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Sample records for acute osmotic stress

  1. Phospholipase D (PLD) is present in Leishmania donovani and its activity increases in response to acute osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Blum, J J; Lehman, J A; Horn, J M; Gomez-Cambronero, J

    2001-01-01

    We report here that the signaling molecule phospholipase D (PLD) is present in the parasitic protozoan Leishmania donovani. In vitro enzymatic activity is dependent on Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions, its basal activity is stimulated by phosphatidyl-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and its pH optima are pH 8.0 and pH 6.0. PLD activity increases 3-fold about 5 min after an abrupt decrease in osmolality from 317 mOsm (isosmotic) to 155 mOsm and increases 1.5-fold in response to an abrupt increase in osmolality to 617 mOsM. Cells grown for > 24 h under the anisosmotic conditions showed only marginal changes in activity compared to the controls grown under isosmotic conditions, indicating an adaptation to long-term exposure to hypo- or hyper-osmolarity. Immunologically, two isoforms, PLD1 and PLD2, are present. An analysis of in vitro PLD activity in anti-PLD immunocomplexes revealed that either hypotonic (cell swelling) or hypertonic stress (cell shrinking) causes an increase in PLD1 activation but a reduction in PLD2 activity. The interplay between these two isoforms results in a predominance for PLD1 in the observed increase when measuring total PLD activity. Finally, the increase in enzymatic activity in acute hyposmotic shock is accompanied by tyrosyl phosphorylation of the PLD1 isoform, suggesting a role for protein tyrosine kinase in the control of PLD activity in response to osmotic stress.

  2. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment.

  3. Silk Fibroin under Osmotic Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Sungkyun; Strey, Helmut H.; Gido, Samuel P.

    2003-03-01

    The osmotic stress method was applied to study the thermodynamics of supramolecular self-assembly phenomena in crystallizable segments of Bombyx mori silkworm silk fibroin. Controlling compositions and phases of silk fibroin solution, the method provided a means for the direct investigation of microscopic and thermodynamic details of these intermolecular interactions in aqueous media. It is apparent that as osmotic pressure increases, silk fibroin molecules get pressurized to align together to form a water-soluble crystalline mesophase (Silk-I), and then gradually become anti-parallel b-sheet structure (Silk-II) at higher osmotic pressure. This behavior becomes more sensitive as the salt concentration decreases. A partial ternary phase diagram of Water-Silk fibroin-LiBr was constructed based on the results. This phase diagram can be utilized to help design a new route for wet spinning of re-generated silk fibroin. Precise control of compositions and corresponding crystalline structure of a silk fibroin solution may enable us to simulate the natural Bombyx mori silkworm spinning process.

  4. HISTONE DEACETYLASE ACTIVITY AND REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES CONTENT IN THE TISSUE CULTURE OF Arabidopsis thaliana UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ACUTE OSMOTIC STRESS.

    PubMed

    Jadko, S I

    2015-01-01

    The possible involvement of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in regulation of ROS content in the tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana under normal conditions and under development of acute osmotic stress was studied by using inhibition assay with application of trichostatin A (TSA). It was found that in the tissue culture grown under normal conditions a decrease in HDAC activity by means of TSA led to increase of the ROS content. Similar but more pronounced alterations occurred under stress. At the same time an increase in histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity was also observed. The possible mechanisms of HDAC and HAT participation in regulation of ROS content by changes in expression of genes that are responsible for ROS production and antioxidant activity are discussed.

  5. Casein Micelle Dispersions under Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Cayemitte, Pierre-Emerson; Jardin, Julien; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Cabane, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Casein micelles dispersions have been concentrated and equilibrated at different osmotic pressures using equilibrium dialysis. This technique measured an equation of state of the dispersions over a wide range of pressures and concentrations and at different ionic strengths. Three regimes were found. i), A dilute regime in which the osmotic pressure is proportional to the casein concentration. In this regime, the casein micelles are well separated and rarely interact, whereas the osmotic pressure is dominated by the contribution from small residual peptides that are dissolved in the aqueous phase. ii), A transition range that starts when the casein micelles begin to interact through their κ-casein brushes and ends when the micelles are forced to get into contact with each other. At the end of this regime, the dispersions behave as coherent solids that do not fully redisperse when osmotic stress is released. iii), A concentrated regime in which compression removes water from within the micelles, and increases the fraction of micelles that are irreversibly linked to each other. In this regime the osmotic pressure profile is a power law of the residual free volume. It is well described by a simple model that considers the micelle to be made of dense regions separated by a continuous phase. The amount of water in the dense regions matches the usual hydration of proteins. PMID:19167314

  6. Osmotic and Heat Stress Effects on Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Julian

    2016-01-01

    During vertebrate embryonic development, early skin, muscle, and bone progenitor populations organize into segments known as somites. Defects in this conserved process of segmentation lead to skeletal and muscular deformities, such as congenital scoliosis, a curvature of the spine caused by vertebral defects. Environmental stresses such as hypoxia or heat shock produce segmentation defects, and significantly increase the penetrance and severity of vertebral defects in genetically susceptible individuals. Here we show that a brief exposure to a high osmolarity solution causes reproducible segmentation defects in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Both osmotic shock and heat shock produce border defects in a dose-dependent manner, with an increase in both frequency and severity of defects. We also show that osmotic treatment has a delayed effect on somite development, similar to that observed in heat shocked embryos. Our results establish osmotic shock as an alternate experimental model for stress, affecting segmentation in a manner comparable to other known environmental stressors. The similar effects of these two distinct environmental stressors support a model in which a variety of cellular stresses act through a related response pathway that leads to disturbances in the segmentation process. PMID:28006008

  7. Novel regulation of aquaporins during osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Bohnert, Hans J; Pantoja, Omar

    2004-08-01

    Aquaporin protein regulation and redistribution in response to osmotic stress was investigated. Ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) McTIP1;2 (McMIPF) mediated water flux when expressed in Xenopus leavis oocytes. Mannitol-induced water imbalance resulted in increased protein amounts in tonoplast fractions and a shift in protein distribution to other membrane fractions, suggesting aquaporin relocalization. Indirect immunofluorescence labeling also supports a change in membrane distribution for McTIP1;2 and the appearance of a unique compartment where McTIP1;2 is expressed. Mannitol-induced redistribution of McTIP1;2 was arrested by pretreatment with brefeldin A, wortmannin, and cytochalasin D, inhibitors of vesicle trafficking-related processes. Evidence suggests a role for glycosylation and involvement of a cAMP-dependent signaling pathway in McTIP1;2 redistribution. McTIP1;2 redistribution to endosomal compartments may be part of a homeostatic process to restore and maintain cellular osmolarity under osmotic-stress conditions.

  8. The plant cuticle is required for osmotic stress regulation of abscisic acid biosynthesis and osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Xiong, Liming; Li, Wenbo; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhu, Jianhua

    2011-05-01

    Osmotic stress activates the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA). One major step in ABA biosynthesis is the carotenoid cleavage catalyzed by a 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). To understand the mechanism for osmotic stress activation of ABA biosynthesis, we screened for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that failed to induce the NCED3 gene expression in response to osmotic stress treatments. The ced1 (for 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase defective 1) mutant isolated in this study showed markedly reduced expression of NCED3 in response to osmotic stress (polyethylene glycol) treatments compared with the wild type. Other ABA biosynthesis genes are also greatly reduced in ced1 under osmotic stress. ced1 mutant plants are very sensitive to even mild osmotic stress. Map-based cloning revealed unexpectedly that CED1 encodes a putative α/β hydrolase domain-containing protein and is allelic to the BODYGUARD gene that was recently shown to be essential for cuticle biogenesis. Further studies discovered that other cutin biosynthesis mutants are also impaired in osmotic stress induction of ABA biosynthesis genes and are sensitive to osmotic stress. Our work demonstrates that the cuticle functions not merely as a physical barrier to minimize water loss but also mediates osmotic stress signaling and tolerance by regulating ABA biosynthesis and signaling.

  9. Osmotic stress alters chromatin condensation and nucleocytoplasmic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Finan, John D.; Leddy, Holly A.; Guilak, Farshid

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport increases under hyper-osmotic stress. {yields} The mechanism is a change in nuclear geometry, not a change in permeability of the nuclear envelope. {yields} Intracytoplasmic but not intranuclear diffusion is sensitive to osmotic stress. {yields} Pores in the chromatin of the nucleus enlarge under hyper-osmotic stress. -- Abstract: Osmotic stress is a potent regulator of biological function in many cell types, but its mechanism of action is only partially understood. In this study, we examined whether changes in extracellular osmolality can alter chromatin condensation and the rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport, as potential mechanisms by which osmotic stress can act. Transport of 10 kDa dextran was measured both within and between the nucleus and the cytoplasm using two different photobleaching methods. A mathematical model was developed to describe fluorescence recovery via nucleocytoplasmic transport. As osmolality increased, the diffusion coefficient of dextran decreased in the cytoplasm, but not the nucleus. Hyper-osmotic stress decreased nuclear size and increased nuclear lacunarity, indicating that while the nucleus was getting smaller, the pores and channels interdigitating the chromatin had expanded. The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport was increased under hyper-osmotic stress but was insensitive to hypo-osmotic stress, consistent with the nonlinear osmotic properties of the nucleus. The mechanism of this osmotic sensitivity appears to be a change in the size and geometry of the nucleus, resulting in a shorter effective diffusion distance for the nucleus. These results may explain physical mechanisms by which osmotic stress can influence intracellular signaling pathways that rely on nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  10. Folding propensity of intrinsically disordered proteins by osmotic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mansouri, Amanda L.; Grese, Laura N.; Rowe, Erica L.; Pino, James C.; Chennubhotla, S. Chakra; Ramanathan, Arvind; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Berthelier, Valerie; Stanley, Christopher B.

    2016-10-11

    Proteins imparted with intrinsic disorder conduct a range of essential cellular functions. To better understand the folding and hydration properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used osmotic stress to induce conformational changes in nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) and activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptor (ACTR). Osmotic stress was applied by the addition of small and polymeric osmolytes, where we discovered that water contributions to NCBD folding always exceeded those for ACTR. Both NCBD and ACTR were found to gain a-helical structure with increasing osmotic stress, consistent with their folding upon NCBD/ACTR complex formation. Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we further characterized NCBD structural changes with the osmolyte ethylene glycol. Here a large reduction in overall size initially occurred before substantial secondary structural change. In conclusion, by focusing on folding propensity, and linked hydration changes, we uncover new insights that may be important for how IDP folding contributes to binding.

  11. New Genes Involved in Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ramon; Morales, Pilar; Tronchoni, Jordi; Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Vaudano, Enrico; Quirós, Manuel; Novo, Maite; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Valero, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to changes in osmolarity is fundamental for the survival of living cells, and has implications in food and industrial biotechnology. It has been extensively studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the Hog1 stress activated protein kinase was discovered about 20 years ago. Hog1 is the core of the intracellular signaling pathway that governs the adaptive response to osmotic stress in this species. The main endpoint of this program is synthesis and intracellular retention of glycerol, as a compatible osmolyte. Despite many details of the signaling pathways and yeast responses to osmotic challenges have already been described, genome-wide approaches are contributing to refine our knowledge of yeast adaptation to hypertonic media. In this work, we used a quantitative fitness analysis approach in order to deepen our understanding of the interplay between yeast cells and the osmotic environment. Genetic requirements for proper growth under osmotic stress showed both common and specific features when hypertonic conditions were induced by either glucose or sorbitol. Tolerance to high-glucose content requires mitochondrial function, while defective protein targeting to peroxisome, GID-complex function (involved in negative regulation of gluconeogenesis), or chromatin dynamics, result in poor survival to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. On the other side, the competitive disadvantage of yeast strains defective in the endomembrane system is relieved by hypertonic conditions. This finding points to the Golgi-endosome system as one of the main cell components negatively affected by hyperosmolarity. Most of the biological processes highlighted in this analysis had not been previously related to osmotic stress but are probably relevant in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  12. New Genes Involved in Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ramon; Morales, Pilar; Tronchoni, Jordi; Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Vaudano, Enrico; Quirós, Manuel; Novo, Maite; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Valero, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to changes in osmolarity is fundamental for the survival of living cells, and has implications in food and industrial biotechnology. It has been extensively studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the Hog1 stress activated protein kinase was discovered about 20 years ago. Hog1 is the core of the intracellular signaling pathway that governs the adaptive response to osmotic stress in this species. The main endpoint of this program is synthesis and intracellular retention of glycerol, as a compatible osmolyte. Despite many details of the signaling pathways and yeast responses to osmotic challenges have already been described, genome-wide approaches are contributing to refine our knowledge of yeast adaptation to hypertonic media. In this work, we used a quantitative fitness analysis approach in order to deepen our understanding of the interplay between yeast cells and the osmotic environment. Genetic requirements for proper growth under osmotic stress showed both common and specific features when hypertonic conditions were induced by either glucose or sorbitol. Tolerance to high-glucose content requires mitochondrial function, while defective protein targeting to peroxisome, GID-complex function (involved in negative regulation of gluconeogenesis), or chromatin dynamics, result in poor survival to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. On the other side, the competitive disadvantage of yeast strains defective in the endomembrane system is relieved by hypertonic conditions. This finding points to the Golgi-endosome system as one of the main cell components negatively affected by hyperosmolarity. Most of the biological processes highlighted in this analysis had not been previously related to osmotic stress but are probably relevant in an ecological and evolutionary context. PMID:27733850

  13. Wet-spinning of osmotically stressed silk fibroin.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sungkyun; Gido, Samuel P

    2009-08-10

    Based on the phase diagram constructed for water-silk fibroin-LiBr using the osmotic stress method, wet-spinning of osmotically stressed, regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin was performed, without the necessity of using expensive or toxic organic solvents. The osmotic stress was applied to prestructure the regenerated silk fibroin molecule from its original random coil state to a more oriented state, manipulating the phase of the silk solution in the phase diagram before the start of spinning. Various starting points for spinning were selected from the phase diagram to evaluate the spinning performance and also physical properties of fibers produced. Monofilament fiber with a diameter of 20 microm was produced. It was found that the fibers whose starting point in the phase diagram were around the phase boundary between silk I and silk II, at very low LiBr concentrations, showed the best spinning process stability and physical properties. This underpins the prediction that the enhanced control over structure and phase behavior using the osmotic stress method helps improve the physical properties of wet-spun regenerated silk fibroin fibers.

  14. Osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Emma CB; Ajdukiewicz, Katherine MB; Heyderman, Robert S; Garner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Every day children and adults throughout the world die from acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis, particularly in low-income countries. Survivors are at risk of deafness, epilepsy and neurological disabilities. Osmotic therapies have been proposed as an adjunct to improve mortality and morbidity from bacterial meningitis. The theory is that they will attract extra-vascular fluid by osmosis and thus reduce cerebral oedema by moving excess water from the brain into the blood. The intention is to thus reduce death and improve neurological outcomes. Objectives To evaluate the effects on mortality, deafness and neurological disability of osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis in children and adults. Search methods We searched CENTRAL 2012, Issue 11, MEDLINE (1950 to November week 3, 2012), EMBASE (1974 to November 2012), CINAHL (1981 to November 2012), LILACS (1982 to November 2012) and registers of ongoing clinical trials (April 2012). We also searched conference abstracts and contacted researchers in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials testing any osmotic therapy in adults or children with acute bacterial meningitis. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened the search results and selected trials for inclusion. We collected data from each study for mortality, deafness, seizures and neurological disabilities. Results are presented using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and grouped according to whether the participants received steroids or not. Main results Four trials were included comprising 1091 participants. All compared glycerol (a water-soluble sugar alcohol) with a control; in three trials this was a placebo, and in one a small amount of 50% dextrose. Three trials included comparators of dexamethasone alone or in combination with glycerol. As dexamethasone appeared to have no modifying effect, we aggregated results across arms where both

  15. Folding propensity of intrinsically disordered proteins by osmotic stress

    DOE PAGES

    Mansouri, Amanda L.; Grese, Laura N.; Rowe, Erica L.; ...

    2016-10-11

    Proteins imparted with intrinsic disorder conduct a range of essential cellular functions. To better understand the folding and hydration properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used osmotic stress to induce conformational changes in nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) and activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptor (ACTR). Osmotic stress was applied by the addition of small and polymeric osmolytes, where we discovered that water contributions to NCBD folding always exceeded those for ACTR. Both NCBD and ACTR were found to gain a-helical structure with increasing osmotic stress, consistent with their folding upon NCBD/ACTR complex formation. Using small-angle neutron scatteringmore » (SANS), we further characterized NCBD structural changes with the osmolyte ethylene glycol. Here a large reduction in overall size initially occurred before substantial secondary structural change. In conclusion, by focusing on folding propensity, and linked hydration changes, we uncover new insights that may be important for how IDP folding contributes to binding.« less

  16. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. I. Relation to protoplast viability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Masdeu, M. A.; Dumortier, F. M.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    Cereal leaves subjected to the osmotica routinely used for protoplast isolation show a rapid increase in arginine decarboxylase activity, a massive accumulation of putrescine, and slow conversion of putrescine to the higher polyamines, spermidine and spermine (HE Flores, AW Galston 1984 Plant Physiol 75: 102). Mesophyll protoplasts from these leaves, which have a high putrescine:polyamine ratio, do not undergo sustained division. By contrast, in Nicotiana, Capsicum, Datura, Trigonella, and Vigna, dicot genera that readily regenerate plants from mesophyll protoplasts, the response of leaves to osmotic stress is opposite to that in cereals. Putrescine titer as well as arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities decline in these osmotically stressed dicot leaves, while spermidine and spermine titers increase. Thus, the putrescine:polyamine ratio in Vigna protoplasts, which divide readily, is 4-fold lower than in oat protoplasts, which divide poorly. We suggest that this differing response of polyamine metabolism to osmotic stress may account in part for the failure of cereal mesophyll protoplasts to develop readily in vitro.

  17. Plastid Osmotic Stress Activates Cellular Stress Responses in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Margaret E.; Basu, Meera R.; Bhaskara, Govinal Badiger; Verslues, Paul E.; Haswell, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about cytoplasmic osmoregulatory mechanisms in plants, and even less is understood about how the osmotic properties of the cytoplasm and organelles are coordinately regulated. We have previously shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants lacking functional versions of the plastid-localized mechanosensitive ion channels Mechanosensitive Channel of Small Conductance-Like2 (MSL2) and MSL3 contain leaf epidermal plastids under hypoosmotic stress, even during normal growth and development. Here, we use the msl2 msl3 mutant as a model to investigate the cellular response to constitutive plastid osmotic stress. Under unstressed conditions, msl2 msl3 seedlings exhibited several hallmarks of drought or environmental osmotic stress, including solute accumulation, elevated levels of the compatible osmolyte proline (Pro), and accumulation of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Furthermore, msl2 msl3 mutants expressed Pro and ABA metabolism genes in a pattern normally seen under drought or osmotic stress. Pro accumulation in the msl2 msl3 mutant was suppressed by conditions that reduce plastid osmotic stress or inhibition of ABA biosynthesis. Finally, treatment of unstressed msl2 msl3 plants with exogenous ABA elicited a much greater Pro accumulation response than in the wild type, similar to that observed in plants under drought or osmotic stress. These results suggest that osmotic imbalance across the plastid envelope can elicit a response similar to that elicited by osmotic imbalance across the plasma membrane and provide evidence for the integration of the osmotic state of an organelle into that of the cell in which it resides. PMID:24676856

  18. Osmotic stress is accompanied by protein glycation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Gagan; Bilova, Tatiana; Schmidt, Rico; Greifenhagen, Uta; Berger, Robert; Tarakhovskaya, Elena; Stöckhardt, Stefanie; Balcke, Gerd Ulrich; Humbeck, Klaus; Brandt, Wolfgang; Sinz, Andrea; Vogt, Thomas; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Wessjohann, Ludger; Frolov, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Among the environmental alterations accompanying oncoming climate changes, drought is the most important factor influencing crop plant productivity. In plants, water deficit ultimately results in the development of oxidative stress and accumulation of osmolytes (e.g. amino acids and carbohydrates) in all tissues. Up-regulation of sugar biosynthesis in parallel to the increasing overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) might enhance protein glycation, i.e. interaction of carbonyl compounds, reducing sugars and α-dicarbonyls with lysyl and arginyl side-chains yielding early (Amadori and Heyns compounds) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Although the constitutive plant protein glycation patterns were characterized recently, the effects of environmental stress on AGE formation are unknown so far. To fill this gap, we present here a comprehensive in-depth study of the changes in Arabidopsis thaliana advanced glycated proteome related to osmotic stress. A 3 d application of osmotic stress revealed 31 stress-specifically and 12 differentially AGE-modified proteins, representing altogether 56 advanced glycation sites. Based on proteomic and metabolomic results, in combination with biochemical, enzymatic and gene expression analysis, we propose monosaccharide autoxidation as the main stress-related glycation mechanism, and glyoxal as the major glycation agent in plants subjected to drought. PMID:27856706

  19. Osmotic Stress Modulates the Balance between Exocytosis and Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zwiewka, Marta; Nodzyński, Tomasz; Robert, Stéphanie; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Jiří

    2015-08-01

    The sessile life style of plants creates the need to deal with an often adverse environment, in which water availability can change on a daily basis, challenging the cellular physiology and integrity. Changes in osmotic conditions disrupt the equilibrium of the plasma membrane: hypoosmotic conditions increase and hyperosmotic environment decrease the cell volume. Here, we show that short-term extracellular osmotic treatments are closely followed by a shift in the balance between endocytosis and exocytosis in root meristem cells. Acute hyperosmotic treatments (ionic and nonionic) enhance clathrin-mediated endocytosis simultaneously attenuating exocytosis, whereas hypoosmotic treatments have the opposite effects. In addition to clathrin recruitment to the plasma membrane, components of early endocytic trafficking are essential during hyperosmotic stress responses. Consequently, growth of seedlings defective in elements of clathrin or early endocytic machinery is more sensitive to hyperosmotic treatments. We also found that the endocytotic response to a change of osmotic status in the environment is dominant over the presumably evolutionary more recent regulatory effect of plant hormones, such as auxin. These results imply that osmotic perturbation influences the balance between endocytosis and exocytosis acting through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We propose that tension on the plasma membrane determines the addition or removal of membranes at the cell surface, thus preserving cell integrity.

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of Watermelon Root in Response to Short-Term Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongchao; Mo, Yanling; Yang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Yongqi; Li, Hao; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Osmotic stress adversely affects the growth, fruit quality and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). Increasing the tolerance of watermelon to osmotic stress caused by factors such as high salt and water deficit is an effective way to improve crop survival in osmotic stress environments. Roots are important organs in water absorption and are involved in the initial response to osmosis stress; however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanism of tolerance to osmotic stress in watermelon roots. For better understanding of this mechanism, the inbred watermelon accession M08, which exhibits relatively high tolerance to water deficits, was treated with 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The root samples were harvested at 6 h after PEG treatment and untreated samples were used as controls. Transcriptome analyses were carried out by Illumina RNA sequencing. A total of 5246 differentially expressed genes were identified. Gene ontology enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses of these 5246 genes showed that short-term osmotic stress affected osmotic adjustment, signal transduction, hormone responses, cell division, cell cycle and ribosome, and M08 may repress root growth to adapt osmotic stress. The results of this study describe the watermelon root transcriptome under osmotic stress and propose new insight into watermelon root responses to osmotic stress at the transcriptome level. Accordingly, these results allow us to better understand the molecular mechanisms of watermelon in response to drought stress and will facilitate watermelon breeding projects to improve drought tolerance. PMID:27861528

  1. Proteomic analysis of rice leaves shows the different regulations to osmotic stress and stress signals.

    PubMed

    Shu, Lie-Bo; Ding, Wei; Wu, Jin-Hong; Feng, Fang-Jun; Luo, Li-Jun; Mei, Han-Wei

    2010-11-01

    Following the idea of partial root-zone drying (PRD) in crop cultivation, the morphological and physiological responses to partial root osmotic stress (PROS) and whole root osmotic stress (WROS) were investigated in rice. WROS caused stress symptoms like leaf rolling and membrane leakage. PROS stimulated stress signals, but did not cause severe leaf damage. By proteomic analysis, a total of 58 proteins showed differential expression after one or both treatments, and functional classification of these proteins suggests that stress signals regulate photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Two other proteins (anthranilate synthase and submergence-induced nickel-binding protein) were upregulated only in the PROS plants, indicating their important roles in stress resistance. Additionally, more enzymes were involved in stress defense, redox homeostasis, lignin and ethylene synthesis in WROS leaves, suggesting a more comprehensive regulatory mechanism induced by osmotic stress. This study provides new insights into the complex molecular networks within plant leaves involved in the adaptation to osmotic stress and stress signals.

  2. A balanced JA/ABA status may correlate with adaptation to osmotic stress in Vitis cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmed; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Nick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Water-related stress is considered a major type of plant stress. Osmotic stress, in particular, represents the common part of all water-related stresses. Therefore, plants have evolved different adaptive mechanisms to cope with osmotic-related disturbances. In the current work, two grapevine cell lines that differ in their osmotic adaptability, Vitis rupestris and Vitis riparia, were investigated under mannitol-induced osmotic stress. To dissect signals that lead to adaptability from those related to sensitivity, osmotic-triggered responses with respect to jasmonic acid (JA) and its active form JA-Ile, abscisic acid (ABA), and stilbene compounds, as well as the expression of their related genes were observed. In addition, the transcript levels of the cellular homeostasis gene NHX1 were examined. The data are discussed with a hypothesis suggesting that a balance of JA and ABA status might correlate with cellular responses, either guiding cells to sensitivity or to progress toward adaptation.

  3. Genetic analysis of proline concentration under osmotic stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Farghama; Rauf, Saeed; Monneveux, Philippe; Anwar, Shoaib; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Proline concentration has been often suggested as an indicator of osmotic stress. A better understanding of the genetics of this trait is however needed. In the present study, proline concentration has been assessed, together with root and stem growth, potassium, calcium and total soluble sugars concentration and stress injury symptoms, in seedlings of sunflower hybrids and their parents grown under control and osmotic conditions. Proline strongly accumulated with osmotic stress. Its concentration exhibited a large variation among genotypes and was higher in hybrids than in parental lines. A positive association was noted between proline concentration and osmotic adjustment that was reflected in a reduction of osmotic stress induced injury, as showed by the reduced number of calli in the hybrids with higher proline concentration. Broad and narrow sense heritability was higher under osmotic stress suggesting applying the selection in osmotic stress condition. In the control treatment, dominance effects explained most of the genetic variation for proline concentration while under osmotic stress both dominance and additive variance were high. The importance of dominance and additive effects suggested that several genomic regions are controlling this trait. Good general combiners, presumably carrying positive additive alleles affecting proline concentration, were identified. PMID:27795671

  4. Osmotic stress, plasma renin activity, and spermatogenesis in Vipera aspis.

    PubMed

    Uva, B; Ghiani, P; Masini, M A; Mandich, A

    1987-12-01

    Circulating electrolytes (Na+, K+), plasma renin-like activity, testosterone, and testis morphology were investigated in early summer during the spermatogenic progressive phase in Vipera aspis subjected to sodium loading and sodium depletion. After sodium loading, plasma sodium and plasma testosterone levels were significantly elevated compared with those of controls, while plasma renin-like activity was depressed, spermiogenesis was increased, the epithelium lining the epididymis was very thick, and the Leydig cells were hypertrophied. After sodium depletion, plasma sodium and plasma testosterone levels were significantly depressed and plasma renin-like activity was significantly elevated. Spermiogenesis seemed to be slightly regressed: the epithelium lining the epididymis was very thin, and the lumen was devoid of spermatozoa. The Leydig cells were hardly visible. All the data strongly suggest that osmotic stress affects gonadal activity in the snake. V. aspis.

  5. Convergent Induction of Osmotic Stress-Responses 1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, John C.; McElwain, Elizabeth F.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1992-01-01

    In Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, salt stress induces the accumulation of proline and a specific isoform of the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) prior to the switch from C3 to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). To determine whether plant growth regulators initiate or imitate these responses, we have compared the effects elicited by NaCl, abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinins using PEPCase and proline levels as diagnostic tools. Exogenously applied ABA is a poor substitute for NaCl in inducing proline and CAM-specific PEPCase accumulation. Even though ABA levels increase 8- to 10-fold in leaves during salt stress, inhibition of ABA accumulation does not affect these salt-induced responses. In contrast, the addition of cytokinins (6-benzylaminopurine, zeatin, 2-isopentyladenine) mimic salt by greatly increasing proline and PEPCase amounts. Endogenous zeatin levels remain unchanged during salt stress. We conclude: (a) The salt-induced accumulation of proline and PEPCase is coincident with, but is not attributable to, the rise in ABA or zeatin concentration. (b) For the first time, cytokinins and NaCl are implicated as independent initiators of a sensing pathway that signals leaves to alter PEPCase gene expression. (c) During stress, the sensing of osmotic imbalances leading to ABA, proline, and CAM-specific PEPCase accumulation may be mediated directly by NaCl. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:16652978

  6. Modulation of osmotic stress effects on photosynthesis and respiration by temperature in mesophyll protoplast of pea.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Padmanabh; Raghavendra, A S

    2004-12-01

    Exposure of mesophyll protoplast of pea to osmotic stress decreases the rate of photosynthesis while stimulating marginally the respiratory rate of mesophyll protoplasts. The interaction of osmotic and temperature stress during the modulation of photosynthetic and respiratory rates of pea (Pisum sativum var Azad P1) mesophyll protoplasts was investigated. The protoplasts were exposed to either iso-osmotic (0.4 M) or hyper-osmotic (1.0 M) concentration of sorbitol at 15 degrees and 25 degrees C. The rates of photosynthesis and respiration were studied. At optimum temperature of 25 degrees C, there was a decrease in photosynthesis (< 10%) at hyper-osmoticum (osmotic effect), whereas respiration increased marginally (by about 15%). Low temperature (15 degrees C) aggravated the sensitivity of both respiration and photosynthesis to osmotic stress. At 15 degrees C, the decrease in photosynthesis due to osmotic stress was > 35%, while the respiratory rate was stimulated by 30%. The relative proportion of cytochrome pathway decreased by about 50% at both 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C while that of alternative pathway increased, more so, at 15 degrees C, when the mesophyll protoplasts were subjected to hyper-osmoticum stress. The titration experiments showed that extent of engagement of alternative pathway was higher, the slope value was slightly higher for 15 degrees C compared to 25 degrees C. Low temperature modulates the effect of hyper-osmoticum stress on photosynthesis and respiration, and results in increased participation of alternative pathway.

  7. Preferential Osmolyte Accumulation: a Mechanism of Osmotic Stress Adaptation in Diazotrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Magdy A.; Smith, Linda Tombras; Smith, Gary M.

    1990-01-01

    A common cellular mechanism of osmotic-stress adaptation is the intracellular accumulation of organic solutes (osmolytes). We investigated the mechanism of osmotic adaptation in the diazotrophic bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are adversely affected by high osmotic strength (i.e., soil salinity and/or drought). We used natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify all the osmolytes accumulating in these strains during osmotic stress generated by 0.5 M NaCl. Evidence is presented for the accumulation of trehalose and glutamate in Azotobacter chroococcum ZSM4, proline and glutamate in Azospirillum brasilense SHS6, and trehalose and proline in K. pneumoniae. Glycine betaine was accumulated in all strains grown in culture media containing yeast extract as the sole nitrogen source. Alternative nitrogen sources (e.g., NH4Cl or casamino acids) in the culture medium did not result in measurable glycine betaine accumulation. We suggest that the mechanism of osmotic adaptation in these organisms entails the accumulation of osmolytes in hyperosmotically stressed cells resulting from either enhanced uptake from the medium (of glycine betaine, proline, and glutamate) or increased net biosynthesis (of trehalose, proline, and glutamate) or both. The preferred osmolyte in Azotobacter chroococcum ZSM4 shifted from glutamate to trehalose as a consequence of a prolonged osmotic stress. Also, the dominant osmolyte in Azospirillum brasilense SHS6 shifted from glutamate to proline accumulation as the osmotic strength of the medium increased. PMID:16348295

  8. Physiological and genetic responses of bacteria to osmotic stress.

    PubMed Central

    Csonka, L N

    1989-01-01

    The capacity of organisms to respond to fluctuations in their osmotic environments is an important physiological process that determines their abilities to thrive in a variety of habitats. The primary response of bacteria to exposure to a high osmotic environment is the accumulation of certain solutes, K+, glutamate, trehalose, proline, and glycinebetaine, at concentrations that are proportional to the osmolarity of the medium. The supposed function of these solutes is to maintain the osmolarity of the cytoplasm at a value greater than the osmolarity of the medium and thus provide turgor pressure within the cells. Accumulation of these metabolites is accomplished by de novo synthesis or by uptake from the medium. Production of proteins that mediate accumulation or uptake of these metabolites is under osmotic control. This review is an account of the processes that mediate adaptation of bacteria to changes in their osmotic environment. PMID:2651863

  9. Weak microwave can alleviate water deficit induced by osmotic stress in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Jia, Jing-Fen; Han, Xiao-Ling

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the effect of microwave pretreatment of wheat seeds on the resistance of seedlings to osmotic stress. Changes in biophysical, physiological and biochemical characters were measured. The results showed: (1) The magnetic field intensity and seeds temperature increased progressively with microwave pretreatments of 5, 10, 15, 20 s and 25 s compared with controls. Although each microwave pretreatment resulted in an increase in alpha-amylase activity and photon emission intensity, the increase of alpha-amylase activity and photon emission intensity was maximal at a microwave pretreatment of 10 s. (2) Osmotic stress induced by PEG treatment enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde, while decreasing the activities of nitricoxide synthase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and the concentration of nitric oxide, ascorbic acid, glutathione in the seedlings compared with controls. However, compared to osmotic stress alone, in the seedlings treated with microwave irradiation plus osmotic stress the concentration of malondialdehyde decreased, while the activities of nitricoxide synthase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and the concentration of nitric oxide, ascorbic acid and glutathione increased. These results suggest that a suitable dose of microwave radiation can enhance the capability to eliminate free radicals induced by osmotic stress in wheat seedlings resulting in an increase in resistance to osmotic stress.

  10. The "Le Chatelier's principle"-governed response of actin filaments to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tadanao; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2006-07-13

    Actin filaments inhibit osmotic stress-driven water flow across a semipermeable membrane in proportion to the filament concentration (Ito, T.; Zaner, K. S.; Stossel, T. P. Biophys. J. 1987, 51, 745). When the filaments are cross-linked by F-actin binding protein, filamin A, this flow is stopped completely (Ito, T.; Suzuki, A.; Stossel, T. P. Biophys. J. 1992, 61, 1301). No conventional theory accurately accounts for these results. Here, this response is analyzed by formulating the entropy of the system under osmotic stress. Results demonstrate that the response of the actin filaments to osmotic stress is governed by the Le Chatelier's principle, which states that an external interaction that disturbs the equilibrium brings about processes in the body that tend to reduce the effects of this interaction. In the present case, disrupting equilibrium by osmotic stress brings about a reaction that decreases the chemical potential of water in the F-actin solution, reducing the effect of the applied osmotic disturbance. This decrease in the chemical potential of the water in the F-actin solution is caused by an increase in the chemical potential of F-actin, which is induced by isothermal absorption of heat by F-actin aided by work done by osmotic stress. As a result, F-actin has an inhibitory effect on the osmotic stress-driven water flow, and can even completely stop the flow when it is cross-linked. This is the first report demonstrating that the Le Chatelier's principle applies to the reaction of biopolymers against equilibrium disturbances such as osmotic stress.

  11. Role of Glycine Betaine and Related Osmolytes in Osmotic Stress Adaptation in Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 9610

    PubMed Central

    Park, S.; Smith, L. T.; Smith, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a gram-negative, food-borne pathogen that can grow in 5% NaCl and at refrigerator temperatures. In this report, the compatible solutes (osmolytes) which accumulate intracellularly and confer the observed osmotic tolerance to this pathogen were identified. In minimal medium, glutamate was the only detectable osmolyte that accumulated in osmotically stressed cells. However, when the growth medium was supplemented with glycine betaine, dimethylglycine, or carnitine, the respective osmolyte accumulated intracellularly to high levels and the growth rates of the osmotically stressed cultures improved from 2.4- to 3.5-fold. Chill stress also stimulated the intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine, but the growth rate was only slightly improved by this osmolyte. Both osmotic upshock and temperature downshock stimulated the rate of uptake of [(sup14)C]glycine betaine by more than 30-fold, consistent with other data indicating that the osmolytes are accumulated from the growth medium via transport. PMID:16535192

  12. Genome-wide transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli K-12 to continuous osmotic and heat stresses.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, Thusitha S; Csonka, Laszlo N; Paliy, Oleg

    2008-05-01

    Osmotic stress is known to increase the thermotolerance and oxidative-stress resistance of bacteria by a mechanism that is not adequately understood. We probed the cross-regulation of continuous osmotic and heat stress responses by characterizing the effects of external osmolarity (0.3 M versus 0.0 M NaCl) and temperature (43 degrees C versus 30 degrees C) on the transcriptome of Escherichia coli K-12. Our most important discovery was that a number of genes in the SoxRS and OxyR oxidative-stress regulons were up-regulated by high osmolarity, high temperature, or a combination of both stresses. This result can explain the previously noted cross-protection of osmotic stress against oxidative and heat stresses. Most of the genes shown in previous studies to be induced during the early phase of adaptation to hyperosmotic shock were found to be also overexpressed under continuous osmotic stress. However, there was a poorer overlap between the heat shock genes that are induced transiently after high temperature shifts and the genes that we found to be chronically up-regulated at 43 degrees C. Supplementation of the high-osmolarity medium with the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, which reduces the cytoplasmic K(+) pool, did not lead to a universal reduction in the expression of osmotically induced genes. This finding does not support the hypothesis that K(+) is the central osmoregulatory signal in Enterobacteriaceae.

  13. Osmotic stress-induced polyamine oxidation mediates defence responses and reduces stress-enhanced grapevine susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Hatmi, Saloua; Trotel-Aziz, Patricia; Villaume, Sandra; Couderchet, Michel; Clément, Christophe; Aziz, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic factors inducing osmotic stress can influence the plant immune response and resistance to pathogen infections. In this study, the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG)- and sucrose-induced osmotic stress on polyamine (PA) homeostasis and the basal immune response in grapevine plantlets before and after Botrytis cinerea infection was determined. Pharmacological approaches were also addressed to assess the contribution of osmotic stress-induced PA oxidation to the regulation of defence responses and the susceptibility of grapevine to B. cinerea. Following osmotic stress or pathogen infection, PA homeostasis was linked to enhanced activity of diamine oxidases (CuAO) and PA oxidases (PAO) and the production of 1,3-diaminopropane. These responses paralleled the accumulation of the main stilbenic phytoalexins, resveratrol and ε-viniferin and upregulation of gene transcripts including STS (a stilbene synthase), PR-2 (a β-1,3-glucanase), PR3-4c (acidic chitinase IV), and PR-5 (a thaumatin-like protein), as well as NCED2 involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis. It was also demonstrated that leaves pre-exposed to osmotic stress and later inoculated with B. cinerea showed enhanced PA accumulation and attenuation of CuAO and PAO activities. This was consistent with the impaired production of phytoalexins and transcript levels of defence- and stress-related genes following infection, and the enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea. Pharmacological experiments revealed that, under osmotic stress conditions, CuAO and PAO were involved in PA homeostasis and in the regulation of defence responses. Specific inhibition of CuAO and PAO in osmotically stressed leaves strongly attenuated the induction of defence responses triggered by B. cinerea infection and enhanced susceptibility to the pathogen. Taken together, this study reveals a contribution of PA catabolism to the resistance state through modulation of immune response in grapevine following osmotic stress and/or after B

  14. The effects of osmotic stress on the structure and function of the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Finan, John D; Guilak, Farshid

    2010-02-15

    Osmotic stress is a potent regulator of the normal function of cells that are exposed to osmotically active environments under physiologic or pathologic conditions. The ability of cells to alter gene expression and metabolic activity in response to changes in the osmotic environment provides an additional regulatory mechanism for a diverse array of tissues and organs in the human body. In addition to the activation of various osmotically- or volume-activated ion channels, osmotic stress may also act on the genome via a direct biophysical pathway. Changes in extracellular osmolality alter cell volume, and therefore, the concentration of intracellular macromolecules. In turn, intracellular macromolecule concentration is a key physical parameter affecting the spatial organization and pressurization of the nucleus. Hyper-osmotic stress shrinks the nucleus and causes it to assume a convoluted shape, whereas hypo-osmotic stress swells the nucleus to a size that is limited by stretch of the nuclear lamina and induces a smooth, round shape of the nucleus. These behaviors are consistent with a model of the nucleus as a charged core/shell structure pressurized by uneven partition of macromolecules between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. These osmotically-induced alterations in the internal structure and arrangement of chromatin, as well as potential changes in the nuclear membrane and pores are hypothesized to influence gene transcription and/or nucleocytoplasmic transport. A further understanding of the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms involved in these processes would have important ramifications for a range of fields including differentiation, migration, mechanotransduction, DNA repair, and tumorigenesis.

  15. Osmotic stress inhibits proteasome by p38 MAPK-dependent phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Park, Yoon; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Yoon, Jong-Bok

    2010-12-31

    Osmotic stress causes profound perturbations of cell functions. Although the adaptive responses required for cell survival upon osmotic stress are being unraveled, little is known about the effects of osmotic stress on ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. We now report that hyperosmotic stress inhibits proteasome activity by activating p38 MAPK. Osmotic stress increased the level of polyubiquitinated proteins in the cell. The selective p38 inhibitor SB202190 decreased osmotic stress-associated accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins, indicating that p38 MAPK plays an inhibitory role in the ubiquitin proteasome system. Activated p38 MAPK stabilized various substrates of the proteasome and increased polyubiquitinated proteins. Proteasome preparations purified from cells expressing activated p38 MAPK had substantially lower peptidase activities than control proteasome samples. Proteasome phosphorylation sites dependent on p38 were identified by measuring changes in the extent of proteasome phosphorylation in response to p38 MAPK activation. The residue Thr-273 of Rpn2 is the major phosphorylation site affected by p38 MAPK. The mutation T273A in Rpn2 blocked the proteasome inhibition that is mediated by p38 MAPK. These results suggest that p38 MAPK negatively regulates the proteasome activity by phosphorylating Thr-273 of Rpn2.

  16. Osmotic Stressing, Membrane Leakage, and Fluorescence: An Introductory Biochemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seu, Kalani J.

    2015-01-01

    A fluorescence demonstration is described that incorporates several fundamental aspects of an introductory biochemistry course. A variation of a known leakage assay is utilized to prepare vesicles containing a quenched fluorophore. The vesicles are exposed to several osmotic environments ranging from isotonic to hypotonic. The degree of vesicle…

  17. Osmotic stress, endogenous abscisic acid and the control of leaf morphology in Hippuris vulgaris L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goliber, T. E.; Feldman, L. J.

    1989-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that heterophyllous aquatic plants can be induced to form aerial-type leaves on submerged shoots when they are grown in exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). This study reports on the relationship between osmotic stress (e.g. the situation encountered by a shoot tip when it grows above the water surface), endogenous ABA (as measured by gas chromatography-electron capture detector) and leaf morphology in the heterophyllous aquatic plant, Hippuris vulgaris. Free ABA could not be detected in submerged shoots of H. vulgaris but in aerial shoots ABA occurred at ca. 40 ng (g fr wt)-1. When submerged shoots were osmotically stressed ABA appeared at levels of 26 to 40 ng (g fr wt)-1. These and other data support two main conclusions: (1) Osmotically stressing a submerged shoot causes the appearance of detectable levels of ABA. (2) The rise of ABA in osmotically stressed submerged shoots in turn induces a change in leaf morphology from the submerged to the aerial form. This corroborates the hypothesis that, in the natural environment, ABA levels rise in response to the osmotic stress encountered when a submerged shoot grows up through the water/air interface and that the increased ABA leads to the production of aerial-type leaves.

  18. Impact of osmotic stress on protein diffusion in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Mika, Jacek T; Schavemaker, Paul E; Krasnikov, Victor; Poolman, Bert

    2014-11-01

    We measured translational diffusion of proteins in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis and probed the effect of osmotic upshift. For cells in standard growth medium the diffusion coefficients for cytosolic proteins (27 and 582 kDa) and 12-transmembrane helix membrane proteins are similar to those in Escherichia coli. The translational diffusion of GFP in L. lactis drops by two orders of magnitude when the medium osmolality is increased by ∼ 1.9 Osm, and the decrease in mobility is partly reversed in the presence of osmoprotectants. We find a large spread in diffusion coefficients over the full population of cells but a smaller spread if only sister cells are compared. While in general the diffusion coefficients we measure under normal osmotic conditions in L. lactis are similar to those reported in E. coli, the decrease in translational diffusion upon osmotic challenge in L. lactis is smaller than in E. coli. An even more striking difference is that in L. lactis the GFP diffusion coefficient drops much more rapidly with volume than in E. coli. We discuss these findings in the light of differences in turgor, cell volume, crowding and cytoplasmic structure of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  19. Effects of intrathecal kynurenate on arterial pressure during chronic osmotic stress in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Veitenheimer, Britta; Osborn, John W

    2013-01-15

    Increased plasma osmolality elevates mean arterial pressure (MAP) through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, but the neurotransmitters released in the spinal cord to regulate MAP during osmotic stress remain unresolved. Glutamatergic neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla project to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord and are likely activated during conditions of osmotic stress; however, this has not been examined in conscious rats. This study investigated whether increased MAP during chronic osmotic stress depends on activation of spinal glutamate receptors. Rats were chronically instrumented with an indwelling intrathecal (i.t.) catheter for antagonist delivery to the spinal cord and a radiotelemetry transmitter for continuous monitoring of MAP and heart rate. Osmotic stress induced by 48 h of water deprivation (WD) increased MAP by ~15 mmHg. Intrathecal kynurenic acid, a nonspecific antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors, decreased MAP significantly more after 48 h of WD compared with the water-replete state. Water-deprived rats also showed a greater fall in MAP in response to i.t. 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate. Finally, i.t. kynurenic acid also decreased MAP more in an osmotically driven model of neurogenic hypertension, the DOCA-salt rat, compared with normotensive controls. Our results suggest that spinally released glutamate mediates increased MAP during 48-h WD and DOCA-salt hypertension.

  20. Co-ordination of osmotic stress responses through osmosensing and signal transduction events in fishes.

    PubMed

    Evans, T G

    2010-05-01

    This review centres upon the molecular regulation of osmotic stress responses in fishes, focusing on how osmosensing and signal transduction events co-ordinate changes in the activity and abundance of effector proteins during osmotic stress and how these events integrate into osmotic stress responses of varying magnitude. The concluding sections discuss the relevance of osmosensory signal transduction to the evolution of euryhalinity and present experimental approaches that may best stimulate future research. Iterating the importance of osmosensing and signal transduction during fish osmoregulation may be pertinent amidst the increased use of genomic technologies that typically focus solely on changes in the abundances of gene products, and may limit insight into critical upstream events that occur mainly through post-translational mechanisms.

  1. Role of the osmotic stress regulatory pathway in morphogenesis and secondary metabolism in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Duran, Rocio; Cary, Jeffrey W; Calvo, Ana M

    2010-04-01

    Environmental stimuli trigger an adaptative cellular response to optimize the probability of survival and proliferation. In eukaryotic organisms from mammals to fungi osmotic stress, mainly through the action of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, leads to a response necessary for adapting and surviving hyperosmotic environments. In this review we show that the osmoadaptative response is conserved but not identical in different fungi. The osmoadaptative response system is also intimately linked to morphogenesis in filamentous fungi, including mycotoxin producers. Previous studies indicate that the response to osmotic stress is also coupled to the biosynthesis of natural products, including mycotoxins.

  2. Proteomic profiling analysis reveals that glutathione system plays important roles responding to osmotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Zhang, Daijing; Gao, Xiaolong; Shao, Yun; Tong, Doudou

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops in the world, and osmotic stress has become one of the main factors affecting wheat production. Understanding the mechanism of the response of wheat to osmotic stress would be greatly significant. In the present study, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) was used to analyze the changes of protein expression in the wheat roots exposed to different osmotic stresses. A total of 2,228 expressed proteins, including 81 differentially expressed proteins, between osmotic stress and control, were found. The comprehensive analysis of these differentially expressed proteins revealed that osmotic stress increased the variety of expressed proteins and suppressed the quantity of expressed proteins in wheat roots. Furthermore, the proteins for detoxifying and reactive oxygen species scavenging, especially the glutathione system, played important roles in maintaining organism balance in response to osmotic stress in wheat roots. Thus, the present study comprehensively describes the protein expression changes in wheat roots in response to osmotic stress, providing firmer foundation to further study the mechanism of osmotic resistance in wheat. PMID:27602297

  3. PEG-induced osmotic stress in Mentha x piperita L.: Structural features and metabolic responses.

    PubMed

    Búfalo, Jennifer; Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Tozin, Luiz Ricardo Dos Santos; Marques, Marcia Ortiz Mayo; Boaro, Carmen Silvia Fernandes

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated whether osmotic stress induced by the exposure of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) to moderate and severe stress for short periods of time changes the plant's physiological parameters, leaf anatomy and ultrastructure and essential oil. Plants were exposed to two levels of polyethyleneglycol (50 g L(-1) and 100 g L(-1) of PEG) in a hydroponic experiment. The plants exposed to 50 g L(-1) maintained metabolic functions similar to those of the control group (0 g L(-1)) without changes in gas exchange or structural characteristics. The increase in antioxidant enzyme activity reduced the presence of free radicals and protected membranes, including chloroplasts and mitochondria. In contrast, the osmotic stress caused by 100 g L(-1) of PEG inhibited leaf gas exchange, reduced the essential oil content and changed the oil composition, including a decrease in menthone and an increase in menthofuran. These plants also showed an increase in peroxidase activity, but this increase was not sufficient to decrease the lipid peroxidation level responsible for damaging the membranes of organelles. Morphological changes were correlated with the evaluated physiological features: plants exposed to 100 g L(-1) of PEG showed areas with collapsed cells, increases in mesophyll thickness and the area of the intercellular space, cuticle shrinkage, morphological changes in plastids, and lysis of mitochondria. In summary, our results revealed that PEG-induced osmotic stress in M. x piperita depends on the intensity level of the osmotic stress applied; severe osmotic stress changed the structural characteristics, caused damage at the cellular level, and reduced the essential oil content and quality.

  4. Role of the Osmotic Stress Regulatory Pathway in Morphogenesis and Secondary Metabolism in Filamentous Fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stimuli trigger an adaptative cellular response to optimize the probability of survival and proliferation. In eukaryotic organisms from mammals to fungi osmotic stress, mainly through the action of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, leads to a response necessary for adapting a...

  5. Effects of acute and chronic exercise on the osmotic stability of erythrocyte membrane of competitive swimmers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic exercise on erythrocyte membrane stability and various blood indices in a population consisting of five national-level male swimmers, over 18 weeks of training. The evaluations were made at the beginning and end of the 1st, 7th, 13th and 18th weeks, when volume and training intensity have changed. The effects manifested at the beginning of those weeks were considered due to chronic adaptations, while the effects observed at the end of the weeks were considered due to acute manifestations of the exercise load of that week. Acute changes resulting from the exercise comprised increases in creatine kinase activity (CK) and leukocyte count (Leu), and decrease in hematocrit (Ht) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), at the end of the first week; increase in the activities of CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), in the uric acid (UA) concentration and Leu count, at the end of the seventh week; increases in CK and LDH activities and in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), at the end of the 13th week; and decrease in the value of the osmotic stability index 1/H50 and increases in the CK activity and platelets (Plt) count, at the end of the 18th week. Chronic changes due to training comprised increase in the values of 1/H50, CK, LDH, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum iron (Fe), MCV and Plt. Although acute training has resulted in decrease in the osmotic stability of erythrocytes, possibly associated with exacerbation of the oxidative processes during intense exercise, chronic training over 18 weeks resulted in increased osmotic stability of erythrocytes, possibly by modulation in the membrane cholesterol content by low and high density lipoproteins. PMID:28151958

  6. Effects of acute and chronic exercise on the osmotic stability of erythrocyte membrane of competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Paraiso, Lara Ferreira; Gonçalves-E-Oliveira, Ana Flávia Mayrink; Cunha, Lucas Moreira; de Almeida Neto, Omar Pereira; Pacheco, Adriana Garcia; Araújo, Karinne Beatriz Gonçalves; Garrote-Filho, Mário da Silva; Bernardino Neto, Morun; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic exercise on erythrocyte membrane stability and various blood indices in a population consisting of five national-level male swimmers, over 18 weeks of training. The evaluations were made at the beginning and end of the 1st, 7th, 13th and 18th weeks, when volume and training intensity have changed. The effects manifested at the beginning of those weeks were considered due to chronic adaptations, while the effects observed at the end of the weeks were considered due to acute manifestations of the exercise load of that week. Acute changes resulting from the exercise comprised increases in creatine kinase activity (CK) and leukocyte count (Leu), and decrease in hematocrit (Ht) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), at the end of the first week; increase in the activities of CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), in the uric acid (UA) concentration and Leu count, at the end of the seventh week; increases in CK and LDH activities and in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), at the end of the 13th week; and decrease in the value of the osmotic stability index 1/H50 and increases in the CK activity and platelets (Plt) count, at the end of the 18th week. Chronic changes due to training comprised increase in the values of 1/H50, CK, LDH, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum iron (Fe), MCV and Plt. Although acute training has resulted in decrease in the osmotic stability of erythrocytes, possibly associated with exacerbation of the oxidative processes during intense exercise, chronic training over 18 weeks resulted in increased osmotic stability of erythrocytes, possibly by modulation in the membrane cholesterol content by low and high density lipoproteins.

  7. Primary cilia regulate the osmotic stress response of renal epithelial cells through TRPM3.

    PubMed

    Siroky, Brian J; Kleene, Nancy K; Kleene, Steven J; Varnell, Charles D; Comer, Raven G; Liu, Jialiu; Lu, Lu; Pachciarz, Nolan W; Bissler, John J; Dixon, Bradley P

    2017-04-01

    Primary cilia sense environmental conditions, including osmolality, but whether cilia participate in the osmotic response in renal epithelial cells is not known. The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPV4 and TRPM3 are osmoresponsive. TRPV4 localizes to cilia in certain cell types, while renal subcellular localization of TRPM3 is not known. We hypothesized that primary cilia are required for maximal activation of the osmotic response of renal epithelial cells and that ciliary TRPM3 and TRPV4 mediate that response. Ciliated [murine epithelial cells from the renal inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD-3) and 176-5] and nonciliated (176-5Δ) renal cells expressed Trpv4 and Trpm3 Ciliary expression of TRPM3 was observed in mIMCD-3 and 176-5 cells and in wild-type mouse kidney tissue. TRPV4 was identified in cilia and apical membrane of mIMCD-3 cells by electrophysiology and in the cell body by immunofluorescence. Hyperosmolal stress at 500 mOsm/kg (via NaCl addition) induced the osmotic response genes betaine/GABA transporter (Bgt1) and aldose reductase (Akr1b3) in all ciliated cell lines. This induction was attenuated in nonciliated cells. A TRPV4 agonist abrogated Bgt1 and Akr1b3 induction in ciliated and nonciliated cells. A TRPM3 agonist attenuated Bgt1 and Akr1b3 induction in ciliated cells only. TRPM3 knockout attenuated Akr1b3 induction. Viability under osmotic stress was greater in ciliated than nonciliated cells. Akr1b3 induction was also less in nonciliated than ciliated cells when mannitol was used to induce hyperosmolal stress. These findings suggest that primary cilia are required for the maximal osmotic response in renal epithelial cells and that TRPM3 is involved in this mechanism. TRPV4 appears to modulate the osmotic response independent of cilia.

  8. From START to FINISH: the influence of osmotic stress on the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Kaloriti, Despoina; Gustin, Michael C; Gow, Neil A R; Brown, Alistair J P; Grebogi, Celso; Romano, M Carmen; Thiel, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The cell cycle is a sequence of biochemical events that are controlled by complex but robust molecular machinery. This enables cells to achieve accurate self-reproduction under a broad range of different conditions. Environmental changes are transmitted by molecular signalling networks, which coordinate their action with the cell cycle. The cell cycle process and its responses to environmental stresses arise from intertwined nonlinear interactions among large numbers of simpler components. Yet, understanding of how these pieces fit together into a coherent whole requires a systems biology approach. Here, we present a novel mathematical model that describes the influence of osmotic stress on the entire cell cycle of S. cerevisiae for the first time. Our model incorporates all recently known and several proposed interactions between the osmotic stress response pathway and the cell cycle. This model unveils the mechanisms that emerge as a consequence of the interaction between the cell cycle and stress response networks. Furthermore, it characterises the role of individual components. Moreover, it predicts different phenotypical responses for cells depending on the phase of cells at the onset of the stress. The key predictions of the model are: (i) exposure of cells to osmotic stress during the late S and the early G2/M phase can induce DNA re-replication before cell division occurs, (ii) cells stressed at the late G2/M phase display accelerated exit from mitosis and arrest in the next cell cycle, (iii) osmotic stress delays the G1-to-S and G2-to-M transitions in a dose dependent manner, whereas it accelerates the M-to-G1 transition independently of the stress dose and (iv) the Hog MAPK network compensates the role of the MEN network during cell division of MEN mutant cells. These model predictions are supported by independent experiments in S. cerevisiae and, moreover, have recently been observed in other eukaryotes.

  9. Physcomitrella patens DNA methyltransferase 2 is required for recovery from salt and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Arya, Deepshikha; Kapoor, Sanjay; Kapoor, Meenu

    2016-02-01

    DNA methyltransferase 2 (DNMT2) unlike other members of the cytosine DNA methyltransferase gene family has dual substrate specificity and it methylates cytosines in both the DNA and transfer RNA (tRNA). Its role in plants, however, has remained obscure to date. In this study, we demonstrate that DNMT2 from Physcomitrella patens accumulates in a temporal manner under salt and osmotic stress showing maximum accumulation during recovery, i.e. 24 h after plants are transferred to normal growth medium. Therefore, to study its role in stress tolerance, we generated PpDNMT2 targeted knockout plants (ppdnmt2ko). Mutant plants show increased sensitivity to salt and osmotic stress and are unable to recover even after 21 days of growth on optimal growth media. ppdnmt2ko, however, accumulate normal levels of dehydrin-like and small heat shock protein encoding transcripts under stress but show dramatic reduction in levels of tRNA(A) (sp-) (GUC) . The levels of tRNA(A) (sp-) (GUC) , in contrast, increase ~ 25-30-fold in ppdnmt2ko under non-stress conditions and > 1200-fold in wild-type plants under stress. The role of PpDNMT2 in modulating biogenesis/stability of tRNA(A) (sp-) (GUC) under salt and osmotic stress is discussed in the light of these observations.

  10. Osmotic and oxidative/nitrosative stress in ammonia toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Görg, Boris; Schliess, Freimut; Häussinger, Dieter

    2013-08-15

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric complication of acute or chronic liver failure. Currently, HE in cirrhotic patients is seen as a clinical manifestation of a low grade cerebral edema which exacerbates in response to a variety of precipitating factors after an ammonia-induced exhaustion of the volume-regulatory capacity of the astrocyte. Astrocyte swelling triggers a complex signaling cascade which relies on NMDA receptor activation, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and prostanoid-driven glutamate exocytosis, which result in increased formation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) through activation of NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase. Since RNOS in turn promote astrocyte swelling, a self-amplifying signaling loop between osmotic- and oxidative stress ensues, which triggers a variety of downstream consequences. These include protein tyrosine nitration (PTN), oxidation of RNA, mobilization of zinc, alterations in intra- and intercellular signaling and multiple effects on gene transcription. Whereas PTN can affect the function of a variety of proteins, such as glutamine synthetase, oxidized RNA may affect local protein synthesis at synapses, thereby potentially interfering with protein synthesis-dependent memory formation. PTN and RNA oxidation are also found in post mortem human cerebral cortex of cirrhotic patients with HE but not in those without HE, thereby confirming a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of HE. Evidence derived from animal experiments and human post mortem brain tissue also indicates an up-regulation of microglia activation markers in the absence of increased synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of activated microglia in the pathophysiology of HE needs to be worked out in more detail. Most recent observations made in whole genome micro-array analyses of post mortem human brain tissue point to a hitherto unrecognized activation of multiple anti

  11. Putrescine, a fast-acting switch for tolerance against osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kotakis, Christos; Theodoropoulou, Eleftheria; Tassis, Konstantinos; Oustamanolakis, Charalambos; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2014-01-15

    During the last decade we showed clearly that abiotic stress changes the cellular composition of polyamines, which in turn regulate the photochemical and non-photochemical quenching of the received light energy in the photosynthetic apparatus and that modulate substantially the level of plant tolerance. In the present contribution, we tried to change the bioenergetics of the leaf discs before the exposure to osmotic stress only by exogenously supplied putrescine, in order to enhance quickly the tolerance against the abiotic stress. Tobacco leaf discs treated with polyethylene-glycol reduced their water content about 24% within 1h. This relatively mild osmotic stress increased endogenous putrescine about 83% and decreased maximum photosystem II photochemical efficiency about 14%. In line with this, here we show that treatment with 1mM exogenous putrescine 1h before polyethylene-glycol addition protects the photochemical capacity and inhibits loss of water, confirming the key role of putrescine in the modulation of plant tolerance against osmotic stress. Furthermore, our recent works indicate that putrescine is accumulated in lumen during light reactions and may act as a permeable buffer and an osmolyte.

  12. ABA-mediated transcriptional regulation in response to osmotic stress in plants.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yasunari; Fujita, Miki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2011-07-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a pivotal role in a variety of developmental processes and adaptive stress responses to environmental stimuli in plants. Cellular dehydration during the seed maturation and vegetative growth stages induces an increase in endogenous ABA levels, which control many dehydration-responsive genes. In Arabidopsis plants, ABA regulates nearly 10% of the protein-coding genes, a much higher percentage than other plant hormones. Expression of the genes is mainly regulated by two different families of bZIP transcription factors (TFs), ABI5 in the seeds and AREB/ABFs in the vegetative stage, in an ABA-responsive-element (ABRE) dependent manner. The SnRK2-AREB/ABF pathway governs the majority of ABA-mediated ABRE-dependent gene expression in response to osmotic stress during the vegetative stage. In addition to osmotic stress, the circadian clock and light conditions also appear to participate in the regulation of ABA-mediated gene expression, likely conferring versatile tolerance and repressing growth under stress conditions. Moreover, various other TFs belonging to several classes, including AP2/ERF, MYB, NAC, and HD-ZF, have been reported to engage in ABA-mediated gene expression. This review mainly focuses on the transcriptional regulation of ABA-mediated gene expression in response to osmotic stress during the vegetative growth stage in Arabidopsis.

  13. The Pepper CaOSR1 Protein Regulates the Osmotic Stress Response via Abscisic Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chanmi; Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms, and their growth and development is detrimentally affected by environmental stresses such as drought and high salinity. Defense mechanisms are tightly regulated and complex processes, which respond to changing environmental conditions; however, the precise mechanisms that function under adverse conditions remain unclear. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the CaOSR1 gene, which functions in the adaptive response to abiotic stress. We found that CaOSR1 gene expression in pepper leaves was up-regulated after exposure to abscisic acid (ABA), drought, and high salinity. In addition, we demonstrated that the fusion protein of CaOSR1 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) is localized in the nucleus. We used CaOSR1-silenced pepper plants and CaOSR1-OX-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to show that the CaOSR1 protein regulates the osmotic stress response. CaOSR1-silenced pepper plants showed increased drought susceptibility, and this was accompanied by a high transpiration rate. CaOSR1-OX plants displayed phenotypes that were hypersensitive to ABA and hyposensitive to osmotic stress, during the seed germination and seedling growth stages; furthermore, these plants exhibited enhanced drought tolerance at the adult stage, and this was characterized by higher leaf temperatures and smaller stomatal apertures because of ABA hypersensitivity. Taken together, our data indicate that CaOSR1 positively regulates osmotic stress tolerance via ABA-mediated cell signaling. These findings suggest an involvement of a novel protein in ABA and osmotic stress signalings in plants. PMID:27446121

  14. The Pepper CaOSR1 Protein Regulates the Osmotic Stress Response via Abscisic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanmi; Lim, Chae Woo; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms, and their growth and development is detrimentally affected by environmental stresses such as drought and high salinity. Defense mechanisms are tightly regulated and complex processes, which respond to changing environmental conditions; however, the precise mechanisms that function under adverse conditions remain unclear. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the CaOSR1 gene, which functions in the adaptive response to abiotic stress. We found that CaOSR1 gene expression in pepper leaves was up-regulated after exposure to abscisic acid (ABA), drought, and high salinity. In addition, we demonstrated that the fusion protein of CaOSR1 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) is localized in the nucleus. We used CaOSR1-silenced pepper plants and CaOSR1-OX-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to show that the CaOSR1 protein regulates the osmotic stress response. CaOSR1-silenced pepper plants showed increased drought susceptibility, and this was accompanied by a high transpiration rate. CaOSR1-OX plants displayed phenotypes that were hypersensitive to ABA and hyposensitive to osmotic stress, during the seed germination and seedling growth stages; furthermore, these plants exhibited enhanced drought tolerance at the adult stage, and this was characterized by higher leaf temperatures and smaller stomatal apertures because of ABA hypersensitivity. Taken together, our data indicate that CaOSR1 positively regulates osmotic stress tolerance via ABA-mediated cell signaling. These findings suggest an involvement of a novel protein in ABA and osmotic stress signalings in plants.

  15. Influence of acute exercise on the osmotic stability of the human erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Paraiso, L F; de Freitas, M V; Gonçalves-E-Oliveira, A F M; de Almeida Neto, O P; Pereira, E A; Mascarenhas Netto, R C; Cunha, L M; Bernardino Neto, M; de Agostini, G G; Resende, E S; Penha-Silva, N

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 2 different types of acute aerobic exercise on the osmotic stability of human erythrocyte membrane and on different hematological and biochemical variables that are associated with this membrane property. The study population consisted of 20 healthy and active men. Participants performed single sessions of 2 types of exercise. The first session consisted of 60 min of moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE). The second session, executed a week later, consisted of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) until exhaustion. The osmotic stability of the erythrocyte membrane was represented by the inverse of the salt concentration (1/H50) at the midpoint of the sigmoidal curve of dependence between the absorbance of hemoglobin and the NaCl concentration. The values of 1/H50 changed from 2.29±0.1 to 2.33±0.09 after MICE and from 2.30±0.08 to 2.23±0.12 after HIIE. During MICE mean corpuscular volume increased, probably due to in vivo lysis of older erythrocytes, with preservation of cells that were larger and more resistant to in vitro lysis. The study showed that a single bout of acute exercise affected erythrocyte stability, which increased after MICE and decreased after HIIE.

  16. Stress responses of the industrial workhorse Bacillus licheniformis to osmotic challenges.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Rebecca; Hoffmann, Tamara; Voigt, Birgit; Meyer, Hanna; Bleisteiner, Monika; Muntel, Jan; Jürgen, Britta; Albrecht, Dirk; Becher, Dörte; Lalk, Michael; Evers, Stefan; Bongaerts, Johannes; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Putzer, Harald; Hecker, Michael; Schweder, Thomas; Bremer, Erhard

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-positive endospore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis can be found widely in nature and it is exploited in industrial processes for the manufacturing of antibiotics, specialty chemicals, and enzymes. Both in its varied natural habitats and in industrial settings, B. licheniformis cells will be exposed to increases in the external osmolarity, conditions that trigger water efflux, impair turgor, cause the cessation of growth, and negatively affect the productivity of cell factories in biotechnological processes. We have taken here both systems-wide and targeted physiological approaches to unravel the core of the osmostress responses of B. licheniformis. Cells were suddenly subjected to an osmotic upshift of considerable magnitude (with 1 M NaCl), and their transcriptional profile was then recorded in a time-resolved fashion on a genome-wide scale. A bioinformatics cluster analysis was used to group the osmotically up-regulated genes into categories that are functionally associated with the synthesis and import of osmostress-relieving compounds (compatible solutes), the SigB-controlled general stress response, and genes whose functional annotation suggests that salt stress triggers secondary oxidative stress responses in B. licheniformis. The data set focusing on the transcriptional profile of B. licheniformis was enriched by proteomics aimed at identifying those proteins that were accumulated by the cells through increased biosynthesis in response to osmotic stress. Furthermore, these global approaches were augmented by a set of experiments that addressed the synthesis of the compatible solutes proline and glycine betaine and assessed the growth-enhancing effects of various osmoprotectants. Combined, our data provide a blueprint of the cellular adjustment processes of B. licheniformis to both sudden and sustained osmotic stress.

  17. Effects of osmotic stress on predation behaviour of Asterias rubens L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüera, Antonio; Schellekens, Tim; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2015-05-01

    Environmental stress plays an important role in determining ecosystem functioning and structure. In estuarine areas both tidal and seasonal salinity changes may cause osmotic stress on predators, affecting their behaviour and survival. The interaction between these predators and their prey may affect performance, thus influencing predator impact on prey populations. The common starfish, Asterias rubens, inhabits estuarine areas, such as the Dutch Wadden Sea, that exhibit large seasonal variation in salinity (10-32 PSU). In those areas A. rubens exerts top down control on its prey, thus representing an important shellfish predator. This predation may impact on cultured and natural shellfish populations. However, the effects of osmotic stress on A. rubens performance may influence its effect on prey. Although the effect of salinity in A. rubens survival has been extensively studied, the impact on its predation behaviour and acclimation capacity remains unclear. In this study, we analyse the performance of A. rubens preying on mussels (Mytilus edulis) after a salinity decrease and monitor its acclimation capacity over a period of 22 days. Our experiments demonstrated that salinity affected performance by reducing feeding activity and altering size prey selection. Moreover, as acclimation occurred, A. rubens predation performance improved in all sub-lethal treatments. We conclude that osmotic stress caused by decreasing salinity potentially influences A. rubens distribution, abundance, and potential impact on prey populations. However the magnitude of the change in salinity (from 31 to a minimum of 10 PSU) and its timescale (3 weeks) mediate this effect.

  18. Regulation of mRNA decay in plant responses to salt and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Dorota; Testerink, Christa

    2017-04-01

    Plant acclimation to environmental stresses requires fast signaling to initiate changes in developmental and metabolic responses. Regulation of gene expression by transcription factors and protein kinases acting upstream are important elements of responses to salt and drought. Gene expression can be also controlled at the post-transcriptional level. Recent analyses on mutants in mRNA metabolism factors suggest their contribution to stress signaling. Here we highlight the components of mRNA decay pathways that contribute to responses to osmotic and salt stress. We hypothesize that phosphorylation state of proteins involved in mRNA decapping affect their substrate specificity.

  19. The Arabidopsis Gene zinc finger protein 3(ZFP3) Is Involved in Salt Stress and Osmotic Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aidong; Liu, Dongdong; Hua, Changmei; Yan, An; Liu, Bohan; Wu, Minjie; Liu, Yihua; Huang, Linli; Ali, Imran; Gan, Yinbo

    2016-01-01

    Plants are continuously challenged by various abiotic and biotic stresses. To tide over these adversities, plants evolved intricate regulatory networks to adapt these unfavorable environments. So far, many researchers have clarified the molecular and genetic pathways involved in regulation of stress responses. However, the mechanism through which these regulatory networks operate is largely unknown. In this study, we cloned a C2H2-type zinc finger protein gene ZFP3 from Arabidopsis thaliana and investigated its function in salt and osmotic stress response. Our results showed that the expression level of ZFP3 was highly suppressed by NaCl, mannitol and sucrose. Constitutive expression of ZFP3 enhanced tolerance of plants to salt and osmotic stress while the zfp3 mutant plants displays reduced tolerance in Arabidopsis. Gain- and Loss-of-function studies of ZFP3 showed that ZFP3 significantly changes proline accumulation and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, over-expression of ZFP3 induced the expressions of stress-related gene KIN1, RD22, RD29B and AtP5CS1. These results suggest that ZFP3 is involved in salt and osmotic stress response. PMID:27977750

  20. Alleviation of Osmotic Stress Effects by Exogenous Application of Salicylic or Abscisic Acid on Wheat Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Marcińska, Izabela; Czyczyło-Mysza, Ilona; Skrzypek, Edyta; Grzesiak, Maciej T.; Janowiak, Franciszek; Filek, Maria; Dziurka, Michał; Dziurka, Kinga; Waligórski, Piotr; Juzoń, Katarzyna; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Grzesiak, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in osmotic stress tolerance of wheat seedlings. This was accomplished by determining the impact of the acids applied exogenously on seedlings grown under osmotic stress in hydroponics. The investigation was unique in its comprehensiveness, examining changes under osmotic stress and other conditions, and testing a number of parameters simultaneously. In both drought susceptible (SQ1) and drought resistant (CS) wheat cultivars, significant physiological and biochemical changes were observed upon the addition of SA (0.05 mM) or ABA (0.1 μM) to solutions containing half-strength Hoagland medium and PEG 6000 (−0.75 MPa). The most noticeable result of supplementing SA or ABA to the medium (PEG + SA and PEG + ABA) was a decrease in the length of leaves and roots in both cultivars. While PEG treatment reduced gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content in CS, and osmotic potential, and conversely, increased lipid peroxidation, soluble carbohydrates in SQ1, proline content in both cultivars and total antioxidants activity in SQ1, PEG + SA or PEG + ABA did not change the values of these parameters. Furthermore, PEG caused a two-fold increase of endogenous ABA content in SQ1 and a four-fold increase in CS. PEG + ABA increased endogenous ABA only in SQ1, whereas PEG + SA caused a greater increase of ABA content in both cultivars compared to PEG. In PEG-treated plants growing until the harvest, a greater decrease of yield components was observed in SQ1 than in CS. PEG + SA, and particularly PEG + ABA, caused a greater increase of these yield parameters in CS compared to SQ1. In conclusion, SA and ABA ameliorate, particularly in the tolerant wheat cultivar, the harmful effects and after effects of osmotic stress induced by PEG in hydroponics through better osmotic adjustment achieved by an increase in proline and carbohydrate content as well as by an increase in antioxidant activity

  1. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. II. Improvement of oat protoplasts by an inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted to improve the viability of cereal mesophyll protoplasts by pretreatment of leaves with DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific 'suicide' inhibitor of the enzyme (arginine decarboxylase) responsible for their osmotically induced putrescine accumulation. Leaf pretreatment with DFMA before a 6 hour osmotic shock caused a 45% decrease of putrescine and a 2-fold increase of spermine titer. After 136 hours of osmotic stress, putrescine titer in DFMA-pretreated leaves increased by only 50%, but spermidine and spermine titers increased dramatically by 3.2- and 6-fold, respectively. These increases in higher polyamines could account for the reduced chlorophyll loss and enhanced ability of pretreated leaves to incorporate tritiated thymidine, uridine, and leucine into macromolecules. Pretreatment with DFMA significantly improved the overall viability of the protoplasts isolated from these leaves. The results support the view that the osmotically induced rise in putrescine and blockage of its conversion to higher polyamines may contribute to the lack of sustained cell division in cereal mesophyll protoplasts, although other undefined factors must also play a major role.

  2. Osmotic stress responses of individual white oak (Quercus section, Quercus subgenus) genotypes cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Zita; Kanalas, Péter; Máthé, Csaba; Cseke, Klára; Szőllősi, Erzsébet; M-Hamvas, Márta; Jámbrik, Katalin; Kiss, Zoltán; Mészáros, Ilona

    2014-01-15

    White oaks (Quercus section, Quercus subgenus) are widely distributed in Europe. Quercus petraea (sessile oak), an economically important species is predicted to be affected by climate change. Q. pubescens (pubescent oak) and Q. virgiliana (Italian pubescent oak) are economically less important, drought tolerant species. Frequent hybridization of white oaks was observed and currently the introgression of Q. pubescens and Q. virgiliana in non-mediterranean regions of Europe has been reported. Our goal was to use tissue cultures established from individual trees of the above taxa and their putative hybrids, all present in the forest stand of Síkfőkút LTER Research Area (NE Hungary) as simple experimental model systems for studying drought/osmotic stress tolerance. Tissue cultures are more suitable models for such studies, than seedlings, because they are genetically identical to the parent plants. Polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) treatments were used for this purpose. The identification of taxa was based on leaf morphological traits and microsatellite analysis and showed that Q. petraea is genetically distinct to all other taxa examined. We established six callus lines of Quercus. As expected, in Q. petraea cultures PEG6000 induced severe loss of fresh weight and the ability to recover after removal of the osmoticum, which was not characteristic for Q. pubescens and Q. virgiliana. Putative hybrids exhibited an intermediate response to osmotic stress. Activity gels showed the increase of single-strand preferring (SSP) nuclease and no significant change of guaiacol-peroxidase activities in drought-sensitive genotypes/cultures and no significant increase of SSP nuclease activities accompanied with increases of guaiacol-peroxidase activities in drought-tolerant ones. This indicates that drought/osmotic stress tolerance is associated to increased capacity of scavenging reactive oxygen species and hence less susceptibility to DNA damage. Our results confirm that tissue

  3. Data for transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic analysis of Anguilla japonica gills in response to osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Tse, William Ka Fai; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Lai, Keng Po; Gu, Jie; Sheung Law, Alice Yu; Yee Yeung, Bonnie Ho; Ching Chow, Sheung; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Wong, Chris Kong Chu

    2015-01-01

    This article contains data related to the two research articles titled Transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic approaches reveal novel short-term hyperosmotic stress responsive proteins in the gill of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [1]) and iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals acute hypo-osmotic responsive proteins in the gills of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [2]). The two research articles show the usefulness of combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to provide molecular insights of osmoregulation mechanism in a non-model organism, the Japanese eel. The information presented here combines the raw data from the two studies and provides an overview on the physiological functions of fish gills. PMID:26217731

  4. Data for transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic analysis of Anguilla japonica gills in response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Tse, William Ka Fai; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Lai, Keng Po; Gu, Jie; Sheung Law, Alice Yu; Yee Yeung, Bonnie Ho; Ching Chow, Sheung; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Wong, Chris Kong Chu

    2015-06-01

    This article contains data related to the two research articles titled Transcriptomic and iTRAQ proteomic approaches reveal novel short-term hyperosmotic stress responsive proteins in the gill of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [1]) and iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals acute hypo-osmotic responsive proteins in the gills of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) (Tse et al. [2]). The two research articles show the usefulness of combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to provide molecular insights of osmoregulation mechanism in a non-model organism, the Japanese eel. The information presented here combines the raw data from the two studies and provides an overview on the physiological functions of fish gills.

  5. Concomitant Production of Lipids and Carotenoids in Rhodosporidium toruloides under Osmotic Stress Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gunjan; Jawed, Arshad; Paul, Debarati; Bandyopadhyay, Kalyan K.; Kumari, Abha; Haque, Shafiul

    2016-01-01

    As a replacement to existing fossil fuels, biofuels, have proven their worth; however, their widespread use is limited due to inconsistent yields, higher costs and poor productivity. An oleaginous yeast, Rhodosporidium toruloides has been reported to accumulate substantial amounts of lipids (that can be converted to biofuels) and therefore, it was selected for study and optimization. Apart from lipids, R. toruloides is also reported to produce carotene that can be used as a therapeutic agent. In this study, the culture medium was statistically modeled and optimized for concomitant production of lipids and carotenoids and for improving and maximizing the productivity of lipids as well as carotenes. The two metabolites were expressed differentially in the growth cycle of the organism. Culture medium components were simultaneously varied at five different levels using statistical modeling employing response surface methodology (RSM). Osmotic stress was introduced in order to simulate saline conditions and optimize the carotenoid as well as lipid production process, to be used in conditions with high salt contents. We observed a 10% (w/v) increase in carotenoid production in initial experiments under osmotic stress due to high salt concentration, while the increase in lipid synthesis was not pronounced. In this study, we demonstrate 36.2% (w/v) lipid production and 27.2% (w/v) carotenoid production, under osmotic stress with high salt concentrations, for the first time. PMID:27826295

  6. Evaluation of the response of Lactobacillus rhamnosus VTT E-97800 to sucrose-induced osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Sunny-Roberts, E O; Knorr, D

    2008-02-01

    Environmental osmotic changes are one of the stresses live probiotics may encounter either in their natural habitats or as a result of usage in food formulations and processing. Response to osmotic stress, induced by sucrose, of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus VTT E-97800 (E800) was investigated. The fluorescence-based approach used, by combined staining with caboxyfluorescein (cFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) could give insights on the osmotic-induced changes of microbial esterase activity and membrane integrity; also the extrusion of intracellular accumulated carboxyfluorescein (cF) upon energizing with glucose. Comparison of the flowcytometric viability assessment with the conventional culture techniques revealed that sucrose-stressed cells had a slight loss of culturability (logN/N(0) approximately -0.3) at 1.2 and 1.5M sucrose concentration though they could perform an enzymatic conversion of cFDA into cF. The presence of such metabolically active bacteria in food might be critical as they may excrete toxic or food spoilage metabolites. Moreover, the perturbation of cF extrusion activities became a limiting factor for reproductive capacities. There was no change in the cell morphology. These results proved the ability of the strain of study to tolerate sucrose, even at extreme concentrations and these must be taken into consideration for its usage in the formulation/processing of sugar-based foods, e.g. jams, candies, etc.

  7. Osmotic adjustment, symplast volume, and nonstomatally mediated water stress inhibition of photosynthesis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A S; Berkowitz, G A

    1987-12-01

    At low water potential (psi(w)), dehydration reduces the symplast volume of leaf tissue. The effect of this reduction on photosynthetic capacity was investigated. The influence of osmotic adjustment on this relationship was also examined. To examine these relationships, comparative studies were undertaken on two wheat cultivars, one that osmotically adjusts in response to water deficits (;Condor'), and one that lacks this capacity (;Capelle Desprez'). During a 9-day stress cycle, when water was withheld from plants grown in a growth chamber, the relative water content of leaves declined by 30% in both cultivars. Leaf osmotic potential (psi(s)) declined to a greater degree in Condor plants. Measuring psi(s) at full turgor indicated that osmotic adjustment occurred in stressed Condor, but not in Capelle plants. Two methods were used to examine the degree of symplast (i.e. protoplast) volume reduction in tissue rapidly equilibrated to increasingly low psi(w). Both techniques gave similar results. With well-watered plants, symplast volume reduction from the maximum (found at high psi(w) for each cultivar) was the same for Condor and Capelle. After a stress cycle, volume was maintained to a greater degree at low psi(w) in Condor leaf tissue than in Capelle. Nonstomatally controlled photosynthesis was inhibited to the same degree at low psi(w) in leaf tissue prepared from well-watered Condor and Capelle plants. However, photosynthetic capacity was maintained to a greater degree at low psi(w) in tissue prepared from stressed Condor plants than in tissue from stressed Capelle plants. Net CO(2) uptake in attached leaves was monitored using an infrared gas analyzer. These studies indicated that in water stressed plants, photosynthesis was 106.5% higher in Condor than Capelle at ambient [CO(2)] and 21.8% higher at elevated external [CO(2)]. The results presented in this report were interpreted as consistent with the hypothesis that there is a causal association between

  8. Effect of drought and osmotic stress on gene expression in Jack Pine. [Pinus banksiana

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, M.; Mayne, M.; Coleman, J.R.; Blumwald, E. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought and osmotic stress was studied in Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings and cultured cell suspensions, respectively. The pattern of protein syntheses during stress was studied. Seedlings and cells were in vivo labeled with ({sup 35}S)methionine and membrane-bound proteins were isolated. proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by staining and autoradiography. Several changes in protein profiles were induced by stress. Messenger RNAs were isolated, translated in vitro, and complementary DNA libraries from control and stressed plants and cells were constructed in E. coli strain JM109. Antibodies, raised against electroeluted membrane-bound proteins that were significantly induced and/or enhanced during stress, were used to isolate stress-related genes from cDNA libraries.

  9. Is osmotic adjustment required for water stress resistance in the Mediterranean shrub Atriplex halimus L?

    PubMed

    Martìnez, Juan-Pablo; Lutts, Stanley; Schanck, André; Bajji, Mohammed; Kinet, Jean-Marie

    2004-09-01

    The effect of water stress was investigated in plants from two populations of Atriplex halimus L: Tensift issued from a salt-affected coastal area and Kairouan, originating from an inland dried site. Water deficit was applied by withholding water for 22 days. Shoot dry weight (shoot DW), leaf relative water content (RWC), turgid weight to dry weight ratio (TW/DW), osmotic potential (psis), osmotic adjustment (OA), proline, glycinebetaine, and sugar content were determined 1, 8, 15 and 22 days after withholding watering. Water stress induced a decrease in shoot DW, RWC, psis, and TW/DW, but an increase in glycinebetaine and sugar leaf contents. The decrease of psis and TW/DW was more marked in Kairouan than in Tensift. At the end of the stress period, Kairouan showed a greater OA compared with Tensift. However, the contribution of net solute accumulation (OAacc) was similar in both populations in response to stress. Water stress resistance could thus not be associated with higher OA, although the ability of plants to regulate these metabolic and physiological functions could play an important role under harmful conditions. The possible roles of osmolyte accumulations are discussed in relation to the specific physiological strategy of water-stress-resistance in this species.

  10. Osmotic Stress-Induced Polyamine Accumulation in Cereal Leaves : II. Relation to Amino Acid Pools.

    PubMed

    Flores, H E; Galston, A W

    1984-05-01

    Arginine decarboxylase activity increases 2- to 3-fold in osmotically stressed oat leaves in both light and dark, but putrescine accumulation in the dark is only one-third to one-half of that in light-stressed leaves. If arginine or ornithine are supplied to dark-stressed leaves, putrescine rises to levels comparable to those obtained by incubation under light. Thus, precursor amino acid availability is limiting to the stress response. Amino acid levels change rapidly upon osmotic treatment; notably, glutamic acid decreases with a corresponding rise in glutamine. Difluoromethylarginine (0.01-0.1 millimolar), the enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase, prevents the stress-induced putrescine rise, as well as the incorporation of label from [(14)C]arginine, with the expected accumulation of free arginine, but has no effect on the rest of the amino acid pool. The use of specific inhibitors such as alpha-difluoromethylarginine is suggested as probes for the physiological significance of stress responses by plant cells.

  11. Osmotically driven tensile stress in collagen-based mineralized tissues.

    PubMed

    Bertinetti, Luca; Masic, Admir; Schuetz, Roman; Barbetta, Aurelio; Seidt, Britta; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals and its primary role is to serve as mechanical support in many extracellular matrices such as those of bones, tendons, skin or blood vessels. Water is an integral part of the collagen structure, but its role is still poorly understood, though it is well-known that the mechanical properties of collagen depend on hydration. Recently, it was shown that the conformation of the collagen triple helix changes upon water removal, leading to a contraction of the molecule with considerable forces. Here we investigate the influence of mineralization on this effect by studying bone and turkey leg tendon (TLT) as model systems. Indeed, TLT partially mineralizes so that well-aligned collagen with various mineral contents can be found in the same tendon. We show that water removal leads to collagen contraction in all cases generating tensile stresses up to 80MPa. Moreover, this contraction of collagen puts mineral particles under compression leading to strains of around 1%, which implies localized compressive loads in mineral of up to 800MPa. This suggests that collagen dehydration upon mineralization is at the origin of the compressive pre-strains commonly observed in bone mineral.

  12. Polyamines and plant stress - Activation of putrescine biosynthesis by osmotic shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, H. E.; Galston, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    The putrescine content of oat leaf cells and protoplasts increases up to 60-fold within 6 hours of exposure to osmotic stress (0.4 to 0.6 molar sorbitol). Barley, corn, wheat, and wild oat leaves show a similar response. Increased arginine decarboxylase activity parallels the rise in putrescine, whereas ornithine decarboxylase remains unchanged. DL-alpha-Difluoromethylarginine, a specific irreversible inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase, prevents the stress-induced rise in increase in arginine decarboxylase activity and putrescine synthesis, indicating the preferential activation of this pathway.

  13. Osmotic stress regulates the strength and kinetics of sugar binding to the maltoporin channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnev, Philip A.; Harries, Daniel; Parsegian, V. Adrian; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2010-11-01

    We study the effect of osmotic stress, exerted by salts, on carbohydrate binding to the sugar-specific bacterial channel maltoporin. When the channel is reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers, single events of its occlusion by sugar are seen as transient interruptions in the flow of small ions. We find that, for most salts, changes in the free energy of maltoporin-sugar binding vary linearly with solution osmotic pressure. Such a change in binding with solution osmolarity indicates that for each salt a constant number of salt-excluding water molecules is released upon sugar-maltoporin association at all salt concentrations. We find that larger numbers of water molecules are released upon binding of the cyclic carbohydrate β-cyclodextrin (CD) than upon binding of the corresponding linear homologue maltoheptaose (m7). Remarkably, the extent to which salts affect the binding constants and rates depends sensitively on the type of salt; dehydration in solutions of different anions corresponds to the Hofmeister series. In sodium sulfate solutions, CD and m7 respectively release about 120 and 35 salt-excluding water molecules; in sodium chloride solutions, 35 and 15 waters. No water release is observed with sodium bromide. Finally, by adding adamantane, known to form an inclusion complex with CD, we can infer that CD not only dehydrates but also undergoes a conformational change upon binding to the channel. As a practical outcome, our results also demonstrate how osmotic stress can improve single-molecule detection of different solutes using protein-based nanopores.

  14. Energetics of Vesicle Fusion Intermediates: Comparison of Calculations with Observed Effects of Osmotic and Curvature Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Malinin, Vladimir S.; Lentz, Barry R.

    2004-01-01

    We reported previously the effects of both osmotic and curvature stress on fusion between poly(ethylene glycol)-aggregated vesicles. In this article, we analyze the energetics of fusion of vesicles of different curvature, paying particular attention to the effects of osmotic stress on small, highly curved vesicles of 26 nm diameter, composed of lipids with negative intrinsic curvature. Our calculations show that high positive curvature of the outer monolayer “charges” these vesicles with excess bending energy, which then releases during stalk expansion (increase of the stalk radius, rs) and thus “drives” fusion. Calculations based on the known mechanical properties of lipid assemblies suggest that the free energy of “void” formation as well as membrane-bending free energy dominate the evolution of a stalk to an extended transmembrane contact. The free-energy profile of stalk expansion (free energy versus rs) clearly shows the presence of two metastable intermediates (intermediate 1 at rs ∼0 − 1.0 nm and intermediate 2 at rs ∼2.5 − 3.0 nm). Applying osmotic gradients of ±5 atm, when assuming a fixed trans-bilayer lipid mass distribution, did not significantly change the free-energy profile. However, inclusion in the model of an additional degree of freedom, the ability of lipids to move into and out of the “void”, made the free-energy profile strongly dependent on the osmotic gradient. Vesicle expansion increased the energy barrier between intermediates by ∼4 kT and the absolute value of the barrier by ∼7 kT, whereas compression decreased it by nearly the same extent. Since these calculations, which are based on the stalk hypothesis, correctly predict the effects of both membrane curvature and osmotic stress, they support the stalk hypothesis for the mechanism of membrane fusion and suggest that both forms of stress alter the final stages, rather than the initial step, of the fusion process, as previously suggested. PMID:15111411

  15. From microgravity to osmotic conditions: mechanical integration of plant cells in response to stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtaszek, Przemyslaw; Kasprowicz, Anna; Michalak, Michal; Janczara, Renata; Volkmann, Dieter; Baluska, Frantisek

    Chemical reactions and interactions between molecules are commonly thought of as being at the basis of Life. Research of recent years, however, is more and more evidently indicating that physical forces are profoundly affecting the functioning of life at all levels of its organiza-tion. To detect and to respond to such forces, plant cells need to be integrated mechanically. Cell walls are the outermost functional zone of plant cells. They surround the individual cells, and also form a part of the apoplast. In cell suspensions, cell walls are embedded in the cul-ture medium which can be considered as a superapoplast. Through physical and chemical interactions they provide a basis for the structural and functional cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton (WMC) continuum spanning the whole cell. Here, the working of WMC contin-uum, and the participation of signalling molecules, like NO, would be presented in the context of plant responses to stress. In addition, the effects of the changing composition of WMC continuum will be considered, with particular attention paid to the modifications of the WMC components. Plant cells are normally adapted to changing osmotic conditions, resulting from variable wa-ter availability. The appearance of the osmotic stress activates adaptory mechanisms. If the strength of osmotic stress grows relatively slowly over longer period of time, the cells are able to adapt to conditions that are lethal to non-adapted cells. During stepwise adaptation of tobacco BY-2 suspension cells to the presence of various osmotically active agents, cells diverged into independent, osmoticum type-specific lines. In response to ionic agents (NaCl, KCl), the adhe-sive properties were increased and randomly dividing cells formed clumps, while cells adapted to nonionic osmotica (mannitol, sorbitol, PEG) revealed ordered pattern of precisely positioned cell divisions, resulting in the formation of long cell files. Changes in the growth patterns were accompanied by

  16. Characterization of Dof Transcription Factors and Their Responses to Osmotic Stress in Poplar (Populus trichocarpa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Zhao, Shicheng; Gao, Yuchi; Yang, Jingli

    2017-01-01

    The DNA-binding One Zinc Finger (Dof) genes are ubiquitous in many plant species and are especial transcription regulators that participate in plant growth, development and various procedures, including biotic and abiotic stress reactions. In this study, we identified 41 PtrDof members from Populus trichocarpa genomes and classified them into four groups. The conserved motifs and gene structures of some PtrDof genes belonging to the same subgroup were almost the same. The 41 PtrDof genes were dispersed on 18 of the 19 Populus chromosomes. Many key stress- or phytohormone-related cis-elements were discovered in the PtrDof gene promoter regions. Consequently, we undertook expression profiling of the PtrDof genes in leaves and roots in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid. A total of seven genes (PtrDof14, 16, 25, 27, 28, 37 and 39) in the Populus Dof gene family were consistently upregulated at point in all time in the leaves and roots under osmotic and abscisic acid (ABA) stress. We observed that 12 PtrDof genes could be targeted by 15 miRNAs. Moreover, we mapped the cleavage site in PtrDof30 using the 5'RLM-RACE. The results showed that PtrDofs may have a role in resistance to abiotic stress in Populus trichocarpa.

  17. Mitochondrial function is an inducible determinant of osmotic stress adaptation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Mar Martínez; Proft, Markus; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo

    2009-10-30

    Hyperosmotic stress triggers a great variety of adaptive responses in eukaryotic cells that affect many different physiological functions. Here we investigate the role of the mitochondria during osmostress adaptation in budding yeast. Mitochondrial function is generally required for proper salt and osmotic stress adaptation because mutants with defects in many different mitochondrial components show hypersensitivity to increased NaCl and KCl concentrations. Mitochondrial protein abundance rapidly increases upon osmoshock in a selective manner, because it affects Calvin cycle enzymes (Sdh2 and Cit1) and components of the electron transport chain (Cox6) but not the ATP synthase complex (Atp5). Transcription of the SDH2, CIT1, and COX6 genes is severalfold induced within the first minutes of osmotic shock, dependent to various degree on the Hog1 and Snf1 protein kinases. Mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase enzyme activity is stimulated upon osmostress in a Snf1-dependent manner. The osmosensitivity of mitochondrial mutants is not caused by impaired stress-activated transcription or by a general depletion of the cellular ATP pool during osmostress. We finally show that the growth defect of mitochondrial mutants in high salt medium can be partially rescued by supplementation of glutathione. Additionally, mitochondrial defects cause the hyperaccumulation of reactive oxygen species during salt stress. Our results indicate that the antioxidant function of the mitochondria might play an important role in adaptation to hyperosmotic stress.

  18. Characterization of Dof Transcription Factors and Their Responses to Osmotic Stress in Poplar (Populus trichocarpa)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han; Zhao, Shicheng; Gao, Yuchi; Yang, Jingli

    2017-01-01

    The DNA-binding One Zinc Finger (Dof) genes are ubiquitous in many plant species and are especial transcription regulators that participate in plant growth, development and various procedures, including biotic and abiotic stress reactions. In this study, we identified 41 PtrDof members from Populus trichocarpa genomes and classified them into four groups. The conserved motifs and gene structures of some PtrDof genes belonging to the same subgroup were almost the same. The 41 PtrDof genes were dispersed on 18 of the 19 Populus chromosomes. Many key stress- or phytohormone-related cis-elements were discovered in the PtrDof gene promoter regions. Consequently, we undertook expression profiling of the PtrDof genes in leaves and roots in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid. A total of seven genes (PtrDof14, 16, 25, 27, 28, 37 and 39) in the Populus Dof gene family were consistently upregulated at point in all time in the leaves and roots under osmotic and abscisic acid (ABA) stress. We observed that 12 PtrDof genes could be targeted by 15 miRNAs. Moreover, we mapped the cleavage site in PtrDof30 using the 5’RLM-RACE. The results showed that PtrDofs may have a role in resistance to abiotic stress in Populus trichocarpa. PMID:28095469

  19. Acute pancreatitis: The stress factor

    PubMed Central

    Binker, Marcelo G; Cosen-Binker, Laura I

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disorder of the pancreas that may cause life-threatening complications. Etiologies of pancreatitis vary, with gallstones accounting for the majority of all cases, followed by alcohol. Other causes of pancreatitis include trauma, ischemia, mechanical obstruction, infections, autoimmune, hereditary, and drugs. The main events occurring in the pancreatic acinar cell that initiate and propagate acute pancreatitis include inhibition of secretion, intracellular activation of proteases, and generation of inflammatory mediators. Small cytokines known as chemokines are released from damaged pancreatic cells and attract inflammatory cells, whose systemic action ultimately determined the severity of the disease. Indeed, severe forms of pancreatitis may result in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, characterized by a progressive physiologic failure of several interdependent organ systems. Stress occurs when homeostasis is threatened, and stressors can include physical or mental forces, or combinations of both. Depending on the timing and duration, stress can result in beneficial or harmful consequences. While it is well established that a previous acute-short-term stress decreases the severity of experimentally-induced pancreatitis, the worsening effects of chronic stress on the exocrine pancreas have received relatively little attention. This review will focus on the influence of both prior acute-short-term and chronic stress in acute pancreatitis. PMID:24914340

  20. Interaction between osmotic and oxidative stress in diabetic precataractous lens: studies with a sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Obrosova, I G; Fathallah, L; Lang, H J

    1999-12-15

    Both sorbitol accumulation-linked osmotic stress and "pseudohypoxia" [increase in NADH/NAD+, similar to that in hypoxic tissues, and attributed to increased sorbitol dehydrogenase (1-iditol:NAD+ 5-oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.14; SDH) activity] have been invoked among the mechanisms underlying oxidative injury in target tissues for diabetic complications. We used the specific SDH inhibitor SDI-157 [2-methyl-4(4-N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl-1-piperazino)pyrimid ine] to evaluate the role of osmotic stress versus "pseudohypoxia" in oxidative stress occurring in diabetic precataractous lens. Control and diabetic rats were treated with or without SDI-157 (100 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks). Lens malondialdehyde (MDA) plus 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HA), MDA, GSH, and ascorbate levels, as well as the GSSG/GSH ratios, were similar in SDI-treated and untreated control rats, thus indicating that SDI-157 was not a prooxidant. Intralenticular osmotic stress, manifested by sorbitol levels, was more severe in SDI-treated diabetic rats (38.2+/-6.8 vs 21.2+/-3.5 micromol/g in untreated diabetic and 0.758+/-0.222 micromol/g in control rats, P<0.01 for both), while the decrease in the free cytosolic NAD+/NADH ratio was partially prevented (120+/-16 vs 88+/-11 in untreated diabetic rats and 143+/-13 in controls, P<0.01 for both). GSH and ascorbate levels were decreased, while MDA plus 4-HA and MDA levels were increased in diabetic rats versus controls; both antioxidant depletion and lipid aldehyde accumulation were exacerbated by SDI treatment. Superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase; EC 1.15.1.1), GSSG reductase (NAD[P]H:oxidized-glutathione oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.4.2), GSH transferase (glutathione S-transferase; EC 2.5.1.18), GSH peroxidase (glutathione:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase; EC 1.11.1.9), and cytoplasmic NADH oxidase activities were increased in diabetic rats versus controls, and all the enzymes but GSH peroxidase were up-regulated further by SDI. In conclusion, sorbitol

  1. Comparative analysis on the key enzymes of the glycerol cycle metabolic pathway in Dunaliella salina under osmotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    The glycerol metabolic pathway is a special cycle way; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase (G3pp), dihydroxyacetone reductase (Dhar), and dihydroxyacetone kinase (Dhak) are the key enzymes around the pathway. Glycerol is an important osmolyte for Dunaliella salina to resist osmotic stress. In this study, comparative activities of the four enzymes in D. salina and their activity changes under various salt stresses were investigated, from which glycerol metabolic flow direction in the glycerol metabolic pathway was estimated. Results showed that the salinity changes had different effects on the enzymes activities. NaCl could stimulate the activities of all the four enzymes in various degrees when D. salina was grown under continuous salt stress. When treated by hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic shock, only the activity of G3pdh in D. salina was significantly stimulated. It was speculated that, under osmotic stresses, the emergency response of the cycle pathway in D. salina was driven by G3pdh via its response to the osmotic stress. Subsequently, with the changes of salinity, other three enzymes started to respond to osmotic stress. Dhar played a role of balancing the cycle metabolic pathway by its forward and backward reactions. Through synergy, the four enzymes worked together for the effective flow of the cycle metabolic pathways to maintain the glycerol requirements of cells in order to adapt to osmotic stress environments.

  2. Isohydric and anisohydric strategies of wheat genotypes under osmotic stress: biosynthesis and function of ABA in stress responses.

    PubMed

    Gallé, Ágnes; Csiszár, Jolán; Benyó, Dániel; Laskay, Gábor; Leviczky, Tünde; Erdei, László; Tari, Irma

    2013-11-01

    Changes in water potential (ψw), stomatal conductance, abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation, expression of the major genes involved in ABA biosynthesis, activities of abscisic aldehyde oxidase (AO, EC 1.2.3.1) and antioxidant enzymes were studied in two wheat cultivars with contrasting acclimation strategies subjected to medium strength osmotic stress (-0.976MPa) induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000). Because the biosynthetic pathway of ABA involves multiple gene products, the aim of this study was to unravel how these genes are regulated in isohydric and anisohydric wheat genotypes. In the root tissues of the isohydric cultivar, Triticum aestivum cv. Kobomugi, osmotic stress increased the transcript levels of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) gene, controlling the rate limiting step of ABA biosynthesis. Moreover, this cultivar exhibited a higher basal activity and a higher induction of aldehyde oxidase isoenzymes (AAO2-AAO3), responsible for converting ABAldehyde to ABA. It was found that the fast activation of the ABA biosynthesis in the roots generated an enhanced ABA pool in the shoot, which brought about a faster closure of the stomata upon increasing osmotic stress and, as a result, the plants could maintain ψw in the tissues close to the control level. In contrast, the anisohydric genotype, cv. GK Öthalom, exhibited a moderate induction of ABA biosynthesis in the roots, leading to the maintenance but no increase in the concentration of ABA on the basis of tissue water content in the leaves. Due to the slower response of their stomata to water deficit, the tissues of cv. GK Öthalom have to acclimate to much more negative water potentials during increasing osmotic stress. A decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was found in the leaves and roots of both cultivars exposed to osmotic stress, but in the roots elevated activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione transferase (GST) were detected in

  3. Osmotic Stress Responses and Plant Growth Controlled by Potassium Transporters in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Arinaga, Naoko; Umezawa, Taishi; Katsura, Shogo; Nagamachi, Keita; Tanaka, Hidenori; Ohiraki, Haruka; Yamada, Kohji; Seo, So-Uk; Abo, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    Osmotic adjustment plays a fundamental role in water stress responses and growth in plants; however, the molecular mechanisms governing this process are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that the KUP potassium transporter family plays important roles in this process, under the control of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin. We generated Arabidopsis thaliana multiple mutants for K+ uptake transporter 6 (KUP6), KUP8, KUP2/SHORT HYPOCOTYL3, and an ABA-responsive potassium efflux channel, guard cell outward rectifying K+ channel (GORK). The triple mutants, kup268 and kup68 gork, exhibited enhanced cell expansion, suggesting that these KUPs negatively regulate turgor-dependent growth. Potassium uptake experiments using 86radioactive rubidium ion (86Rb+) in the mutants indicated that these KUPs might be involved in potassium efflux in Arabidopsis roots. The mutants showed increased auxin responses and decreased sensitivity to an auxin inhibitor (1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid) and ABA in lateral root growth. During water deficit stress, kup68 gork impaired ABA-mediated stomatal closing, and kup268 and kup68 gork decreased survival of drought stress. The protein kinase SNF1-related protein kinases 2E (SRK2E), a key component of ABA signaling, interacted with and phosphorylated KUP6, suggesting that KUP functions are regulated directly via an ABA signaling complex. We propose that the KUP6 subfamily transporters act as key factors in osmotic adjustment by balancing potassium homeostasis in cell growth and drought stress responses. PMID:23396830

  4. Osmotic stress responses and plant growth controlled by potassium transporters in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Arinaga, Naoko; Umezawa, Taishi; Katsura, Shogo; Nagamachi, Keita; Tanaka, Hidenori; Ohiraki, Haruka; Yamada, Kohji; Seo, So-Uk; Abo, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2013-02-01

    Osmotic adjustment plays a fundamental role in water stress responses and growth in plants; however, the molecular mechanisms governing this process are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that the KUP potassium transporter family plays important roles in this process, under the control of abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin. We generated Arabidopsis thaliana multiple mutants for K(+) uptake transporter 6 (KUP6), KUP8, KUP2/SHORT HYPOCOTYL3, and an ABA-responsive potassium efflux channel, guard cell outward rectifying K(+) channel (GORK). The triple mutants, kup268 and kup68 gork, exhibited enhanced cell expansion, suggesting that these KUPs negatively regulate turgor-dependent growth. Potassium uptake experiments using (86)radioactive rubidium ion ((86)Rb(+)) in the mutants indicated that these KUPs might be involved in potassium efflux in Arabidopsis roots. The mutants showed increased auxin responses and decreased sensitivity to an auxin inhibitor (1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid) and ABA in lateral root growth. During water deficit stress, kup68 gork impaired ABA-mediated stomatal closing, and kup268 and kup68 gork decreased survival of drought stress. The protein kinase SNF1-related protein kinases 2E (SRK2E), a key component of ABA signaling, interacted with and phosphorylated KUP6, suggesting that KUP functions are regulated directly via an ABA signaling complex. We propose that the KUP6 subfamily transporters act as key factors in osmotic adjustment by balancing potassium homeostasis in cell growth and drought stress responses.

  5. Irreversibility of a bad start: early exposure to osmotic stress limits growth and adaptive developmental plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Shiun; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Kam, Yeong-Choy

    2012-05-01

    Harsh environments experienced early in development have immediate effects and potentially long-lasting consequences throughout ontogeny. We examined how salinity fluctuations affected survival, growth and development of Fejervarya limnocharis tadpoles. Specifically, we tested whether initial salinity effects on growth and rates of development were reversible and whether they affected the tadpoles' ability to adaptively accelerate development in response to deteriorating conditions later in development. Tadpoles were initially assigned to either low or high salinity, and then some were switched between salinity levels upon reaching either Gosner stage 30 (early switch) or 38 (late switch). All tadpoles initially experiencing low salinity survived whereas those initially experiencing high salinity had poor survival, even if switched to low salinity. Growth and developmental rates of tadpoles initially assigned to high salinity did not increase after osmotic stress release. Initial low salinity conditions allowed tadpoles to attain a fast pace of development even if exposed to high salinity afterwards. Tadpoles experiencing high salinity only late in development metamorphosed faster and at a smaller size, indicating an adaptive acceleration of development to avoid osmotic stress. Nonetheless, early exposure to high salinity precluded adaptive acceleration of development, always causing delayed metamorphosis relative to those in initially low salinity. Our results thus show that stressful environments experienced early in development can critically impact life history traits, having long-lasting or irreversible effects, and restricting their ability to produce adaptive plastic responses.

  6. Differential root transcriptomics in a polyploid non-model crop: the importance of respiration during osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Rouard, Mathieu; Cenci, Alberto; Kissel, Ewaut; Do, Hien; Dubois, Emeric; Nidelet, Sabine; Roux, Nicolas; Swennen, Rony; Carpentier, Sebastien Christian

    2016-01-01

    To explore the transcriptomic global response to osmotic stress in roots, 18 mRNA-seq libraries were generated from three triploid banana genotypes grown under mild osmotic stress (5% PEG) and control conditions. Illumina sequencing produced 568 million high quality reads, of which 70–84% were mapped to the banana diploid reference genome. Using different uni- and multivariate statistics, 92 genes were commonly identified as differentially expressed in the three genotypes. Using our in house workflow to analyze GO enriched and underlying biochemical pathways, we present the general processes affected by mild osmotic stress in the root and focus subsequently on the most significantly overrepresented classes associated with: respiration, glycolysis and fermentation. We hypothesize that in fast growing and oxygen demanding tissues, mild osmotic stress leads to a lower energy level, which induces a metabolic shift towards (i) a higher oxidative respiration, (ii) alternative respiration and (iii) fermentation. To confirm the mRNA-seq results, a subset of twenty up-regulated transcripts were further analysed by RT-qPCR in an independent experiment at three different time points. The identification and annotation of this set of genes provides a valuable resource to understand the importance of energy sensing during mild osmotic stress. PMID:26935041

  7. An experimental approach to assess Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) resistance to osmotic stress in estuarine habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira-Rodríguez, Noé; Pardo, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Corbicula fluminea arrived in the Miño Estuary in 1989 and, from there, colonized more than 150 km upstream. Our aim was to test the capacity of C. fluminea to cope with osmotic stress conditions previously to invade new freshwater habitats through estuaries. Based on previously collected information, the experiment aims to study the response of the species to marine osmotic stress, evaluated by survival and behaviour. Experiments determined the resistance by the species to various levels of osmotic stress, and recovery time after exposure to high salinity levels, representative of the temporal and spatial salinity variation existing in the estuary. Under osmotic stress the semi-maximum response was reached after 19 days exposure. The species tolerance range, measured by individual maintained activity, was at salinity ∼20 when exposed to winter temperatures, while when animals were exposed to summer ones its tolerance was reduced to salinity lower than 15. C. fluminea show a large physiological flexibility to cope with salinity variations in estuaries. In summer, the temperature increases the metabolic rate thus making the species more vulnerable to osmotic stress exposure. These findings are relevant to preventing new invasions through ship ballast waters ensuring complete mortality if individuals are retained for >26 days.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression during osmotic stress responses by the mammalian target of rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Ortells, M Carmen; Morancho, Beatriz; Drews-Elger, Katherine; Viollet, Benoit; Laderoute, Keith R; López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Aramburu, Jose

    2012-05-01

    Although stress can suppress growth and proliferation, cells can induce adaptive responses that allow them to maintain these functions under stress. While numerous studies have focused on the inhibitory effects of stress on cell growth, less is known on how growth-promoting pathways influence stress responses. We have approached this question by analyzing the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central growth controller, on the osmotic stress response. Our results showed that mammalian cells exposed to moderate hypertonicity maintained active mTOR, which was required to sustain their cell size and proliferative capacity. Moreover, mTOR regulated the induction of diverse osmostress response genes, including targets of the tonicity-responsive transcription factor NFAT5 as well as NFAT5-independent genes. Genes sensitive to mTOR-included regulators of stress responses, growth and proliferation. Among them, we identified REDD1 and REDD2, which had been previously characterized as mTOR inhibitors in other stress contexts. We observed that mTOR facilitated transcription-permissive conditions for several osmoresponsive genes by enhancing histone H4 acetylation and the recruitment of RNA polymerase II. Altogether, these results reveal a previously unappreciated role of mTOR in regulating transcriptional mechanisms that control gene expression during cellular stress responses.

  9. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression during osmotic stress responses by the mammalian target of rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Ortells, M. Carmen; Morancho, Beatriz; Drews-Elger, Katherine; Viollet, Benoit; Laderoute, Keith R.; López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Aramburu, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Although stress can suppress growth and proliferation, cells can induce adaptive responses that allow them to maintain these functions under stress. While numerous studies have focused on the inhibitory effects of stress on cell growth, less is known on how growth-promoting pathways influence stress responses. We have approached this question by analyzing the effect of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central growth controller, on the osmotic stress response. Our results showed that mammalian cells exposed to moderate hypertonicity maintained active mTOR, which was required to sustain their cell size and proliferative capacity. Moreover, mTOR regulated the induction of diverse osmostress response genes, including targets of the tonicity-responsive transcription factor NFAT5 as well as NFAT5-independent genes. Genes sensitive to mTOR-included regulators of stress responses, growth and proliferation. Among them, we identified REDD1 and REDD2, which had been previously characterized as mTOR inhibitors in other stress contexts. We observed that mTOR facilitated transcription-permissive conditions for several osmoresponsive genes by enhancing histone H4 acetylation and the recruitment of RNA polymerase II. Altogether, these results reveal a previously unappreciated role of mTOR in regulating transcriptional mechanisms that control gene expression during cellular stress responses. PMID:22287635

  10. Bacterial Dispersal Promotes Biodegradation in Heterogeneous Systems Exposed to Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Worrich, Anja; König, Sara; Banitz, Thomas; Centler, Florian; Frank, Karin; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke; Miltner, Anja; Wick, Lukas Y.; Kästner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Contaminant biodegradation in soils is hampered by the heterogeneous distribution of degrading communities colonizing isolated microenvironments as a result of the soil architecture. Over the last years, soil salinization was recognized as an additional problem especially in arid and semiarid ecosystems as it drastically reduces the activity and motility of bacteria. Here, we studied the importance of different spatial processes for benzoate biodegradation at an environmentally relevant range of osmotic potentials (ΔΨo) using model ecosystems exhibiting a heterogeneous distribution of the soil-borne bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Three systematically manipulated scenarios allowed us to cover the effects of (i) substrate diffusion, (ii) substrate diffusion and autonomous bacterial dispersal, and (iii) substrate diffusion and autonomous as well as mediated bacterial dispersal along glass fiber networks mimicking fungal hyphae. To quantify the relative importance of the different spatial processes, we compared these heterogeneous scenarios to a reference value obtained for each ΔΨo by means of a quasi-optimal scenario in which degraders were ab initio homogeneously distributed. Substrate diffusion as the sole spatial process was insufficient to counteract the disadvantage due to spatial degrader heterogeneity at ΔΨo ranging from 0 to −1 MPa. In this scenario, only 13.8−21.3% of the quasi-optimal biodegradation performance could be achieved. In the same range of ΔΨo values, substrate diffusion in combination with bacterial dispersal allowed between 68.6 and 36.2% of the performance showing a clear downwards trend with decreasing ΔΨo. At −1.5 MPa, however, this scenario performed worse than the diffusion scenario, possibly as a result of energetic disadvantages associated with flagellum synthesis and emerging requirements to exceed a critical population density to resist osmotic stress. Network-mediated bacterial dispersal kept biodegradation

  11. Comparative physiological and transcriptomic analyses provide integrated insight into osmotic, cold, and salt stress tolerance mechanisms in banana

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Ding, Zehong; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Chunlai; Liu, Juhua; Wang, Jiashui; Peng, Ming; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    The growth, development, and production of banana plants are constrained by multiple abiotic stressors. However, it remains elusive for the tolerance mechanisms of banana responding to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, we found that Fen Jiao (FJ) was more tolerant to osmotic, cold, and salt stresses than BaXi Jiao (BX) by phenotypic and physiological analyses. Comparative transcriptomic analyses highlighted stress tolerance genes that either specifically regulated in FJ or changed more than twofold in FJ relative to BX after treatments. In total, 933, 1644, and 133 stress tolerance genes were identified after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments, respectively. Further integrated analyses found that 30 tolerance genes, including transcription factor, heat shock protein, and E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, could be commonly regulated by osmotic, cold, and salt stresses. Finally, ABA and ROS signaling networks were found to be more active in FJ than in BX under osmotic, cold, and salt treatments, which may contribute to the strong stress tolerances of FJ. Together, this study provides new insights into the tolerance mechanism of banana responding to multiple stresses, thus leading to potential applications in the genetic improvement of multiple abiotic stress tolerances in banana. PMID:28223714

  12. Overexpression of a Cytosolic Abiotic Stress Responsive Universal Stress Protein (SbUSP) Mitigates Salt and Osmotic Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Udawat, Pushpika; Jha, Rajesh K.; Sinha, Dinkar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    The universal stress protein (USP) is a ubiquitous protein and plays an indispensable role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The genome of Salicornia brachiata contains two homologs of intron less SbUSP gene which encodes for salt and osmotic responsive USP. In vivo localization reveals that SbUSP is a membrane bound cytosolic protein. The role of the gene was functionally validated by developing transgenic tobacco and compared with control [wild-type (WT) and vector control (VC)] plants under different abiotic stress condition. Transgenic lines (T1) exhibited higher chlorophyll, relative water, proline, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids, polyphenol contents, osmotic potential, membrane stability, and lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content) under stress treatments than control (WT and VC) plants. Lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2− radicals was also detected in transgenic lines compared to control plants under stress conditions. Present study confers that overexpression of the SbUSP gene enhances plant growth, alleviates ROS buildup, maintains ion homeostasis and improves the physiological status of the plant under salt and osmotic stresses. Principal component analysis exhibited a statistical distinction of plant response to salinity stress, and a significant response was observed for transgenic lines under stress, which provides stress endurance to the plant. A possible signaling role is proposed that some downstream genes may get activated by abiotic stress responsive cytosolic SbUSP, which leads to the protection of cell from oxidative damages. The study unveils that ectopic expression of the gene mitigates salt or osmotic stress by scavenging ROS and modulating the physiological process of the plant. PMID:27148338

  13. Osmotic stress stimulates generation of superoxide anion by spermatozoa in horses.

    PubMed

    Burnaugh, L; Ball, B A; Sabeur, K; Thomas, A D; Meyers, S A

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the interplay between osmotic and oxidative stress as well as to determine mechanisms by which osmotic stress increases superoxide generation in spermatozoa of horses. Superoxide production, as measured by dihydroethidium (DHE), increased when spermatozoa of horses were incubated under either hyperosmotic or hyposmotic conditions. This increase in superoxide production was inhibited by the MAP kinase p38 inhibitor, SB203580, and by the superoxide scavenger, tiron. Incubation of spermatozoa under hyperosmotic conditions increased overall protein tyrosine phosphorylation as measured by western blotting techniques; however, a similar increase was not detected when spermatozoa were incubated under hyposmotic conditions. The general protein kinase C (PKC) and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor staurosporine inhibited (P<0.05) tyrosine phosphorylation in samples from cells under hyperosmotic conditions. In addition, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) also inhibited (P<0.05) protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cells under hyperosmotic conditions. In summary, these data indicate that incubation of equine spermatozoa under both hyposmotic and hyperosmotic conditions can increase superoxide anion generation. Under hyperosmotic conditions, this increased generation of superoxide anion was accompanied by increased protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

  14. Biophysical characterization of the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus membrane during cold and osmotic stress and its relevance for cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Meneghel, Julie; Passot, Stéphanie; Dupont, Sébastien; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2017-02-01

    Freezing lactic acid bacteria often leads to cell death and loss of technological properties. Our objective was to provide an in-depth characterization of the biophysical properties of the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus membrane in relation to its freeze resistance. Freezing was represented as a combination of cold and osmotic stress. This work investigated the relative incidence of increasing sucrose concentrations coupled or not with subzero temperatures without ice nucleation on the biological and biophysical responses of two strains with different membrane fatty acid compositions and freeze resistances. Following exposure of bacterial cells to the highest sucrose concentration, the sensitive strain exhibited a survival rate of less than 10 % and 5 h of acidifying activity loss. Similar biological activity losses were observed upon freeze-thawing and after osmotic treatment for each strain thus highlighting osmotic stress as the main source of cryoinjury. The direct measurement of membrane fluidity by fluorescence anisotropy was linked to membrane lipid organization characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Both approaches made it possible to investigate the specific contributions of the membrane core and the bilayer external surface to cell degradation caused by cold and osmotic stress. Cold-induced membrane rigidification had no significant implication on bacterial freeze-thaw resistance. Interactions between extracellular sucrose and membrane phospholipid headgroups under osmotic stress were also observed. Such interactions were more evident in the sensitive strain and when increasing sucrose concentration, thus suggesting membrane permeabilization. The relevance of biophysical properties for elucidating mechanisms of cryoinjury and cryoprotection is discussed.

  15. ABA- and ethylene-mediated responses in osmotically stressed tomato are regulated by the TSS2 and TOS1 loci.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Abel; Amaya, Iraida; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Cuartero, Jesús; Botella, Miguel A; Borsani, Omar

    2006-01-01

    The study of mutants impaired in the sensitivity or synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has become a powerful tool to analyse the interactions occurring between the ABA and ethylene signalling pathways, with potential to change the traditional view of the role of ABA as just being involved in growth inhibition. The tss2 tomato mutant, which is hypersensitive to NaCl and osmotic stress, shows enhanced growth inhibition in the presence of exogenous ABA. The tos1 tomato mutant is also hypersensitive to osmotic stress, but in contrast to tss2, shows decreased sensitivity to ABA. Surprisingly, blocking ethylene signalling suppresses the growth defect of tss2 seedlings on ABA, NaCl, and osmotic stress, but not the osmotic hypersensitivity of tos1. The ethylene production of tss2 seedlings is increased compared with that of control seedlings under osmotic stress. In addition, the tss2 plants are hypersensitive to root growth inhibition by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). This suggests that, in addition to ABA regulation, TSS2 acts as a negative regulator of endogenous ethylene accumulation. As previously shown in Arabidopsis, it is shown here that extensive cross-talk occurs between the ABA and ethylene signalling pathways in tomato and that the TSS2 and TOS1 loci appear as regulators of this cross-talk.

  16. SKIP Confers Osmotic Tolerance during Salt Stress by Controlling Alternative Gene Splicing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinlin; Li, Jingjing; Gao, Zhaoxu; Lu, Yaru; Yu, Junya; Zheng, Qian; Yan, Shuning; Zhang, Wenjiao; He, Hang; Ma, Ligeng; Zhu, Zhengge

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering the mechanisms underlying plant responses to abiotic stress is key for improving plant stress resistance. Much is known about the regulation of gene expression in response to salt stress at the transcriptional level; however, little is known about this process at the posttranscriptional level. Recently, we demonstrated that SKIP is a component of spliceosome that interacts with clock gene pre-mRNAs and is essential for regulating their alternative splicing and mRNA maturation. In this study, we found that skip-1 plants are hypersensitive to both salt and osmotic stresses, and that SKIP is required for the alternative splicing and mRNA maturation of several salt-tolerance genes, including NHX1, CBL1, P5CS1, RCI2A, and PAT10. A genome-wide analysis revealed that SKIP mediates the alternative splicing of many genes under salt-stress conditions, and that most of the alternative splicing events in skip-1 involve intron retention and can generate a premature termination codon in the transcribed mRNA. SKIP also controls alternative splicing by modulating the recognition or cleavage of 5' and 3' splice donor and acceptor sites under salt-stress conditions. Therefore, this study addresses the fundamental question of how the mRNA splicing machinery in plants contributes to salt-stress responses at the posttranscriptional level, and provides a link between alternative splicing and salt tolerance.

  17. Carrizo citrange Plants Do Not Require the Presence of Roots to Modulate the Response to Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Clemente, Rosa M.; Montoliu, Almudena; Zandalinas, Sara I.; de Ollas, Carlos; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    The study of the effects of a specific stress condition on the performance of plants grown under field conditions is difficult due to interactions among multiple abiotic and biotic factors affecting the system. In vitro tissue-culture-based techniques allow the study of each adverse condition independently and also make possible to investigate the performance of genotypes of interest under stress conditions avoiding the effect of the root. In this paper, the response of Carrizo citrange, a commercial citrus rootstock, to osmotic stress was evaluated by culturing in vitro intact plants and micropropagated shoots. The osmotic stress was generated by adding two different concentrations of polyethyleneglycol to the culture media. Different parameters such as plant performance, organ length, antioxidant activities, and endogenous contents of proline, malondialdehyde, and hormones were determined. Differently to that observed under high salinity, when subjected to osmotic stress conditions, Carrizo citrange showed increased endogenous levels of MDA, proline, and ABA. These results evidence that the mechanisms of response of Carrizo citrange to saline or osmotic stress are different. The presence of roots was not necessary to activate any of the plant responses which indicates that the organs involved in the stress perception and signaling depends on the type of adverse condition to which plants are subjected. PMID:22919353

  18. Carrizo citrange plants do not require the presence of roots to modulate the response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Clemente, Rosa M; Montoliu, Almudena; Zandalinas, Sara I; de Ollas, Carlos; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    The study of the effects of a specific stress condition on the performance of plants grown under field conditions is difficult due to interactions among multiple abiotic and biotic factors affecting the system. In vitro tissue-culture-based techniques allow the study of each adverse condition independently and also make possible to investigate the performance of genotypes of interest under stress conditions avoiding the effect of the root. In this paper, the response of Carrizo citrange, a commercial citrus rootstock, to osmotic stress was evaluated by culturing in vitro intact plants and micropropagated shoots. The osmotic stress was generated by adding two different concentrations of polyethyleneglycol to the culture media. Different parameters such as plant performance, organ length, antioxidant activities, and endogenous contents of proline, malondialdehyde, and hormones were determined. Differently to that observed under high salinity, when subjected to osmotic stress conditions, Carrizo citrange showed increased endogenous levels of MDA, proline, and ABA. These results evidence that the mechanisms of response of Carrizo citrange to saline or osmotic stress are different. The presence of roots was not necessary to activate any of the plant responses which indicates that the organs involved in the stress perception and signaling depends on the type of adverse condition to which plants are subjected.

  19. Regulation of Leaf Starch Degradation by Abscisic Acid Is Important for Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Thalmann, Matthias; Pazmino, Diana; Seung, David; Horrer, Daniel; Nigro, Arianna; Meier, Tiago; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Santelia, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Starch serves functions that range over a timescale of minutes to years, according to the cell type from which it is derived. In guard cells, starch is rapidly mobilized by the synergistic action of β-AMYLASE1 (BAM1) and α-AMYLASE3 (AMY3) to promote stomatal opening. In the leaves, starch typically accumulates gradually during the day and is degraded at night by BAM3 to support heterotrophic metabolism. During osmotic stress, starch is degraded in the light by stress-activated BAM1 to release sugar and sugar-derived osmolytes. Here, we report that AMY3 is also involved in stress-induced starch degradation. Recently isolated Arabidopsis thaliana amy3 bam1 double mutants are hypersensitive to osmotic stress, showing impaired root growth. amy3 bam1 plants close their stomata under osmotic stress at similar rates as the wild type but fail to mobilize starch in the leaves. 14C labeling showed that amy3 bam1 plants have reduced carbon export to the root, affecting osmolyte accumulation and root growth during stress. Using genetic approaches, we further demonstrate that abscisic acid controls the activity of BAM1 and AMY3 in leaves under osmotic stress through the AREB/ABF-SnRK2 kinase-signaling pathway. We propose that differential regulation and isoform subfunctionalization define starch-adaptive plasticity, ensuring an optimal carbon supply for continued growth under an ever-changing environment. PMID:27436713

  20. Improving macroscopic modeling of the effect of water and osmotic stresses on root water uptake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda Guerra, Helena; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Accurate modeling of water and salt stresses on root water uptake is critical for predicting impacts of global change and climate variability on crop production and soil water balances. Soil-hydrological models use reduction functions to represent the effect of osmotic stress in transpiration. However, these functions, which were developed empirically, present limitations in relation to the time and spatial scale at which they need to be used, fail to include compensation processes and do not agree on how water and salt stresses interact. This research intends to develop a macroscopic reduction function for water and osmotic stresses based on biophysical knowledge. Simulation experiments are conducted for a range of atmospheric conditions, soil and plant properties, irrigation water quality and scheduling using a 3-D physically-based model that resolves flow and transport to individual root segments and that couples flow in the soil and root system (Schröder et al., 2013). The effect of salt concentrations on water flow in the soil-root system is accounted for by including osmotic water potential gradients between the solution at the soil root interface and the root xylem sap in the hydraulic gradient between the soil and root. In a first step, simulation experiments are carried out in a soil volume around a single root segment. We discuss how the simulation setup can be defined so as to represent: (i) certain characteristics of the root system such as rooting depth and root length density, (ii) plant transpiration rate, (iii) leaching fraction of the irrigation, and (iii) salinity of the irrigation water. The output of these simulation experiments gives a first insight in the effect of salinity on transpiration and on the relation between the bulk salinity in the soil voxel, which is used in macroscopic salt stress functions of models that do not resolve processes at the root segment scale, and the salinity at the soil-root interface, which determines the actual

  1. Osmotic stress-induced phosphoinositide and inositol phosphate signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Munnik, Teun; Vermeer, Joop E M

    2010-04-01

    Polyphosphoinositides (PPIs) became famous for their role in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) mediated-Ca(2+) signalling in mammalian cells, generated through signal-activated phospholipase C (PLC) hydrolysis of the minor membrane lipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. For many years, the plant field followed the same paradigm, however, slowly a completely different picture is emerging. Moreover, various novel PPI-signalling compounds have been identified meanwhile, with new functions and targets coming to light. These include lipids phosphorylated at the D3-position of inositol but also water-soluble inositolpolyphosphates (IPPs). For several of them, a relationship to water stress has been reported. This review summarizes the current status of PPIs and IPPs in plants and discusses their potential in osmotic stress signalling and drought.

  2. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus exposed to osmotic stress reveals regulators of osmotic and cell wall stresses that are SakA(HOG1) and MpkC dependent.

    PubMed

    Pereira Silva, Lilian; Alves de Castro, Patrícia; Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Paziani, Mario Henrique; Von Zeska Kress, Márcia Regina; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Ries, Laure N A; Brown, Neil Andrew; Goldman, Gustavo H

    2017-04-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is predominantly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, and adaptations to stresses experienced within the human host are a prerequisite for the survival and virulence strategies of the pathogen. The central signal transduction pathway operating during hyperosmotic stress is the high osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. A. fumigatus MpkC and SakA, orthologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hog1p, constitute the primary regulator of the hyperosmotic stress response. We compared A. fumigatus wild-type transcriptional response to osmotic stress with the ΔmpkC, ΔsakA, and ΔmpkC ΔsakA strains. Our results strongly indicate that MpkC and SakA have independent and collaborative functions during the transcriptional response to transient osmotic stress. We have identified and characterized null mutants for four A. fumigatus basic leucine zipper proteins transcription factors. The atfA and atfB have comparable expression levels with the wild-type in ΔmpkC but are repressed in ΔsakA and ΔmpkC ΔsakA post-osmotic stress. The atfC and atfD have reduced expression levels in all mutants post-osmotic stress. The atfA-D null mutants displayed several phenotypes related to osmotic, oxidative, and cell wall stresses. The ΔatfA and ΔatfB were shown to be avirulent and to have attenuated virulence, respectively, in both Galleria mellonella and a neutropenic murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

  3. Genes Associated with Desiccation and Osmotic Stress in Listeria monocytogenes as Revealed by Insertional Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Hingston, Patricia A; Piercey, Marta J; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2015-08-15

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen whose survival in food processing environments may be associated with its tolerance to desiccation. To probe the molecular mechanisms used by this bacterium to adapt to desiccation stress, a transposon library of 11,700 L. monocytogenes mutants was screened, using a microplate assay, for strains displaying increased or decreased desiccation survival (43% relative humidity, 15°C) in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The desiccation phenotypes of selected mutants were subsequently assessed on food-grade stainless steel (SS) coupons in TSB plus 1% glucose (TSB-glu). Single transposon insertions in mutants exhibiting a change in desiccation survival of >0.5 log CFU/cm(2) relative to that of the wild type were determined by sequencing arbitrary PCR products. Strain morphology, motility, and osmotic stress survival (in TSB-glu plus 20% NaCl) were also analyzed. The initial screen selected 129 desiccation-sensitive (DS) and 61 desiccation-tolerant (DT) mutants, out of which secondary screening on SS confirmed 15 DT and 15 DS mutants. Among the DT mutants, seven immotile and flagellum-less strains contained transposons in genes involved in flagellum biosynthesis (fliP, flhB, flgD, flgL) and motor control (motB, fliM, fliY), while others harbored transposons in genes involved in membrane lipid biosynthesis, energy production, potassium uptake, and virulence. The genes that were interrupted in the 15 DS mutants included those involved in energy production, membrane transport, protein metabolism, lipid biosynthesis, oxidative damage control, and putative virulence. Five DT and 14 DS mutants also demonstrated similar significantly (P < 0.05) different survival relative to that of the wild type when exposed to osmotic stress, demonstrating that some genes likely have similar roles in allowing the organism to survive the two water stresses.

  4. Osmotic adjustment is a prime drought stress adaptive engine in support of plant production.

    PubMed

    Blum, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Osmotic adjustment (OA) and cellular compatible solute accumulation are widely recognized to have a role in plant adaptation to dehydration mainly through turgor maintenance and the protection of specific cellular functions by defined solutes. At the same time, there has been an ongoing trickle of skepticism in the literature about the role of OA in supporting crop yield under drought stress. Contrarian reviews argued that OA did not sustain turgor or that it served mainly for plant survival rather than productivity. This critical review examined 26 published studies where OA was compared with yield under drought stress in variable genotypes of 12 crops, namely, barley, wheat, maize, sorghum, chickpea, pea, pigeon pea, soybean, canola, mustard, castor bean and sunflower. Over all crops a positive and significant association between OA and yield under drought stress were found in 24 out of 26 cases. Considering that it is generally difficult to find a singular plant trait responsible for yield advantage of numerous crops under different drought stress conditions, this evidence is no less than remarkable as proof that OA sustains crop yield under drought stress.

  5. Multiple Osmotic Stress Responses in Acidihalobacter prosperus Result in Tolerance to Chloride Ions.

    PubMed

    Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S; Lazcano, Marcelo; McCredden, Timothy J; Bryan, Christopher G; Mulroney, Kieran T; Steuart, Robert; Jackaman, Connie; Watkin, Elizabeth L J

    2016-01-01

    Extremely acidophilic microorganisms (pH optima for growth of ≤3) are utilized for the extraction of metals from sulfide minerals in the industrial biotechnology of "biomining." A long term goal for biomining has been development of microbial consortia able to withstand increased chloride concentrations for use in regions where freshwater is scarce. However, when challenged by elevated salt, acidophiles experience both osmotic stress and an acidification of the cytoplasm due to a collapse of the inside positive membrane potential, leading to an influx of protons. In this study, we tested the ability of the halotolerant acidophile Acidihalobacter prosperus to grow and catalyze sulfide mineral dissolution in elevated concentrations of salt and identified chloride tolerance mechanisms in Ac. prosperus as well as the chloride susceptible species, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Ac. prosperus had optimum iron oxidation at 20 g L(-1) NaCl while At. ferrooxidans iron oxidation was inhibited in the presence of 6 g L(-1) NaCl. The tolerance to chloride in Ac. prosperus was consistent with electron microscopy, determination of cell viability, and bioleaching capability. The Ac. prosperus proteomic response to elevated chloride concentrations included the production of osmotic stress regulators that potentially induced production of the compatible solute, ectoine uptake protein, and increased iron oxidation resulting in heightened electron flow to drive proton export by the F0F1 ATPase. In contrast, At. ferrooxidans responded to low levels of Cl(-) with a generalized stress response, decreased iron oxidation, and an increase in central carbon metabolism. One potential adaptation to high chloride in the Ac. prosperus Rus protein involved in ferrous iron oxidation was an increase in the negativity of the surface potential of Rus Form I (and Form II) that could help explain how it can be active under elevated chloride concentrations. These data have been used to create a model

  6. Multiple Osmotic Stress Responses in Acidihalobacter prosperus Result in Tolerance to Chloride Ions

    PubMed Central

    Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S.; Lazcano, Marcelo; McCredden, Timothy J.; Bryan, Christopher G.; Mulroney, Kieran T.; Steuart, Robert; Jackaman, Connie; Watkin, Elizabeth L. J.

    2017-01-01

    Extremely acidophilic microorganisms (pH optima for growth of ≤3) are utilized for the extraction of metals from sulfide minerals in the industrial biotechnology of “biomining.” A long term goal for biomining has been development of microbial consortia able to withstand increased chloride concentrations for use in regions where freshwater is scarce. However, when challenged by elevated salt, acidophiles experience both osmotic stress and an acidification of the cytoplasm due to a collapse of the inside positive membrane potential, leading to an influx of protons. In this study, we tested the ability of the halotolerant acidophile Acidihalobacter prosperus to grow and catalyze sulfide mineral dissolution in elevated concentrations of salt and identified chloride tolerance mechanisms in Ac. prosperus as well as the chloride susceptible species, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Ac. prosperus had optimum iron oxidation at 20 g L−1 NaCl while At. ferrooxidans iron oxidation was inhibited in the presence of 6 g L−1 NaCl. The tolerance to chloride in Ac. prosperus was consistent with electron microscopy, determination of cell viability, and bioleaching capability. The Ac. prosperus proteomic response to elevated chloride concentrations included the production of osmotic stress regulators that potentially induced production of the compatible solute, ectoine uptake protein, and increased iron oxidation resulting in heightened electron flow to drive proton export by the F0F1 ATPase. In contrast, At. ferrooxidans responded to low levels of Cl− with a generalized stress response, decreased iron oxidation, and an increase in central carbon metabolism. One potential adaptation to high chloride in the Ac. prosperus Rus protein involved in ferrous iron oxidation was an increase in the negativity of the surface potential of Rus Form I (and Form II) that could help explain how it can be active under elevated chloride concentrations. These data have been used to create a

  7. Stress and acute respiratory infection

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, N.M.; Douglas, R.M.; Ryan, P.

    1986-09-01

    To examine the relationship between stress and upper respiratory tract infection, 235 adults aged 14-57 years, from 94 families affiliated with three suburban family physicians in Adelaide, South Australia, participated in a six-month prospective study. High and low stress groups were identified by median splits of data collected from the Life Events Inventory, the Daily Hassles Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire, which were administered both before and during the six months of respiratory diary data collection. Using intra-study stress data, the high stress group experienced significantly more episodes (mean of 2.71 vs. 1.56, p less than 0.0005) and symptom days (mean of 29.43 vs. 15.42, p = 0.005) of respiratory illness. The two groups were almost identical with respect to age, sex, occupational status, smoking, passive smoking, exposure to air pollution, family size, and proneness to acute respiratory infection in childhood. In a multivariate model with total respiratory episodes as the dependent variable, 21% of the variance was explained, and two stress variables accounted for 9% of the explained variance. Significant, but less strong relationships were also identified between intra-study stress variables and clinically definite episodes and symptom days in both clinically definite and total respiratory episodes. Pre-study measures of stress emphasized chronic stresses and were less strongly related to measures of respiratory illness than those collected during the study. However, significantly more episodes (mean of 2.50 vs. 1.75, p less than 0.02) and symptom days (mean of 28.00 vs. 17.06, p less than 0.03) were experienced in the high stress group. In the multivariate analyses, pre-study stress remained significantly associated with total respiratory episodes nd symptom days in total and ''definite'' respiratory episodes.

  8. Involvement of nitrate reductase (NR) in osmotic stress-induced NO generation of Arabidopsis thaliana L. roots.

    PubMed

    Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Ortega, Leandro; Erdei, László

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is undoubtedly a potential signal molecule in diverse developmental processes and stress responses. Despite our extensive knowledge about the role of NO in physiological and stress responses, the source of this gaseous molecule is still unresolved. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of nitrate reductase (NR) as the source of NO accumulation in the root system of wild-type and NR-deficient nia1, nia2 mutant Arabidopsis plants under osmotic stress conditions induced by a polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) treatment. Reduction of primary root (PR) length was detected as the effect of osmotic stress in wild-type and NR-deficient plants. We found that osmotic stress-induced lateral root (LR) initiation in wild-type, but not in NR-mutant plants. High levels of NO formation occurred in roots of Col-1 plants as the effect of PEG treatment. The mammalian nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) had no effect on LR initiation or NO generation, while tungstate, an NR inhibitor, inhibited the later phase of osmotic stress-induced NO accumulation and slightly decreased the LR development. In nia1, nia2 roots, the PEG treatment induced the first phase of NO production, but later NO production was inhibited. We conclude that the first phase of PEG-induced NO generation is not dependent on NOS-like or NR activity. It is also suggested that the activity of NR in roots is required for the later phase of osmotic stress-induced NO formation.

  9. Silicon alleviates salt and drought stress of Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedling by altering antioxidant metabolism and osmotic adjustment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjin; Xie, Zhicai; Wang, Lianhong; Li, Ming; Lang, Duoyong; Zhang, Xinhui

    2017-03-13

    This study was conducted to determine effect and mechanism of exogenous silicon (Si) on salt and drought tolerance of Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedling by focusing on the pathways of antioxidant defense and osmotic adjustment. Seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant metabolism, osmolytes concentration and Si content of G. uralensis seedlings were analyzed under control, salt and drought stress [100 mM NaCl with 0, 10 and 20% of PEG-6000 (Polyethylene glycol-6000)] with or without 1 mM Si. Si addition markedly affected the G. uralensis growth in a combined dose of NaCl and PEG dependent manner. In brief, Si addition improved germination rate, germination index, seedling vitality index and biomass under control and NaCl; Si also increased radicle length under control, NaCl and NaCl-10% PEG, decreased radicle length, seedling vitality index and germination parameters under NaCl-20% PEG. The salt and drought stress-induced-oxidative stress was modulated by Si application. Generally, Si application increased catalase (CAT) activity under control and NaCl-10% PEG, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under all treatments and glutathione (GSH) content under salt combined drought stress as compared with non-Si treatments, which resisted to the increase of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide caused by salt and drought stress and further decreased membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Si application also increased proline concentration under NaCl and NaCl-20% PEG, but decreased it under NaCl-10% PEG, indicating proline play an important role in G. uralensis seedling response to osmotic stress. In conclusion, Si could ameliorate adverse effects of salt and drought stress on G. uralensis likely by reducing oxidative stress and osmotic stress, and the oxidative stress was regulated through enhancing of antioxidants (mainly CAT, APX and GSH) and osmotic stress was regulated by proline.

  10. Growth response to ionic and osmotic stress of NaCl in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive maize.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke-Fu; Song, Jie; Fan, Hai; Zhou, San; Zhao, Meng

    2010-05-01

    Salt-tolerant maize (STM) and salt-sensitive maize (SSM) were treated with 100 mM NaCl for 1, 3 and 6 d and the contents of Na+ and Cl(-) (cps) of different organelles of leaf cells determined by X-ray microanalysis. The results showed that Na+ and Cl(-) entered the cytoplasm, vacuole, chloroplast and apoplast simultaneously. When STM and SSM were treated in 100 mM NaCl at atmospheric pressure (-P) and with pressure equivalent to the osmotic pressure of the NaCl (+P), the dry weights of STM (+P) and SSM (+P) plants were greater than that of STM (-P) and SSM (-P) plants, showing that the inhibitory effect of salt on plant growth was at least partially due to the osmotic effect of the NaCl. When STM and SSM were treated with NaCl and iso-osmotic polyethlene glycol, the dry weights of plants given the iso-osmotic polyethlene glycol treatment were lower for both maize lines than that of the NaCl-treated plants. Our data show that under NaCl stress, both STM and SSM seedlings simultaneously suffered from osmotic and ion stresses.

  11. Five histidine kinases perceive osmotic stress and regulate distinct sets of genes in Synechocystis.

    PubMed

    Paithoonrangsarid, Kalyanee; Shoumskaya, Maria A; Kanesaki, Yu; Satoh, Syusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Los, Dmitry A; Zinchenko, Vladislav V; Hayashi, Hidenori; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Suzuki, Iwane; Murata, Norio

    2004-12-17

    Microorganisms respond to hyperosmotic stress via changes in the levels of expression of large numbers of genes. Such responses are essential for acclimation to a new osmotic environment. To identify factors involved in the perception and transduction of signals caused by hyperosmotic stress, we examined the response of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which has proven to be a particularly useful microorganism in similar analyses. We screened knockout libraries of histidine kinases (Hiks) and response regulators (Rres) in Synechocystis by DNA microarray and slot-blot hybridization analyses, and we identified several two-component systems, which we designated Hik-Rre systems, namely, Hik33-Rre31, Hik34-Rre1, and Hik10-Rre3, as well as Hik16-Hik41-Rre17, as the transducers of hyperosmotic stress. We also identified Hik2-Rre1 as a putative additional two-component system. Each individual two-component system regulated the transcription of a specific group of genes that were responsive to hyperosmotic stress.

  12. Effects of PEG-induced osmotic stress on growth and dhurrin levels of forage sorghum.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Natalie H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Neale, Alan D; Hamill, John D; Blomstedt, Cecilia K; Gleadow, Roslyn M

    2013-12-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a valuable forage crop in regions with low soil moisture. Sorghum may accumulate high concentrations of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin when drought stressed resulting in possible cyanide (HCN) intoxication of grazing animals. In addition, high concentrations of nitrate, also potentially toxic to ruminants, may accumulate during or shortly after periods of drought. Little is known about the degree and duration of drought-stress required to induce dhurrin accumulation, or how changes in dhurrin concentration are influenced by plant size or nitrate metabolism. Given that finely regulating soil moisture under controlled conditions is notoriously difficult, we exposed sorghum plants to varying degrees of osmotic stress by growing them for different lengths of time in hydroponic solutions containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). Plants grown in medium containing 20% PEG (-0.5 MPa) for an extended period had significantly higher concentrations of dhurrin in their shoots but lower dhurrin concentrations in their roots. The total amount of dhurrin in the shoots of plants from the various treatments was not significantly different on a per mass basis, although a greater proportion of shoot N was allocated to dhurrin. Following transfer from medium containing 20% PEG to medium lacking PEG, shoot dhurrin concentrations decreased but nitrate concentrations increased to levels potentially toxic to grazing ruminants. This response is likely due to the resumption of plant growth and root activity, increasing the rate of nitrate uptake. Data presented in this article support a role for cyanogenic glucosides in mitigating oxidative stress.

  13. Effects of acute fresh water exposure on water flux rates and osmotic responses in Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempi).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R M; Patterson, R M; Wade, C E; Byers, F M

    2000-09-01

    Water flux rates and osmotic responses of Kemp's Ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempi) acutely exposed to fresh water were quantified. Salt-water adapted turtles were exposed to fresh water for 4 d before being returned to salt water. During the initial salt water phase, absolute and relative water flux rates were 1.2+/-0.1 l d(-1) and 123.0+/-6.8 ml kg(-1) d(-1), respectively. When turtles were exposed to fresh water, rates increased by approximately 30%. Upon return to salt water, rates decreased to original levels. Plasma osmolality, Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) decreased during exposure to fresh water, and subsequently increased during the return to salt water. The Na(+):K(+) ratio was elevated during the fresh water phase and subsequently decreased upon return to salt water. Aldosterone and corticosterone were not altered during exposure to fresh water. Elevated water flux rates during fresh water exposure reflected an increase in water consumption, resulting in a decrease in ionic and osmotic concentrations. The lack of a change in adrenocorticoids to acute fresh water exposure suggests that adrenal responsiveness to an hypo-osmotic environment may be delayed in marine turtles when compared to marine mammals.

  14. Effects of acute fresh water exposure on water flux rates and osmotic responses in Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempi)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Patterson, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Byers, F. M.

    2000-01-01

    Water flux rates and osmotic responses of Kemp's Ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempi) acutely exposed to fresh water were quantified. Salt-water adapted turtles were exposed to fresh water for 4 d before being returned to salt water. During the initial salt water phase, absolute and relative water flux rates were 1.2+/-0.1 l d(-1) and 123.0+/-6.8 ml kg(-1) d(-1), respectively. When turtles were exposed to fresh water, rates increased by approximately 30%. Upon return to salt water, rates decreased to original levels. Plasma osmolality, Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) decreased during exposure to fresh water, and subsequently increased during the return to salt water. The Na(+):K(+) ratio was elevated during the fresh water phase and subsequently decreased upon return to salt water. Aldosterone and corticosterone were not altered during exposure to fresh water. Elevated water flux rates during fresh water exposure reflected an increase in water consumption, resulting in a decrease in ionic and osmotic concentrations. The lack of a change in adrenocorticoids to acute fresh water exposure suggests that adrenal responsiveness to an hypo-osmotic environment may be delayed in marine turtles when compared to marine mammals.

  15. The build-up of osmotic stress responses within the growing root apex using kinematics and RNA-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Royer, Mathilde; Cohen, David; Aubry, Nathalie; Vendramin, Vera; Scalabrin, Simone; Cattonaro, Federica; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Hummel, Irène

    2016-11-01

    Molecular regulation of growth must include spatial and temporal coupling of cell production and cell expansion. The underlying mechanisms, especially under environmental challenge, remain obscure. Spatial patterns of cell processes make the root apex well suited to deciphering stress signaling pathways, and to investigating both processes. Kinematics and RNA-sequencing were used to analyze the immediate growth response of hydroponically grown Populus nigra cuttings submitted to osmotic stress. About 7400 genes and unannotated transcriptionally active regions were differentially expressed between the division and elongation zones. Following the onset of stress, growth decreased sharply, probably due to mechanical effects, before recovering partially. Stress impaired cell expansion over the apex, progressively shortened the elongation zone, and reduced the cell production rate. Changes in gene expression revealed that growth reduction was mediated by a shift in hormone homeostasis. Osmotic stress rapidly elicited auxin, ethylene, and abscisic acid. When growth restabilized, transcriptome remodeling became complex and zone specific, with the deployment of hormone signaling cascades, transcriptional regulators, and stress-responsive genes. Most transcriptional regulations fit growth reduction, but stress also promoted expression of some growth effectors, including aquaporins and expansins Together, osmotic stress interfered with growth by activating regulatory proteins rather than by repressing the machinery of expansive growth.

  16. The build-up of osmotic stress responses within the growing root apex using kinematics and RNA-sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Mathilde; Cohen, David; Aubry, Nathalie; Vendramin, Vera; Scalabrin, Simone; Cattonaro, Federica; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Hummel, Irène

    2016-01-01

    Molecular regulation of growth must include spatial and temporal coupling of cell production and cell expansion. The underlying mechanisms, especially under environmental challenge, remain obscure. Spatial patterns of cell processes make the root apex well suited to deciphering stress signaling pathways, and to investigating both processes. Kinematics and RNA-sequencing were used to analyze the immediate growth response of hydroponically grown Populus nigra cuttings submitted to osmotic stress. About 7400 genes and unannotated transcriptionally active regions were differentially expressed between the division and elongation zones. Following the onset of stress, growth decreased sharply, probably due to mechanical effects, before recovering partially. Stress impaired cell expansion over the apex, progressively shortened the elongation zone, and reduced the cell production rate. Changes in gene expression revealed that growth reduction was mediated by a shift in hormone homeostasis. Osmotic stress rapidly elicited auxin, ethylene, and abscisic acid. When growth restabilized, transcriptome remodeling became complex and zone specific, with the deployment of hormone signaling cascades, transcriptional regulators, and stress-responsive genes. Most transcriptional regulations fit growth reduction, but stress also promoted expression of some growth effectors, including aquaporins and expansins. Together, osmotic stress interfered with growth by activating regulatory proteins rather than by repressing the machinery of expansive growth. PMID:27702994

  17. Synthesis, Release, and Recapture of Compatible Solute Proline by Osmotically Stressed Bacillus subtilis Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Tamara; von Blohn, Carsten; Stanek, Agnieszka; Moses, Susanne; Barzantny, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis synthesizes large amounts of the compatible solute proline as a cellular defense against high osmolarity to ensure a physiologically appropriate level of hydration of the cytoplasm and turgor. It also imports proline for this purpose via the osmotically inducible OpuE transport system. Unexpectedly, an opuE mutant was at a strong growth disadvantage in high-salinity minimal media lacking proline. Appreciable amounts of proline were detected in the culture supernatant of the opuE mutant strain, and they rose concomitantly with increases in the external salinity. We found that the intracellular proline pool of severely salinity-stressed cells of the opuE mutant was considerably lower than that of its opuE+ parent strain. This loss of proline into the medium and the resulting decrease in the intracellular proline content provide a rational explanation for the observed salt-sensitive growth phenotype of cells lacking OpuE. None of the known MscL- and MscS-type mechanosensitive channels of B. subtilis participated in the release of proline under permanently imposed high-salinity growth conditions. The data reported here show that the OpuE transporter not only possesses the previously reported role for the scavenging of exogenously provided proline as an osmoprotectant but also functions as a physiologically highly important recapturing device for proline that is synthesized de novo and subsequently released by salt-stressed B. subtilis cells. The wider implications of our findings for the retention of compatible solutes by osmotically challenged microorganisms and the roles of uptake systems for compatible solutes are considered. PMID:22685134

  18. Effect of osmotic, alkaline, acid or thermal stresses on the growth and inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, C; Baverel, L; Hébraud, M; Labadie, J

    1999-03-01

    Five strains of Listeria monocytogenes (a, b, c, d and e) isolated from industrial plants have been subjected to different osmotic, alkaline, acid or thermal stresses. The effects of these treatments on lag-phase (L) and growth rate (mu) of cells in mid-log phase have been followed using an automated optical density monitoring system. Increasing the osmotic pressure by the addition of different amounts of NaCl increased the lag phase and decreased the growth rate. The same phenomena were observed after decreasing the pH of the medium to 5.8, 5.6 or 5.4 by addition of acetic, lactic or hydrochloric acids. The inhibitory effect was: acetic acid > lactic acid > hydrochloric acid. The addition of NaOH to attain pH values of 9.5, 10.0, 10.5 or 11.0 in the medium produced a dramatic increase of the lag phase at pH 10.5 and 11. Growth rates were also decreased while the maximal population increased with high pH values. These effects varied according to strains. Strains d and e were the most resistant to acidic and alkaline stresses, and e was the most affected by the addition of NaCl. A cold shock of 30 min at 0 degree C had limited effects on growth parameters. On the other hand, hyperthermal shocks (55 or 63 degrees C, 30 min) led to similar increased lag phases and to significant increases of the maximal population in all five strains.

  19. [Effects of 6-BA and AsA on photosynthesis photoinhibition of attached poplar leaves under osmotic stress of root].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yulong; Ma, Yongshuang; Feng, Zhili

    2004-12-01

    In order to know more about the relationships between photosynthesis photoinhibition and reactive oxygen species metabolism, the effects of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) and ascorbate (AsA) on net photosynthetic rate (Pn), apparent quantum yield (AQY), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, O2-* generation rate, and H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were studied with attached leaves of poplar clone seedlings under osmotic stress of root. Under osmotic stress, the photosynthesis photoinhibition of attached poplar leaves, judged by the significant decrease of Pn and AQY, was aggravated, and the balance of reactive oxygen species metabolism was destroyed. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased, but ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity decreased. In the meantime, the O2-* generation rate and the contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased. When osmotic stressed poplar seedlings were pretreated with 6-BA and AsA, the activities of SOD and APX increased, O2-* generation rate and H2O2 and MDA contents decreased, and photosynthesis photoinhibition was alleviated. The contents of reactive oxygen species and MDA in poplar leaves were negatively correlated with net photosynthetic rate and apparent quantum yield. It's indicated that the photosynthesis photoinhibition of attached leaves of poplar clone seedlings had intrinsic relations with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species under osmotic stress of root, and the alleviation effects of 6-BA and AsA on photosynthesis photoinhibition were related to their promotion effects to the scavenging system of reactive oxygen species.

  20. Roles of the cytoskeleton and of protein phosphorylation events in the osmotic stress response in eel intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lionetto, Maria G; Pedersen, Stine F; Hoffmann, Else K; Giordano, Maria E; Schettino, Trifone

    2002-01-01

    The eel intestinal epithelium responds to an acute hypertonic challenge by a biphasic increase of the rate of Cl(-) absorption (measured as short circuit current, Isc, and creating a negative transepithelial potential, V(te), at the basolateral side of the epithelium). While the first, transient phase is bumetanide-insensitive, the second, sustained phase is bumetanide-sensitive, reflecting activation of the apically located Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) (NKCC) cotransporter, which correlates with the cellular RVI response. Here, we investigated the involvement of the cytoskeleton and of serine/threonine phosphorylation events in the osmotic stress-induced ion transport in the eel intestinal epithelium, focusing on the sustained RVI phase, as well as on the previously uncharacterized response to hypotonic stress. The study was carried out using confocal laser scanning microscopy, a quantitative F-actin assay, and transepithelial electrophysiological measurements (V(te) and Isc) in Ussing chambers. Hypertonic stress did not detectably alter either net F-actin content or F-actin organization. In contrast, a brief exposure to hypotonic stress decreased the total cellular F-actin content in eel intestinal epithelium by about 15%, detectable morphologically mainly as a decrease in the intensity of the apical brush border F-actin labeling.The bumetanide-sensitive response of V(te) and Isc to hypertonicity was potently inhibited by treatment with either cytochalasin, latrunculin A, colchicine, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine, the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7, or the serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor Calyculin A, but was unaffected by the PKA inhibitor H-89. The electrophysiological response of the epithelium to hypotonic stress was characterized by a sustained decrease of V(te) and Isc, which was smaller and recovered faster in the presence of either cytochalasin, latrunculin A, or colchicine. It is concluded that in eel intestinal

  1. Ultraviolet light and osmotic stress: Activation of the JNK cascade through multiple growth factor and cytokine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosette, C.; Karin, M.

    1996-11-15

    Exposure of mammalian cells to ultraviolet (UV) light or high osmolarity strongly activated the c-Jun amino-terminal protein kinase (JNK) cascade, causing induction of many target genes. Exposure to UV light or osmotic shock induced clustering and internalization of cell surface receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-1 (IL-1). Activation of the EGF and TNF receptors was also detected biochemically. Whereas activation of each receptor alone resulted in modest activation of JNK, coadministration of EGF, IL-1, and TNF resulted in a strong synergistic response equal to that caused by exposure to osmotic shock or UV light. Inhibition of clustering or receptor down-regulation attenuated both the osmotic shock and UV responses. Physical stresses may perturb the cell surface or alter receptor conformation, thereby subverting signaling pathways normally used by growth factors and cytokines. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Different peroxidase activities and expression of abiotic stress-related peroxidases in apical root segments of wheat genotypes with different drought stress tolerance under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Csiszár, Jolán; Gallé, Agnes; Horváth, Edit; Dancsó, Piroska; Gombos, Magdolna; Váry, Zsolt; Erdei, László; Györgyey, János; Tari, Irma

    2012-03-01

    One-week-old seedlings of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Plainsman V, a drought tolerant; and Cappelle Desprez, a drought sensitive wheat cultivar were subjected gradually to osmotic stress using polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) reaching 400 mOsm on the 11th day. Compared to controls cv. Plainsman V maintained the root growth and relative water content of root tissues, while these parameters were decreased in the drought sensitive cv. Cappelle Desprez under PEG-mediated osmotic stress. Simultaneously, H(2)O(2) content in 1-cm-long apical segment of roots comprising the proliferation and elongation zone, showed a transient increase in cv. Plainsman V and a permanent raise in cv. Cappelle Desprez. Measurements of the transcript levels of selected class III peroxidase (TaPrx) coding sequences revealed significant differences between the two cultivars on the 9th day, two days after applying 100 mOsm PEG. The abundance of TaPrx04 transcript was enhanced transitionally in the root apex of cv. Plainsman V but decreased in cv. Cappelle Desprez under osmotic stress while the expression of TaPrx01, TaPrx03, TaPrx19, TaPrx68, TaPrx107 and TaPrx109-C decreased to different extents in both cultivars. After a transient decrease, activities of soluble peroxidase fractions of crude protein extracts rose in both cultivars on day 11, but the activities of cell wall-bound fractions increased only in cv. Cappelle Desprez under osmotic stress. Parallel with high H(2)O(2) content of the tissues, certain isoenzymes of covalently bound fraction in cv. Cappelle Desprez showed increased activity suggesting that they may limit the extension of root cell walls in this cultivar.

  3. Antioxidant enzyme and osmotic adjustment changes in bean seedlings as affected by biochar under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Farhangi-Abriz, Salar; Torabian, Shahram

    2017-03-01

    Salinity damaged cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while osmolytes and antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. Biochar also could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. The pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar on some antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte adjustments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Derakhshan) under salinity stress. Bean plants were subjected to three salinity levels (non-saline, 6 and 12 dSm(-1) of NaCl) and biochar treatments (non-biochar, 10% and 20% total pot mass). Shoot and root dry weights of bean were decreased at two salt stress treatments. Salinity increased the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxygen radicals (O(2•-)), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in leaf and root compared to control. Additionally, increased magnitudes of proline, glycine betaine, soluble sugar and soluble protein contents were more pronounced under 12 dSm(-1) NaCl than those under 6 dSm(-1) NaCl. In contrast, biochar applied to soil enhanced the shoot and root dry weight in comparison with the non-biochar treatment. Furthermore, all of the antioxidant activities of seedlings in soil treated with biochar, particularly at 20% biochar, declined. With the addition of biochar, the contents of MDA, O(2•-) and H2O2 displayed remarkable decrease, and the osmotic substances accumulation in leaves and roots also reduced. The presented results supported the view that biochar can contribute to protect common bean seedlings against NaCl stress by alleviating the oxidative stress.

  4. Sorbitol required for cell growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During ethanol fermentation, the ethanologenic bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis may encounter several environmental stresses such as heat, ethanol and osmotic stresses due to high sugar concentration. Although supplementation of the compatible solute sorbitol into culture medium enhances cell growth of Z. mobilis under osmotic stress, the protective function of this compound on cell growth and ethanol production by this organism under other stresses such as heat and ethanol has not been described yet. The formation of sorbitol in Z. mobilis was carried out by the action of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) enzyme which is regulated by the gfo gene. Therefore, the gfo gene in Z. mobilis was disrupted by the fusion-PCR-based construction technique in the present study, and the protective function of sorbitol on cell growth, protein synthesis and ethanol production by Z. mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses was investigated. Results Based on the fusion-PCR-based construction technique, the gfo gene in Z. mobilis was disrupted. Disruption of the Z. mobilis gfo gene resulted in the reduction of cell growth and ethanol production not only under osmotic stress but also under heat and ethanol stresses. Under these stress conditions, the transcription level of pdc, adhA, and adhB genes involved in the pyruvate-to-ethanol (PE) pathway as well as the synthesis of proteins particularly in Z. mobilis disruptant strain were decreased compared to those of the parent. These findings suggest that sorbitol plays a crucial role not only on cell growth and ethanol production but also on the protection of cellular proteins from stress responses. Conclusion We showed for the first time that supplementation of the compatible solute sorbitol not only promoted cell growth but also increased the ethanol fermentation capability of Z. mobilis under heat, ethanol, and osmotic stresses. Although the molecular mechanism involved in tolerance to stress conditions

  5. A Golgi-localized MATE transporter mediates iron homoeostasis under osmotic stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Jungmin; Park, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Youn-Sung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2012-03-15

    Iron is an essential micronutrient that acts as a cofactor in a wide variety of pivotal metabolic processes, such as the electron transport chain of respiration, photosynthesis and redox reactions, in plants. However, its overload exceeding the cellular capacity of iron binding and storage is potentially toxic to plant cells by causing oxidative stress and cell death. Consequently, plants have developed versatile mechanisms to maintain iron homoeostasis. Organismal iron content is tightly regulated at the steps of uptake, translocation and compartmentalization. Whereas iron uptake is fairly well understood at the cellular and organismal levels, intracellular and intercellular transport is only poorly understood. In the present study, we show that a MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, designated BCD1 (BUSH-AND-CHLOROTIC-DWARF 1), contributes to iron homoeostasis during stress responses and senescence in Arabidopsis. The BCD1 gene is induced by excessive iron, but repressed by iron deficiency. It is also induced by cellular and tissue damage occurring under osmotic stress. The activation-tagged mutant bcd1-1D exhibits leaf chlorosis, a typical symptom of iron deficiency. The chlorotic lesion of the mutant was partially recovered by iron feeding. Whereas the bcd1-1D mutant accumulated a lower amount of iron, the iron level was elevated in the knockout mutant bcd1-1. The BCD1 protein is localized to the Golgi complex. We propose that the BCD1 transporter plays a role in sustaining iron homoeostasis by reallocating excess iron released from stress-induced cellular damage.

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of the TORC1 and Osmotic Stress Signaling Network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Jeremy; Sullivan, Arron; Luo, Xiangxia; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Capaldi, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The Target of Rapamycin kinase Complex I (TORC1) is a master regulator of cell growth and metabolism in eukaryotes. Studies in yeast and human cells have shown that nitrogen/amino acid starvation signals act through Npr2/Npr3 and the small GTPases Gtr1/Gtr2 (Rags in humans) to inhibit TORC1. However, it is unclear how other stress and starvation stimuli inhibit TORC1, and/or act in parallel with the TORC1 pathway, to control cell growth. To help answer these questions, we developed a novel automated pipeline and used it to measure the expression of a TORC1-dependent ribosome biogenesis gene (NSR1) during osmotic stress in 4700 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from the yeast knock-out collection. This led to the identification of 440 strains with significant and reproducible defects in NSR1 repression. The cell growth control and stress response proteins deleted in these strains form a highly connected network, including 56 proteins involved in vesicle trafficking and vacuolar function; 53 proteins that act downstream of TORC1 according to a rapamycin assay—including components of the HDAC Rpd3L, Elongator, and the INO80, CAF-1 and SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes; over 100 proteins involved in signaling and metabolism; and 17 proteins that directly interact with TORC1. These data provide an important resource for labs studying cell growth control and stress signaling, and demonstrate the utility of our new, and easily adaptable, method for mapping gene regulatory networks. PMID:26681516

  7. Characterization of the mechanism of prolonged adaptation to osmotic stress of Jeotgalibacillus malaysiensis via genome and transcriptome sequencing analyses

    PubMed Central

    Yaakop, Amira Suriaty; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan Lue; Lee, Siew-Kim; Manan, Fazilah Abd; Goh, Kian Mau

    2016-01-01

    Jeotgalibacillus malaysiensis, a moderate halophilic bacterium isolated from a pelagic area, can endure higher concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) than other Jeotgalibacillus type strains. In this study, we therefore chose to sequence and assemble the entire J. malaysiensis genome. This is the first report to provide a detailed analysis of the genomic features of J. malaysiensis, and to perform genetic comparisons between this microorganism and other halophiles. J. malaysiensis encodes a native megaplasmid (pJeoMA), which is greater than 600 kilobases in size, that is absent from other sequenced species of Jeotgalibacillus. Subsequently, RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis was utilised to examine adaptations of J. malaysiensis to osmotic stress. Specifically, the eggNOG (evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes) databases were used to elucidate the overall effects of osmotic stress on the organism. Generally, saline stress significantly affected carbohydrate, energy, and amino acid metabolism, as well as fatty acid biosynthesis. Our findings also indicate that J. malaysiensis adopted a combination of approaches, including the uptake or synthesis of osmoprotectants, for surviving salt stress. Among these, proline synthesis appeared to be the preferred method for withstanding prolonged osmotic stress in J. malaysiensis. PMID:27641516

  8. Differential effects of salinity and osmotic stress on the plant growth-promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius V; Intorne, Aline C; Vespoli, Luciano de S; Madureira, Hérika C; Leandro, Mariana R; Pereira, Telma N S; Olivares, Fábio L; Berbert-Molina, Marília A; De Souza Filho, Gonçalo A

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) represent a promising alternative to the massive use of industrial fertilizers in agriculture. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a PGPB that colonizes several plant species. Although this bacterium is able to grow at high sucrose concentrations, its response to environmental stresses is poorly understood. The present study evaluated G. diazotrophicus PAL5 response to stresses caused by sucrose, PEG 400, NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Morphological, ultrastructural and cell growth analysis revealed that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 is more sensitive to salt than osmotic stress. Growth inhibition and strong morphological changes were caused by salinity, in consequence of Cl ion-specific toxic effect. Interestingly, low osmotic stress levels were beneficial for bacterial multiplication, which was able to tolerate high sucrose concentrations, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Our data show that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 has differential response to osmotic and salinity stress, which may influence its use as inoculant in saline environments.

  9. Expression analysis and promoter methylation under osmotic and salinity stress of TaGAPC1 in wheat (Triticum aestivum L).

    PubMed

    Fei, Ying; Xue, Yuanxia; Du, Peixiu; Yang, Shushen; Deng, Xiping

    2017-03-01

    Cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) catalyzes a key reaction in glycolysis and encoded by a multi-gene family which showed instability expression under abiotic stress. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays an important role in gene regulation in response to abiotic stress. The comprehension of DNA methylation at promoter region of TaGAPC1 can provide insights into the transcription regulation mechanisms of plant genes under abiotic stress. In this study, we cloned TaGAPC1 genes and its promoters from two wheat genomes, then investigated the expression patterns of TaGAPC1 under osmotic and salinity stress, and analyzed the promoter sequences. Moreover, the methylation patterns of promoters under stress were confirmed. Expression analysis indicated that TaGAPC1 was induced inordinately by stresses in two wheat genotypes with contrasting drought tolerance. Several stress-related cis-acting elements (MBS, DRE, GT1 and LTR et al.) were located in its promoters. Furthermore, the osmotic and salinity stress induced the demethylation of CG and CHG nucleotide in the promoter region of Changwu134. The methylation level of CHG and CHH in promoter of Zhengyin1 was always increased under stresses, and the CG contexts remained unchanged. The cytosine loci of stress-related cis-acting elements also showed different methylation changes in this process. These results provide insights into the relationship between promoter methylation and gene expression, promoting the function investigation of GAPC.

  10. Generation of Wheat Transcription Factor FOX Rice Lines and Systematic Screening for Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinxia; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Yayun; Zhu, Butuo; Cao, Jian; Li, Zhanpeng; Han, Longzhi; Jia, Jizeng; Zhao, Guangyao; Sun, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stress. In this study, we collected 1,455 full-length (FL) cDNAs of TFs, representing 45 families, from wheat and its relatives Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops tauschii, Triticum carthlicum, and Triticum aestivum. More than 15,000 T0 TF FOX (Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressing) rice lines were generated; of these, 10,496 lines set seeds. About 14.88% of the T0 plants showed obvious phenotypic changes. T1 lines (5,232 lines) were screened for salt and osmotic stress tolerance using 150 mM NaCl and 20% (v/v) PEG-4000, respectively. Among them, five lines (591, 746, 1647, 1812, and J4065) showed enhanced salt stress tolerance, five lines (591, 746, 898, 1078, and 1647) showed enhanced osmotic stress tolerance, and three lines (591, 746, and 1647) showed both salt and osmotic stress tolerance. Further analysis of the T-DNA flanking sequences showed that line 746 over-expressed TaEREB1, line 898 over-expressed TabZIPD, and lines 1812 and J4065 over-expressed TaOBF1a and TaOBF1b, respectively. The enhanced salt and osmotic stress tolerance of lines 898 and 1812 was confirmed by retransformation of the respective genes. Our results demonstrate that a heterologous FOX system may be used as an alternative genetic resource for the systematic functional analysis of the wheat genome.

  11. Involvement of elevated proline accumulation in enhanced osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis conferred by chimeric repressor gene silencing technology.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Daisuke; Kurusu, Takamitsu; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Tada, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis plants transformed with a chimeric repressor for 6 transcription factors (TFs), including ADA2b, Msantd, DDF1, DREB26, AtGeBP, and ATHB23, that were converted by Chimeric REpressor gene Silencing Technology (CRES-T), show elevated salt and osmotic stress tolerance compared with wild type (WT) plants. However, the roles of TFs in salt and osmotic signaling remain largely unknown. Their hyper-osmotic stress tolerance was evaluated using 3 criteria: germination rate, root length, and rate of seedlings with visible cotyledons at the germination stage. All CRES-T lines tested exhibited better performance than WT, at least for one criterion under stress conditions. Under 600 mM mannitol stress, 3-week-old CRES-T lines accumulated proline, which is a major compatible solute involved in osmoregulation, at higher levels than WT. Expression levels of the delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase gene in CRES-T lines were similar to or lower than those in WT. In contrast, expression of the proline dehydrogenase (PHD) gene in DREB26-SRDX was significantly downregulated and that in ADA2b-SRDX and AtGeBP-SRDX was also rather downregulated compared with that in WT. Although plants at different stages were used for stress tolerance test and proline measurement in this study, we previously reported that 4 out of the 6 CRES-T lines showed better growth than WT after 4 weeks of incubation under 400 mM mannitol. These results suggest that proline accumulation caused by PHD gene suppression may be involved in enhanced osmotic stress tolerance in the CRES-T lines, and that these TFs may be involved in regulating proline metabolism in Arabidopsis.

  12. Deciphering dynamic dose responses of natural promoters and single cis elements upon osmotic and oxidative stress in yeast.

    PubMed

    Dolz-Edo, Laura; Rienzo, Alessandro; Poveda-Huertes, Daniel; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo; Proft, Markus

    2013-06-01

    Fine-tuned activation of gene expression in response to stress is the result of dynamic interactions of transcription factors with specific promoter binding sites. In the study described here we used a time-resolved luciferase reporter assay in living Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells to gain insights into how osmotic and oxidative stress signals modulate gene expression in a dose-sensitive manner. Specifically, the dose-response behavior of four different natural promoters (GRE2, CTT1, SOD2, and CCP1) reveals differences in their sensitivity and dynamics in response to different salt and oxidative stimuli. Characteristic dose-response profiles were also obtained for artificial promoters driven by only one type of stress-regulated consensus element, such as the cyclic AMP-responsive element, stress response element, or AP-1 site. Oxidative and osmotic stress signals activate these elements separately and with different sensitivities through different signaling molecules. Combination of stress-activated cis elements does not, in general, enhance the absolute expression levels; however, specific combinations can increase the inducibility of the promoter in response to different stress doses. Finally, we show that the stress tolerance of the cell critically modulates the dynamics of its transcriptional response in the case of oxidative stress.

  13. Calcineurin B-Like Protein-Interacting Protein Kinase CIPK21 Regulates Osmotic and Salt Stress Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Girdhar K; Kanwar, Poonam; Singh, Amarjeet; Steinhorst, Leonie; Pandey, Amita; Yadav, Akhlilesh K; Tokas, Indu; Sanyal, Sibaji K; Kim, Beom-Gi; Lee, Sung-Chul; Cheong, Yong-Hwa; Kudla, Jörg; Luan, Sheng

    2015-09-01

    The role of calcium-mediated signaling has been extensively studied in plant responses to abiotic stress signals. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) and CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) constitute a complex signaling network acting in diverse plant stress responses. Osmotic stress imposed by soil salinity and drought is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development and involves calcium-signaling processes. In this study, we report the functional analysis of CIPK21, an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CBL-interacting protein kinase, ubiquitously expressed in plant tissues and up-regulated under multiple abiotic stress conditions. The growth of a loss-of-function mutant of CIPK21, cipk21, was hypersensitive to high salt and osmotic stress conditions. The calcium sensors CBL2 and CBL3 were found to physically interact with CIPK21 and target this kinase to the tonoplast. Moreover, preferential localization of CIPK21 to the tonoplast was detected under salt stress condition when coexpressed with CBL2 or CBL3. These findings suggest that CIPK21 mediates responses to salt stress condition in Arabidopsis, at least in part, by regulating ion and water homeostasis across the vacuolar membranes.

  14. Growth and microtubule orientation of Zea mays roots subjected to osmotic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blancaflor, E. B.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1995-01-01

    Previous work has shown that microtubule (MT) reorientation follows the onset of growth inhibition on the lower side of graviresponding roots, indicating that growth reduction can occur independently of MT reorientation. To test this observation further, we examined whether the reduction in growth in response to osmotic stress is correlated with MT reorientation. The distribution and rate of growth in maize roots exposed to 350 mOsm sorbitol and KCl or 5 mM Mes/Tris buffer were measured with a digitizer. After various times roots were processed for indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Application of sorbitol or KCl had no effect on the organization of MTs in the apical 2 mm of the root but resulted in striking and different effects in the basal region of the root. Sorbitol treatment caused rapid appearance of oval to circular holes in the microtubular array that persisted for at least 9 h. Between 30 min and 4 h of submersion in KCl, MTs in cortical cells 4 mm and farther from the quiescent center began to reorient oblique to the longitudinal axis. After 9 h, the alignment of MTs had shifted to parallel to the root axis but MTs of the epidermal cells remained transverse. In KCl-treated roots MT reorientation appeared to follow a pattern of development similar to that in controls but without elongation. Our data provide additional evidence that MT reorientation is not the cause but a consequence of growth inhibition.

  15. Transformation of Oats and Its Application to Improving Osmotic Stress Tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqbool, Shahina B.; Zhong, Heng; Oraby, Hesham F.; Sticklen, Mariam B.

    Oat (Avena sativa L.), a worldwide temperate cereal crop, is deficient in tolerance to osmotic stress due to drought and/or salinity. To genetically transform the available commercial oat cultivars, a genotype-independent and efficient regeneration system from shoot apical meristems was developed using four oat cultivars: Prairie, Porter, Ogle, and Pacer. All these oat cultivars generated a genotype-independent in vitro differentiated multiple shoots from shoot apical meristems at a high frequency. Using this system, three oat cultivars were genetically co-transformed with pBY520 (containing hva1 and bar) and pAct1-D (containing gus) using biolistic™ bombardment. Transgenic plants were selected and regenerated using herbicide resistance and GUS as a marker. Molecular and biochemical analyses of putative transgenic plants confirmed the co-integration of hva1 and bar genes with a frequency of 100%, and 61.6% of the transgenic plants carried all three genes (hva1, bar and gus). Further analyses of R0, R1, and R2 progenies confirmed stable integration, expression, and Mendalian inheritance for all transgenes. Histochemical analysis of GUS protein in transgenic plants showed a high level of GUS expression in vascular tissues and in the pollen grains of mature flowers. Immunochemical analysis of transgenic plants indicated a constitutive expression of hva1 at all developmental stages. However, the level of HVA1 was higher during the early seedling stages.

  16. Adaptation of Staphylococcus xylosus to Nutrients and Osmotic Stress in a Salted Meat Model

    PubMed Central

    Vermassen, Aurore; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; de La Foye, Anne; Micheau, Pierre; Laroute, Valérie; Leroy, Sabine; Talon, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is commonly used as starter culture for meat fermentation. Its technological properties are mainly characterized in vitro, but the molecular mechanisms for its adaptation to meat remain unknown. A global transcriptomic approach was used to determine these mechanisms. S. xylosus modulated the expression of about 40–50% of the total genes during its growth and survival in the meat model. The expression of many genes involved in DNA machinery and cell division, but also in cell lysis, was up-regulated. Considering that the S. xylosus population remained almost stable between 24 and 72 h of incubation, our results suggest a balance between cell division and cell lysis in the meat model. The expression of many genes encoding enzymes involved in glucose and lactate catabolism was up-regulated and revealed that glucose and lactate were used simultaneously. S. xylosus seemed to adapt to anaerobic conditions as revealed by the overexpression of two regulatory systems and several genes encoding cofactors required for respiration. In parallel, genes encoding transport of peptides and peptidases that could furnish amino acids were up-regulated and thus concomitantly a lot of genes involved in amino acid synthesis were down-regulated. Several genes involved in glutamate homeostasis were up-regulated. Finally, S. xylosus responded to the osmotic stress generated by salt added to the meat model by overexpressing genes involved in transport and synthesis of osmoprotectants, and Na+ and H+ extrusion. PMID:26903967

  17. Adaptation of Staphylococcus xylosus to Nutrients and Osmotic Stress in a Salted Meat Model.

    PubMed

    Vermassen, Aurore; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; de La Foye, Anne; Micheau, Pierre; Laroute, Valérie; Leroy, Sabine; Talon, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is commonly used as starter culture for meat fermentation. Its technological properties are mainly characterized in vitro, but the molecular mechanisms for its adaptation to meat remain unknown. A global transcriptomic approach was used to determine these mechanisms. S. xylosus modulated the expression of about 40-50% of the total genes during its growth and survival in the meat model. The expression of many genes involved in DNA machinery and cell division, but also in cell lysis, was up-regulated. Considering that the S. xylosus population remained almost stable between 24 and 72 h of incubation, our results suggest a balance between cell division and cell lysis in the meat model. The expression of many genes encoding enzymes involved in glucose and lactate catabolism was up-regulated and revealed that glucose and lactate were used simultaneously. S. xylosus seemed to adapt to anaerobic conditions as revealed by the overexpression of two regulatory systems and several genes encoding cofactors required for respiration. In parallel, genes encoding transport of peptides and peptidases that could furnish amino acids were up-regulated and thus concomitantly a lot of genes involved in amino acid synthesis were down-regulated. Several genes involved in glutamate homeostasis were up-regulated. Finally, S. xylosus responded to the osmotic stress generated by salt added to the meat model by overexpressing genes involved in transport and synthesis of osmoprotectants, and Na(+) and H(+) extrusion.

  18. Osmotic Stress Confers Enhanced Cell Integrity to Hydrostatic Pressure but Impairs Growth in Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2

    PubMed Central

    Scoma, Alberto; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Alcanivorax is a hydrocarbonoclastic genus dominating oil spills worldwide. While its presence has been detected in oil-polluted seawaters, marine sediment and salt marshes under ambient pressure, its presence in deep-sea oil-contaminated environments is negligible. Recent laboratory studies highlighted the piezosensitive nature of some Alcanivorax species, whose growth yields are highly impacted by mild hydrostatic pressures (HPs). In the present study, osmotic stress was used as a tool to increase HP resistance in the type strain Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2. Control cultures grown under standard conditions of salinity and osmotic pressure with respect to seawater (35.6 ppt or 1136 mOsm kg-1, respectively) were compared with cultures subjected to hypo- and hyperosmosis (330 and 1720 mOsm kg-1, or 18 and 62 ppt in salinity, equivalent to brackish and brine waters, respectively), under atmospheric or increased HP (0.1 and 10 MPa). Osmotic stress had a remarkably positive impact on cell metabolic activity in terms of CO2 production (thus, oil bioremediation) and O2 respiration under hyperosmosis, as acclimation to high salinity enhanced cell activity under 10 MPa by a factor of 10. Both osmotic shocks significantly enhanced cell protection by reducing membrane damage under HP, with cell integrities close to 100% under hyposmosis. The latter was likely due to intracellular water-reclamation as no trace of the piezolyte ectoine was found, contrary to hyperosmosis. Notably, ectoine production was equivalent at 0.1 MPa in hyperosmosis-acclimated cells and at 10 MPa under isosmotic conditions. While stimulating cell metabolism and enhancing cell integrity, osmotic stress had always a negative impact on culture growth and performance. No net growth was observed during 4-days incubation tests, and CO2:O2 ratios and pH values indicated that culture performance in terms of hydrocarbon degradation was lowered by the effects of osmotic stress alone or combined with increased HP

  19. Roles of sugar alcohols in osmotic stress adaptation. Replacement of glycerol by mannitol and sorbitol in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.; Hohmann, S.; Jensen, R.G.; Bohnert, H.J.

    1999-09-01

    For many organisms there is a correlation between increases of metabolites and osmotic stress tolerance, but the mechanisms that cause this protection are not clear. To understand the role of polyols, genes for bacterial mannitol-1-P dehydrogenase and apply sorbitol-6-P dehydrogenase were introduced into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in glycerol synthesis. Sorbitol and mannitol provided some protection, but less than that generated by a similar concentration of glycerol generated by glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (GPD1). Reduced protection by polyols suggested that glycerol had specific functions for which mannitol and sorbitol could not substitute, and that the absolute amount of the accumulating osmoticum might not be crucial. The retention of glycerol and mannitol-sorbitol, respectively, was a major difference. During salt stress, cells retained more of the six-carbon polyois than glycerol. The authors suggest that the loss of {gt} 98% of the glycerol synthesized could provide a safety value that dissipates reducing power, which a similar high intracellular concentration of retained polyois would be less protective. To understand the role of glycerol in salt tolerance, salt-tolerant suppressor mutants were isolated from the glycerol-deficient strain. One mutant, sr13, partially suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype of the glycerol-deficient line, probably due to a doubling of [K{sup +}] accumulating during stress. The authors compare these results to the osmotic adjustment concept typically applied to accumulating metabolites in plants. The accumulation of polyois may have dual functions: facilitating osmotic adjustment and supporting redox control.

  20. Effects of osmotic stress on antioxidant enzymes activities in leaf discs of PSAG12-IPT modified Gerbera.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qi-xian; Bao, Zhi-yi; Zhu, Zhu-jun; Qian, Qiong-qiu; Mao, Bi-zeng

    2007-07-01

    Leaf senescence is often caused by water deficit and the chimeric gene P(SAG12)-IPT is an auto-regulated gene delaying leaf senescence. Using in vitro leaf discs culture system, the changes of contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, soluble protein and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated during leaf senescence of P(SAGl2)-IPT modified gerbera induced by osmotic stress compared with the control plant (wild type). Leaf discs were incubated in 20%, 40% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 nutrient solution for 20 h under continuous light [130 micromol/(m(2) x s)]. The results showed that the contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids and soluble protein were decreased by osmotic stress with the decrease being more pronounced at 40% PEG, but that, at the same PEG concentration the decrease in the transgenic plants was significantly lower than that in the control plant. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) were stimulated by PEG treatment. However, the increases were higher in P(SAG12)-IPT transgenic plants than in the control plants, particularly at 40% PEG treatment. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS content) was increased by PEG treatment with the increase being much lower in transgenic plant than in the control plant. It could be concluded that the increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, CAT, APX, GPX and DHAR were responsible for the delay of leaf senescence induced by osmotic stress.

  1. Osmotic stress induces the phosphorylation of WNK4 Ser575 via the p38MAPK-MK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Junichi; Kobayashi, Yumie; Umeda, Tsuyoshi; Vandewalle, Alain; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori; Naguro, Isao

    2016-01-01

    The With No lysine [K] (WNK)-Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1 (OSR1) pathway has been reported to be a crucial signaling pathway for triggering pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), an autosomal dominant hereditary disease that is characterized by hypertension. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which the WNK-SPAK/OSR1 pathway is regulated remain unclear. In this report, we identified WNK4 as an interacting partner of a recently identified MAP3K, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 3 (ASK3). We found that WNK4 is phosphorylated in an ASK3 kinase activity-dependent manner. By exploring the ASK3-dependent phosphorylation sites, we identified Ser575 as a novel phosphorylation site in WNK4 by LC-MS/MS analysis. ASK3-dependent WNK4 Ser575 phosphorylation was mediated by the p38MAPK-MAPK-activated protein kinase (MK) pathway. Osmotic stress, as well as hypotonic low-chloride stimulation, increased WNK4 Ser575 phosphorylation via the p38MAPK-MK pathway. ASK3 was required for the p38MAPK activation induced by hypotonic stimulation but was not required for that induced by hypertonic stimulation or hypotonic low-chloride stimulation. Our results suggest that the p38MAPK-MK pathway might regulate WNK4 in an osmotic stress-dependent manner but its upstream regulators might be divergent depending on the types of osmotic stimuli. PMID:26732173

  2. Dynamic regulation of the root hydraulic conductivity of barley plants in response to salinity/osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Horie, Tomoaki; Nakahara, Yoshiki; Tsuji, Nobuya; Shibasaka, Mineo; Katsuhara, Maki

    2015-05-01

    Salinity stress significantly reduces the root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr) of several plant species including barley (Hordeum vulgare). Here we characterized changes in the Lpr of barley plants in response to salinity/osmotic stress in detail using a pressure chamber. Salt-tolerant and intermediate barley cultivars, K305 and Haruna-nijyo, but not a salt-sensitive cultivar, I743, exhibited characteristic time-dependent Lpr changes induced by 100 mM NaCl. An identical response was evoked by isotonic sorbitol, indicating that this phenomenon was triggered by osmotic imbalances. Further examination of this mechanism using barley cv. Haruna-nijyo plants in combination with the use of various inhibitors suggested that various cellular processes such as protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and membrane internalization appear to be involved. Interestingly, the three above-mentioned barley cultivars did not exhibit a remarkable difference in root cell sap osmolality under hypertonic conditions, in contrast to the case of Lpr. The possible biological significance of the regulation of Lpr in barley plants upon salinity/osmotic stress is discussed.

  3. Piecewise linear approximations to model the dynamics of adaptation to osmotic stress by food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Métris, Aline; George, Susie M; Ropers, Delphine

    2017-01-02

    Addition of salt to food is one of the most ancient and most common methods of food preservation. However, little is known of how bacterial cells adapt to such conditions. We propose to use piecewise linear approximations to model the regulatory adaptation of Escherichiacoli to osmotic stress. We apply the method to eight selected genes representing the functions known to be at play during osmotic adaptation. The network is centred on the general stress response factor, sigma S, and also includes a module representing the catabolic repressor CRP-cAMP. Glutamate, potassium and supercoiling are combined to represent the intracellular regulatory signal during osmotic stress induced by salt. The output is a module where growth is represented by the concentration of stable RNAs and the transcription of the osmotic gene osmY. The time course of gene expression of transport of osmoprotectant represented by the symporter proP and of the osmY is successfully reproduced by the network. The behaviour of the rpoS mutant predicted by the model is in agreement with experimental data. We discuss the application of the model to food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella; although the genes considered have orthologs, it seems that supercoiling is not regulated in the same way. The model is limited to a few selected genes, but the regulatory interactions are numerous and span different time scales. In addition, they seem to be condition specific: the links that are important during the transition from exponential to stationary phase are not all needed during osmotic stress. This model is one of the first steps towards modelling adaptation to stress in food safety and has scope to be extended to other genes and pathways, other stresses relevant to the food industry, and food-borne pathogens. The method offers a good compromise between systems of ordinary differential equations, which would be unmanageable because of the size of the system and for which insufficient data are available

  4. Water stress amelioration and plant growth promotion in wheat plants by osmotic stress tolerant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, U; Chakraborty, B N; Chakraborty, A P; Dey, P L

    2013-05-01

    Soil microorganisms with potential for alleviation of abiotic stresses in combination with plant growth promotion would be extremely useful tools in sustainable agriculture. To this end, the present study was initiated where forty-five salt tolerant bacterial isolates with ability to grow in high salt medium were obtained from the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum and Imperata cylindrica. These bacteria were tested for plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria traits in vitro such as phosphate solubilization, siderophore, ACC deaminase and IAA production. Of the forty-five isolates, W10 from wheat rhizosphere and IP8 from blady grass rhizosphere, which tested positive in all the tests were identified by morpholological, biochemical and 16SrDNA sequencing as Bacillus safensis and Ochrobactrum pseudogregnonense respectively and selected for in vivo studies. Both the bacteria could promote growth in six varieties of wheat tested in terms of increase in root and shoot biomass, height of plants, yield, as well as increase in chlorophyll content. Besides, the wheat plants could withstand water stress more efficiently in presence of the bacteria as indicated by delay in appearance of wilting symptoms increases in relative water content of treated water stressed plants in comparison to untreated stressed ones, and elevated antioxidant responses. Enhanced antioxidant responses were evident as elevated activities of enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase as well as increased accumulation of antioxidants such as carotenoids and ascorbate. Results clearly indicate that the ability of wheat plants to withstand water stress is enhanced by application of these bacteria which also function as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

  5. The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 Gene Confers Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions. PMID:22949853

  6. The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 gene confers salt and osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions.

  7. Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hydraulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yin, Lina; Deng, Xiping; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-09-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates water deficit stress has been widely reported, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here the effects of silicon on water uptake and transport of sorghum seedlings (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing under polyethylene glycol-simulated osmotic stress in hydroponic culture and water deficit stress in sand culture were investigated. Osmotic stress dramatically decreased dry weight, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf water content, but silicon application reduced these stress-induced decreases. Although silicon application had no effect on stem water transport capacity, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and root hydraulic conductance (Lp) were higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in those without silicon treatment under osmotic stress. Furthermore, the extent of changes in transpiration rate was similar to the changes in Kplant and Lp. The contribution of aquaporin to Lp was characterized using the aquaporin inhibitor mercury. Under osmotic stress, the exogenous application of HgCl2 decreased the transpiration rates of seedlings with and without silicon to the same level; after recovery induced by dithiothreitol (DTT), however, the transpiration rate was higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in untreated seedlings. In addition, transcription levels of several root aquaporin genes were increased by silicon application under osmotic stress. These results indicate that the silicon-induced up-regulation of aquaporin, which was thought to increase Lp, was involved in improving root water uptake under osmotic stress. This study also suggests that silicon plays a modulating role in improving plant resistance to osmotic stress in addition to its role as a mere physical barrier.

  8. Nitric oxide is involved in light-specific responses of tomato during germination under normal and osmotic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piterková, Jana; Luhová, Lenka; Hofman, Jakub; Turečková, Veronika; Novák, Ondřej; Petřivalský, Marek; Fellner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the signalling and regulation of plant growth and development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The photoperiod-sensitive mutant 7B-1 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) showing abscisic acid (ABA) overproduction and blue light (BL)-specific tolerance to osmotic stress represents a valuable model to study the interaction between light, hormones and stress signalling. The role of NO as a regulator of seed germination and ABA-dependent responses to osmotic stress was explored in wild-type and 7B-1 tomato under white light (WL) and BL. Methods Germination data were obtained from the incubation of seeds on germinating media of different composition. Histochemical analysis of NO production in germinating seeds was performed by fluorescence microscopy using a cell-permeable NO probe, and endogenous ABA was analysed by mass spectrometry. Key Results The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione stimulated seed germination, whereas the NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) had an inhibitory effect. Under WL in both genotypes, PTIO strongly suppressed germination stimulated by fluridone, an ABA inhibitor. The stimulatory effect of the NO donor was also observed under osmotic stress for 7B-1 seeds under WL and BL. Seed germination inhibited by osmotic stress was restored by fluridone under WL, but less so under BL, in both genotypes. This effect of fluridone was further modulated by the NO donor and NO scavenger, but only to a minor extent. Fluorescence microscopy using the cell-permeable NO probe DAF-FM DA (4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein diacetate) revealed a higher level of NO in stressed 7B-1 compared with wild-type seeds. Conclusions As well as defective BL signalling, the differential NO-dependent responses of the 7B-1 mutant are probably associated with its high endogenous ABA concentration and related impact on hormonal cross-talk in germinating seeds. These

  9. The genome of the xerotolerant mold Wallemia sebi reveals adaptations to osmotic stress and suggests cryptic sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajabeen, Padamsee; Kumas, T. K. Arun; Riley, Robert; Binder, Manfred; Boyd, Alex; Calvo, Ann M.; Furukawa, Kentaro; Hesse, Cedar; Hohmann, Stefan; James, Tim Y.; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Miller, Kari; Shantappa, Sourabha; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.; McLaughlin, David J.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Aime, Mary C.

    2011-09-03

    Wallemia (Wallemiales, Wallemiomycetes) is a genus of xerophilic Fungi of uncertain phylogenetic position within Basidiomycota. Most commonly found as food contaminants, species of Wallemia have also been isolated from hypersaline environments. The ability to tolerate environments with reduced water activity is rare in Basidiomycota. We sequenced the genome of W. sebi in order to understand its adaptations for surviving in osmotically challenging environments, and we performed phylogenomic and ultrastructural analyses to address its systematic placement and reproductive biology. W. sebi has a compact genome (9.8 Mb), with few repeats and the largest fraction of genes with functional domains compared with other Basidiomycota. We applied several approaches to searching for osmotic stress-related proteins. In silico analyses identied 93 putative osmotic stress proteins; homology searches showed the HOG (High Osmolarity Glycerol) pathway to be mostly conserved. Despite the seemingly reduced genome, several gene family expansions and a high number of transporters (549) were found that also provide clues to the ability of W. sebito colonize harsh environments. Phylogenetic analyses of a 71-protein dataset support the position of Wallemia as the earliest diverging lineage of Agaricomycotina, which is conrmed by septal pore ultrastructure that shows the septal pore apparatus as a variant of the Tremella-type. Mating type gene homologs were idented although we found no evidence of meiosis during conidiogenesis, suggesting there may be aspects of the life cycle of W. sebi that remain cryptic

  10. Polyamines induced by osmotic stress protect Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells and arginine decarboxylase transcripts against UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Pothipongsa, Apiradee; Jantaro, Saowarath; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2012-11-01

    The effect of UV-B radiation on growth and polyamines content of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 subjected to either NaCl or sorbitol stress was investigated. Cells could not grow in the presence of 350 mM NaCl or 500 mM sorbitol under normal white light. However, cells grown in BG11 under osmotic stress imposed by NaCl or sorbitol followed by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation for 2 h showed higher cell density than those under the same condition but no osmotic stress. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter (F(v)/F(m)) also showed an apparent decrease upon UV-B irradiation. Intracellular polyamines increased by about 2- and 4-fold in NaCl- and sorbitol-stressed cells, respectively. When these cells were irradiated with UV-B for 1 h, a further 3-fold increase in polyamines content was detected in NaCl-stressed but not sorbitol-stressed cells. Synechocystis cells contained adc1 and adc2 genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (ADC) with only adc1 showing upregulation by NaCl or sorbitol stress. NaCl- or sorbitol-stressed cells contained about 5-fold higher level of adc1 transcript than did the unstressed cells after 1-h irradiation with UV-B, suggesting the protection of adc1 transcript by accumulated polyamines, due to NaCl or sorbitol stress, against UV-B radiation damage. ADC levels as analyzed by Western blot showed upregulation by UV-B in NaCl-stressed but not sorbitol-stressed cells.

  11. Light scattering and cell volumes in osmotically stressed and frozen-thawed cells.

    PubMed

    McGann, L E; Walterson, M L; Hogg, L M

    1988-01-01

    Recent reports, indicating that under some conditions the intensity of light scattering from cells is a nonlinear function of cell volume, have led to the widespread generalization that intensity of low-angle light scattering indicates cell size. This study was performed to measure the relationships between light scattering and cell volumes in an-isotonic solutions and after a freeze-thaw stress. Cell volumes in isolated human lymphocytes, human granulocytes, and hamster fibroblasts were deliberately altered by exposure to anisotonic solutions. Boyle-vant Hoff plots of cell volume as a function of inverse osmotic pressure showed that the cells behaved as osmometers. Similar plots of right-angle and low-angle light scattering showed that the intensity of light scattering varied inversely with cell volume. In other experiments where cells were frozen without cryoprotectant at various sub zero temperatures to -25 degrees C and then thawed rapidly, cell viability decreased progressively with decreasing temperature, as did the intensity of both low-angle and right-angle light scattering, although cell volumes remained relatively constant. The intensity of both low- and high-angle light scattering varied inversely with cell volumes in hypertonic and hypotonic solutions, but cell damage induced by freezing and thawing resulted in significant reductions in the intensity of low-angle light scattering with little change in cell volume. These observations show that light scattering and cell volumes can vary independently, and they underline the need for a better understanding of the phenomenon of light scattering from living cells.

  12. The Transcriptional Activator LdtR from ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Mediates Osmotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bojilova, Lora; Sarnegrim, Amanda; Tamayo, Cheila; Potts, Anastasia H.; Teplitski, Max; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

    2014-01-01

    The causal agent of Huanglongbing disease, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, is a non-culturable, gram negative, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium. Current methods to control the spread of this disease are still limited to the removal and destruction of infected trees. In this study, we identified and characterized a regulon from ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ involved in cell wall remodeling, that contains a member of the MarR family of transcriptional regulators (ldtR), and a predicted L,D-transpeptidase (ldtP). In Sinorhizobium meliloti, mutation of ldtR resulted in morphological changes (shortened rod-type phenotype) and reduced tolerance to osmotic stress. A biochemical approach was taken to identify small molecules that modulate LdtR activity. The LdtR ligands identified by thermal shift assays were validated using DNA binding methods. The biological impact of LdtR inactivation by the small molecules was then examined in Sinorhizobium meliloti and Liberibacter crescens, where a shortened-rod phenotype was induced by growth in presence of the ligands. A new method was also developed to examine the effects of small molecules on the viability of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’, using shoots from HLB-infected orange trees. Decreased expression of ldtRLas and ldtPLas was observed in samples taken from HLB-infected shoots after 6 h of incubation with the LdtR ligands. These results provide strong proof of concept for the use of small molecules that target LdtR, as a potential treatment option for Huanglongbing disease. PMID:24763829

  13. Adaptive responses to osmotic stress in kidney-derived cell lines from Scatophagus argus, a euryhaline fish.

    PubMed

    Gui, Lang; Zhang, Peipei; Liang, Xuemei; Su, Maoliang; Wu, Di; Zhang, Junbin

    2016-06-01

    The euryhaline fish, the spotted scat (Scatophagus argus), is exceptional for its ability to tolerate rapid fluctuations in salinity. To better understand fish osmoregulation and enable more precise analyses of specific features of adaptive responses to the osmotic stress in fish, a S. argus kidney-derived cell line (SK) was developed and subcultured for more than 70 passages. The cells were mostly fibroblast-like, with a normal diploid karyotype (2n=48). A low-osmolarity-adapted SK cell line (SK-la) was induced by growth in a hypotonic solution (150 mOsm). Effects of different osmotic stresses (150, 300 and 450 mOsm) on cell growth, cell morphology, cell volume changes and cell damage in SK, SK-la and CIK (a kidney-derived cell line from freshwater grass carp) cells were studied. These were compared by use of microscopic observation, flow cytometry and a Na-K-ATPase (NKA) assay. SK cells became smaller and grew rapidly in response to hypotonic stress (150 mOsm), and exhibited no visible morphological changes in response to hypertonic stress (450 mOsm). SK-la grew well by moderate hypertonicity (300 mOsm) but depressed in severe hypertonicity (450 mOsm), the number of unhealthy SK-la cells rose as osmolarity increased. In contrast, CIK cells became unhealthy with anisotonic challenge. The NKA activities of SK and CIK cells were assayed after exposure to anisotonic conditions, and rapid decreases were detected immediately except SK cells which were not affected in hypotonicity. Unlike in SK and CIK, an increase following a down-regulation of NKA activity was observed in SK-la cells upon moderate hypertonic stress. These results suggested that SK and SK-la cells had stronger osmoregulatory capacity than CIK cells, and provided new insights on the osmosensing and osmotic adaption in euryhaline fish kidney.

  14. Altered expression and activities of enzymes involved in thiamine diphosphate biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under oxidative and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Ewa; Kujda, Marta; Wolak, Natalia; Kozik, Andrzej

    2012-08-01

    Thiamine diphosphate (TDP) serves as a cofactor for enzymes engaged in pivotal carbohydrate metabolic pathways, which are known to be modulated under stress conditions to ensure the cell survival. Recent reports have proven a protective role of thiamine (vitamin B(1)) in the response of plants to abiotic stress. This work aimed at verifying a hypothesis that also baker's yeast, which can synthesize thiamine de novo similarly to plants and bacteria, adjust thiamine metabolism to adverse environmental conditions. Our analyses on the gene expression and enzymatic activity levels generally showed an increased production of thiamine biosynthesis enzymes (THI4 and THI6/THI6), a TDP synthesizing enzyme (THI80/THI80) and a TDP-requiring enzyme, transketolase (TKL1/TKL) by yeast subjected to oxidative (1 mM hydrogen peroxide) and osmotic (1 M sorbitol) stress. However, these effects differed in magnitude, depending on yeast growth phase and presence of thiamine in growth medium. A mutant thi4Δ with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress exhibited enhanced TDP biosynthesis as compared with the wild-type strain. Similar tendencies were observed in mutants yap1Δ and hog1Δ defective in the signaling pathways of the defense against oxidative and osmotic stress, respectively, suggesting that thiamine metabolism can partly compensate damages of yeast general defense systems.

  15. Acclimation to salt modifies the activation of several osmotic stress-activated lipid signalling pathways in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Harold J G; van Himbergen, John A J; Musgrave, Alan; Munnik, Teun

    2017-03-01

    Osmotic stress rapidly activates several phospholipid signalling pathways in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas. In this report, we have studied the effects of salt-acclimation on growth and phospholipid signalling. Growing cells on media containing 100 mM NaCl increased their salt-tolerance but did not affect the overall phospholipid content, except that levels of phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] were reduced by one-third. When these NaCl-acclimated cells were treated with increasing concentrations of salt, the same lipid signalling pathways as in non-acclimated cells were activated. This was witnessed as increases in phosphatidic acid (PA), lyso-phosphatidic acid (L-PA), diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP), PI(4,5)P2 and its isomer PI(3,5)P2. However, all dose-dependent responses were shifted to higher osmotic-stress levels, and the responses were lower than in non-acclimated cells. When NaCl-acclimated cells were treated with other osmotica, such as KCl and sucrose, the same effects were found, illustrating that they were due to hyperosmotic rather than hyperionic acclimation. The results indicate that acclimation to moderate salt stress modifies stress perception and the activation of several downstream pathways.

  16. Methane protects against polyethylene glycol-induced osmotic stress in maize by improving sugar and ascorbic acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bin; Duan, Xingliang; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Kaikai; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ren; Hu, Huali; Qi, Fang; Pan, Jincheng; Yan, Yuanxin; Shen, Wenbiao

    2017-01-01

    Although aerobic methane (CH4) release from plants leads to an intense scientific and public controversy in the recent years, the potential functions of endogenous CH4 production in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we reported that polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic stress significantly increased CH4 production and soluble sugar contents in maize (Zea mays L.) root tissues. These enhancements were more pronounced in the drought stress-tolerant cultivar Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) than in the drought stress-sensitive cultivar Zhongjiangyu No.1 (ZJY1). Exogenously applied 0.65 mM CH4 not only increased endogenous CH4 production, but also decreased the contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. PEG-induced water deficit symptoms, such as decreased biomass and relative water contents in both root and shoot tissues, were also alleviated. These beneficial responses paralleled the increases in the contents of soluble sugar and the reduced ascorbic acid (AsA), and the ratio of AsA/dehydroascorbate (DHA). Further comparison of transcript profiles of some key enzymes in sugar and AsA metabolism suggested that CH4 might participate in sugar signaling, which in turn increased AsA production and recycling. Together, these results suggested that CH4 might function as a gaseous molecule that enhances osmotic stress tolerance in maize by modulating sugar and AsA metabolism. PMID:28387312

  17. Alterations in polyribosome and messenger ribonucleic acid metabolism and messenger ribonucleoprotein utilization in osmotically stressed plant seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Polyribosome aggregation state in growing tissues of barley and wheat leaf of stems of pea and squash was studied in relation to seedling growth and water status of the growing tissue in plants at various levels of osmotic stress. It was found to be highly correlated with water potential and osmotic potential of the growing tissue and with leaf of stem elongation rate. Stress rapidly reduced polyribosome content and water status in growing tissues of barley leaves; changes were slow and slight in the non-growing leaf blade. Membrane-bound and free polyribosomes were equally sensitive to stress-induced disaggregation. Incorporation of /sup 32/PO/sub 4//sup 3 -/ into ribosomal RNA was rapidly inhibited by stress, but stability of poly(A)/sup +/RNA relative to ribosomal RNA was similar in stressed and unstressed tissues, with a half-life of about 12 hours. Stress also caused progressive loss of poly(A)/sup +/RNA from these tissues. Quantitation of poly(A) and in vitro messenger template activity in polysome gradient fractions showed a shift of activity from the polysomal region to the region of 20-60 S in stressed plants. Messenger RNA in the 20-60 S region coded for the same peptides as mRNA found in the polysomal fraction. Nonpolysomal and polysome-derived messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNP) were isolated, and characteristic proteins were found associated with either fraction. Polysomal mRNP from stressed or unstressed plants were translated with similar efficiency in a wheat germ cell-free system. It was concluded that no translational inhibitory activity was associated with nonpolysomal mRNP from barley prepared as described.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis mutants suggests a crosstalk between ABA, ethylene and GSH against combined cold and osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Hazra, Saptarshi; Datta, Riddhi; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene and abscisic acid in providing stress tolerance and defence response to plants is widely recognized. However, little is known about the cross-talk between glutathione with ethylene and abscisic acid to combat stress in planta. Here, transcriptome analysis of combined cold and osmotic stress treated Arabidopsis mutants were carried out to elucidate the crosstalk between the abscisic acid, ethylene and glutathione. Microarray experiment revealed the differential regulation of about 2313 and 4131 transcripts in ein2 (ethylene insensitive mutant) and aba1.6 (abscisic acid mutant) respectively. Functional analysis exposed common down-regulated stress and defence, secondary metabolite biosynthesis viz. phenylpropanoid, lignin and flavonols, redox and transcription factors related genes in ein2, aba1.6 and pad2.1 (glutathione mutant) in response to combined stress treatment. The reduced glutathione content was less in stress treated mutants in comparison to Col-0. Again, selective down-regulated transcripts in stress treated mutants were noted up-regulated after glutathione feeding. Some of the important differentially expressed genes were also validated by comparative proteomics analysis of stress treated mutants. In summary, our results suggested the role of ethylene and abscisic acid in inducing stress-responsive genes and proteins by activating glutathione biosynthesis to combat abiotic stress conditions in plant system. PMID:27845361

  19. Pea lectin receptor-like kinase functions in salinity adaptation without yield penalty, by alleviating osmotic and ionic stresses and upregulating stress-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Neha; Pandey, Prashant; Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-05-01

    Lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) are members of RLK family composed of lectin-like extracellular recognition domain, transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic kinase domain. LecRLKs are plasma membrane proteins believed to be involved in signal transduction. However, most of the members of the protein family even in plants have not been functionally well characterized. Herein, we show that Pisum sativum LecRLK (PsLecRLK) localized in plasma membrane systems and/or other regions of the cell and its transcript upregulated under salinity stress. Overexpression of PsLecRLK in transgenic tobacco plants confers salinity stress tolerance by alleviating both the ionic as well the osmotic component of salinity stress. The transgenic plants show better tissue compartmentalization of Na(+) and higher ROS scavenging activity which probably results in lower membrane damage, improved growth and yield maintenance even under salinity stress. Also, expression of several genes involved in cellular homeostasis is perturbed by PsLecRLK overexpression. Alleviation of osmotic and ionic components of salinity stress along with reduced oxidative damage and upregulation of stress-responsive genes in transgenic plants under salinity stress conditions could be possible mechanism facilitating enhanced stress tolerance. This study presents PsLecRLK as a promising candidate for crop improvement and also opens up new avenue to investigate its signalling pathway.

  20. Overexpression of a Barley Aquaporin Gene, HvPIP2;5 Confers Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Yeast and Plants

    PubMed Central

    Alavilli, Hemasundar; Awasthi, Jay Prakash; Rout, Gyana R.; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Lee, Byeong-ha; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We characterized an aquaporin gene HvPIP2;5 from Hordeum vulgare and investigated its physiological roles in heterologous expression systems, yeast and Arabidopsis, under high salt and high osmotic stress conditions. In yeast, the expression of HvPIP2;5 enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under high salt and high osmotic conditions. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing HvPIP2;5 also showed better stress tolerance in germination and root growth under high salt and high osmotic stresses than the wild type (WT). HvPIP2;5 overexpressing plants were able to survive and recover after a 3-week drought period unlike the control plants which wilted and died during stress treatment. Indeed, overexpression of HvPIP2;5 caused higher retention of chlorophylls and water under salt and osmotic stresses than did control. We also observed lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), an end-product of lipid peroxidation in HvPIP2;5 overexpressing plants than in WT. These results suggest that HvPIP2;5 overexpression brought about stress tolerance, at least in part, by reducing the secondary oxidative stress caused by salt and osmotic stresses. Consistent with these stress tolerant phenotypes, HvPIP2;5 overexpressing Arabidopsis lines showed higher expression and activities of ROS scavenging enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under salt and osmotic stresses than did WT. In addition, the proline biosynthesis genes, Δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase 1 and 2 (P5CS1 and P5CS2) were up-regulated in HvPIP2;5 overexpressing plants under salt and osmotic stresses, which coincided with increased levels of the osmoprotectant proline. Together, these results suggested that HvPIP2;5 overexpression enhanced stress tolerance to high salt and high osmotic stresses by increasing activities and/or expression of ROS scavenging enzymes and osmoprotectant biosynthetic genes. PMID:27818670

  1. An Arabidopsis Zinc Finger Protein Increases Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Regulating Sodium and Potassium Homeostasis, Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Osmotic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Dandan; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Hongyun; Zhang, Wenhui; Zhang, Yiming; Shi, Xinxin; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    Plant zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) comprise a large protein family and they are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Although Arabidopsis RING/FYVE/PHD ZFP At5g62460 (AtRZFP) is found to bind to zinc, whether it is involved in abiotic stress tolerance is still unknown. In the present study, we characterized the roles of AtRZFP in response to abiotic stresses. The expression of AtRZFP was induced significantly by salt and osmotic stress. AtRZFP positively mediates tolerance to salt and osmotic stress. Additionally, compared with wild-type Arabidopsis plants, plants overexpressing AtRZFP showed reduced reactive oxygen species (ROSs) accumulation, enhanced superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, increased soluble sugars and proline contents, reduced K+ loss, decreased Na+ accumulation, stomatal aperture and the water loss rate. Conversely, AtRZFP knockout plants displayed the opposite physiological changes when exposed to salt or osmotic stress conditions. These data suggested that AtRZFP enhances salt and osmotic tolerance through a series of physiological processes, including enhanced ROSs scavenging, maintaining Na+ and K+ homeostasis, controlling the stomatal aperture to reduce the water loss rate, and accumulating soluble sugars and proline to adjust the osmotic potential. PMID:27605931

  2. Osmotic stress and cryoinjury of koala sperm: an integrative study of the plasma membrane, chromatin stability and mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; Satake, N; Zee, Y; López-Fernández, C; Holt, W V; Gosálvez, J

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether cryopreservation-induced injury to koala spermatozoa could be explained using an experimental model that mimics the structural and physiological effects of osmotic flux. DNA labelling after in situ nick translation of thawed cryopreserved spermatozoa revealed a positive correlation (r=0.573; P<0.001; n=50) between the area of relaxed chromatin in the nucleus and the degree of nucleotide labelling. While the chromatin of some spermatozoa increased more than eight times its normal size, not all sperm nuclei with relaxed chromatin showed evidence of nucleotide incorporation. Preferential staining associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) was typically located in the peri-acrosomal and peripheral regions of the sperm head and at the base of the spermatozoa where it appear to be 'hot spots' of DNA damage following cryopreservation. Results of the comparative effects of anisotonic media and cryopreservation on the integrity of koala spermatozoa revealed that injury induced by exposure to osmotic flux, essentially imitated the results found following cryopreservation. Plasma membrane integrity, chromatin relaxation and SDF appeared particularly susceptible to extreme hypotonic environments. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), while susceptible to extreme hypo- and hypertonic environments, showed an ability to rebound from hypertonic stress when returned to isotonic conditions. Koala spermatozoa exposed to 64 mOsm/kg media showed an equivalent, or more severe, degree of structural and physiological injury to that of frozen-thawed spermatozoa, supporting the hypothesis that cryoinjury is principally associated with a hypo-osmotic effect. A direct comparison of SDF of thawed cryopreserved spermatozoa and those exposed to a 64 mOsm/kg excursion showed a significant correlation (r=0.878; P<0.05; n=5); however, no correlation was found when the percentage of sperm with relaxed chromatin was compared. While a cryo-induced osmotic

  3. Osmotic stress regulates mineralocorticoid receptor expression in a novel aldosterone-sensitive cortical collecting duct cell line.

    PubMed

    Viengchareun, Say; Kamenicky, Peter; Teixeira, Marie; Butlen, Daniel; Meduri, Geri; Blanchard-Gutton, Nicolas; Kurschat, Christine; Lanel, Aurélie; Martinerie, Laetitia; Sztal-Mazer, Shoshana; Blot-Chabaud, Marcel; Ferrary, Evelyne; Cherradi, Nadia; Lombès, Marc

    2009-12-01

    Aldosterone effects are mediated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a transcription factor highly expressed in the distal nephron. Given that MR expression level constitutes a key element controlling hormone responsiveness, there is much interest in elucidating the molecular mechanisms governing MR expression. To investigate whether hyper- or hypotonicity could affect MR abundance, we established by targeted oncogenesis a novel immortalized cortical collecting duct (CCD) cell line and examined the impact of osmotic stress on MR expression. KC3AC1 cells form domes, exhibit a high transepithelial resistance, express 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 and functional endogenous MR, which mediates aldosterone-stimulated Na(+) reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel activation. MR expression is tightly regulated by osmotic stress. Hypertonic conditions induce expression of tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein, an osmoregulatory transcription factor capable of binding tonicity-responsive enhancer response elements located in MR regulatory sequences. Surprisingly, hypertonicity leads to a severe reduction in MR transcript and protein levels. This is accompanied by a concomitant tonicity-induced expression of Tis11b, a mRNA-destabilizing protein that, by binding to the AU-rich sequences of the 3'-untranslated region of MR mRNA, may favor hypertonicity-dependent degradation of labile MR transcripts. In sharp contrast, hypotonicity causes a strong increase in MR transcript and protein levels. Collectively, we demonstrate for the first time that optimal adaptation of CCD cells to changes in extracellular fluid composition is accompanied by drastic modification in MR abundance via transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Osmotic stress-regulated MR expression may represent an important molecular determinant for cell-specific MR action, most notably in renal failure, hypertension, or mineralocorticoid resistance.

  4. Acute stress reduces speech fluency.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Tony W; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S; Duff, Melissa C

    2014-03-01

    People often report word-finding difficulties and other language disturbances when put in a stressful situation. There is, however, scant empirical evidence to support the claim that stress affects speech productivity. To address this issue, we measured speech and language variables during a stressful Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) as well as during a less stressful "placebo" TSST (Het et al., 2009). Compared to the non-stressful speech, participants showed higher word productivity during the TSST. By contrast, participants paused more during the stressful TSST, an effect that was especially pronounced in participants who produced a larger cortisol and heart rate response to the stressor. Findings support anecdotal evidence of stress-impaired speech production abilities.

  5. A new role for carbonic anhydrase 2 in the response of fish to copper and osmotic stress: implications for multi-stressor studies.

    PubMed

    de Polo, Anna; Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Lockyer, Anne E; Scrimshaw, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    The majority of ecotoxicological studies are performed under stable and optimal conditions, whereas in reality the complexity of the natural environment faces organisms with multiple stressors of different type and origin, which can activate pathways of response often difficult to interpret. In particular, aquatic organisms living in estuarine zones already impacted by metal contamination can be exposed to more severe salinity variations under a forecasted scenario of global change. In this context, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of copper exposure on the response of fish to osmotic stress by mimicking in laboratory conditions the salinity changes occurring in natural estuaries. We hypothesized that copper-exposed individuals are more sensitive to osmotic stresses, as copper affects their osmoregulatory system by acting on a number of osmotic effector proteins, among which the isoform two of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA2) was identified as a novel factor linking the physiological responses to both copper and osmotic stress. To test this hypothesis, two in vivo studies were performed using the euryhaline fish sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) as test species and applying different rates of salinity transition as a controlled way of dosing osmotic stress. Measured endpoints included plasma ions concentrations and gene expression of CA2 and the α1a-subunit of the enzyme Na+/K+ ATPase. Results showed that plasma ions concentrations changed after the salinity transition, but notably the magnitude of change was greater in the copper-exposed groups, suggesting a sensitizing effect of copper on the responses to osmotic stress. Gene expression results demonstrated that CA2 is affected by copper at the transcriptional level and that this enzyme might play a role in the observed combined effects of copper and osmotic stress on ion homeostasis.

  6. A New Role for Carbonic Anhydrase 2 in the Response of Fish to Copper and Osmotic Stress: Implications for Multi-Stressor Studies

    PubMed Central

    de Polo, Anna; Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Lockyer, Anne E.; Scrimshaw, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of ecotoxicological studies are performed under stable and optimal conditions, whereas in reality the complexity of the natural environment faces organisms with multiple stressors of different type and origin, which can activate pathways of response often difficult to interpret. In particular, aquatic organisms living in estuarine zones already impacted by metal contamination can be exposed to more severe salinity variations under a forecasted scenario of global change. In this context, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of copper exposure on the response of fish to osmotic stress by mimicking in laboratory conditions the salinity changes occurring in natural estuaries. We hypothesized that copper-exposed individuals are more sensitive to osmotic stresses, as copper affects their osmoregulatory system by acting on a number of osmotic effector proteins, among which the isoform two of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA2) was identified as a novel factor linking the physiological responses to both copper and osmotic stress. To test this hypothesis, two in vivo studies were performed using the euryhaline fish sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) as test species and applying different rates of salinity transition as a controlled way of dosing osmotic stress. Measured endpoints included plasma ions concentrations and gene expression of CA2 and the α1a-subunit of the enzyme Na+/K+ ATPase. Results showed that plasma ions concentrations changed after the salinity transition, but notably the magnitude of change was greater in the copper-exposed groups, suggesting a sensitizing effect of copper on the responses to osmotic stress. Gene expression results demonstrated that CA2 is affected by copper at the transcriptional level and that this enzyme might play a role in the observed combined effects of copper and osmotic stress on ion homeostasis. PMID:25272015

  7. Osmotic diuresis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001266.htm Osmotic diuresis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Osmotic diuresis is increased urination due to the presence of ...

  8. Halopriming mediated salt and iso-osmotic PEG stress tolerance and, gene expression profiling in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Patade, Vikas Yadav; Bhargava, Sujata; Suprasanna, Penna

    2012-10-01

    Seed priming is a well known pre-germination strategy that improves seed performance. However, biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying priming mediated stress tolerance are little understood. Here, we report results of the study on growth, physiological characteristics and expression of stress responsive genes in salt primed sugarcane cv. Co 86032 plants in response to salt (NaCl, 150 mM) or iso-osmotic (-0.7 MPa) polyethylene glycol-PEG 8000 (20 % w/v) stress exposure for 15 days. Variable growth, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant capacity was revealed among the primed and non-primed plants. The primed plants showed better tolerance to the salt or PEG stress, as revealed by better growth and lower membrane damage, through better antioxidant capacity as compared to the respective non-primed controls. Further, steady state transcript expression analysis revealed up regulation of sodium proton antiporter (NHX) while, down regulation of sucrose transporter (SUT1), delta ( 1 )-pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and proline dehydrogenase (PDH) in primed plants on exposure to the stress as compared to the non-primed plants. Transcript abundance of catalase (CAT2) decreased by about 25 % in leaves of non-primed stressed plants, however, the expression was maintained in leaves of the stressed primed plants to that of non-stressed controls. Thus, the results indicated priming mediated salt and PEG stress tolerance through altered gene expression leading to improved antioxidant capacity in sugarcane.

  9. Overexpression of the Malus hupehensis MhNPR1 gene increased tolerance to salt and osmotic stress in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Yu; Qu, Shen-Chun; Qiao, Yu-Shan; Zhang, Zhen; Guo, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    Earlier, we have reported that overexpression of Malus hupehensis Non-expressor of pathogenesis related gene 1 (MhNPR1) gene in tobacco could induce the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and enhance resistance to fungus Botrytis cinerea. In this study, we showed that MhNPR1 can be induced by NaCl, PEG6000, low temperature (4 °C), abscisic acid and apple aphids' treatments in M. hupehensis. Heterogonous expression of MhNPR1 gene in tobacco conferred enhanced resistance to NaCl at the stage of seed germination, and conferred resistance to mannitol at the stage of seed germination and to PEG6000 at the stage of seedlings. Furthermore, overexpression of MhNPR1 in transgenic tobacco led to higher expression levels of osmotic-stress related genes compared with wild-type plants. This was the first report of a novel function of NPR1 that overexpression of MhNPR1 gene has a positive effect on salt and osmotic stress in tobacco, which differs from the function that overexpressing of AtNPR1 gene has a negative effect on dehydration and salt stress in rice.

  10. High throughput sequencing of small RNAs transcriptomes in two Crassostrea oysters identifies microRNAs involved in osmotic stress response

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuelin; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng; Liu, Shikai; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and are involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stress. However, the role of miRNAs involved in osmotic plasticity remains largely unknown in marine bivalves. In the present study, we performed low salinity challenge with two Crassostrea species (C. gigas and C. hongkongensis), and conducted high-throughput sequencing of four small RNA libraries constructed from the gill tissues. A total of 202 and 87 miRNAs were identified from C. gigas and C. hongkongensis, respectively. Six miRNAs in C. gigas and two in C. hongkongensis were differentially expressed in response to osmotic stress. The expression profiles of these eight miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Based on GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis, genes associated with microtubule-based process and cellular component movement were enriched in both species. In addition, five miRNA-mRNA interaction pairs that showed opposite expression patterns were identified in the C. hongkongensis, Differential expression analysis identified the miRNAs that play important regulatory roles in response to low salinity stress, providing insights into molecular mechanisms that are essential for salinity tolerance in marine bivalves. PMID:26940974

  11. Acute emotional stress and cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2007-07-18

    Episodes of acute emotional stress can have significant adverse effects on the heart. Acute emotional stress can produce left ventricular contractile dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, or disturbances of cardiac rhythm. Although these abnormalities are often only transient, their consequences can be gravely damaging and sometimes fatal. Despite the many descriptions of catastrophic cardiovascular events in the setting of acute emotional stress, the anatomical substrate and physiological pathways by which emotional stress triggers cardiovascular events are only now being characterized, aided by the advent of functional neuroimaging. Recent evidence indicates that asymmetric brain activity is particularly important in making the heart more susceptible to ventricular arrhythmias. Lateralization of cerebral activity during emotional stress may stimulate the heart asymmetrically and produce areas of inhomogeneous repolarization that create electrical instability and facilitate the development of cardiac arrhythmias. Patients with ischemic heart disease who survive an episode of sudden cardiac death in the setting of acute emotional stress should receive a beta-blocker. Nonpharmacological approaches to manage emotional stress in patients with and without coronary artery disease, including social support, relaxation therapy, yoga, meditation, controlled slow breathing, and biofeedback, are also appropriate to consider and merit additional investigation in randomized trials.

  12. Plant-derived compatible solutes proline betaine and betonicine confer enhanced osmotic and temperature stress tolerance to Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Abdallah; Hoffmann, Tamara; Kempf, Bettina; Xie, Xiulan; Smits, Sander H J; Bremer, Erhard

    2014-10-01

    L-Proline is a widely used compatible solute and is employed by Bacillus subtilis, through both synthesis and uptake, as an osmostress protectant. Here, we assessed the stress-protective potential of the plant-derived L-proline derivatives N-methyl-L-proline, L-proline betaine (stachydrine), trans-4-L-hydroxproline and trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline betaine (betonicine) for cells challenged by high salinity or extremes in growth temperature. l-Proline betaine and betonicine conferred salt stress protection, but trans-4-L-hydroxyproline and N-methyl-L-proline was unable to do so. Except for L-proline, none of these compounds served as a nutrient for B. subtilis. L-Proline betaine was a considerably better osmostress protectant than betonicine, and its import strongly reduced the l-proline pool produced by B. subtilis under osmotic stress conditions, whereas a supply of betonicine affected the L-proline pool only modestly. Both compounds downregulated the transcription of the osmotically inducible opuA operon, albeit to different extents. Mutant studies revealed that L-proline betaine was taken up via the ATP-binding cassette transporters OpuA and OpuC, and the betaine-choline-carnitine-transporter-type carrier OpuD; betonicine was imported only through OpuA and OpuC. L-Proline betaine and betonicine also served as temperature stress protectants. A striking difference between these chemically closely related compounds was observed: L-proline betaine was an excellent cold stress protectant, but did not provide heat stress protection, whereas the reverse was true for betonicine. Both compounds were primarily imported in temperature-challenged cells via the high-capacity OpuA transporter. We developed an in silico model for the OpuAC-betonicine complex based on the crystal structure of the OpuAC solute receptor complexed with L-proline betaine.

  13. Oxidative Stress Adaptation with Acute, Chronic and Repeated Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Andrew M.; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation or hormesis is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, are capable of adapting to chronic or repeated stress by up-regulating protective systems, such as their proteasomal proteolytic capacity to remove oxidized proteins. Repeated stress adaptation resulted in significant extension of adaptive responses. Repeated stresses must occur at sufficiently long intervals, however (12 hours or more for MEF cells and 7 days or more for flies), for adaptation to be successful, and the level of both repeated and chronic stress must be lower than is optimal for adaptation to acute stress. Regrettably, regimens of adaptation to both repeated and chronic stress that were successful for short-term survival in Drosophila, nevertheless also caused significant reductions in lifespan for the flies. Thus, although both repeated and chronic stress can be tolerated, they may result in a shorter life. PMID:23142766

  14. Characterization of CIPK Family in Asian Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) and Co-expression Analysis Related to Salt and Osmotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Lin, Jing; Li, Hui; Li, Xiaogang; Yang, Qingsong; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-01

    Asian pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and its growth and productivity are frequently affected by abiotic stresses. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) as caladium-sensor protein kinases interact with Ca2+-binding CBLs to extensively mediate abiotic stress responses in plants. Although the pear genome sequence has been released, little information is available about the CIPK genes in pear, especially in response to salt and osmotic stresses. In this study, we systematically identified 28 CIPK family members from the sequenced pear genome and analyzed their organization, phylogeny, gene structure, protein motif, and synteny duplication divergences. Most duplicated PbCIPKs underwent purifying selection, and their evolutionary divergences accompanied with the pear whole genome duplication. We also investigated stress -responsive expression patterns and co-expression networks of CIPK family under salt and osmotic stresses, and the distribution of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions. Our results suggest that most PbCIPKs could play important roles in the abiotic stress responses. Some PbCIPKs, such as PbCIPK22, -19, -18, -15, -8, and -6 can serve as core regulators in response to salt and osmotic stresses based on co-expression networks of PbCIPKs. Some sets of genes that were involved in response to salt did not overlap with those in response to osmotic responses, suggesting the sub-functionalization of CIPK genes in stress responses. This study revealed some candidate genes that play roles in early responses to salt and osmotic stress for further characterization of abiotic stress responses medicated by CIPKs in pear. PMID:27656193

  15. Characterization of CIPK Family in Asian Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) and Co-expression Analysis Related to Salt and Osmotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Lin, Jing; Li, Hui; Li, Xiaogang; Yang, Qingsong; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-01

    Asian pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and its growth and productivity are frequently affected by abiotic stresses. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) as caladium-sensor protein kinases interact with Ca(2+)-binding CBLs to extensively mediate abiotic stress responses in plants. Although the pear genome sequence has been released, little information is available about the CIPK genes in pear, especially in response to salt and osmotic stresses. In this study, we systematically identified 28 CIPK family members from the sequenced pear genome and analyzed their organization, phylogeny, gene structure, protein motif, and synteny duplication divergences. Most duplicated PbCIPKs underwent purifying selection, and their evolutionary divergences accompanied with the pear whole genome duplication. We also investigated stress -responsive expression patterns and co-expression networks of CIPK family under salt and osmotic stresses, and the distribution of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions. Our results suggest that most PbCIPKs could play important roles in the abiotic stress responses. Some PbCIPKs, such as PbCIPK22, -19, -18, -15, -8, and -6 can serve as core regulators in response to salt and osmotic stresses based on co-expression networks of PbCIPKs. Some sets of genes that were involved in response to salt did not overlap with those in response to osmotic responses, suggesting the sub-functionalization of CIPK genes in stress responses. This study revealed some candidate genes that play roles in early responses to salt and osmotic stress for further characterization of abiotic stress responses medicated by CIPKs in pear.

  16. The heat-shock transcription factor HSF1 is rapidly activated by either hyper- or hypo-osmotic stress in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Caruccio, L; Bae, S; Liu, A Y; Chen, K Y

    1997-10-15

    Osmoregulation, the cellular response to environmental changes of osmolarity and ionic strength, is important for the survival of living organisms. We have demonstrated previously that an exposure of mammalian cells to hypo-osmotic stress, either in growth medium (30% growth medium and 70% water) or in binary solution containing sorbitol and water, prominently induced the DNA-binding activity of the heat-shock transcription factor (HSF1) [Huang, Caruccio, Liu and Chen (1995) Biochem. J. 307, 347-352]. Since hyperosmotic and hypo-osmotic stress usually elicit opposite biological responses, we wondered what would be the effect of hyperosmotic stress on HSF activation. In this study we have examined the HSF DNA-binding activity in HeLa cells maintained in the sorbitol/water binary solution over a wide concentration range (0.1-0.9 M) and in Dulbecco's medium supplemented with sorbitol or NaCl. We found that HSF-binding activity could be induced prominently under both hypo-osmotic (0.1-0.25 M) and hyperosmotic conditions (0.50-0.90 M). In both cases, HSF activation was observed within 5 min after changing the osmotic pressure. The activation was accompanied by both HSF trimerization and nuclear translocation, and appeared to be independent of protein synthesis. The effects of hypo- or hyper-osmotic stress on HSF activation could be reversed once the cells were returned to iso-osmotic conditions (0.30M) with a half-life (t12) of 25 min or less. This rapid turnover of the osmotic-stress-induced HSF-binding activity was inhibited by cycloheximide, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis. Unlike heat shock, activation of HSF by either hypo- or hyper-osmotic stress did not lead to an accumulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in HeLa cells. We propose that HSF activation during osmotic stress may serve physiological functions independent of the synthesis of heat-shock proteins.

  17. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on plant growth, osmotic regulation and ion homeostasis of salt-stressed canola.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Gao, H; Wang, X; Zheng, Q; Wang, C; Wang, X; Wang, Q

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated effects of foliar spraying 24-epibrassinoide (24-EBL) on the growth of salt-stressed canola. Seedlings at the four-leaf stage were treated with 150 mM NaCl and different concentrations of 24-EBL (10(-6), 10(-8), 10(-10), 10(-12) M) for 15 days. A concentration of 10(-10) M 24-EBL was chosen as optimal and used in a subsequent experiment on plant biomass and leaf water potential parameters. The results showed that 24-EBL mainly promoted shoot growth of salt-stressed plants and also ameliorated leaf water status. Foliar spraying of salt-stressed canola with 24-EBL increased osmotic adjustment ability in all organs, especially in younger leaves and roots. This was mainly due to an increase of free amino acid content in upper leaves, soluble sugars in middle leaves, organic acids and proline in lower leaves, all of these compounds in roots, as well as essential inorganic ions. Na(+) and Cl(-) sharply increased in different organs under salt stress, and 24-EBL reduced their accumulation. 24-EBL improved the uptake of K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and NO3(-) in roots, which were mainly transported to upper leaves, while NO3(-) was mainly transported to middle leaves. Thus, 24-EBL improvements in ion homeostasis of K(+)/Na(+), Ca(2+)/Na(+), Mg(2+)/Na(+) and NO3(-)/Cl(-), especially in younger leaves and roots, could be explained. As most important parts, younger leaves and roots were the main organs protected by 24-EBL via improvement in osmotic adjustment ability and ion homeostasis. Further, physiological status of growth of salt-stressed canola was ameliorated after 24-EBL treatment.

  18. The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Brx: A Link between Osmotic Stress, Inflammation and Organ Physiology and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Kino, Tomoshige; Segars, James H.; Chrousos, George P.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Dehydration, and consequent intracellular hyperosmolarity, is a major challenge to land organisms, as it is associated with extraction of water from cells and disturbance of global cellular function. Organisms have thus developed a highly conserved regulatory mechanism that transduces the hyperosmolarity signal from the cell surface to the cell nucleus and adjusts the expression of cellular osmolarity-regulating genes. We recently found that the Rho-type guanine nucleotide exchange factor Brx, or AKAP13, is essential for osmotic stress-stimulated expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5), a key transcription factor of intracellular osmolarity. It accomplishes this by first attracting cJun kinase (JNK)-interacting protein (JIP) 4 and then coupling activated Rho-type small G-proteins to cascade components of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, ultimately activating NFAT5. We describe the potential implications of osmotic stress and Brx activation in organ physiology and pathophysiology and connect activation of this system to key human homeostatic states. PMID:21037977

  19. Zinc Excess Triggered Polyamines Accumulation in Lettuce Root Metabolome, As Compared to Osmotic Stress under High Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Rouphael, Youssef; Colla, Giuseppe; Bernardo, Letizia; Kane, David; Trevisan, Marco; Lucini, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity and metal contaminations are the major environmental stresses that adversely affect crop productivity worldwide. Crop responses and tolerance to abiotic stress are complex processes for which “-omic” approaches such as metabolomics is giving us a newest view of biological systems. The aim of the current research was to assess metabolic changes in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), by specifically probing the root metabolome of plants exposed to elevated isomolar concentrations of NaCl and ZnSO4. Most of the metabolites that were differentially accumulated in roots were identified for stress conditions, however the response was more intense in plants exposed to NaCl. Compounds identified in either NaCl or ZnSO4 conditions were: carbohydrates, phenolics, hormones, glucosinolates, and lipids. Our findings suggest that osmotic stress and the consequent redox imbalance play a major role in determining lettuce root metabolic response. In addition, it was identified that polyamines and polyamine conjugates were triggered as a specific response to ZnSO4. These findings help improve understanding of how plants cope with abiotic stresses. This information can be used to assist decision-making in breeding programs for improving crop tolerance to salinity and heavy metal contaminations. PMID:27375675

  20. Characterization and Expression Profiling Analysis of Calmodulin Genes in Response to Salt and Osmotic Stresses in Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and in Comparison with Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaogang; Yang, Qingsong; Cheng, Qunkang

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide identification and cloning of CaM genes in pear was conducted and in compared with Arabidopsis that indicated a conserved expansion of CaM genes in pear, and PbCaMs and AtCaMs had a similar distribution of cis-elements and expressions in response to salt and osmotic stress. In particular, PbCaM1 and PbCaM3 were both significantly upregulated in response to salt and osmotic stress in pear. PMID:28373986

  1. Effects of molybdenum on water utilization, antioxidative defense system and osmotic-adjustment ability in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songwei; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Nie, Zhaojun; Sun, Xuecheng

    2014-10-01

    Molybdenum (Mo), as an essential trace element in plants, plays an essential role in abiotic stress tolerance of plants. To obtain a better understanding of drought tolerance enhanced by Mo, a hydroponic trial was conducted to investigate the effects of Mo on water utilization, antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and osmotic-adjustment products in the Mo-efficient '97003' and Mo-inefficient '97014' under PEG simulated drought stress. Our results indicate that Mo application significantly enhanced Pn, chlorophyll, dry matter, grain yield, biomass, RWC and WUE and decreased Tr, Gs and water loss of wheat under drought stress, suggesting that Mo application improved the water utilization capacity in wheat. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants content such as ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, carotenoid were significantly increased and malonaldehyde contents were decreased by Mo application under PEG simulated drought stress, suggesting that Mo application enhanced the ability of scavenging active oxygen species. The osmotic-adjustment products such as soluble protein, proline and soluble sugar were also increased by Mo application under PEG simulated drought stress, indicating that Mo improved the osmotic adjustment ability in wheat. It is hypothesized that Mo application might improve the drought tolerance of wheat by enhancing water utilization capability and the abilities of antioxidative defense and osmotic adjustment. Similarities and differences between the Mo-efficient and Mo-inefficient cultivars wheat in response to Mo under drought stress are discussed.

  2. Disruption of AtWNK8 enhances tolerance of Arabidopsis to salt and osmotic stresses via modulating proline content and activities of catalase and peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baige; Liu, Kaidong; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Yingxiang; Wang, Jinxiang; Liao, Hong

    2013-03-27

    With no lysine kinases (WNKs) play important roles in plant growth and development. However, its role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance is unclear. Here, we report that AtWNK8 is mainly expressed in primary root, hypocotyl, stamen and pistil and is induced by NaCl and sorbitol treatment. Compared to the wild-type, the T-DNA knock-out wnk8 mutant was more tolerant to severe salinity and osmotic stresses, as indicated by 27% and 198% more fresh weight in the NaCl and sorbitol treatment, respectively. The wnk8 mutant also accumulated 1.43-fold more proline than the wild-type in the sorbitol treatment. Under NaCl and sorbitol stresses, catalase (CAT) activity in wnk8 mutant was 1.92- and 3.7-times of that in Col-0, respectively. Similarly, under salt and osmotic stress conditions, peroxidase (POD) activities in wnk8 mutant were 1.81- and 1.58-times of that in Col-0, respectively. Taken together, we revealed that maintaining higher CAT and POD activities might be one of the reasons that the disruption of AtWNK8 enhances the tolerance to salt stress, and accumulating more proline and higher activities of CAT and POD might result in the higher tolerance of WNK8 to osmotic stress.

  3. C. elegans lifespan extension by osmotic stress requires FUdR, base excision repair, FOXO, and sirtuins

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Edward N; Corkins, Mark E; Li, Jia-Cheng; Singh, Komudi; Parsons, Sadé; Tucey, Tim M; Sorkaç, Altar; Huang, Huiyan; Dimitriadi, Maria; Sinclair, David A

    2016-01-01

    Moderate stress can increase lifespan by hormesis, a beneficial low-level induction of stress response pathways. 5’-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR) is commonly used to sterilize Caenorhabditis elegans in aging experiments. However, FUdR alters lifespan in some genotypes and induces resistance to thermal and proteotoxic stress. We report that hypertonic stress in combination with FUdR treatment or inhibition of the FUdR target thymidylate synthase, TYMS-1, extends C. elegans lifespan by up to 30%. By contrast, in the absence of FUdR, hypertonic stress decreases lifespan. Adaptation to hypertonic stress requires diminished Notch signaling and loss of Notch co-ligands leads to lifespan extension only in combination with FUdR. Either FUdR treatment or TYMS-1 loss induced resistance to acute hypertonic stress, anoxia, and thermal stress. FUdR treatment increased expression of DAF-16 FOXO and the osmolyte biosynthesis enzyme GPDH-1. FUdR-induced hypertonic stress resistance was partially dependent on sirtuins and base excision repair (BER) pathways, while FUdR-induced lifespan extension under hypertonic stress conditions requires DAF-16, BER, and sirtuin function. Combined, these results demonstrate that FUdR, through inhibition of TYMS-1, activates stress response pathways in somatic tissues to confer hormetic resistance to acute and chronic stress. C. elegans lifespan studies using FUdR may need re-interpretation in light of this work. PMID:26854551

  4. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, S.D. ); Oosterhuis, D.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  5. Specific stress-induced storage of trehalose, glycerol and D-arabitol in response to oxidative and osmotic stress in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fresneda, Ruth; Guirao-Abad, José P; Argüelles, Alejandra; González-Párraga, Pilar; Valentín, Eulogio; Argüelles, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-25

    Candida albicans exponential yeast cells are able to face environmental challenges by mounting a rapid and efficient "general stress response". Here we show that one of the main components of this response consists of the intracellular protective accumulation of the non-reducing disaccharide trehalose and two polyols, glycerol and D-arabitol, an accumulation that occurs in a stress-specific dependent manner. Thus, oxidative exposures promoted a marked increase in both trehalose and D-arabitol in the wild type strain, RM-100, whereas the glycerol content remained virtually unaffected with respect to basal levels. In contrast, osmotic challenges induced the significant storage of glycerol accompanied by minor changes, or even a slight drop, in the intracellular content of trehalose and D-arabitol. We examined the hypothetical role in this process of the MAP kinase Hog1, which regulates the protective responses in C. albicans against both oxidative and osmotic stress. Interestingly, unlike glycerol synthesis, the stress-induced trehalose accumulation was always Hog1-independent, whereas the ability to synthesize D-arabitol was only partially dependent on a functional Hog1 pathway.

  6. Process optimization of the integrated synthesis and secretion of ectoine and hydroxyectoine under hyper/hypo-osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Fallet, C; Rohe, P; Franco-Lara, E

    2010-09-01

    The synthesis and secretion of the industrial relevant compatible solutes ectoine and hydroxyectoine using the halophile bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens were studied and optimized. For this purpose, a cascade of two continuously operated bioreactors was used. In the first bioreactor, cells were grown under constant hyperosmotic conditions and thermal stress driving the cells to accumulate large amounts of ectoines. To enhance the overall productivity, high cell densities up to 61 g L(-1) were achieved using a cross-flow ultrafiltration connected to the first bioreactor. In the coupled second bioreactor the concentrated cell broth was subjected to an osmotic and thermal down-shock by addition of fresh distilled water. Under these conditions, the cells are forced to secrete the accumulated intracellular ectoines into the medium to avoid bursting. The cultivation conditions in the first bioreactor were optimized with respect to growth temperature and medium salinity to reach the highest synthesis (productivity); the second bioreactor was optimized using a multi-objective approach to attain maximal ectoine secretion with simultaneous minimization of cell death and product dilution caused by the osmotic and thermal down-shock. Depending on the cultivation conditions, intracellular ectoine and hydroxyectoine contents up to 540 and 400 mg per g cell dry weight, respectively, were attained. With a maximum specific growth rate of 0.3 h(-1) in defined medium, productivities of approximately 2.1 g L(-1) h(-1) secreted ectoines in continuous operation were reached.

  7. Quantifying the sensitivity of G. oxydans ATCC 621H and DSM 3504 to osmotic stress triggered by soluble buffers.

    PubMed

    Luchterhand, B; Fischöder, T; Grimm, A R; Wewetzer, S; Wunderlich, M; Schlepütz, T; Büchs, J

    2015-04-01

    In Gluconobacter oxydans cultivations on glucose, CaCO3 is typically used as pH-buffer. This buffer, however, has disadvantages: suspended CaCO3 particles make the medium turbid, thereby, obstructing analysis of microbial growth via optical density and scattered light. Upon searching for alternative soluble pH-buffers, bacterial growth and productivity was inhibited most probably due to osmotic stress. Thus, this study investigates in detail the osmotic sensitivity of G. oxydans ATCC 621H and DSM 3504 using the Respiratory Activity MOnitoring System. The tested soluble pH-buffers and other salts attained osmolalities of 0.32-1.19 osmol kg(-1). This study shows that G. oxydans ATCC 621H and DSM 3504 respond quite sensitively to increased osmolality in comparison to other microbial strains of industrial interest. Osmolality values of >0.5 osmol kg(-1) should not be exceeded to avoid inhibition of growth and product formation. This osmolality threshold needs to be considered when working with soluble pH-buffers.

  8. A Laterally Acquired Galactose Oxidase-Like Gene Is Required for Aerial Development during Osmotic Stress in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Recep; Facey, Paul D.; van Keulen, Geertje; Dyson, Paul J.; Del Sol, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that most Actinobacterial orthologs of S. coelicolor SCO2837, encoding a metal-dependent galactose oxidase-like protein, are found within Streptomyces and were probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer from fungi. Disruption of SCO2837 (glxA) caused a conditional bld phenotype that could not be reversed by extracellular complementation. Studies aimed at characterising the regulation of expression of glxA showed that it is not a target for other bld genes. We provide evidence that glxA is required for osmotic adaptation, although independently from the known osmotic stress response element SigB. glxA has been predicted to be part of an operon with the transcription unit comprising the upstream cslA gene and glxA. However, both phenotypic and expression studies indicate that it is also expressed from an independent promoter region internal to cslA. GlxA displays an in situ localisation pattern similar to that one observed for CslA at hyphal tips, but localisation of the former is independent of the latter. The functional role of GlxA in relation to CslA is discussed. PMID:23326581

  9. Assessment of Full-Eye Response to Osmotic Stress in Mouse Model In Vivo Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yang; Xu, Baisheng; Wu, Lan; Du, Chixin; Jiang, Bo; Ding, Zhihua; Li, Peng

    2015-01-01

    NaCl based solutions were applied as osmotic stress agents to alter the hydration state of the mouse eye. Full-eye responses to these osmotic challenges were monitored in vivo using a custom-built optical coherence tomography (OCT) with an extended imaging range of 12.38 mm. Dynamic changes in the mouse eye were quantified based on the OCT images using several parameters, including the central corneal thickness (CCT), the anterior chamber depth (ACD), the crystalline lens thickness (LT), the cornea-retina distance (CRD), the iris curvature (IC), and the lens scattering intensity (LSI). Apparent but reversible changes in the morphology of almost all the ocular components and the light transparency of the lens are exhibited. Particularly, the ocular dehydration induced by the hypertonic challenges resulted in a closing of the iridocorneal angle and an opacification of the lens. Our results indicated that the ocular hydration is an important physiological process which might be correlated with various ocular disorders, such as dry eye, cataract, and angle-closure glaucoma, and would affect the biometry and imaging of the eye. OCT uniquely enables the comprehensive study of the dynamic full-eye responses to the ocular hydration in vivo. PMID:26491552

  10. Expression of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in barley in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Ishitani, M; Nakamura, T; Han, S Y; Takabe, T

    1995-01-01

    When subjected to salt stress or drought, some vascular plants such as barley respond with an increased accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (betaine), being the last step of betaine synthesis catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). We report here cloning and characterization of BADH cDNA from barley, a monocot, and the expression pattern of a BADH transcript. An open reading frame of 1515 bp encoded a protein which showed high homology to BADH enzymes present in other plants (spinach and sugar-beet) and in Escherichia coli. Transgenic tobacco plants harboring the clone expressed high levels of both BADH protein and its enzymatic activity. Northern blot analyses indicated that BADH mRNA levels increased almost 8-fold and 2-fold, respectively, in leaves and roots of barley plants grown in high-salt conditions, and that these levels decreased upon release of the stress, whereas they did not decrease under continuous salt stress. BADH transcripts also accumulate in response to water stress or drought, indicating a common response of the plant to osmotic changes that affect its water status. The addition of abscisic acid (ABA) to plants during growth also increased the levels of BADH transcripts dramatically, although the response was delayed when compared to that found for salt-stressed plants. Removal of plant roots before transferring the plants to high-salt conditions reduced only slightly the accumulation of BADH transcripts in the leaves.

  11. Overexpression of OsRAN2 in rice and Arabidopsis renders transgenic plants hypersensitive to salinity and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Zang, Aiping; Xu, Xiaojie; Neill, Steven; Cai, Weiming

    2010-03-01

    Nucleo-cytoplasmic partitioning of regulatory proteins is increasingly being recognized as a major control mechanism for the regulation of signalling in plants. Ras-related nuclear protein (Ran) GTPase is required for regulating transport of proteins and RNA across the nuclear envelope and also has roles in mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope (NE) assembly. However, thus far little is known of any Ran functions in the signalling pathways in plants in response to changing environmental stimuli. The OsRAN2 gene, which has high homology (77% at the amino acid level) with its human counterpart, was isolated here. Subcellular localization results showed that OsRan2 is mainly localized in the nucleus, with some in the cytoplasm. Transcription of OsRAN2 was reduced by salt, osmotic, and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, as determined by real-time PCR. Overexpression of OsRAN2 in rice resulted in enhanced sensitivity to salinity, osmotic stress, and ABA. Seedlings of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing OsRAN2 were overly sensitive to salinity stress and exogenous ABA treatment. Furthermore, three ABA- or stress-responsive genes, AtNCED3, AtPLC1, and AtMYB2, encoding a key enzyme in ABA synthesis, a phospholipase C homologue, and a putative transcriptional factor, respectively, were shown to have differentially induced expression under salinity and ABA treatments in transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis plants. OsRAN2 overexpression in tobacco epidermal leaf cells disturbed the nuclear import of a maize (Zea mays L.) leaf colour transcription factor (Lc). In addition, gene-silenced rice plants generated via RNA interference (RNAi) displayed pleiotropic developmental abnormalities and were male sterile.

  12. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1) estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration; and 2) women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating) the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment. PMID:20504303

  13. Controlling the extent of viral genome release by a combination of osmotic stress and polyvalent cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yan; Knobler, Charles M.; Gelbart, William M.

    2015-08-01

    While several in vitro experiments on viral genome release have specifically studied the effects of external osmotic pressure and of the presence of polyvalent cations on the ejection of DNA from bacteriophages, few have systematically investigated how the extent of ejection is controlled by a combination of these effects. In this work we quantify the effect of osmotic pressure on the extent of DNA ejection from bacteriophage lambda as a function of polyvalent cation concentration (in particular, the tetravalent polyamine spermine). We find that the pressure required to completely inhibit ejection decreases from 38 to 17 atm as the spermine concentration is increased from 0 to 1.5 mM. Further, incubation of the phage particles in spermine concentrations as low as 0.15 mM—the threshold for DNA condensation in bulk solution—is sufficient to significantly limit the extent of ejection in the absence of osmolyte; for spermine concentrations below this threshold, the ejection is complete. In accord with recent investigations on the packaging of DNA in the presence of a condensing agent, we observe that the self-attraction induced by the polyvalent cation affects the ordering of the genome, causing it to get stuck in a broad range of nonequilibrated structures.

  14. Differences between EcoRI nonspecific and "star" sequence complexes revealed by osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Nina Y; Rau, Donald C

    2004-10-01

    The binding of the restriction endonuclease EcoRI to DNA is exceptionally specific. Even a single basepair change ("star" sequence) from the recognition sequence, GAATTC, decreases the binding free energy of EcoRI to values nearly indistinguishable from nonspecific binding. The difference in the number of waters sequestered by the protein-DNA complexes of the "star" sequences TAATTC and CAATTC and by the specific sequence complex determined from the dependence of binding free energy on water activity is also practically indistinguishable at low osmotic pressures from the 110 water molecules sequestered by nonspecific sequence complexes. Novel measurements of the dissociation rates of noncognate sequence complexes and competition equilibrium show that sequestered water can be removed from "star" sequence complexes by high osmotic pressure, but not from a nonspecific complex. By 5 Osm, the TAATTC "star" sequence complex has lost almost 90 of the approximately 110 waters initially present. It is more difficult to remove water from the CAATTC "star" sequence complex. The sequence dependence of water loss correlates with the known sequence dependence of "star" cleavage activity.

  15. RhNAC3, a stress-associated NAC transcription factor, has a role in dehydration tolerance through regulating osmotic stress-related genes in rose petals.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinqiang; Zhang, Changqing; Lü, Peitao; Jiang, Guimei; Liu, Xiaowei; Dai, Fanwei; Gao, Junping

    2014-01-01

    Petal cell expansion depends on cell wall metabolism, changes in cell turgor pressure and restructuring of the cytoskeleton, and recovery ability of petal cell expansion is defined as an indicator of dehydration tolerance in flowers. We previously reported that RhNAC2, a development-related NAC domain transcription factor, confers dehydration tolerance through regulating cell wall-related genes in rose petals. Here, we identify RhNAC3, a novel rose SNAC gene, and its expression in petals induced by dehydration, wounding, exogenous ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA). Expression studies in Arabidopsis protoplasts and yeast show that RhNAC3 has transactivation activity along its full length and in the carboxyl-terminal domain. Silencing RhNAC3 in rose petals by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) significantly decreased the cell expansion of rose petals under rehydration conditions. In total, 24 of 27 osmotic stress-related genes were down-regulated in RhNAC3-silenced rose petals, while only 4 of 22 cell expansion-related genes were down-regulated. Overexpression of RhNAC3 in Arabidopsis gave improved drought tolerance, with lower water loss of leaves in transgenic plants. Arabidopsis ATH1 microarray analysis showed that RhNAC3 regulated the expression of stress-responsive genes in overexpressing lines, and further analysis revealed that most of the RhNAC3-up-regulated genes were involved in the response to osmotic stress. Comparative analysis revealed that different transcription regulation existed between RhNAC3 and RhNAC2. Taken together, these data indicate that RhNAC3, as a positive regulator, confers dehydration tolerance of rose petals mainly through regulating osmotic adjustment-associated genes.

  16. Transcriptomic Profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant pad2.1 in Response to Combined Cold and Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Datta, Riddhi; Hazra, Saptarshi; Sultana, Asma; Mukhopadhyay, Ria; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of glutathione (GSH) in stress tolerance, defense response and antioxidant signaling is an established fact. In this study transcriptome analysis of pad2.1, an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, after combined osmotic and cold stress treatment has been performed to explore the intricate position of GSH in the stress and defense signaling network in planta. Microarray data revealed the differential regulation of about 1674 genes in pad2.1 amongst which 973 and 701 were significantly up- and down-regulated respectively. Gene enrichment, functional pathway analysis by DAVID and MapMan analysis identified various stress and defense related genes viz. members of heat shock protein family, peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), NBS-LRR type resistance protein etc. as down-regulated. The expression pattern of the above mentioned stress and defense related genes and APETALA were also validated by comparative proteomic analysis of combined stress treated Col-0 and pad2.1. Functional annotation noted down-regulation of UDP-glycosyl transferase, 4-coumarate CoA ligase 8, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (CAD4), ACC synthase and ACC oxidase which are the important enzymes of phenylpropanoid, lignin and ethylene (ET) biosynthetic pathway respectively. Since the only difference between Col-0 (Wild type) and pad2.1 is the content of GSH, so, this study suggested that in addition to its association with specific stress responsive genes and proteins, GSH provides tolerance to plants by its involvement with phenylpropanoid, lignin and ET biosynthesis under stress conditions. PMID:25822199

  17. Abnormal Osmotic Avoidance Behavior in C. elegans Is Associated with Increased Hypertonic Stress Resistance and Improved Proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elaine C.; Kim, Heejung; Ditano, Jennifer; Manion, Dacie; King, Benjamin L.; Strange, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Protein function is controlled by the cellular proteostasis network. Proteostasis is energetically costly and those costs must be balanced with the energy needs of other physiological functions. Hypertonic stress causes widespread protein damage in C. elegans. Suppression and management of protein damage is essential for optimal survival under hypertonic conditions. ASH chemosensory neurons allow C. elegans to detect and avoid strongly hypertonic environments. We demonstrate that mutations in osm-9 and osm-12 that disrupt ASH mediated hypertonic avoidance behavior or genetic ablation of ASH neurons are associated with enhanced survival during hypertonic stress. Improved survival is not due to altered systemic volume homeostasis or organic osmolyte accumulation. Instead, we find that osm-9(ok1677) mutant and osm-9(RNAi) worms exhibit reductions in hypertonicity induced protein damage in non-neuronal cells suggesting that enhanced proteostasis capacity may account for improved hypertonic stress resistance in worms with defects in osmotic avoidance behavior. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes that play roles in managing protein damage are upregulated in osm-9(ok1677) worms. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of work demonstrating that intercellular communication between neuronal and non-neuronal cells plays a critical role in integrating cellular stress resistance with other organismal physiological demands and associated energy costs. PMID:27111894

  18. Effects of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers on phospholipid membrane integrity under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Yu; Chin, Jaemin; Marks, Jeremy D; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2010-08-03

    The effects of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers, mainly Poloxamer 188, on phospholipid membrane integrity under osmotic gradients were explored using giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Fluorescence leakage assays showed two opposing effects of P188 on the structural integrity of GUVs depending on the duration of their incubation time. A two-state transition mechanism of interaction between the triblock copolymers and the phospholipid membrane is proposed: an adsorption (I) and an insertion (II) state. While the triblock copolymer in state I acts to moderately retard the leakage, their insertion in state II perturbs the lipid packing, thus increasing the membrane permeability. Our results suggest that the biomedical application of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers, either as cell membrane resealing agents or as accelerators for drug delivery, is directed by the delicate balance between these two states.

  19. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 (MTCC 12119) a novel osmotolerant plant growth promoting actinobacterium enhances onion (Allium cepa L.) seed germination under osmotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Govindan; Bhatt, Ravindra M; Upreti, Kaushal K; Bindu, Gurupadam Hema; Shweta, Kademani

    2015-05-01

    The water potential of rhizospheric soil is a key parameter that determines the availability of water, oxygen, and nutrients to plants and microbes. Recent global warming trends and erratic precipitation patterns have resulted in the emergence of drought as a major constraint of agricultural productivity. Though several strategies are being evaluated to address this issue, a novel approach is the utilization of microbes for alleviation of drought stress effects in crops. Citricoccus zhacaiensis B-4 is an osmotolerant actinobacterium isolated from banana rhizosphere on mannitol supplemented medium (-2.92 MPa osmotic potential). This isolate expressed plant growth promotion traits viz, IAA, GA3 production, phosphate, zinc solubilization, ACC deaminase activity and ammonia production under PEG induced osmotic stress and non-stress conditions. Under in vitro osmotic conditions, biopriming with the actinobacterium improved the percent germination, seedling vigour and germination rate of onion seeds (cv. Arka Kalyan) at osmotic potentials up to -0.8 MPa. Considering its novelty, osmotolerance and plant growth promoting traits, biopriming with C. zhacaiensis is suggested as a viable option for the promotion of onion seed germination under drought stressed environments.

  20. Genetic Variation of Drought Tolerance in Pinus pinaster at Three Hierarchical Levels: A Comparison of Induced Osmotic Stress and Field Testing

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Maria João; Velasco, Tania; Feito, Isabel; Alía, Ricardo; Majada, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the survival capacity of forest trees to periods of severe water stress could improve knowledge of the adaptive potential of different species under future climatic scenarios. In long lived organisms, like forest trees, the combination of induced osmotic stress treatments and field testing can elucidate the role of drought tolerance during the early stages of establishment, the most critical in the life of the species. We performed a Polyethylene glycol-osmotic induced stress experiment and evaluated two common garden experiments (xeric and mesic sites) to test for survival and growth of a wide range clonal collection of Maritime pine. This study demonstrates the importance of additive vs non additive effects for drought tolerance traits in Pinus pinaster, and shows differences in parameters determining the adaptive trajectories of populations and family and clones within populations. The results show that osmotic adjustment plays an important role in population variation, while biomass allocation and hydric content greatly influence survival at population level. Survival in the induced osmotic stress experiment presented significant correlations with survival in the xeric site, and height growth at the mesic site, at population level, indicating constraints of adaptation for those traits, while at the within population level no significant correlation existed. These results demonstrate that population differentiation and within population genetic variation for drought tolerance follow different patterns. PMID:24223885

  1. Genetic variation of drought tolerance in Pinus pinaster at three hierarchical levels: a comparison of induced osmotic stress and field testing.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Maria João; Velasco, Tania; Feito, Isabel; Alía, Ricardo; Majada, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the survival capacity of forest trees to periods of severe water stress could improve knowledge of the adaptive potential of different species under future climatic scenarios. In long lived organisms, like forest trees, the combination of induced osmotic stress treatments and field testing can elucidate the role of drought tolerance during the early stages of establishment, the most critical in the life of the species. We performed a Polyethylene glycol-osmotic induced stress experiment and evaluated two common garden experiments (xeric and mesic sites) to test for survival and growth of a wide range clonal collection of Maritime pine. This study demonstrates the importance of additive vs non additive effects for drought tolerance traits in Pinus pinaster, and shows differences in parameters determining the adaptive trajectories of populations and family and clones within populations. The results show that osmotic adjustment plays an important role in population variation, while biomass allocation and hydric content greatly influence survival at population level. Survival in the induced osmotic stress experiment presented significant correlations with survival in the xeric site, and height growth at the mesic site, at population level, indicating constraints of adaptation for those traits, while at the within population level no significant correlation existed. These results demonstrate that population differentiation and within population genetic variation for drought tolerance follow different patterns.

  2. Overexpression of AtLEA3-3 confers resistance to cold stress in Escherichia coli and provides enhanced osmotic stress tolerance and ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengshan; Liu, Fei; Ma, Miao; Gong, Jiao; Wang, Qiujun; Jia, Pengfei; Zheng, Guochang; Liu, Heng

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) group 3 proteins significantly respond to changes in environmental conditions. However, reports that demonstrate their biological role, especially in Arabidopsis, are notably limited. This study examines the functional roles of the Arabidopsis LEA group 3 proteins AtLEA3-3 and AtLEA3-4 in abiotic stress and ABA treatments. Expression of AtLEA3-3 and AtLEA3-4 is upregulated by ABA, high salinity, and osmotic stress. Results on the ectopic expression of AtLEA3-3 and AtLEA3-4 in E. coli suggest that both proteins play important roles in resistance to cold stress. Overexpression of AtLEA3-3 in Arabidopsis (AtLEA3-3-OE) confers salt and osmotic stress tolerance that is characterized during germination and early seedling establishment. However, AtLEA3-3-OE lines show sensitivity to ABA treatment during early seedling development. These results suggest that accumulation of AtLEA3-3 mRNA and/or proteins may help heterologous ABA re-initiate second dormancy during seedling establishment. Analysis of yellow fluorescent fusion proteins localization shows that AtLEA3-3 and AtLEA3-4 are mainly distributed in the ER and that AtLEA3-3 also localizes in the nucleus, and in response to salt, mannitol, cold, or BFA treatments, the localization of AtLEA3-3 and AtLEA3-4 is altered and becomes more condensed. Protein translocalization may be a positive and effective strategy for responding to abiotic stresses. Taken together, these results suggest that AtLEA3-3 has an important function during seed germination and seedling development of Arabidopsis under abiotic stress conditions.

  3. The Pepper Lipoxygenase CaLOX1 Plays a Role in Osmotic, Drought and High Salinity Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Han, Sang-Wook; Hwang, In Sun; Kim, Dae Sung; Hwang, Byung Kook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-05-01

    In plants, lipoxygenases (LOXs) are involved in various physiological processes, including defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Our previous study had shown that the pepper 9-LOX gene, CaLOX1, plays a crucial role in cell death due to pathogen infection. Here, the function of CaLOX1 in response to osmotic, drought and high salinity stress was examined using CaLOX1-overexpressing (CaLOX1-OX) Arabidopsis plants. Changes in the temporal expression pattern of the CaLOX1 gene were observed when pepper leaves were treated with drought and high salinity, but not when treated with ABA, the primary hormone in response to drought stress. During seed germination and seedling development, CaLOX1-OX plants were more tolerant to ABA, mannitol and high salinity than wild-type plants. In contrast, expression of the ABA-responsive marker genes RAB18 and RD29B was higher in CaLOX1-OX Arabidopsis plants than in wild-type plants. In response to high salinity, CaLOX1-OX plants exhibited enhanced tolerance, compared with the wild type, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 and high levels of RD20, RD29A, RD29B and P5CS gene expression. Similarly, CaLOX1-OX plants were also more tolerant than wild-type plants to severe drought stress. H2O2 production and the relative increase in lipid peroxidation were lower, and the expression of COR15A, DREB2A, RD20, RD29A and RD29B was higher in CaLOX1-OX plants, relative to wild-type plants. Taken together, our results indicate that CaLOX1 plays a crucial role in plant stress responses by modulating the expression of ABA- and stress-responsive marker genes, lipid peroxidation and H2O2 production.

  4. Photosystem I shows a higher tolerance to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress than photosystem II in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Zheng, Zhenbing; Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Huan, Li; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2014-10-01

    The photosynthetic performance of the desiccation-tolerant, intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera was significantly affected by sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity decreased significantly with increases in sorbitol concentration. Although the partial activity of both photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) was able to recover after 30 min of rehydration, the activity of PS II decreased more rapidly than PS I. At 4 M sorbitol concentration, the activity of PS II was almost 0 while that of PS I was still at about one third of normal levels. Following prolonged treatment with 1 and 2 M sorbitol, the activity of PS I and PS II decreased slowly, suggesting that the effects of moderate concentrations of sorbitol on PS I and PS II were gradual. Interestingly, an increase in non-photochemical quenching occurred under these conditions in response to moderate osmotic stress, whereas it declined significantly under severe osmotic stress. These results suggest that photoprotection in U. prolifera could also be induced by moderate osmotic stress. In addition, the oxidation of PS I was significantly affected by osmotic stress. P700(+) in the thalli treated with high concentrations of sorbitol could still be reduced, as PS II was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), but it could not be fully oxidized. This observation may be caused by the higher quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation in PS I due to acceptor-side limitation (Y(NA)) during rehydration in seawater containing DCMU.

  5. Expression of the HXT13, HXT15 and HXT17 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and stabilization of the HXT1 gene transcript by sugar-induced osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Greatrix, Bradley W; van Vuuren, Hennie J J

    2006-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a family of 17 hexose transporter (HXT) genes; only nine have assigned functions, some of which are still poorly defined. Despite extensive efforts to characterize the hexose transporters, the expression of HXT6 and HXT8-17 remains an enigma. In nature, S. cerevisiae finds itself under extreme nutritional conditions including sugars in excess of 40% (w/v), depletion of nutrients and extremes of both temperature and pH. Using HXT promoter-lacZ fusions, we have identified novel conditions under which the HXT17 gene is expressed; HXT17 promoter activity is up-regulated in media containing raffinose and galactose at pH 7.7 versus pH 4.7. We demonstrated that HXT5, HXT13 and, to a lesser extent, HXT15 were all induced in the presence of non-fermentable carbon sources. HXT1 encodes a low-affinity transporter and in short-term osmotic shock experiments, HXT1 promoter activity was reduced when cells were exposed to media containing 40% glucose. However, we found that the HXT1 mRNA transcript was stabilized under conditions of osmotic stress. Furthermore, the stabilization of HXT1 mRNA does not appear to be gene specific because 30 min after transcriptional arrest there is a fourfold more mRNA in osmotically stressed versus non-stressed yeast cells. A large portion of S. cerevisiae mRNA molecules may, therefore, have a decreased rate of turnover during exposure to osmotic stress indicating that post-transcriptional regulation plays an important role in the adaptation of S. cerevisiae to osmotic stress.

  6. Acute psychological stress-induced water intoxication.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sagarika; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Asaduzzaman, S; Peters, John R

    2005-01-01

    Excessive water drinking is a recognised feature of schizophrenia. We present here a case of excessive water drinking precipitated by acute psychological stress. A 52-year-old woman, with no previous mental health problems, was found in a state of altered consciousness and was profoundly hyponatraemic. She had consumed excess amount of water due to severe mental stress. She was treated with hypertonic saline followed by fluid restrictions. The water intoxication had caused brain damage which led to behavioural changes and impaired cognition. We describe the pathophysiology of water intoxication.

  7. The role of chromatin-remodeling factor PKL in balancing osmotic stress responses during Arabidopsis seed germination.

    PubMed

    Perruc, Elian; Kinoshita, Natsuko; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2007-12-01

    Embryogenesis in Arabidopsis results in mature, osmotolerant embryos within dry seeds. Late-embryogenesis programs involve the transcription factors ABI3 and ABI5, which are necessary for osmotolerance. ABI3 and ABI5 are degraded in seeds initiating germination, abolishing their protected state. However, during an early stage of germination, strong osmotic stresses, or ABA exposure maintain ABI3 and ABI5 expression, leading to growth arrest, and osmotolerance. Mild stress stimuli delay ABI3 and ABI5 disappearance, retarding germination but not preventing eventual closure of embryogenesis programs. PICKLE (PKL), a putative chromatin modifier, is necessary to repress ABI3 and ABI5 expression during germination in response to ABA. We show that pkl mutants display persistent high expression of ABI3 and ABI5 upon ABA stimulation. In turn, maintenance of ABI5 expression leads to hypersensitive germination responses to ABA in pkl seeds. We provide evidence that ABI3 and ABI5 are less associated with repressed chromatin in pkl mutants. Our results provide evidence that PKL-dependent repression of embryonic gene expression extends to late-embryogenesis genes and is associated with changes in chromatin. We suggest that effective closure of embryogenesis omostolerance programs during germination prevents excessive plant reactions to stress.

  8. Enhancement of non-photochemical quenching in the Bryophyte Physcomitrella patens during acclimation to salt and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Azzabi, Ghazi; Pinnola, Alberta; Betterle, Nico; Bassi, Roberto; Alboresi, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    Drought and salt stress are major abiotic constraints affecting plant growth worldwide. Under these conditions, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon taking place mainly in chloroplasts, peroxisomes, mitochondria and apoplasts, especially when associated with high light stress. ROS are harmful because of their high reactivity to cell components, thereby leading to cytotoxicity and cell death. During the Ordovician and early Devonian period, photosynthetic organisms colonized terrestrial habitats, and the acquisition of desiccation tolerance has been a major component of their evolution. We have studied the capacity for acclimation to drought and salt stress of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a representative of the early land colonization stage. Exposure to high concentrations of NaCl and sorbitol strongly affects chloroplast development, the Chl content and the thylakoid protein composition in this moss. Under sublethal conditions (0.2 M NaCl and 0.4 M sorbitol), the photosynthetic apparatus of P. patens responds to oxidative stress by increasing non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Surprisingly, the accumulation of PSBS and LHCSR, the two polypeptides essential for NPQ in P. patens, was not up-regulated in these conditions. Rather, an increased NPQ amplitude correlated with the overaccumulation of zeaxanthin and the presence of the enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase. These results suggest that the regulation of excess energy dissipation through control of PSBS and LHCSR is mainly driven by light conditions, while osmotic and salt stress act through acclimative regulation of the xanthophyll cycle. We conclude that regulation of the xanthophyll cycle is an important anticipatory strategy against photoinhibition by high light.

  9. Oxidative stress in severe acute illness

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Or, David; Bar-Or, Raphael; Rael, Leonard T.; Brody, Edward N.

    2015-01-01

    The overall redox potential of a cell is primarily determined by oxidizable/reducible chemical pairs, including glutathione–glutathione disulfide, reduced thioredoxin–oxidized thioredoxin, and NAD+–NADH (and NADP–NADPH). Current methods for evaluating oxidative stress rely on detecting levels of individual byproducts of oxidative damage or by determining the total levels or activity of individual antioxidant enzymes. Oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), on the other hand, is an integrated, comprehensive measure of the balance between total (known and unknown) pro-oxidant and antioxidant components in a biological system. Much emphasis has been placed on the role of oxidative stress in chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. The role of oxidative stress in acute diseases often seen in the emergency room and intensive care unit is considerable. New tools for the rapid, inexpensive measurement of both redox potential and total redox capacity should aid in introducing a new body of literature on the role of oxidative stress in acute illness and how to screen and monitor for potentially beneficial pharmacologic agents. PMID:25644686

  10. [Physiological responses of different cucumber cultivars seedlings to iso-osmotic Mg (NO3) 2 and NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi-wei; Li, Li-bin; Kong, Su-ping; Qiu, An; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yun-nan; Sun, Xiao-lei

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of iso-osmotic solution of Mg (NO3) 2 and NaCl on seedling growth, leaf lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, and osmotic adjustment substance accumulation were investigated using three cucumber cultivars with different ecotypes. Then salt tolerance was evaluated by membership function method. The results revealed that under the stress of 60 and 80 mmol x L(-1) Mg(NO3) 2 solution and its isotonic 90 and 120 mmol x L(-1) NaCl solution, the seedling traits such as height, stem diameter, leaf area, fresh and dry mass of aerial part and underground parts, and antioxidant enzymes activity were obviously decreased with the increasing concentration of Mg( NO3)2 and its isotonic NaCl in the three cucumber cultivars. Moreover, the inhibitory effects became more obvious with the increasing concentration of either Mg(NO3)2 or NaCl solution. MDA content and membrane lipid peroxidation were enhanced in cucumber seedlings. Among the three cultivars, SJ31-1 changed less than the other two cultivars regarding the reduced amplitudes of biomass, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and the increased amplitude of MDA. In addition, Mg (NO3)2 solution inhibited seedling growth more strongly than isotonic NaCl solution did, such difference was relatively significant with increasing the concentration of solution. The contents of proline, soluble amino acids, and soluble sugars varied depending on the cucumber genotype and salt type. The increased amplitude of proline content was the largest in SJ31-1, and that of soluble sugars was the largest in Lubai 19 when growing under salt treatment. The change of these parameters in Xintaimici was in between. Soluble sugars and soluble proteins were predominant osmolytes unde NaCl stress, whereas proline and soluble proteins were main osmolytes under Mg (NO3) 2 stress. Comprehensive evaluation showed that salt tolerance of the three cucumber cultivars was in order

  11. The structure of Arabidopsis thaliana OST1 provides insights into the kinase regulation mechanism in response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Yunta, Cristina; Martínez-Ripoll, Martín; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Albert, Armando

    2011-11-18

    SnRK [SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1)-related protein kinase] 2.6 [open stomata 1 (OST1)] is well characterized at molecular and physiological levels to control stomata closure in response to water-deficit stress. OST1 is a member of a family of 10 protein kinases from Arabidopsis thaliana (SnRK2) that integrates abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent signals to coordinate the cell response to osmotic stress. A subgroup of protein phosphatases type 2C binds OST1 and keeps the kinase dephosphorylated and inactive. Activation of OST1 relies on the ABA-dependent inhibition of the protein phosphatases type 2C and the subsequent self-phosphorylation of the kinase. The OST1 ABA-independent activation depends on a short sequence motif that is conserved among all the members of the SnRK2 family. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation. The crystallographic structure of OST1 shows that ABA-independent regulation motif stabilizes the conformation of the kinase catalytically essential α C helix, and it provides the basis of the ABA-independent regulation mechanism for the SnRK2 family of protein kinases.

  12. The Structure of Arabidopsis thaliana OST1 Provides Insights into the Kinase Regulation Mechanism in Response to Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Cristina; Martínez-Ripoll, Martín; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Albert, Armando

    2013-01-01

    SnRK [SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1)-related protein kinase] 2.6 [open stomata 1 (OST1)] is well characterized at molecular and physiological levels to control stomata closure in response to water-deficit stress. OST1 is a member of a family of 10 protein kinases from Arabidopsis thaliana (SnRK2) that integrates abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent signals to coordinate the cell response to osmotic stress. A subgroup of protein phosphatases type 2C binds OST1 and keeps the kinase dephosphorylated and inactive. Activation of OST1 relies on the ABA-dependent inhibition of the protein phosphatases type 2C and the subsequent self-phosphorylation of the kinase. The OST1 ABA-independent activation depends on a short sequence motif that is conserved among all the members of the SnRK2 family. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation. The crystallographic structure of OST1 shows that ABA-independent regulation motif stabilizes the conformation of the kinase catalytically essential α C helix, and it provides the basis of the ABA-independent regulation mechanism for the SnRK2 family of protein kinases. PMID:21983340

  13. Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenases/phosphatases: a family of novel bifunctional enzymes for bacterial adaptation to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Sand, Miriam; Rodrigues, Marta; González, José M; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Santos, Helena; Müller, Volker; Averhoff, Beate

    2015-03-01

    The nutritionally versatile soil bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 copes with salt stress by the accumulation of compatible solutes, a strategy that is widespread in nature. This bacterium synthesizes the sugar alcohol mannitol de novo in response to osmotic stress. In a previous study, we identified MtlD, a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is essential for mannitol biosynthesis and which catalyses the first step in mannitol biosynthesis, the reduction of fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P) to the intermediate mannitol-1-phosphate (Mtl-1-P). Until now, the identity of the second enzyme, the phosphatase that catalyses the dephosphorylation of Mtl-1-P to mannitol, was elusive. Here we show that MtlD has a unique sequence among known mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenases with a haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like phosphatase domain at the N-terminus. This domain is indeed shown to have a phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity is strictly Mg(2+) dependent. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that purified MtlD catalyses not only reduction of F-6-P but also dephosphorylation of Mtl-1-P. MtlD of A. baylyi is the first bifunctional enzyme of mannitol biosynthesis that combines Mtl-1-P dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities in a single polypeptide chain. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the bifunctional enzyme is widespread among Acinetobacter strains but only rarely present in other phylogenetic tribes.

  14. Activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae filamentation/invasion pathway by osmotic stress in high-osmolarity glycogen pathway mutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, K. D.; Williams, K. E.; Ullmann, B. D.; Gustin, M. C.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are frequently used signal transduction mechanisms in eukaryotes. Of the five MAPK cascades in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway functions to sense and respond to hypertonic stress. We utilized a partial loss-of-function mutant in the HOG pathway, pbs2-3, in a high-copy suppressor screen to identify proteins that modulate growth on high-osmolarity media. Three high-copy suppressors of pbs2-3 osmosensitivity were identified: MSG5, CAK1, and TRX1. Msg5p is a dual-specificity phosphatase that was previously demonstrated to dephosphorylate MAPKs in yeast. Deletions of the putative MAPK targets of Msg5p revealed that kss1delta could suppress the osmosensitivity of pbs2-3. Kss1p is phosphorylated in response to hyperosmotic shock in a pbs2-3 strain, but not in a wild-type strain nor in a pbs2-3 strain overexpressing MSG5. Both TEC1 and FRE::lacZ expressions are activated in strains lacking a functional HOG pathway during osmotic stress in a filamentation/invasion-pathway-dependent manner. Additionally, the cellular projections formed by a pbs2-3 mutant on high osmolarity are absent in strains lacking KSS1 or STE7. These data suggest that the loss of filamentation/invasion pathway repression contributes to the HOG mutant phenotype.

  15. Specific regulation of SOD isoforms by NaCl and osmotic stress in leaves of the C3 halophyte Suaeda salsa L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baoshan; Lüttge, Ulrich; Ratajczak, Rafael

    2004-03-01

    The halophyte Suaeda salsa L., exposed to different NaCl concentrations (100 and 400 mmol/L) and polyethylene glycol (isoosomotic to 100 mmol/L NaCl) containing nutrient solutions under normal or K+-deficient conditions for 7 days, was used to study effects of NaCl salinity and osmotic stress on chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, malonedialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoform activities. Photosynthetic capacity was not decreased by NaCl treatment, indicating that S. salsa possesses an effective antioxidative response system for avoiding oxidative damage. Seven SOD activity bands were detected in S. salsa leaf extracts, including an Mn-SOD and several isoforms of Fe-SOD and CuZn-SOD. It turned out that NaCl salinity and osmotic stress lead to a differential regulation of distinct SOD isoenzymes. This differential regulation is suggested to play a major role in stress tolerance of S. salsa.

  16. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir A; Nazli, Farheen; Akram, Fareeha; Arshad, Muhammad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m(-1) under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean.

  17. Abscisic acid-regulated responses of aba2-1 under osmotic stress: the abscisic acid-inducible antioxidant defence system and reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Ozfidan, C; Turkan, I; Sekmen, A H; Seckin, B

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the interaction among abscisic acid (ABA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence system in the transduction of osmotic stress signalling using Arabidopsis thaliana WT (Columbia ecotype, WT) and an ABA-deficient mutant (aba2-1). For this, 50 μm ABA and osmotic stress, induced with 40% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG8000; -0.7 MPa), were applied to WT and aba2-1 for 6, 12 or 24 h. Time course analysis was undertaken for determination of total/isoenzyme activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), NADPH oxidase (NOX; EC 1.6.3.1) activity; scavenging activity of the hydroxyl radical (OH˙), hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ); endogenous ABA and malondialdehyde (MDA). The highest H(2) O(2) and MDA content was found in PEG-treated groups of both genotypes, but with more in aba2-1. ABA treatment under stress reduced the accumulation of H(2) O(2) and MDA, while it promoted activity of SOD, CAT and APX. APX activity was higher than CAT activity in ABA-treated WT and aba2-1, indicating a protective role of APX rather than CAT during osmotic stress-induced oxidative damage. Treatment with ABA also significantly induced increased NOX activity. Oxidative damage was lower in ABA-treated seedlings of both genotypes, which was associated with greater activity of SOD (Mn-SOD1 and 2 and Fe-SOD isoenzymes), CAT and APX in these seedlings after 24 h of stress. These results suggest that osmotic stress effects were overcome by ABA treatment because of increased SOD, CAT, APX and NOX.

  18. Constitutive overexpression of the calcium sensor CBL5 confers osmotic or drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Yong Hwa; Sung, Sun Jin; Kim, Beom-Gi; Pandey, Girdhar K; Cho, Ju-Sik; Kim, Kyung-Nam; Luan, Sheng

    2010-02-28

    Calcium serves as a critical messenger in many adaptation and developmental processes. Cellular calcium signals are detected and transmitted by sensor molecules such as calcium-binding proteins. In plants, the calcineurin B-like protein (CBL) family represents a unique group of calcium sensors and plays a key role in decoding calcium transients by specifically interacting with and regulating a family of CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). In this study, we report the role of Arabidopsis CBL5 gene in high salt or drought tolerance. CBL5 gene is expressed significantly in green tissues, but not in roots. CBL5 was not induced by abiotic stress conditions such as high salt, drought or low temperature. To determine whether the CBL5 gene plays a role in stress response pathways, we ectopically expressed the CBL5 protein in transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S-CBL5) and examined plant responses to abiotic stresses. CBL5-overexpressing plants displayed enhanced tolerance to high salt or drought stress. CBL5 overexpression also rendered plants more resistant to high salt or hyperosmotic stress during early development (i.e., seed germination) but did not alter their response to abiscisic acid (ABA). Furthermore, overexpression of CBL5 alters the gene expression of stress gene markers, such as RD29A, RD29B and Kin1 etc. These results suggest that CBL5 may function as a positive regulator of salt or drought responses in plants.

  19. Role of sigma B factor in the alkaline tolerance response of Listeria monocytogenes 10403S and cross-protection against subsequent ethanol and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Giotis, Efstathios S; Julotok, Mudcharee; Wilkinson, Brian J; Blair, Ian S; McDowell, David A

    2008-07-01

    Many of the considerable abilities of Listeria monocytogenes to persist and grow in a wide range of adverse environmental conditions are thought to be at least partly under the control of the alternative sigma factor (sigmaB), encoded by the sigB gene. However, little is known about the role of this master regulon in the impressive ability of Listeria to persist and grow under conditions of alkaline pH. In this study, Northern blot analysis of parent Listeria mRNA revealed that alkali adaptation (pH 9.5 for 1 h) significantly increased the expression of sigB-derived mRNA. The study included a comparison of the relative survival of mid-exponential populations of adapted and nonadapted parent type (sigmaB expressing) and mutant (not sigmaB expressing, deltasigB) Listeria strains during subsequent alkaline (pH 12.0), osmotic (25% NaCl, wt/vol), or ethanol (16.5%) stress. Alkali-adapted parent strains were more resistant to pH 12.0 than were adapted deltasigB type strains, but both alkali-adapted parent and deltasigB strains were more resistant to pH 12.0 than were nonadapted strains. Alkali-adapted parent strains were more resistant to osmotic stress than were adapted deltasigB type strains. No significant differences in viability were observed between alkali-adapted parent and deltasigB strains after ethanol stress, suggesting that cross-protection against osmotic stress is mediated by sigmaB whereas cross-protection against ethanol is sigmaB independent. Overall, alkali-induced cross-protection against osmotic and ethanol challenges may have serious implications for food safety and human health because such stress conditions are routinely used as part of food preservation and surface cleaning processes.

  20. Identification of adaptation-specific differences in mRNA expression of sessile and pedunculate oak based on osmotic-stress-induced genes.

    PubMed

    Porth, Ilga; Koch, Margit; Berenyi, Maria; Burg, Agnes; Burg, Kornel

    2005-10-01

    Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Q. robur L. hybridize frequently and occupy similar, though distinct, ecological niches. So far, genetic discrimination between these species at the molecular level has been based mainly on neutral markers. Because such markers often exhibit low species differentiation because of high genetic compatibility and exchange between Q. robur and Q. petraea at these loci, we used adaptation-related expressed genes as markers. Accordingly, we identified osmotic-stress-induced genes in a Q. petraea cell line grown under moderate osmotic stress conditions. Two subtraction libraries were established from callus cells cultured under hyperosmotic stress for 1 or 48 h. Thirty-three differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (from 70 originally isolated) were classified according to their putative functions. At least five of these gene products may contribute to osmotic-stress tolerance in oak: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, two trans-acting transcription factors (one abscsic acid (ABA)-responsive, the other ABA-independent), a glutathione-S- transferase and a heat-shock cognate protein. Seven genes were selected based on their putative function and their expression monitored in vivo. Leaf tissue from Q. petraea and Q. robur plantlets grown hydroponically under hyperosmotic conditions was harvested after 0, 1, 6, 24 or 72 h and analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We found indications of osmotic stress adaptation in Q. petraea based on up-regulation of genes related to protective functions, whereas down-regulation of these genes was evident in Q. robur. Thus, genetic markers related to adaptive traits may be useful for differentiating Q. petraea and Q. robur genotypes.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and osmotic adjustment in response to NaCl stress: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Augé, Robert M.; Toler, Heather D.; Saxton, Arnold M.

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can enhance plant resistance to NaCl stress in several ways. Two fundamental roles involve osmotic and ionic adjustment. By stimulating accumulation of solutes, the symbiosis can help plants sustain optimal water balance and diminish Na+ toxicity. The size of the AM effect on osmolytes has varied widely and is unpredictable. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the size of the AM effect on 22 plant solute characteristics after exposure to NaCl and to examine how experimental conditions have influenced the AM effect. Viewed across studies, AM symbioses have had marked effects on plant K+, increasing root and shoot K+ concentrations by an average of 47 and 42%, respectively, and root and shoot K+/Na+ ratios by 47 and 58%, respectively. Among organic solutes, soluble carbohydrates have been most impacted, with AM-induced increases of 28 and 19% in shoots and roots. The symbiosis has had no consistent effect on several characteristics, including root glycine betaine concentration, root or shoot Cl− concentrations, leaf Ψπ, or shoot proline or polyamine concentrations. The AM effect has been very small for shoot Ca++ concentration and root concentrations of Na+, Mg++ and proline. Interpretations about AM-conferred benefits regarding these compounds may be best gauged within the context of the individual studies. Shoot and root K+/Na+ ratios and root proline concentration showed significant between-study heterogeneity, and we examined nine moderator variables to explore what might explain the differences in mycorrhizal effects on these parameters. Moderators with significant impacts included AM taxa, host type, presence or absence of AM growth promotion, stress severity, and whether NaCl constituted part or all of the experimental saline stress treatment. Meta-regression of shoot K+/Na+ ratio showed a positive response to root colonization, and root K+/Na+ ratio a negative response to time of exposure to NaCl. PMID:25368626

  2. The Arabidopsis TETRATRICOPEPTIDE THIOREDOXIN-LIKE Gene Family Is Required for Osmotic Stress Tolerance and Male Sporogenesis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lakhssassi, Naoufal; Doblas, Verónica G.; Rosado, Abel; del Valle, Alicia Esteban; Posé, David; Jimenez, Antonio J.; Castillo, Araceli G.; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Borsani, Omar; Botella, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    TETRATRICOPEPTIDE THIOREDOXIN-LIKE (TTL) proteins are characterized by the presence of six tetratricopeptide repeats in conserved positions and a carboxyl-terminal region known as the thioredoxin-like domain with homology to thioredoxins. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the TTL gene family is composed by four members, and the founder member, TTL1, is required for osmotic stress tolerance. Analysis of sequenced genomes indicates that TTL genes are specific to land plants. In this study, we report the expression profiles of Arabidopsis TTL genes using data mining and promoter-reporter β-glucuronidase fusions. Our results show that TTL1, TTL3, and TTL4 display ubiquitous expression in normal growing conditions but differential expression patterns in response to osmotic and NaCl stresses. TTL2 shows a very different expression pattern, being specific to pollen grains. Consistent with the expression data, ttl1, ttl3, and ttl4 mutants show reduced root growth under osmotic stress, and the analysis of double and triple mutants indicates that TTL1, TTL3, and TTL4 have partially overlapping yet specific functions in abiotic stress tolerance while TTL2 is involved in male gametophytic transmission. PMID:22232384

  3. Transcription Factor CREB3L1 Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Genes in the Osmotically Challenged Rat Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Greenwood, Michael Paul; Paton, Julian F. R.; Murphy, David

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesised in magnocellular neurons (MCNs) of supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. In response to the hyperosmotic stressors of dehydration (complete fluid deprivation, DH) or salt loading (drinking 2% salt solution, SL), AVP synthesis increases in MCNs, which over-burdens the protein folding machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are signaling pathways that improve ER function in response to the accumulation of misfold/unfold protein. We asked whether an ER stress response was activated in the SON and PVN of DH and SL rats. We observed increased mRNA expression for the immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), C/EBP-homologous protein (Chop), and cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 1 (Creb3l1) in both SON and PVN of DH and SL rats. Although we found no changes in the splicing pattern of X box-binding protein 1 (Xbp1), an increase in the level of the unspliced form of Xbp1 (Xbp1U) was observed in DH and SL rats. CREB3L1, a novel ER stress inducer, has been shown to be activated by ER stress to regulate the expression of target genes. We have previously shown that CREB3L1 is a transcriptional regulator of the AVP gene; however, a role for CREB3L1 in the response to ER stress has yet to be investigated in MCNs. Here, we used lentiviral vectors to introduce a dominant negative form of CREB3L1 (CREB3L1DN) in the rat SON. Expression of CREB3L1DN in the SON decreased Chop and Xbp1U mRNA levels, but not BiP and Atf4 transcript expression. CREB3L1 is thus implicated as a transcriptional mediator of the ER stress response in the osmotically stimulated SON. PMID:25915053

  4. Arabidopsis seed germination responses to osmotic stress involve the chromatin modifier PICKLE.

    PubMed

    Belin, Christophe; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2008-07-01

    pkl mutant seed germination is hypersensitive to ABA treatment due to abnormally high and persistent ABI3 and ABI5 expression. PKL, a putative chromatin modifier, is instrumental to associate ABI3 and ABI5 with silent chromatin in response to ABA. Thus, PKL prevents exaggerated germination arrest responses by shutting off ABI3 and ABI5 expression in response to mild stresses.

  5. A versatile proline/alanine transporter in the unicellular pathogen Leishmania donovani regulates amino acid homoeostasis and osmotic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Inbar, Ehud; Schlisselberg, Doreen; Suter Grotemeyer, Marianne; Rentsch, Doris; Zilberstein, Dan

    2013-01-15

    Unlike all other organisms, parasitic protozoa of the family Trypanosomatidae maintain a large cellular pool of proline that, together with the alanine pool, serve as alternative carbon sources as well as reservoirs of organic osmolytes. These reflect adaptation to their insect vectors whose haemolymphs are exceptionally rich in the two amino acids. In the present study we identify and characterize a new neutral amino acid transporter, LdAAP24, that translocates proline and alanine across the Leishmania donovani plasma membrane. This transporter fulfils multiple functions: it is the sole supplier for the intracellular pool of proline and contributes to the alanine pool; it is essential for cell volume regulation after osmotic stress; and it regulates the transport and homoeostasis of glutamate and arginine, none of which are its substrates. Notably, we provide evidence that proline and alanine exhibit different roles in the parasitic response to hypotonic shock; alanine affects swelling, whereas proline influences the rate of volume recovery. On the basis of our data we suggest that LdAAP24 plays a key role in parasite adaptation to its varying environments in host and vector, a phenomenon essential for successful parasitism.

  6. Effects of purinergic stimulation, CFTR and osmotic stress on amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport in epithelia and Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, R; König, J; Sun, J; Markovich, D; Kunzelmann, K

    2003-03-15

    Both stimulation of purinergic receptors by ATP and activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibit amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport and activate Cl- secretion. These changes in ion transport may well affect cell volume. We therefore examined whether cell shrinkage or cell swelling do affect amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport in epithelial tissues or Xenopus oocytes and whether osmotic stress interferes with regulation of Na+ transport by ATP or CFTR. Stimulation of purinergic receptors by ATP/UTP or activation of CFTR by IBMX and forskolin inhibited amiloride-sensitive transport in mouse trachea and colon, respectively, by a mechanism that was Cl- dependent. When exposed to a hypertonic but not hypotonic bath solution, amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport was inhibited in mouse trachea and colon, independent of the extracellular Cl- concentration. Both inhibition of Na+ transport by hypertonic bath solution and ATP were additive. When coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, activation of CFTR by IBMX and forskolin inhibited the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) in a Cl- dependent fashion. However, both hypertonic and hypotonic bath solutions showed only minor effects on amiloride-sensitive conductance, independent of the bath Cl- concentration. Moreover, CFTR-induced inhibition of ENaC could be detected in oocytes even after exposure to hypertonic or hypotonic bath solutions. We conclude that amiloride-sensitive Na+ absorption in mouse airways and colon is inhibited by cell shrinkage by a mechanism that does not interfere with purinergic and CFTR-mediated inhibition of ENaC.

  7. Information processing in the adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to osmotic stress: an analysis of the phosphorelay system.

    PubMed

    Uschner, Friedemann; Klipp, Edda

    2014-12-01

    Cellular signaling is key for organisms to survive immediate stresses from fluctuating environments as well as relaying important information about external stimuli. Effective mechanisms have evolved to ensure appropriate responses for an optimal adaptation process. For them to be functional despite the noise that occurs in biochemical transmission, the cell needs to be able to infer reliably what was sensed in the first place. For example Saccharomyces cerevisiae are able to adjust their response to osmotic shock depending on the severity of the shock and initiate responses that lead to near perfect adaptation of the cell. We investigate the Sln1-Ypd1-Ssk1-phosphorelay as a module in the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway by incorporating a stochastic model. Within this framework, we can imitate the noisy perception of the cell and interpret the phosphorelay as an information transmitting channel in the sense of C.E. Shannon's "Information Theory". We refer to the channel capacity as a measure to quantify and investigate the transmission properties of this system, enabling us to draw conclusions on viable parameter sets for modeling the system.

  8. A model-based study delineating the roles of the two signaling branches of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sho1 and Sln1, during adaptation to osmotic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, J. H.; Bhartiya, Sharad; Venkatesh, K. V.

    2009-09-01

    Adaptation to osmotic shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is brought about by the activation of two independent signaling pathways, Sho1 and Sln1, which in turn trigger the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway. The HOG pathway thereby activates the transcription of Gpd1p, an enzyme necessary to synthesize glycerol. The production of glycerol brings about a change in the intracellular osmolarity leading to adaptation. We present a detailed mechanistic model for the response of the yeast to hyperosmotic shock. The model integrates the two branches, Sho1 and Sln1, of the HOG pathway and also includes the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, gene regulation and metabolism. Model simulations are consistent with known experimental results for wild-type strain, and Ste11Δ and Ssk1Δ mutant strains subjected to osmotic stress. Simulation results predict that both the branches contribute to the overall wild-type response for moderate osmotic shock, while under severe osmotic shock, the cell responds mainly through the Sln1 branch. The analysis shows that the Sln1 branch helps the cell in preventing cross-talk to other signaling pathways by inhibiting ste11ste50 activation and also by increasing the phosphorylation of Ste50. We show that the negative feedbacks to the Sho1 branch must be faster than those to the Sln1 branch to simultaneously achieve pathway specificity and adaptation during hyperosmotic shock. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the presence of both branches imparts robust behavior to the cell under osmoadaptation to perturbations.

  9. Comparison of transcriptional responses to osmotic stresses induced by NaCl and sorbitol additions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Takashi; Ashitani, Kengo; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Nagahisa, Keisuke; Furusawa, Chikara; Katakura, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2006-12-01

    Transcriptional responses of laboratory and brewing strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to osmotic stresses induced by adding either NaCl or sorbitol to their cultures were compared by clustering DNA microarray data. Our results suggest that the difference in the transcriptional responses of the two strains between NaCl and sorbitol additions is small when the dynamics of the total change in gene expression are similar.

  10. Influence of osmotic stress on the profile and gene expression of surface layer proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356.

    PubMed

    Palomino, María Mercedes; Waehner, Pablo M; Fina Martin, Joaquina; Ojeda, Paula; Malone, Lucía; Sánchez Rivas, Carmen; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Allievi, Mariana C; Ruzal, Sandra M

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we studied the role of surface layer (S-layer) proteins in the adaptation of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 to the osmotic stress generated by high salt. The amounts of the predominant and the auxiliary S-layer proteins SlpA and SlpX were strongly influenced by the growth phase and high-salt conditions (0.6 M NaCl). Changes in gene expression were also observed as the mRNAs of the slpA and slpX genes increased related to the growth phase and presence of high salt. A growth stage-dependent modification on the S-layer protein profile in response to NaCl was observed: while in control conditions, the auxiliary SlpX protein represented less than 10 % of the total S-layer protein, in high-salt conditions, it increased to almost 40 % in the stationary phase. The increase in S-layer protein synthesis in the stress condition could be a consequence of or a way to counteract the fragility of the cell wall, since a decrease in the cell wall thickness and envelope components (peptidoglycan layer and lipoteichoic acid content) was observed in L. acidophilus when compared to a non-S-layer-producing species such as Lactobacillus casei. Also, the stationary phase and growth in high-salt medium resulted in increased release of S-layer proteins to the supernatant medium. Overall, these findings suggest that pre-growth in high-salt conditions would result in an advantage for the probiotic nature of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 as the increased amount and release of the S-layer might be appropriate for its antimicrobial capacity.

  11. Recovery from heat, salt and osmotic stress in Physcomitrella patens requires a functional small heat shock protein PpHsp16.4

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant small heat shock proteins (sHsps) accumulate in response to various environmental stresses, including heat, drought, salt and oxidative stress. Numerous studies suggest a role for these proteins in stress tolerance by preventing stress-induced protein aggregation as well as by facilitating protein refolding by other chaperones. However, in vivo evidence for the involvement of sHsps in tolerance to different stress factors is still missing, mainly due to the lack of appropriate mutants in specific sHsp genes. Results In this study we characterized the function of a sHsp in abiotic stress tolerance in the moss Physcomitrella patens, a model for primitive land plants. Using suppression subtractive hybridization, we isolated an abscisic acid-upregulated gene from P. patens encoding a 16.4 kDa cytosolic class II sHsp. PpHsp16.4 was also induced by salicylic acid, dithiothreitol (DTT) and by exposure to various stimuli, including osmotic and salt stress, but not by oxidative stress-inducing compounds. Expression of the gene was maintained upon stress relief, suggesting a role for this protein in the recovery stage. PpHsp16.4 is encoded by two identical genes arranged in tandem in the genome. Targeted disruption of both genes resulted in the inability of plants to recover from heat, salt and osmotic stress. In vivo localization studies revealed that PpHsp16.4 localized in cytosolic granules in the vicinity of chloroplasts under non stress conditions, suggesting possible distinct roles for this protein under stress and optimal growth. Conclusions We identified a member of the class II sHsp family that showed hormonal and abiotic stress gene regulation. Induction of the gene by DTT treatment suggests that damaged proteins may act as signals for the stress-induction of PpHsp16.4. The product of this gene was shown to localize in cytosolic granules near the chloroplasts, suggesting a role for the protein in association with these organelles. Our study

  12. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) Enhances Drought and Osmotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhangsheng; Sun, Binmei; Xu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hao; Zou, Lifang; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice, and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs, and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro) content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA, and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA-mediated signaling response in Chinese kale. PMID:27625663

  13. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) Enhances Drought and Osmotic Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhangsheng; Sun, Binmei; Xu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hao; Zou, Lifang; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice, and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs, and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro) content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA, and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA-mediated signaling response in Chinese kale.

  14. Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system.

  15. The mitochondria of stallion spermatozoa are more sensitive than the plasmalemma to osmotic-induced stress: role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway.

    PubMed

    García, Beatriz Macías; Moran, Alvaro Miró; Fernández, Lauro González; Ferrusola, Cristina Ortega; Rodriguez, Antolin Morillo; Bolaños, Juan Maria Gallardo; da Silva, Carolina Maria Balao; Martínez, Heriberto Rodríguez; Tapia, Jose A; Peña, Fernando J

    2012-01-01

    Cryopreservation introduces extreme temperature and osmolality changes that impart lethal and sublethal effects on spermatozoa. Additionally, there is evidence that the osmotic stress induced by cryopreservation causes oxidative stress to spermatozoa. The main sources of reactive oxygen species in mammalian sperm are the mitochondria. In view of this, the aim of our study was to test whether or not osmotic stress was able to induce mitochondrial damage and to explore the osmotic tolerance of the mitochondria of stallion spermatozoa. Ejaculates from 7 stallions were subjected to osmolalities ranging from 75 to 1500 mOsm/kg, and the effect on sperm membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential was studied. Additionally, the effects of changes in osmolality from hyposmotic to isosmotic and from hyperosmotic to isosmotic solutions were studied (osmotic excursions). The cellular volume of stallion spermatozoa under isosmotic conditions was 20.4 ± 0.33 μm(3). When exposed to low osmolality, the stallion spermatozoa behaved like a linear osmometer, whereas exposure to high osmolalities up to 900 mOsm/kg resulted in decreased sperm volume. Although sperm membranes were relatively resistant to changes in osmolality, mitochondrial membrane potential decreased when osmolalities were low or very high (10.7 ± 1.74 and 16.5 ± 1.70 at 75 and 150 mOsm/kg, respectively, and 13.1 ± 1.83 at 1500 mOsm/kg), whereas in isosmolar controls the percentage of stallion sperm mitochondria with a high membrane potential was 41.1 ± 1.69 (P < .01). Osmotic excursions induced greater damage than exposure of spermatozoa to a given nonphysiologic osmolality, and again the mitochondria were more prone to damage induced by osmotic excursions than was the sperm plasma membrane. In search of intracellular components that could mediate these changes, we have detected for the first time the c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 in stallion spermatozoa, which are apparently involved in the

  16. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  17. Osmotic stress does not trigger brevetoxin production in the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis

    PubMed Central

    Sunda, William G.; Burleson, Cheska; Hardison, D. Ransom; Morey, Jeanine S.; Wang, Zhihong; Wolny, Jennifer; Corcoran, Alina A.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Van Dolah, Frances M.

    2013-01-01

    With the global proliferation of toxic harmful algal bloom species, there is a need to identify the environmental and biological factors that regulate toxin production. One such species, Karenia brevis, forms nearly annual blooms that threaten coastal regions throughout the Gulf of Mexico. This dinoflagellate produces brevetoxins, which are potent neurotoxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and respiratory illness in humans, as well as massive fish kills. A recent publication reported that a rapid decrease in salinity increased cellular toxin quotas in K. brevis and hypothesized that brevetoxins serve a role in osmoregulation. This finding implied that salinity shifts could significantly alter the toxic effects of blooms. We repeated the original experiments separately in three different laboratories and found no evidence for increased brevetoxin production in response to low-salinity stress in any of the eight K. brevis strains we tested, including three used in the original study. Thus, we find no support for an osmoregulatory function of brevetoxins. The original publication also stated that there was no known cellular function for brevetoxins. However, there is increasing evidence that brevetoxins promote survival of the dinoflagellates by deterring grazing by zooplankton. Whether they have other as-yet-unidentified cellular functions is currently unknown. PMID:23754363

  18. Chromatin insulator bodies are nuclear structures that form in response to osmotic stress and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Schoborg, Todd; Rickels, Ryan; Barrios, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin insulators assist in the formation of higher-order chromatin structures by mediating long-range contacts between distant genomic sites. It has been suggested that insulators accomplish this task by forming dense nuclear foci termed insulator bodies that result from the coalescence of multiple protein-bound insulators. However, these structures remain poorly understood, particularly the mechanisms triggering body formation and their role in nuclear function. In this paper, we show that insulator proteins undergo a dramatic and dynamic spatial reorganization into insulator bodies during osmostress and cell death in a high osmolarity glycerol–p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase–independent manner, leading to a large reduction in DNA-bound insulator proteins that rapidly repopulate chromatin as the bodies disassemble upon return to isotonicity. These bodies occupy distinct nuclear territories and contain a defined structural arrangement of insulator proteins. Our findings suggest insulator bodies are novel nuclear stress foci that can be used as a proxy to monitor the chromatin-bound state of insulator proteins and provide new insights into the effects of osmostress on nuclear and genome organization. PMID:23878275

  19. Functional Divergence of Poplar Histidine-Aspartate Kinase HK1 Paralogs in Response to Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Héricourt, François; Chefdor, Françoise; Djeghdir, Inès; Larcher, Mélanie; Lafontaine, Florent; Courdavault, Vincent; Auguin, Daniel; Coste, Franck; Depierreux, Christiane; Tanigawa, Mirai; Maeda, Tatsuya; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Carpin, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Previous works have shown the existence of protein partnerships belonging to a MultiStep Phosphorelay (MSP) in Populus putatively involved in osmosensing. This study is focused on the identification of a histidine-aspartate kinase, HK1b, paralog of HK1a. The characterization of HK1b showed its ability to homo- and hetero-dimerize and to interact with a few Histidine-containing Phosphotransfer (HPt) proteins, suggesting a preferential partnership in poplar MSP linked to drought perception. Furthermore, determinants for interaction specificity between HK1a/1b and HPts were studied by mutagenesis analysis, identifying amino acids involved in this specificity. The HK1b expression analysis in different poplar organs revealed its co-expression with three HPts, reinforcing the hypothesis of partnership participation in the MSP in planta. Moreover, HK1b was shown to act as an osmosensor with kinase activity in a functional complementation assay of an osmosensor deficient yeast strain. These results revealed that HK1b showed a different behaviour for canonical phosphorylation of histidine and aspartate residues. These phosphorylation modularities of canonical amino acids could explain the improved osmosensor performances observed in yeast. As conserved duplicates reflect the selective pressures imposed by the environmental requirements on the species, our results emphasize the importance of HK1 gene duplication in poplar adaptation to drought stress. PMID:27941652

  20. Functional Divergence of Poplar Histidine-Aspartate Kinase HK1 Paralogs in Response to Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Héricourt, François; Chefdor, Françoise; Djeghdir, Inès; Larcher, Mélanie; Lafontaine, Florent; Courdavault, Vincent; Auguin, Daniel; Coste, Franck; Depierreux, Christiane; Tanigawa, Mirai; Maeda, Tatsuya; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Carpin, Sabine

    2016-12-08

    Previous works have shown the existence of protein partnerships belonging to a MultiStep Phosphorelay (MSP) in Populus putatively involved in osmosensing. This study is focused on the identification of a histidine-aspartate kinase, HK1b, paralog of HK1a. The characterization of HK1b showed its ability to homo- and hetero-dimerize and to interact with a few Histidine-containing Phosphotransfer (HPt) proteins, suggesting a preferential partnership in poplar MSP linked to drought perception. Furthermore, determinants for interaction specificity between HK1a/1b and HPts were studied by mutagenesis analysis, identifying amino acids involved in this specificity. The HK1b expression analysis in different poplar organs revealed its co-expression with three HPts, reinforcing the hypothesis of partnership participation in the MSP in planta. Moreover, HK1b was shown to act as an osmosensor with kinase activity in a functional complementation assay of an osmosensor deficient yeast strain. These results revealed that HK1b showed a different behaviour for canonical phosphorylation of histidine and aspartate residues. These phosphorylation modularities of canonical amino acids could explain the improved osmosensor performances observed in yeast. As conserved duplicates reflect the selective pressures imposed by the environmental requirements on the species, our results emphasize the importance of HK1 gene duplication in poplar adaptation to drought stress.

  1. Effects of salt treatment and osmotic stress on V-ATPase and V-PPase in leaves of the halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Lüttge, U; Ratajczak, R

    2001-12-01

    The Chenopodiaceae Suaeda salsa L. was grown under different salt concentrations and under osmotic stress. The fresh weight was markedly stimulated by 0.1 M NaCl, 0.4 M NaCl and 0.1 M KCl and reduced by osmotic stress (PEG iso-osmotic to 0.1 M NaCl). Treatment with 0.4 M KCl severely damaged the plants. Membrane vesicle fractions containing tonoplast vesicles were isolated by sucrose gradient from leaves of the S. salsa plants and modulations of V-ATPase and V-PPase depending on the growth conditions were determined. Western blot analysis revealed that V-ATPase of S. salsa consists of at least nine subunits (apparent molecular masses 66, 55, 52, 48, 36, 35, 29, 18, and 16 kDa). This polypeptide pattern did not depend on culture conditions. V-PPase is composed of a single polypeptide (69 kDa). An additional polypeptide (54 kDa) was detected in the fractions of NaCl-, KCl- and PEG-treated plants. It turned out that the main strategy of salt-tolerance of S. salsa seems to be an up-regulation of V-ATPase activity, which is required to energize the tonoplast for ion uptake into the vacuole, while V-PPase plays only a minor role. The increase in V-ATPase activity is not obtained by structural changes of the enzyme, but by an increase in V-ATPase protein amount.

  2. Acute Stress Symptoms in Young Children with Burns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…

  3. Prompt protein glycosylation during acute heat stress.

    PubMed

    Henle, K J; Kaushal, G P; Nagle, W A; Nolen, G T

    1993-08-01

    Constitutive patterns of protein synthesis and protein glycosylation are severely disrupted by acute heat stress. Stressed cells respond by preferential synthesis of specific proteins, e.g., the well-known family of heat shock proteins. We observed another response that rapidly occurs during heating periods as short as 10 min at 45 degrees C. During that period, CHO cells began to glycosylate specific proteins, designated as "prompt" stress glycoproteins (P-SG), while constitutive protein glycosylation ceased. Labeling of P-SGs showed a dose response with time and with temperature and appeared regardless of the label used (D-[3H]mannose or D-[3H]glucose). On SDS-PAGE, the major P-SG was characterized by M(r) approximately 67 kDa (P-SG67) and pI = 5.1. Other less prominent P-SGs appeared at M(r) 160, 100, 64, 60, and 47 kDa; incorporated label showed little turnover during 24 h at 37 degrees C. Prompt glycosylation was inhibited by tunicamycin, and label incorporated into P-SGs was sensitive to N-glycosidase F, but not to O-glycosidase. Analysis of enzymatically digested P-SG67 indicated that label had been incorporated into both high-mannose (Man9GlcNAc) and complex-type oligosaccharides. Brefeldin A did not eliminate P-SG67 labeling, but caused the further appearance of novel, Brefeldin-associated P-SGs. Labeling of P-SG67 oligosaccharides occurred without significant concomitant protein synthesis, suggesting that addition of labeled oligosaccharides largely occurred on mature, rather than nascent proteins. The functional significance of prompt glycosylation remains to be defined, but we propose that this novel phenomenon is an integral part of the cellular heat stress response.

  4. The C Isoform of Dictyostelium Tetraspanins Localizes to the Contractile Vacuole and Contributes to Resistance against Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Albers, Tineke; Maniak, Markus; Beitz, Eric; von Bülow, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Tetraspanins (Tsps) are membrane proteins that are widely expressed in eukaryotic organisms. Only recently, Tsps have started to acquire relevance as potential new drug targets as they contribute, via protein-protein interactions, to numerous pathophysiological processes including infectious diseases and cancer. However, due to a high number of isoforms and functional redundancy, knowledge on specific functions of most Tsps is still scarce. We set out to characterize five previously annotated Tsps, TspA-E, from Dictyostelium discoideum, a model for studying proteins that have human orthologues. Using reverse transcriptase PCRs, we found mRNAs for TspA-E in the multicellular slug stage, whereas vegetative cells expressed only TspA, TspC and, to a lesser extent, TspD. We raised antibodies against TspA, TspC and TspD and detected endogenous TspA, as well as heterologously expressed TspA and TspC by Western blot. N-deglycosylation assays and mutational analyses showed glycosylation of TspA and TspC in vivo. GFP-tagged Tsps co-localized with the proton pump on the contractile vacuole network. Deletion strains of TspC and TspD exibited unaltered growth, adhesion, random motility and development. Yet, tspC- cells showed a defect in coping with hypo-osmotic stress, due to accumulation of contractile vacuoles, but heterologous expression of TspC rescued their phenotype. In conclusion, our data fill a gap in Dictyostelium research and open up the possibility that Tsps in contractile vacuoles of e.g. Trypanosoma may one day constitute a valuable drug target for treating sleeping sickness, one of the most threatening tropical diseases.

  5. The C Isoform of Dictyostelium Tetraspanins Localizes to the Contractile Vacuole and Contributes to Resistance against Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Tineke; Maniak, Markus; Beitz, Eric; von Bülow, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Tetraspanins (Tsps) are membrane proteins that are widely expressed in eukaryotic organisms. Only recently, Tsps have started to acquire relevance as potential new drug targets as they contribute, via protein-protein interactions, to numerous pathophysiological processes including infectious diseases and cancer. However, due to a high number of isoforms and functional redundancy, knowledge on specific functions of most Tsps is still scarce. We set out to characterize five previously annotated Tsps, TspA-E, from Dictyostelium discoideum, a model for studying proteins that have human orthologues. Using reverse transcriptase PCRs, we found mRNAs for TspA-E in the multicellular slug stage, whereas vegetative cells expressed only TspA, TspC and, to a lesser extent, TspD. We raised antibodies against TspA, TspC and TspD and detected endogenous TspA, as well as heterologously expressed TspA and TspC by Western blot. N-deglycosylation assays and mutational analyses showed glycosylation of TspA and TspC in vivo. GFP-tagged Tsps co-localized with the proton pump on the contractile vacuole network. Deletion strains of TspC and TspD exibited unaltered growth, adhesion, random motility and development. Yet, tspC− cells showed a defect in coping with hypo-osmotic stress, due to accumulation of contractile vacuoles, but heterologous expression of TspC rescued their phenotype. In conclusion, our data fill a gap in Dictyostelium research and open up the possibility that Tsps in contractile vacuoles of e.g. Trypanosoma may one day constitute a valuable drug target for treating sleeping sickness, one of the most threatening tropical diseases. PMID:27597994

  6. Choroid plexus potassium cotransport: modulation by osmotic stress and external potassium.

    PubMed

    Keep, R F; Xiang, J

    1995-06-01

    The choroid plexuses are involved in CSF secretion and CSF K homeostasis. This study examines the potential role of K cotransport in these two processes using isolated rat lateral ventricle choroid plexuses. Bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb influx and efflux were measured to assess the response of K cotransport to changes in media osmolality and K concentration. Alterations in osmolality had no effect on K uptake (in the presence or absence of bumetanide). However, the efflux rate constant for K was 0.29 +/- 0.02, 0.44 +/- 0.04, and 0.84 +/- 0.06 min-1 in 240, 300, and 424 mOsm/kg solutions, respectively (p < 0.001). This increase in efflux with osmolality, an opposite effect to that found in many cells, was solely due to enhanced K cotransport. The increased cotransport may be involved in limiting brain shrinkage during hyperosmotic stress if the cotransporter is present on the apical membrane. The rate of bumetanide-sensitive efflux was unaffected by changes in external [K]. However, the rate of K uptake (measured on return to normal [K] media) was reduced gradually by exposure to low [K]. It was 21 +/- 1, 19 +/- 3, 13 +/- 2, and 6 +/- 1 nmol/mg/min after 0, 10, 30, and 60-min exposure to 1 mM K. Sixty minutes of exposure to 1 mM [K] abolished the bumetanide-sensitive K uptake present in plexuses exposed continually to normal media. This modulation of K cotransport by external [K] may be important in CSF K homeostasis by limiting K loss from the CSF if CSF [K] is low.

  7. Strategies of ROS regulation and antioxidant defense during transition from C₃ to C₄ photosynthesis in the genus Flaveria under PEG-induced osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Uzilday, Baris; Turkan, Ismail; Ozgur, Rengin; Sekmen, Askim H

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to elucidate how strategies of reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation and the antioxidant defense system changed during transition from C₃ to C₄ photosynthesis, by using the model genus Flaveria, which contains species belonging to different steps in C₄ evolution. For this reason, four Flaveria species that have different carboxylation mechanisms, Flaveria robusta (C₃), Flaveria anomala (C₃-C₄), Flaveria brownii (C₄-like) and Flaveria bidentis (C₄), were used. Physiological (growth, relative water content (RWC), osmotic potential), and photosynthetical parameters (stomatal conductance (g(s)), assimilation rate (A), electron transport rate (ETR)), antioxidant defense enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductases(GR)) and their isoenzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidant contents (ascorbate, glutathione), NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) content and lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS) were measured comparatively under polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) induced osmotic stress. Under non-stressed conditions, there was a correlation only between CAT (decreasing), APX and GR (both increasing) and the type of carboxylation pathways through C₃ to C₄ in Flaveria species. However, they responded differently to PEG-induced osmotic stress in regards to antioxidant defense. The greatest increase in H₂O₂ and TBARS content was observed in C₃ F. robusta, while the least substantial increase was detected in C₄-like F. brownii and C₄ F. bidentis, suggesting that oxidative stress is more effectively countered in C₄-like and C₄ species. This was achieved by a better induced enzymatic defense in F. bidentis (increased SOD, CAT, POX, and APX activity) and non-enzymatic antioxidants in F. brownii. As a response to PEG-induced oxidative stress, changes in activities of isoenzymes and also isoenzymatic patterns were observed in all

  8. Effect of sulfide, osmotic, and thermal stresses on taurine transporter mRNA levels in the gills of the hydrothermal vent-specific mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Kusakabe, Ikumi; Nagasaki, Toshihiro; Kinjo, Azusa; Sassa, Mieko; Koito, Tomoko; Okamura, Kei; Yamagami, Shosei; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent environmental conditions are characterized by high sulfide concentrations, fluctuating osmolality, and irregular temperature elevations caused by vent effluents. These parameters represent potential stressors for organisms that inhabit the area around hydrothermal vents. Here, we aimed to obtain a better understanding of the adaptation mechanisms of marine species to hydrothermal vent environments. Specifically, we examined the effect of sulfide, osmolality, and thermal stress on the expression of taurine transporter (TAUT) mRNA in the gill of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum, which is a dominant species around hydrothermal vent sites. We analyzed TAUT mRNA levels by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the gill of mussels exposed to sulfide (0.1 or 1mg/L Na2S·9H2O), hyper- (115% seawater) and hypo- (97.5%, 95.5%, and 85% seawater) osmotic conditions, and thermal stresses (12°C and 20°C) for 24 and 48h. The results showed that mussels exposed to relatively low levels of sulfide (0.1mg/L) and moderate heat stress (12°C) exhibited higher TAUT mRNA levels than the control. Although hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress did not significantly change TAUT mRNA levels, slight induction was observed in mussels exposed to low osmolality. Our results indicate that TAUT is involved in the coping mechanism of mussels to various hydrothermal vent stresses.

  9. Constitutive over-expression of rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 results in enhanced growth, salinity and osmotic stress tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Lalit Dev; Mittal, Dheeraj; Chandra Mishra, Ratnesh; Grover, Anil

    2015-07-01

    Protease inhibitors are involved primarily in defense against pathogens. In recent years, these proteins have also been widely implicated in response of plants to diverse abiotic stresses. Rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 is highly induced under salt and osmotic stresses. The construct containing the complete coding sequence of OCPI2 cloned downstream to CaMV35S promoter was transformed in Arabidopsis and single copy, homozygous transgenic lines were produced. The transgenic plants exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to NaCl, PEG and mannitol stress as compared to wild type plants. Importantly, the vegetative and reproductive growth of transgenic plants under unstressed, control conditions was also enhanced: transgenic plants were more vigorous than wild type, resulting into higher yield in terms of silique number. The RWC values and membrane stability index of transgenic in comparison to wild type plants was higher. Higher proline content was observed in the AtOCPI2 lines, which was associated with higher transcript expression of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase and lowered levels of proline dehydrogenase genes. The chymotrypsin protease activities were lower in the transgenic as against wild type plants, under both unstressed, control as well as stressed conditions. It thus appears that rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 is a useful candidate gene for genetic improvement of plants against salt and osmotic stress.

  10. Tamarix hispida zinc finger protein ThZFP1 participates in salt and osmotic stress tolerance by increasing proline content and SOD and POD activities.

    PubMed

    Zang, Dandan; Wang, Chao; Ji, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-06-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are a large family that play important roles in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, RNA binding, morphogenesis, transcriptional regulation, abiotic or biotic stress response. However, the functions of ZFPs involved in abiotic stress are largely not known. In the present study, we cloned and functionally characterized a ZFP gene, ThZFP1, from Tamarix hispida. The expression of ThZFP1 is highly induced by NaCl, mannitol or ABA treatment. To study the function of ThZFP1 involved in abiotic stress response, transgenic T. hispida plants with overexpression or knockdown of ThZFP1 were generated using a transient transformation system. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of ThZFP1 suggested that ThZFP1 can induce the expression of a series of genes, including delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), leading to accumulation of proline and enhanced activities of SOD and POD. These physiological changes enhanced proline content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capability when exposed to salt or osmotic stress. All the results obtained from T. hispida plants were further confirmed by analyses of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ThZFP1. These data together suggested that ThZFP1 positively regulates proline accumulation and activities of SOD and POD under salt and osmotic stress conditions.

  11. Overexpression of VrUBC1, a Mung Bean E2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme, Enhances Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    So, Hyun-Ah; Kang, Jee-Sook; Chung, Young Soo; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC E2) mediates selective ubiquitination, acting with E1 and E3 enzymes to designate specific proteins for subsequent degradation. In the present study, we characterized the function of the mung bean VrUBC1 gene (Vigna radiata UBC 1). RNA gel-blot analysis showed that VrUBC1 mRNA expression was induced by either dehydration, high salinity or by the exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), but not by low temperature or wounding. Biochemical studies of VrUBC1 recombinant protein and complementation of yeast ubc4/5 by VrUBC1 revealed that VrUBC1 encodes a functional UBC E2. To understand the function of this gene in development and plant responses to osmotic stresses, we overexpressed VrUBC1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The VrUBC1-overexpressing plants displayed highly sensitive responses to ABA and osmotic stress during germination, enhanced ABA- or salt-induced stomatal closing, and increased drought stress tolerance. The expression levels of a number of key ABA signaling genes were increased in VrUBC1-overexpressing plants compared to the wild-type plants. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation demonstrated that VrUBC1 interacts with AtVBP1 (A. thaliana VrUBC1 Binding Partner 1), a C3HC4-type RING E3 ligase. Overall, these results demonstrate that VrUBC1 plays a positive role in osmotic stress tolerance through transcriptional regulation of ABA-related genes and possibly through interaction with a novel RING E3 ligase. PMID:23824688

  12. An mRNA decapping mutant deficient in P body assembly limits mRNA stabilization in response to osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Huch, Susanne; Nissan, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Yeast is exposed to changing environmental conditions and must adapt its genetic program to provide a homeostatic intracellular environment. An important stress for yeast in the wild is high osmolarity. A key response to this stress is increased mRNA stability primarily by the inhibition of deadenylation. We previously demonstrated that mutations in decapping activators (edc3∆ lsm4∆C), which result in defects in P body assembly, can destabilize mRNA under unstressed conditions. We wished to examine whether mRNA would be destabilized in the edc3∆ lsm4∆C mutant as compared to the wild-type in response to osmotic stress, when P bodies are intense and numerous. Our results show that the edc3∆ lsm4∆C mutant limits the mRNA stability in response to osmotic stress, while the magnitude of stabilization was similar as compared to the wild-type. The reduced mRNA stability in the edc3∆ lsm4∆C mutant was correlated with a shorter PGK1 poly(A) tail. Similarly, the MFA2 mRNA was more rapidly deadenylated as well as significantly stabilized in the ccr4∆ deadenylation mutant in the edc3∆ lsm4∆C background. These results suggest a role for these decapping factors in stabilizing mRNA and may implicate P bodies as sites of reduced mRNA degradation. PMID:28290514

  13. Reductions in Maize Root-tip Elongation by Salt and Osmotic Stress do not Correlate with Apoplastic O2•− Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Dolores; Lascano, Ramiro; Villasuso, Ana Laura; Machado, Estela; Senn, María Eugenia; Córdoba, Alicia; Taleisnik, Edith

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Experimental evidence in the literature suggests that O2•− produced in the elongation zone of roots and leaves by plasma membrane NADPH oxidase activity is required for growth. This study explores whether growth changes along the root tip induced by hyperosmotic treatments in Zea mays are associated with the distribution of apoplastic O2•−. Methods Stress treatments were imposed using 150 mm NaCl or 300 mm sorbitol. Root elongation rates and the spatial distribution of growth rates in the root tip were measured. Apoplastic O2•− was determined using nitro blue tetrazolium, and H2O2 was determined using 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescin. Key Results In non-stressed plants, the distribution of accelerating growth and highest O2•− levels coincided along the root tip. Salt and osmotic stress of the same intensity had similar inhibitory effects on root elongation, but O2•− levels increased in sorbitol-treated roots and decreased in NaCl-treated roots. Conclusions The lack of association between apoplastic O2•− levels and root growth inhibition under hyper-osmotic stress leads us to hypothesize that under those conditions the role of apoplastic O2•− may be to participate in signalling processes, that convey information on the nature of the substrate that the growing root is exploring. PMID:18703541

  14. Quantitative Measurement of Phosphoproteome Response to Osmotic Stress in Arabidopsis Based on Library-Assisted eXtracted Ion Chromatogram (LAXIC)*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Liang; Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Lianshui; Renzi, Emily; Radivojac, Predrag; Tang, Haixu; Arnold, Randy; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Tao, W. Andy

    2013-01-01

    Global phosphorylation changes in plants in response to environmental stress have been relatively poorly characterized to date. Here we introduce a novel mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitation method that facilitates systematic profiling plant phosphoproteome changes with high efficiency and accuracy. This method employs synthetic peptide libraries tailored specifically as internal standards for complex phosphopeptide samples and accordingly, a local normalization algorithm, LAXIC, which calculates phosphopeptide abundance normalized locally with co-eluting library peptides. Normalization was achieved in a small time frame centered to each phosphopeptide to compensate for the diverse ion suppression effect across retention time. The label-free LAXIC method was further treated with a linear regression function to accurately measure phosphoproteome responses to osmotic stress in Arabidopsis. Among 2027 unique phosphopeptides identified and 1850 quantified phosphopeptides in Arabidopsis samples, 468 regulated phosphopeptides representing 497 phosphosites have shown significant changes. Several known and novel components in the abiotic stress pathway were identified, illustrating the capability of this method to identify critical signaling events among dynamic and complex phosphorylation. Further assessment of those regulated proteins may help shed light on phosphorylation response to osmotic stress in plants. PMID:23660473

  15. [Acute myocardial infarction complicated by acute pulmonary oedema and cardiogenic collapse during dobutamine stress echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Mbaye, Alassane; Kagambega, Larissa Justine; Dioum, Momar; Diagne-Sow, Dior; Kane, Moussa; Diack, Bouna; Kane, Abdoul

    2013-06-23

    Acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication of dobutamine stress echocardiography. We describe the case of a diabetic patient who presented with an anterior myocardial infarction complicated by an acute pulmonary oedema and cardiogenic collapse during dobutamine stress echocardiography, requiring five days' hospitalisation. Coronarography could not be performed because of inadequate medical facilities.

  16. Photosynthesis under osmotic stress : Effect of high solute concentrations on the permeability properties of the chloroplast envelope and on activity of stroma enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W M; Heber, U

    1981-12-01

    1. Increasing the sorbitol concentration in a suspension of intact chloroplasts induced a fast, transient and not very specific efflux of metabolites from chloroplasts to the medium. Stroma proteins were retained by the chloroplasts. 2. Within the first 30 s following hypertonic stress, the chloroplast volume decreased according to the Boyle-Mariotte relation. A subsequent and transient increase suggested some influx of external solute. 3. Dark reactions of intact chloroplasts such as starch degradation and formation of labelled 3-phosphoglycerate from dihydroxyacetone phosphate or ribose-5-phosphate and (14)CO2 were inhibited at low water potentials. After chloroplast rupture, the activity of stromal enzymes was decreased by high solute concentrations. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase exhibited a decrease of Vmax, while KmCO 2 remained unaltered. With sorbitol, sucrose, glycerol or glycinebetaine, 50% inhibition of enzymes was observed at osmotic potentials between 40 and 50 bar, with ethyleneglycol at about 70 bar. With salts such as KCl, 50% inhibition was found at 15 to 20 bar. 4. A comparison between inhibition of photosynthesis in intact chloroplasts and inhibition of enzymes in stroma extracts by solutes supports the notion that inhibition of photosynthesis at high osmotic potentials is mainly a solute effect. Another factor contributing to inhibition of photosynthesis in isolated chloroplasts is the loss of intermediates and cofactors which occurs during rapid osmotic dehydration.

  17. Characterization of the Proteostasis Roles of Glycerol Accumulation, Protein Degradation and Protein Synthesis during Osmotic Stress in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Choung-Hee Lee, Elaine; Deonarine, Andrew; Strange, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of C. elegans to hypertonic stress-induced water loss causes rapid and widespread cellular protein damage. Survival in hypertonic environments depends critically on the ability of worm cells to detect and degrade misfolded and aggregated proteins. Acclimation of C. elegans to mild hypertonic stress suppresses protein damage and increases survival under more extreme hypertonic conditions. Suppression of protein damage in acclimated worms could be due to 1) accumulation of the chemical chaperone glycerol, 2) upregulation of protein degradation activity, and/or 3) increases in molecular chaperoning capacity of the cell. Glycerol and other chemical chaperones are widely thought to protect proteins from hypertonicity-induced damage. However, protein damage is unaffected by gene mutations that inhibit glycerol accumulation or that cause dramatic constitutive elevation of glycerol levels. Pharmacological or RNAi inhibition of proteasome and lyosome function and measurements of cellular protein degradation activity demonstrated that upregulation of protein degradation mechanisms plays no role in acclimation. Thus, changes in molecular chaperone capacity must be responsible for suppressing protein damage in acclimated worms. Transcriptional changes in chaperone expression have not been detected in C. elegans exposed to hypertonic stress. However, acclimation to mild hypertonicity inhibits protein synthesis 50–70%, which is expected to increase chaperone availability for coping with damage to existing proteins. Consistent with this idea, we found that RNAi silencing of essential translational components or acute exposure to cycloheximide results in a 50–80% suppression of hypertonicity-induced aggregation of polyglutamine-YFP (Q35::YFP). Dietary changes that increase protein production also increase Q35::YFP aggregation 70–180%. Our results demonstrate directly for the first time that inhibition of protein translation protects extant proteins from damage

  18. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    clones (P. trichocurpa Torr. & Gray x P: deltoides Bartr., TD and P. deltoides x P. nigra L., DN), we determined the TD clone, which was more productive during the first three years, had slightly lower osmotic potential than the DN clone, and also indicated a small osmotic adjustment compared with the DN hybrid. However, the productivity differences were negligible by the fifth growing season. In a separate study with several P. deltoides clones, we did not observe a consistent relationship between growth and osmotic adjustment. Some clones that had low osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment were as productive as another clone that had high osmotic potential. The least productive clone also had low osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment. The absence of a correlation may have been partly due to the fact that all clones were capable of osmotic adjustment and had low osmotic potential. In a study involving an inbred three-generation TD F{sub 2} pedigree (family 331), we did not observe a correlation between relative growth rate and osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. However, when clones that exhibited osmotic adjustment were analyzed, there was a negative correlation between growth and osmotic potential, indicating clones with lower osmotic potential were more productive. This was observed only in clones that were exposed to drought. Although the absolute osmotic potential varied by growing environment, the relative ranking among progenies remains generally the same, suggesting that osmotic potential is genetically controlled. We have identified a quantitative trait locus for osmotic potential in another three-generation TD F{sub 2} pedigree (family 822). Unlike the many studies in agricultural crops, most of the forest tree studies were not based on plants exposed to severe stress to determine the role of osmotic adjustment. Future studies should consider using clones that are known to be productive but have contrasting osmotic adjustment capability as well as

  19. GsCML27, a Gene Encoding a Calcium-Binding Ef-Hand Protein from Glycine soja, Plays Differential Roles in Plant Responses to Bicarbonate, Salt and Osmotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Dan; Yu, Yang; Cao, Lei; Liu, Ailin; Jia, Bowei; Xiao, Jialei; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, as the most widely accepted messenger, plays an important role in plant stress responses through calcium-dependent signaling pathways. The calmodulin-like family genes (CMLs) encode Ca2+ sensors and function in signaling transduction in response to environmental stimuli. However, until now, the function of plant CML proteins, especially soybean CMLs, is largely unknown. Here, we isolated a Glycine soja CML protein GsCML27, with four conserved EF-hands domains, and identified it as a calcium-binding protein through far-UV CD spectroscopy. We further found that expression of GsCML27 was induced by bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GsCML27 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to bicarbonate stress, but decreased the salt and osmotic tolerance during the seed germination and early growth stages. Furthermore, we found that ectopic expression of GsCML27 decreases salt tolerance through modifying both the cellular ionic (Na+, K+) content and the osmotic stress regulation. GsCML27 ectopic expression also decreased the expression levels of osmotic stress-responsive genes. Moreover, we also showed that GsCML27 localized in the whole cell, including cytoplasm, plasma membrane and nucleus in Arabidopsis protoplasts and onion epidermal cells, and displayed high expression in roots and embryos. Together, these data present evidence that GsCML27 as a Ca2+-binding EF-hand protein plays a role in plant responses to bicarbonate, salt and osmotic stresses. PMID:26550992

  20. Peritraumatic versus persistent dissociation in acute stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Panasetis, Paula; Bryant, Richard A

    2003-12-01

    The DSM-IV definition of acute stress disorder (ASD) regards dissociation that occurs during a trauma (peritraumatic dissociation) comparably to persistent dissociation. This study investigated the relative contributions of peritraumatic dissociation and persistent dissociation to acute posttraumatic stress reactions. Civilian trauma (N = 53) survivors with either acute stress disorder (ASD), subclinical ASD, or no ASD were administered modified versions of the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire that indexed both dissociation during the trauma and dissociation at the time of assessment. Persistent dissociation was more strongly associated with ASD severity and intrusive symptoms than peritraumatic dissociation. These results are consistent with the proposition that persistent, rather than peritraumatic, dissociation is associated with posttraumatic psychopathology.

  1. Benthic Cyanobacterial Mats in the High Arctic: Multi-Layer Structure and Fluorescence Responses to Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lionard, Marie; Péquin, Bérangère; Lovejoy, Connie; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats are often a major biological component of extreme aquatic ecosystems, and in polar lakes and streams they may account for the dominant fraction of total ecosystem biomass and productivity. In this study we examined the vertical structure and physiology of Arctic microbial mats relative to the question of how these communities may respond to ongoing environmental change. The mats were sampled from Ward Hunt Lake (83°5.297′N, 74°9.985′W) at the northern coast of Arctic Canada, and were composed of three visibly distinct layers. Microsensor profiling showed that there were strong gradients in oxygen within each layer, with an overall decrease from 100% saturation at the mat surface to 0%, at the bottom, accompanied by an increase of 0.6 pH units down the profile. Gene clone libraries (16S rRNA) revealed the presence of Oscillatorian sequences throughout the mat, while Nostoc related species dominated the two upper layers, and Nostocales and Synechococcales sequences were common in the bottom layer. High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed a parallel gradient in pigments, from high concentrations of UV-screening scytonemin in the upper layer to increasing zeaxanthin and myxoxanthin in the bottom layer, and an overall shift from photoprotective to photosynthetic carotenoids down the profile. Climate change is likely to be accompanied by lake level fluctuations and evaporative concentration of salts, and thus increased osmotic stress of the littoral mat communities. To assess the cellular capacity to tolerate increasing osmolarity on physiology and cell membrane integrity, mat sections were exposed to a gradient of increasing salinities, and PAM measurements of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence were made to assess changes in maximum quantum yield. The results showed that the mats were tolerant of up to a 46-fold increase in salinity. These features imply that cyanobacterial mats are resilient to ongoing climate change, and that in

  2. Thioredoxin-regulated beta-amylase (BAM1) triggers diurnal starch degradation in guard cells, and in mesophyll cells under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Concetta; Costa, Alex; Marri, Lucia; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Pupillo, Paolo; Trost, Paolo; Sparla, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    BAM1 is a plastid-targeted β-amylase of Arabidopsis thaliana specifically activated by reducing conditions. Among eight different chloroplast thioredoxin isoforms, thioredoxin f1 was the most efficient redox mediator, followed by thioredoxins m1, m2, y1, y2, and m4. Plastid-localized NADPH-thioredoxin reductase (NTRC) was also able partially to restore the activity of oxidized BAM1. Promoter activity of BAM1 was studied by reporter gene expression (GUS and YFP) in Arabidopsis transgenic plants. In young (non-flowering) plants, BAM1 was expressed both in leaves and roots, but expression in leaves was mainly restricted to guard cells. Compared with wild-type plants, bam1 knockout mutants were characterized by having more starch in illuminated guard cells and reduced stomata opening, suggesting that thioredoxin-regulated BAM1 plays a role in diurnal starch degradation which sustains stomata opening. Besides guard cells, BAM1 appears in mesophyll cells of young plants as a result of a strongly induced gene expression under osmotic stress, which is paralleled by an increase in total β-amylase activity together with its redox-sensitive fraction. Osmotic stress impairs the rate of diurnal starch accumulation in leaves of wild-type plants, but has no effect on starch accumulation in bam1 mutants. It is proposed that thioredoxin-regulated BAM1 activates a starch degradation pathway in illuminated mesophyll cells upon osmotic stress, similar to the diurnal pathway of starch degradation in guard cells that is also dependent on thioredoxin-regulated BAM1.

  3. Validation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in strawberry fruits using different cultivars and osmotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Galli, Vanessa; Borowski, Joyce Moura; Perin, Ellen Cristina; Messias, Rafael da Silva; Labonde, Julia; Pereira, Ivan dos Santos; Silva, Sérgio Delmar Dos Anjos; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

    2015-01-10

    The increasing demand of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch) fruits is associated mainly with their sensorial characteristics and the content of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the strawberry production has been hampered due to its sensitivity to abiotic stresses. Therefore, to understand the molecular mechanisms highlighting stress response is of great importance to enable genetic engineering approaches aiming to improve strawberry tolerance. However, the study of expression of genes in strawberry requires the use of suitable reference genes. In the present study, seven traditional and novel candidate reference genes were evaluated for transcript normalization in fruits of ten strawberry cultivars and two abiotic stresses, using RefFinder, which integrates the four major currently available software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta-Ct method. The results indicate that the expression stability is dependent on the experimental conditions. The candidate reference gene DBP (DNA binding protein) was considered the most suitable to normalize expression data in samples of strawberry cultivars and under drought stress condition, and the candidate reference gene HISTH4 (histone H4) was the most stable under osmotic stresses and salt stress. The traditional genes GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and 18S (18S ribosomal RNA) were considered the most unstable genes in all conditions. The expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) genes were used to further confirm the validated candidate reference genes, showing that the use of an inappropriate reference gene may induce erroneous results. This study is the first survey on the stability of reference genes in strawberry cultivars and osmotic stresses and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results for future breeding efforts.

  4. Changes in root hydraulic conductivity facilitate the overall hydraulic response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to salt and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Meng, Delong; Fricke, Wieland

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the significance of changes in root AQP gene expression and hydraulic conductivity (Lp) in the regulation of water balance in two hydroponically-grown rice cultivars (Azucena, Bala) which differ in root morphology, stomatal regulation and aquaporin (AQP) isoform expression. Plants were exposed to NaCl (25 mM, 50 mM) and osmotic stress (5%, 10% PEG6000). Root Lp was determined for exuding root systems (osmotic forces driving water uptake; 'exudation Lp') and transpiring plants (hydrostatic forces dominating; 'transpiration-Lp'). Gene expression was analysed by qPCR. Stress treatments caused a consistent and significant decrease in plant growth, transpirational water loss, stomatal conductance, shoot-to-root surface area ratio and root Lp. Comparison of exudation-with transpiration-Lp supported a significant contribution of AQP-facilitated water flow to root water uptake. Changes in root Lp in response to treatments were correlated much stronger with root morphological characteristics, such as the number of main and lateral roots, surface area ratio of root to shoot and plant transpiration rate than with AQP gene expression. Changes in root Lp, involving AQP function, form an integral part of the plant hydraulic response to stress and facilitate changes in the root-to-shoot surface area ratio, transpiration and stomatal conductance.

  5. Escherichia coli multiple [Ni-Fe]-hydrogenases are sensitive to osmotic stress during glycerol fermentation but at different pHs.

    PubMed

    Trchounian, Karen; Trchounian, Armen

    2013-11-01

    Escherichia coli evolves H2 via multiple [Ni-Fe]-hydrogenases (Hyd). This activity under hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress was investigated with mutants lacking different Hyd enzymes during glycerol fermentation. Inhibitory effects of hypo-stress on H2 production was stronger at pH 6.5 in wild type and mutants except fhlA, which encodes a transcriptional activator for Hyd-3, compared with the effects of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. These results indicate that Hyd-3 and Hyd-4 are osmosensitive at pH 7.5. Hyd-4 and FhlA are implicated in osmotic stress response at pH 6.5. Hyd-1 and FhlA might be osmosensitive at pH 5.5. Thus, osmosensitivity of Hyd enzymes is a novel property that depends on pH. This is significant for mechanisms of cell osmoregulation and H2 production biotechnology when glycerol is used as a fermentation substrate.

  6. HbCIPK2, a novel CBL-interacting protein kinase from halophyte Hordeum brevisubulatum, confers salt and osmotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruifen; Zhang, Junwen; Wu, Guangyu; Wang, Hongzhi; Chen, Yajuan; Wei, Jianhua

    2012-09-01

    Protein kinases play an important role in regulating the response to abiotic stress in plant. CIPKs are plant-specific signal transducers, and some members have been identified. However, the precise functions of novel CIPKs still remain unknown. Here we report that HbCIPK2 is a positive regulator of salt and osmotic stress tolerance. HbCIPK2 was screened out of the differentially expressed fragments from halophyte Hordeum brevisubulatum by cDNA-AFLP technique, and was a single-copy gene without intron. Expression of HbCIPK2 was increased by salt, drought and ABA treatment. HbCIPK2 is mainly localized to the plasma membrane and nucleus. Ectopic expression of 35S:HbCIPK2 not only rescued the salt hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis mutant sos2-1, but also enhanced salt tolerance in Arabidopsis wild type, and exhibited tolerance to osmotic stress during germination. The HbCIPK2 contributed to the ability to prevent K(+) loss in root and to accumulate less Na(+) in shoot resulting in K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis and protection of root cell from death, which is consistent with the gene expression profile of HbCIPK2-overexpressing lines. These findings imply possible novel HbCIPK2-mediated salt signalling pathways or networks in H. brevisubulatum.

  7. The tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) subfamily of Eucalyptus grandis: Characterization of EgTIP2, a root-specific and osmotic stress-responsive gene.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcela I; Bravo, Juliana P; Sassaki, Flávio T; Severino, Fábio E; Maia, Ivan G

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporins have important roles in various physiological processes in plants, including growth, development and adaptation to stress. In this study, a gene encoding a root-specific tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) from Eucalyptus grandis (named EgTIP2) was investigated. The root-specific expression of EgTIP2 was validated over a panel of five eucalyptus organ/tissues. In eucalyptus roots, EgTIP2 expression was significantly induced by osmotic stress imposed by PEG treatment. Histochemical analysis of transgenic tobacco lines (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) harboring an EgTIP2 promoter:GUS reporter cassette revealed major GUS staining in the vasculature and in root tips. Consistent with its osmotic-stress inducible expression in eucalyptus, EgTIP2 promoter activity was up-regulated by mannitol treatment, but was down-regulated by abscisic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that EgTIP2 might be involved in eucalyptus response to drought. Additional searches in the eucalyptus genome revealed the presence of four additional putative TIP coding genes, which could be individually assigned to the classical TIP1-5 groups.

  8. Contribution of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases PdeA and PdeB to adaptation of Myxococcus xanthus cells to osmotic or high-temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshio; Nakatuma, Hiromi; Sato, Naoko; Ohtani, Mika

    2006-01-01

    A tBLASTn search of the Myxococcus xanthus genome database at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) identified three genes (pdeA, pdeB, and pdeC) that encode proteins homologous to 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. pdeA, pdeB, and pdeC mutants, constructed by replacing a part of the gene with the kanamycin or tetracycline resistance gene, showed normal growth, development, and germination under nonstress conditions. However, the spores of mutants, especially the pdeA and pdeB mutants, placed under osmotic stress germinated earlier than the wild-type spores. The phenotype was the opposite of that of the receptor-type adenylyl cyclase (cyaA or cyaB) mutant. Also, pdeA and pdeB mutants were found to have impaired growth under the condition of high-temperature stress. Intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels of pdeA or pdeB mutant cells under these stressful conditions were about 1.3-fold to 2.0-fold higher than those of wild-type cells. These results suggest that PdeA and PdeB may be involved in osmotic adaptation during spore germination and temperature adaptation during vegetative growth through the regulation of cAMP levels.

  9. Unique regulation of glyoxalase I activity during osmotic stress response in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe: neither the mRNA nor the protein level of glyoxalase I increase under conditions that enhance its activity.

    PubMed

    Takatsume, Yoshifumi; Izawa, Shingo; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2005-03-01

    Glyoxalase I is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylglyoxal, a toxic 2-oxoaldehyde derived from glycolysis, to S-D-lactoylglutathione. The activity of glyoxalase I in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe was increased by osmotic stress induced by sorbitol. However, neither the mRNA levels of its structural gene nor its protein levels increased under the same conditions. Cycloheximide blocked the induction of glyoxalase I activity in cells exposed to osmotic stress. In addition, glyoxalase I activity was increased in stress-activated protein kinase-deficient mutants (wis1 and spc1). We present evidence for the post-translational regulation of glyoxalase I by osmotic stress in the fission yeast.

  10. The NAC domain-containing protein, GmNAC6, is a downstream component of the ER stress- and osmotic stress-induced NRP-mediated cell-death signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major signaling organelle, which integrates a variety of responses against physiological stresses. In plants, one such stress-integrating response is the N-rich protein (NRP)-mediated cell death signaling pathway, which is synergistically activated by combined ER stress and osmotic stress signals. Despite the potential of this integrated signaling to protect plant cells against different stress conditions, mechanistic knowledge of the pathway is lacking, and downstream components have yet to be identified. Results In the present investigation, we discovered an NAC domain-containing protein from soybean, GmNAC6 (Glycine max NAC6), to be a downstream component of the integrated pathway. Similar to NRP-A and NRP-B, GmNAC6 is induced by ER stress and osmotic stress individually, but requires both signals for full activation. Transient expression of GmNAC6 promoted cell death and hypersensitive-like responses in planta. GmNAC6 and NRPs also share overlapping responses to biotic signals, but the induction of NRPs peaked before the increased accumulation of GmNAC6 transcripts. Consistent with the delayed kinetics of GmNAC6 induction, increased levels of NRP-A and NRP-B transcripts induced promoter activation and the expression of the GmNAC6 gene. Conclusions Collectively, our results biochemically link GmNAC6 to the ER stress- and osmotic stress-integrating cell death response and show that GmNAC6 may act downstream of the NRPs. PMID:21943253

  11. Thiamine increases the resistance of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae against oxidative, osmotic and thermal stress, through mechanisms partly independent of thiamine diphosphate-bound enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Natalia; Kowalska, Ewa; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Numerous recent studies have established a hypothesis that thiamine (vitamin B1 ) is involved in the responses of different organisms against stress, also suggesting that underlying mechanisms are not limited to the universal role of thiamine diphosphate (TDP) in the central cellular metabolism. The current work aimed at characterising the effect of exogenously added thiamine on the response of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the oxidative (1 mM H2 O2 ), osmotic (1 M sorbitol) and thermal (42 °C) stress. As compared to the yeast culture in thiamine-free medium, in the presence of 1.4 μM external thiamine, (1) the relative mRNA levels of major TDP-dependent enzymes under stress conditions vs. unstressed control (the 'stress/control ratio') were moderately lower, (2) the stress/control ratio was strongly decreased for the transcript levels of several stress markers localised to the cytoplasm, peroxisomes, the cell wall and (with the strongest effect observed) the mitochondria (e.g. Mn-superoxide dismutase), (3) the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species under stress conditions was markedly decreased, with the significant alleviation of concomitant protein oxidation. The results obtained suggest the involvement of thiamine in the maintenance of redox balance in yeast cells under oxidative stress conditions, partly independent of the functions of TDP-dependent enzymes.

  12. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  13. Osmotic fragility test

    MedlinePlus

    Spherocytosis - osmotic fragility; Thalassemia - osmotic fragility ... done to detect conditions called hereditary spherocytosis and thalassemia . Hereditary spherocytosis makes red blood cells more fragile ...

  14. Effect of acid stress on sodium transport by isolated skins and on osmotic permeability of intact frogs

    SciTech Connect

    Fromm, P.O.

    1981-08-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to determine the effects of increased external hydrogen ion concentrations on the ion transport capability of isolated frog skins measured as short-circuit current and to determine the nature of the interaction of hydrogen ions to sodium transport. Results from a study of the effects of acid exposure on the osmotic permeability of intact frogs are also reported.

  15. Acute and post-traumatic stress disorder after spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Bowles, S V; James, L C; Solursh, D S; Yancey, M K; Epperly, T D; Folen, R A; Masone, M

    2000-03-15

    When a spontaneous abortion is followed by complicated bereavement, the primary care physician may not consider the diagnosis of acute stress disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. The major difference between these two conditions is that, in acute stress disorder, symptoms such as dissociation, reliving the trauma, avoiding stimuli associated with the trauma and increased arousal are present for at least two days but not longer than four weeks. When the symptoms persist beyond four weeks, the patient may have post-traumatic stress disorder. The symptoms of distress response after spontaneous abortion include psychologic, physical, cognitive and behavioral effects; however, patients with distress response after spontaneous abortion often do not meet the criteria for acute or post-traumatic stress disorder. After spontaneous abortion, as many as 10 percent of women may have acute stress disorder and up to 1 percent may have post-traumatic stress disorder. Critical incident stress debriefing, which may be administered by trained family physicians or mental health practitioners, may help patients who are having a stress disorder after a spontaneous abortion.

  16. Isolation and Functional Validation of Salinity and Osmotic Stress Inducible Promoter from the Maize Type-II H+-Pyrophosphatase Gene by Deletion Analysis in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; He, Qiuxia; Xu, Changzheng; Ding, Zhaohua; Zhang, Kewei; Li, Kunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Salinity and drought severely affect both plant growth and productivity, making the isolation and characterization of salinity- or drought-inducible promoters suitable for genetic improvement of crop resistance highly desirable. In this study, a 1468-bp sequence upstream of the translation initiation codon ATG of the promoter for ZmGAPP (maize Type-II H+-pyrophosphatase gene) was cloned. Nine 5´ deletion fragments (D1–D9) of different lengths of the ZmGAPP promoter were fused with the GUS reporter and translocated into tobacco. The deletion analysis showed that fragments D1–D8 responded well to NaCl and PEG stresses, whereas fragment D9 and CaMV 35S did not. The D8 segment (219 bp; -219 to -1 bp) exhibited the highest promoter activity of all tissues, with the exception of petals among the D1–D9 transgenic tobacco, which corresponds to about 10% and 25% of CaMV 35S under normal and NaCl or PEG stress conditions, respectively. As such, the D8 segment may confer strong gene expression in a salinity and osmotic stress inducible manner. A 71-bp segment (-219 to -148 bp) was considered as the key region regulating ZmGAPP response to NaCl or PEG stress, as transient transformation assays demonstrated that the 71-bp sequence was sufficient for the salinity or osmotic stress response. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating ZmGAPP expression, and that the D8 promoter would be an ideal candidate for moderating expression of drought and salinity response genes in transgenic plants. PMID:27101137

  17. Expression of a putative alfalfa helicase increases tolerance to abiotic stress in Arabidopsis by enhancing the capacities for ROS scavenging and osmotic adjustment.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Liu, Yu Bo; Dong, Yu Xiu; Gao, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2009-03-01

    Plant helicases are known to be involved in salinity and low-temperature tolerance. However, a functional involvement of helicases in the antioxidative response of plants has not been described. We have isolated a DEAD-box-containing cDNA sequence from Medicago sativa (alfalfa) that is a homolog of the pea DNA helicase 45 (PDH45) and named it M. sativa helicase 1 (MH1). Transient transfection of 35S::MH1-GFP to onion epidermis revealed that MH1 was localized in the nucleus. Expression of MH1 was detected in roots, stems and leaves of alfalfa. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis revealed that mannitol, NaCl, methyl viologen and abscisic acid induced the expression of MH1. The ectopic expression of MH1 in Arabidopsis improved seed germination and plant growth under drought, salt and oxidative stress. The capacity for osmotic adjustment, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and proline content were also elevated in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Our results suggest that MH1 responds to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and functions in drought and salt stress tolerance by enhancing the capacities for ROS scavenging and osmotic adjustment.

  18. Parallel effects of freezing and osmotic stress on the ATPase activity and protein composition of the plasma membrane of winter rye seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Uemura, Matsuo; Steponkus, P.L. )

    1989-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of freezing versus hypertonic stress on the ATPase activity and polypeptide profile of the plasma membrane of nonacclimated winter rye leaves (Secale cereale L. cv Puma). Exposure of leaves to hypertonic sorbitol solutions resulted in a similar extent of injury as did freezing to subzero temperatures that resulted in equivalent osmotic stresses. When isolated with a two-phase partition system of aqueous polymers, the plasma membrane fractions of control, frozen, or hypertonically stressed leaves were of similar purity as judged by the distribution of marker enzyme activities. When assayed in the presence of Triton X-100 (0.05% w/w), ATPase activity was decreased only slightly in plasma membrane fractions isolated from either frozen or hypertonically stressed leaves. In contrast, the specific ATPase activity of the plasma membrane fractions assayed in the absence of Triton X-100 increased following freezing or hypertonic stress. As a result, the Triton X-100 stimulation of the ATPase activity decreased significantly from sixfold in control leaves to threefold in lethally stressed leaves and reflects an increase in the permeability of the plasma membrane vesicles. The increased permeability was also manifested as a decrease in H{sup +}-transport following exposure to freezing or hypertonic stress. Both freezing and hypertonic exposure at subzero temperatures altered the polypeptide profile of the plasma membrane, but with the exception of one polypeptide, there was no difference between the two treatments.

  19. A bHLH gene from Tamarix hispida improves abiotic stress tolerance by enhancing osmotic potential and decreasing reactive oxygen species accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Nie, Xianguang; Liu, Yujia; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Bing; Huo, Lin; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-02-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) leucine-zipper transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress responses. However, their specific roles in abiotic stress tolerance are not fully known. Here, we functionally characterized a bHLH gene, ThbHLH1, from Tamarix hispida in abiotic stress tolerance. ThbHLH1 specifically binds to G-box motif with the sequence of 'CACGTG'. Transiently transfected T. hispida plantlets with transiently overexpressed ThbHLH1 and RNAi-silenced ThbHLH1 were generated for gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing ThbHLH1 were generated to confirm the gain- and loss-of-function analysis. Overexpression of ThbHLH1 significantly elevates glycine betaine and proline levels, increases Ca(2+) concentration and enhances peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Additionally, ThbHLH1 regulates the expression of the genes including P5CS, BADH, CaM, POD and SOD, to activate the above physiological changes, and also induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes LEAs and HSPs. These data suggest that ThbHLH1 induces the expression of stress tolerance-related genes to improve abiotic stress tolerance by increasing osmotic potential, improving ROS scavenging capability and enhancing second messenger in stress signaling cascades.

  20. Acute stress does not affect risky monetary decision-making.

    PubMed

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Raio, Candace M; Gottesman, Sarah P; Lackovic, Sandra F; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-12-01

    The ubiquitous and intense nature of stress responses necessitate that we understand how they affect decision-making. Despite a number of studies examining risky decision-making under stress, it is as yet unclear whether and in what way stress alters the underlying processes that shape our choices. This is in part because previous studies have not separated and quantified dissociable valuation and decision-making processes that can affect choices of risky options, including risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency, among others. Here, in a large, fully-crossed two-day within-subjects design, we examined how acute stress alters risky decision-making. On each day, 120 participants completed either the cold pressor test or a control manipulation with equal probability, followed by a risky decision-making task. Stress responses were assessed with salivary cortisol. We fit an econometric model to choices that dissociated risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency using hierarchical Bayesian techniques to both pool data and allow heterogeneity in decision-making. Acute stress was found to have no effect on risk attitudes, loss aversion, or choice consistency, though participants did become more loss averse and more consistent on the second day relative to the first. In the context of an inconsistent previous literature on risk and acute stress, our findings provide strong and specific evidence that acute stress does not affect risk attitudes, loss aversion, or consistency in risky monetary decision-making.

  1. A vacuolar β-glucosidase homolog that possesses glucose-conjugated abscisic acid hydrolyzing activity plays an important role in osmotic stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng-Yi; Lee, Kwang Hee; Dong, Ting; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Jin, Jing Bo; Kanno, Yuri; Kim, Dae Heon; Kim, Soo Youn; Seo, Mitsunori; Bressan, Ray A; Yun, Dae-Jin; Hwang, Inhwan

    2012-05-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role in various physiological processes, including adaptation to abiotic stresses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ABA levels are increased both through de novo biosynthesis and via β-glucosidase homolog1 (BG1)-mediated hydrolysis of Glc-conjugated ABA (ABA-GE). However, it is not known how many different β-glucosidase proteins produce ABA from ABA-GE and how the multiple ABA production pathways are coordinated to increase ABA levels. Here, we report that a previously undiscovered β-glucosidase homolog, BG2, produced ABA by hydrolyzing ABA-GE and plays a role in osmotic stress response. BG2 localized to the vacuole as a high molecular weight complex and accumulated to high levels under dehydration stress. BG2 hydrolyzed ABA-GE to ABA in vitro. In addition, BG2 increased ABA levels in protoplasts upon application of exogenous ABA-GE. Overexpression of BG2 rescued the bg1 mutant phenotype, as observed for the overexpression of NCED3 in bg1 mutants. Multiple Arabidopsis bg2 alleles with a T-DNA insertion in BG2 were more sensitive to dehydration and NaCl stress, whereas BG2 overexpression resulted in enhanced resistance to dehydration and NaCl stress. Based on these observations, we propose that, in addition to the de novo biosynthesis, ABA is produced in multiple organelles by organelle-specific β-glucosidases in response to abiotic stresses.

  2. A review of acute stress disorder in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Friedman, Matthew J; Spiegel, David; Ursano, Robert; Strain, James

    2011-09-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was introduced into DSM-IV to describe acute stress reactions (ASRs) that occur in the initial month after exposure to a traumatic event and before the possibility of diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and to identify trauma survivors in the acute phase who are high risk for PTSD. This review considers ASD in relation to other diagnostic approaches to acute stress responses, critiques the evidence of the predictive power of ASD, and discusses ASD in relation to Adjustment Disorder. The evidence suggests that ASD does not adequately identify most people who develop PTSD. This review presents a number of options and preliminary considerations to be considered for DSM-5. It is proposed that ASD be limited to describing severe ASRs (that are not necessarily precursors of PTSD). The evidence suggests that the current emphasis on dissociation may be overly restrictive and does not recognize the heterogeneity of early posttraumatic stress responses. It is proposed that ASD may be better conceptualized as the severity of acute stress responses that does not require specific clusters to be present.

  3. Biogenic amines and acute thermal stress in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Moberg, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study is summarized which demonstrates that depletion of the biogenic amines 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) alters the normal thermoregulatory responses to acute temperature stress. Specifically, NE depletion caused a significant depression in equilibrium rectal temperature at 22 C and a greater depression in rectal temperature than controls in response to cold (6 C) stress; NE depletion also resulted in a significantly higher rectal temperature response to acute heat (38 C) stress. Depletion of 5-HT had less severe effects. It remains unclear whether the primary site of action of these agents is central or peripheral.

  4. Hypo-osmotic stress-induced physiological and ion-osmoregulatory responses in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) are modulated differentially by nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the impact of nutritional status on the physiological, metabolic and ion-osmoregulatory performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) when acclimated to seawater (32 ppt), brackish water (20 and 10 ppt) and hyposaline water (2.5 ppt) for 2 weeks. Following acclimation to different salinities, fish were either fed or fasted (unfed for 14 days). Plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and muscle water content were severely altered in fasted fish acclimated to 10 and 2.5 ppt in comparison to normal seawater-acclimated fish, suggesting ion regulation and acid-base balance disturbances. In contrast to feed-deprived fish, fed fish were able to avoid osmotic perturbation more effectively. This was accompanied by an increase in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression and activity, transitory activation of H(+)-ATPase (only at 2.5 ppt) and down-regulation of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) gene expression. Ammonia excretion rate was inhibited to a larger extent in fasted fish acclimated to low salinities while fed fish were able to excrete efficiently. Consequently, the build-up of ammonia in the plasma of fed fish was relatively lower. Energy stores, especially glycogen and lipid, dropped in the fasted fish at low salinities and progression towards the anaerobic metabolic pathway became evident by an increase in plasma lactate level. Overall, the results indicate no osmotic stress in both feeding treatments within the salinity range of 32 to 20 ppt. However, at lower salinities (10-2.5 ppt) feed deprivation tends to reduce physiological, metabolic, ion-osmo-regulatory and molecular compensatory mechanisms and thus limits the fish's abilities to adapt to a hypo-osmotic environment.

  5. Alteration of the Physical and Chemical Structure of the Primary Cell Wall of Growth-Limited Plant Cells Adapted to Osmotic Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Iraki, Naim M.; Bressan, Ray A.; Hasegawa, P. M.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    1989-01-01

    Cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) adapted to grow in severe osmotic stress of 428 millimolar NaCl (−23 bar) or 30% polyethylene glycol 8000 (−28 bar) exhibit a drastically altered growth physiology that results in slower cell expansion and fully expanded cells with volumes only one-fifth to one-eighth those of unadapted cells. This reduced cell volume occurs despite maintenance of turgor pressures sometimes severalfold higher than those of unadapted cells. This report and others (NM Iraki et al [1989] Plant Physiol 90: 000-000 and 000-000) document physical and biochemical alterations of the cell walls which might explain how adapted cells decrease the ability of the wall to expand despite diversion of carbon used for osmotic adjustment away from synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Tensile strength measured by a gas decompression technique showed empirically that walls of NaCl-adapted cells are much weaker than those of unadapted cells. Correlated with this weakening was a substantial decrease in the proportion of crystalline cellulose in the primary cell wall. Even though the amount of insoluble protein associated with the wall was increased relative to other wall components, the amount of hydroxyproline in the insoluble protein of the wall was only about 10% that of unadapted cells. These results indicate that a cellulosic-extensin framework is a primary determinant of absolute wall tensile strength, but complete formation of this framework apparently is sacrificed to divert carbon to substances needed for osmotic adjustment. We propose that the absolute mass of this framework is not a principal determinant of the ability of the cell wall to extend. PMID:16667031

  6. Different effects of tianeptine pretreatment in rats exposed to acute stress and repeated severe stress.

    PubMed

    Kasar, M; Mengi, M; Yildirim, E A; Yurdakos, E

    2009-04-01

    In this study we aim to discuss the relationship between stress and learning and emotionality in an experimental model using two different stress conditions: acute stress (single restraint stress for 20 min) and repeated severe stress (6-h daily restraint for 21 days). We studied the effects of tianeptine, which has been suggested to have anxiolytic and cognition-enhancing effects under stressful conditions. After acute stress, the increase in the duration of immobility (F = 5.753 and 3.664) in the open field and holeboard tests and the decrease in rearing (F = 3.891) in the holeboard test were significant when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Results for repeated severe stress showed that in both the open field and holeboard tests the decrease in rearing (F = 4.494 and 4.530, respectively), increase in the duration of immobility (F = 6.069 and 4.742, respectively) and decrease in head dips (F = 4.938) in the holeboard test were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The group pretreated with tianeptine showed no significant difference from controls for either acute or repeated severe stress conditions. In the Morris water maze test, acute stress led to a prolongation of average escape latency, which indicated a spatial learning deficit. Treatment with tianeptine prior to acute stress prevented this spatial deficit. Repeated severe stress also led to spatial learning deficits in rats, but this deficit was not prevented by treatment with tianeptine. Our study demonstrates that pretreatment with tianeptine had different effects on stress-induced spatial learning deficits under acute and repeated stress conditions, while the effects on emotionality and anxiety-like behavior were similar. The mechanisms implicated in stress-induced emotional and memory deficits will be discussed.

  7. cAMP-dependent protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediate stathmin phosphorylation for the maintenance of interphase microtubules during osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Yip, Yan Y; Yeap, Yvonne Y C; Bogoyevitch, Marie A; Ng, Dominic C H

    2014-01-24

    Dynamic microtubule changes after a cell stress challenge are required for cell survival and adaptation. Stathmin (STMN), a cytoplasmic microtubule-destabilizing phosphoprotein, regulates interphase microtubules during cell stress, but the signaling mechanisms involved are poorly defined. In this study ectopic expression of single alanine-substituted phospho-resistant mutants demonstrated that STMN Ser-38 and Ser-63 phosphorylation were specifically required to maintain interphase microtubules during hyperosmotic stress. STMN was phosphorylated on Ser-38 and Ser-63 in response to hyperosmolarity, heat shock, and arsenite treatment but rapidly dephosphorylated after oxidative stress treatment. Two-dimensional PAGE and Phos-tag gel analysis of stress-stimulated STMN phospho-isoforms revealed rapid STMN Ser-38 phosphorylation followed by subsequent Ser-25 and Ser-63 phosphorylation. Previously, we delineated stress-stimulated JNK targeting of STMN. Here, we identified cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling as responsible for stress-induced STMN Ser-63 phosphorylation. Increased cAMP levels induced by cholera toxin triggered potent STMN Ser-63 phosphorylation. Osmotic stress stimulated an increase in PKA activity and elevated STMN Ser-63 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) Ser-133 phosphorylation that was substantially attenuated by pretreatment with H-89, a PKA inhibitor. Interestingly, PKA activity and subsequent phosphorylation of STMN were augmented in the absence of JNK activation, indicating JNK and PKA pathway cross-talk during stress regulation of STMN. Taken together our study indicates that JNK- and PKA-mediated STMN Ser-38 and Ser-63 phosphorylation are required to preserve interphase microtubules in response to hyperosmotic stress.

  8. Role of the Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor RpoE4 in Oxidative and Osmotic Stress Responses in Rhizobium etli▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Salazar, Jaime M.; Salazar, Emmanuel; Encarnación, Sergio; Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A.; Rivera, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to functionally characterize and analyze the transcriptional regulation and transcriptome of the Rhizobium etli rpoE4 gene. An R. etli rpoE4 mutant was sensitive to oxidative, saline, and osmotic stresses. Using transcriptional fusions, we determined that RpoE4 controls its own transcription and that it is negatively regulated by rseF (regulator of sigma rpoE4; CH03274), which is cotranscribed with rpoE4. rpoE4 expression was induced not only after oxidative, saline, and osmotic shocks, but also under microaerobic and stationary-phase growth conditions. The transcriptome analyses of an rpoE4 mutant and an rpoE4-overexpressing strain revealed that the RpoE4 extracytoplasmic function sigma factor regulates about 98 genes; 50 of them have the rpoE4 promoter motifs in the upstream regulatory regions. Interestingly, 16 of 38 genes upregulated in the rpoE4-overexpressing strain encode unknown putative cell envelope proteins. Other genes controlled by RpoE4 include rpoH2, CH00462, CH02434, CH03474, and xthA1, which encode proteins involved in the stress response (a heat shock sigma factor, a putative Mn-catalase, an alkylation DNA repair protein, pyridoxine phosphate oxidase, and exonuclease III, respectively), as well as several genes, such as CH01253, CH03555, and PF00247, encoding putative proteins involved in cell envelope biogenesis (a putative peptidoglycan binding protein, a cell wall degradation protein, and phospholipase D, respectively). These results suggest that rpoE4 has a relevant function in cell envelope biogenesis and that it plays a role as a general regulator in the responses to several kinds of stress. PMID:19376852

  9. Acute stress impairs set-shifting but not reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G

    2013-09-01

    The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy.

  10. Osmotic Adjustment in Leaves of VA Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Rose Plants in Response to Drought Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Augé, Robert M.; Schekel, Kurt A.; Wample, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    Osmotic adjustment in Rosa hybrida L. cv Samantha was characterized by the pressure-volume approach in drought-acclimated and unacclimated plants brought to the same level of drought strain, as assayed by stomatal closure. Plants were colonized by either of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus deserticola Trappe, Bloss and Menge or G. intraradices Schenck and Smith, or were nonmycorrhizal. Both the acclimation and the mycorrhizal treatments decreased the osmotic potential (Ψπ) of leaves at full turgor and at the turgor loss point, with a corresponding increase in pressure potential at full turgor. Mycorrhizae enabled plants to maintain leaf turgor and conductance at greater tissue water deficits, and lower leaf and soil water potentials, when compared with nonmycorrhizal plants. As indicated by the Ψπ at the turgor loss point, the active Ψπ depression which attended mycorrhizal colonization alone was 0.4 to 0.6 megapascals, and mycorrhizal colonization and acclimation in concert 0.6 to 0.9 megapascals, relative to unacclimated controls without mycorrhizae. Colonization levels and sporulation were higher in plants subjected to acclimation. In unacclimated hosts, leaf water potential, water saturation deficit, and soil water potential at a particular level of drought strain were affected most by G. intraradices. G. deserticola had the greater effect after drought preconditioning. PMID:16665108

  11. Validation of reference genes for normalization of qPCR mRNA expression levels in Staphylococcus aureus exposed to osmotic and lactic acid stress conditions encountered during food production and preservation.

    PubMed

    Sihto, Henna-Maria; Tasara, Taurai; Stephan, Roger; Johler, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus represents the most prevalent cause of food-borne intoxications worldwide. While being repressed by competing bacteria in most matrices, this pathogen exhibits crucial competitive advantages during growth at high salt concentrations or low pH, conditions frequently encountered in food production and preservation. We aimed to identify reference genes that could be used to normalize qPCR mRNA expression levels during growth of S. aureus in food-related osmotic (NaCl) and acidic (lactic acid) stress adaptation models. Expression stability of nine housekeeping genes was evaluated in full (LB) and nutrient-deficient (CYGP w/o glucose) medium under conditions of osmotic (4.5% NaCl) and acidic stress (lactic acid, pH 6.0) after 2-h exposure. Among the set of candidate reference genes investigated, rplD, rpoB,gyrB, and rho were most stably expressed in LB and thus represent the most suitable reference genes for normalization of qPCR data in osmotic or lactic acid stress models in a rich medium. Under nutrient-deficient conditions, expression of rho and rpoB was highly stable across all tested conditions. The presented comprehensive data on changes in expression of various S. aureus housekeeping genes under conditions of osmotic and lactic acid stress facilitate selection of reference genes for qPCR-based stress response models.

  12. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-07-20

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress.

  13. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B.; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  14. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion.

    PubMed

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Fiebach, Christian J

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect.

  15. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion

    PubMed Central

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Fiebach, Christian J.

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect. PMID:24834024

  16. Converging, Synergistic Actions of Multiple Stress Hormones Mediate Enduring Memory Impairments after Acute Simultaneous Stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuncai; Molet, Jenny; Lauterborn, Julie C; Trieu, Brian H; Bolton, Jessica L; Patterson, Katelin P; Gall, Christine M; Lynch, Gary; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-11-02

    Stress influences memory, an adaptive process crucial for survival. During stress, hippocampal synapses are bathed in a mixture of stress-released molecules, yet it is unknown whether or how these interact to mediate the effects of stress on memory. Here, we demonstrate novel synergistic actions of corticosterone and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on synaptic physiology and dendritic spine structure that mediate the profound effects of acute concurrent stresses on memory. Spatial memory in mice was impaired enduringly after acute concurrent stresses resulting from loss of synaptic potentiation associated with disrupted structure of synapse-bearing dendritic spines. Combined application of the stress hormones corticosterone and CRH recapitulated the physiological and structural defects provoked by acute stresses. Mechanistically, corticosterone and CRH, via their cognate receptors, acted synergistically on the spine-actin regulator RhoA, promoting its deactivation and degradation, respectively, and destabilizing spines. Accordingly, blocking the receptors of both hormones, but not each alone, rescued memory. Therefore, the synergistic actions of corticosterone and CRH at hippocampal synapses underlie memory impairments after concurrent and perhaps also single, severe acute stresses, with potential implications to spatial memory dysfunction in, for example, posttraumatic stress disorder.

  17. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Rutledge, Robb B; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-03-29

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function.

  18. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  19. Acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility in men, not women.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Trainor, Brian C; Lam, Jovian C W; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial stress influences cognitive abilities, such as long-term memory retrieval. However, less is known about the effects of stress on cognitive flexibility, which is mediated by different neurobiological circuits and could thus be regulated by different neuroendocrine pathways. In this study, we randomly assigned healthy adults to an acute stress induction or control condition and subsequently assessed participants' cognitive flexibility using an open-source version of the Wisconsin Card Sort task. Drawing on work in rodents, we hypothesized that stress would have stronger impairing effects on cognitive flexibility in men than women. As predicted, we found that stress impaired cognitive flexibility in men but did not significantly affect women. Our results thus indicate that stress exerts sex-specific effects on cognitive flexibility in humans and add to the growing body of research highlighting the need to consider sex differences in effects of stress.

  20. Exposure to acute stress is associated with attenuated sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Al'Absi, Mustafa; Nakajima, Motohiro; Hooker, Stephanie; Wittmers, Larry; Cragin, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of stress on taste perception. Participants (N = 38; 21 women) completed two laboratory sessions: one stress (public speaking, math, and cold pressor) and one control rest session. The taste perception test was conducted at the end of each session and included rating the intensity and pleasantness of sweet, salty, sour, and savory solutions at suprathreshold concentrations. Cardiovascular, hormonal, and mood measures were collected throughout the sessions. Participants showed the expected changes in cardiovascular, hormonal, and mood measures in response to stress. Reported intensity of the sweet solution was significantly lower on the stress day than on the rest day. Cortisol level poststress predicted reduced intensity of salt and sour, suggesting that stress-related changes in adrenocortical activity were related to reduced taste intensity. Results indicate that acute stress may alter taste perception, and ongoing research investigates the extent to which these changes mediate effects of stress on appetite.

  1. Cloning and expression of a heat shock protein (HSP) 90 gene in the haemocytes of Crassostrea hongkongensis under osmotic stress and bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dingkun; Chen, Jinhui; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-07-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved and multi-functional molecular chaperone that plays an essential role in both cellular metabolism and stress response. Here, we report the cloning of the HSP90 homologue in Crassostrea hongkongensis (ChHSP90) through SSH in combination with RACE from cDNA of haemocytes. The full-length cDNA of ChHSP90 is 2459 bp in length, consisting of a 3', 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and an open reading frame of 2169 bp encoding 722 amino acids. The identity analysis of the amino acid sequence of HSP90 revealed that ChHSP90 is highly conserved. Distribution of ChHSP90 mRNA in gonad, heart, adductor muscle, mantle, gill, digestive gland, and haemocytes suggested that ChHSP90 is ubiquitously expressed. The mRNA levels of ChHSP90 under salinity and bacterial challenges were analyzed by real-time PCR. Under hypo-osmotic treatment, ChHSP90 mRNA in gonad, heart and haemocytes were significantly up-regulated on day 2 and onwards; while in gill, digestive gland and adductor muscle it was significantly down-regulated; the expression in mantle was decreased significantly on day 2 and 3 (P < 0.01), and then up-regulated on day 4 (P < 0.05). Under hyper-osmotic treatment, the mRNA level in gonad, heart, adductor muscle was increased on day 2 and onwards; in gill, it was firstly increased, and then gradually decreased, reaching a minimum on day 3. On day 4, the expression level in gill recovered to pre-treatment level; in mantle and digestive gland, the expression levels were decreased, reaching to the minimum on day 3. During Vibrio alginolyticus challenge, the mRNA level of ChHSP90 increased 3-fold at 4 h post-infection, returned to its pre-challenge level at 6 h post-infection, then was further up-regulated from 8 to 36 h post-infection. These experiments demonstrate that ChHSP90 mRNA is constitutively expressed in various tissues and apparently inducible in haemocytes under salinity and bacterial challenges, suggesting its important

  2. The high osmotic response and cell wall integrity pathways cooperate to regulate transcriptional responses to zymolyase-induced cell wall stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    García, Raúl; Rodríguez-Peña, Jose M; Bermejo, Clara; Nombela, César; Arroyo, Javier

    2009-04-17

    The adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to situations in which cell wall integrity is seriously compromised mainly involves the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. However, in a recent work ( Bermejo, C., Rodriguez, E., García, R., Rodríguez-Peña, J. M., Rodríguez de la Concepción, M. L., Rivas, C., Arias, P., Nombela, C., Posas, F., and Arroyo, J. (2008) Mol. Biol. Cell 19, 1113-1124 ) we have demonstrated the co-participation of the high osmotic response (HOG) pathway to ensure yeast survival to cell wall stress mediated by zymolyase, which hydrolyzes the beta-1,3 glucan network. Here we have characterized the role of both pathways in the regulation of the overall yeast transcriptional responses to zymolyase treatment using whole genome expression profiling. A main group of yeast genes is dependent on both MAPKs, Slt2 and Hog1, for their induction. The transcriptional activation of these genes depends on the MAPKKK Bck1, the transcription factor Rlm1, and elements of the sho1 branch of the HOG pathway, but not on the sensors of the CWI pathway. A second group of genes is dependent on Slt2 but not Hog1 or Pbs2. However, the induction of these genes is dependent on upstream elements of the HOG pathway such as Sho1, Ste50, and Ste11, in accordance with a sequential activation of the HOG and CWI pathways. Zymolyase also promotes an osmotic-like transcriptional response with the activation of a group of genes dependent on elements of the Sho1 branch of HOG pathway but not on Slt2, with the induction of many of them dependent on Msn2/4. Additionally, in the absence of Hog1, zymolyase induces an alternative response related to mating and filamentation as a consequence of the cross-talk between these pathways and the HOG pathway. Finally, in the absence of Slt2, zymolyase increases the induction of genes associated with osmotic adaptation with respect to the wild type, suggesting an inhibitory effect of the CWI pathway over the HOG pathway. These studies clearly

  3. Evaluation of Virulence Factors In vitro, Resistance to Osmotic Stress and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida tropicalis Isolated from the Coastal Environment of Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zuza-Alves, Diana L.; de Medeiros, Sayama S. T. Q.; de Souza, Luanda B. F. C.; Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison P.; Francisco, Elaine C.; de Araújo, Maria C. B.; Lima-Neto, Reginaldo G.; Neves, Rejane P.; Melo, Analy S. de Azevedo; Chaves, Guilherme M.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been developed regarding human health risks associated with the recreational use of beaches contaminated with domestic sewage. These wastes contain various micro-organisms, including Candida tropicalis. In this context, the objective of this study was to characterize C. tropicalis isolates from the sandy beach of Ponta Negra, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, regarding the expression of in vitro virulence factors, adaptation to osmotic stress and susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We analyzed 62 environmental isolates and observed a great variation among them for the various virulence factors evaluated. In general, environmental isolates were more adherent to human buccal epithelial cells (HBEC) than C. tropicalis ATCC13803 reference strain, and they also showed increased biofilm production. Most of the isolates presented wrinkled phenotypes on Spider medium (34 isolates, 54.8%). The majority of the isolates also showed higher proteinase production than control strains, but low phospholipase activity. In addition, 35 isolates (56.4%) had high hemolytic activity (hemolysis index > 0.55). With regard to C. tropicalis resistance to osmotic stress, 85.4% of the isolates were able to grow in a liquid medium containing 15% sodium chloride. The strains were highly resistant to the azoles tested (fluconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole). Fifteen strains were resistant to the three azoles tested (24.2%). Some strains were also resistant to amphotericin B (14 isolates; 22.6%), while all of them were susceptible for the echinocandins tested, except for a single strain of intermediate susceptibility to micafungin. Our results demonstrate that C. tropicalis isolated from the sand can fully express virulence attributes and showed a high persistence capacity on the coastal environment; in addition of showing high minimal inhibitory concentrations to several antifungal drugs used in current clinical practice, demonstrating that environmental isolates may

  4. BnHO1, a haem oxygenase-1 gene from Brassica napus, is required for salinity and osmotic stress-induced lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zeyu; Geng, Beibei; Xu, Sheng; Xuan, Wei; Nie, Li; Shen, Wenbiao; Liang, Yongchao; Guan, Rongzhan

    2011-08-01

    In this report, a rapeseed (Brassica napus) haem oxygenase-1 gene BnHO1 was cloned and sequenced. It shared high homology with Arabidopsis HY1 proteins, and encodes a 32.6 kDa protein with a 54-amino-acid transit peptide, predicting the mature protein of 25.1 kDa. The mature BnHO1 expressed in Escherichia coli exhibits haem oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, the application of lower doses of NaCl (10 mM) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (2%) mimicked the inducible effects of naphthylacetic acid and the HO-1 inducer haemin on the up-regulation of BnHO1 and subsequent lateral root (LR) formation. Contrasting effects were observed when a higher dose of NaCl or PEG was applied. The above inducible and inhibitory responses were blocked significantly when the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) or haemin was applied, both of which were reversed by the application of carbon monoxide or ZnPPIX, respectively. Moreover, the addition of ZnPPIX at different time points during LR formation indicated that BnHO1 might be involved in the early stages of LR formation. The auxin response factor transcripts and the auxin content in seedling roots were clearly induced by lower doses of salinity or osmotic stress. However, treatment with the inhibitor of polar auxin transport N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid prevented the above inducible responses conferred by lower doses of NaCl and PEG, which were further rescued when the treatments were combined with haemin. Taken together, these results suggested a novel role of the rapeseed HO-1 gene in salinity and osmotic stress-induced LR formation, with a possible interaction with auxin signalling.

  5. Acute stress and working memory in older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that acute stress affects working memory (WM) in young adults, but the effect in older people is understudied. As observed in other types of memory, older people may be less sensitive to acute effects of stress on WM. We performed two independent studies with healthy older men and women (from 55 to 77 years old) to investigate the effects of acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and cortisol on WM. In study 1 (n = 63), after the TSST women (but not men) improved their performance on Digit Span Forward (a measure of the memory span component of WM) but not on Digit Span Backward (a measure of both memory span and the executive component of WM). Furthermore, in women, cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing showed a positive association with the memory span component of WM before and after the TSST, and with the executive component of WM only before the stress task. In study 2 (n = 76), although participants showed a cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response to the TSST, stress did not affect performance on Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS; a task that places a high demand on the executive component of WM). Cortisol and sAA were not associated with WM. The results indicate that circulating cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing, and not the stress response, affect memory span in older women, and that stress and the increase in cortisol levels after stress do not affect the executive component of WM in older men and women. This study provides further evidence that older people may be less sensitive to stress and stress-induced cortisol response effects on memory processes.

  6. Occupational role stress is associated with higher cortisol reactivity to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Petra H; Ehlert, Ulrike; Kottwitz, Maria U; La Marca, Roberto; Semmer, Norbert K

    2013-04-01

    We investigated whether occupational role stress is associated with differential levels of the stress hormone cortisol in response to acute psychosocial stress. Forty-three medication-free nonsmoking men aged between 22 and 65 years (mean ± SEM: 44.5 ± 2) underwent an acute standardized psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic in front of an audience. We assessed occupational role stress in terms of role conflict and role ambiguity (combined into a measure of role uncertainty) as well as further work characteristics and psychological control variables including time pressure, overcommitment, perfectionism, and stress appraisal. Moreover, we repeatedly measured salivary cortisol and blood pressure levels before and after stress exposure, and several times up to 60 min thereafter. Higher role uncertainty was associated with a more pronounced cortisol stress reactivity (p = .016), even when controlling for the full set of potential confounders (p < .001). Blood pressure stress reactivity was not associated with role uncertainty. Our findings suggest that occupational role stress in terms of role uncertainty acts as a background stressor that is associated with increased HPA-axis reactivity to acute stress. This finding may represent a potential mechanism regarding how occupational role stress may precipitate adverse health outcomes.

  7. Acute psychosocial stress and children's memory.

    PubMed

    de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; Mage = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM forward and WM backward) and a DR memory task first during a control condition, and 1 week later during a stress challenge. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol were assessed during the challenge. Only WM backward performance declined over conditions. Correlations between physiological stress responses and performance within the stress challenge were present only for WM forward and DR. For WM forward, higher cortisol responses were related to better performance. For DR, there was an inverted U-shape relation between cortisol responses and performance, as well as a cortisol × sAA interaction, with concurrent high or low responses related to optimal performance. This emphasizes the importance of including curvilinear and interaction effects when relating physiology to memory.

  8. Ineffective Phosphorylation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Hog1p in Response to High Osmotic Stress in the Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Zavala, Nancy; Rodríguez-González, Miriam; Navarro-Olmos, Rocío; Ongay-Larios, Laura; Kawasaki, Laura; Torres-Quiroz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    When treated with a hyperosmotic stimulus, Kluyveromyces lactis cells respond by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) K. lactis Hog1 (KlHog1) protein via two conserved branches, SLN1 and SHO1. Mutants affected in only one branch can cope with external hyperosmolarity by activating KlHog1p by phosphorylation, except for single ΔKlste11 and ΔKlste50 mutants, which showed high sensitivity to osmotic stress, even though the other branch (SLN1) was intact. Inactivation of both branches by deletion of KlSHO1 and KlSSK2 also produced sensitivity to high salt. Interestingly, we have observed that in ΔKlste11 and ΔKlsho1 ΔKlssk2 mutants, which exhibit sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress, and contrary to what would be expected, KlHog1p becomes phosphorylated. Additionally, in mutants lacking both MAPK kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) present in K. lactis (KlSte11p and KlSsk2p), the hyperosmotic stress induced the phosphorylation and nuclear internalization of KlHog1p, but it failed to induce the transcriptional expression of KlSTL1 and the cell was unable to grow in high-osmolarity medium. KlHog1p phosphorylation via the canonical HOG pathway or in mutants where the SHO1 and SLN1 branches have been inactivated requires not only the presence of KlPbs2p but also its kinase activity. This indicates that when the SHO1 and SLN1 branches are inactivated, high-osmotic-stress conditions activate an independent input that yields active KlPbs2p, which, in turn, renders KlHog1p phosphorylation ineffective. Finally, we found that KlSte11p can alleviate the sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress displayed by a ΔKlsho1 ΔKlssk2 mutant when it is anchored to the plasma membrane by adding the KlSho1p transmembrane segments, indicating that this chimeric protein can substitute for KlSho1p and KlSsk2p. PMID:26150414

  9. Interspecies and Intraspecies Analysis of Trehalose Contents and the Biosynthesis Pathway Gene Family Reveals Crucial Roles of Trehalose in Osmotic-Stress Tolerance in Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bingying; Fu, Lili; Zhang, Dan; He, Xiuquan; Chen, Qiang; Peng, Ming; Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose is a nonreducing α,α-1,1-disaccharide in a wide range of organisms, and has diverse biological functions that range from serving as an energy source to acting as a protective/signal sugar. However, significant amounts of trehalose have rarely been detected in higher plants, and the function of trehalose in the drought-tolerant crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is unclear. We measured soluble sugar concentrations of nine plant species with differing levels of drought tolerance and 41 cassava varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD). Significantly high amounts of trehalose were identified in drought-tolerant crops cassava, Jatropha curcas, and castor bean (Ricinus communis). All cassava varieties tested contained high amounts of trehalose, although their concentrations varied from 0.23 to 1.29 mg·g−1 fresh weight (FW), and the trehalose level was highly correlated with dehydration stress tolerance of detached leaves of the varieties. Moreover, the trehalose concentrations in cassava leaves increased 2.3–5.5 folds in response to osmotic stress simulated by 20% PEG 6000. Through database mining, 24 trehalose pathway genes, including 12 trehalose-6-phosphate synthases (TPS), 10 trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatases (TPP), and two trehalases were identified in cassava. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were four cassava TPS genes (MeTPS1–4) that were orthologous to the solely active TPS gene (AtTPS1 and OsTPS1) in Arabidopsis and rice, and a new TPP subfamily was identified in cassava, suggesting that the trehalose biosynthesis activities in cassava had potentially been enhanced in evolutionary history. RNA-seq analysis indicated that MeTPS1 was expressed at constitutionally high level before and after osmotic stress, while other trehalose pathway genes were either up-regulated or down-regulated, which may explain why cassava accumulated high level of trehalose under

  10. Interspecies and Intraspecies Analysis of Trehalose Contents and the Biosynthesis Pathway Gene Family Reveals Crucial Roles of Trehalose in Osmotic-Stress Tolerance in Cassava.

    PubMed

    Han, Bingying; Fu, Lili; Zhang, Dan; He, Xiuquan; Chen, Qiang; Peng, Ming; Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-07-13

    Trehalose is a nonreducing α,α-1,1-disaccharide in a wide range of organisms, and has diverse biological functions that range from serving as an energy source to acting as a protective/signal sugar. However, significant amounts of trehalose have rarely been detected in higher plants, and the function of trehalose in the drought-tolerant crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is unclear. We measured soluble sugar concentrations of nine plant species with differing levels of drought tolerance and 41 cassava varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD). Significantly high amounts of trehalose were identified in drought-tolerant crops cassava, Jatropha curcas, and castor bean (Ricinus communis). All cassava varieties tested contained high amounts of trehalose, although their concentrations varied from 0.23 to 1.29 mg·g(-1) fresh weight (FW), and the trehalose level was highly correlated with dehydration stress tolerance of detached leaves of the varieties. Moreover, the trehalose concentrations in cassava leaves increased 2.3-5.5 folds in response to osmotic stress simulated by 20% PEG 6000. Through database mining, 24 trehalose pathway genes, including 12 trehalose-6-phosphate synthases (TPS), 10 trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatases (TPP), and two trehalases were identified in cassava. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were four cassava TPS genes (MeTPS1-4) that were orthologous to the solely active TPS gene (AtTPS1 and OsTPS1) in Arabidopsis and rice, and a new TPP subfamily was identified in cassava, suggesting that the trehalose biosynthesis activities in cassava had potentially been enhanced in evolutionary history. RNA-seq analysis indicated that MeTPS1 was expressed at constitutionally high level before and after osmotic stress, while other trehalose pathway genes were either up-regulated or down-regulated, which may explain why cassava accumulated high level of trehalose under normal

  11. Osmotic stress of salmon stimulates upregulation of a cold inducible RNA binding protein (CIRP) similar to that of mammals and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Zarate, Jacques; Choudhury, Arpita; Rupprecht, Ryan; Bradley, Terence M

    2004-07-01

    Salmon are subjected to hyperosmotic stress during transition from freshwater to the marine environment. A variety of mechanisms have evolved to allow movement of the animal from a hydrating to a dehydrating environment. Using differential assay of mRNA expression, a 1.3 kb transcript was found to be upregulated in branchial lamellae of salmon exposed to hyperosmotic conditions. The transcript contains an open reading frame of 618 nt coding for a 205 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 21.5 kDa. The putative protein, dubbed salmon glycine-rich RNA binding protein (SGRP), possesses a high degree of identity (>70%) with the cold inducible RNA binding proteins (CIRP) of mammals and amphibians and contains the canonical features of these proteins including a single RNA recognition motif (RRM), high glycine content and conserved flanking motifs. SGRP mRNA was observed to increase in response to hyperosmotic stress of branchial tissue with maximum levels of expression after 48 h of exposure. Transcript also was observed in liver, kidney and heart but was not upregulated significantly by osmotic stress in these tissues. Exposure of isolated lamellae to heat stress and sodium arsenite, known inducers of hsps, did not stimulate accumulation of SGRP transcript. Similarly, inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide and the MAPK and MEK signal transduction pathways with SB202190 and PD98059 failed to alter expression of the gene. Of significance was the absence of an increase in expression of SGRP in response to cold stress (DeltaT = 5 and 12 degrees C for 12 and 24 h). The findings of this research suggest that ectothermic salmon inhabiting boreal waters possess a protein analogous to the CIRPs currently identified in mammals and amphibians. In contrast to the function of CIRPs, SGRP appears to have a more prominent role in adaptation to hyperosmotic conditions rather than cold stress.

  12. Perceived Control Alters the Effect of Acute Stress on Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Bhanji, Jamil P.; Kim, Eunbin S.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2015-01-01

    We often encounter setbacks while pursuing our goals. Success requires that we cope with these negative outcomes and choose to persist in spite of them. For example, learners may be more likely to continue a course after failing an assessment if they control their emotional reactions to the setback and study harder. However, the ability to effectively cope with the negative emotion inherent in such setbacks can be compromised by acute stress present in daily life (e.g., struggles in the household), which can subsequently lead to problems with persisting with a goal. The present study examined whether increasing the perception of control over setbacks (e.g., belief that a setback was caused by a correctable mistake rather than uncontrollable factors) can guard against the influence of a prior acute stressor on reactions to setbacks. Participants underwent a socially-evaluated cold water stress or a non-stress control procedure. Afterwards, they performed a behavioral task designed to measure persistence through controllable and uncontrollable setbacks. We observed that exposure to an acute stressor led to a detrimental effect on decision making by decreasing persistence behavior. Importantly, we also observed that the perception of control protected against the effect of preexisting stress and helped promote persistence. That is, stress impaired persistence through uncontrollable setbacks, but the impairment was alleviated by presenting setbacks as controllable. The findings demonstrate a potential avenue for improving the maintenance of goals aimed at behavior change, which can be susceptible to effects of stress. PMID:26726915

  13. Engineered strains of Streptococcus macedonicus towards an osmotic stress resistant phenotype retain their ability to produce the bacteriocin macedocin under hyperosmotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, Rania; Driessche, Gonzalez Van; Boutou, Effrossyni; Kazou, Maria; Alexandraki, Voula; Vorgias, Constantinos E; Devreese, Bart; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos

    2015-10-20

    Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 produces the bacteriocin macedocin in milk only under low NaCl concentrations (<1.0%w/v). The thermosensitive plasmid pGh9:ISS1 was employed to generate osmotic stress resistant (osmr) mutants of S. macedonicus. Three osmr mutants showing integration of the vector in unique chromosomal sites were identified and the disrupted loci were characterized. Interestingly, the mutants were able to grow and to produce macedocin at considerably higher concentrations of NaCl compared to the wild-type (up to 4.0%w/v). The production of macedocin under hyperosmotic conditions solely by the osmr mutants was validated by the well diffusion assay and by mass spectrometry analysis. RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the macedocin biosynthetic regulon was transcribed at high salt concentrations only in the mutants. Mutant osmr3, the most robust mutant, was converted in its markerless derivative (osmr3f). Co-culture of S. macedonicus with spores of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in milk demonstrated that only the osmr3f mutant and not the wild-type inhibited the growth of the spores under hyperosmotic conditions (i.e., 2.5%w/v NaCl) due to the production of macedocin. Our study shows how genetic manipulation of a strain towards a stress resistant phenotype could improve bacteriocin production under conditions of the same stress.

  14. Acute Stress Disorder: Conceptual Issues and Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koucky, Ellen M.; Galovski, Tara E.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was included as a diagnosis to the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a way of describing pathological reactions in the first month following a trauma. Since that time, ASD has been the focus of some controversy, particularly regarding the theoretical basis…

  15. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Wemm, Stephanie E; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2017-03-01

    The study examined the effects of a social stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) on 24 male and 32 female college students' affective and physiological reactivity and their subsequent performance on a decision-making task (Iowa Gambling Task). The 56 participants were randomly assigned to a social stressor or a control condition. Compared to controls, participants in the stress condition responded with higher heart rates and skin conductance responses, reported more negative affect, and on the decision-making task made less advantageous choices. An exploratory regression analysis revealed that among men higher levels of heart rate were positively correlated with riskier choices on the Iowa Gambling Task, whereas for women this relationship was curvilinear. Exploratory correlational analyses showed that lower levels of skin conductance within the stress condition were associated with greater levels of substance use and gambling. The results suggest that the presence of a stressor may generally result in failure to attend to the full range of possible consequences of a decision. The relationship pattern between the degree of stress responding and successful decision making may be different for men and women.

  16. Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Physical Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…

  17. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  18. The Relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following cancer diagnosis. Patients who were recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy (N = 82) were assessed for ASD within the initial month following their diagnosis and reassessed (n =…

  19. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  20. The Osmotic Pump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenspiel, Octave; de Nevers, Noel

    1974-01-01

    Describes the principle involved in an osmotic pump used to extract fresh water from the oceans and in an osmotic power plant used to generate electricity. Although shown to be thermodynamically feasible, the osmotic principle is not likely to be used commerically for these purposes in the near future. (JR)

  1. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    PubMed

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress.

  2. Two glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase isogenes from Candida versatilis SN-18 play an important role in glycerol biosynthesis under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Daiki; Iwata, Hisashi; Ishimaki, Yuki; Ogihara, Jun; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2016-05-01

    Two isogenes of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) from Candida versatilis SN-18 were cloned and sequenced. These intronless genes (Cagpd1 and Cagpd2) were both predicted to encode a 378 amino acid polypeptide, and the deduced amino acid sequences mutually showed 76% identity. Interestingly, Cagpd1 and Cagpd2 were located tandemly in a locus of genomic DNA within a 262 bp interval. To our knowledge, this represents a novel instance of isogenic genes relating to glucose metabolism. The stress response element (STRE) was found respectively at -93 to -89 bp upstream of the 5'end of Cagpd1 and -707 to -703 bp upstream of Cagpd2, indicating that these genes are involved in osmotic stress response. In heterologous expression using a gpd1Δgpd2Δ double deletion mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cagpd1 and Cagpd2 transformants complemented the function of GPD, with Cagpd2 being much more effective than Cagpd1 in promoting growth and glycerol synthesis. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences suggested that Cagpd1p and Cagpd2p are NADP(+)-dependent GPDs (EC 1.1.1.94). However, crude enzyme extract from Cagpd1 and Cagpd2 transformants showed GPD activity with only NAD(+) as cofactor. Hence, both Cagpd1p and Cagpd2p are likely NAD(+)-dependent GPDs (EC 1.1.1.8), similar to GPDs from S. cerevisiae and Candida magnoliae.

  3. Osmotic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zeidel, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in water homeostasis can disturb cell size and function. Although most cells can internally regulate cell volume in response to osmolar stress, neurons are particularly at risk given a combination of complex cell function and space restriction within the calvarium. Thus, regulating water balance is fundamental to survival. Through specialized neuronal “osmoreceptors” that sense changes in plasma osmolality, vasopressin release and thirst are titrated in order to achieve water balance. Fine-tuning of water absorption occurs along the collecting duct, and depends on unique structural modifications of renal tubular epithelium that confer a wide range of water permeability. In this article, we review the mechanisms that ensure water homeostasis as well as the fundamentals of disorders of water balance. PMID:25078421

  4. Expression of the Grape VqSTS21 Gene in Arabidopsis Confers Resistance to Osmotic Stress and Biotrophic Pathogens but Not Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Zhang, Songlin; Singer, Stacy D.; Yin, Xiangjing; Yang, Jinhua; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Stilbene synthase (STS) is a key gene in the biosynthesis of various stilbenoids, including resveratrol and its derivative glucosides (such as piceid), that has been shown to contribute to disease resistance in plants. However, the mechanism behind such a role has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the function of STS genes in osmotic stress tolerance remains unclear. As such, we sought to elucidate the role of STS genes in the defense against biotic and abiotic stress in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiling of 31 VqSTS genes from Vitis quinquangularis revealed that VqSTS21 was up-regulated in response to powdery mildew (PM) infection. To provide a deeper understanding of the function of this gene, we cloned the full-length coding sequence of VqSTS21 and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis thaliana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The resulting VqSTS21 Arabidopsis lines produced trans-piceid rather than resveratrol as their main stilbenoid product and exhibited improved disease resistance to PM and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but displayed increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis lines were found to confer tolerance to salt and drought stress from seed germination through plant maturity. Intriguingly, qPCR assays of defense-related genes involved in salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid-induced signaling pathways in these transgenic lines suggested that VqSTS21 plays a role in various phytohormone-related pathways, providing insight into the mechanism behind VqSTS21-mediated resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:27695466

  5. Functional Characterization of the Tau Class Glutathione-S-Transferases Gene (SbGSTU) Promoter of Salicornia brachiata under Salinity and Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Patel, Manish Kumar; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen or nitrogen species are generated in the plant cell during the extreme stress condition, which produces toxic compounds after reacting with the organic molecules. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes play a significant role to detoxify these toxins and help in excretion or sequestration of them. In the present study, we have cloned 1023 bp long promoter region of tau class GST from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata and functionally characterized using the transgenic approach in tobacco. Computational analysis revealed the presence of abiotic stress responsive cis-elements like ABRE, MYB, MYC, GATA, GT1 etc., phytohormones, pathogen and wound responsive motifs. Three 5’-deletion constructs of 730 (GP2), 509 (GP3) and 348 bp (GP4) were made from 1023 (GP1) promoter fragment and used for tobacco transformation. The single event transgenic plants showed notable GUS reporter protein expression in the leaf tissues of control as well as treated plants. The expression level of the GUS gradually decreases from GP1 to GP4 in leaf tissues, whereas the highest level of expression was detected with the GP2 construct in root and stem under control condition. The GUS expression was found higher in leaves and stems of salinity or osmotic stress treated transgenic plants than that of the control plants, but, lower in roots. An efficient expression level of GUS in transgenic plants suggests that this promoter can be used for both constitutive as well as stress inducible expression of gene(s). And this property, make it as a potential candidate to be used as an alternative promoter for crop genetic engineering. PMID:26885663

  6. Functional Characterization of the Tau Class Glutathione-S-Transferases Gene (SbGSTU) Promoter of Salicornia brachiata under Salinity and Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Patel, Manish Kumar; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen or nitrogen species are generated in the plant cell during the extreme stress condition, which produces toxic compounds after reacting with the organic molecules. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes play a significant role to detoxify these toxins and help in excretion or sequestration of them. In the present study, we have cloned 1023 bp long promoter region of tau class GST from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata and functionally characterized using the transgenic approach in tobacco. Computational analysis revealed the presence of abiotic stress responsive cis-elements like ABRE, MYB, MYC, GATA, GT1 etc., phytohormones, pathogen and wound responsive motifs. Three 5'-deletion constructs of 730 (GP2), 509 (GP3) and 348 bp (GP4) were made from 1023 (GP1) promoter fragment and used for tobacco transformation. The single event transgenic plants showed notable GUS reporter protein expression in the leaf tissues of control as well as treated plants. The expression level of the GUS gradually decreases from GP1 to GP4 in leaf tissues, whereas the highest level of expression was detected with the GP2 construct in root and stem under control condition. The GUS expression was found higher in leaves and stems of salinity or osmotic stress treated transgenic plants than that of the control plants, but, lower in roots. An efficient expression level of GUS in transgenic plants suggests that this promoter can be used for both constitutive as well as stress inducible expression of gene(s). And this property, make it as a potential candidate to be used as an alternative promoter for crop genetic engineering.

  7. Management of acute traumatic stress in nuclear and radiological emergencies.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Marina; Jordan, Osvaldo; Kuper, Enrique; Hernandez, Daniel; Galmarini, Martin; Ferraro, Augusto

    2010-06-01

    In order to effectively respond to and minimize the psychological impact following disasters, such as radio-nuclear ones, it is essential to understand the mechanisms involved in such conditions and how to prevent and treat the psychological impacts, including those related to acute traumatic stress and its consequences across life span. Radio-nuclear emergencies may cause psychological traumatic stress, with its potentially significant consequences in mental health, with both short and long-term effects, which extend beyond the individuals directly affected. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by human senses and most people are unaware of the magnitude of its effects, which could result in feelings of helplessness and vulnerability. Those situations with a high degree of uncertainty, regarding potential future health effects, are more psychologically traumatic than others. The present century has witnessed a steady increase in the number of publications concerning the mental health impact of traumatic events, showing the need of increasing the study of traumatic stress and its impact on mental health. A prompt, planned and effective response to manage disaster-induced acute traumatic stress may prevent the evolutionary reactions of traumatic stress into disorders or even chronic stress diseases that can appear after a nuclear or radiological emergency.

  8. Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress

    PubMed Central

    Naumova, Ella A.; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Khatib, Philipp Al; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2014-01-01

    Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120 min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2 hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva. PMID:24811301

  9. Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Al Khatib, Philipp; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H

    2014-05-08

    Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120 min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2 hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva.

  10. Repressors and Upstream Repressing Sequences of the Stress-Regulated ENA1 Gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: bZIP Protein Sko1p Confers HOG-Dependent Osmotic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Proft, Markus; Serrano, Ramón

    1999-01-01

    The yeast ENA1/PMR2A gene encodes a cation extrusion ATPase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is essential for survival under salt stress conditions. One important mechanism of ENA1 transcriptional regulation is based on repression under normal growth conditions, which is relieved by either osmotic induction or glucose starvation. Analysis of the ENA1 promoter revealed a Mig1p-binding motif (−533 to −544) which was characterized as an upstream repressing sequence (URSMIG-ENA1) regulated by carbon source. Its function was abolished in a mig1 mig2 double-deletion strain as well as in either ssn6 or tup1 single mutants. A second URS at −502 to −513 is responsible for transcriptional repression regulated by osmotic stress and is similar to mammalian cyclic AMP response elements (CREs) that are recognized by CREB proteins. This URSCRE-ENA1 element requires for its repression function the yeast CREB homolog Sko1p (Acr1p) as well as the integrity of the Ssn6p-Tup1p corepressor complex. When targeted to the GAL1 promoter by fusing with the Gal4p DNA-binding domain, Sko1p acts as an Ssn6/Tup1p-dependent repressor regulated by osmotic stress. A glutathione S-transferase–Sko1 fusion protein binds specifically to the URSCRE-ENA1 element. Furthermore, a hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase deletion strain could not counteract repression on URSCRE-ENA1 during osmotic shock. The loss of SKO1 completely restored ENA1 expression in a hog1 mutant and partially suppressed the osmotic stress sensitivity, qualifying Sko1p as a downstream effector of the HOG pathway. Our results indicate that different signalling pathways (HOG osmotic pathway and glucose repression pathway) use distinct promoter elements of ENA1 (URSCRE-ENA1 and URSMIG-ENA1) via specific transcriptional repressors (Sko1p and Mig1/2p) and via the general Ssn6p-Tup1p complex. The physiological importance of the relief from repression during salt stress was also demonstrated by the increased tolerance of sko1 or

  11. Salivary Markers of Inflammation in Response to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  12. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish.

  13. Acute stress is detrimental to heart regeneration in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sallin, Pauline; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regeneration failure, while inhibition of the stress response with anxiolytic drugs partially rescued the regenerative process. Impaired heart regeneration in stressed animals was associated with a reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and with the downregulation of several genes, including igfbp1b, a modulator of IGF signalling. Notably, daily stress induced a decrease in Igf1r phosphorylation. As cardiomyocyte proliferation was decreased in response to IGF-1 receptor inhibition, we propose that the stress-induced cardiac regenerative failure is partially caused by the attenuation of IGF signalling. These findings indicate that the natural regenerative ability of the zebrafish heart is vulnerable to the systemic paracrine stress response. PMID:27030176

  14. Medaka osmotic stress transcription factor 1b (Ostf1b/TSC22D3-2) triggers hyperosmotic responses of different ion transporters in medaka gill and human embryonic kidney cells via the JNK signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tse, William K F; Lai, K P; Takei, Y

    2011-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells undergo rapid regulatory processes to maintain cellular homeostasis upon osmotic stress. In fishes, gill epithelial cells play main roles in these processes. Although osmoregulatory functions of fish gills have been well studied, little is known about the underlying mechanisms, particularly the hypertonic-induced signalling pathways during osmotic stress. This study reports for the first time on the osmo-sensing signal cascade that related to the medaka osmotic stress transcription factor 1 (Ostf1), a hypertonic induced immediate early gene, under hypertonic stress. Quantitative real-time PCR showed the rapid increase of Ostf1 in gill after transfer of medaka from fresh water to 50% seawater; particularly Ostf1b whose mRNA expression increased to 4 folds at 0.5h and reached to 10 folds at 6h after the transfer. The in vivo knockdown of Ostf1b profoundly inhibited SEK and JNK phosphorylation, but not p38 and ERK phosphorylation in the medaka gill tissue. To further investigate the possible role of Ostf1b in the JNK pathway, Ostf1b was ectopically expressed in HEK293 cells. Results indicated that Ostf1b is a downstream target of SEK and JNK and exerts a positive feedback loop on the JNK signalling pathway via activation of GCK and/or MLK3 proteins. Additionally, MAPK inhibitors experiments suggested that activation of the JNK pathway by hypertonicity is involved in the maintenance of Ostf1b stability, which in turn provides continuous stimulation of GCK for JNK phosphorylation. Lastly, changes in transcription levels of different water/ion transporters were found in knockdown or ecoptic over-expression of Ostf1b in medaka gills and human embryonic kidney cells, suggesting the role of Ostf1b in modulation of critical water channel/ion transporters during osmotic stress.

  15. Psychological acute stress measurement using a wireless adhesive biosensor.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Nandakumar

    2015-01-01

    Stress management is essential in this modern civilization to maintain one's stress level low and reduce health risks, since stress is one of the primary causes leading to major chronic health disorders. The present study investigates the validity of stress index (SI) metric that objectively quantifies the psychological acute stress using a disposable adhesive biosensor worn on the chest called as HealthPatch(®). Eleven healthy volunteers (n=11) were attached with one HealthPatch sensor at left pectoralis major muscle along the cardiac axis to record modified Lead-II ECG. The subjects carried out a standard Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) protocol. During the study, the subjects filled out state anxiety form-Y1 of the State Anxiety Inventory questionnaire (sSTAI); salivary samples were obtained for salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol (sC) measurements; and the HealthPatch sensor data were wirelessly acquired. The data analyses revealed that sSTAI scores were significantly increased (P<0.001) due to TSST compared to the baseline. But, the changes in both sAA and sC measurements were not significant (P=0.281 and P=0.792, respectively). On the other hand, SI metric of HealthPatch showed significant (P<0.001) increase (~50%) during TSST, and shown to be sensitive to objectively track acute changes in psychological stress. Thus, HealthPatch biosensor can be valuable for continuous monitoring of psychological health and effective management of stress leading to healthy life.

  16. Acute stress elicited by bungee jumping suppresses human innate immunity.

    PubMed

    van Westerloo, David J; Choi, Goda; Löwenberg, Ester C; Truijen, Jasper; de Vos, Alex F; Endert, Erik; Meijers, Joost C M; Zhou, Lu; Pereira, Manuel P F L; Queiroz, Karla C S; Diks, Sander H; Levi, Marcel; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; van der Poll, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Although a relation between diminished human immunity and stress is well recognized both within the general public and the scientific literature, the molecular mechanisms by which stress alters immunity remain poorly understood. We explored a novel model for acute human stress involving volunteers performing a first-time bungee jump from an altitude of 60 m and exploited this model to characterize the effects of acute stress in the peripheral blood compartment. Twenty volunteers were included in the study; half of this group was pretreated for 3 d with the β-receptor blocking agent propranolol. Blood was drawn 2 h before, right before, immediately after and 2 h after the jump. Plasma catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly during jumping, which was accompanied by significantly reduced ex vivo inducibility of proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of coagulation and vascular endothelium. Kinome profiles obtained from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction contained a strong noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction signature after jumping. In apparent agreement, jumping down-regulated Lck/Fyn and cellular innate immune effector function (phagocytosis). Pretreatment of volunteers with propranolol abolished the effects of jumping on coagulation and endothelial activation but left the inhibitory effects on innate immune function intact. Taken together, these results indicate that bungee jumping leads to a catecholamine-independent immune suppressive phenotype and implicate noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction as a major pathway linking human stress to impaired functioning of the human innate immune system.

  17. Acute Stress Elicited by Bungee Jumping Suppresses Human Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    van Westerloo, David J; Choi, Goda; Löwenberg, Ester C; Truijen, Jasper; de Vos, Alex F; Endert, Erik; Meijers, Joost C M; Zhou, Lu; Pereira, Manuel PFL; Queiroz, Karla CS; Diks, Sander H; Levi, Marcel; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; van der Poll, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Although a relation between diminished human immunity and stress is well recognized both within the general public and the scientific literature, the molecular mechanisms by which stress alters immunity remain poorly understood. We explored a novel model for acute human stress involving volunteers performing a first-time bungee jump from an altitude of 60 m and exploited this model to characterize the effects of acute stress in the peripheral blood compartment. Twenty volunteers were included in the study; half of this group was pretreated for 3 d with the β-receptor blocking agent propranolol. Blood was drawn 2 h before, right before, immediately after and 2 h after the jump. Plasma catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly during jumping, which was accompanied by significantly reduced ex vivo inducibility of proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of coagulation and vascular endothelium. Kinome profiles obtained from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction contained a strong noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction signature after jumping. In apparent agreement, jumping down-regulated Lck/Fyn and cellular innate immune effector function (phagocytosis). Pretreatment of volunteers with propranolol abolished the effects of jumping on coagulation and endothelial activation but left the inhibitory effects on innate immune function intact. Taken together, these results indicate that bungee jumping leads to a catecholamine-independent immune suppressive phenotype and implicate noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction as a major pathway linking human stress to impaired functioning of the human innate immune system. PMID:21203694

  18. Acute Stress in Parents of Children Newly Diagnosed With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Fernández, Anna Maria; Pai, Ahna L.H.; Alderfer, Melissa; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Reilly, Anne; Kazak, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and subclinical symptoms of acute stress (SAS) may be a useful framework for understanding the psychological reactions of mothers and fathers of children newly diagnosed with a pediatric malignancy. Patients and Methods Mothers (N = 129) and fathers (N = 72) of 138 children newly diagnosed with cancer completed questionnaires assessing acute distress, anxiety, and family functioning. Demographic data were also gathered. Inclusion criteria were: a confirmed diagnosis of a pediatric malignancy in a child under the age of 18 years without prior chronic or life threatening illness and fluency in English or Spanish. Results Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions were used to examine predictors of SAS. Fifty-one percent (N = 66) of mothers and 40% (N = 29) of fathers met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ASD. The majority of the sample reported experiencing at least one SAS. General anxiety, but not family functioning, was a strong predictor of SAS in both mothers and fathers even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions Immediately following their child’s diagnosis of cancer, most mothers and fathers experience SAS, with a subsample meeting criteria for ASD. More anxious parents are at heightened risk of more intense reactions. The findings support the need for evidence-based psychosocial support at diagnosis and throughout treatment for families who are at risk for acute distress reactions. PMID:17514742

  19. [Biochemical basis of tolerance to osmotic stress in phytopathogenic fungus: The case of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villarreal, Rodolfo; Garza-Romero, Tamar S; Moreno-Medina, Víctor R; Hernández-Delgado, Sanjuana; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl

    Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is the causative agent of charcoal rot disease which causes significant yield losses in major crops such as maize, sorghum, soybean and common beans in Mexico. This fungus is a facultative parasite which shows broad ability to adapt itself to stressed environments where water deficits and/or high temperature stresses commonly occur. These environmental conditions are common for most cultivable lands throughout Mexico. Here we describe some basic facts related to the etiology and epidemiology of the fungus as well as to the importance of responses to stressed environments, particularly to water deficits, based on morphology and growth traits, as well as on physiology, biochemistry and pathogenicity of fungus M. phaseolina. To conclude, we show some perspectives related to future research into the genus, which emphasize the increasing need to improve the knowledge based on the application of both traditional and biotechnological tools in order to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance to environmental stress which can be extrapolated to other useful organisms to man.

  20. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Trepanowski, John F.; Farney, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods: We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Results: Values for TAG and MDA (P < 0.001), as well as for H2O2 (P < 0.001), increased significantly following milk shake consumption, with values higher at 4 hours compared with 2 hours post consumption for TAG and H2O2 (P < 0.05). TEAC was unaffected by the milk shake consumption. Coffee had no impact on TAG, MDA, H2O2, or TEAC, with no condition or interaction effects noted for any variable (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress. PMID:23935371

  1. Effect of interfacial Maxwell stress on time periodic electro-osmotic flow in a thin liquid film with a flat interface.

    PubMed

    Mayur, Manik; Amiroudine, Sakir; Lasseux, Didier; Chakraborty, Suman

    2014-03-01

    Electro-osmotic flows (EOF) have seen remarkable applications in lab-on-a-chip based microdevices owing to their lack of moving components, durability, and nondispersive nature of the flow profiles under specifically designed conditions. However, such flows may typically suffer from classical Faradaic artifacts like electrolysis of the solvent, which affects the flow rate control. Such a problem has been seen to be overcome by employing time periodic EOFs. Electric field induced transport of a conductive liquid is another nontrivial problem that requires careful study of interfacial dynamics in response to such an oscillatory flow actuation. The present study highlights the role of electric field generated Maxwell stress and free surface potential along with the electric double layer thickness and forcing frequency, toward influencing the interfacial transport and fluid flow in free-surface electro-osmosis under a periodically varying external electric field, in a semi-analytical formalism. Our results reveal interesting regimes over which the pertinent interfacial phenomena as well as bulk transport characteristics may be favorably tuned by employing time varying electrical fields.

  2. Influence of acute stress on spatial tasks in humans.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Anthony E; VanderKaay Tomasulo, Melissa M

    2011-07-06

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between stress and spatial performance in humans. In this study, participants were exposed to an acute laboratory stressor (Star Mirror Tracing Task) or a control condition (watching a nature video) and then performed two spatial tasks. In the first task, participants navigated through a virtual reality (VR) environment and then returned to the environment to make directional judgments relating to the learned targets. In the second task, perspective taking, participants made directional judgments to targets after imagined body rotations with respect to a map. Compared to the control condition, participants in the Stress condition showed increases in heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure indicating sympathetic adrenal medulla (SAM) axis activation. Participants in the Stress condition also reported being more anxious, angry, frustrated, and irritated than participants in the Non-Stress condition. Salivary cortisol did not differ between conditions, indicating no significant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis involvement. In the VR task, memory encoding was unaffected as directional error was similar in both conditions; however, participants in the Stress condition responded more slowly, which may be due to increases in negative affect, SAM disruption in spatial memory retrieval through catecholamine release, or a combination of both factors. In the perspective taking task, participants were also slower to respond after stress, suggesting interference in the ability to adopt new spatial orientations. Additionally, sex differences were observed in that men had greater accuracy on both spatial tasks, but no significant Sex by Stress condition interactions were demonstrated.

  3. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-10-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising 5min each of a Stroop task, mirror tracing, and a speech task. Participants subsequently completed the Big Five Inventory to assess neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Those with higher neuroticism scores exhibited smaller cortisol and cardiovascular stress reactions, whereas participants who were less agreeable and less open had smaller cortisol and cardiac reactions to stress. These associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Thus, a negative personality disposition would appear to be linked to diminished stress reactivity. These findings further support a growing body of evidence which suggests that blunted stress reactivity may be maladaptive.

  4. Resilience as a correlate of acute stress disorder symptoms in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Rebecca E; Weber, Tania; Princip, Mary; Schnyder, Ulrich; Barth, Jürgen; Znoj, Hansjörg; Schmid, Jean-Paul; von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Myocardial infarction (MI) may be experienced as a traumatic event causing acute stress disorder (ASD). This mental disorder has an impact on the daily life of patients and is associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Trait resilience has been shown to be a protective factor for post-traumatic stress disorder, but its association with ASD in patients with MI is elusive and was examined in this study. Methods We investigated 71 consecutive patients with acute MI within 48 h of having stable haemodynamic conditions established and for 3 months thereafter. All patients completed the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and the Resilience Scale to self-rate the severity of ASD symptoms and trait resilience, respectively. Results Hierarchical regression analysis showed that greater resilience was associated with lower symptoms of ASD independent of covariates (b=−0.22, p<0.05). Post hoc analysis revealed resilience level to be inversely associated with the ASD symptom clusters of re-experiencing (b=−0.05, p<0.05) and arousal (b=−0.09, p<0.05), but not with dissociation and avoidance. Conclusions The findings suggest that patients with acute MI with higher trait resilience experience relatively fewer symptoms of ASD during MI. Resilience was particularly associated with re-experiencing and arousal symptoms. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of resilience as a potentially important correlate of ASD in the context of traumatic situations such as acute MI. These results emphasise the importance of identifying patients with low resilience in medical settings and to offer them adequate support. PMID:26568834

  5. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Two-Component Signaling Regulates Osmotic Stress Adaptation via SskA and the High-Osmolarity Glycerol MAPK Pathway in the Human Pathogen Talaromyces marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Cunwei; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT For successful infection to occur, a pathogen must be able to evade or tolerate the host’s defense systems. This requires the pathogen to first recognize the host environment and then signal this response to elicit a complex adaptive program in order to activate its own defense strategies. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, two-component signaling systems are utilized to sense and respond to changes in the external environment. The hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) at the start of the two-component signaling pathway have been well characterized in human pathogens. However, how these HHKs regulate processes downstream currently remains unclear. This study describes the role of a response regulator downstream of these HHKs, sskA, in Talaromyces marneffei, a dimorphic human pathogen. sskA is required for asexual reproduction, hyphal morphogenesis, cell wall integrity, osmotic adaptation, and the morphogenesis of yeast cells both in vitro at 37°C and during macrophage infection, but not during dimorphic switching. Comparison of the ΔsskA mutant with a strain in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway (SakA) has been deleted suggests that SskA acts upstream of this pathway in T. marneffei to regulate these morphogenetic processes. This was confirmed by assessing the amount of phosphorylated SakA in the ΔsskA mutant, antifungal resistance due to a lack of SakA activation, and the ability of a constitutively active sakA allele (sakAF316L) to suppress the ΔsskA mutant phenotypes. We conclude that SskA regulates morphogenesis and osmotic stress adaptation in T. marneffei via phosphorylation of the SakA MAPK of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. IMPORTANCE This is the first study in a dimorphic fungal pathogen to investigate the role of a response regulator downstream of two-component signaling systems and its connection to the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. This study will inspire further research into

  7. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  8. Sleep Disturbance and Older Adults' Inflammatory Responses to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Kathi L.; Ng, H. Mei; Suhr, Julie A.; France, Christopher R.; Marshall, Gailen D.; Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Moynihan, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Poor sleep diminishes mental and physical health. The objective of this study was to examine associations between sleep disturbance and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses to acute mental stress in older adults. Design Observational study of community-dwelling, healthy older adults. Setting Participants completed the study in a clinical research laboratory of a mid-sized university. Participants Generally healthy, community-dwelling men and women 50 years of age and older. Measurements IL-6 and negative affect at rest and following a series of challenging cognitive tests; sleep quality; depressive symptoms; perceived stress; loneliness. Results Participants categorized as poor sleepers based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores had significantly larger IL-6 responses to the cognitive stressors compared to good sleepers. The association between poor sleep and heightened IL-6 response to acute stress was not explained by other psychosocial factors previously linked to immune dysregulation, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and loneliness. Conclusions Findings add to the growing evidence for poor sleep as an independent risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable to effects of sleep disturbance due to significant age-related changes in both sleep and inflammatory regulation. PMID:22327621

  9. Genetic variation in photosynthetic performance and tolerance to osmotic stress (desiccation, freezing, hyposalinity) in the rocky littoral foundation species Fucus vesiculosus (Fucales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Rothäusler, Eva; Sjöroos, Joakim; Heye, Katharina; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2016-10-01

    Genetic diversity may play an analogous role to species diversity, as it can contribute to ecosystem function and stability, and provision of ecosystem services. In the Baltic Sea, perennial algal beds are often comprised of only Fucus vesiculosus and the amount of genetic variation in fitness-related traits (i.e., the ability of the alga to photosynthesize or withstand stress) will thus determine the alga's local persistence in a changing environment. To study genetic variation in the crucial traits behind persistence we grew replicate vegetative branches that came from the same genotype in common gardens. We quantified osmotic stress tolerance and recovery responses by exposing branches to desiccation, freezing, and hyposalinity regimens. Our results show that genetic variation among genotypes was apparent for some photosynthetic parameters (maximal electron transport rate, saturation irradiance for electron transport, nonphotochemical quenching) and growth. Algae tolerated freezing (1,440 min at -2.5°C) and hyposalinity (1,560 min at 2.5) well, but did not recover from desiccation (70 min at 12°C, causing ~94% water loss). Furthermore, we found very little if any evidence on genetic variation in tolerance to these stressors. Our results suggest that low salinity and cold winters in the northern marginal populations selected for hyposalinity and freezing tolerant genotypes, possibly eroding genetic variation in tolerance, but that tolerance to harsh desiccation has been lost, likely due to relaxed selection. The overall availability of genetic variation in fitness related traits might be supportive for F. vesiculosus during adaptation to gradual changes of its environment.

  10. Glutamatergic Mechanisms of Comorbidity Between Acute Stress and Cocaine Self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Kupchik, Yonatan; Gipson, Cassandra D; Brown, Robyn M; Spencer, Sade; Bollati, Flavia; Esparza, Maria A; Roberts-Wolfe, Doug; Heinsbroek, Jasper; Bobadilla, Ana-Clara; Cancela, Liliana M; Kalivas, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial comorbidity between stress disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs), and acute stress augments the locomotor stimulant effect of cocaine in animal models. Here we endeavor to understand the neural underpinnings of comorbid stress disorders and drug use by determining if the glutamatergic neuroadaptations that characterize cocaine self-administration are induced by acute stress. Rats were exposed to acute (2 h) immobilization stress and 3 weeks later the nucleus accumbens core was examined for changes in glutamate transport, glutamate mediated synaptic currents, and dendritic spine morphology. We also determined if acute stress potentiated the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Acute stress produced an enduring reduction in glutamate transport, and potentiated excitatory synapses on medium spiny neurons. Acute stress also augmented the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Importantly, by restoring glutamate transport in the accumbens core with ceftriaxone the capacity of acute stress to augment the acquisition of cocaine self-administration was abolished. Similarly, ceftriaxone treatment prevented stress-induced potentiation of cocaine-induced locomotor activity. However, ceftriaxone did not reverse stress-induced synaptic potentiation, indicating that this effect of stress exposure did not underpin the increased acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Reversing acute stress-induced vulnerability to self-administer cocaine by normalizing glutamate transport poses a novel treatment possibility for reducing comorbid SUDs in stress disorders. PMID:26821978

  11. Saltstone Osmotic Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Ralph L.; Dixon, Kenneth L.

    2013-09-23

    Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR- 2013-0004.

  12. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays an important role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent research in rodents found that exposure to stress led to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress responses, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, one day later participants in the stress group (n = 27) demonstrated significantly less

  13. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Raio, Candace M; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays a critical role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent work in rodents has demonstrated that exposure to stress leads to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress response, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, a day later participants in the stress group (n=27) demonstrated significantly

  14. Impact of osmotic/matric stress and heat shock on environmental tolerance induction of bacterial biocontrol agents against Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Melina; Nesci, Andrea; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2010-10-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Microbacterium oleovorans reduced the Fusarium verticillioides count and significantly decreased fumonisin B(1) and B(2) levels in maize grains. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water stress tolerance and heat shock survival upon cells of the biocontrol agents B. amyloliquefaciens and M. oleovorans. The a(w) of solid and liquid media and tryptic soy medium was modified to 0.99, 0.98, 0.97 and 0.96 by addition of ionic solute NaCl and non-ionic solutes such as glycerol and glucose. The non-ionic solute polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG 600) was used to modify matrically solid media. Bacterial incubation was at 30 °C. After 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, samples from liquid media were spread-plate on nutrient agar medium and incubated for 24 h to determine the number of viable cells. The bacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and heat treatment carried out in a water bath at 45 °C for 30 min. The viability of cells from different incubation times in liquid media showed statistically significant differences. Cells of B. amyloliquefaciens grown in liquid media amended with glycerol showed better tolerance at low a(w) and high survival under heat stress. These results could have important implications for optimizing and improving formulations.

  15. A homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase in Solanum lycopersicum is involved in resistance to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Bo; Yang, Xiao-Jian; Du, Jia-Jia; Wan, Chun-Mei; Xu, Jia-Ning; Wang, Wen-Jun; Feng, Yue-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) exists widely in the chloroplasts of higher plants and plays important roles in redox regulation. However, investigations of plant VKOR function have primarily focused on VKOR from Arabidopsis, and knowledge concerning this function is therefore quite limited. In this study, Solanum lycopersicum was used to study the function of VKOR. Transcription level analysis revealed that SlVKOR (S. lycopersicum VKOR) expression was upregulated by salt or drought stress. To further investigate the function of SlVKOR in plants, we generated sense and antisense transgenic S. lycopersicum homozygotes at T2 generation plants. Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, the leaf disks of the SlVKOR overexpression plants retained a much higher percentage of chlorophyll after salt or drought treatment, whereas the antisense transgenic plants displayed an opposite response. The overexpressed plants displayed lower levels of H2O2 and superoxide anion radical (O2(·-)) than WT plants, whereas antisense plants accumulated considerably more H2O2 and O2(·-). The activities of reactive oxygen scavenger enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase, were consistent with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Based on these results, we suggest that SlVKOR is involved in resistance to salt or drought stress.

  16. Resorcinol degradation by a Penicillium chrysogenum strain under osmotic stress: mono and binary substrate matrices with phenol.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Sumaya Ferreira; Mendes, Benilde; Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2011-04-01

    A phenol-degrading Penicillium chrysogenum strain previously isolated from a salt mine was able to grow at 1,000 mg l(-1) of resorcinol on solid medium. The aerobic degradation of resorcinol by P. chrysogenum CLONA2 was studied in batch cultures in minimal mineral medium with 58.5 g l(-1) of sodium chloride using resorcinol as the sole carbon source. The fungal strain showed the ability to degrade up to 250 mg l(-1) of resorcinol. Resorcinol and phenol efficiency degradation by P. chrysogenum CLONA2 was compared. This strain removes phenol faster than resorcinol. When phenol and resorcinol were in binary substrate matrices, phenol enhanced resorcinol degradation, and organic load decreased with respect to the mono substrate matrices. The acute toxicity of phenol and resorcinol, individually and in combination, to Artemia franciscana larvae has been verified before and after the bioremediation process with P. chrysogenum CLONA2. The remediation process was effective in mono and binary substrate systems.

  17. Acute hypertension induces oxidative stress in brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Poulet, Roberta; Gentile, Maria T; Vecchione, Carmine; Distaso, Maria; Aretini, Alessandra; Fratta, Luigi; Russo, Giovanni; Echart, Cinara; Maffei, Angelo; De Simoni, Maria G; Lembo, Giuseppe

    2006-02-01

    Arterial hypertension is not only a major risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents, such as stroke and cerebral hemorrhage, but is also associated to milder forms of brain injury. One of the main causes of neurodegeneration is the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is also a common trait of hypertensive conditions, thus suggesting that such a mechanism could play a role even in the onset of hypertension-evoked brain injury. To investigate this issue, we have explored the effect of acute-induced hypertensive conditions on cerebral oxidative stress. To this aim, we have developed a mouse model of transverse aortic coarctation (TAC) between the two carotid arteries, which imposes acutely on the right brain hemisphere a dramatic increase in blood pressure. Our results show that hypertension acutely induced by aortic coarctation induces a breaking of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reactive astrocytosis through hyperperfusion, and evokes trigger factors of neurodegeneration such as oxidative stress and inflammation, similar to that observed in cerebral hypoperfusion. Moreover, the derived brain injury is mainly localized in selected brain areas controlling cognitive functions, such as the cortex and hippocampus, and could be a consequence of a defect in the BBB permeability. It is noteworthy to emphasize that, even if these latter events are not enough to produce ischemic/hemorrhagic injury, they are able to alter mechanisms fundamental for maintaining normal brain function, such as protein synthesis, which has a prominent role for memory formation and cortical plasticity.

  18. Time kinetics of the endocrine response to acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Richter, S D; Schürmeyer, T H; Schedlowski, M; Hädicke, A; Tewes, U; Schmidt, R E; Wagner, T O

    1996-05-01

    A first-time parachute jump was chosen as a model to evaluate the endocrine response to acute psychological stress. In 43 inexperienced tandem parachutists, blood was drawn continuously from 2 h before to 1 h after the jump and analyzed at 10-min intervals for plasma concentrations of epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), cortisol, GH, PRL, and TSH. In addition, heart rate was recorded throughout the experiment. There was a significant increase in heart rate and E concentrations during the jump itself. NE, cortisol, GH, PRL, and TSH peaked with a latency of 10-20 min. Apart from cortisol and TSH concentrations, which were still elevated 1 h after the stress event, plasma levels of the other endocrine variables normalized within 1 h following the jump. Statistically significant cross-correlations could be observed between E and NE (r = 0.60, no time lag) and between E and PRL (r = 0.58, 10-min time lag) only. Even in a very homogenous group of subjects and under well-controlled conditions, endocrine responses to acute psychological stress show considerable variations.

  19. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific.

  20. High-throughput single-cell analysis for the proteomic dynamics study of the yeast osmotic stress response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongfei; Yuan, Haiyu; Wang, Shujing; Ouyang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Hao, Nan; Luo, Chunxiong

    2017-01-01

    Motorized fluorescence microscopy combined with high-throughput microfluidic chips is a powerful method to obtain information about different biological processes in cell biology studies. Generally, to observe different strains under different environments, high-throughput microfluidic chips require complex preparatory work. In this study, we designed a novel and easily operated high-throughput microfluidic system to observe 96 different GFP-tagged yeast strains in one switchable culture condition or 24 different GFP-tagged yeast strains in four parallel switchable culture conditions. A multi-pipette is the only additional equipment required for high-throughput patterning of cells in the chip. Only eight connections are needed to control 96 conditions. Using these devices, the proteomic dynamics of the yeast stress response pathway were carefully studied based on single-cell data. A new method to characterize the proteomic dynamics using a single cell’s data is proposed and compared to previous methods, and the new technique should be useful for studying underlying control networks. Our method provides an easy and systematic way to study signaling pathways at the single-cell level. PMID:28181485

  1. High-throughput single-cell analysis for the proteomic dynamics study of the yeast osmotic stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongfei; Yuan, Haiyu; Wang, Shujing; Ouyang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Hao, Nan; Luo, Chunxiong

    2017-02-09

    Motorized fluorescence microscopy combined with high-throughput microfluidic chips is a powerful method to obtain information about different biological processes in cell biology studies. Generally, to observe different strains under different environments, high-throughput microfluidic chips require complex preparatory work. In this study, we designed a novel and easily operated high-throughput microfluidic system to observe 96 different GFP-tagged yeast strains in one switchable culture condition or 24 different GFP-tagged yeast strains in four parallel switchable culture conditions. A multi-pipette is the only additional equipment required for high-throughput patterning of cells in the chip. Only eight connections are needed to control 96 conditions. Using these devices, the proteomic dynamics of the yeast stress response pathway were carefully studied based on single-cell data. A new method to characterize the proteomic dynamics using a single cell's data is proposed and compared to previous methods, and the new technique should be useful for studying underlying control networks. Our method provides an easy and systematic way to study signaling pathways at the single-cell level.

  2. [Effect of mexicor on oxidative stress in acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Golikov, A P; Davydov, B V; Rudnev, D V; Klychnikova, E V; Bykova, N S; Riabinin, V A; Polumiskov, V Iu; Nikolaeva, N Iu; Golikov, P P

    2005-01-01

    Mexicor (5% solution and capsules) was used in 40 of 80 conventionally treated patients with acute myocardial infarction. The drug was given intravenously for 5 days, than intramuscularly (6-9 mg/kg) for 9 days and orally (0.1 mg t.i.d.) thereafter until discharge. Severity of oxidative stress was evaluated by K coefficient. Calculation of this coefficient required data on degree of oxidation of lipids in blood serum, serum levels of diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin. These parameters as well as activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in erythrocytes were measured at admission, on days 2, 3, 7, 14 and at discharge. Mexicor treated compared with untreated (n=40) patients were characterized by diminished severity of oxidative stress at the account of lower levels of lipid peroxidation products and augmented compensatory potential of the endogenous antioxidant system.

  3. Visual expression analysis of the responses of the alternative oxidase gene (aox1) to heat shock, oxidative, and osmotic stresses in conidia of citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yuki; Hattori, Takasumi; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2012-03-01

    The citric acid-producing filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger WU-2223L shows cyanide-insensitive respiration catalyzed by alternative oxidase in addition to the cytochrome pathway. Sequence analysis of the 5' flanking region of the alternative oxidase gene (aox1) revealed a potential heat shock element (HSE) and a stress response element (STRE). We have previously confirmed aox1 expression in conidia. In this study, to confirm whether the upstream region of aox1 responds to various stresses, we used a visual expression analysis system for single-cell conidia of the A. niger strain AOXEGFP-1. This strain harbored a fusion gene comprising aox1 and egfp, which encodes the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The fluorescence intensity of EGFP increased in conidia of A. niger AOXEGFP-1 that were subjected to heat shock at 35-45 °C, oxidative stress by exposure to 5mM paraquat or 1 mM t-butylhydroperoxide, or osmotic stresses by exposure to 0.5 M KCl or 1.0 M mannitol. These results indicate that the putative HSE and STRE in the upstream region of aox1 directly or indirectly respond to heat shock, oxidative, and osmotic stresses.

  4. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    PubMed

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  5. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  6. Impairments of spatial working memory and attention following acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory.

  7. Traumatic Memories in Acute Stress Disorder: An Analysis of Narratives before and after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulds, Michelle L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative reactions in acute stress disorder purportedly impede encoding and organization of traumatic memories and consequently impair the individual's ability to retrieve trauma-related details. A qualitative examination was conducted on trauma narratives of individuals with acute stress disorder (N = 15) prior to cognitive behavior…

  8. Acute Stress Symptoms in Children: Results From an International Data Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Rork, Kristine; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Kenardy, Justin; Kohser, Kristen L.; Landolt, Markus A.; Le Brocque, Robyne; Marsac, Meghan L.; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Nixon, Reginald D.V.; Bui, Eric; McGrath, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms and to examine proposed "DSM-5" symptom criteria in relation to concurrent functional impairment in children and adolescents. Method: From an international archive, datasets were identified that included assessment of acute traumatic stress reactions and…

  9. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000),…

  10. Effect of acute stress on auditory processing: a systematic review of human studies.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Zahra; Kolb, Bryan E; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2017-01-01

    Stress is an integral part of modern life. Although there is a large body of literature regarding the harmful effects of chronic stress on different aspects of human life, acute stress is the most common form of stress, resulting from the demands and pressures of the recent past and the anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. In spite of its pervasive nature, less attention has been paid to the impact of acute stress on sensory processing than to the consequences of chronic stress, particularly concerning auditory processing. In this systematic review, the impact of experimental acute stress on the auditory processing of healthy adults was investigated. The results revealed the adverse effects of acute physical and psychological stresses on auditory processing. According to the open field of research on stress and the auditory system and the high possibility of experiencing different types of acute stresses in various life environments, including testing places, it seems that more investigations are needed to identify and manage different types of acute stresses in both clinical and research situations.

  11. Acute stress disorder in hospitalised victims of 26/11-terror attack on Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Balasinorwala, Vanshree Patil; Shah, Nilesh

    2010-11-01

    The 26/11 terror attacks on Mumbai have been internationally denounced. Acute stress disorder is common in victims of terror. To find out the prevalence and to correlate acute stress disorder, 70 hospitalised victims of terror were assessed for presence of the same using DSM-IV TR criteria. Demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. Acute stress disorder was found in 30% patients. On demographic profile and severity of injury, there were some interesting observations and differences between the victims who developed acute stress disorder and those who did not; though none of the differences reached the level of statistical significance. This study documents the occurrence of acute stress disorder in the victims of 26/11 terror attack.

  12. Mimicking acute and chronic stress exposure in naive beef steers alters the acute phase response (APR) associated with vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of an acute versus chronic stress model on the APR associated with vaccination in naïve beef steers. Steers (n=32; 209 +/- 8 kg) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) Chronic stress (CHR), 0.5 mg/kg body weight dexamethasone...

  13. Hydrogen sulfide induces systemic tolerance to salinity and non-ionic osmotic stress in strawberry plants through modification of reactive species biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation of multiple defence pathways.

    PubMed

    Christou, Anastasis; Manganaris, George A; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recently found to act as a potent priming agent. This study explored the hypothesis that hydroponic pretreatment of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cv. Camarosa) roots with a H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; 100 μM for 48 h), could induce long-lasting priming effects and tolerance to subsequent exposure to 100mM NaCI or 10% (w/v) PEG-6000 for 7 d. Hydrogen sulfide pretreatment of roots resulted in increased leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance and leaf relative water content as well as lower lipid peroxidation levels in comparison with plants directly subjected to salt and non-ionic osmotic stress, thus suggesting a systemic mitigating effect of H2S pretreatment to cellular damage derived from abiotic stress factors. In addition, root pretreatment with NaHS resulted in the minimization of oxidative and nitrosative stress in strawberry plants, manifested via lower levels of synthesis of NO and H(2)O(2) in leaves and the maintenance of high ascorbate and glutathione redox states, following subsequent salt and non-ionic osmotic stresses. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR gene expression analysis of key antioxidant (cAPX, CAT, MnSOD, GR), ascorbate and glutathione biosynthesis (GCS, GDH, GS), transcription factor (DREB), and salt overly sensitive (SOS) pathway (SOS2-like, SOS3-like, SOS4) genes suggests that H2S plays a pivotal role in the coordinated regulation of multiple transcriptional pathways. The ameliorative effects of H2S were more pronounced in strawberry plants subjected to both stress conditions immediately after NaHS root pretreatment, rather than in plants subjected to stress conditions 3 d after root pretreatment. Overall, H2S-pretreated plants managed to overcome the deleterious effects of salt and non-ionic osmotic stress by controlling oxidative and nitrosative cellular damage through increased performance of antioxidant mechanisms and the coordinated regulation of the SOS pathway, thus proposing a

  14. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on isolated islets' insulin release.

    PubMed

    Zardooz, Homeira; Zahediasl, Saleh; Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Farrokhi, Babak; Nasiraei, Shiva; Kazeminezhad, Behrang; Gholampour, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets. Male Wistar rats were divided into two control and stressed groups; each further was allocated into fed and fasted groups. Stress was induced by communication box for one (acute), fifteen and thirty (chronic) days. After islet isolation, their number, size and insulin output were assessed. Plasma corticosterone level was determined. In fasted animals, acute stress increased basal and post stress plasma corticosterone level, while 30 days stress decreased it compared to day 1. In fed rats, acute stress increased only post stress plasma corticosterone concentration, however, after 15 days stress, it was decreased compared to day 1. Acute stress did not change insulin output; however, the insulin output was higher in the fed acutely stressed rats at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose than fasted ones. Chronic stress increased insulin output on day 15 in the fasted animals but decreased it on day 30 in the fed animals at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose. In the fasted control rats insulin output was lower than fed ones. In the chronic stressed rats insulin output at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose was higher in the fasted than fed rats. The number of islets increased in the fasted rats following 15 days stress. This study indicated that the response of the isolated islets from acute and chronically stressed rats are different and depends on the feeding status.

  15. Computer Models of Stress, Allostasis, and Acute and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The past century has seen a profound shift in diseases of humankind. Acute, unifactorial diseases are being replaced increasingly by multifactorial disorders that arise from complex interactions among genes, environment, concurrent morbidities and treatments, and time. According to the concept of allostasis, there is no single, ideal set of steady-state conditions in life. Allostasis reflects active, adaptive processes that maintain apparent steady states, via multiple, interacting effectors regulated by homeostatic comparators “homeostats.” Stress can be defined as a condition or state in which a sensed discrepancy between afferent information and a setpoint for response leads to activation of effectors, reducing the discrepancy. “Allostatic load” refers to the consequences of sustained or repeated activation of mediators of allostasis. From the analogy of a home temperature control system, the temperature can be maintained at any of a variety of levels (allostatic states) by multiple means (effectors), regulated by a comparator thermostat (homeostat). Stress might exert adverse health consequences via allostatic load. This presentation describes models of homeostatic systems that incorporate negative feedback regulation, multiple effectors, effector sharing, environmental influences, intrinsic obsolescence, and destabilizing positive feedback loops. These models can be used to predict effects of environmental and genetic alterations on allostatic load and therefore on the development of multi-system disorders and failures. PMID:19120114

  16. Serum albumin induces osmotic swelling of rat retinal glial cells.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Silvana; Wurm, Antje; Kutzera, Franziska; Pannicke, Thomas; Krügel, Katja; Linnertz, Regina; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bringmann, Andreas

    2010-03-04

    Edema in the ischemic neural tissue develops by increased vascular permeability associated with extravasation of albumin, and by glial swelling. Here, we show that bovine serum albumin acutely administered to slices of the rat retina causes swelling of glial somata under hypoosmotic conditions. The effect of albumin was dose-dependent, with half-maximal and maximal effects at 10 nM and 1 microM, respectively, and was mediated by activation of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II, oxidative stress, and the production of arachidonic acid and prostaglandins. Albumin-induced glial swelling was prevented by glutamate and purinergic receptor agonists. The data suggest that serum albumin may induce glial swelling in the presence of osmotic gradients.

  17. Lower electrodermal activity to acute stress in caregivers of people with autism spectrum disorder: an adaptive habituation to stress.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between parents of people with (n = 30) and without (n = 34) ASD (caregivers and non-caregivers, respectively). Caregivers showed lower EDA in response to acute stress than non-caregivers. They also presented higher trait anxiety, anger, depression, and somatic symptoms than non-caregivers. Higher EDA was related to a worse mood and more severe somatic symptoms only in caregivers. These results could reflect an adaptive habituation to stress and establish that high EDA in response to acute stress depends on caregivers' health.

  18. Cold Osmotic Shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Patching, J. W.; Rose, A. H.

    1971-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 366 is susceptible to cold osmotic shock. Exponentially growing cells from batch cultures grown in defined medium at 30 C, after being suspended in 0.8 m mannitol containing 10 mm ethylenedia-minetetraacetic acid and then resuspended in ice-cold 0.5 mm MgCl2, accumulated the nonmetabolizable solutes d-glucosamine-hydrochloride and 2-aminoisobutyrate at slower rates than unshocked cells; shocked cells retained their viability. Storage of unshocked batch-grown cells in buffer at 10 C led to an increase in ability to accumulate glucosamine, and further experiments were confined to cells grown in a chemostat under conditions of glucose limitation, thereby obviating the need for storing cells before use. A study was made of the effect of the different stages in the cold osmotic shock procedure, including the osmotic stress, the chelating agent, and the cold Mg2+-containing diluent, on viability and solute-accumulating ability. Growth of shocked cells in defined medium resembled that of unshocked cells; however, in malt extract-yeast extract-glucose-peptone medium, the shocked cells had a longer lag phase of growth and initially grew at a slower rate. Cold osmotic shock caused the release of low-molecular-weight compounds and about 6 to 8% of the cell protein. Neither the cell envelope enzymes, invertase, acid phosphatase and l-leucine-β-naphthylamidase, nor the cytoplasmic enzyme, alkaline phosphatase, were released when yeast cells were subjected to cold osmotic shock. PMID:5001201

  19. Nanofluidic osmotic diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocquet, Lyderic; Picallo, Clara; Gravelle, Simon; Joly, Laurent; Charlaix, Elisabeth

    2013-11-01

    Osmosis describes the flow of water across semipermeable membranes powered by the chemical free energy extracted from salinity gradients. While osmosis can be expressed in simple terms via the van't Hoff ideal gas formula for the osmotic pressure, it is a complex phenomenon taking its roots in the subtle interactions occurring at the scale of the membrane nanopores. Here we use new opportunities offered by nanofluidic systems to create an osmotic diode exhibiting asymmetric water flow under reversal of osmotic driving. We show that a surface charge asymmetry built on a nanochannel surface leads to non-linear couplings between water flow and the ion dynamics, which are capable of water flow rectification. This phenomenon opens new opportunities for water purification and complex flow control in nanochannels.

  20. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making. PMID:27679566

  1. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  2. The effect of acute stress on memory depends on word valence.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Tom; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of acute stress on working memory and memory for neutral, emotionally negative, and emotionally positive words in healthy undergraduates. Participants (N=60) were exposed to either the Trier Social Stress Test (stress group) or a non-stressful task (control group). Analyses of salivary cortisol samples taken throughout the study showed elevated glucocorticoid levels after the experimental manipulation in the stress group, but not in the control group. Recall performance was impaired in the stress group, but only so for neutral words. No differences between the stress and control group were found on working memory measures. For the stress group, digit span forward and digit span total scores were associated with correct recall of neutral words. All in all, this study lends further support to the notion that the memory effects of exposure to acute stress depend on the valence of the memory material.

  3. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular.

  4. Child anxiety symptoms related to longitudinal cortisol trajectories and acute stress responses: evidence of developmental stress sensitization.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders.

  5. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  6. Catecholaminergic responses in vas deferens isolated from rats submitted to acute swimming stress.

    PubMed

    Chies, A B; Pereira, O C

    1995-09-01

    The study was performed to examine the responses to catecholamines in vas deferens isolated from rats submitted to acute swimming-induced stress. It was demonstrated that acute stress induces a significant subsensitivity of rat vas deferens to norepinephrine. This subsensitivity was inhibited when the experiment was carried out in the presence of either cocaine (10-5 M) or timolol (10-5 M). On the other hand, the rat vas deferens sensitivity to methoxamine was significantly increased by acute swimming-induced stress. Thus, despite acute swimming stress inducing a reduction in response to norepinephrine, the alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contractile response was increased. Additionally there were increases in neuronal uptake and beta2-adrenoceptor activity that opposes the alpha1-adrenoceptor activity. Integrated, these phenomena are responsible for the rat vas deferens subsensitivity to norepinephrine which may be involved in body homeostasis in stressogenic situations.

  7. Impact of acute stress on psychomotor bimanual performance during a simulated tumor resection task.

    PubMed

    Bajunaid, Khalid; Mullah, Muhammad Abu Shadeque; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Alotaibi, Fahad E; Fares, Jawad; Baggiani, Marta; Azarnoush, Hamed; Christie, Sommer; Al-Zhrani, Gmaan; Marwa, Ibrahim; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman Jafar; Werthner, Penny; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Severe bleeding during neurosurgical operations can result in acute stress affecting the bimanual psychomotor performance of the operator, leading to surgical error and an adverse patient outcome. Objective methods to assess the influence of acute stress on neurosurgical bimanual psychomotor performance have not been developed. Virtual reality simulators, such as NeuroTouch, allow the testing of acute stress on psychomotor performance in risk-free environments. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a simulated stressful virtual reality tumor resection scenario by utilizing NeuroTouch to answer 2 questions: 1) What is the impact of acute stress on bimanual psychomotor performance during the resection of simulated tumors? 2) Does acute stress influence bimanual psychomotor performance immediately following the stressful episode? METHODS Study participants included 6 neurosurgeons, 6 senior and 6 junior neurosurgical residents, and 6 medical students. Participants resected a total of 6 simulated tumors, 1 of which (Tumor 4) involved uncontrollable "intraoperative" bleeding resulting in simulated cardiac arrest and thus providing the acute stress scenario. Tier 1 metrics included extent of blood loss, percentage of tumor resected, and "normal" brain tissue volume removed. Tier 2 metrics included simulated suction device (sucker) and ultrasonic aspirator total tip path length, as well as the sum and maximum forces applied in using these instruments. Advanced Tier 2 metrics included efficiency index, coordination index, ultrasonic aspirator path length index, and ultrasonic aspirator bimanual forces ratio. All metrics were assessed before, during, and after the stressful scenario. RESULTS The stress scenario caused expected significant increases in blood loss in all participant groups. Extent of tumor resected and brain volume removed decreased in the junior resident and medical student groups. Sucker total tip path length increased in

  8. A Simple Student Laboratory on Osmotic Flow, Osmotic Pressure, and the Reflection Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feher, Joseph J.; Ford, George D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise containing a practical series of experiments that novice students can perform within two hours. The exercise provides a confirmation of van't Hoff's law while placing more emphasis on osmotic flow than pressure. Students can determine parameters such as the reflection coefficient which stress the interaction of both…

  9. Oxidative stress and Kawasaki disease: how is oxidative stress involved from the acute stage to the chronic stage?

    PubMed

    Yahata, Tomoyo; Hamaoka, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are closely related. Further, oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathology of inflammation-based Kawasaki disease. An excessive in vivo production of reactive oxygen species increases oxidative stress in the body, which triggers an endless vicious spiral of inflammation reactions and reactive oxygen metabolites. This presumably forms diffuse vasculitis in the acute phase. Acute inflammation and oxidative stress can be rapidly controlled by treatments; however, they may remain for a long time. This has recently been identified as a problem in the chronic phase of Kawasaki disease. Generally, the presence of vascular inflammation and oxidative stress impairs blood vessels, leading to the onset of atherosclerosis, which is a widely recognized risk. The current discussion focuses on whether the same is valid for blood vessels in the chronic phase of Kawasaki disease.

  10. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Reactivity to Acute Stress: an Investigation into the Roles of Perceived Stress and Family Resources.

    PubMed

    Obasi, Ezemenari M; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Cavanagh, Lucia; Ratliff, Kristen L; Pittman, Delishia M; Brooks, Jessica J

    2017-02-08

    Rurally situated African Americans suffer from chronic exposure to stress that may have a deleterious effect on health outcomes. Unfortunately, research on potential mechanisms that underlie health disparities affecting the African American community has received limited focus in the scientific literature. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress, family resources, and cortisol reactivity to acute stress. A rural sample of African American emerging adults (N = 60) completed a battery of assessments, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and provided four samples of salivary cortisol: prior to receiving TSST instructions, prior to conducting the speech task, immediately following the TSST, and 15-20 min following the TSST. As predicted, cortisol levels increased in response to a controlled laboratory inducement of acute stress. Moreover, diminished levels of family resources were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity to acute stress. Of note, higher levels of perceived stress over the past month and being male were independently associated with lower levels of cortisol at baseline. Lack of family resources had a blunting relationship on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. These findings provide biomarker support for the relationship between family resources-an indicator associated with social determinants of health-and stress physiology within a controlled laboratory experiment. Identifying mechanisms that work toward explanation of within-group differences in African American health disparities is both needed and informative for culturally informed prevention and intervention efforts.

  11. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  12. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food intake, increased heat production, and increased activity with sustained changes in body weight, behavior, and HPA reactivity. The effect of chronic psychological stress is more variable. In humans, chronic stress may cause weight gain in restrained eaters who show increased HPA reactivity to acute stress. This phenotype is difficult to replicate in rodent models where chronic psychological stress is more likely to cause weight loss than weight gain. An exception may be hamsters subjected to repeated bouts of social defeat or foot shock, but the data are limited. Recent reports on the food intake and body composition of subordinate members of group-housed female monkeys indicate that these animals have a similar phenotype to human stress-induced eaters, but there are a limited number of investigators with access to the model. Few stress experiments focus on energy balance, but more information on the phenotype of both humans and animal models during and after exposure to acute or chronic stress may provide novel insight into mechanisms that normally control body weight. PMID:25519732

  13. Impact of acute psychological stress on cardiovascular risk factors in face of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kristian T; Shelton, Richard C; Wan, Jun; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The Trier social stress test, a standardized experimental stress paradigm, was performed on each participant, and emotional and physiological responses were examined. Blood was collected from each subject for insulin, cytokines, and cortisol measurements. Compared with the insulin-sensitive group, individuals with IR had significantly lower ratings of energy and calm, but higher fatigue levels in response to acute stressors. Individuals with IR also showed blunted heart rate reactivity following stress. In addition, the IR status was worsened by acute psychological stress as demonstrated by further increased insulin secretion. Furthermore, individuals with IR showed significantly increased levels of leptin and interleukin-6, but decreased levels of adiponectin, at baseline, stress test, and post-stress period. Our findings in individuals with IR under acute stress would allow a better understanding of the risks for developing CVD and to tailor the interventions for better outcomes.

  14. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress.

  15. Anticoagulation and antiplatelet effects of semax under conditions of acute and chronic immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Grigorjeva, M E; Lyapina, L A

    2010-07-01

    The effects of semax on anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, and platelet components of the anticoagulation system were studied on albino rats under conditions of acute and chronic immobilization stress. Semax exhibited a protective antistress effect after repeated intranasal administration under conditions of hypercoagulation developing in response to immobilization stress of different degree. The effect manifested in stimulation of the anticoagulation system.

  16. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting from an Anti-Gay Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…

  17. Osmotic swelling characteristics of glial cells in the murine hippocampus, cerebellum, and retina in situ.

    PubMed

    Hirrlinger, Petra G; Wurm, Antje; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Bringmann, Andreas; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    Glial cells are proposed to play a major role in the ionic and osmotic homeostasis in the CNS. Swelling of glial cells contributes to the development of edema in neural tissue under pathological conditions such as trauma and ischemia. In this study, we compared the osmotic swelling characteristics of murine hippocampal astrocytes, cerebellar Bergmann glial cells, and retinal Müller glial cells in acutely isolated tissue slices in response to hypoosmotic stress and pharmacological blockade of Kir channels. Hypoosmotic challenge induced an immediate swelling of somata in the majority of Bergmann glial cells and hippocampal astrocytes investigated, whereas Müller cell bodies displayed a substantial delay in the onset of swelling and hippocampal astroglial processes remained unaffected. Blockade of Kir channels under isoosmotic conditions had no swelling-inducing effect in Müller cell somata but caused a swelling in brain astrocytic somata and processes. Blockade of Kir channels under hypoosmotic conditions induced an immediate and strong swelling in Müller cell somata, but had no cumulative effect to brain astroglial somata. No regulatory volume decrease could be observed in all cell types. The data suggest that Kir channels are differently implicated in cell volume homeostasis of retinal Müller cells and brain astrocytes and that Müller cells and brain astrocytes differ in their osmotic swelling properties.

  18. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress.

  19. Symptoms of peritraumatic and acute traumatic stress among victims of an industrial disaster.

    PubMed

    Birmes, Philippe J; Brunet, Alain; Coppin-Calmes, Dominique; Arbus, Christophe; Coppin, Dominique; Charlet, Jean-Paul; Vinnemann, Nathalie; Juchet, Henri; Lauque, Dominique; Schmitt, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have examined peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, and acute stress disorder as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors examined whether these three predictors were associated with PTSD symptoms when considered simultaneously. Two-hundred victims of a factory explosion in Toulouse, France, were surveyed two and six months after the event with use of retrospective self-reports of peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, and acute stress disorder. A hierarchical multiple regression predicting PTSD symptoms six months posttrauma indicated that all three constructs explained unique variance, accounting for up to 62 percent. Peritraumatic distress and dissociation and acute stress disorder appear conceptually different from one another and show promise in identifying who is at risk of PTSD.

  20. The Effect of Acute Stress on Esophageal Motility and Gastroesophageal Reflux in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Sub; Noh, Chung Kyun; Lee, Kwang Jae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Little research has been done to evaluate the effect of stress in exacerbating the symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux (GER). We aimed to investigate the effect of acute stress on esophageal motility and GER parameters in healthy volunteers. Methods A total of 10 (M:F = 8:2, median age 34 years-old) healthy volunteers without any recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms participated in this study. They underwent esophageal high-resolution manometry with 10 wet swallows (Experiment I) and esophageal impedance-pH monitoring (Experiment II) in the basal period and in the stress period. In the stress period, either real stress or sham stress was given in a randomized cross-over design. The stress scores, symptom severity, and pulse rates were measured. Results The stress scores and the severity of nausea were significantly greater under real stress, compared with sham stress. The percentages of weak, failed, rapid, premature, and hyper-contractile contractions were not significantly altered during real stress and during sham stress, compared with the basal period. The median resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter and distal contractile integral of esophageal contractions did not differ in the stress period, compared with the basal period. Contractile front velocity and distal latency of esophageal peristaltic contractions were significantly changed during real stress, which was not observed during sham stress. GER parameters were not significantly altered during real stress and during sham stress. Conclusion Although acute auditory and visual stress seems to affect esophageal body motility, it does not induce significant motor abnormalities or increase GER in healthy humans. PMID:28049863

  1. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

    PubMed Central

    Hacioglu, Gulay; Senturk, Ayse; Ince, Imran; Alver, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain. PMID:27279982

  2. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-07

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  3. Acute restraint stress and corticosterone transiently disrupts novelty preference in an object recognition task.

    PubMed

    Vargas-López, Viviana; Torres-Berrio, Angélica; González-Martínez, Lina; Múnera, Alejandro; Lamprea, Marisol R

    2015-09-15

    The object recognition task is a procedure based on rodents' natural tendency to explore novel objects which is frequently used for memory testing. However, in some instances novelty preference is replaced by familiarity preference, raising questions regarding the validity of novelty preference as a pure recognition memory index. Acute stress- and corticosterone administration-induced novel object preference disruption has been frequently interpreted as memory impairment; however, it is still not clear whether such effect can be actually attributed to either mnemonic disruption or altered novelty seeking. Seventy-five adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task and subjected to either acute stress or corticosterone administration to evaluate the effect of stress or corticosterone on an object recognition task. Acute stress was induced by restraining movement for 1 or 4h, ending 30 min before the sample trial. Corticosterone was injected intraperitoneally 10 min before the test trial which was performed either 1 or 24h after the sample trial. Four-hour, but not 1-h, stress induced familiar object preference during the test trial performed 1h after the sample trial; however, acute stress had no effects on the test when performed 24h after sample trial. Systemic administration of corticosterone before the test trial performed either 1 or 24h after the sample trial also resulted in familiar object preference. However, neither acute stress nor corticosterone induced changes in locomotor behaviour. Taken together, such results suggested that acute stress probably does not induce memory retrieval impairment but, instead, induces an emotional arousing state which motivates novelty avoidance.

  4. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    PubMed Central

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), −2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = −2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, −4.31, −0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  5. Cortisol response to acute stress in jundiá Rhamdia quelen acutely exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of agrichemicals.

    PubMed

    Cericato, Leonardo; Neto, Joaquim Gonçalves Machado; Fagundes, Michele; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Quevedo, Rosmari Mezzalira; Finco, Jovani; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Koakoski, Gessi; Centenaro, Lucas; Pottker, Emanuele; Anziliero, Deniz; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2008-09-01

    Exposure to agrichemicals can have deleterious effects on fish, such as disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-inter-renal axis (HPI) that could impair the ability of fish to respond to stressors. In this study, fingerlings of the teleost jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) were used to investigate the effects of the commonly used agrichemicals on the fish response to stress. Five common agrichemicals were tested: the fungicide - tebuconazole, the insecticide - methyl-parathion, and the herbicides - atrazine, atrazine+simazine, and glyphosate. Control fishes were not exposed to agrichemicals and standard stressors. In treatments 2-4, the fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (16.6%, 33.3%, and 50% of the LC(50)) of each agrichemical for 96 h, and at the end of this period, were subjected to an acute stress-handling stimulus by chasing them with a pen net. In treatments 5-7 (16.6%, 33.3%, and 50% of the LC(50)), the fishes were exposed to the same concentrations of the agrichemicals without stress stimulus. Treatment 8 consisted of jundiás not exposed to agrichemicals, but was subjected to an acute stress-handling stimulus. Jundiás exposed to methyl-parathion, atrazine+simazine, and glyphosate presented a decreased capacity in exhibiting an adequate response to cope with stress and in maintaining the homeostasis, with cortisol level lower than that in the control fish (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrate that the acute exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of methyl-parathion, atrazine+simazine, and glyphosate exert a deleterious effect on the cortisol response to an additional acute stressor in the jundiá fingerlings.

  6. Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may link chronic psychological stress, endocrine responsiveness, and psychopathology. Therefore, lipid metabolome-wide responses and their relationships with endocrine (cortisol; insulin; adiponectin) responsiveness to acute stress (AS) were assessed in a ...

  7. Effect of acute stress on sexual behavior in female rats: participation of the central angiotensinergic system.

    PubMed

    Cecconello, Ana Lúcia; Raineki, Charlis; Sebben, Vanise; Lucion, Aldo Bolten; Sanvitto, Gilberto Luiz

    2010-03-05

    Stress might influence the reproductive behavior in females, and central angiotensin II (Ang II) is a peptide that plays a role in stress response and in the modulation of sexual behavior. The medial amygdala (MeA), an important structure that regulates this behavior, is strongly involved in stress response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of acute restraint stress on the night of proestrus on sexual receptivity in female rats and the participation of Ang II and MeA in this effect. Adult female Wistar rats with regular estrous cycles were utilized. The acute stress protocol utilized was the restraint stress for 15 min on the night of proestrus. The participation of Ang II was evaluated by injecting Ang II and Ang II receptor antagonists (losartan and PD12319) into the MeA. The lordosis quotient was recorded. The stress or the microinjection of Ang II into the MeA significantly reduced sexual behavior. The blockade of AT(1) or AT(2) receptors in the MeA prevented the effect of stress and the effect of Ang II microinjection into this nucleus on sexual receptivity. We concluded that acute restraint stress on the night of proestrus reduces sexual behavior in rats, and this effect is mediated by both AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the MeA.

  8. Context-dependent enhancement of declarative memory performance following acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Smeets, T; Giesbrecht, T; Jelicic, M; Merckelbach, H

    2007-09-01

    Studies on how acute stress affects learning and memory have yielded inconsistent findings, with some studies reporting enhancing effects while others report impairing effects. Recently, Joëls et al. [Joëls, M., Pu, Z., Wiegert, O., Oitzl, M.S., Krugers, H.J., 2006. Learning under stress: how does it work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 152-158] argued that stress will enhance memory only when the memory acquisition phase and stressor share the same spatiotemporal context (i.e., context-congruency). The current study tested this hypothesis by looking at whether context-congruent stress enhances declarative memory performance. Undergraduates were assigned to a personality stress group (n=16), a memory stress group (n=18), or a no-stress control group (n=18). While being exposed to the acute stressor or a control task, participants encoded personality- and memory-related words and were tested for free recall 24h later. Relative to controls, stress significantly enhanced recall of context-congruent words, but only for personality words. This suggests that acute stress may strengthen the consolidation of memory material when the stressor matches the to-be-remembered information in place and time.

  9. Diazepam blocks striatal lipid peroxidation and improves stereotyped activity in a rat model of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Márquez-Valadez, Berenice; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Escobar-Briones, Carolina; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Alvarez-Ruiz, Yarummy; Maldonado, Perla D; Santana, Ricardo A; Santamaría, Abel; Carrillo-Mora, Paul

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the effect of a single dose of diazepam was tested on different markers of oxidative damage in the striatum of rats in an acute model of immobilization (restraint) stress. In addition, the locomotor activity was measured at the end of the restraint period. Immobilization was induced to animals for 24 hr, and then, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and content, and mitochondrial function were all estimated in striatal tissue samples. Corticosterone levels were measured in serum. Diazepam was given to rats as a pre-treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) 20 min. before the initiation of stress. Our results indicate that acute stress produced enhanced striatal levels of lipid peroxidation (73% above the control), decreased superoxide dismutase activity (54% below the control), reduced levels of mitochondrial function (35% below the control) and increased corticosterone serum levels (86% above the control). Pre-treatment of stressed rats with diazepam decreased the striatal lipid peroxidation levels (68% below the stress group) and improved mitochondrial function (18% above the stress group), but only mild preservation of superoxide dismutase activity was detected (17% above the stress group). In regard to the motor assessment, only the stereotyped activity was increased in the stress group with respect to control (46% above the control), and this effect was prevented by diazepam administration (30% below the stress group). The preventive actions of diazepam in this acute model of stress suggest that drugs exhibiting anxiolytic and antioxidant properties might be useful for the design of therapies against early acute phases of physic stress.

  10. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    PubMed

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  11. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ability to flexibly regulate fear responses that are acquired through Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our primary aim is to explore the impact of stress on fear regulation in humans. Given this, we focus on techniques where stress has been linked to alterations of fear regulation in humans (extinction and emotion regulation), and briefly discuss other techniques (avoidance and reconsolidation) where the impact of stress or stress hormones have been mainly explored in animal models. These investigations reveal that acute stress may impair the persistent inhibition of fear, presumably by altering prefrontal cortex function. Characterizing the effects of stress on fear regulation is critical for understanding the boundaries within which existing regulation strategies are viable in everyday life and can better inform treatment options for those who suffer from anxiety and stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25530986

  12. Vasopressin and oxytocin in stress.

    PubMed

    Jezova, D; Skultetyova, I; Tokarev, D I; Bakos, P; Vigas, M

    1995-12-29

    Though oxytocin and vasopressin are similar in structure and are produced in the same brain regions, they show specific responses under stress conditions. In humans, increases in peripheral blood vasopressin appear to be a consistent finding during many acute stress situations, while in rats, vasopressin secretion is unresponsive to several stimuli known to induce ACTH and catecholamine release. Even decreases in vasopressin levels during stress were described. In accordance with others, we observed enhanced vasopressin release in response to stress stimuli with an osmotic component such as hypertonic saline injection but also during exposure of rats to a warm environment. Immobilization stress which fails to induce vasopressin release was reported to increase hypothalamic vasopressin mRNA and plasma vasopressin levels in chronically adreno-demedullated rats. Unlike vasopressin, oxytocin may be considered a typical stress hormone responding to osmotic as well as other stress stimuli. We found that acute exposure of rats to immobilization stress resulted in an increase in oxytocin mRNA level. In addition, we have shown that magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus, but not the supraoptic nucleus, are essential for oxytocin release during immobilization stress. The release of posterior pituitary hormones represents an important component of the stress response.

  13. Viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of Escherichia coli related to EnvZ under the effect of pH, starvation and osmotic stress in sea water.

    PubMed

    Darcan, Cihan; Ozkanca, Reşit; Idil, Onder; Flint, Ken P

    2009-01-01

    When exposed extreme environmental conditions such as sea water, bacteria have been shown different survival strategy for continue their life. One of this strategy known as viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state which is very important for nondifferiation bacteria. VBNC cells cause serious human health problems. Little is known, however, about the genetic mechanisms underlying the VBNC state. Under different environmental conditions, porins are important in the survival strategy of bacteria. EnvZ/OmpR work together as regulators of ompF and ompC gene expression. It is known that the EnvZ system has a role in VBNC state. In this study we tried to find out the viability of EnvZ, OmpC and OmpF mutant E. coli under stress effect of osmolarity, pH and starvation. Bacteria were suspended in filtered-autoclaved sea water microcosms and numbers determined over 25 day incubation periods by plate count (PC), direct viable count (DVC) and count of cells capable of respiration (RCC). As regard to results, alkaline pH affected E. coli more than acidic pH, which led to decline in number. On the contrary glycine betaine addition to sea water protected E. coli porin mutants and also reduced the death rate of bacteria. Under the effect of pH, osmotic stress and starvation stress, wild type E. coli and porin mutants entered a dormant state or became VBNC with the exception of MSZ31 (envZ mutant) E. coli cells which did not enter the VBNC state under the three tested stress conditions. This study is the first report to demonstrate that E. coli could not enter the VBNC state in the lack of EnvZ product under the stress of osmolarity, pH and starvation and the relationship between EnvZ and VBNC state are not affected by pH, osmolarity and starvation.

  14. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

  15. Being a grump only makes things worse: a transactional account of acute stress on mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Vinski, Melaina T.; Watter, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high-stress or low-stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task as a measure of mind-wandering behavior. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high-stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind-wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter) immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood. PMID:24273520

  16. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases.

  17. Rigid patterns of effortful choice behavior after acute stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Hart, Evan E; Stolyarova, Alexandra; Conoscenti, Michael A; Minor, Thomas R; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Physical effort is a common cost of acquiring rewards, and decreased effort is a feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Stress affects performance on several tests of cognition and decision making in both humans and nonhumans. Only a few recent reports show impairing effects of stress in operant tasks involving effort and cognitive flexibility. Brain regions affected by stress, such as the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala, are also implicated in mediating effortful choices. Here, we assessed effort-based decision making after an acute stress procedure known to induce persistent impairment in shuttle escape and elevated plasma corticosterone. In these animals, we also probed levels of polysialyted neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a marker of structural plasticity, in medial frontal cortex and amygdala. We found that animals that consistently worked for high magnitude rewards continued to do so, even after acute shock stress. We also found that PSA-NCAM was increased in both regions after effortful choice experience but not after shock stress alone. These findings are discussed with reference to the existing broad literature on cognitive effects of stress and in the context of how acute stress may bias effortful decisions to a rigid pattern of responding.

  18. The estrous cycle of the ewe is resistant to disruption by repeated, acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Tilbrook, Alan J; Karsch, Fred J

    2010-06-01

    Five experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that psychosocial stress interferes with the estrous cycle of sheep. In experiment 1, ewes were repeatedly isolated during the follicular phase. Timing, amplitude, and duration of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge were not affected. In experiment 2, follicular-phase ewes were subjected twice to a "layered stress" paradigm consisting of sequential, hourly application of isolation, restraint, blindfold, and predator cues. This reduced the LH pulse amplitude but did not affect the LH surge. In experiment 3, different acute stressors were given sequentially within the follicular phase: food denial plus unfamiliar noises and forced exercise, layered stress, exercise around midnight, and transportation. This, too, did not affect the LH surge. In experiment 4, variable acute psychosocial stress was given every 1-2 days for two entire estrous cycles; this did not disrupt any parameter of the cycle monitored. Lastly, experiment 5 examined whether the psychosocial stress paradigms of experiment 4 would disrupt the cycle and estrous behavior if sheep were metabolically stressed by chronic food restriction. Thirty percent of the food-restricted ewes exhibited deterioration of estrous cycle parameters followed by cessation of cycles and failure to express estrous behavior. However, disruption was not more evident in ewes that also encountered psychosocial stress. Collectively, these findings indicate the estrous cycle of sheep is remarkably resistant to disruption by acute bouts of psychosocial stress applied intermittently during either a single follicular phase or repeatedly over two estrous cycles.

  19. Physics of Bacteria During Osmotic Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Jordan; Klug, William

    Bacteria combat hypoosmotic shocks by opening mechanosensitive ion channels located within the inner membrane. These channels are believed to act as ``emergency release valves,'' reducing transient pressure during the shock by regulating solute and water flux. Recent experiments have shown that cell survivability depends strongly on channel populations and the rate of osmotic shock. However, the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind osmotic protection remains unclear. We investigate how channel deletions, variations in shock rate, and cell envelope mechanics affect survivability by constructing theoretical elasticity and transport models. We find that reducing the number of channels and applying faster shocks significantly increases the time-dependent stress of the cell membrane and wall. This result provides insight into physical mechanisms that govern cell failure, including membrane rupture and wall fracture.

  20. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol.

  1. Genome-wide alterations in hippocampal 5-hydroxymethylcytosine links plasticity genes to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sisi; Papale, Ligia A.; Zhang, Qi; Madrid, Andy; Chen, Li; Chopra, Pankaj; Keleş, Sündüz; Jin, Peng; Alisch, Reid S.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stress is among the most important contributors to increased susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. While even acute stress alters gene expression, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain largely unknown. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a novel environmentally sensitive DNA modification that is highly enriched in post-mitotic neurons and is associated with active transcription of neuronal genes. Recently, we found a hippocampal increase of 5hmC in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nr3c1) following acute stress, warranting a deeper investigation of stress-related 5hmC levels. Here, we used an established chemical labeling and affinity purification method coupled with high-throughput sequencing technology to generate the first genome-wide profile of hippocampal 5hmC following exposure to acute restraint stress and a one-hour recovery. This approach found a genome-wide disruption in 5hmC associated with acute stress response, primarily in genic regions, and identified known and potentially novel stress-related targets that have a significant enrichment for neuronal ontological functions. Integration of these data with hippocampal gene expression data from these same mice found stress-related hydroxymethylation correlated to altered transcript levels and sequence motif predictions indicated that 5hmC may function by mediating transcription factor binding to these transcripts. Together, these data reveal an environmental impact on this newly discovered epigenetic mark in the brain and represent a critical step toward understanding stress-related epigenetic mechanisms that alter gene expression and can lead to the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26598390

  2. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers.

    PubMed

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The present study compared neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure in current smokers, ex-smokers, and those who had never smoked in a large community sample. Salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and frequency components of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured at rest and during exposure to a battery of three standardized stress tasks in 480 male and female participants from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study. Current smokers had significantly lower cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate reactions to stress. They also exhibited smaller changes in the low frequency band of blood pressure variability compared to ex- and never smokers. There were no group differences in stress related changes in overall heart rate variability as measured by the root mean square of successive interbeat interval differences or in the high frequency band of heart rate variability. In all cases, effects remained significant following statistical adjustment for a host of variables likely to be associated with reactivity and/or smoking. In secondary analyses, there were no significant associations between lifetime cigarette consumption or current consumption and stress reactivity. In conclusion, compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers, current smokers exhibited attenuated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Among smokers and ex-smokers, there is no evidence that lifetime exposure was associated with physiological reactions to acute stress, nor that current levels of cigarette consumption were associated with reactivity. It is possible, then, that

  3. Behavioral Predictors of Acute Stress Symptoms During Intense Military Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    peritraumatic dissociative symptoms (PDS; i.e., per- ceptual disconnectedness) and that general troops who endorsed symptoms of dissociation at baseline were...also more likely to dissociate under stress. Furthermore, self-reported peritraumatic symptoms were significantly lower in elite Special Forces per... peritraumatic dissociative states (PDS) and quantified the link between PDS and the subsequent psychological impact of stressful events during

  4. Models and Methods to Investigate Acute Stress Responses in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Arsenault, Ryan; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation within the livestock industry and throughout society that animal stress is an important issue that must be addressed. With implications for animal health, well-being, and productivity, minimizing animal stress through improved animal management procedures and/or selective breeding is becoming a priority. Effective management of stress, however, depends on the ability to identify and quantify the effects of various stressors and determine if individual or combined stressors have distinct biological effects. Furthermore, it is critical to determine the duration of stress-induced biological effects if we are to understand how stress alters animal production and disease susceptibility. Common stress models used to evaluate both psychological and physical stressors in cattle are reviewed. We identify some of the major gaps in our knowledge regarding responses to specific stressors and propose more integrated methodologies and approaches to measuring these responses. These approaches are based on an increased knowledge of both the metabolic and immune effects of stress. Finally, we speculate on how these findings may impact animal agriculture, as well as the potential application of large animal models to understanding human stress. PMID:26633525

  5. Prenatal cortisol exposure predicts infant cortisol response to acute stress.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette

    2013-03-01

    Experimental animal findings suggest that early stress and glucocorticoid exposure may program the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the offspring. The extension of these findings to human development is not yet clear. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 125 mothers and their normally developing children. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infant behavior and cortisol response to a separation-reunion stress was assessed at 17 months. Amniotic fluid cortisol predicted infant cortisol response to separation-reunion stress: infants who were exposed to higher levels of cortisol in utero showed higher pre-stress cortisol values and blunted response to stress exposure. The association was independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors and child-parent attachment. The findings provide some of the strongest data in humans that HPA axis functioning in the child may be predicted from prenatal cortisol exposure.

  6. A diagnostic interview for acute stress disorder for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alisa; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Reich, Wendy; Saxe, Glenn

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a semistructured clinical interview for assessing acute stress disorder (ASD) in youth and test its psychometric properties. Youth (N = 168) with an acute burn or injury were administered the acute stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA-ASD). The DICA-ASD demonstrated strong psychometric properties, including high internal consistency (alpha = .97) and perfect diagnostic interrater agreement (kappa = 1.00). Participants diagnosed with ASD scored significantly higher than those not diagnosed on validated traumatic stress symptomatology measures but not on other symptomatology measures, providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the first semistructured clinical interview for diagnosing ASD in youth.

  7. Osmotic buckling of spherical capsules.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2014-11-07

    We study the buckling of elastic spherical shells under osmotic pressure with the osmolyte concentration of the exterior solution as a control parameter. We compare our results for the bifurcation behavior with results for buckling under mechanical pressure control, that is, with an empty capsule interior. We find striking differences for the buckling states between osmotic and mechanical buckling. Mechanical pressure control always leads to fully collapsed states with opposite sides in contact, whereas uncollapsed states with a single finite dimple are generic for osmotic pressure control. For sufficiently large interior osmolyte concentrations, osmotic pressure control is qualitatively similar to buckling under volume control with the volume prescribed by the osmolyte concentrations inside and outside t