-07-30

    This paper reviews the current status of the determination of the quark mixing angles {vert bar}V{sub qq{prime}}{vert bar}, where q = u,c; q{prime} = d,s,b. The authors consider essentially exclusive decay processes, taking into account the main sources of uncertainties, the available calculations of flavor symmetry breaking for hadronic matrix elements and the possibilities of improvement offered by new experimental results. In some cases the authors provide full expressions for {vert bar}V{sub qq{prime}}{vert bar} in terms of measurable decay properties, which can be useful for new experimental data. Finally, the authors discuss briefly the effects on the unitarity tests of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix when the authors consider recent corrections to the determination of {vert bar}V {sub ud}{vert bar}.

  14. Novel therapies for open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wentz, Scott M.; Kim, Nathaniel J.; Wang, Jenny; Amireskandari, Annahita; Siesky, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Open-angle glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. It is an irreversible disease with no established cure. The only currently approved treatment is aimed at lowering intraocular pressure, the most significant risk factor known to date. However, it is now clear that there are other risk factors involved in glaucoma's pathophysiology. To achieve future improvements in glaucoma management, new approaches to therapies and novel targets must be developed. Such therapies may include new tissue targets for lowering intraocular pressure, molecules influencing ocular hemodynamics, and treatments providing neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, novel drug delivery systems are in development that may improve patient compliance, increase bioavailability, and decrease adverse side effects. PMID:25580256

  15. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James R.; Anastas, George V., Jr.; Bushko, Dariusz A.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Goldie, James H.; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Hockney, Richard L.; Torti, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demonstration of the control technology required to develop an advanced momentum exchange effector. The Phase 2 research was directed toward the demonstration for the key technology required for the advanced concept CMG, the controller. The Phase 2 hardware consists of a superconducting solenoid ('source coils') suspended within an array of nonsuperconducting coils ('control coils'), a five-degree-of-freedom positioning sensing system, switching power amplifiers, and a digital control system. The results demonstrated the feasibility of suspending the source coil. Gimballing (pointing the axis of the source coil) was demonstrated over a limited range. With further development of the rotation sensing system, enhanced angular freedom should be possible.

  17. Disequilibrium dihedral angles in dolerite sills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holness, Marian B.; Richardson, Chris; Helz, Rosalind T.

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of clinopyroxene-plagioclase-plagioclase junctions in mafic rocks, measured by the median dihedral angle Θcpp, is created during solidification. In the solidifying Kilauea Iki (Hawaii) lava lake, the wider junctions between plagioclase grains are the first to be filled by pyroxene, followed by the narrower junctions. The final Θcpp, attained when all clinopyroxene-plagioclase-plagioclase junctions are formed, is 78° in the upper crust of the lake, and 85° in the lower solidification front. Θcpp in the 3.5-m-thick Traigh Bhàn na Sgùrra sill (Inner Hebrides) is everywhere 78°. In the Whin Sill (northern England, 38 m thick) and the Portal Peak sill (Antarctica, 129 m thick), Θcpp varies symmetrically, with the lowest values at the margins. The 266-m-thick Basement Sill (Antarctica) has asymmetric variation of Θcpp, attributed to a complex filling history. The chilled margins of the Basement Sill are partially texturally equilibrated, with high Θcpp. The plagioclase grain size in the two widest sills varies asymmetrically, with the coarsest rocks found in the upper third. Both Θcpp and average grain size are functions of model crystallization times. Θcpp increases from 78° to a maximum of ∼100° as the crystallization time increases from 1 to 500 yr. Because the use of grain size as a measure of crystallization time is dependent on an estimate of crystal growth rates, dihedral angles provide a more direct proxy for cooling rates in dolerites.

  18. Soller collimators for small angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.K.; Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-09-30

    Small angle diffractometers at pulsed sources need to have fairly short flight paths if they are to make use of the long-wavelength portion of the spectrum without encountering problems from frame overlap or sacrificing intensity with band-limiting or pulse-removing choppers. With such short flight paths, achieving the necessary angular collimation in the incident beam while utilizing the full source size (/approximately/10 cm diameter) and a reasonable sample size (/approximately/1 cm diameter) requires the use of converging multiple-aperture collimation. If the collimation channels are all focused to the same point on the detector then the large sample size will not affect Q/sub min/ or the Q-resolution, even if the sample-to-detector distance is short. The Small Angle Diffractometer (SAD) at IPNS uses crossed converging soller collimators to provide focusing multiple-aperture collimation having /approximately/400 converging beam channels with essentially no ''dead'' space between them. This entire collimator system occupies a distance of only /approximately/60 cm along the incident flight path, while providing angular collimation of 0.003 radians FWHM. The dimensions for the SAD upstream collimator are L/sub c/ = 32.8 cm, d/sub 1/ = 0.974 mm, d/sub 2/ = 0.851 mm, while for the SAD downstream collimator L/sub c/ = 25.0 cm, d/sub 1/ - 0.844 mm, d/sub 2/ = 0.750 mm. Each of these collimators has 20 blades defining 21 horizontal or vertical channels. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Crank angle detecting system for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yuzawa, H.; Nishiyama, M.; Nakamura, K.; Ishigami, K.

    1988-05-31

    An ignition system for a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) engine cylinders in which spark plugs are installed respectively, (b) indicating means disposed so as to synchronize with an engine crankshaft and formed with a large number of slits and a small number of slits, the large number of slits being provided for indicating crankshaft angular positions and the small number of slits being provided for indicating predetermined piston strokes and wherein the small number of slits have mutually different widths from each other to distinguish between piston strokes of at least the groups of cylinders; (c) sensing means for sensing crankshaft angular positions in cooperation with the large number of slits of the indicating means and outputting a crank angle signal representing the crankshaft angular position and for sensing the predetermined piston strokes in cooperation with the small number of slits and outputting different width piston stroke signals corresponding to the different width slits; (d) discriminating means for identifying each cylinder group and outputting cylinder group identification signals on the basis of the different width stroke signals derived from the sensing means; (e) ignition timing determining means for generating an ignition timing signal on the basis of the crank angle signal; (f) ignition coil controlling means for generating ignition coil current signals corresponding to the cylinder group identification signals; and (g) ignition timing controlling means for generating cylinder group ignition signals in response to the ignition coil current signals and ignition timing signal so that the spark plugs of each cylinder group are ignited at a proper time.

  20. Acute bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  1. Thrombosis and acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Solís, Erick

    2012-04-01

    Thrombosis is a common complication in patients with acute leukemia. While the presence of central venous lines, concomitant steroids, the use of Escherichia coli asparaginase and hereditary thrombophilic abnormalities are known risk factors for thrombosis in children, information on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and clinical outcome of thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still scarce. Expert consensus and guidelines regarding leukemia-specific risk factors, thrombosis prevention, and treatment strategies, as well as optimal type of central venous catheter in acute leukemia patients are required. It is likely that each subtype of acute leukemia represents a different setting for the development of thrombosis and the risk of bleeding. This is perhaps due to a combination of different disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis, including the type of chemotherapy protocol chosen, the underlying patients health, associated risk factors, as well as the biology of the disease itself. The risk of thrombosis may also vary according to ethnicity and prevalence of hereditary risk factors for thrombosis; thus, it is advisable for Latin American, Asian, and African countries to report on their specific patient population. PMID:22507812

  2. Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention

  3. Euler angles, quaternions, and transformation matrices for space shuttle analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    Relationships between the Euler angles and the transformation matrix, the quaternion and the transformation matrix, and the Euler angles and the quaternion are analyzed, and equations developed are applied directly to current space shuttle problems. The twelve three-axis Euler transformation matrices as functions of the Euler angles, the equations for the quaternion as a function of the Euler angles, and the Euler angles as a function of the transformation matrix elements are included along with a group of utility subroutines to accomplish the Euler matrix, quaternion matrix, and Euler quaternion relationships.

  4. Incident Angle of Saltating Particles in Wind-Blown Sand

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin-Tao; Bo, Tian-Li; Gu, Hai-Hua; Zheng, Xiao-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Incident angle of saltating particles plays a very important role in aeolian events. In this paper, the incident angles of sand particles near the sand bed were measured in wind tunnel. It reveals that the incident angles range widely from 0° to 180° and thereby the means of angles are larger than published data. Surprisingly, it is found the proportion that angles of 5°–15° occupy is far below previous reports. The measuring height is probably the most important reason for the measurement differences between this study and previous investigations. PMID:23874470

  5. Optimal relative view angles for an object viewed multiple times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Syed U.; Shende, Apoorva; Nguyen, Bao; Stilwell, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    Typically, the detection of an object of interest improves as we view the object from multiple angles. For cases where viewing angle matters, object detection can be improved further by optimally selecting the relative angles of multiple views. This motivates the search for viewing angles that maximize the expected probability of detection. Although our work is motivated by applications in subsea sensing, our fundamental analysis is easily adapted for other classes of applications. The specific challenge that motivates our work is the selection of optimal viewing angles for subsea sensing in which sonar is used for bathymetric imaging.

  6. Ultrasound biomicroscopic findings of the iridocorneal angle in live healthy and glaucomatous dogs

    PubMed Central

    HASEGAWA, Takashi; KAWATA, Manabu; OTA, Mitsuharu

    2015-01-01

    By using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), the cross-sectional structures of the entire iridocorneal angle (ICA) which are unable to assess with gonioscopic examination were evaluated objectively and quantitatively in live healthy and glaucomatous dogs. The ICAs of normotensive eyes in healthy dogs with normal open angle (NOR), a predisposition to primary closed angle glaucoma (PCAG) (PREDIS) and suffering from unilateral PCAG (UNI), as well as the ICAs of hypertensive eyes with acute and chronic PCAG (ACG and CRG), were assessed. The opening of the ciliary cleft in PREDIS was smaller than that in NOR. In UNI, the opening and area of the ciliary cleft were significantly decreased compared with those of NOR and PREDIS. ACG had widespread structural abnormalities including marked decrease in the ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus, and a thinner sclera than those in normotensive eyes, whereas the ICA collapsed in CRG with the thinnest sclera. Medical therapy-responsive glaucomatous cases had wider ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus than unresponsive ones. These findings suggest that the ciliary cleft and scleral venous plexus of the ICA are key structures contributing to not only the pathophysiology of canine glaucoma but also the responsiveness to medical therapy in glaucomatous eyes, and cross-sectional entire structures of the ICA should be evaluated quantitatively with UBM when diagnosing and managing canine glaucoma. PMID:26212256

  7. [Acute pancreatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M

    1998-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE GLOMERULITIS

    PubMed Central

    Lukens, Francis D. W.; Longcope, Warfield T.

    1931-01-01

    1. Both focal and diffuse glomerulitis has been produced in rabbits by the injection directly into the left renal artery of suspensions of heat killed hemolytic streptococci. 2. Similar lesions in the glomeruli could not be obtained by the injection of suspensions of bismuth oxychloride into the left renal artery of normal rabbits. 3. The acute glomerulitis occurred in only about one-half of the rabbits employed for the experiments. 4. Glomerulitis was observed much more frequently in rabbits in which an acute localized streptococcus infection had been produced by the intracutaneous injection of living hemolytic streptococci, than in normal rabbits. The occurrence of acute glomerulitis was usually associated with a well marked skin reaction to the filtrates of hemolytic streptococci. PMID:19869861

  9. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Susan M.; Cedars, Ari M.; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer with cardiovascular disease. The main treatment goals in the hospitalized patient with heart failure are to restore euvolemia and to minimize adverse events. Common in-hospital treatments include intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Novel pharmaceutical agents have shown promise in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and may simplify the treatment and reduce the morbidity associated with the disease. This review summarizes the contemporary management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:20069075

  10. Angle Kappa and its importance in refractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Moshirfar, Majid; Hoggan, Ryan N.; Muthappan, Valliammai

    2013-01-01

    Angle kappa is the difference between the pupillary and visual axis. This measurement is of paramount consideration in refractive surgery, as proper centration is required for optimal results. Angle kappa may contribute to MFIOL decentration and its resultant photic phenomena. Adjusting placement of MFIOLs for angle kappa is not supported by the literature but is likely to help reduce glare and haloes. Centering LASIK in angle kappa patients over the corneal light reflex is safe, efficacious, and recommended. Centering in-between the corneal reflex and the entrance pupil is also safe and efficacious. The literature regarding PRK in patients with an angle kappa is sparse but centering on the corneal reflex is assumed to be similar to centering LASIK on the corneal reflex. Thus, centration of MFIOLs, LASIK, and PRK should be focused on the corneal reflex for patients with a large angle kappa. More research is needed to guide surgeons’ approach to angle kappa. PMID:24379548

  11. Acute asthma during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Stenius-Aarniala, B. S.; Hedman, J.; Teramo, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute asthma during pregnancy is potentially dangerous to the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute attack of asthma during pregnancy on the course of pregnancy or delivery, or the health of the newborn infant, and to identify undertreatment as a possible cause of the exacerbations. METHODS: Five hundred and four pregnant asthmatic subjects were prospectively followed and treated. The data on 47 patients with an attack of asthma during pregnancy were compared with those of 457 asthmatics with no recorded acute exacerbation and with 237 healthy parturients. RESULTS: Of 504 asthmatics, 177 patients were not initially treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Of these, 17% had an acute attack compared with only 4% of the 257 patients who had been on inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment from the start of pregnancy. There were no differences between the groups as to length of gestation, length of the third stage of labour, or amount of haemorrhage after delivery. No differences were observed between pregnancies with and without an exacerbation with regard to relative birth weight, incidence of malformations, hypoglycaemia, or need for phototherapy for jaundice during the neonatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with inadequate inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment during pregnancy run a higher risk of suffering an acute attack of asthma than those treated with an anti-inflammatory agent. However, if the acute attack of asthma is relatively mild and promptly treated, it does not have a serious effect on the pregnancy, delivery, or the health of the newborn infant. PMID:8733495

  12. Acute Intraoperative Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Katie S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk and immediate management options by both the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical. PMID:26210926

  13. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  14. Acute rheumatic fever

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Gordon R.

    1974-01-01

    While rheumatic fever is relatively uncommon except where there are poor and crowded living conditions, sporadic acute attacks continue to occur in a family or pediatric medical practice. The physician's role in management of the sore throat in the diagnosis of suspected cases of rheumatic fever and in follow-up for continued prophylaxis is discussed. The frequency of admissions and presenting features of 159 patients with acute rheumatic fever is reviewed. Continued surveillance is required if we are to achieve a further reduction in attack rate and complications. PMID:4419123

  15. Acute sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2013-04-01

    Acute rhinosinusitis is a common illness in children. Viral upper respiratory tract infection is the most common presentation of rhinosinusitis. Most children resolve the infection spontaneously and only a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. The proper choice of antibiotic therapy depends on the likely infecting pathogens, bacterial antibiotic resistance, and pharmacologic profiles of antibiotics. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is currently recommended as the empiric treatment in those requiring antimicrobial therapy. Isolation of the causative agents should be considered in those who failed the initial treatment. In addition to antibiotics, adjuvant therapies and surgery may be used in the management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

  16. Note: A gel based imaging technique of the iridocorneal angle for evaluation of angle-closure glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoj, V. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.; Baskaran, M.; Aung, T.

    2014-06-01

    Noninvasive medical imaging techniques have high potential in the field of ocular imaging research. Angle closure glaucoma is a major disease causing blindness and a possible way of detection is the examination of the anterior chamber angle in eyes. Here, a simple optical method for the evaluation of angle-closure glaucoma is proposed and illustrated. The light propagation from the region associated with the iridocorneal angle to the exterior of eye is considered analytically. The design of the gel assisted probe prototype is carried out and the imaging of iridocorneal angle is performed on an eye model.

  17. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about acute myeloid leukemia? What is acute myeloid leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in a part of ... the body from doing their jobs. Types of leukemia Not all leukemias are the same. There are ...

  18. High-angle origin of the currently low-angle Badwater Turtleback fault, Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.G. )

    1991-04-01

    The late Cenozoic Badwater Turtleback fault separates an upper plate of volcanic and sedimentary rocks from a lower plate of predominantly mylonitic plutonic and metamorphic rocks. The Turtleback fault, however, is not a single continuous surface, but consists of a least three generations of faults. These faults occur as discrete, crosscutting segments that progressively decrease in age and increase in dip to the west. Therefore, they probably began at moderate to steep angles but rotated to lower angles with extensional strain. If so, lower plate mylonitic rocks also restore to steeper dips and suggest that transport of the upper plate occurred on moderate to steeply dipping surfaces in the middle and upper crust. The crosscutting nature of the fault segments and their initial moderate to steep dips, plus a possible offset marker on one of the segments, are most consistent with moderate amounts of extension in the Death Valley region.

  19. Impact on Spin Tune From Horizontal Orbital Angle Between Snakes and Orbital Angle Between Spin Rotators

    SciTech Connect

    Bai,M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.

    2008-10-01

    To keep the spin tune in the spin depolarizing resonance free region is required for accelerating polarized protons to high energy. In RHIC, two snakes are located at the opposite side of each accelerator. They are configured to yield a spin tune of 1/2. Two pairs of spin rotators are located at either side of two detectors in each ring in RHIC to provide longitudinal polarization for the experiments. Since the spin rotation from vertical to longitudinal is localized between the two rotators, the spin rotators do not change the spin tune. However, due to the imperfection of the orbits around the snakes and rotators, the spin tune can be shifted. This note presents the impact of the horizontal orbital angle between the two snakes on the spin tune, as well as the effect of the vertical orbital angle between two rotators at either side of the collision point on the spin tune.

  20. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  1. Mapping of low flip angles in magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balezeau, Fabien; Eliat, Pierre-Antoine; Bordelois Cayamo, Alejandro; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé

    2011-10-01

    Errors in the flip angle have to be corrected in many magnetic resonance imaging applications, especially for T1 quantification. However, the existing methods of B1 mapping fail to measure lower values of the flip angle despite the fact that these are extensively used in dynamic acquisition and 3D imaging. In this study, the nonlinearity of the radiofrequency (RF) transmit chain, especially for very low flip angles, is investigated and a simple method is proposed to accurately determine both the gain of the RF transmitter and the B1 field map for low flip angles. The method makes use of the spoiled gradient echo sequence with long repetition time (TR), such as applied in the double-angle method. It uses an image acquired with a flip angle of 90° as a reference image that is robust to B1 inhomogeneity. The ratio of the image at flip angle alpha to the image at a flip angle of 90° enables us to calculate the actual value of alpha. This study was carried out at 1.5 and 4.7 T, showing that the linearity of the RF supply system is highly dependent on the hardware. The method proposed here allows us to measure the flip angle from 1° to 60° with a maximal uncertainty of 10% and to correct T1 maps based on the variable flip angle method.

  2. Relating lepton mixing angles with lepton mass hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the possibility of relating lepton mixing angles with lepton mass hierarchies in a model-independent way. Guided by the existence of such relations in the quark sector, we first consider all the mixing angles, both in charged lepton and neutrino sectors to be related to the respective mass ratios. This allows us to calculate the leptonic mixing angles observed in neutrino oscillations as functions of the lightest neutrino mass. We show that for both normal and inverted hierarchical neutrino masses, this scenario does not give rise to correct leptonic mixing angles. We then show that correct leptonic mixing angles can be generated with normal hierarchical neutrino masses if the relation between mixing angle and mass ratio is restricted to 1-2 and 1-3 mixing in both charged lepton and neutrino sectors leaving the 2-3 mixing angles as free parameters. We then restrict the lightest neutrino mass as well as the difference between 2-3 mixing angles in charged lepton and neutrino sectors from the requirement of producing correct leptonic mixing angles. We constrain the lightest neutrino mass to be around 0.002 eV and leptonic Dirac CP phase δCP such that sin2δ CP ˜ (0.35-0.50). We also construct the leptonic mass matrices in terms of 2-3 mixing angles and lightest neutrino mass and briefly comment on the possibility of realizing texture zeros in the neutrino mass matrix.

  3. Development of a scanning angle total internal reflection Raman spectrometer.

    PubMed

    McKee, Kristopher J; Smith, Emily A

    2010-04-01

    A scanning angle total internal reflection (SATIR) Raman spectrometer has been developed for measuring interfacial phenomena with chemical specificity and high axial resolution perpendicular to the interface. The instrument platform is an inverted optical microscope with added automated variable angle optics to control the angle of an incident laser on a prism/sample interface. These optics include two motorized translation stages, the first containing a focusing lens and the second a variable angle galvanometer mirror. The movement of all instrument components is coordinated to ensure that the same sample location and area are probed at each angle. At angles greater than the critical angle, an evanescent wave capable of producing Raman scatter is generated in the sample. The Raman scatter is collected by a microscope objective and directed to a dispersive spectrometer and charge-coupled device detector. In addition to the collected Raman scatter, light reflected from the prism/sample interface is collected to provide calibration parameters that enable modeling the distance over which the Raman scatter is collected for depth profiling measurements. The developed instrument has an incident angle range of 25.5 degrees-75.5 degrees, with a 0.05 degrees angle resolution. Raman scatter can be collected from a ZnSe/organic interface over a range of roughly 35-180 nm. Far from the critical angle, the achieved axial resolution perpendicular to the focal plane is approximately 34 nm. This is roughly a 30-fold improvement relative to confocal Raman microscopy. PMID:20441324

  4. Rubber Hand Illusion Affects Joint Angle Perception

    PubMed Central

    Butz, Martin V.; Kutter, Esther F.; Lorenz, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model. PMID:24671172

  5. Small-angle scattering from fat fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitas, Eugen M.

    2014-06-01

    A number of experimental small-angle scattering (SAS) data are characterized by a succession of power-law decays with arbitrarily decreasing values of scattering exponents. To describe such data, here we develop a new theoretical model based on 3D fat fractals (sets with fractal structure, but nonzero volume) and show how one can extract structural information about the underlying fractal structure. We calculate analytically the monodisperse and polydisperse SAS intensity (fractal form factor and structure factor) of a newly introduced model of fat fractals and study its properties in momentum space. The system is a 3D deterministic mass fractal built on an extension of the well-known Cantor fractal. The model allows us to explain a succession of power-law decays and respectively, of generalized power-law decays (GPLD; superposition of maxima and minima on a power-law decay) with arbitrarily decreasing scattering exponents in the range from zero to three. We show that within the model, the present analysis allows us to obtain the edges of all the fractal regions in the momentum space, the number of fractal iteration and the fractal dimensions and scaling factors at each structural level in the fractal. We applied our model to calculate an analytical expression for the radius of gyration of the fractal. The obtained quantities characterizing the fat fractal are correlated to variation of scaling factor with the iteration number.

  6. LDEF yaw and pitch angle estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Gebauer, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Quantification of the LDEF yaw and pitch misorientations is crucial to the knowledge of atomic oxygen exposure of samples placed on LDEF. Video camera documentation of the LDEF spacecraft prior to grapple attachment, atomic oxygen shadows on experiment trays and longerons, and a pinhole atomic oxygen camera placed on LDEF provided sources of documentation of the yaw and pitch misorientation. Based on uncertainty-weighted averaging of data, the LDEF yaw offset was found to be 8.1 plus or minus 0.6 degrees, allowing higher atomic oxygen exposure of row 12 than initially anticipated. The LDEF pitch angle offset was found to be 0.8 plus or minus 0.4 degrees, such that the space end was tipped forward toward the direction of travel. The resulting consequences of the yaw and pitch misorientation of LDEF on the atomic oxygen fluence is a factor of 2.16 increase for samples located on row 12, and a factor of 1.18 increase for samples located on the space end compared to that which would be expected for perfect orientation.

  7. Reconditioning of Cassini Narrow-Angle Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These five images of single stars, taken at different times with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft, show the effects of haze collecting on the camera's optics, then successful removal of the haze by warming treatments.

    The image on the left was taken on May 25, 2001, before the haze problem occurred. It shows a star named HD339457.

    The second image from left, taken May 30, 2001, shows the effect of haze that collected on the optics when the camera cooled back down after a routine-maintenance heating to 30 degrees Celsius (86 degrees Fahrenheit). The star is Maia, one of the Pleiades.

    The third image was taken on October 26, 2001, after a weeklong decontamination treatment at minus 7 C (19 F). The star is Spica.

    The fourth image was taken of Spica January 30, 2002, after a weeklong decontamination treatment at 4 C (39 F).

    The final image, also of Spica, was taken July 9, 2002, following three additional decontamination treatments at 4 C (39 F) for two months, one month, then another month.

    Cassini, on its way toward arrival at Saturn in 2004, is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  8. Impact Angle Control of Interplanetary Shock Geoeffectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, D.; Raeder, J.

    2014-12-01

    We use OpenGGCM global MHD simulations to study the nightside magnetospheric/ magnetotail/ ionospheric responses to interplanetary (IP) fast foward shocks. Three cases are presented in this study: two inclined oblique shocks, hereafter IOS-1 and IOS-2, where the latter has a Mach number twice stronger than the former. Both shocks have impact angles of 30o in relation to the Sun-Earth line. Lastly, we choose a frontal perpendicular shock, FPS, whose shock normal is along th Sun-Earth line, with the same Mach number as IOS-1. We find that, in the IOS-1 case, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the FPS compresses the magnetotail on both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm allowing a larger amount of stored energy in the magnetotail to be released to the nightside ionosphere, resulting in a larger geomagnetic activity there. By comparing IOS-2 and FPS, we find that, despite the IOS-2 having a larger Mach number, the FPS leads to larger geomagnetic responses in the ionosphere nightside. As a result, we conclude that IP shocks with similar upstream conditions, such as magnetic field, speed, density, and even Mach number, can be differently geoeffective, depending on their shock normal orientation.

  9. Impact angle control of interplanetary shock geoeffectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, D. M.; Raeder, J.

    2014-10-01

    We use Open Geospace General Circulation Model global MHD simulations to study the nightside magnetospheric, magnetotail, and ionospheric responses to interplanetary (IP) fast forward shocks. Three cases are presented in this study: two inclined oblique shocks, hereafter IOS-1 and IOS-2, where the latter has a Mach number twice stronger than the former. Both shocks have impact angles of 30° in relation to the Sun-Earth line. Lastly, we choose a frontal perpendicular shock, FPS, whose shock normal is along the Sun-Earth line, with the same Mach number as IOS-1. We find that, in the IOS-1 case, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the FPS compresses the magnetotail from both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm allowing a larger amount of stored energy in the magnetotail to be released to the nightside ionosphere, resulting in stronger geomagnetic activity. By comparing IOS-2 and FPS, we find that, despite the IOS-2 having a larger Mach number, the FPS leads to a larger geomagnetic response in the nightside ionosphere. As a result, we conclude that IP shocks with similar upstream conditions, such as magnetic field, speed, density, and Mach number, can have different geoeffectiveness, depending on their shock normal orientation.

  10. Moderate positive spin Hall angle in uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Simranjeet; Anguera, Marta; Barco, Enrique del E-mail: cwmsch@rit.edu; Springell, Ross; Miller, Casey W. E-mail: cwmsch@rit.edu

    2015-12-07

    We report measurements of spin pumping and the inverse spin Hall effect in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}/uranium bilayers designed to study the efficiency of spin-charge interconversion in a super-heavy element. We employ broad-band ferromagnetic resonance on extended films to inject a spin current from the Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (permalloy) into the uranium layer, which is then converted into an electric field by the inverse spin Hall effect. Surprisingly, our results suggest a spin mixing conductance of order 2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −2} and a positive spin Hall angle of 0.004, which are both merely comparable with those of several transition metals. These results thus support the idea that the electronic configuration may be at least as important as the atomic number in governing spin pumping across interfaces and subsequent spin Hall effects. In fact, given that both the magnitude and the sign are unexpected based on trends in d-electron systems, materials with unfilled f-electron orbitals may hold additional exploration avenues for spin physics.

  11. Wide-angle flat field telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallam, K. L.; Howell, B. J.; Wilson, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    Described is an unobscured three mirror wide angle telescopic imaging system comprised of an input baffle which provides a 20 deg (Y axis) x 30 deg (X axis) field of view, a primary mirror having a convex spherical surface, a secondary mirror having a concave ellipsoidal reflecting surface, a tertiary mirror having a concave spherical reflecting surface. The mirrors comprise mirror elements which are offset segments of parent mirrors whose axes and vertices commonly lie on the system's optical axis. An iris diaphragm forming an aperture stop is located between the secondary and tertiary mirror with its center also being coincident with the optical axis and being further located at the beam waist of input light beams reflected from the primary and secondary mirror surfaces. At the system focus following the tertiary mirror is located a flat detector which may be, for example, a TV imaging tube or a photographic film. When desirable, a spectral transmission filter is placed in front of the detector in close proximity thereto.

  12. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery.

  13. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  14. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  15. Acute radiation risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.

  16. Acute coronary care 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the titles are: The measurement of acute myocardial infarct size by CT; Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction; Poistron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction; and New inotropic agents.

  17. Acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Vlodov, J; Tenner, S M

    2001-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis has multiple causes, an unpredictable course, and myriad complications. The diagnosis relies on a combination of history, physical examination, serologic markers, and radiologic findings. The mainstay of therapy includes aggressive hydration, maintenance of NPO, and adequate analgesia with narcotics. Antibiotic and nutritional support with total parenteral nutrition should be used when appropriate.

  18. Low back pain - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see ...

  19. [Management of acute tendinitis].

    PubMed

    Rapp, H J; Heisse, K; Becker, M; Stechele, M

    1992-12-01

    Ultrasonography must be used in combination with physical examination for the appropriate diagnosis of acute tendon injuries. Therapy should be designed to return the tendon to its normal function and appearance. Local and systemic anti-inflammatory agents, cold hydrotherapy and massage minimize excessive scar formation and progressively increasing tensile forces directs scar tissue to replace the tendon function.

  20. Acute streptococcal necrotising fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Frankish, P D; Mason, G H; Allen, P R; Milsom, F P; Christmas, T I

    1988-10-12

    Two cases of acute streptococcal necrotising fasciitis are reported. Both patients were taking nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs when they developed this infection. Urgent surgical debridement was undertaken and resulted in a successful outcome in both patients. The clinical and histopathological features of this condition are reviewed.

  1. Uncertainties in Small-Angle Measurement Systems Used to Calibrate Angle Artifacts.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jack A; Amer, Mohamed; Faust, Bryon; Zimmerman, Jay

    2004-01-01

    We have studied a number of effects that can give rise to errors in small-angle measurement systems when they are used to calibrate artifacts such as optical polygons. Of these sources of uncertainty, the most difficult to quantify are errors associated with the measurement of imperfect, non-flat faces of the artifact, causing the instrument to misinterpret the average orientation of the surface. In an attempt to shed some light on these errors, we have compared autocollimator measurements to angle measurements made with a Fizeau phase-shifting interferometer. These two instruments have very different operating principles and implement different definitions of the orientation of a surface, but (surprisingly) we have not yet seen any clear differences between results obtained with the autocollimator and with the interferometer. The interferometer is in some respects an attractive alternative to an autocollimator for small-angle measurement; it implements an unambiguous and robust definition of surface orientation in terms of the tilt of a best-fit plane, and it is easier to quantify likely errors of the interferometer measurements than to evaluate autocollimator uncertainty.

  2. Uncertainties in Small-Angle Measurement Systems Used to Calibrate Angle Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jack A.; Amer, Mohamed; Faust, Bryon; Zimmerman, Jay

    2004-01-01

    We have studied a number of effects that can give rise to errors in small-angle measurement systems when they are used to calibrate artifacts such as optical polygons. Of these sources of uncertainty, the most difficult to quantify are errors associated with the measurement of imperfect, non-flat faces of the artifact, causing the instrument to misinterpret the average orientation of the surface. In an attempt to shed some light on these errors, we have compared autocollimator measurements to angle measurements made with a Fizeau phase-shifting interferometer. These two instruments have very different operating principles and implement different definitions of the orientation of a surface, but (surprisingly) we have not yet seen any clear differences between results obtained with the autocollimator and with the interferometer. The interferometer is in some respects an attractive alternative to an autocollimator for small-angle measurement; it implements an unambiguous and robust definition of surface orientation in terms of the tilt of a best-fit plane, and it is easier to quantify likely errors of the interferometer measurements than to evaluate autocollimator uncertainty. PMID:27366616

  3. Non-contact measurement of rotation angle with solo camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Xiaochuan; Sun, Anbin; Ye, Xin; Ma, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    For the purpose to measure a rotation angle around the axis of an object, a non-contact rotation angle measurement method based on solo camera was promoted. The intrinsic parameters of camera were calibrated using chessboard on principle of plane calibration theory. The translation matrix and rotation matrix between the object coordinate and the camera coordinate were calculated according to the relationship between the corners' position on object and their coordinates on image. Then the rotation angle between the measured object and the camera could be resolved from the rotation matrix. A precise angle dividing table (PADT) was chosen as the reference to verify the angle measurement error of this method. Test results indicated that the rotation angle measurement error of this method did not exceed +/- 0.01 degree.

  4. Sunspot group tilt angle measurements from historical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthamizh Pavai, V.; Arlt, R.; Diercke, A.; Denker, C.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    Sunspot positions from various historical sets of solar drawings are analyzed with respect to the tilt angles of bipolar sunspot groups. Data by Scheiner, Hevelius, Staudacher, Zucconi, Schwabe, and Spörer deliver a series of average tilt angles spanning a period of 270 years, additional to previously found values for 20th-century data obtained by other authors. We find that the average tilt angles before the Maunder minimum were not significantly different from the modern values. However, the average tilt angles of a period 50 years after the Maunder minimum, namely for cycles 0 and 1, were much lower and near zero. The normal tilt angles before the Maunder minimum suggest that it was not abnormally low tilt angles which drove the solar cycle into a grand minimum.

  5. Determination of detector rotation angle in the experiment based on the total internal reflection using an equilateral right angle prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendro, Viridi, S.; Pratama, Y.

    2015-04-01

    We present a relation between incident angle and rotation angle detector in the Total Internal Reflection (TIR) experiments when using a right angle prism. In the TIR method, the light coming toward the prism will experience reflection and out of the prism at a certain angle direction. Results of analysis of the geometry and Snell's law shows that the angular position of the detector is not only determined by the angle of incidence of light alone but also by the size of the prism and the detector position from the rotation axis of goniometer. The experimental results show relation between the angle of detector and angle of goniometer. When the prism rotated 45 °, position of goniometer detector is 2×45 °. However, when the prism rotated at an angle instead of 45 °, detector position µ is not always equal to twice the rotation angle goniometer ψ, so that this relationship needs to be corrected. This correction is also determined by the value of the refractive index of the prism is used. By knowing the relationship between detector position and the incident angle of light, this formulation can be used to control the position of the sample and the detector in the experiments based on ATR.

  6. Characterizing the combinatorial beam angle selection problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangert, Mark; Ziegenhein, Peter; Oelfke, Uwe

    2012-10-01

    The beam angle selection (BAS) problem in intensity-modulated radiation therapy is often interpreted as a combinatorial optimization problem, i.e. finding the best combination of η beams in a discrete set of candidate beams. It is well established that the combinatorial BAS problem may be solved efficiently with metaheuristics such as simulated annealing or genetic algorithms. However, the underlying parameters of the optimization process, such as the inclusion of non-coplanar candidate beams, the angular resolution in the space of candidate beams, and the number of evaluated beam ensembles as well as the relative performance of different metaheuristics have not yet been systematically investigated. We study these open questions in a meta-analysis of four strategies for combinatorial optimization in order to provide a reference for future research related to the BAS problem in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning. We introduce a high-performance inverse planning engine for BAS. It performs a full fluence optimization for ≈3600 treatment plans per hour while handling up to 50 GB of dose influence data (≈1400 candidate beams). For three head and neck patients, we compare the relative performance of a genetic, a cross-entropy, a simulated annealing and a naive iterative algorithm. The selection of ensembles with 5, 7, 9 and 11 beams considering either only coplanar or all feasible candidate beams is studied for an angular resolution of 5°, 10°, 15° and 20° in the space of candidate beams. The impact of different convergence criteria is investigated in comparison to a fixed termination after the evaluation of 10 000 beam ensembles. In total, our simulations comprise a full fluence optimization for about 3000 000 treatment plans. All four combinatorial BAS strategies yield significant improvements of the objective function value and of the corresponding dose distributions compared to standard beam configurations with equi

  7. Angle-specific transparent conducting electrodes with metallic gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Rivolta, N. X. A. Maes, B.

    2014-08-07

    Transparent conducting electrodes, which are not made from indium tin oxide, and which display a strong angular dependence are useful for various technologies. Here, we introduce a tilted silver grating that combines a large conductance with a strong and angle-specific transmittance. When the light incidence angle matches the tilt angle of the grating, transmittance is close to the maximum along a very broadband range. We explain the behavior through simulations that show in detail the plasmonic and interference effects at play.

  8. Chapman Solar Zenith Angle variations at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Emilie M.; Ajello, Joseph; Holsclaw, Gregory; West, Robert; Esposito, Larry W.; Bradley, Eric Todd

    2016-10-01

    Solar XUV photons and magnetospheric particles are the two main sources contributing to the airglow in the Titan's upper atmosphere. We are focusing here on the solar XUV photons and how they influence the airglow intensity. The Cassini-UVIS observations analyzed in this study consist each in a partial scan of Titan, while the center of the detector stays approximately at the same location on Titan's disk. We used observations from 2008 to 2012, which allow for a wide range of Solar Zenith Angle (SZA). Spectra from 800 km to 1200 km of altitude have been corrected from the solar spectrum using TIMED/SEE data. We observe that the airglow intensity varies as a function of the SZA and follows a Chapman curve. Three SZA regions are identified: the sunlit region ranging from 0 to 50 degrees. In this region, the intensity of the airglow increases, while the SZA decreases. Between SZA 50 and 100 degrees, the airglow intensity decreases from it maximum to its minimum. In this transition region the upper atmosphere of Titan changes from being totally sunlit to being in the shadow of the moon. For SZA 100 to 180 degrees, we observe a constant airglow intensity close to zero. The behavior of the airglow is also similar to the behavior of the electron density as a function of the SZA as observed by Ågren at al (2009). Both variables exhibit a decrease intensity with increasing SZA. The goal of this study is to understand such correlation. We demonstrate the importance of the solar XUV photons contribution to the Titan airglow and prove that the strongest contribution to the Titan dayglow occurs by solar fluorescence rather than the particle impact that predominates at night.

  9. The management of acute pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Wells, T A; Curzen, N P

    2005-01-01

    Acute pericarditis is usually a benign self-limiting condition, often of unexplained or viral aetiology, involving inflammation of the pericardial layers. It is often part of the differential diagnosis in patients admitted with acute chest pain and can be confused with acute myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary embolism and pleurisy. Occasionally it can result in cardiac tamponade and, if associated with myocarditis, in heart failure. This article sets out how to diagnose acute pericarditis, the common underlying causes, the possible treatment options and outcomes. PMID:21655516

  10. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  11. Antibody elbow angles are influenced by their light chain class

    SciTech Connect

    Stanfield, R; Zemla, A; Wilson, I; Rupp, B

    2006-01-12

    We have examined the elbow angles for 365 different Fab fragments, and observe that Fabs with lambda light chains have adopted a wider range of elbow angles than their kappa-chain counterparts, and that the lambda light chain Fabs are frequently found with very large (>195{sup o}) elbow angles. This apparent hyperflexibility of lambda-chain Fabs may be due to an insertion in their switch region, which is one residue longer than in kappa chains, with glycine occurring most frequently at the insertion position. A new, web-based computer program that was used to calculate the Fab elbow angles is also described.

  12. Resolution-Tunable Angle-Resolved X-ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Keiichi

    2004-05-12

    A resolution-tunable double-crystal device was successfully applied to angle-resolved x-ray imaging. The angular resolution of a Si (220) double-crystal analyzer was tuned between 0.5'' and 2.3'' through the offset angle at {lambda} = 0.0733nm. The throughput of the analyzer was higher than 90%. The angle-resolved images of a spider were recorded on nuclear emulsion plates at various angular resolutions. It was clearly observed that the quality of the angle-resolved image varies with the angular resolution of the analyzer.

  13. The Relation Between Sacral Angle and Vertical Angle of Sacral Curvature and Lumbar Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Ahmad; Haddadi, Kaveh; Khoshakhlagh, Mohammad; Ganjeh, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability and validity of a goniometric measurement of the vertical angle of the sacrum and sacral angle (SA), and their relationships to lumbar degeneration. A herniated lumbar disc is one of the most frequent medical issues. Investigators in a number of studies have reported associated risk factors for prevalent disc degeneration. Atypical lumbosacral angles and curvature are thought to contribute to the degradation of the spine by many researchers. This study analyzed 360 patients referred to our clinic from 2013 to 2015 due to low back pain. A cross-sectional case–control study was designed in order to compare the sagittal alignment of the lumbosacral area in 3 groups of patients suffering from LBP. A total 120 patients were in a control group with a normal lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 120 patients had lumbar disk herniation (LDH), and 120 patients had spinal stenosis. From the sagittal plan of lumbar MRI, SA and vertical angle of sacral curvature (VASC) were determined and then analyzed. The means of VASC in these groups were: 38.98 (SD: 6.36 ± 0.58), 40.89 (SD: 7.69 ± 0.69), and 40.54 (SD: 7.13 ± 0.92), respectively (P = 0.089). Moreover, studies of SA in 3 groups showed that the means of SA were: 39.30 (SD: 6.69 ± 0.63), 40.52 (SD: 7.47 ± 0.65), and 35.63 (SD: 6.07 ± 0.79), respectively. Relation between SA and spinal stenosis was just statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). One significant limitation of our study is the lack of standing MRI for increased accuracy of measurement. However, we were reluctant to give patients needless exposure to radiation from conventional X-ray, and instead used MRI scans. We did not find any significant correlation between the VASC and LDH in lumbar MRI. Also, SA is not an independent risk factor for LDH in men and women. We suggested that there are several biomechanical factors involved in LDH. PMID:26871821

  14. NEW ESTIMATES OF THE INCLINATION, POSITION ANGLE, PITCH ANGLE, AND SCALE HEIGHT OF THE WHIRLPOOL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Tao; Shao Zhengyi; Peng Qiuhe E-mail: taohu.nju@gmail.com

    2013-01-10

    The inclination (i) and position angle (PA) of the Whirlpool galaxy (M51) are critical to modeling and interpreting observations. Here we make improved estimates of these parameters by fitting logarithmic spirals to the main arms. From separate fits to each major arm, we obtain i = 20. Degree-Sign 3 {+-} 2. Degree-Sign 8 and PA = 12. Degree-Sign 0 {+-} 2. Degree-Sign 5. We then use Poisson's equation for the logarithmic perturbation of the density to estimate the mean vertical scale height (H) of M51 to be 95-178 pc.

  15. Acute pain management.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B

    2000-07-01

    We encounter patients with acute pain many times each day, and few aspects of veterinary practice offer such an opportunity to help so many in such a profoundly rewarding way. As emphasized here and elsewhere, we now have excellent tools with which to help these animals, and the biggest impediment to optimal treatment of their pain is often our own difficulty in recognizing its presence. Perhaps the single most important aspect of treating acute pain is to cultivate an ability to see past our personal biases and expectations which may limit treatment and to rediscover the common sense we had about pain before we entered the profession. By rededicating ourselves to seeking out, preventing, and relieving pain, we not only perform a vital service for our patients but also elevate our profession even as we reap financial and spiritual rewards for our efforts. What could be better? PMID:10932832

  16. [Schistosomiasis and acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Jacinta; Santos, Ângela; Clemente, Horácio; Lourenço, Augusto; Costa, Sandra; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Belo, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Acute appendicitis associated to Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection has been found in patients submitted to urgent appendectomy at the Hospital Américo Boavida in Luanda. Due to the high prevalence and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis) in the country, we suspect that the involvement of Schistosoma infection on appendicular pathology could be very frequent, in particular for those individuals more exposed to the parasite transmission. We report two clinical cases of acute appendicitis whose surgical specimens of the appendix revealed S. haematobium and S. mansoni eggs in histological samples. The reported patients live in endemic areas and have been exposed to schistosome during childhood, which may explain the infection's chronicity. Information of these clinical cases could be relevant, particularly for surgery specialists and clinical pathologists, due to the possibility of finding more patients with concurrent appendicitis and schistosomiasis.

  17. Acute aortic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  18. Acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2014-04-20

    Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.

  19. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Laraki, M; Harti, A; Bouderka, M A; Barrou, H; Matar, N; Benaguida, M

    1993-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy is a serious condition and diagnosis is often difficult. The authors report the case of a 32-year-old woman in the 32nd week of her fifth pregnancy, in which the outcome was fatal for both mother and child. The cause of pancreatitis during pregnancy has been attributed to many factors, chiefly cholelithiasis. A number of recent studies have shown the relationship existing between the role played by pregnancy in predisposing to gallbladder disease with lithiasis. Many diagnosis errors are made in this condition. Thus modern treatment methods have improved the prognosis in acute pancreatitis but, when it occurs during pregnancy, diagnostic delays often lead to a gloomy outlook. PMID:8248696

  20. Acute aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corvera, Joel S

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  1. Cytokines and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Brady, M; Christmas, S; Sutton, R; Neoptolemos, J; Slavin, J

    1999-07-01

    Cytokines have been shown to play a pivotal role in multiple organ dysfunction, a major cause of death in severe acute pancreatitis. Moreover, the two-hit hypothesis of the cytokine-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome explains the variable individual response to severe acute pancreatitis and the impact of secondary events such as sepsis or therapeutic intervention. Many experimental anti-cytokine therapies have been administered following induction of experimental pancreatitis, and have proved to be therapeutic. Patients with severe pancreatitis present early because of pain. Clearly then a window for therapeutic intervention is available between onset of symptoms and peak pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. It is this fundamental observation that convinces many in the field that the treatment of AP will be one of the first clinical successes for novel drugs or therapy that seek to modulate the inflammatory response.

  2. Revisiting the Force-Joint Angle Relationship After Eccentric Exercise.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Molly C; Allen, David L; Batliner, Matthew E; Byrnes, William C

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate force-angle curve fitting techniques pre-eccentric exercise, quantify changes in curve characteristics postexercise, and examine the relationship between curve changes and markers of muscle damage. Fourteen males unaccustomed to eccentric exercise performed 60 eccentric muscle actions of the elbow flexors. Maximal voluntary isometric force was measured throughout a range of angles pre- (Pre1 and Pre2), immediately post (IP), and 1, 2, 4, and 7 days postexercise. Force-angle curves for each visit were constructed using second-order polynomials. Changes in curve characteristics (optimal angle, peak force, curve height), range of motion, soreness, and creatine kinase activity were quantified. Optimal joint angle and force at optimal angle were significantly correlated from Pre1 to Pre2 (ICC = 0.821 and 0.979, respectively). Optimal angle was significantly right shifted (p = 0.035) by 10.4 ± 12.9° from Pre2 to IP and was restored by 1 day post exercise. Interestingly, the r value for curve fit was significantly decreased (p < 0.001) from Pre2 (r = 0.896) to IP (r = 0.802) and 1 day post exercise (r = 0.750). Curve height was significantly decreased (39%) IP and restored to pre-exercise height by 4 days postexercise. There was no correlation between optimal angle or curve height and other damage markers. In conclusion, force-angle relationships can be accurately described using second-order polynomials. After eccentric exercise, the force-angle curve is flattened and shifted (downward and rightward), but these changes are not correlated to other markers of muscle damage. Changes in the force-angle relationship are multifaceted, but determining the physiological significance of these changes requires further investigation.

  3. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Assessing Anterior Chamber Angles

    PubMed Central

    Kochupurakal, Reema Thomas; Jha, Kirti Nath; Rajalakshmi, A.R.; Nagarajan, Swathi; Ezhumalai, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gonioscopy is the gold standard in assessing anterior chamber angles. However, interobserver variations are common and there is a need for reliable objective method of assessment. Aim To compare the anterior chamber angle by gonioscopy and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) in individuals with shallow anterior chamber. Materials and Methods This comparative observational study was conducted in a rural tertiary multi-speciality teaching hospital. A total of 101 eyes of 54 patients with shallow anterior chamber on slit lamp evaluation were included. Anterior chamber angle was graded by gonioscopy using the shaffer grading system. Angles were also assessed by SD-OCT with Trabecular Iris Angle (TIA) and Angle Opening Distance (AOD). Chi-square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value to find correlation between OCT parameters and gonioscopy grading. Results Females represented 72.7%. The mean age was 53.93 ±8.24 years and mean anterior chamber depth was 2.47 ± 0.152 mm. Shaffer grade ≤ 2 were identified in 95(94%) superior, 42(41.5%) inferior, 65(64.3%) nasal and 57(56.4%) temporal quadrants. Cut-off values of TIA ≤ 22° and AOD ≤ 290 μm were taken as narrow angles on SD-OCT. TIA of ≤ 22° were found in 88(92.6%) nasal and 87(87%) temporal angles. AOD of ≤ 290 μm was found in 73(76.8%) nasal and 83(83%) temporal quadrants. Sensitivity in detecting narrow angles was 90.7% and 82.2% for TIA and AOD, while specificity was 11.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Conclusion Individuals were found to have narrow angles more with SD-OCT. Sensitivity was high and specificity was low in detecting narrow angles compared to gonioscopy, making it an unreliable tool for screening. PMID:27190851

  4. Acute arsenic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J P; Alvarez, J A

    1989-12-01

    The diagnosis of acute arsenic poisoning should be considered in any patient presenting with severe gastrointestinal complaints. Signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, colicky abdominal pain and profuse, watery diarrhea. Hypotension, fluid and electrolyte disturbances, mental status changes, electrocardiographic abnormalities, respiratory failure and death can result. Quantitative measurement of 24-hour urinary arsenic excretion is the only reliable laboratory test to confirm arsenic poisoning. Treatment includes gastric emesis or lavage, chelation therapy, electrolyte and fluid replacement, and cardiorespiratory support.

  5. [Acute Chest Pain].

    PubMed

    Gmür, Christian

    2016-02-17

    Acute chest pain is a frequent consultation reason in general practice as well as in emergency departments. With the help of history, physical examination, ECG, laboratory and newly developed risk scores, potentially life-threatening diseases and high-risk patients may be detected and treated early, quickly and cost-effectively. New biomarkers and their combination with risk scores can increase the negative predictive value to exclude certain diseases. PMID:26886697

  6. IMMUNOTHERAPY IN ACUTE LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in immunotherapy of cancer may represent a successful example in translational research, in which progress in knowledge and technology in immunology has lead to new strategies of immunotherapy, and even past failure in many clinical trials have led to a better understanding of basic cancer immunobiology. This article reviews the latest concepts in antitumor immunology and its application in the treatment of cancer, with particular focus on acute leukemia. PMID:19100371

  7. Neuropsychology of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Sinanović, Osman

    2010-06-01

    Neuropsychology includes both the psychiatric manifestations of neurological illness (primary brain-based disorders) and neurobiology of "idiopathic" psychiatric disorders. Neurological primary brain disorders provoke broad spectrum of brain pathophysiology that cause deficit sin human behaviour, and the magnitude of neurobehavioral-related problems is a world wide health concern. Speech disorders of aphasic type, unilateral neglect, anosognosia (deficit disorders), delirium and mood disorders (productive disorders) in urgent neurology, first of all in acute phase of stroke are more frequent disorders then it verified in routine exam, not only in the developed and large neurological departments. Aphasia is common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with prevalence of one third of all stroke patients in acute phase although exist reports on greater frequency. Unilateral neglect is a disorder that mostly effects the patient after the lesion of the right hemisphere, mostly caused by a cerebrovascular insult (infarct or haemorrhage affecting a large area - up to two thirds of the right hemisphere), and in general the left-side neglect is the most widespread neuropsychological deficit after the lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere. Reports on the incidence of visual neglect vary and they range from 13 to 85%. Anosognosia is on the second place as neuropsychological syndrome of stroke in right hemisphere, characterized by the denial of the motor, visual or cognitive deficit. This syndrome, defined as denial of hemiparesis or hemianopsia, is a common disorder verified in 17-28% of all patents with acute brain stoke. There are different reports on frequency of delirium in acute stroke, from 24 to 48%, and it is more frequent in hemorrhagic then ischemic stoke. Post stroke depression (PSD) is one of the more frequent consequences on the stroke, and the prevalence of PSD has ranged from 5 to 63% of patients in

  8. [Acute coronary syndromes: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Alev Arat

    2013-04-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in the world as well as in Turkey. It's not only a health issue but also a social problem with a high economic burden and negative impact on quality of life. The majority of deaths are attributable to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their complications.This review summarizes some important facts regarding ACS epidemiology in the world and in Turkey. PMID:27323430

  9. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4000 million cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 1996, resulting in 2.5 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries traveling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, and oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution). PMID:19450323

  10. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555

  11. Acupuncture for acute hordeolum

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Xue; Guo, Menghu; Wieland, L. Susan; Shen, Xueyong; Lao, Lixing

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objective of this review is to determine the effects and, when possible, the safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute hordeola, in comparison to no specific treatment (e.g., observation), sham acupuncture, or other active treatments. Acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment also will be compared to that treatment alone. PMID:25214814

  12. Fracture angle and strain-energy-density-factor of a crack at hole at an arbitrary angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y. C.; Forman, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    For both the maximum stress criterion and strain-energy-density-factor (S) theory, fracture angle (the initial angle of crack growth) is predicted by using opening and sliding mode stress intensity factors. These theoretical predictions are consistent with experimental fracture angles. For the S theory, the crack spreads in the direction of the negative fracture angle in a plane for which S is a minimum. This quantity was obtained analytically. The experimental data of the critical S on plexiglass fracture specimens remains essentially constant.

  13. Diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Marchisio, Paola; Tenconi, Rossana; Tagliaferri, Laura; Albertario, Giada; Patria, Maria Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2012-08-01

    Rhinosinusitis is almost always a complication of a viral infection involving the upper respiratory tract. A common cold is the first symptom of rhinosinusitis, but infectious processes involving the nose inevitably affect the paranasal sinuses because of their anatomical contiguity. The symptoms remain those of a common cold as long as nasal phlogosis is moderate and the ostia between the nose and sinuses are patent. If the inflammation is intense, edema may obliterate the ostia and isolate the sinuses, thus stopping the removal of the exudates. The duration of symptoms makes it possible to distinguish acute (10-30 days) from subacute (30-90 days) and chronic rhinosinusitis (>90 days). The diagnosis of rhinosinusitis should only be based on anamnestic and clinical criteria in children with serious or persistent symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection, or which appear within a short time of an apparent recovery. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of the paranasal sinuses should be reserved for children reasonably considered to be candidates for surgery. Antibiotics are recommended in cases of mild acute bacterial rhinosinusitis as a means of accelerating the resolution of symptoms. The use of antibiotics is mandatory in severe acute bacterial rhinosinusitis to cure the disease and avoid the possible onset of severe complications.

  14. Acute lung injury review.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Kenji; King, Landon S; Aggarwal, Neil R; De Gorordo, Antonio; D'Alessio, Franco R; Kubo, Keishi

    2009-01-01

    The first report of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was published in 1967, and even now acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS are severe forms of diffuse lung disease that impose a substantial health burden all over the world. Recent estimates indicate approximately 190,000 cases per year of ALI in the United States each year, with an associated 74,500 deaths per year. Common causes of ALI/ARDS are sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, aspiration pneumonia, pancreatitis, and so on. Several pathologic stages of ALI/ARDS have been described: acute inflammation with neutrophil infiltration, fibroproliferative phase with hyaline membranes, with varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis, and resolution phase. There has been intense investigation into the pathophysiologic events relevant to each stage of ALI/ARDS, and much has been learned in the alveolar epithelial, endobronchial homeostasis, and alveolar cell immune responses, especially neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in an animal model. However, these effective results in the animal models are not equally adoptive to those in randomized, controlled trials. The clinical course of ALI/ARDS is variable with the likely pathophysiologic complexity of human ALI/ARDS. In 1994, the definition was recommended by the American-European Consensus Conference Committee, which facilitated easy nomination of patients with ALI/ARDS for a randomized, clinical trial. Here, we review the recent randomized, clinical trials of ALI/ARDS.

  15. Impacted third molars and risk of angle fracture.

    PubMed

    Meisami, T; Sojat, A; Sàndor, G K B; Lawrence, H P; Clokie, C M L

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the presence, position, and severity of impaction of the mandibular third molars, on the incidence of mandibular angle fractures. A retrospective cohort study was designed for patients presenting to the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Toronto General Hospital (Toronto, Canada), for treatment of mandibular fractures from January 1995 to June 2000. The independent variables in this study were the presence, position and severity of impaction of third molars. The outcome variable was the incidence of mandibular angle fractures. Hospital charts and panoramic radiographs were used to determine and classify these variables. The demographic data included age, sex, mechanism of injury and number of mandibular fractures. The study sample comprised 413 mandibular fractures in 214 patients. The incidence of angle fractures was found to be significantly higher in the male population and was most commonly seen in the third decade of life. Assault remained the most significant aetiological factor. Patients with third molars had thrice the increased risk of angle fractures when compared to patients without (P<0.001). Impaction of third molars significantly increased the incidence of angle fractures (P<0.001). The severity and angulation of third molar impactions were not significantly associated with angle fractures. This study provides evidence that patients with retained impacted third molars are significantly more susceptible to angle fracture than those without. The risk for angle fracture, however, does not seem to be influenced by the severity of impaction.

  16. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205 Section 25.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth...

  17. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205 Section 25.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth...

  18. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205 Section 25.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth...

  19. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205 Section 25.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth...

  20. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205 Section 25.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth...

  1. Magnetic prism alignment system for measuring large-angle strabismus.

    PubMed

    Bishop, John Edward

    2014-02-01

    Prismatic measurement of large-angle strabismus requires the simultaneous use of two or more prisms for neutralization. To facilitate the clinical measurement of large-angle strabismus a new prism system was designed utilizing a flat plate and a ferrous metal surface coupled with prisms containing rare earth magnets implanted in their base and bottom surfaces. PMID:24569000

  2. A Novel Monopulse Angle Estimation Method for Wideband LFM Radars

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Xiong; Liu, Qi-Fan; Hong, Ru-Jia; Pan, Ping-Ping; Deng, Zhen-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Traditional monopulse angle estimations are mainly based on phase comparison and amplitude comparison methods, which are commonly adopted in narrowband radars. In modern radar systems, wideband radars are becoming more and more important, while the angle estimation for wideband signals is little studied in previous works. As noise in wideband radars has larger bandwidth than narrowband radars, the challenge lies in the accumulation of energy from the high resolution range profile (HRRP) of monopulse. In wideband radars, linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals are frequently utilized. In this paper, we investigate the monopulse angle estimation problem for wideband LFM signals. To accumulate the energy of the received echo signals from different scatterers of a target, we propose utilizing a cross-correlation operation, which can achieve a good performance in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. In the proposed algorithm, the problem of angle estimation is converted to estimating the frequency of the cross-correlation function (CCF). Experimental results demonstrate the similar performance of the proposed algorithm compared with the traditional amplitude comparison method. It means that the proposed method for angle estimation can be adopted. When adopting the proposed method, future radars may only need wideband signals for both tracking and imaging, which can greatly increase the data rate and strengthen the capability of anti-jamming. More importantly, the estimated angle will not become ambiguous under an arbitrary angle, which can significantly extend the estimated angle range in wideband radars. PMID:27271629

  3. 46 CFR 169.622 - Rudder angle indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rudder angle indicators. 169.622 Section 169.622 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.622 Rudder angle indicators. Each vessel must have a...

  4. 46 CFR 169.622 - Rudder angle indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rudder angle indicators. 169.622 Section 169.622 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.622 Rudder angle indicators. Each vessel must have a...

  5. 46 CFR 169.622 - Rudder angle indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rudder angle indicators. 169.622 Section 169.622 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.622 Rudder angle indicators. Each vessel must have a...

  6. 46 CFR 169.622 - Rudder angle indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rudder angle indicators. 169.622 Section 169.622 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.622 Rudder angle indicators. Each vessel must have a...

  7. 46 CFR 169.622 - Rudder angle indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rudder angle indicators. 169.622 Section 169.622 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.622 Rudder angle indicators. Each vessel must have a...

  8. Multiple incidence angle SIR-B experiment over Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, Jobea; Casey, Daren; Wall, Stephen; Brandani, Aldo; Domik, Gitta; Leberl, Franz

    1986-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B), the second synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to fly aboard a shuttle, was launched on October 5, 1984. One of the primary goals of the SIR-B experiment was to use multiple incidence angle radar images to distinguish different terrain types through the use of their characteristic backscatter curves. This goal was accomplished in several locations including the Chubut Province of southern Argentina. Four descending image acquisitions were collected providing a multiple incidence angle image set. The data were first used to assess stereo-radargrammetric techniques. A digital elevation model was produced using the optimum pair of multiple incidence angle images. This model was then used to determine the local incidence angle of each picture element to generate curves of relative brightness vs. incidence angle. Secondary image products were also generated using the multi-angle data. The results of this work indicate that: (1) various forest species and various structures of a single species may be discriminated using multiple incidence angle radar imagery, and (2) it is essential to consider the variation in backscatter due to a variable incidence angle when analyzing and comparing data collected at varying frequencies and polarizations.

  9. Results of wide-angle underwater acoustic-telemetry tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, D.E.

    1982-03-01

    Acoustic telemetry provides wireless communication between subsurface ocean instrumentation systems and surface receiving equipment. Sandia National Laboratories' high data rate acoustic telemetry system has previously been demonstrated in water depths to 1600 feet and vertical cone angles to 70/sup 0/. Design changes and tests of the system are discussed showing that it can operate within vertical cone angles of 145/sup 0/.

  10. Precision issues in angle measurements by means of autocollimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, Yuri V.; Larichev, Roman A.

    2014-11-01

    Ambiguity in plane angle definition is considered. Autocollimator performance is regarded from geometric ray optics and wave diffraction optics points of view. Few typical aberrations and their influence on image formation in autocollimator are presented. Modeling estimates of aberration influence on angle measurements are outlined.

  11. Unitarity Triangle Angle Measurements at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, Thomas E.; /SLAC

    2005-06-30

    We present recent results of measurements of the Unitarity Triangle angles alpha, beta and gamma made with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory. We present recent results of measurements of the Unitarity Triangle angles alpha, beta and gamma made with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory.

  12. Complete 360° circumferential SSOCT gonioscopy of the iridocorneal angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNabb, Ryan P.; Kuo, Anthony N.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2014-02-01

    The ocular iridocorneal angle is generally an optically inaccessible area when viewed directly through the cornea due to the high angle of incidence required and the large index of refraction difference between air and cornea (nair = 1.000 and ncornea = 1.376) resulting in total internal reflection. Gonioscopy allows for viewing of the angle by removing the aircornea interface through the use of a special contact lens on the eye. Gonioscopy is used clinically to visualize the angle directly but only en face. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to image the angle and deeper structures via an external approach. Typically, this imaging technique is performed by utilizing a conventional anterior segment OCT scanning system. However, instead of imaging the apex of the cornea, either the scanner or the subject is tilted such that the corneoscleral limbus is orthogonal to the optical axis of the scanner requiring multiple volumes to obtain complete circumferential coverage of the ocular angle. We developed a novel gonioscopic OCT (GOCT) system that images the entire ocular angle within a single volume via an "internal" approach through the use of a custom radially symmetric gonioscopic contact lens. We present, to our knowledge, the first complete 360° circumferential volumes of the iridocorneal angle from a direct, internal approach.

  13. Reliable Angle Assessment During Periacetabular Osteotomy with a Novel Device

    PubMed Central

    Elmengaard, Brian; Rømer, Lone; Søballe, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    We developed and assessed a measuring device for intraoperative assessment of the acetabular index and center edge angle during acetabular reorientation in periacetabular osteotomy. We asked whether reliable assessment of angles could be made using the device; to be reliable we presumed the variability of angle measurements should not exceed that of inherent variability when assessing angles on radiographs (± 5°). The device was mounted bilaterally on the pelvis, and using fluoroscopy, angle measurements were obtained with adjustable measuring discs. We conducted a cadaver study to assess intraobserver and interobserver variability of the device and to assess if pelvic positioning influenced variation of measurements. Intraoperative measurements of 35 consecutive patients were compared with measurements on postoperative radiographs. Intraoperatively obtained angle measurements differed less than ± 5° from measurements on postoperative radiographs and the intraobserver and interobserver variability of the device were confined within ± 5°. Positioning did not influence the variation of angle measurements beyond intraobserver variability of the device when applying arcs of tilt and rotation of ± 12.5°. We believe the device is a potentially helpful tool in the periacetabular osteotomy. It is simple to use and facilitates repeated reliable angle measurements during acetabular reorientation, making intraoperative radiographs unnecessary. PMID:18264742

  14. 46 CFR 58.01-40 - Machinery, angles of inclination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery, angles of inclination. 58.01-40 Section 58.01... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-40 Machinery, angles of inclination. (a) Propulsion machinery and all auxiliary machinery essential to the propulsion and safety of the vessel must...

  15. What convention is used for the illumination and view angles?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... Azimuth angles are measured clockwise from the direction of travel to local north. For both the Sun and cameras, azimuth describes the ... to the equator, because of its morning equator crossing time. Additionally, the difference in view and solar azimuth angle will be near ...

  16. Magnetic prism alignment system for measuring large-angle strabismus.

    PubMed

    Bishop, John Edward

    2014-02-01

    Prismatic measurement of large-angle strabismus requires the simultaneous use of two or more prisms for neutralization. To facilitate the clinical measurement of large-angle strabismus a new prism system was designed utilizing a flat plate and a ferrous metal surface coupled with prisms containing rare earth magnets implanted in their base and bottom surfaces.

  17. A Novel Monopulse Angle Estimation Method for Wideband LFM Radars.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Xiong; Liu, Qi-Fan; Hong, Ru-Jia; Pan, Ping-Ping; Deng, Zhen-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Traditional monopulse angle estimations are mainly based on phase comparison and amplitude comparison methods, which are commonly adopted in narrowband radars. In modern radar systems, wideband radars are becoming more and more important, while the angle estimation for wideband signals is little studied in previous works. As noise in wideband radars has larger bandwidth than narrowband radars, the challenge lies in the accumulation of energy from the high resolution range profile (HRRP) of monopulse. In wideband radars, linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals are frequently utilized. In this paper, we investigate the monopulse angle estimation problem for wideband LFM signals. To accumulate the energy of the received echo signals from different scatterers of a target, we propose utilizing a cross-correlation operation, which can achieve a good performance in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. In the proposed algorithm, the problem of angle estimation is converted to estimating the frequency of the cross-correlation function (CCF). Experimental results demonstrate the similar performance of the proposed algorithm compared with the traditional amplitude comparison method. It means that the proposed method for angle estimation can be adopted. When adopting the proposed method, future radars may only need wideband signals for both tracking and imaging, which can greatly increase the data rate and strengthen the capability of anti-jamming. More importantly, the estimated angle will not become ambiguous under an arbitrary angle, which can significantly extend the estimated angle range in wideband radars. PMID:27271629

  18. A gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Yoldash, Rashiduddin; Boehnen, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    It has been proven that hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images of same eye differs in iris recognition system. The distinction of hamming distance score is caused by many factors such as image acquisition angle, occlusion, pupil dilation, and limbus effect. In this paper, we first study the effect of the angle variations between iris plane and the image acquisition systems. We present how hamming distance changes for different off-angle iris images even if they are coming from the same iris. We observe that increment in acquisition angle of compared iris images causes the increment in hamming distance. Second, we propose a new technique in off-angle iris recognition system that includes creating a gallery of different off-angle iris images (such as, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees) and comparing each probe image with these gallery images. We will show the accuracy of the gallery approach for off-angle iris recognition.

  19. Does Sacrococcygeal Angle Play a Role on Pilonidal Sinus Etiology?

    PubMed

    Eryilmaz, Ramazan; Isik, Arda; Okan, Ismail; Bilecik, Tuna; Yekeler, Ensar; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The predisposing factors for the development of sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease (SPD) still remain undetermined. Here, we investigate the sacrococcygeal angle as a possible predisposing factor for the development of disease. Consecutive male patients admitted to our clinic with the diagnosis of SPD were included. Sex, age and BMI matched healthy controls without SPD were enrolled to the study. The predefined sacrococcygeal angles of patients and controls were measured on lateral pelvic radiographs by a single experienced radiologist. Thirty patients were included in each group. Sacrococcygeal angles of patients and control group were measured as 37.3±14.5 and 36.81±10.23 in patients and controls, respectively. The difference with respect to sacrococcygeal angle was not statistically significant between two groups. Sacrococcygeal angle which is the main skeletal determinant of intergluteal sulcus is not a predisposing factor for the development of sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease.

  20. The effect of knee joint angle on torque control.

    PubMed

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Voudrie, Stefani J; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the author's investigation was to examine the effect of knee joint angle on torque control of the quadriceps muscle group. In all, 12 healthy adults produced maximal voluntary contractions and submaximal torque (15, 30, and 45% MVC [maximal voluntary contraction]) at leg flexion angles of 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees below the horizontal plane. As expected, MVC values changed with respect to joint angle with maximum torque output being greatest at 60 degrees and least at 15 degrees . During the submaximal tasks, participants appropriately scaled their torque output to the required targets. Absolute variability (i.e., standard deviation) of torque output was greatest at 60 degrees and 90 degrees knee flexion. However, relative variability as indexed by coefficient of variation (CV) decreased as joint angle increased, with the greatest CV occurring at 15 degrees . These results are congruent with the hypothesis that joint angle influences the control of torque.

  1. The anterior centre-edge angle. A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Crockarell, J R; Trousdale, R T; Guyton, J L

    2000-05-01

    The anterior centre-edge (VCA) angle quantifies the anterior cover of the femoral head, and angles of less than 20 degrees are considered abnormal. We have measured the VCA angles in hips without osteoarthritic changes. We took bilateral false-profile radiographs of nine female and 30 male cadavers without signs of osteoarthritis. The mean age at the time of death was 72 years (46 to 92). The mean VCA angle was 32.8 degrees (17.7 to 53.6). The SD was 7.9 degrees. Our findings suggest that the threshold of abnormality of the VCA angle may be slightly lower than previously thought. This information may be useful in counselling patients with asymptomatic acetabular dysplasia.

  2. New mixing angles in the left-right symmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokado, Akira; Saito, Takesi

    2015-12-01

    In the left-right symmetric model neutral gauge fields are characterized by three mixing angles θ12,θ23,θ13 between three gauge fields Bμ,WLμ 3,WRμ 3, which produce mass eigenstates Aμ,Zμ,Zμ', when G =S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R×U (1 )B-L×D is spontaneously broken down until U (1 )em . We find a new mixing angle θ', which corresponds to the Weinberg angle θW in the standard model with the S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y gauge symmetry, from these mixing angles. It is then shown that any mixing angle θi j can be expressed by ɛ and θ', where ɛ =gL/gR is a ratio of running left-right gauge coupling strengths. We observe that light gauge bosons are described by θ' only, whereas heavy gauge bosons are described by two parameters ɛ and θ'.

  3. Setting Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research on Management of Primary Angle Closure: A Survey of Asia-Pacific Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tsung; Li, Tianjing; Lee, Kinbo J.; Friedman, David S.; Dickersin, Kay; Puhan, Milo A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To set priorities for new systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on the management of primary angle closure (PAC) using clinical practice guidelines and a survey of Asia-Pacific clinicians. Methods We restated the American Academy of Ophthalmology’s Preferred Practice Patterns recommendations for management of PAC into answerable clinical questions. We asked participants at the Asia-Pacific Joint Glaucoma Congress 2010 in Taipei to rate the importance of having an answer to each question for providing effective patient care, using a Likert-type scale and scoring from 0 (not important at all) to 10 (highly important). We identified relevant systematic reviews and mapped the evidence to clinical questions to identify evidence gaps. Results We generated 42 clinical questions. One hundred seventy five individuals agreed to participate in the survey, 132 responded (75.4% response rate) and 96 completed the questionnaire (54.9% usable response rate). Questions rated important include laser iridotomy for the prevention of angle closure in primary angle-closure suspects, further therapies in eyes with plateau iris syndrome after laser iridotomy, and evaluation of the fellow eye in acute angle-closure patients for improving prognosis. Up-to-date and conclusive systematic review evidence was not available for any of the 42 clinical questions. Conclusion We identified high priority clinical questions on the management of PAC, none of which had reliable systematic review evidence available. New systematic reviews and RCTs can be initiated to address these evidence gaps. PMID:23835674

  4. Medical treatment of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mayerle, Julia; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M

    2004-12-01

    Eighty percent of all cases of acute pancreatitis are linked etiologically to gallstone disease or caused by immoderate alcohol consumption. No specific causal treatment for acute pancreatitis exists. Early prognostic factors that indicate severe disease are three or more signs on organ failure scores according to Ranson, Imrie, or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) 11, extrapancreatic complications of the disease, or the detection of pancreatic necrosis on CT scans. Elevated CRP levels above 130 mg/L can also predict a severe course of acute pancreatitis. The essential medical treatment for acute pancreatitis is the correction of hypovolemia. Moreover, relief of often severe visceral pain is a high priority. Prophylactic antibiotics should be restricted to patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, infected necrosis, or other infectious complications. Enteral nutrition has no adverse effect compared with parenteral nutrition during the course of acute pancreatitis, and is probably beneficial in regard to outcome.

  5. Coming to Understand Angle and Angle Measure: A Design-Based Research Curriculum Study Using Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study uses design-based research (DBR) to develop an empirically-substantiated instructional theory about students' development of angle and angle measure, with real-world connections and technological tools through the use of context-aware ubiquitous learning. The research questions guiding this research are: 1) How do students come to…

  6. Results of the self-expandable BA9 stent for treatment of large angle coronary bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Lucisano, L; Calcagno, S; Pennacchi, M; Stio, R E; Mancone, M; Sardella, G

    2014-02-01

    Since the advent of coronary angioplasty the treatment of bifurcation lesions has always proved a complex issue resulting in lower angiographic success rates, increased risk of restenosis, higher rates of dissection, myocardial infarction, and acute vessel closure. The advent of coronary stenting reduced the risks, but in-stent restenosis was noted to be frequent at the ostium of the side branch; for this reasons two-stent techniques were developed to try to combat this phenomenon. Novel dedicated stents have recently been developed to provide easier access to the SB and to scaffold more effectively its ostium, matching the stent configuration more closely to the anatomy of the bifurcation. Most of bifurcation lesions that require treatment and which have a wide angle involving the left main coronary artery (LMCA). The impact of the angle and the asymmetry of bifurcation on flow dynamic are very important and may influence clinical outcome. More recently, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to treat wide angle disease has increased in frequency, and is associated with improvements in interventional techniques and adjunctive drug therapy. Several studies have shown that stenting in LMCA, especially using drug-eluting stents (DES), is a safe and effective treatment strategy both at mid- and long-term follow-up. The AXXESS System is a self-expanding, conically-shaped stent from nitinol (nickel-titanium alloy) with strut thickness, specifically designed to conform to the anatomy at the level of the bifurcation carina. A special version of the AXXESS System has been designed for left main bifurcation lesions, allowing for larger diameters (up to 4.75 mm) and distinct bifurcation angles (flare-end diameters of 8, 10 and 12 mm). The AXXENT trial is the first study to evaluate the vascular response of the self-expanding biolimus-eluting AXXESS stent for the treatment of LMCA bifurcation lesions. It was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the AXXESS

  7. Mantle flow pressure and the angle of subduction - Non-Newtonian corner flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tovish, A.; Schubert, G.; Luyendyk, B. P.

    1978-01-01

    Corner flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids are used to model the flow in a subduction zone which is viscously driven by the motions of the converging plates and the descending slab. The pressures induced by the flow tend to lift the slab up beneath the overriding plate thereby offsetting the tendency of gravity to align the slab with the vertical. The low angles of subduction observed in Peru and Central Chile may be the result of strong dynamic pressures forcing the slab up against the overriding plate. Viscous coupling between the overriding plate and the downgoing slab is essential if the nonvertical dips of slabs are a consequence of the balance between gravitational and pressure torques. For a Newtonian mantle, shear stresses and pressures on the top of the slab are comparable. If the mantle is non-Newtonian, however, the pressures greatly exceed the shear stresses, for most acute dip angles. Thus frictional forces on the top and bottom surfaces of slabs are less important in resisting slab descent into a non-Newtonian mantle than they are in resisting penetration into a Newtonian mantle.

  8. Spectral data of specular reflectance, narrow-angle transmittance and angle-resolved surface scattering of materials for solar concentrators

    PubMed Central

    Good, Philipp; Cooper, Thomas; Querci, Marco; Wiik, Nicolay; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    The spectral specular reflectance of conventional and novel reflective materials for solar concentrators is measured with an acceptance angle of 17.5 mrad over the wavelength range 300−2500 nm at incidence angles 15–60° using a spectroscopic goniometry system. The same experimental setup is used to determine the spectral narrow-angle transmittance of semi-transparent materials for solar collector covers at incidence angles 0–60°. In addition, the angle-resolved surface scattering of reflective materials is recorded by an area-scan CCD detector over the spectral range 350–1050 nm. A comprehensive summary, discussion, and interpretation of the results are included in the associated research article “Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and angular scattering of materials for solar concentrators” in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. PMID:26862556

  9. From hygrophilic to superhygrophobic: theoretical conditions for making high-contact-angle surfaces from low-contact-angle materials.

    PubMed

    Marmur, Abraham

    2008-07-15

    The possibility of making high-contact-angle, rough surfaces from low-contact-angle materials has recently been suggested and demonstrated. A thermodynamic analysis of this possibility in terms of feasibility and stability is presented. It turns out that only roughness topographies that conform to a feasibility condition which is developed in the present paper can support this phenomenon. Even under conditions that support the phenomenon, the high-contact-angle state may not be stable, and transition from the heterogeneous (Cassie-Baxter) wetting regime to the homogeneous (Wenzel) regime with a lower contact angle may occur. In addition, it is suggested to use the general terms hygrophilic and hygrophobic (based on the Greek prefix hygro- that means liquid) to describe low- and high-contact-angle surfaces, respectively. PMID:18543997

  10. Spectral data of specular reflectance, narrow-angle transmittance and angle-resolved surface scattering of materials for solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Good, Philipp; Cooper, Thomas; Querci, Marco; Wiik, Nicolay; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    The spectral specular reflectance of conventional and novel reflective materials for solar concentrators is measured with an acceptance angle of 17.5 mrad over the wavelength range 300-2500 nm at incidence angles 15-60° using a spectroscopic goniometry system. The same experimental setup is used to determine the spectral narrow-angle transmittance of semi-transparent materials for solar collector covers at incidence angles 0-60°. In addition, the angle-resolved surface scattering of reflective materials is recorded by an area-scan CCD detector over the spectral range 350-1050 nm. A comprehensive summary, discussion, and interpretation of the results are included in the associated research article "Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and angular scattering of materials for solar concentrators" in Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells.

  11. Targeted Therapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-28

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Myelodysplasia-Related Changes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  12. [Computer tomography in acute pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Triller, J; Scheidegger, J; Terrier, F

    1983-07-01

    Computer tomography of the kidneys was performed on 30 patients with acute renal infections (acute suppurative pyelonephritis, acute renal abscess, infected cyst, pyelonephrosis, calculus perforation, retroperitoneal abscess). Computer tomography provided more accurate information concerning the extent of the renal and extra-renal inflammatory process than did the urogram or sonogram. This may significantly affect the choice of treatment, particularly concerning the use of drugs or of surgery. Angiography and retrograde pyelography may be used in selected cases, especially where there is a suspicion of acute bacterial nephritis, renal vein thrombosis or ureteric obstruction.

  13. The range of options for handling plane angle and solid angle within a system of units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincey, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The radian and steradian are unusual units within the SI, originally belonging to their own category of ‘supplementary units’, with this status being changed to dimensionless ‘derived units’ in 1995. Recent papers have suggested that angles could be handled in two different ways within the SI, both differing from the present system. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for putting such suggestions into context, outlining the range of options that is available, together with the advantages and disadvantages of these options. Although less rigorously logical than some alternatives, the present SI approach is generally supported, but with some changes to the SI brochure to make the position clearer, in particular with regard to the designation of the radian and steradian as derived units.

  14. Acute exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Ko, Fanny W; Chan, Ka Pang; Hui, David S; Goddard, John R; Shaw, Janet G; Reid, David W; Yang, Ian A

    2016-10-01

    The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations. The diagnostic approach to AECOPD varies based on the clinical setting and severity of the exacerbation. After history and examination, a number of investigations may be useful, including oximetry, sputum culture, chest X-ray and blood tests for inflammatory markers. Arterial blood gases should be considered in severe exacerbations, to characterize respiratory failure. Depending on the severity, the acute management of AECOPD involves use of bronchodilators, steroids, antibiotics, oxygen and noninvasive ventilation. Hospitalization may be required, for severe exacerbations. Nonpharmacological interventions including disease-specific self-management, pulmonary rehabilitation, early medical follow-up, home visits by respiratory health workers, integrated programmes and telehealth-assisted hospital at home have been studied during hospitalization and shortly after discharge in patients who have had a recent AECOPD. Pharmacological approaches to reducing risk of future exacerbations include long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, mucolytics, vaccinations and long-term macrolides. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions in preventing COPD exacerbations.

  15. Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Juergen; Kvasnicka, Hans M; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette

    2004-04-01

    Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis (APMF) is an ill-defined disorder that may either evolve as a clonal hematopoietic condition or as a sequel of toxic exposure to the bone marrow (BM). Therefore, controversy and discussion continues as to whether APMF may be considered as a hyperfibrotic (de novo) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or as a severe toxic myelopathy with accompanying myelofibrosis. In this context scant knowledge exists about BM findings, but especially evolution of this disorder according to sequential examinations. Clinically patients present with pancytopenia, a very few blasts in the peripheral blood and no or little splenomegaly. Initially BM histopathology is characterized by different degrees of reticulin-collagen fibrosis and wide ranges of cellularity with a prominent left-shifted and often macrocytic erythropoiesis associated with a reduction and maturation defects of the neutrophil series. Most conspicuous are abnormalities of the megakaryocytes including loose clustering, dislocation towards the endosteal border and appearance of atypical microforms with compact nuclei. Moreover, besides myelofibrosis in a number of patients the interstitial compartment displays a remarkable inflammatory reaction with lymphoid nodules, abundant iron-laden macrophages, perivascular plasmacytosis and increase in microvessels. Repeatedly performed BM biopsies reveal an accumulation of dispersed or clustered CD34+ and lysozyme-expressing blasts in keeping with the insidious transformation into acute leukemia. Prognosis is unfavorable with a median survival of less than 1 year. In conclusion, APMF has to be regarded as a condition that shows considerable overlappings with primary hyperfibrotic MDS, AML and toxic myelopathy (secondary MDS) with accompanying myelofibrosis and therefore can not be considered as a definite clinical entity.

  16. Fractures of angle of mandible – A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sourav; Fry, Ramesh R.; Joshi, Ajit; Sharma, Geeta; Singh, Smita

    2012-01-01

    Aims This retrospective study was done to evaluate the efficacy of single miniplate osteosynthesis at superior border of angle of mandible. Material and methods In this study 50 patients were treated by single miniplate osteosynthesis according to Champy's principle. Bite force generated was used as a parameter for judging the efficacy of internal fixation. In this article we present our experience over the years in the management of the fractures of angle of mandible based on this model. Results Most patients were of 21–30 yrs of age with unilateral angle fracture of mandible except one patient who had isolated bilateral angle fracture. The patients were treated successfully according to Champy's principle of osteosynthesis. There was a progressive improvement in the bite force generated after osteosynthesis. Conclusions The angle of the mandible is an anatomically weak and an area susceptible to fracture. The presence of an impacted or partially erupted third molar tooth further weakens it. Angle of mandible is the most common site for fracture however, bilateral angle fracture is very rare and uncommon. Osteosynthesis according to Champy's model led to an early functional improvement as demonstrated by the bite force generated. PMID:25737858

  17. Moment-angle relations in the initial time of contraction.

    PubMed

    Rousanoglou, E N; Herzog, W; Boudolos, K D

    2010-09-01

    Standard moment-angle relations are typically obtained for values at maximum of contraction. Muscle properties for contraction times, similar to the short times of powerful athletic activities, may be more important than muscle properties that are obtained at maximum (TMAX) of contraction. The research question was whether moment-angle relations obtained during the initial time course of contraction are linearly scaled reflections of moment-angle relations obtained at maximum of contraction. The isometric moment of the knee extensor and the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured at 9 knee angles in 22 elite female track and field jumpers. Absolute moments (Nm), relative moments (%TMAX) and EMG integrals were determined at 30 ms, 50 ms, 150 ms and 200 ms from the onset of contraction and at maximum. For moment-angle relations obtained during the initial time course of contraction, there was a shift of the optimum knee angle to a more extended knee. During the initial time course of the contraction, %TMAX moment was greater near full knee extension. The EMG activity was the same across knee angles. The results may have important practical implications for muscular force evaluation for activities where maximum force production is coupled to a short activation time.

  18. Ramp Angle, Not Plateau Height, Influences Transition Strategies.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Riley C; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2016-10-01

    In a previous study, we found that participants modified how they transitioned onto and off of ramp configurations depending upon the incline. While the transition strategies were originally attributed to ramp angles, it is possible that the plateau influenced the strategies since the final surface height also differed. Ultimately, for the current study, we hypothesized that an individual's transition strategies would have significant main effects for ramp angle, but not plateau height. Twelve healthy, young adults transitioned onto 3 distinct ramp configurations, a 2.4-m ramp angled at 12.5° ending at a plateau height of 53 cm, a 1.2-m ramp angled at 23.5° ending at a plateau height of 53 cm, and a 2.4-m ramp angled at 23.5° ending at a plateau height of 99.5 cm. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity were measured during the stance phase before contacting the ramp. In support of our hypothesis, impact peak, active peak, and all of the muscle activity variables had a significant main effect for ramp angle, with greater vertical force peaks and muscle activity on steeper ramp transitions. These findings support our previous interpretation that individuals use estimations of ramp angle, not plateau height, to determine their transition strategies.

  19. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5°. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis. PMID:26471765

  20. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-10-01

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5°. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis.

  1. Biophysical optimality of the golden angle in phyllotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaves are arranged around a stem axis in a regular pattern characterized by common fractions, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy. As plants grow, these fractions often transition according to simple rules related to Fibonacci sequences. This mathematical regularity originates from leaf primordia at the shoot tip (shoot apical meristem), which successively arise at fixed intervals of a divergence angle, typically the golden angle of 137.5°. Algebraic and numerical interpretations have been proposed to explain the golden angle observed in phyllotaxis. However, it remains unknown whether phyllotaxis has adaptive value, even though two centuries have passed since the phenomenon was discovered. Here, I propose a new adaptive mechanism explaining the presence of the golden angle. This angle is the optimal solution to minimize the energy cost of phyllotaxis transition. This model accounts for not only the high precision of the golden angle but also the occurrences of other angles observed in nature. The model also effectively explains the observed diversity of rational and irrational numbers in phyllotaxis. PMID:26471765

  2. Acute brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Martin, G T

    2016-01-01

    In the 20th century, the complications of head injuries were controlled but not eliminated. The wars of the 21st century turned attention to blast, the instant of impact and the primary injury of concussion. Computer calculations have established that in the first 5 milliseconds after the impact, four independent injuries on the brain are inflicted: 1) impact and its shockwave, 2) deceleration, 3) rotation and 4) skull deformity with vibration (or resonance). The recovery, pathology and symptoms after acute brain trauma have always been something of a puzzle. The variability of these four modes of injury, along with a variable reserve of neurones, explains some of this problem.

  3. [Infant acute leukemia].

    PubMed

    Brethon, Benoît; Cavé, Hélène; Fahd, Mony; Baruchel, André

    2016-03-01

    If acute leukemia is the most frequent cancer in childhood (33%), it remains a very rare diagnosis in infants less than one year old, e.g. less than 5% of cases. At this age, the frequency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (almost all of B-lineage) is quite similar to the one of myeloblastic forms (AML). Infant leukemia frequently presents with high hyperleucocytosis, major tumoral burden and numerous extra-hematological features, especially in central nervous system and skin. Whatever the lineage, the leukemic cell is often very immature cytologically and immunologically. Rearrangements of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene, located on band 11q23, are the hallmark of these immature leukemias and confer a particular resistance to conventional approaches, corticosteroids and chemotherapy. The immaturity of infants less than 1-year-old is associated to a decrease of the tolerable dose-intensity of some drugs (anthracyclines, alkylating agents) or asks questions about some procedures like radiotherapy or high dose conditioning regimen, responsible of inacceptable acute and late toxicities. The high level of severe infectious diseases and other high-grade side effects limits also the capacity to cure these infants. The survival of infants less than 1-year-old with AML is only 50% but similar to older children. On the other hand, survival of those with ALL is the same, then quite limited comparing the 80% survival in children over one year. Allogeneic stem cell transplantations are indicated in high-risk subgroups of infant ALL (age below 6 months, high hyperleucocytosis >300.10(9)/L, MLL-rearrangement, initial poor prednisone response). However, morbidity and mortality remain very important and these approaches cannot be extended to all cases. During the neonatal period, the dismal prognosis linked to the high number of primary failures or very early relapses and uncertainties about the late toxicities question physicians about ethics. It is an emergency to

  4. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP.

  5. Acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Gretchen

    2014-03-01

    One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients. PMID:24439877

  6. [Acute necrotizing enteritis].

    PubMed

    Marincaş, M; Bratucu, E; Straja, D; Daha, C; Boru, C

    2003-01-01

    The authors present a retrospective clinical study done on a 13-pacients basis diagnosed during surgery with acute necrotizing enteritis. This study follows the complexity of pathogenic factors and the difficulties one confronts with when establishing a diagnosis since the clinical manifestations are non-specifical and shows the contribution of laboratory data to an earliest possible diagnosis. Both medical and surgical treatment are analyzed depending on the results achieved with an attempt to determine a therapeutic approach as beneficial as possible, aiming at making clear either enterectomy or a conservatory surgical decision should be made. Mortality rate under such therapeutical approach was 38%.

  7. Acute lead arsenate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tallis, G A

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of acute lead arsenate poisoning which occurred in South Australia during a 12 month interval are described. The case reports demonstrate a number of features of the characteristic clinical syndrome which may follow ingestion of lead arsenate. The recommended management is immediate gastric lavage and subsequent chelation therapy with calcium EDTA and dimercaprol. Early gastric lavage may prevent significant lead absorption. However, arsenic acid (produced in the stomach when lead arsenate reacts with hydrochloric acid) is relatively water soluble and prompt gastric lavage is unlikely to prevent extensive arsenic absorption. It remains controversial as to whether chelation with dimercaprol prevents arsenical neuropathy.

  8. Acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Gretchen

    2014-03-01

    One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients.

  9. Acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Barie, Philip S; Eachempati, Soumitra R

    2010-06-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (ACC) can develop with or without gallstones after surgery and in critically ill or injured patients. Diabetes mellitus, malignant disease, abdominal vasculitis, congestive heart failure, cholesterol embolization, shock, and cardiac arrest also have been associated with AAC. The pathogenesis of AAC is complex and multifactorial. Ultrasound of the gallbladder is most accurate for the diagnosis of AAC in the critically ill patient. CT is probably of comparable accuracy, but carries both advantages and disadvantages. Rapid improvement may be expected when AAC is diagnosed correctly and cholecystostomy is performed timely. PMID:20478490

  10. Acute medial elbow ruptures.

    PubMed

    Norwood, L A; Shook, J A; Andrews, J R

    1981-01-01

    Disruption of the ulnar collateral ligament, flexor muscles, and anterior elbow capsule may result from valgus vector forces and subsequently cause difficulty in throwing, pulling, pushing and catching. Complete medial elbow tears were diagnosed acutely in four elbows by abduction stress tests at 15 degrees of flexion. Three elbows had associated ulnar nerve compression. We repaired torn medial structures by direct suture without ligamentous reconstruction. We also decompressed ulnar nerves and performed one anterior transposition. Full range of motion, strength, and return to previous functional level was attained without infection, neurovascular compression, or myositis ossificans.

  11. Acute ischemic stroke update.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kathleen; Orr, Sean; Briand, Mary; Piazza, Carolyn; Veydt, Annita; McCoy, Stacey

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is the number one cause of long-term disability. Legislative mandates, largely the result of the American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, and Brain Attack Coalition working cooperatively, have resulted in nationwide standardization of care for patients who experience a stroke. Transport to a skilled facility that can provide optimal care, including immediate treatment to halt or reverse the damage caused by stroke, must occur swiftly. Admission to a certified stroke center is recommended for improving outcomes. Most strokes are ischemic in nature. Acute ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous group of vascular diseases, which makes targeted treatment challenging. To provide a thorough review of the literature since the 2007 acute ischemic stroke guidelines were developed, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1, 2004-July 1, 2009) for relevant English-language studies. Results (through July 1, 2009) from clinical trials included in the Internet Stroke Center registry were also accessed. Results from several pivotal studies have contributed to our knowledge of stroke. Additional data support the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase, the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke since 1995. Due to these study results, the American Stroke Association changed its recommendation to extend the time window for administration of intravenous alteplase from within 3 hours to 4.5 hours of symptom onset; this recommendation enables many more patients to receive the drug. Other findings included clinically useful biomarkers, the role of inflammation and infection, an expanded role for placement of intracranial stents, a reduced role for urgent carotid endarterectomy, alternative treatments for large-vessel disease, identification of nontraditional risk factors, including risk factors for women, and newly published pediatric stroke guidelines. In addition, new devices for

  12. Acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tumbarello, C

    2000-01-01

    Acute Extremity Compartment Syndrome is a disorder, which can cause loss of limb if left untreated. Compartment syndrome develops when pressures within the fascial compartments become elevated, resulting in decreased perfusion to muscles and nerves. Left untreated, tissue death occurs. Rapid identification of clinical signs can decrease severity of symptoms. Diligent nursing assessment and monitoring of clinical signs, with communication to the physician, will facilitate rapid treatment by the physician. The primary treatment option is early identification and intervention through performance of a fasciotomy.

  13. Determination of basic friction angle using various laboratory tests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The basic friction angle of rock is an important factor of joint shear strength and is included within most shear strength criteria. It can be measured by direct shear test, triaxial compression test and tilt test. Tilt test is mostly used because it is the simplest method. However, basic friction angles measured using tilt test for same rock type or for one sample are widely distributed and often do not show normal distribution. In this research, the basic friction angles for the Hangdeung granite form Korea and Berea sandstone from USA are measured accurately using direct shear test and triaxial compression test. Then basic friction angles are again measured using tilt tests with various conditions and are compared with those measured using direct shear test and triaxial compression test to determine the optimum condition of tilt test. Three types of sliding planes, such as planes cut by saw and planes polished by #100 and #600 grinding powders, are prepared. When planes are polished by #100 grinding powder, the basic friction angles measured using direct shear test and triaxial compression test are very consistent and show narrow ranges. However, basic friction angles show wide ranges when planes are cut by saw and are polished by #600 grinding powder. The basic friction angle measured using tilt test are very close to those measured using direct shear test and triaxial compression test when plane is polished by #100 grinding powder. When planes are cut by saw and are polished by #600 grinding powder, basic friction angles measured using tilt test are slightly different. This indicates that tilt test with plane polished by #100 grinding powder can yield an accurate basic friction angle. In addition, the accurate values are obtained not only when planes are polished again after 10 times of tilt test, but values are averaged by more 30 times of tests.

  14. PREDITOR: a web server for predicting protein torsion angle restraints

    PubMed Central

    Berjanskii, Mark V.; Neal, Stephen; Wishart, David S.

    2006-01-01

    Every year between 500 and 1000 peptide and protein structures are determined by NMR and deposited into the Protein Data Bank. However, the process of NMR structure determination continues to be a manually intensive and time-consuming task. One of the most tedious and error-prone aspects of this process involves the determination of torsion angle restraints including phi, psi, omega and chi angles. Most methods require many days of additional experiments, painstaking measurements or complex calculations. Here we wish to describe a web server, called PREDITOR, which greatly accelerates and simplifies this task. PREDITOR accepts sequence and/or chemical shift data as input and generates torsion angle predictions (with predicted errors) for phi, psi, omega and chi-1 angles. PREDITOR combines sequence alignment methods with advanced chemical shift analysis techniques to generate its torsion angle predictions. The method is fast (<40 s per protein) and accurate, with 88% of phi/psi predictions being within 30° of the correct values, 84% of chi-1 predictions being correct and 99.97% of omega angles being correct. PREDITOR is 35 times faster and up to 20% more accurate than any existing method. PREDITOR also provides accurate assessments of the torsion angle errors so that the torsion angle constraints can be readily fed into standard structure refinement programs, such as CNS, XPLOR, AMBER and CYANA. Other unique features to PREDITOR include dihedral angle prediction via PDB structure mapping, automated chemical shift re-referencing (to improve accuracy), prediction of proline cis/trans states and a simple user interface. The PREDITOR website is located at: . PMID:16845087

  15. Automated small tilt-angle measurement using Lau interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, Shashi; Singh, Sumitra; Rana, Santosh

    2005-10-01

    A technique for a tilt-angle measurement of reflecting objects based on the Lau interferometry coupled with the moire readout has been proposed. A white-light incoherent source illuminates a set of two gratings, resulting in the generation of the Fresnel image due to the Lau effect. The Fresnel image is projected onto a reflecting object. The image reflected from the object is superimposed onto an identical grating, which results in the formation of a moire fringe pattern. The inclination angle of moire fringes is a function of tilt angle of the object. Theory and experimental arrangement of the proposed technique is presented and results of the investigation are reported.

  16. Determination of intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2014-10-13

    The spin Hall angle in Pt is evaluated in Pt/NiFe bilayers by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements and is found to increase with increasing the NiFe thickness. To extract the intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt by estimating the total spin current injected into NiFe from Pt, the NiFe thickness dependent measurements are performed and the spin diffusion in the NiFe layer is taken into account. The intrinsic spin Hall angle of Pt is determined to be 0.068 at room temperature and is found to be almost constant in the temperature range of 13–300 K.

  17. Measurement of Critical Contact Angle in a Microgravity Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the USMT,2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's "double proboscis" containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  18. Measurement of Critical Contact Angle in a Microgravity Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's "double proboscis" containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  19. Measurement of critical contact angle in a microgravity space experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the NASA USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's ``double proboscis'' containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  20. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  1. Bounded-Angle Iterative Decoding of LDPC Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, Samuel; Andrews, Kenneth; Pollara, Fabrizio; Divsalar, Dariush

    2009-01-01

    Bounded-angle iterative decoding is a modified version of conventional iterative decoding, conceived as a means of reducing undetected-error rates for short low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. For a given code, bounded-angle iterative decoding can be implemented by means of a simple modification of the decoder algorithm, without redesigning the code. Bounded-angle iterative decoding is based on a representation of received words and code words as vectors in an n-dimensional Euclidean space (where n is an integer).

  2. Remote logo detection using angle-distance histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Sungwook; Ok, Jiheon; Baek, Sangwook; Woo, Seongyoun; Lee, Chulhee

    2016-05-01

    Among all the various computer vision applications, automatic logo recognition has drawn great interest from industry as well as various academic institutions. In this paper, we propose an angle-distance map, which we used to develop a robust logo detection algorithm. The proposed angle-distance histogram is invariant against scale and rotation. The proposed method first used shape information and color characteristics to find the candidate regions and then applied the angle-distance histogram. Experiments show that the proposed method detected logos of various sizes and orientations.

  3. Measurement of critical contact angle in a microgravity space experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1999-06-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the NASA USML-2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's double proboscis containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  4. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Edwin C.; Durie, Brian G. M.; Garewal, Harinder S.

    1987-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia frequently associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Data on 11 patients with APL treated at our institution were analyzed and compared with those of 147 published cases. Most had a bleeding diathesis at presentation and evidence of DIC eventually developed in all. Seven patients (64%) showed the t(15;17)(q22;q21) karyotype or a similar translocation. Using a chemotherapy induction regimen containing an anthracycline, complete remission, requiring a total of 14 courses of treatment, was achieved in six patients (55%). The median duration of response and median survival for complete responders were 10 and 15 months, respectively. Three patients (27%) died of bleeding complications during induction therapy. The tritiated-thymidine labeling index of leukemia cells predicted which patients would achieve a complete remission. Review of six studies of 147 patients with APL from the past 12 years supports the use of a chemotherapy induction regimen containing anthracycline or amsacrine and heparin for the treatment of DIC. PMID:3472414

  5. Acute systemic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Botham, Philip A

    2002-01-01

    Use of the test that aimed to identify the single lethal dose of a substance that kills half the animals in a test group (the LD50 test) should finally be discontinued by the end of 2002, after many years of controversy and debate. In its stead are three recently developed alternative animal tests that significantly improve animal welfare: the fixed dose procedure, the acute toxic class method, and the up and down procedure. These tests have already undergone revision, both to improve their scientific performance and, importantly, to increase their regulatory acceptance. They can now be used within a strategy of acute toxicity testing for all types of test substances and for all regulatory and in-house purposes. In vitro cytotoxicity tests could be used (perhaps by mid-2002) as adjuncts to these alternative animal tests to improve dose level selection and reduce (at least modestly) the number of animals used. However, the total replacement of animal tests requires a considerable amount of further test development, followed by validation, which will require at least 10 yr.

  6. Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Anna; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global public health concern associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Other than dialysis, no therapeutic interventions reliably improve survival, limit injury, or speed recovery. Despite recognized shortcomings of in vivo animal models, the underlying pathophysiology of AKI and its consequence, chronic kidney disease (CKD), is rich with biological targets. We review recent findings relating to the renal vasculature and cellular stress responses, primarily the intersection of the unfolded protein response, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy, and the innate immune response. Maladaptive repair mechanisms that persist following the acute phase promote inflammation and fibrosis in the chronic phase. Here macrophages, growth-arrested tubular epithelial cells, the endothelium, and surrounding pericytes are key players in the progression to chronic disease. Better understanding of these complex interacting pathophysiological mechanisms, their relative importance in humans, and the utility of biomarkers will lead to therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat AKI or impede progression to CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

  7. Imaging acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    González, R Gilberto; Schwamm, Lee H

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is common and often treatable, but treatment requires reliable information on the state of the brain that may be provided by modern neuroimaging. Critical information includes: the presence of hemorrhage; the site of arterial occlusion; the size of the early infarct "core"; and the size of underperfused, potentially threatened brain parenchyma, commonly referred to as the "penumbra." In this chapter we review the major determinants of outcomes in ischemic stroke patients, and the clinical value of various advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging methods that may provide key physiologic information in these patients. The focus is on major strokes due to occlusions of large arteries of the anterior circulation, the most common cause of a severe stroke syndrome. The current evidence-based approach to imaging the acute stroke patient at the Massachusetts General Hospital is presented, which is applicable for all stroke types. We conclude with new information on time and stroke evolution that imaging has revealed, and how it may open the possibilities of treating many more patients. PMID:27432672

  8. Management of acute sunburn.

    PubMed

    Han, Amy; Maibach, Howard I

    2004-01-01

    Current literature documents the use of many pharmacologic agents in the management of acute sunburn. While numerous studies have been undertaken, there is no consensus on an algorithm for such treatment. We review the literature for an evidence-based approach to the management of sunburn. A MEDLINE search was conducted whereby all published articles related to sunburn or ultraviolet (UV)-induced erythema from 1966-2001 were evaluated. Studies and reviews were excluded if they were not conducted in human beings. The results of these studies are varying and often conflicting in terms of clinical effectiveness or feasibility. A total of 40 studies were reviewed. Fourteen out of the 40 studies addressed the actual treatment of sunburn (i.e. the application of a substance after the development of signs or symptoms). The majority concluded that either corticosteroids, NSAIDs, antioxidants, antihistamines or emollients were ineffective at decreasing recovery time. The remaining studies showed mild improvement with such treatments, but study designs or methods were flawed. Furthermore, regardless of the treatment modality, the damage to epidermal cells is the same. Given the lack of convincing data and consensus of opinion regarding sunburn management, the most effective and practical approach to acute sunburn is symptomatic treatment of UV light-induced symptoms, including erythema, pain and pruritus.

  9. Neurological emergencies: acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, R.; Dennis, M.

    2000-01-01

    Stroke causes a vast amount of death and disability throughout the world, yet for many healthcare professionals it remains an area of therapeutic nihilism, and thus uninteresting. This negative perception is shared by the general public, who often have a poor understanding of the early symptoms and significance of a stroke. Yet within the past few years there have been many important developments in the approach to caring for stroke patients, for both the acute management and secondary prevention. After the completion of numerous clinical trials, there is now robust evidence to either support or discredit various interventions. Even more exciting is the prospect of yet more data becoming available in the near future, testing a whole array of treatments, as clinical interest in stroke expands exponentially. In this review an evidence based approach to the management of acute stroke within the first few days is presented, including ischaemic and haemorrhagic events, but not subarachnoid haemorrhage. It is explained why stroke is regarded as a medical emergency, and the importance of a rational, methodic approach to the initial assessment, which is the key to accurate diagnosis and subsequent management, is emphasised. The potential early problems associated with stroke are identified and specific interventions for different stroke types are discussed. The review ends with a brief discussion of the implications that the evolving treatments have for the organisation of modern stroke services.

 PMID:10675208

  10. Acute Bacterial Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Vincent; Lammert, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial cholangitis for the most part owing to common bile duct stones is common in gastroenterology practice and represents a potentially life-threatening condition often characterized by fever, abdominal pain, and jaundice (Charcot's triad) as well as confusion and septic shock (Reynolds' pentad). Methods This review is based on a systematic literature review in PubMed with the search items ‘cholangitis’, ‘choledocholithiasis’, ‘gallstone disease’, ‘biliary infection’, and ‘biliary sepsis’. Results Although most patients respond to empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, timely endoscopic biliary drainage depending on the severity of the disease is required to eliminate the underlying obstruction. Specific recommendations have been derived from the Tokyo guideline working group consensus 2006 and its update in 2013, albeit poorly evidence-based, providing a comprehensive overview of diagnosis, classification, risk stratification, and treatment algorithms in acute bacterial cholangitis. Conclusion Prompt clinical recognition and accurate diagnostic workup including adequate laboratory assessment and (aetiology-oriented) imaging are critical steps in the management of cholangitis. Treatment is directed at the two major interrelated pathophysiologic components, i.e. bacterial infection (immediate antimicrobial therapy) and bile duct obstruction (biliary drainage). As for the latter, transpapillary endoscopic drainage by stent or nasobiliary drain and/or same-session bile duct clearance, depending on individual disease severity, represent first-line treatment approaches. PMID:26468310

  11. Acute traumatic patellar dislocation.

    PubMed

    Duthon, V B

    2015-02-01

    Inaugural traumatic patellar dislocation is most often due to trauma sustained during physical or sports activity. Two-thirds of acute patellar dislocations occur in young active patients (less than 20 years old). Non-contact knee sprain in flexion and valgus is the leading mechanism in patellar dislocation, accounting for as many as 93% of all cases. The strong displacement of the patella tears the medial stabilizing structures, and notably the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), which is almost always injured in acute patellar dislocation, most frequently at its femoral attachment. Lateral patellar glide can be assessed with the knee in extension or 20° flexion. Displacement by more than 50% of the patellar width is considered abnormal and may induce apprehension. Plain X-ray and CT are mandatory to diagnose bony risk factors for patellar dislocation, such as trochlear dysplasia or increased tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance (TT-TG), and plan correction. MRI gives information on cartilage and capsulo-ligamentous status for treatment planning: free bodies or osteochondral fracture have to be treated surgically. If patellar dislocation occurs in an anatomically normal knee and osteochondral fracture is ruled out on MRI, non-operative treatment is usually recommended.

  12. The correlation between calcaneal valgus angle and asymmetrical thoracic-lumbar rotation angles in patients with adolescent scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaeyong; Lee, Sang Gil; Bae, Jongjin; Lee, Jung Chul

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to provide a predictable evaluation method for the progression of scoliosis in adolescents based on quick and reliable measurements using the naked eye, such as the calcaneal valgus angle of the foot, which can be performed at public facilities such as schools. [Subjects and Methods] Idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb's angle of 10° or more (96 females, 22 males) were included in this study. To identify relationships between factors, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was computed. The degree of scoliosis was set as a dependent variable to predict thoracic and lumbar scoliosis using ankle angle and physique factors. Height, weight, and left and right calcaneal valgus angles were set as independent variables; thereafter, multiple regression analysis was performed. This study extracted variables at a significance level (α) of 0.05 by applying a stepwise method, and calculated a regression equation. [Results] Negative correlation (R=-0.266) was shown between lumbar lordosis and asymmetrical lumbar rotation angles. A correlation (R=0.281) was also demonstrated between left calcaneal valgus angles and asymmetrical thoracic rotation angles. [Conclusion] Prediction of scoliosis progress was revealed to be possible through ocular inspection of the calcaneus and Adams forward bending test and the use of a scoliometer.

  13. The correlation between calcaneal valgus angle and asymmetrical thoracic-lumbar rotation angles in patients with adolescent scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaeyong; Lee, Sang Gil; Bae, Jongjin; Lee, Jung Chul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to provide a predictable evaluation method for the progression of scoliosis in adolescents based on quick and reliable measurements using the naked eye, such as the calcaneal valgus angle of the foot, which can be performed at public facilities such as schools. [Subjects and Methods] Idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb’s angle of 10° or more (96 females, 22 males) were included in this study. To identify relationships between factors, Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient was computed. The degree of scoliosis was set as a dependent variable to predict thoracic and lumbar scoliosis using ankle angle and physique factors. Height, weight, and left and right calcaneal valgus angles were set as independent variables; thereafter, multiple regression analysis was performed. This study extracted variables at a significance level (α) of 0.05 by applying a stepwise method, and calculated a regression equation. [Results] Negative correlation (R=−0.266) was shown between lumbar lordosis and asymmetrical lumbar rotation angles. A correlation (R=0.281) was also demonstrated between left calcaneal valgus angles and asymmetrical thoracic rotation angles. [Conclusion] Prediction of scoliosis progress was revealed to be possible through ocular inspection of the calcaneus and Adams forward bending test and the use of a scoliometer. PMID:26834376

  14. The correlation between calcaneal valgus angle and asymmetrical thoracic-lumbar rotation angles in patients with adolescent scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaeyong; Lee, Sang Gil; Bae, Jongjin; Lee, Jung Chul

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to provide a predictable evaluation method for the progression of scoliosis in adolescents based on quick and reliable measurements using the naked eye, such as the calcaneal valgus angle of the foot, which can be performed at public facilities such as schools. [Subjects and Methods] Idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb's angle of 10° or more (96 females, 22 males) were included in this study. To identify relationships between factors, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was computed. The degree of scoliosis was set as a dependent variable to predict thoracic and lumbar scoliosis using ankle angle and physique factors. Height, weight, and left and right calcaneal valgus angles were set as independent variables; thereafter, multiple regression analysis was performed. This study extracted variables at a significance level (α) of 0.05 by applying a stepwise method, and calculated a regression equation. [Results] Negative correlation (R=-0.266) was shown between lumbar lordosis and asymmetrical lumbar rotation angles. A correlation (R=0.281) was also demonstrated between left calcaneal valgus angles and asymmetrical thoracic rotation angles. [Conclusion] Prediction of scoliosis progress was revealed to be possible through ocular inspection of the calcaneus and Adams forward bending test and the use of a scoliometer. PMID:26834376

  15. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... key statistics about acute lymphocytic leukemia? What is acute lymphocytic leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... leukemias). The rest of this document focuses on acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in adults. For information on ALL in ...

  16. SU-E-I-56: Scan Angle Reduction for a Limited-Angle Intrafraction Verification (LIVE) System

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, L; Zhang, Y; Yin, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel adaptive reconstruction strategy to further reduce the scanning angle required by the limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for intrafraction verification. Methods: LIVE acquires limited angle MV projections from the exit fluence of the arc treatment beam or during gantry rotation between static beams. Orthogonal limited-angle kV projections are also acquired simultaneously to provide additional information. LIVE considers the on-board 4D-CBCT images as a deformation of the prior 4D-CT images, and solves the deformation field based on deformation models and data fidelity constraint. LIVE reaches a checkpoint after a limited-angle scan, and reconstructs 4D-CBCT for intrafraction verification at the checkpoint. In adaptive reconstruction strategy, a larger scanning angle of 30° is used for the first checkpoint, and smaller scanning angles of 15° are used for subsequent checkpoints. The onboard images reconstructed at the previous adjacent checkpoint are used as the prior images for reconstruction at the current checkpoint. As the algorithm only needs to reconstruct the small deformation occurred between adjacent checkpoints, projections from a smaller scan angle provide enough information for the reconstruction. XCAT was used to simulate tumor motion baseline drift of 2mm along sup-inf direction at every subsequent checkpoint, which are 15° apart. Adaptive reconstruction strategy was used to reconstruct the images at each checkpoint using orthogonal 15° kV and MV projections. Results: Results showed that LIVE reconstructed the tumor volumes accurately using orthogonal 15° kV-MV projections. Volume percentage differences (VPDs) were within 5% and center of mass shifts (COMS) were within 1mm for reconstruction at all checkpoints. Conclusion: It's feasible to use an adaptive reconstruction strategy to further reduce the scan angle needed by LIVE to allow faster and more frequent intrafraction verification to minimize the

  17. Combined effects of the in-plane orientation angle and the loading angle on the dynamic enhancement of honeycombs under mixed shear-compression loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tounsi, R.; Markiewicz, E.; Haugou, G.; Chaari, F.; Zouari, B.

    2016-05-01

    The combined effect of the loading angle (ψ) and the in-plane orientation angle (β) on the dynamic enhancement of aluminium alloy honeycombs is investigated. Experimental results are analysed on the crushing surfaces (initial peak and average crushing forces). A significant effect of the loading angle is reported. The dynamic enhancement rate depends on the loading angle until a critical loading angle (ψcritical). Beyond, a negative dynamic enhancement rate is observed. Concerning the in-plane orientation angle β effect, it depends on the loading angle ψ under quasi-static conditions. Under dynamic conditions, a significant effect is reported independently of the loading angle ψ. Therefore, the dynamic enhancement rate depends on the combined effects of ψ and β angles. A global analysis of the buckling mechanisms allowed us to explain the combined effect of ψ and β angles on the initial peak force. The collapse mechanisms analysis explain the negative dynamic enhancement rate for large loading angles.

  18. Adaptive control of a vibratory angle measuring gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungsu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive control algorithm for realizing a vibratory angle measuring gyroscope so that rotation angle can be directly measured without integration of angular rate, thus eliminating the accumulation of numerical integration errors. The proposed control algorithm uses a trajectory following approach and the reference trajectory is generated by an ideal angle measuring gyroscope driven by the estimate of angular rate and the auxiliary sinusoidal input so that the persistent excitation condition is satisfied. The developed control algorithm can compensate for all types of fabrication imperfections such as coupled damping and stiffness, and mismatched stiffness and un-equal damping term in an on-line fashion. The simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed control algorithm that is capable of directly measuring rotation angle without the integration of angular rate.

  19. Role of Pitch Angle Anisotropy in Ring Current Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Y.; Sazykin, S.; Fok, M. H.; Buzulukova, N.; Wolf, R.

    2009-12-01

    We quantitatively investigate the degree to which the basic characteristics of the injection of a storm-time ring current depend on the pitch-angle distribution. The investigation centers on a comparison of two simulations of the August 12, 2000 storm: one based on the Rice Convection Model (RCM), which assumes an isotropic pitch angle distribution, and the other on the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM), which calculates the pitch angle distribution in detail. Results from the two runs are compared with regard to the main-phase increase in the energy in ring current particles, the strength and distribution of the region-2 currents, and the strength and pattern of the prompt-penetration electric field. We also compare the recovery phase characteristics predicted by the CRCM, which carefully calculates the changes in pitch-angle distribution as charge exchange proceeds, and the RCM, which uses a much simpler way of estimating charge-exchange loss.

  20. First statistics of the isopistonic angle for long baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziad, A.; Elhalkouj, T.; Petrov, R. G.; Borgnino, J.; Lazrek, M.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Martin, F.; Elazhari, Y.

    2016-06-01

    To reach a suitable limiting magnitude with a multi-aperture interferometer, we need to cophase the different telescopes using a reference source. The latter should be located in the same isopistonic domain as the science source. We developed a direct analytical expression of deducing the isopistonic angle from atmospheric optical parameters as seeing, isoplanatic angle and outer scale. All of these atmospheric turbulence parameters are measured by the Generalized Seeing Monitor (GSM). The first statistics of the isopistonic angle obtained from the GSM data are presented and comparison between the major sites over the world are discussed (La Silla, Cerro Pachon, Paranal, San Pedro, Mt Palomar, Mauna Kea, La Palma, Oukaïmeden, Maydanak, Dome C). Implications of these isopistonic angle statistics on large interferometers cophasing in terms of sky coverage and limiting magnitude are discussed.

  1. Dataglove measurement of joint angles in sign language handshapes

    PubMed Central

    Eccarius, Petra; Bour, Rebecca; Scheidt, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    In sign language research, we understand little about articulatory factors involved in shaping phonemic boundaries or the amount (and articulatory nature) of acceptable phonetic variation between handshapes. To date, there exists no comprehensive analysis of handshape based on the quantitative measurement of joint angles during sign production. The purpose of our work is to develop a methodology for collecting and visualizing quantitative handshape data in an attempt to better understand how handshapes are produced at a phonetic level. In this pursuit, we seek to quantify the flexion and abduction angles of the finger joints using a commercial data glove (CyberGlove; Immersion Inc.). We present calibration procedures used to convert raw glove signals into joint angles. We then implement those procedures and evaluate their ability to accurately predict joint angle. Finally, we provide examples of how our recording techniques might inform current research questions. PMID:23997644

  2. 54. Angled view looking up at Brooklyn Tower showing juncture ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Angled view looking up at Brooklyn Tower showing juncture of deck superstructure with the tower and diagonal cables. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  3. 62. Ground level, angled view looking SE at Brooklyn anchorage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Ground level, angled view looking SE at Brooklyn anchorage and side span superstructure. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  4. SMALL ANGLE CRAB COMPENSATION FOR LHC IR UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    CALAGA,R.; DORDA, U.; OHMI, D.; OIDE, K.; TOMAS, R.; ZIMMERMANN, F.

    2007-06-25

    A small angle (< 1 mrad) crab scheme is an attractive option for the LHC luminosity upgrade to recover the geometric luminosity loss from the finite crossing angle [I]. The luminosity loss increases steeply to unacceptable levels as the IP beta function is reduced below its nominal value (see Fig. 1 in Ref. [2]). The crab compensation in the LHC can be accomplished using only two sets of deflecting RF cavities, placed in collision-free straight sections of the LHC to nullify the effective crossing angles at IPI & IP5. We also explore a 400 MHz superconducting cavity design and discuss the pertinent RF challenges. We present IR optics configurations with low-angle crab crossing, study the beam-beam performance and proton-beam emittance growth in the presence of crab compensation, lattice errors, and crab RF noise sources.

  5. 38. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT 45 DEGREE ANGLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT 45 DEGREE ANGLE SHOWING TOP VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  6. 6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Fleet Accounting & Dispersing Center, 178 Main Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Uncertainty Relation between Angular Momentum and Angle Variable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, C. L.; Sannigrahi, A. B.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses certain pitfalls regarding the uncertainty relation between angular momentum and the angle variable from a pedagogic point of view. Further, an uncertainty relation has been derived for these variables in a simple and consistant manner. (Author/HM)

  8. Wigner Distribution for Angle Coordinates in Quantum Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukunda, N.

    1979-01-01

    Shows how to extend Wigner distribution functions, and Weyl correspondence between quantum and classical variables, from the usual kind of canonically conjugate position and momentum operators to the case of an angle and angular momentum operator pair. (Author/GA)

  9. Supersonic flow around circular cones at angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, Antonio

    1951-01-01

    The properties of conical flow without axial symmetry are analyzed. The flow around cones of circular cross section at small angles of attack is determined by correctly considering the effect of the entropy gradients in the flow.

  10. On Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friot, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Using the Mellin-Barnes representation, we show that Ruby's solid angle formula and some of its generalizations may be expressed in a compact way in terms of the Appell F4 and Lauricella FC functions.

  11. (wide angle) view of the west elevation of the ballroom, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    (wide angle) view of the west elevation of the ballroom, including Swiss Chalet (left) and Pagoda (right), with scale - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  12. Wing-alone aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, R. L., Jr.; Lamb, M.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine wing-alone supersonic aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack. The family of wings tested varied in aspect ratio from 0.5 to 4.0 and taper ratio from 0.0 to 1.0. The wings were tested at angles of attack ranging from 0 to 60 deg and Mach numbers from 1.6 to 4.6. The aerodynamic characteristics were obtained by integrating local pressures measured over the wing surface. Comparison of these data with the limited available data from the literature indicate the present data are free of sting interference effects through the test range of angle of attack. Presented and discussed are results showing the effects of model geometry, Mach number and angle of attack on aerodynamic characteristics consisting of normal force, pitching moment, bending moment, longitudinal center-of-pressure locations, and lateral center-of-pressure locations.

  13. 14. DETAIL OF GUSSET WITH CURVE ANGLE IRON AND TWISTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF GUSSET WITH CURVE ANGLE IRON AND TWISTED STRIPS, FORMING SUN RAY PATTERN. LATTICE RAILING AT LOWER RIGHT. - River Road Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek in Spring Creek Township, Hallton, Elk County, PA

  14. 6. DETAIL OF GUSSET WITH CURVE ANGLE IRON AND TWISTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF GUSSET WITH CURVE ANGLE IRON AND TWISTED STRIPS, FORMING SUN RAY PATTERN. LATTICE RAILING AT LOWER RIGHT. - River Road Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek in Spring Creek Township, Hallton, Elk County, PA

  15. Report on APMP key comparison: calibration of angle standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, C.-S.; Kruger, O. A.; Cox, P.; Xue, Z.; Liou, P.; Wong, S. Y.; Chaudhary, K. P.; Alfiyati, N.; Watanabe, T.; Eom, T.; Halim, R. M.; Tan, S. L.; Tonmueanwai, A.; Dibo, M.

    2016-01-01

    A regional key comparison, APMP.L-K3 (calibration of angle standards) was held in 2005. Thirteen National Metrology Institutes (NMISA, NMIA, KRISS, NMIJ/ AIST, NMC/ A*STAR, NIMT, SCL, CMS/ ITRI, NPLI, RCM- LIPI, NIM, and NSCL) have participated in this comparison and the measurements were carried out during the period from April 2005 to December 2007. This report describes the measurement results of a 12-sided optical polygon with nominal angles of 30°, and four angle blocks with nominal angles of 5 arc seconds, 5 minutes, 30 minutes and 5 degrees, respectively. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. 3. WIDE ANGLE OF NEUTRAL BUOYANCY SIMULATOR (NBS) FROM WITHIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WIDE ANGLE OF NEUTRAL BUOYANCY SIMULATOR (NBS) FROM WITHIN NBS HIGHBAY DOORS. DIVE BELL IN FOREGROUND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. ILC Extraction Line for 14 mrad Crossing Angle

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Y.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; Seryi, A.; Parker, B.; /Brookhaven

    2005-12-08

    The earlier studies of the ILC extraction line for 20 mrad and 2 mrad crossing angle options [1]-[5] showed that the 20 mrad design has an advantage of a simpler beamline and lower extraction beam loss because of the independent incoming and extraction optics. However, the large 20 mrad crossing angle requires the use of a crab cavity correction, increases synchrotron radiation emittance growth in the solenoid, and increases photon backscattering from the forward calorimeter of the detector. To reduce these effects, an attempt has been made to minimize the crossing angle while keeping the extraction and incoming lines separate. A new quadrupole scheme near the interaction point has been proposed which allows a reduction of the crossing angle to 14 mrad [6]. The optics design and results of tracking and background simulations for the 14 mrad extraction line are presented.

  18. Folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunsong; Zhu, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The angled-grating broad-area laser is a promising candidate for high power, high brightness diode laser source. The key point in the design is the angled gratings which can simultaneously support the unique snake-like zigzag lasing mode and eliminate the direct Fabry-Perot (FP) feedback. Unlike a conventional laser waveguide mode, the phase front of the zigzag mode periodically changes along the propagation direction. By use of the mirror symmetry of the zigzag mode, we propose and demonstrate the folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers. One benefit of this design is to reduce the required wafer space compared to a regular angled-grating broad-area laser, especially in a long cavity laser for high power operation. Experimental results show that the folded cavity laser exhibits good beam quality in far field with a slightly larger threshold and smaller slope efficiency due to the additional interface loss.

  19. Stress the Local Angle...Keep the Yearbook Currently Eventful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stano, Randy

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that while current events should be recorded in school yearbooks, the local angle should be stressed. Provides illustrations of how this might be done with such topics as gasoline prices, inflation, foreign events, and political campaigns. (TJ)

  20. 22. OBLIQUE WIDE ANGLE VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF COOPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. OBLIQUE WIDE ANGLE VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF COOPER RIVER SPAN FROM RANGE MARKER NEAR DRUM ISLAND, FACING SOUTHEAST - Grace Memorial Bridge, U.S. Highway 17 spanning Cooper River & Town Creek , Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  1. Asronomical refraction: Computational methods for all zenith angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, L. H.; Standish, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the problem of computing astronomical refraction for any value of the zenith angle may be reduced to a simple, nonsingular, numerical quadrature when the proper choice is made for the independent variable of integration.

  2. Perspective view of south portal. Note how portal angles about ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of south portal. Note how portal angles about 5' forward over the approach. - Red Oak Creek Bridge, Spanning (Big) Red Oak Creek, Huel Brown Road (Covered Bridge Road), Woodbury, Meriwether County, GA

  3. Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2016-03-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at

  4. 18. DRAWING NO. 26 TITLED 'ANGLE LATTICE STRUTS AND KNEE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DRAWING NO. 26 TITLED 'ANGLE LATTICE STRUTS AND KNEE BRACES,' DATED APRIL 2, 1903 - Mahoning Avenue Pratt Double-Deck Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek at Mahoning Avenue (C.R. 319), Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  5. Acute diabetic abdomen in childhood.

    PubMed

    Valerio, D

    1976-01-10

    Three children presented as acute surgical emergencies due to undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Where diabetic ketoacidosis mimicks the acute abdomen three clinical features are important in reaching the right diagnosis-namely, a history of polydipsia, polyuria, and anorexia preceding the abdominal pain, the deep sighing and rapid respirations, and severe dehydration.

  6. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    PubMed

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  7. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    PubMed

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. PMID:26508422

  8. Design of an all-attitude flight control system to execute commanded bank angles and angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Eggleston, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    A flight control system for use in air-to-air combat simulation was designed. The input to the flight control system are commanded bank angle and angle of attack, the output are commands to the control surface actuators such that the commanded values will be achieved in near minimum time and sideslip is controlled to remain small. For the longitudinal direction, a conventional linear control system with gains scheduled as a function of dynamic pressure is employed. For the lateral direction, a novel control system, consisting of a linear portion for small bank angle errors and a bang-bang control system for large errors and error rates is employed.

  9. Pitch angle scattering of energetic particles by oblique whistler waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    First order cyclotron or Landau resonant pitch angle scattering of electrons by oblique whistler waves propagating at large angles to the ambient field are found to be at least as large as that due to parallel propagating waves. Commonly observed precipitation of more than 40 keV electrons in association with ducted whistlers may thus be accompanied by substantial fluxes of lower energy (10 eV-40 keV) electrons precipitated by the nonducted components.

  10. Photovoltaic Modules: Effect of Tilt Angle on Soiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Jose

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the next generation's renewable energy sources for our world energy demand. PV modules are highly reliable. However, in polluted environments, over time, they will collect grime and dust. There are also limited field data studies about soiling losses on PV modules. The study showed how important it is to investigate the effect of tilt angle on soiling. The study includes two sets of mini-modules. Each set has 9 PV modules tilted at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 23, 30, 33 and 40°. The first set called "Cleaned" was cleaned every other day. The second set called "Soiled" was never cleaned after the first day. The short circuit current, a measure of irradiance, and module temperature was monitored and recorded every two minutes over three months (January-March 2011). The data were analyzed to investigate the effect of tilt angle on daily and monthly soiling, and hence transmitted solar insolation and energy production by PV modules. The study shows that during the period of January through March 2011 there was an average loss due to soiling of approximately 2.02% for 0° tilt angle. Modules at tilt angles 23° and 33° also have some insolation losses but do not come close to the module at 0° tilt angle. Tilt angle 23° has approximately 1.05% monthly insolation loss, and 33° tilt angle has an insolation loss of approximately 0.96%. The soiling effect is present at any tilt angle, but the magnitude is evident: the flatter the solar module is placed the more energy it will lose.

  11. Measurement of the angle of superficial tension by images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanez M., Javier; Alonso R., Sergio

    2006-02-01

    When a liquid is deposited on a surface, this one form a certain angle with respect to the surface, where depending on its value, it will conclude that so hard it is his adhesion with the surface. By means of the analysis of images we looked for to measure this angle of superficial tension. In order to make this measurement, we propose a technique by means of projective transformations and one method of regression to estimation parameters to conic fitting.

  12. A system concept for wide swath constant incident angle coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claassen, J. P.; Eckerman, J.

    1978-01-01

    Multiple beam approach readily overcomes radar ambiguity constraints associated with orbital systems and therefore permits imagery over swaths much wider than 100 kilometers. Furthermore, the antenna technique permits imagery at nearly constant incident angles. When frequency scanning is employed, the center angle may be programmed. The redundant use of the antenna aperture during reception results in lower transmitted power and in shorter antenna lengths in comparison to conventional designs. Compatibility of the approach with passive imagery is also considered.

  13. Light Airplane Crash Test at Three Pitch Angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Victor L., Jr.; Alfaro-Bou, Emilio

    1979-01-01

    Three similar twin-engine general-aviation airplane specimens were crash tested at the Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility at 27 m/sec, a flight-path angle of -15deg, and pithch angles of -15deg, 0deg, and 15deg. Other crash parameters were held constant. The test facility, instrumentation, test specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data for each of the three impact conditions are presented and discussed.

  14. Comparison of different passive knee extension torque-angle assessments.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sandro R; Vaz, João R; Bruno, Paula M; Valamatos, Maria J; Mil-Homens, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have used isokinetic dynamometry to assess joint torques and angles during passive extension of the knee, often without reporting upon methodological errors and reliability outcomes. In addition, the reliability of the techniques used to measure passive knee extension torque-angle and the extent to which reliability may be affected by the position of the subjects is also unclear. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the intra- and inter-session reliability of two methods of assessing passive knee extension: (A) a 2D kinematic analysis coupled to a custom-made device that enabled the direct measurement of resistance to stretch and (B) an isokinetic dynamometer used in two testing positions (with the non-tested thigh either flexed at 45° or in the neutral position). The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of torque, the slope of the torque-angle curve, and the parameters of the mathematical model that were fit to the torque-angle data for the above conditions were measured in sixteen healthy male subjects (age: 21.4 ± 2.1 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.3 kg m(-2); tibial length: 37.4 ± 3.4 cm). The results found were: (1) methods A and B led to distinctly different torque-angle responses; (2) passive torque-angle relationship and stretch tolerance were influenced by the position of the non-tested thigh; and (3) ICCs obtained for torque were higher than for the slope and for the mathematical parameters that were fit to the torque-angle curve. In conclusion, the measurement method that is used and the positioning of subjects can influence the passive knee extension torque-angle outcome.

  15. 2DFFT: Measuring Galactic Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel C.; Shields, Douglas W.; Kennefick, Julia; Kennefick, Daniel; Seigar, Marc S.; Lacy, Claud H. S.; Puerari, Ivânio

    2016-08-01

    2DFFT utilizes two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations of images of spiral galaxies to isolate and measure the pitch angles of their spiral arms; this provides a quantitative way to measure this morphological feature and allows comparison of spiral galaxy pitch angle to other galactic parameters and test spiral arm genesis theories. 2DFFT requires fourn.c from Numerical Recipes in C (Press et al. 1989).

  16. Acute pain medicine in anesthesiology

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Anastacia P.; Tighe, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The American Academy of Pain Medicine and the American Society for Regional Anesthesia have recently focused on the evolving practice of acute pain medicine. There is increasing recognition that the scope and practice of acute pain therapies must extend beyond the subacute pain phase to include pre-pain and pre-intervention risk stratification, resident and fellow education in regional anesthesia and multimodal analgesia, as well as a deeper understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that are integral to the variability observed among individual responses to nociception. Acute pain medicine is also being established as a vital component of successful systems-level acute pain management programs, inpatient cost containment, and patient satisfaction scores. In this review, we discuss the evolution and practice of acute pain medicine and we aim to facilitate further discussion on the evolution and advancement of this field as a subspecialty of anesthesiology. PMID:24381730

  17. Predicting bed form roughness: the influence of lee side angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Alice; Winter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Flow transverse bedforms (ripples and dunes) are ubiquitous in rivers and coastal seas. Local hydrodynamics and transport conditions depend on the size and geometry of these bedforms, as they constitute roughness elements at the bed. Bedform influence on flow energy must be considered for the understanding of flow dynamics, and in the development and application of numerical models. Common estimations or predictors of form roughness (friction factors) are based mostly on data of steep bedforms (with angle-of-repose lee slopes), and described by highly simplified bedform dimensions (heights and lengths). However, natural bedforms often are not steep, and differ in form and hydraulic effect relative to idealised bedforms. Based on systematic numerical model experiments, this study shows how the hydraulic effect of bedforms depends on the flow structure behind bedforms, which is determined by the bedform lee side angle, aspect ratio and relative height. Simulations reveal that flow separation behind bedform crests and, thus, a hydraulic effect is induced at lee side angles steeper than 11 to 18° depending on relative height, and that a fully developed flow separation zone exists only over bedforms with a lee side angle steeper than 24°. Furthermore, the hydraulic effect of bedforms with varying lee side angle is evaluated and a reduction function to common friction factors is proposed. A function is also developed for the Nikuradse roughness (k s), and a new equation is proposed which directly relates k s to bedform relative height, aspect ratio and lee side angle.

  18. A Universal Formula for Extracting the Euler Angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the authors completed a study of the Davenport angles, which are a generalization of the Euler angles for which the initial and final Euler axes need not be either mutually parallel or mutually perpendicular or even along the coordinate axes. During the conduct of that study, those authors discovered a relationship which can be used to compute straightforwardly the Euler angles characterizing a proper-orthogonal direction-cosine matrix for an arbitrary Euler-axis set satisfying n(sub 1) x n(sub 2) = 0 and n(sub 3) x n(sub 1) = 0, which is also satisfied by the more usual Euler angles we encounter commonly in the practice of Astronautics. Rather than leave that relationship hidden in an article with very different focus from the present Engineering note, we present it and the universal algorithm derived from it for extracting the Euler angles from the direction-cosine matrix here. We also offer literal "code" for performing the operations, numerical examples, and general considerations about the extraction of Euler angles which are not universally known, particularly, the treatment of statistical error.

  19. Angle of Attack Modulation for Mars Entry Terminal State Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.; Cerimele, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of atmospheric entry, descent, and landing (EDL), one of the most foreboding destinations in the solar system is Mars due in part to its exceedingly thin atmosphere. To benchmark best possible scenarios for evaluation of potential Mars EDL system designs, a study is conducted to optimize the entry-to-terminal-state portion of EDL for a variety of entry velocities and vehicle masses, focusing on the identification of potential benefits of enabling angle of attack modulation. The terminal state is envisioned as one appropriate for the initiation of terminal descent via parachute or other means. A particle swarm optimizer varies entry flight path angle, ten bank profile points, and ten angle of attack profile points to find maximum-final-altitude trajectories for a 10 30 m ellipsled at 180 different combinations of values for entry mass, entry velocity, terminal Mach number, and minimum allowable altitude. Parametric plots of maximum achievable altitude are shown, as are examples of optimized trajectories. It is shown that appreciable terminal state altitude gains (2.5-4.0 km) over pure bank angle control may be possible if angle of attack modulation is enabled for Mars entry vehicles. Gains of this magnitude could prove to be enabling for missions requiring high-altitude landing sites. Conclusions are also drawn regarding trends in the bank and angle of attack profiles that produce the optimal trajectories in this study, and directions for future work are identified.

  20. Influence of Different Diffuser Angle on Sedan's Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xingjun; Zhang, Rui; Ye, Jian; Yan, Xu; Zhao, Zhiming

    The aerodynamic characteristics have a great influence on the fuel economics and the steering stability of a high speed vehicle. The underbody rear diffuser is one of important aerodynamic add-on devices. The parameters of the diffuser, including the diffuser angle, the number and the shape of separators, the shape of the end plate and etc, will affect the underbody flow and the wake. Here, just the influence of the diffuser angle was investigated without separator and the end plate. The method of Computational Fluid Dynamics was adopted to study the aerodynamic characteristics of a simplified sedan with a different diffuser angle respectively. The diffuser angle was set to 0°, 3°, 6°, 9.8° and 12° respectively. The diffuser angle of the original model is 9.8°. The conclusions were drawn that when the diffuser angle increases, the underbody flow and especially the wake change greatly and the pressure change correspondingly; as a result, the total aerodynamic drag coefficients of car first decrease and then increases, while the total aerodynamic lift coefficients decrease.