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Sample records for acute pain syndromes

  1. Chest Pain in Adolescent Japanese Male Mimicking Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin K.; Naheed, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Acute chest pain with very elevated troponin level and abnormal EKG in adult population is considered sine qua non to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) unless proved otherwise. Similar presentation in adolescent population is seen less often but raises suspicion for ACS. Most common etiology for chest pain with cardiac enzyme elevation in adolescent population is usually viral myopericarditis. The adolescent population presenting with chest pain and elevated cardiac enzymes should be carefully evaluated for ACS and other etiologies including myocarditis, myopericarditis, pulmonary embolism, acute rheumatic fever, and trauma. We report one Japanese adolescent male with mycoplasma pneumoniae myocarditis who presented to the ER with chest pain, elevated cardiac enzymes, and abnormal EKG. PMID:25202456

  2. Abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as clinical presentation of acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Valle Feijóo, M L; Bermúdez Sanjurjo, J R; González Vázquez, L; Rey Martínez, M; de la Fuente Aguado, J

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare condition characterized by abdominal pain and a wide range of nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a woman with abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as clinical presentation of AIP. The diagnosis was achieved through the etiologic study of the SIADH.

  3. Neurofeedback therapy in patients with acute and chronic pain syndromes--literature review and own experience.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Alicja; Biedroń, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Pain management is based mainly on pharmacotherapy which has many limitations. Non-pharmacological techniques, like neurofeedback (EEG-biofeedback) are alternative methods of pain treatment. Data from literature confirm high efficacy of neurofeedback in pain syndromes treatment, chronic and acute as well. Neurofeedback plays an important role in management of post stroke, post traumatic headaches and in primary headaches like tension type headaches or migraine. Literature review and own experience indicate importance of number and frequency of performed neurofeedback trainings on treatment effectiveness. Satisfactory results have already been observed after 30 trainings however usually 40-60 training have to be performed. Effectiveness of such therapy in pain syndromes is usually good or less often acceptable (50% reduction of headaches). Children with tension type headaches (differently than adults) need reminder therapy every 6-12 months, otherwise recurrence of headaches is observed. Based on our own experience neurofeedback therapy seems to play role in neuropathic pain and cancer pain management.

  4. [Differential diagnosis of chest pain: a case of acute aortic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Soriano, J G; Hidalgo-Olivares, V; Cambronero-Cortinas, E; Fernández-Anguita, M

    2014-03-01

    Chest pain is one of the most frequent reasons for consulting in any healthcare setting, however its diagnosis remains a challenge for both Primary Care and Emergency Department physicians. We report a case of an Acute Aortic Syndrome which was diagnosed late after an insidious course of chest pain, repetitive syncope, and in which the delay in diagnosis and treatment could be fatal. We also describe the definition, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of this condition. PMID:24655911

  5. [Chest pain units. Organization and protocol for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes].

    PubMed

    Bayón Fernández, Julián; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Bosch Genover, Xavier; Cabadés O'Callaghan, Adolfo; Iglesias Gárriz, Ignacio; Jiménez Nácher, José Julio; Malpartida De Torres, Félix; Sanz Romero, Ginés

    2002-02-01

    The two main goals of chest pain units are the early, accurate diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes and the rapid, efficient recognition of low-risk patients who do not need hospital admission. Many clinical, practical, and economic reasons support the establishment of such units. Patients with chest pain account for a substantial proportion of emergency room turnover and their care is still far from optimal: 8% of patients sent home are later diagnosed of acute coronary syndrome and 60% of admissions for chest pain eventually prove to have been unnecessary.We present a systematic approach to create and manage a chest pain unit employing specialists headed by a cardiologist. The unit may be functional or located in a separate area of the emergency room. Initial triage is based on the clinical characteristics, the ECG and biomarkers of myocardial infarct. Risk stratification in the second phase selects patients to be admitted to the chest pain unit for 6-12 h. Finally, we propose treadmill testing before discharge to rule out the presence of acute myocardial ischemia or damage in patients with negative biomarkers and non-diagnostic serial ECGs.

  6. Acute paraspinal compartment syndrome as a rare cause of loin pain.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, A; Tang, V; Baker, A; Blades, R

    2015-03-01

    A significant proportion of emergency urological admissions are comprised of ureteric colic presenting as loin pain. A variety of alternative pathologies present in this manner and should be considered during systematic assessment. We report the case of a patient admitted with severe unilateral back and flank pain after strenuous deadlift exercise. Clinical examination and subsequent investigation following a significant delay demonstrated acute paraspinal compartment syndrome (PCS) after an initial misdiagnosis of ureteric colic. The patient was managed conservatively. We review the current literature surrounding the rare diagnosis of PCS and discuss the management options. PMID:25723672

  7. Acute compartment syndrome--presenting as severe pain in an extremity out of proportion with the injury.

    PubMed

    Khan, M; Hodkinson, S L

    1997-10-01

    A 24 year old combat medic was admitted to the field hospital at Tomislavgrad in Bosnia, with a suspected forearm, fracture. Radiographs did not show any bony injury. Clinical examination showed marked swelling and tenderness over the extensor compartment. The pain became more severe over the following 12 hours with the pain becoming most intensely felt in the extensors on passive extension. Fasciotomy for suspected acute compartment syndrome was carried out. Acute compartment syndrome is a common complication of extremity injury, and is a clinical diagnosis which should be suspected in all injuries with marked swelling and severe pain.

  8. Low back pain - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see ...

  9. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bruehl, Stephen

    2015-07-29

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic pain condition characterized by autonomic and inflammatory features. It occurs acutely in about 7% of patients who have limb fractures, limb surgery, or other injuries. Many cases resolve within the first year, with a smaller subset progressing to the chronic form. This transition is often paralleled by a change from "warm complex regional pain syndrome," with inflammatory characteristics dominant, to "cold complex regional pain syndrome" in which autonomic features dominate. Multiple peripheral and central mechanisms seem to be involved, the relative contributions of which may differ between individuals and over time. Possible contributors include peripheral and central sensitization, autonomic changes and sympatho-afferent coupling, inflammatory and immune alterations, brain changes, and genetic and psychological factors. The syndrome is diagnosed purely on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms. Effective management of the chronic form of the syndrome is often challenging. Few high quality randomized controlled trials are available to support the efficacy of the most commonly used interventions. Reviews of available randomized trials suggest that physical and occupational therapy (including graded motor imagery and mirror therapy), bisphosphonates, calcitonin, subanesthetic intravenous ketamine, free radical scavengers, oral corticosteroids, and spinal cord stimulation may be effective treatments. Multidisciplinary clinical care, which centers around functionally focused therapies is recommended. Other interventions are used to facilitate engagement in functional therapies and to improve quality of life.

  10. Diagnostic importance of admission platelet volume indices in patients with acute chest pain suggesting acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Taghipour-Sani, Leila; Rezaei, Yousef; Rostami, Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Objective Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a challenging issue in cardiovascular medicine. Given platelet role in atherothrombosis, we sought to determine whether platelet indices can be used as diagnostic tests for patients who suffered from an acute chest discomfort. Methods We prospectively enrolled 862 patients with an acute chest pain and 184 healthy matched controls. They were divided into four groups: 184 controls, 249 of non-ACS, 421 of unstable angina (UA), and 192 of myocardial infarction (MI) cases. Blood samples were collected at admission to the emergency department for routine hematologic tests. Results The mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) were significantly greater in patients with MI compared with those of non-ACS or control subjects. Negative and significant correlations existed between MPV, PDW, and P-LCR values and platelet count (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that the MPV, PDW, and P-LCR with cut-off values of 9.15 fL, 11.35 fL, and 20.25% and with area under the curves of 0.563, 0.557, and 0.560, respectively, detected MI patients among those who had chest discomfort. The sensitivities and specificities were found to be 72% and 40%, 73% and 37%, and 68% and 44% for MPV, PDW, and P-LCR, respectively. Conclusion An elevated admission MPV, PDW, and P-LCR may be of benefit to detect chest pain resulting in MI from that of non-cardiac one, and also for risk stratification of patients who suffered from an acute chest discomfort. PMID:25634396

  11. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  12. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Greta

    2015-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is an uncommon chronic pain condition. It develops spontaneously or following an injury. The features are limb pain, allodynia, hypersensitivity, hyperalgesia, abnormalities of the vasomotor, sudomotor and motor systems, and trophic changes, with reduced use of the affected limb. The diagnosis is clinical and one of exclusion. The emphasis of therapy is graded rehabilitation and movement of the limb with physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Psychological therapies should be offered if a patient is making no or slow progress in the acute phase, and to all patients in the chronic phase as depression can occur. The goal of pharmacotherapy is to assist functional improvement. The early phase may be managed with simple analgesia. Antineuropathic drugs including tricyclic antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs may be added. Other treatments with some evidence of effectiveness include corticosteroids, calcitonin and bisphosphonates. Vitamin C has been used for primary prevention after wrist fracture and upper and lower limb surgery. There is no evidence that it is effective for treating established complex regional pain syndrome.

  13. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Greta

    2015-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is an uncommon chronic pain condition. It develops spontaneously or following an injury. The features are limb pain, allodynia, hypersensitivity, hyperalgesia, abnormalities of the vasomotor, sudomotor and motor systems, and trophic changes, with reduced use of the affected limb. The diagnosis is clinical and one of exclusion. The emphasis of therapy is graded rehabilitation and movement of the limb with physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Psychological therapies should be offered if a patient is making no or slow progress in the acute phase, and to all patients in the chronic phase as depression can occur. The goal of pharmacotherapy is to assist functional improvement. The early phase may be managed with simple analgesia. Antineuropathic drugs including tricyclic antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs may be added. Other treatments with some evidence of effectiveness include corticosteroids, calcitonin and bisphosphonates. Vitamin C has been used for primary prevention after wrist fracture and upper and lower limb surgery. There is no evidence that it is effective for treating established complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:26648626

  14. [Myofascial pain syndrome--fascial muscle pain].

    PubMed

    Partanen, Juhani; Ojala, Tuula; Arokoski, Jari P A

    2010-01-01

    Symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome, i.e. fascial muscle pain may occur in several areas of the body, particularly in the neck-shoulder region. The muscle pain symptom in the neck-shoulder region is commonly termed tension neck pain or nonspecific neck pain, but myofascial pain syndrome can also be distinguished into its own diagnosis. This review deals with the clinical picture of myofascial pain syndrome along with pathophysiological hypotheses and treatment options.

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome and acute carpal tunnel syndrome following radial artery cannulation: a neurological perspective and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, Reynaldo P

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) associated with acute carpal tunnel syndrome (aCTS) developed in a 38-year-old right-handed man following radial artery cannulation (RAC) during the course of lumbar spine surgery. Inciting events and risk factors that might have led to these complications included: multiple arterial punctures and subsequent hematoma formation, radial artery spasm compounded by aggressive hemostasis, anatomical changes in the wrists related to repetitive manual activities in the workplace, and possible protracted hyperextension of the wrists during perioperative and operative procedure. Although CRPS is considered a rare complication of RAC, the condition is disabling and debilitating, especially when associated with aCTS. PMID:25621693

  16. [COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach

  17. [COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach

  18. Diagnostic values of chest pain history, ECG, troponin and clinical gestalt in patients with chest pain and potential acute coronary syndrome assessed in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Arash; Dryver, Eric; Söderholm, Martin; Ekelund, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    In the assessment of chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED), physicians rely on global diagnostic impressions ('gestalt'). The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of the ED physician's overall assessment of ACS likelihood, and the values of the main diagnostic modalities underlying this assessment, namely the chest pain history, the ECG and the initial troponin result. 1,151 consecutive ED chest pain patients were prospectively included. The ED physician's interpretation of the chest pain history, the ECG, and the global likelihood of ACS were recorded on special forms. The discharge diagnoses were retrieved from the medical records. A chart review was carried out to determine whether patients with a non-ACS diagnosis at the index visit had ACS or suffered cardiac death within 30 days. The gestalt was better than its components both at ruling in ("Obvious ACS", LR 29) and at ruling out ("No Suspicion of ACS", LR 0.01) ACS. In the "Strong suspicion of ACS" group, 60% of the patients did not have ACS. A positive TnT (LR 24.9) and an ischemic ECG (LR 8.3) were strong predictors of ACS and seemed superior to pain history for ruling in ACS. In patients with a normal TnT and non-ischemic ECG, chest pain history typical of AMI was not a significant predictor of AMI (LR 1.9) while pain history typical of unstable angina (UA) was a moderate predictor of UA (LR 4.7). Clinical gestalt was better than its components both at ruling in and at ruling out ACS, but overestimated the likelihood of ACS when cases were assessed as strong suspicion of ACS. Among the components of the gestalt, TnT and ECG were superior to the chest pain history for ruling in ACS, while pain history was superior for ruling out ACS.

  19. [Myofascial pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kehler, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    It is unable to identify any kind of structural abnormalities in about 85% patients affected with muscle pain. Sometimes is one mucle received with pains, commonly because of stress or fatigue (epecially after intensive training process). It is called myfascial pain syndrom (MPS). When more muscles are affected it is called fibromyalgia.

  20. Hemorheological risk factors of acute chest syndrome and painful vaso-occlusive crisis in children with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Lamarre, Yann; Romana, Marc; Waltz, Xavier; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Tressières, Benoît; Divialle-Doumdo, Lydia; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Vent-Schmidt, Jens; Petras, Marie; Broquere, Cedric; Maillard, Frederic; Tarer, Vanessa; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Connes, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of blood rheology on the occurrence of acute chest syndrome and painful vaso-occlusive crises in children with sickle cell anemia and hemoglobin SC disease. Design and Methods To address this issue, steady-state hemorheological profiles (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability, aggregation properties) and hematologic parameters were assessed in 44 children with sickle cell anemia and 49 children with hemoglobin SC disease (8-16 years old) followed since birth. Clinical charts were retrospectively reviewed to determine prior acute chest syndrome or vaso-occlusive episodes, and rates of these complications were calculated. Results Multivariate analysis revealed that: 1) a higher steady-state blood viscosity was associated with a higher rate of vaso-occlusive crises in children with sickle cell anemia, but not in children with hemoglobin SC disease; 2) a higher steady-state red blood cell disaggregation threshold was associated with previous history of acute chest syndrome in children with hemoglobin SC disease and boys with sickle cell anemia. Conclusions Our results indicate for the first time that the red blood cell aggregation properties may play a role in the pathophysiology of acute chest syndrome in children with hemoglobin SC disease and boys with sickle cell anemia. In addition, whereas greater blood viscosity is associated with a higher rate of vaso-occlusive crises in children with sickle cell anemia, no association was found in children with hemoglobin SC disease, underscoring differences in the etiology of vaso-occlusive crises between sickle cell anemia and hemoglobin SC disease. PMID:22689686

  1. Acute pain management.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B

    2000-07-01

    We encounter patients with acute pain many times each day, and few aspects of veterinary practice offer such an opportunity to help so many in such a profoundly rewarding way. As emphasized here and elsewhere, we now have excellent tools with which to help these animals, and the biggest impediment to optimal treatment of their pain is often our own difficulty in recognizing its presence. Perhaps the single most important aspect of treating acute pain is to cultivate an ability to see past our personal biases and expectations which may limit treatment and to rediscover the common sense we had about pain before we entered the profession. By rededicating ourselves to seeking out, preventing, and relieving pain, we not only perform a vital service for our patients but also elevate our profession even as we reap financial and spiritual rewards for our efforts. What could be better? PMID:10932832

  2. A simple statistical model for prediction of acute coronary syndrome in chest pain patients in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Björk, Jonas; Forberg, Jakob L; Ohlsson, Mattias; Edenbrandt, Lars; Öhlin, Hans; Ekelund, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Background Several models for prediction of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among chest pain patients in the emergency department (ED) have been presented, but many models predict only the likelihood of acute myocardial infarction, or include a large number of variables, which make them less than optimal for implementation at a busy ED. We report here a simple statistical model for ACS prediction that could be used in routine care at a busy ED. Methods Multivariable analysis and logistic regression were used on data from 634 ED visits for chest pain. Only data immediately available at patient presentation were used. To make ACS prediction stable and the model useful for personnel inexperienced in electrocardiogram (ECG) reading, simple ECG data suitable for computerized reading were included. Results Besides ECG, eight variables were found to be important for ACS prediction, and included in the model: age, chest discomfort at presentation, symptom duration and previous hypertension, angina pectoris, AMI, congestive heart failure or PCI/CABG. At an ACS prevalence of 21% and a set sensitivity of 95%, the negative predictive value of the model was 96%. Conclusion The present prediction model, combined with the clinical judgment of ED personnel, could be useful for the early discharge of chest pain patients in populations with a low prevalence of ACS. PMID:16824205

  3. Treatment for Acute Stage Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II with Polydeoxyribonucleotide Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II is a syndrome that develops after nerve injury. Symptoms may be severe, and vary depending on the degree of sympathetic nerve involvement. As yet, there is no satisfactory treatment. We report the case of a female patient who had an L5 left transverse process fracture and an S2 body fracture, who developed symptoms of CRPS type II in her left lower leg that were aggravated during ambulation in spite of absolute bed rest for one month after the trauma. Several treatments, including bed rest, medication, and numerous nerve blocks were attempted, but the pain persisted. We finally tried injection of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) solution at the left L5 transverse process fracture site because we knew of the anti-inflammatory effect of PDRN. One day after this treatment, her symptoms had almost disappeared and three days later, she was discharged. We will also further discuss the possibility of using PDRN solution for the treatment of CRPS.

  4. Treatment for Acute Stage Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II with Polydeoxyribonucleotide Injection.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kun Soo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-09-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II is a syndrome that develops after nerve injury. Symptoms may be severe, and vary depending on the degree of sympathetic nerve involvement. As yet, there is no satisfactory treatment. We report the case of a female patient who had an L5 left transverse process fracture and an S2 body fracture, who developed symptoms of CRPS type II in her left lower leg that were aggravated during ambulation in spite of absolute bed rest for one month after the trauma. Several treatments, including bed rest, medication, and numerous nerve blocks were attempted, but the pain persisted. We finally tried injection of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) solution at the left L5 transverse process fracture site because we knew of the anti-inflammatory effect of PDRN. One day after this treatment, her symptoms had almost disappeared and three days later, she was discharged. We will also further discuss the possibility of using PDRN solution for the treatment of CRPS. PMID:27651875

  5. Treatment for Acute Stage Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II with Polydeoxyribonucleotide Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II is a syndrome that develops after nerve injury. Symptoms may be severe, and vary depending on the degree of sympathetic nerve involvement. As yet, there is no satisfactory treatment. We report the case of a female patient who had an L5 left transverse process fracture and an S2 body fracture, who developed symptoms of CRPS type II in her left lower leg that were aggravated during ambulation in spite of absolute bed rest for one month after the trauma. Several treatments, including bed rest, medication, and numerous nerve blocks were attempted, but the pain persisted. We finally tried injection of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) solution at the left L5 transverse process fracture site because we knew of the anti-inflammatory effect of PDRN. One day after this treatment, her symptoms had almost disappeared and three days later, she was discharged. We will also further discuss the possibility of using PDRN solution for the treatment of CRPS. PMID:27651875

  6. Patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Collado, Hervé; Fredericson, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) syndrome is a frequently encountered overuse disorder that involves the patellofemoral region and often presents as anterior knee pain. PFP can be difficult to diagnose. Not only do the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment remain challenging, but the terminology used to describe PFP is used inconsistently and can be confusing. Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) seems to be multifactorial, resulting from a complex interaction among intrinsic anatomic and external training factors. Although clinicians frequently make the diagnosis of PFPS, no consensus exists about its etiology or the factors most responsible for causing pain. This article discusses the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of PFP.

  7. Pain Part 3: Acute Orofacial Pain.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Nadine; Renton, Tara

    2015-06-01

    Acute trigeminal pain is a common presentation in the dental surgery, with a reported 22% of the US adult population experiencing orofacial pain more than once during a 6-month period. This article discusses the mechanisms underlying the pain experience, diagnosis and subsequent management of acute trigeminal pain, encompassing pre-, peri- and post-operative analgesia. The dental team spend most of their working lives managing patients and acute pain. The patient may present to the clinician in existing pain, which may often provide a diagnostic challenge. Prevention and managing intra-operative and post-surgical pain are implicit in providing your patient with optimum care. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This paper aims to provide an overview of conditions that may present with acute orofacial pain and their management using the most recent evidence base. Intra-operative and post-surgical pain management are also scrutinized and evidence based treatment is recommended.

  8. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician January 15, 2007, http://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0115/p194.html) Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A ... Physician November 01, 1999, http://www.aafp.org/afp/991101ap/2012.html) Written by familydoctor.org editorial ...

  9. Epipericardial fat necrosis as a cause of acute chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Bogale, Vivek; Hurst, David; dePrisco, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Acute chest pain is one of the most common reasons for presentation to the emergency department. Although most etiologies of chest pain are easy to clinically ascertain with routine history, physical, and laboratory examinations, we present an important benign cause of acute chest pain that may mimic acute coronary syndrome.

  10. Epipericardial fat necrosis as a cause of acute chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Bogale, Vivek; Hurst, David; dePrisco, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Acute chest pain is one of the most common reasons for presentation to the emergency department. Although most etiologies of chest pain are easy to clinically ascertain with routine history, physical, and laboratory examinations, we present an important benign cause of acute chest pain that may mimic acute coronary syndrome. PMID:27695190

  11. Reversal of Acute Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Using the Practical Application of Neurodiagnostic Evaluation Process: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, a patient in my practice developed complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1) after bunion surgery. The condition was properly diagnosed within 4 weeks with a diagnostic technique that I routinely use to diagnose chronic musculoskeletal pain, and it was successfully treated. The tests, which are based on primitive and postural reflexes in infants, were adapted to reflect normal and abnormal motor behaviors in adults after provocation of reflexes of the autonomic nervous system (afferent C fibers in peripheral nerves). Approximately 60 days after my patient’s operation, the tests indicated a positive reflex at the posterior tibial nerve in the operated foot. Surgery to remove an accessory ossicle from the talus adjacent to this nerve resolved the CRPS 1 within 2 weeks. Since CRPS 1 is a dysfunctional state of the autonomic regulatory control of pain, it was postulated that a test based on autonomic nerve function could isolate the source of CRPS 1. The Practical Application of Neurodiagnostic Evaluation process was shown to be diagnostic for the cause of acute CRPS 1 and to allow its reversal. Further evaluation of the test for diagnosis and treatment of CRPS is needed. PMID:24355904

  12. Pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Aura Ligia; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Leone, Claudio; Doria-Filho, Ulysses; Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida

    2006-06-01

    The presence of musculoskeletal pain was evaluated in adolescents. Pain was reported by 40% of respondents, benign joint hypermobility syndrome by 10%, myofascial syndrome by 5%, tendonitis by 2%, and fibromialgia by 1%. Logistical regression analysis indicated that sex and age were predictive of pain.

  13. Concurrent peripheral pathologies and complex regional pain syndrome type 1 as contributors to acute post-stroke shoulder pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Majid; Mazlan, Mazlina

    2012-01-01

    Post-stroke shoulder pain is associated with either a peripheral or central pathology. However, most of the time, it is challenging to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the suggested pathology and shoulder pain reported. We report a 66 year-old man who developed a right hemiplegic shoulder pain two months post stroke with initial investigations suggestive of peripheral pathologies. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment did not improve his shoulder pain. Later he developed complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of the right hand and the initial shoulder pain subsequently relieved following resolution of the CRPS.

  14. Loin pain hematuria syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Adeel S.; Salameh, Hassan; Erickson, Stephen B.; Prieto, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome (LPHS), first described in 1967, is a rare pain syndrome, which is not well understood. The syndrome is characterized by severe intermittent or persistent flank pain, either unilateral or bilateral, associated with gross or microscopic hematuria. LPHS is a diagnosis of exclusion as there still is not a consensus of validated diagnostic criteria, though several criteria have been proposed. The wide differential diagnosis would suggest a meticulous yet specific diagnostic work-up depending on the individual clinical features and natural history. Several mechanisms regarding the pathophysiology of LPHS have been proposed but without pinpointing the actual causative etiology, the treatment remains symptomatic. Treatment modalities for LPHS are diverse including simple analgesia, opioid analgesic and kidney autotransplantation. This review article summarizes the current understanding regarding the pathophysiology of LPHS along with the steps required for proper diagnosis and a discussion of the different therapeutic approaches for LPHS. PMID:26798473

  15. Loin pain hematuria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Adeel S; Salameh, Hassan; Erickson, Stephen B; Prieto, Mikel

    2016-02-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome (LPHS), first described in 1967, is a rare pain syndrome, which is not well understood. The syndrome is characterized by severe intermittent or persistent flank pain, either unilateral or bilateral, associated with gross or microscopic hematuria. LPHS is a diagnosis of exclusion as there still is not a consensus of validated diagnostic criteria, though several criteria have been proposed. The wide differential diagnosis would suggest a meticulous yet specific diagnostic work-up depending on the individual clinical features and natural history. Several mechanisms regarding the pathophysiology of LPHS have been proposed but without pinpointing the actual causative etiology, the treatment remains symptomatic. Treatment modalities for LPHS are diverse including simple analgesia, opioid analgesic and kidney autotransplantation. This review article summarizes the current understanding regarding the pathophysiology of LPHS along with the steps required for proper diagnosis and a discussion of the different therapeutic approaches for LPHS. PMID:26798473

  16. A Computed Tomography Based Coronary Lesion Score to Predict Acute Coronary Syndrome Among Patients With Acute Chest Pain and a Significant Coronary Stenosis on Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Ferencik, Maros; Schlett, Christopher L.; Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Kriegel, Mathias F.; Joshi, Subodh B.; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Rogers, Ian S.; Banerji, Dahlia; Bamberg, Fabian; Truong, Quynh A.; Brady, Thomas J.; Nagurney, John T.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the assessment of lesion morphology helped to detect acute coronary syndrome (ACS) during index hospitalization among patients with acute chest pain who had a significant stenosis on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Patients who presented to the emergency department with chest pain but no objective signs of myocardial ischemia (non-diagnostic ECG and negative initial biomarkers) underwent CTA. CTA was analyzed for the degree and length of stenosis, plaque area and volume, remodeling index, CT attenuation of plaque, and spotty calcium in all patients with a significant stenosis (>50% in diameter) in CTA. ACS during the index hospitalization was determined by the panel of 2 physicians blinded to results of CTA. For lesion characteristics associated with ACS, we determined cutpoints optimized for diagnostic accuracy and created lesion scores. For each score, we determined odds ratio and discriminatory capacity for the prediction of ACS. Of the overall population of 368 patients, 34 had significant stenosis and among those 21 had ACS. Score A (remodeling index+spotty calcium: OR 3.5, 95%CI 1.2–10.1, AUC 0.734), B (remodeling index+spotty calcium+stenosis length: OR 4.6, 95%CI 1.6–13.7, AUC 0.824) and C (remodeling index+spotty calcium+stenosis length+volume of <90HU plaque: OR 3.4, 95%CI 1.5–7.9, AUC 0.833) were significantly associated with ACS. In conclusion, among patients presenting with acute chest pain and with a stenosis on coronary CTA, a CT-based score incorporating morphologic characteristics of coronary lesions had a good discriminatory value for the detection ACS during index hospitalization. PMID:22481015

  17. [Acute Chest Pain].

    PubMed

    Gmür, Christian

    2016-02-17

    Acute chest pain is a frequent consultation reason in general practice as well as in emergency departments. With the help of history, physical examination, ECG, laboratory and newly developed risk scores, potentially life-threatening diseases and high-risk patients may be detected and treated early, quickly and cost-effectively. New biomarkers and their combination with risk scores can increase the negative predictive value to exclude certain diseases. PMID:26886697

  18. Acute pain medicine in anesthesiology

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Anastacia P.; Tighe, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The American Academy of Pain Medicine and the American Society for Regional Anesthesia have recently focused on the evolving practice of acute pain medicine. There is increasing recognition that the scope and practice of acute pain therapies must extend beyond the subacute pain phase to include pre-pain and pre-intervention risk stratification, resident and fellow education in regional anesthesia and multimodal analgesia, as well as a deeper understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that are integral to the variability observed among individual responses to nociception. Acute pain medicine is also being established as a vital component of successful systems-level acute pain management programs, inpatient cost containment, and patient satisfaction scores. In this review, we discuss the evolution and practice of acute pain medicine and we aim to facilitate further discussion on the evolution and advancement of this field as a subspecialty of anesthesiology. PMID:24381730

  19. Acute aortic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  20. Acute aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corvera, Joel S

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  1. Acute Effect of Topical Menthol on Chronic Pain in Slaughterhouse Workers with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Triple-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Markus D.; Jay, Kenneth; Colado, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Topical menthol gels are classified “topical analgesics” and are claimed to relieve minor aches and pains of the musculoskeletal system. In this study we investigate the acute effect of topical menthol on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We screened 645 slaughterhouse workers and recruited 10 participants with CTS and chronic pain of the arm/hand who were randomly distributed into two groups to receive topical menthol (Biofreeze) or placebo (gel with a menthol scent) during the working day and 48 hours later the other treatment (crossover design). Participants rated arm/hand pain intensity during the last hour of work (scale 0–10) immediately before 1, 2, and 3 hours after application. Furthermore, global rating of change (GROC) in arm/hand pain was assessed 3 hours after application. Compared with placebo, pain intensity and GROC improved more following application of topical menthol (P = 0.026 and P = 0.044, resp.). Pain intensity of the arm/hand decreased by −1.2 (CI 95%: −1.7 to −0.6) following topical menthol compared with placebo, corresponding to a moderate effect size of 0.63. In conclusion, topical menthol acutely reduces pain intensity during the working day in slaughterhouse workers with CTS and should be considered as an effective nonsystemic alternative to regular analgesics in the workplace management of chronic and neuropathic pain. PMID:25298894

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-05-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  3. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  4. Myofascial pain syndrome treatments.

    PubMed

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Iaccarino, Mary Alexis

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional pain disorder caused by taut bands of muscle fibers in skeletal muscles called myofascial trigger points. MPS is a common disorder, often diagnosed and treated by physiatrists. Treatment strategies for MPS include exercises, patient education, and trigger point injection. Pharmacologic interventions are also common, and a variety of analgesics, antiinflammatories, antidepressants, and other medications are used in clinical practice. This review explores the various treatment options for MPS, including those therapies that target myofascial trigger points and common secondary symptoms.

  5. Joint hypermobility syndrome pain.

    PubMed

    Grahame, Rodney

    2009-12-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) was initially defined as the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the presence of joint laxity and hypermobility in otherwise healthy individuals. It is now perceived as a commonly overlooked, underdiagnosed, multifaceted, and multisystemic heritable disorder of connective tissue (HDCT), which shares many of the phenotypic features of other HDCTs such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Whereas the additional flexibility can confer benefits in terms of mobility and agility, adverse effects of tissue laxity and fragility can give rise to clinical consequences that resonate far beyond the confines of the musculoskeletal system. There is hardly a clinical specialty to be found that is not touched in one way or another by JHS. Over the past decade, it has become evident that of all the complications that may arise in JHS, chronic pain is arguably the most menacing and difficult to treat. PMID:19889283

  6. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  7. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Hale; Pomeranz, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurological disorder producing peripheral neurogenic inflammatory process in hands and feet distal to injury, which may lead to severe disability. Symptoms are often out of proportion to the initiating event and not limited to a single peripheral nerve. There is no gold standard in diagnosis of this entity, and a multidisciplinary approach is necessary for proper diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most useful diagnostic modalities in early stages of CRPS (when clinical diagnosis is most difficult), the most desirable time to diagnose this disorder to expedite treatment and improve function. This article discusses MRI findings of CRPS, particularly in the early phase, and differential considerations. PMID:27518298

  8. Central Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... intolerable bursts of sharp pain similar to the pain caused by a dental probe on an exposed nerve. Individuals may have numbness in the areas affected by the pain. The burning and loss of touch sensations are ...

  9. Diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gerwin, Robert D

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain is one of the most common causes of pain. The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is made by muscle palpation. The source of the pain in MPS is the myofascial trigger point, a very localized region of tender, contracted muscle that is readily identified by palpation. The trigger point has well-described electrophysiologic properties and is associated with a derangement of the local biochemical milieu of the muscle. A proper diagnosis of MPS includes evaluation of muscle as a cause of pain, and assessment of associated conditions that have an impact on MPS.

  10. Pain syndromes in children.

    PubMed

    Malleson, Pete; Clinch, Jacqui

    2003-09-01

    This review discusses the recent literature on pain conditions in children that should be of interest to rheumatologists. The focus of the review is therefore on musculoskeletal pains in children, particularly chronic or recurrent musculoskeletal pain. Articles that have a broader focus on pain are discussed when these are likely to be of general interest to rheumatologists. Chronic or recurrent pain in childhood is common and can be caused by a wide variety of conditions, several of which are discussed here. The importance of being able to measure pain in children has been emphasized repeatedly in the recent literature. With increased understanding of how to evaluate pain in children has come the recognition that pain in children is multifactorial and that even when there are obvious "organic" causes of the pain (such as arthritis), psychosocial factors are critical in how pain is perceived, and they influence the extent to which pain leads to dysfunction. There is also increasing evidence that cognitive-behavioral therapies are effective in managing chronic pain in children. The frequency of back pain in children is increasingly recognized, and the role of children's work and play, carrying heavy backpacks, and sitting for long periods of time at computers in causing back pain is of interest. The studies reviewed here add to an increasingly rich and informative literature on musculoskeletal and other chronic pain in children, and they help emphasize the importance of proper evaluation and management of pain in children. PMID:12960483

  11. Managing acute enigmatic chest pain.

    PubMed

    Wielgosz, A T

    1996-09-01

    The author comments on the report by Dr. Akbar Panju and associates (see pages 541 to 547 of this issue) on patient outcomes associated with a discharge diagnosis of "chest pain not yet diagnosed." Acute chest pain without evidence of cardiac involvement presents a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, particularly in the present climate of cost containment. Esophageal disorders and psychiatric conditions appear to be the most prevalent causes of noncardiac chest pain. Although screening by means of electrocardiography and cardiac enzyme testing may rule out acute ischemia, and other tests may clearly point to a gastrointestinal cause, it is possible for cardiac and gastrointestinal problems to present simultaneously. Understanding and managing persistent chest pain even after a diagnosis has been made continues to challenge clinicians and researchers, and further progress in this area will depend on multidisciplinary collaboration.

  12. Managing acute enigmatic chest pain.

    PubMed Central

    Wielgosz, A T

    1996-01-01

    The author comments on the report by Dr. Akbar Panju and associates (see pages 541 to 547 of this issue) on patient outcomes associated with a discharge diagnosis of "chest pain not yet diagnosed." Acute chest pain without evidence of cardiac involvement presents a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, particularly in the present climate of cost containment. Esophageal disorders and psychiatric conditions appear to be the most prevalent causes of noncardiac chest pain. Although screening by means of electrocardiography and cardiac enzyme testing may rule out acute ischemia, and other tests may clearly point to a gastrointestinal cause, it is possible for cardiac and gastrointestinal problems to present simultaneously. Understanding and managing persistent chest pain even after a diagnosis has been made continues to challenge clinicians and researchers, and further progress in this area will depend on multidisciplinary collaboration. PMID:8804262

  13. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... block. This is an injection of an anesthetic (pain reliever) into certain nerves to block the pain signals. If the injection works, it may be repeated. Physical therapy and psychological counseling are also helpful. However, a ...

  14. Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Ernest; Clauw, Daniel J.; Goldenberg, Don L.; Harris, Richard E.; Helfenstein, Milton; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Noguchi, Koichi; Silverman, Stuart L.; Ushida, Takahiro; Wang, Guochun

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients’ lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in general. PMID:27022674

  15. Myofascial pain syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Anudeep; Chansoria, Mayank; Tomar, Gaurav; Kumar, Abhyuday

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few decades, advances have been made in the understanding of myofascial pain syndromes (MPSs). In spite of its high prevalence in the society, it is not a commonly established diagnosis. MPS is said to be the great imitator. This article puts some light on the various clinical presentations of the syndrome, on the various tools to reach to a diagnosis for commencing the treatment and on the treatment modalities that have been used so far.

  16. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in the assessment of patients presenting with chest pain suspected for acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    De Filippo, Massimo; Capasso, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Acute chest pain is an important clinical challenge and a major reason for presentation to the emergency department. Although multiple imaging techniques are available to assess patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS), considerable interest has been focused on the use of non-invasive imaging options as coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). According to several recent evidences, CCTA has been shown to represent a useful tool to rapidly and accurately diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with low to intermediate cardiovascular risk. CCTA examination has the unique ability to non-invasively depict the coronary anatomy, not only allowing visualization of the lumen of the arteries in order to detect severe stenosis or occlusion responsible of myocardial ischemia, but also allows the assessment of coronary artery wall by demonstrating the presence or absence of CAD. However, routine CCTA is not able to differentiate ischemic from non-ischemic chest pain in patients with known CAD and it does not provide any functional assessment of the heart. Conversely, CMR is considered the gold standard in the evaluation of morphology, function, viability and tissue characterization of the heart. CMR offers a wide range of tools for diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI) at least at the same time of the elevation of cardiac troponin values, differentiating infarct tissue and ischemic myocardium from normal myocardium or mimicking conditions, and distinguishing between new and old ischemic events. In high-risk patients, with acute and chronic manifestations of CAD, CMR may be preferable to CCTA, since it would allow detection, differential diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and management of MI. PMID:27500156

  17. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... an important role in sustaining the pain. Another theory is that CRPS is caused by a triggering ... All NINDS-prepared information is in the public domain and may be freely copied. Credit to the ...

  18. Acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tumbarello, C

    2000-01-01

    Acute Extremity Compartment Syndrome is a disorder, which can cause loss of limb if left untreated. Compartment syndrome develops when pressures within the fascial compartments become elevated, resulting in decreased perfusion to muscles and nerves. Left untreated, tissue death occurs. Rapid identification of clinical signs can decrease severity of symptoms. Diligent nursing assessment and monitoring of clinical signs, with communication to the physician, will facilitate rapid treatment by the physician. The primary treatment option is early identification and intervention through performance of a fasciotomy.

  19. Do Immature Platelet Levels in Chest Pain Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department Aid in the Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Darling, Chad E.; Frelinger, Andrew L.; Barnard, Marc R.; Smith, Craig S.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Early and accurate identification of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) versus non-cardiac chest pain in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) is problematic and new diagnostic markers are needed. Previous studies reported that elevated mean platelet volume (MPV) is associated with ACS and predictive of cardiovascular risk. MPV is closely related to the immature platelet fraction (IPF), and recent studies have suggested that IPF may be a more sensitive marker of ACS than MPV. The objective of the present study was to determine if the measurement of IPF assists in the diagnosis of ACS in patients presenting to the ED with chest pain. Methods In this single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study, adult patients presenting to the ED with chest pain and/or suspected ACS were considered for enrollment. Blood samples from 236 ACS-negative and 44 ACS-positive patients were analyzed in a Sysmex XE-2100 for platelet count, MPV, IPF and the absolute count of immature platelets (IPC). Results Total platelet counts, MPV, IPF and IPC were not statistically different between ACS-negative and -positive patients. The IPF was 4.6 ± 2.7 and 5.0 ± 2.8% (mean ± SD, p = 0.24) and the IPC was 10.0 ± 4.6 and 11.5 ± 7.5 × 103/µL (p = 0.27) for ACS-negative and ACS-positive patients, respectively. Conclusion In 280 patients presenting to the ED with chest pain and/or suspected ACS, no differences in IPF, IPC or MPV were observed in ACS-negative versus ACS-positive patients, suggesting that these parameters do not assist in the diagnosis of ACS. PMID:24806286

  20. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. PMID:24787333

  1. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions.

  2. Myofascial pain syndrome: a treatment review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mehul J; Saini, Vikramjeet; Saini, Shawnjeet

    2013-06-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The appropriate evaluation and management of myofascial pain is an important part of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, and regional axial and limb pain syndromes. This article reviews the current hypotheses regarding the treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points and muscle pain. Through a critical evidence-based review of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, the authors aim to provide clinicians with a more comprehensive knowledge of the interventions for myofascial pain.

  3. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    PubMed

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  4. [The groin pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Janković, S; Delimar, D; Hudetz, D

    2001-12-01

    Groin pain is defined as tendon enthesitis of adductor longus muscle and/or abdominal muscles that may lead to degenerative arthropathy of pubic symphises in an advanced stage. Pubic region is a point where kinematic forces cross. The balance between the adductor and abdominal muscles is of great importance, as well as the elasticity of pubic symphises which enables movement of up to 2 mm and rotation of up to 3 degrees. The weakness of the abdominal muscle wall, known as the sportsman's hernia, is the most common cause of painful groin. Groin pain is the most common in soccer players (6.24% in Croatia). Most authors believe that the main cause of groin pain is the adductor muscle overload. When active, sportsmen start to feel a dull pain in the groin region. The adductor test is of great importance for physical examination; the patient should be lying supine with his hips abducted and flexed at 80 degrees. The test is positive if the patient, while attempting to pull his/her legs against pressing in the opposite direction, feels a sharp pain in the groins. The treatment of groin pain is complex and individual, as its causes may vary from patient to patient. Gradual physical therapy combined with pharmacotherapy should be effective in most cases. The latter includes nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants. A physical therapy programme usually involves stretching and strengthening of adductor muscles, abdominal wall muscles, iliopsoas muscle, quadriceps, and hamstrings. In case that physical therapy and pharmacotherapy fail, surgery is needed, depending on the cause. PMID:11831125

  5. [The groin pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Janković, S; Delimar, D; Hudetz, D

    2001-12-01

    Groin pain is defined as tendon enthesitis of adductor longus muscle and/or abdominal muscles that may lead to degenerative arthropathy of pubic symphises in an advanced stage. Pubic region is a point where kinematic forces cross. The balance between the adductor and abdominal muscles is of great importance, as well as the elasticity of pubic symphises which enables movement of up to 2 mm and rotation of up to 3 degrees. The weakness of the abdominal muscle wall, known as the sportsman's hernia, is the most common cause of painful groin. Groin pain is the most common in soccer players (6.24% in Croatia). Most authors believe that the main cause of groin pain is the adductor muscle overload. When active, sportsmen start to feel a dull pain in the groin region. The adductor test is of great importance for physical examination; the patient should be lying supine with his hips abducted and flexed at 80 degrees. The test is positive if the patient, while attempting to pull his/her legs against pressing in the opposite direction, feels a sharp pain in the groins. The treatment of groin pain is complex and individual, as its causes may vary from patient to patient. Gradual physical therapy combined with pharmacotherapy should be effective in most cases. The latter includes nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants. A physical therapy programme usually involves stretching and strengthening of adductor muscles, abdominal wall muscles, iliopsoas muscle, quadriceps, and hamstrings. In case that physical therapy and pharmacotherapy fail, surgery is needed, depending on the cause.

  6. Outpatient diagnosis of acute chest pain in adults.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, John R; Oza, Rupal S

    2013-02-01

    Approximately 1 percent of primary care office visits are for chest pain, and 1.5 percent of these patients will have unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. The initial goal in patients presenting with chest pain is to determine if the patient needs to be referred for further testing to rule in or out acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction. The physician should consider patient characteristics and risk factors to help determine initial risk. Twelve-lead electrocardiography is typically the test of choice when looking for ST segment changes, new-onset left bundle branch block, presence of Q waves, and new-onset T wave inversions. For persons in whom the suspicion for ischemia is lower, other diagnoses to consider include chest wall pain/costochondritis (localized pain reproducible by palpation), gastroesophageal reflux disease (burning retrosternal pain, acid regurgitation, and a sour or bitter taste in the mouth), and panic disorder/anxiety state. Other less common but important diagnostic considerations include pneumonia (fever, egophony, and dullness to percussion), heart failure, pulmonary embolism (consider using the Wells criteria), acute pericarditis, and acute thoracic aortic dissection (acute chest or back pain with a pulse differential in the upper extremities). Persons with a higher likelihood of acute coronary syndrome should be referred to the emergency department or hospital.

  7. [Acute coronary syndromes: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Alev Arat

    2013-04-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in the world as well as in Turkey. It's not only a health issue but also a social problem with a high economic burden and negative impact on quality of life. The majority of deaths are attributable to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their complications.This review summarizes some important facts regarding ACS epidemiology in the world and in Turkey. PMID:27323430

  8. Imaging central pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Greenspan, Joel D; Kim, Jong H; Coghill, Robert C; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick A

    2007-06-01

    Anatomic, functional, and neurochemical imaging studies have provided new investigative tools in the study of central pain. High-resolution imaging studies allow for precise determination of lesion location, whereas functional neuroimaging studies measure pathophysiologic consequences of injury to the central nervous system. Additionally, magnetic resonance spectroscopy evaluates lesion-induced neurochemical changes in specific brain regions that may be related to central pain. The small number of studies to date precludes definitive conclusions, but the recent findings provide information that either supports or refutes current hypotheses and can serve to generate new ideas.

  9. Modified Graded Motor Imagery for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 of the Upper Extremity in the Acute Phase: A Patient Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagueux, Emilie; Charest, Joelle; Lefrancois-Caron, Eve; Mauger, Marie-Eve; Mercier, Emilie; Savard, Kim; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a pathologic condition in which the painful experience is disproportionate in time and intensity in comparison with the inciting event. At present, the pathophysiology of CRPS is not well understood. Several studies have indicated that cortical reorganization plays a role in the persistence of the symptoms.…

  10. Allergic acute coronary syndrome (Kounis syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Lovely; Masrur, Shihab; Parker, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis rarely manifests as a vasospastic acute coronary syndrome with or without the presence of underlying coronary artery disease. The variability in the underlying pathogenesis produces a wide clinical spectrum of this syndrome. We present three cases of anaphylactic acute coronary syndrome that display different clinical variants of this phenomenon. The main pathophysiological mechanism of the allergic anginal syndromes is the inflammatory mediators released during a hypersensitivity reaction triggered by food, insect bites, or drugs. It is important to appropriately recognize and treat Kounis syndrome in patients with exposure to a documented allergen. PMID:26130889

  11. Pain perception in people with Down syndrome: a synthesis of clinical and experimental research

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Brian E.; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability experience both acute and chronic pain with at least the same frequency as the general population. However, considerably less is known about the pain perception of people with Down syndrome. In this review paper, we evaluated the available clinical and experimental evidence. Some experimental studies of acute pain have indicated that pain threshold was higher than normal but only when using a reaction time method to measure pain sensitivity. However, when reaction time is not part of the calculation of the pain threshold, pain sensitivity in people with Down syndrome is in fact lower than normal (more sensitive to pain). Clinical studies of chronic pain have shown that people with an intellectual disability experience chronic pain and within that population, people with Down syndrome also experience chronic pain, but the precise prevalence of chronic pain in Down syndrome has yet to be established. Taken together, the literature suggests that people with Down syndrome experience pain, both acute and chronic, with at least the same frequency as the rest of the population. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that although acute pain expression appears to be delayed, once pain is registered, there appears to be a magnified pain response. We conclude by proposing an agenda for future research in this area. PMID:26283936

  12. Basic aspects of musculoskeletal pain: from acute to chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The transition from acute to chronic musculoskeletal pain is not well understood. To understand this transition, it is important to know how peripheral and central sensitization are manifested and how they can be assessed. A variety of human pain biomarkers have been developed to quantify localized and widespread musculoskeletal pain. In addition, human surrogate models may be used to induce sensitization in otherwise healthy volunteers. Pain can arise from different musculoskeletal structures (e.g. muscles, joints, ligaments, or tendons), and differentiating the origin of pain from those different structures is a challenge. Tissue specific pain biomarkers can be used to tease these different aspects. Chronic musculoskeletal pain patients in general show signs of local/central sensitization and spread of pain to degrees which correlate to pain intensity and duration. From a management perspective, it is therefore highly important to reduce pain intensity and try to minimize the duration of pain. PMID:23115471

  13. Acute compartment syndrome of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Prasarn, Mark L; Ouellette, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome occurs when pressure within a fibro-osseous space increases to a level that results in a decreased perfusion gradient across tissue capillary beds. Compartment syndromes of the hand, forearm, and upper arm can result in tissue necrosis, which can lead to devastating loss of function. The etiology of acute compartment syndrome in the upper extremity is diverse, and a high index of suspicion must be maintained. Pain out of proportion to injury is the most reliable early symptom of impending compartment syndrome. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in obtunded patients and in young children. Early recognition and expeditious surgical treatment are essential to obtain a good clinical outcome and prevent permanent disability.

  14. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buskila, D

    2000-03-01

    Fibromyalgia and widespread pain were common in Gulf War veterans with unexplained illness referred to a rheumatology clinic. Increased tenderness was demonstrated in the postmenstrual phase of the cycle compared with the intermenstrual phase in normally cycling women but not in users of oral contraceptives. Patients with fibromyalgia had high levels of symptoms that have been used to define silicone implant-associated syndrome. Tender points were found to be a common transient finding associated with acute infectious mononucleosis, but fibromyalgia was an unusual long-term outcome. The common association of fibromyalgia with other rheumatic and systemic illnesses was further explored. A preliminary study revealed a possible linkage of fibromyalgia to the HLA region. Patients with fibromyalgia were found to have an impaired ability to activate the hypothalamic pituitary portion of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis as well as the sympathoadrenal system, leading to reduced corticotropin and epinephrine response to hypoglycemia. Much interest has been expressed in the literature on the possible role of autonomic dysfunction in the development or exacerbation of fatigue and other symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome. Mycoplasma genus and mycoplasma fermentans were detected by polymerase chain reaction in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. It was reported that myofascial temporomandibular disorder does not run in families. No major therapeutic trials in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, or myofascial pain syndrome were reported over the past year. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy and behavior therapy for chronic pain in adults was emphasized. A favorable outcome of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome in children and adolescents was reported.

  15. Case study: the painful os trigonum syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brown, G P; Feehery, R V; Grant, S M

    1995-07-01

    The painful os trigonum syndrome is one cause of posterolateral ankle pain. This syndrome is most prevalent in athletes who perform frequent and/or forceful plantar flexion. The painful os trigonum may be misdiagnosed as Achilles and/or peroneal tendinitis. In this case, the patient was misdiagnosed for 15 months and treated for tendinitis. The appropriate clinical tests to evaluate the os trigonum as a source of posterolateral ankle pain are outlined. The surgical and postoperative management for the patient are discussed. Clinicians should be aware of the painful os trigonum syndrome as a possible source of posterolateral ankle pain.

  16. Pain Management: Part 1: Managing Acute and Postoperative Dental Pain

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Safe and effective management of acute dental pain can be accomplished with nonopioid and opioid analgesics. To formulate regimens properly, it is essential to appreciate basic pharmacological principles and appropriate dosage strategies for each of the available analgesic classes. This article will review the basic pharmacology of analgesic drug classes, including their relative efficacy for dental pain, and will suggest appropriate regimens based on pain intensity. Management of chronic pain will be addressed in the second part of this series. PMID:20553137

  17. The complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Horowitz, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the current consensus-derived name for a syndrome usually triggered by limb trauma. Required elements include prolonged, disproportionate distal-limb pain and microvascular dysregulation (e.g., edema or color changes) or altered sweating. CRPS-II (formerly "causalgia") describes patients with identified nerve injuries. CRPS-I (formerly "reflex sympathetic dystrophy") describes most patients who lack evidence of specific nerve injuries. Diagnosis is clinical and the pathophysiology involves combinations of small-fiber axonopathy, microvasculopathy, inflammation, and brain plasticity/sensitization. Females have much higher risk and workplace accidents are a well-recognized cause. Inflammation and dysimmunity, perhaps facilitated by injury to the blood-nerve barrier, may contribute. Most patients, particularly the young, recover gradually, but treatment can speed healing. Evidence of efficacy is strongest for rehabilitation therapies (e.g., graded-motor imagery), neuropathic pain medications, and electric stimulation of the spinal cord, injured nerve, or motor cortex. Investigational treatments include ketamine, botulinum toxin, immunoglobulins, and transcranial neuromodulation. Nonrecovering patients should be re-evaluated for neurosurgically treatable causal lesions (nerve entrapment, impingement, infections, or tumors) and treatable potentiating medical conditions, including polyneuropathy and circulatory insufficiency. Earlier impressions that CRPS represents malingering or psychosomatic illness have been replaced by evidence that CRPS is a rare complication of limb injury in biologically susceptible individuals. PMID:26563805

  18. [Intranasal opioids for acute pain].

    PubMed

    Añez Simón, C; Rull Bartomeu, M; Rodríguez Pérez, A; Fuentes Baena, A

    2006-12-01

    Intranasal drug administration is an easy, well-tolerated, noninvasive transmucosal route that avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver. The nasal mucosa provides an extensive, highly vascularized surface of pseudostratified ciliated epithelium. It secretes mucus that is subjected to mucociliary movement that can affect the time of contact between the drug and the surface. Absorption is influenced by anatomical and physiological factors as well as by properties of the drug and the delivery system. We review the literature on intranasal administration of fentanyl, meperidine, diamorphine, and butorphanol to treat acute pain. The adverse systemic effects are similar to those described for intravenous administration, the most common being drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting. Local effects reported are a burning sensation with meperidine and a bad taste. PMID:17302079

  19. The Biochemical Origin of Pain: The origin of all Pain is Inflammation and the Inflammatory Response. PART 2 of 3 –Inflammatory Profile of Pain Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Every pain syndrome has an inflammatory profile consisting of the inflammatory mediators that are present in the pain syndrome. The inflammatory profile may have variations from one person to another and may have variations in the same person at different times. The key to treatment of Pain Syndromes is an understanding of their inflammatory profile. Pain syndromes may be treated medically or surgically. The goal should be inhibition or suppression of production of the inflammatory mediators and inhibition, suppression or modulation of neuronal afferent and efferent (motor) transmission. A successful outcome is one that results in less inflammation and thus less pain. We hereby describe the inflammatory profile for several pain syndromes including arthritis, back pain, neck pain, fibromyalgia, interstitial cystitis, migraine, neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome / reflex sympathetic dystrophy (CRPS/RSD), bursitis, shoulder pain and vulvodynia. These profiles are derived from basic science and clinical research performed in the past by numerous investigators and will be updated in the future by new technologies such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our unifying theory or law of pain states: The origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. The biochemical mediators of inflammation include cytokines, neuropeptides, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Irrespective of the type of pain whether it is acute or chronic pain, peripheral or central pain, nociceptive or neuropathic pain, the underlying origin is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Activation of pain receptors, transmission and modulation of pain signals, neuro plasticity and central sensitization are all one continuum of inflammation and the inflammatory response. Irrespective of the characteristic of the pain, whether it is sharp, dull, aching, burning, stabbing, numbing or tingling, all pain arise from inflammation and the inflammatory response. We are proposing

  20. The biochemical origin of pain: the origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Part 2 of 3 - inflammatory profile of pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Omoigui, Sota

    2007-01-01

    Every pain syndrome has an inflammatory profile consisting of the inflammatory mediators that are present in the pain syndrome. The inflammatory profile may have variations from one person to another and may have variations in the same person at different times. The key to treatment of Pain Syndromes is an understanding of their inflammatory profile. Pain syndromes may be treated medically or surgically. The goal should be inhibition or suppression of production of the inflammatory mediators and inhibition, suppression or modulation of neuronal afferent and efferent (motor) transmission. A successful outcome is one that results in less inflammation and thus less pain. We hereby briefly describe the inflammatory profile for several pain syndromes including arthritis, back pain, neck pain, fibromyalgia, interstitial cystitis, migraine, neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome/reflex sympathetic dystrophy (CRPS/RSD), bursitis, shoulder pain and vulvodynia. These profiles are derived from basic science and clinical research performed in the past by numerous investigators and serve as a foundation to be built upon by other researchers and will be updated in the future by new technologies such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our unifying theory or law of pain states: the origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. The biochemical mediators of inflammation include cytokines, neuropeptides, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Irrespective of the type of pain whether it is acute or chronic pain, peripheral or central pain, nociceptive or neuropathic pain, the underlying origin is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Activation of pain receptors, transmission and modulation of pain signals, neuro plasticity and central sensitization are all one continuum of inflammation and the inflammatory response. Irrespective of the characteristic of the pain, whether it is sharp, dull, aching, burning, stabbing, numbing or tingling, all pain

  1. [Acute intermittent porphyria and inappropriate ADH syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tébar, M T; Aguilera, L

    2010-05-01

    A 44-year-old woman complained of abdominal pain of 4 days' duration accompanied by vomiting and painful urination. The admitting physician noted neurologic signs consistent with axonal polyneuropathy and hyponatremia. In the absence of other explanations for the syndrome, SIADH was diagnosed. Because of the nonspecific nature of the observations, the patient was assessed by various specialists and admitted to the anesthetic recovery unit due to worsening of neurologic signs and suspicion of acute intermittent porphyria. The diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory findings of elevated d-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen levels and normal stool porphyrins. The patient improved with intravenous hematin infused over 4 days.

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome: An optimistic perspective.

    PubMed

    Birklein, Frank; O'Neill, Darragh; Schlereth, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) presents with clinical symptoms that can no longer be explained by the initial trauma, including pain, sensory, motor, and trophic symptoms, and impairment of autonomic control of the limb. These symptoms spread distally and go beyond single nerve innervation territories. Typically, the symptoms change through the course of CRPS as a result of the varying pathophysiology. Diagnosis is made clinically after the rigorous elimination of other possible causes, and 3-phase bone scintigraphy can be a useful tool for confirming CRPS. In acute stages, inflammatory symptoms prevail and should be treated with anti-inflammatory agents (steroids), bisphosphonates, or topical application of dimethyl sulfoxide. In chronic stages, many symptoms are related to so-called central neuroplasticity; these include hyperalgesia, sensory loss, motor symptoms, body perception disturbance, autonomic symptoms, and learned incorrect behavior such as nonuse. At this stage, the only medical treatment that is effective against pain without improving the function is ketamine infusions, but this has side effects. Physical therapy, graded motor imagery, and pain exposure/graded exposure in vivo therapy can help to overcome central reorganization. If a relevant mental comorbidity is present, the patient should be referred for psychotherapeutic treatment. Invasive treatment should be restricted to special cases and only offered after psychosomatic assessment. If these recommendations are followed, CRPS prognosis is not as poor as commonly assumed. Whether the patients can return to their previous life depends on particular individual factors.

  3. Prevalence and prognosis of non-specific chest pain among patients hospitalized for suspected acute coronary syndrome - a systematic literature search

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The term non-specific chest pain (NSCP) is applied to hospitalized patients in order to designate that they neither have an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) nor display evidence of a coronary ischemia. The number of NSCP patients is increasing and comprehensive guidelines specifying their optimal management have not yet been introduced. The objective of this review was to explore the prevalence and prognosis of NSCP versus ACS among patients recruited in consecutive series hospitalized for chest pain suspected to be ACS. Methods This is a systematic literature search where three databases were searched from 1990 to 14 November 2011. In addition, one database was searched for Epub ahead of print per 24 March 2012. Three inclusion criteria were applied: 1. documentation of an unselected consecutive series of patients admitted for chest pain, where this review is based upon two groups of patients defined as follows: a) 'ACS/high-risk' and b) NSCP; 2. at least 100 cases with NSCP; and 3. follow-up of hospital readmissions and mortality for at least six months. Results A total of 2,204 citations were screened after removal of duplicates. Out of 80 full text articles assessed for eligibility 12 studies were included, comprising 24,829 patients (inter-study range 250 to 13,762), with 11,008 (44%) categorized as NSCP and 13,821 (56%) as 'ACS/high-risk'. The mean one-year total mortality rate among patients with NSCP in nine studies was 3.2% (inter-study range 1.4% to 8.1%), with the highest mortality among patients with pre-existing coronary heart disease (CHD). The mean one-year mortality rate among 'ACS/high-risk' patients was 18.0% (inter-study range 14.0% to 19.9%) in four studies with available data. In six studies the mean one-year readmission rate for patients with NSCP was 17.5% (inter-study range 2.5% to 40%). Conclusions Patients with NSCP represent a large, heterogeneous and important group. Due to co-existing CHD in nearly 40% of these patients, their

  4. Treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Zern

    2006-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) located within taut bands of skeletal muscle fibers. Treating the underlying etiologic lesion responsible for MTrP activation is the most important strategy in MPS therapy. If the underlying pathology is not given the appropriate treatment, the MTrP cannot be completely and permanently inactivated. Treatment of active MTrPs may be necessary in situations in which active MTrPs persist even after the underlying etiologic lesion has been treated appropriately. When treating the active MTrPs or their underlying pathology, conservative treatment should be given before aggressive therapy. Effective MTrP therapies include manual therapies, physical therapy modalities, dry needling, or MTrP injection. It is also important to eliminate any perpetuating factors and provide adequate education and home programs to patients so that recurrent or chronic pain can be avoided.

  5. Complex regional pain syndrome underdiagnosed.

    PubMed

    Quisel, Anna; Gill, James M; Witherell, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 may be diagnosed by history and physical exam with no further testing. Several different diagnostic criteria have undergone validity testing: the 1993 IASP criteria, Bruehl's criteria, and Veldman's criteria; there is no compelling reason to recommend 1 set of criteria over the others. Some cases of CRPS type 1 may be preventable. Some cases of CRPS type 1 in post-stroke upper extremity hemiplegia (also known as shoulder-hand syndrome) may be prevented by early inpatient rehabilitation and avoidance of shoulder trauma to the affected arm. Some cases of post-fracture CRPS type 1 may be prevented with 500 mg vitamin C daily started upon diagnosis of fracture and continued through healing.

  6. Craniofacial Pain as the Sole Sign of Prodromal Angina and Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Review and Report of a Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Fazlyab, Mahta; Esnaashari, Ehsan; Saleh, Mojgan; Shakerian, Farshad; Akhlagh Moayed, Davood; Asgary, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial pain can arise from different regions and etiologies. Some of the most debilitating pain conditions arise from the structures innervated by the trigeminal system (head, face, masticatory musculature, temporomandibular joint and associated structures). The problem with referred pain is the misdiagnosis and unnecessary therapy directed to the pain location instead of its origin. When craniofacial pain is the sole sign of myocardial ischemia, failure to recognize its cardiac source can endanger the patient. In particular, apart from unnecessary dental treatments, patients with acute myocardial infarction who do not experience chest pain run a very high risk of misdiagnosis and death. As endodontists, each of us may face many patients complaining of pain sensation in the teeth with the main source being other craniofacial/visceral organs. This review plots a diagnostically challenging case paving the way for further literature presentation in this regard. The aim of this compendious review was to gain knowledge about the prevalence, clinical characteristics and possible mechanisms of craniofacial pain of cardiac origin, in order to improve the clinician's ability to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:26523144

  7. Craniofacial Pain as the Sole Sign of Prodromal Angina and Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Review and Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Fazlyab, Mahta; Esnaashari, Ehsan; Saleh, Mojgan; Shakerian, Farshad; Akhlagh Moayed, Davood; Asgary, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial pain can arise from different regions and etiologies. Some of the most debilitating pain conditions arise from the structures innervated by the trigeminal system (head, face, masticatory musculature, temporomandibular joint and associated structures). The problem with referred pain is the misdiagnosis and unnecessary therapy directed to the pain location instead of its origin. When craniofacial pain is the sole sign of myocardial ischemia, failure to recognize its cardiac source can endanger the patient. In particular, apart from unnecessary dental treatments, patients with acute myocardial infarction who do not experience chest pain run a very high risk of misdiagnosis and death. As endodontists, each of us may face many patients complaining of pain sensation in the teeth with the main source being other craniofacial/visceral organs. This review plots a diagnostically challenging case paving the way for further literature presentation in this regard. The aim of this compendious review was to gain knowledge about the prevalence, clinical characteristics and possible mechanisms of craniofacial pain of cardiac origin, in order to improve the clinician’s ability to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:26523144

  8. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tasch, James J.; Misodi, Emmanuel O.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Gluteal fasciotomy Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. Case Report: We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. Conclusions: This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome. PMID:27432320

  9. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance. ARDS always occurs within a week of exposition to a precipitating factor; most frequently pneumonia, shock, aspiration of gastric contents, sepsis, and trauma. In CT scan, the disease is frequently inhomogeneous, with gravitational infiltrates coexisting with normal-density areas and also with hyperaerated parenchyma. Mortality is high (30-60%) especially in ARDS associated with septic shock and neurocritical diseases. The cornerstone of therapy lies in the treatment of the underlying cause and in the use mechanical ventilation which, if inappropriately administered, can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Tidal volume = 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight to maintain an end-inspiratory (plateau) pressure = 30 cm H2O ("protective ventilation") is the only variable consistently associated with decreased mortality. Moderate-to-high PEEP levels are frequently required to treat hypoxemia, yet no specific level or titration strategy has improved outcomes. Recently, the use of early prone positioning in patients with PaO2/FIO2 = 150 was associated with increased survival. In severely hypoxemic patients, it may be necessary to use adjuvants of mechanical ventilation as recruitment maneuvers, pressure-controlled modes, neuromuscular blocking agents, and extracorporeal-membrane oxygenation. Fluid restriction appears beneficial. PMID:27576283

  10. Acute abdominal pain in childhood, with special reference to cases not due to acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Jones, P F

    1969-02-01

    Appendicitis is not the only common cause of acute abdominal pain in childhood. Almost equally common is an acute episode which in its early stages resembles acute appendicitis but which subsides without treatment in 24 to 48 hours. The clinical features of this syndrome are contrasted with those of appendicitis. The two conditions cannot always be distinguished on clinical grounds, leading to admission to hospital for observation and the finding of a normal appendix in 14% of operations for suspected appendicitis. Reasons are given for abandoning attempts to diagnose acute mesenteric adenitis at the bedside.

  11. Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6 months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function.

  12. Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6 months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function. PMID:26614726

  13. Acute and chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6 months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function. PMID:24994051

  14. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Lanny

    2012-06-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topics addressed in this issue are Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and associated chronic pain; the information is meant to help readers understand the mechanisms for pain in this connective tissue disorder as well as general treatment principles for chronic pain management. PMID:22616833

  15. Myofascial pain syndromes and their evaluation.

    PubMed

    Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Fabrizio, Alessandra; Costantini, Raffaele

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the available published knowledge about the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of myofascial pain syndromes from trigger points. Furthermore, epidemiologic data and clinical characteristics of these syndromes are described, including a detailed account of sensory changes that occur at both painful and nonpainful sites and their utility for diagnosis and differential diagnosis; the identification/diagnostic criteria available so far are critically reviewed. The key role played by myofascial trigger points as activating factors of pain symptoms in other algogenic conditions--headache, fibromyalgia and visceral disease--is also addressed. Current hypotheses on the pathophysiology of myofascial pain syndromes are presented, including mechanisms of formation and persistence of primary and secondary trigger points as well as mechanisms beyond referred pain and hyperalgesia from trigger points. Conventional and most recent therapeutic options for these syndromes are described, and their validity is discussed on the basis of results from clinical controlled studies.

  16. [Management of acute low back pain].

    PubMed

    Marty, Marc

    2008-02-15

    Acute low back pain is evolving for less than 4 or 6 weeks. The diagnostic stake in front of an acute low back pain is not to ignore a condition requiring a specific treatment (vertebral fracture, tumours, infections, inflammatory diseases...). Signs of alerts from patient history are to be looked for to enable it. Once the diagnosis of non specific low back pain has been confirmed and in absence of neurological complications, the therapeutic stake is to avoid chronicity by a treatment adapted to every patient. Numerous scientific quality data questioned the interest of the bed rest for non specific acute low back pain and the beneficial role of the preservation of the activities to avoid chronicity. The interest to inform and to reassure the patient on his future is also an important condition of the care. PMID:18536202

  17. Tufted angioma and myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silva, Roberto Souto da; Bressan, Aline Lopes; Nascimento, Lívia Barbosa; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2011-01-01

    Tufted angioma is a rare acquired vascular tumor. It is characterized by painful purplish macules that may progress to plaques containing angiomatous papules. The condition is benign; however, it often affects extensive areas of the skin, leading to functional disability of the affected limb if painful. The present report describes a case of a tufted angioma associated with myofascial pain syndrome in which the predisposing element was the presence of this tumor since childhood. Pain at the site of the lesion affected muscle use and led to the onset of the associated syndrome. Complete relief from symptoms was achieved by blocking the trigger points of the affected limb with anesthesia.

  18. Pain in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ropper, A H; Shahani, B T

    1984-05-01

    The clinical features of pain were prospectively analyzed in 29 consecutive patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Sixteen (55%) had characteristic pain early in the illness described as similar to the muscular discomfort following exercise ("charley horse"). Pain preceded weakness by one to five days in four patients. The anterior and posterior aspects of the thighs, the buttocks, and the low part of the back were most frequently affected. Pain was frequently worse at night. Specific clinical signs or electrophysiologic abnormalities were not associated with pain, but serum creatine kinase level was elevated in ten of 13 patients with pain and only one of eight without pain. A review of previously reported pathologic material in five patients with GBS failed to disclose a relation between inflammation of dorsal root ganglia and pain. These results suggest that alterations in muscle related to neurogenic changes may cause the typical pain of GBS.

  19. Acute nephritic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... and adolescents include: Hemolytic uremic syndrome Henoch-Schönlein purpura IgA nephropathy Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis Common causes in ... Heart failure - overview Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Henoch-Schönlein purpura Hepatitis High blood pressure Hypersensitivity vasculitis IgA nephropathy ...

  20. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tasch, James J; Misodi, Emmanuel O

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. CONCLUSIONS This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome.

  1. [Imaging of acute pelvic pain in women].

    PubMed

    Genevois, A; Marouteau, N; Lemercier, E; Dacher, J N; Thiebot, J

    2008-01-01

    Acute pelvic pain in women is a routine situation in any emergency unit. The radiologist should know how to explore the patient with regards to the history and clinical findings. Ultrasonography is the primary and sometimes the only necessary imaging tool in the assessment of acute pelvic pain in women. MRI is the preferred technique in pregnant or young women. CT is more valuable for assessing nongynecologic disorders or post-partum and post-operative infections. This article reviews the contribution of each imaging technique in this clinical situation. Emphasis is put on the importance of age and clinical findings in the diagnostic strategy. PMID:18288036

  2. [Imaging of acute pelvic pain in women].

    PubMed

    Genevois, A; Marouteau, N; Lemercier, E; Dacher, J N; Thiebot, J

    2008-01-01

    Acute pelvic pain in women is a routine situation in any emergency unit. The radiologist should know how to explore the patient with regards to the history and clinical findings. Ultrasonography is the primary and sometimes the only necessary imaging tool in the assessment of acute pelvic pain in women. MRI is the preferred technique in pregnant or young women. CT is more valuable for assessing nongynecologic disorders or post-partum and post-operative infections. This article reviews the contribution of each imaging technique in this clinical situation. Emphasis is put on the importance of age and clinical findings in the diagnostic strategy.

  3. The clinics of acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rastelli, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Risk stratification and management of patients with chest pain continues to be challenging despite considerable efforts made in the last decades by many clinicians and researchers. The throutful evaluation necessitates that the physicians have a high index of suspicion for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and always keep in mind the myriad of often subtle and atypical presentations of ischemic heart disease, especially in certain patient populations such as the elderly ones. In this article we aim to review and discuss the available evidence on the value of clinical presentation in patients with a suspected ACS, with special emphasis on history, characteristics of chest pain, associated symptoms, atypical presentations, precipitating and relieving factors, drugs, clinical rules and significance of clinical Gestalt. PMID:27294087

  4. Interstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Events Upcoming and past meetings Follow Us Social media, RSS feeds, and more Follow Us Health Information > ... Chronic Pain Association American Pain Society American Urogynecologic ... Claimants' Representatives Social Security Administration United Ostomy ...

  5. Inflammation in complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Parkitny, Luke; McAuley, James H.; Di Pietro, Flavia; Stanton, Tasha R.; O’Connell, Neil E.; Marinus, Johan; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We conducted a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis to determine whether complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is associated with a specific inflammatory profile and whether this is dependent on the duration of the condition. Methods: Comprehensive searches of the literature using MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and reference lists from published reviews identified articles that measured inflammatory factors in CRPS. Two independent investigators screened titles and abstracts, and performed data extraction and risk of bias assessments. Studies were subgrouped by medium (blood, blister fluid, and CSF) and duration (acute and chronic CRPS). Where possible, meta-analyses of inflammatory factor concentrations were performed and pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models. Results: Twenty-two studies were included in the systematic review and 15 in the meta-analysis. In acute CRPS, the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8 and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I (sTNF-RI) and II (sTNF-RII) were significantly increased in blood. In chronic CRPS, significant increases were found in 1) TNFα, bradykinin, sIL-1RI, IL-1Ra, IL-2, sIL-2Ra, IL-4, IL-7, interferon-γ, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and sRAGE (soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products) in blood; 2) IL-1Ra, MCP-1, MIP-1β, and IL-6 in blister fluid; and 3) IL-1β and IL-6 in CSF. Chronic CRPS was also associated with significantly decreased 1) substance P, sE-selectin, sL-selectin, sP-selectin, and sGP130 in blood; and 2) soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in CSF. Most studies failed to meet 3 or more of our quality criteria. Conclusion: CRPS is associated with the presence of a proinflammatory state in the blood, blister fluid, and CSF. Different inflammatory profiles were found for acute and chronic cases. PMID:23267031

  6. Misuse of fentanyl transdermal patch mixed with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, H O; Kucuk, U; Kolcu, Z; Balta, S; Demirkol, S

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl transdermal patches have long been used in the palliative care of patients with chronic pain with a favorable safety profile. However, intoxications secondary to intentional and unintentional misuse have been widely reported. In this study, we report an otherwise healthy woman presented to emergency department who used three patches of fentanyl to alleviate her knee pain and with a picture mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

  7. Effects of the Neurac® technique in patients with acute-phase subacromial impingement syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of the Neurac technique on shoulder pain, function, and range of motion in patients with acute-phase subacromial impingement syndrome. [Subjects] Thirteen patients (seven females and six males) with acute-phase subacromial impingement syndrome participated in this study. [Methods] Shoulder pain, function, and range of motion were assessed before and after the application of the Neurac technique. [Results] Pain and function scores were significantly lower after than before the Neurac intervention. Shoulder range of motion was significantly greater after Neurac intervention than before it. [Conclusion] The Neurac technique is a useful intervention for patients with acute-phase subacromial impingement syndrome. PMID:26157230

  8. Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Chronic Back Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nizar, Abd Jalil

    2011-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional musculoskeletal pain disorder that is caused by myofascial trigger points. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients, as well as to identify risk factors and the outcome of this disorder. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 126 patients who attended the Pain Management Unit for chronic back pain between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Data examined included demographic features of patients, duration of back pain, muscle(s) involved, primary diagnosis, treatment modality and response to treatment. Results The prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients was 63.5% (n = 80). Secondary MPS was more common than primary MPS, making up 81.3% of the total MPS. There was an association between female gender and risk of developing MPS (χ2 = 5.38, P = 0.02, O.R. = 2.4). Occupation, body mass index and duration of back pain were not significantly associated with MPS occurrence. Repeated measures analysis showed significant changes (P < 0.001) in Visual Analogue Score (VAS) and Modified Oswestry Disability Score (MODS) with standard management during three consecutive visits at six-month intervals. Conclusions MPS prevalence among chronic back pain patients was significantly high, with female gender being a significant risk factor. With proper diagnosis and expert management, MPS has a favourable outcome. PMID:21716607

  9. Fear of pain in children and adolescents with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simons, Laura E

    2016-02-01

    A significant proportion of children and adolescents with chronic pain endorse elevated pain-related fear. Pain-related fear is associated with high levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and school impairment. Because of faulty nerve signaling, individuals with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome may be more prone to develop pain-related fear as they avoid use of and neglect the affected body area(s), resulting in exacerbated symptoms, muscle atrophy, maintenance of pain signaling, and ongoing pain-related disability. Not surprisingly, effective treatments for elevated pain-related fears involve exposure to previously avoided activities to downregulate incorrect pain signaling. In the context of intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment of youth with neuropathic pain, decreasing pain-related fear is associated with improved physical and psychological functioning, whereas high initial pain-related fear is a risk factor for less treatment responsiveness. An innovative approach to targeting pain-related fear and evidence of a neural response to treatment involving decoupling of the amygdala with key fear circuits in youth with complex regional pain syndrome suggest breakthroughs in our ability to ameliorate these issues.

  10. [Pain, agitation and delirium in acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Funk, G-C

    2016-02-01

    Avoiding pain, agitation and delirium as well as avoiding unnecessary deep sedation is a powerful yet challenging strategy in critical care medicine. A number of interactions between cerebral function and respiratory function should be regarded in patients with respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation. A cooperative sedation strategy (i.e. patient is awake and free of pain and delirium) is feasible in many patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Especially patients with mild acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) seem to benefit from preserved spontaneous breathing. While completely disabling spontaneous ventilation with or without neuromuscular blockade is not a standard strategy in ARDS, it might be temporarily required in patients with severe ARDS, who have substantial dyssynchrony or persistent hypoxaemia. Since pain, agitation and delirium compromise respiratory function they should also be regarded during noninvasive ventilation and during ventilator weaning. Pharmacological sedation can have favourable effects in these situations, but should not be given routinely or uncritically. PMID:26817653

  11. [Complex regional pain syndrome versus chronic regional pain syndrome (Hand-Finger Syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Wulle, C

    2010-02-01

    Dystrophy is a main factor of CRPS. A large number of patients do not develop dystrophy but, instead, they suffer from pain with limitation in movement, possible paraesthesia and/or swelling. This is then a chronic regional pain syndrome or (shoulder-arm-) hand-finger syndrome. These patients should never be confronted with the diagnosis Morbus Sudeck or algodystrophy, which are today also well known among non-professionals, to avoid pushing them into a status of constant severe invalidity. Histories, clinical examination, as well as a good personal understanding of the patient are indispensable. Knowing that pain, or the extent of pain, remains subjective until today, the clinical diagnosis depends on the absence of side differences in: a) the circumference of soft tissues of both upper extremities; b) the callosity of the palm; c) the bone-density. These three parameters allow verification of the consequences of the pain complaints (indirect pain verification). It is essential to find the cause for their suffering and to treat it as far as possible: 1) Too long and inappropriate immobilisation (patient's suffering not considered sufficiently). These patients can recover quickly when the right diagnosis is made in good time. 2) Limitation of movement due to scar, neuroma, or elongation pain: a) bizarre functional disabilities can develop; b) due to the patient's complaints, one or several operations would finally be performed, which will not lead to an improvement but rather to an aggravation of the pain; c) socially-induced purposeful pain increase, the typical statement of the patient will be: "I can't stand it any longer". Patients who are socially over-burdened, or have psycho-social problems, may experience a decline of performance or a post-traumatic stress disorder. Several patients will be introduced as illustrations for each of the relevant groups. PMID:20205065

  12. Complex regional pain syndrome: observations on diagnosis, treatment and definition of a new subgroup.

    PubMed

    Żyluk, A; Puchalski, P

    2013-07-01

    Several definitions and sets of diagnostic criteria of complex regional pain syndrome have been proposed, but to date none has been accepted completely. This article presents a specific subtype of the disease, called 'chronic, refractory complex regional pain syndrome' which is extremely severe, disabling and resistant to treatment. It also emphasizes difficulties with diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome because of its variable clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria being insufficiently precise. The necessity to distinguish between criteria for clinical use and for scientific purposes is suggested with a proposal of practical guideline for diagnosing acute complex regional pain syndrome. A review of treatments for complex regional pain syndrome is presented, with opinion on their effectiveness: good in an early stage, less well in chronic and generally poor in the chronic, refractory subtype.

  13. Advances in the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes: Role of imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Dentamaro, Ilaria; Masi, Filippo; Carbonara, Santa; Ricci, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    Aortic diseases include a wide range of pathological conditions: aortic aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, acute aortic syndromes, atherosclerotic and inflammatory conditions, genetic diseases and congenital anomalies. Acute aortic syndromes have acute onset and may be life-threatening. They include aortic dissection, intramural haematoma, penetrating aortic ulcer and traumatic aortic injury. Pain is the common denominator to all acute aortic syndromes. Pain occurs regardless of age, gender and other associated clinical conditions. In this review, we deal with the main findings in the clinical setting and the most recent indications for diagnostic imaging, which are aimed to start an appropriate treatment and improve the short- and long-term prognosis of these patients. PMID:26957573

  14. Infantile colic: is a pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Gardar

    2010-12-01

    The hypothesis states that infantile colic is a pain syndrome and the excessive crying leads to aerophagia and abdominal discomfort. The pain comes from sucking the bottle or the nipple. Feeding for the infant is a heavy workload for the masticatory muscles. The tiny digastricus muscle moves the hyoid bone, takes part in opening the mouth and retrusion of the mandible and assists in mowing the tongue upward, forward and backwards. In the adult population pain from this muscle is well documented. The hypothesis explains the crying as being due to muscular pain at first, later on pain from the origins and insertions of the muscle. Then with increased muscular strength and development the pain fades away. PMID:20729004

  15. Acute bilateral spontaneous forearm compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalton, David M; Munigangaiah, Sudarshan; Subramaniam, Tava; McCabe, John P

    2014-01-01

    Acute spontaneous compartment syndrome of the forearm is rarely reported in the literature. It is typically associated with trauma or thromboembolism in the acute setting and repetitive exertional stress in the chronic setting. However it is rare for it to present bilaterally with no apparent underlying cause. We report the case of a young 31-year-old lady who presented to our Emergency Department with bilateral compartment syndrome of the forearm. Her presenting complaints included acute severe pain and swelling of the forearms bilaterally, with a decreased range of movement of the wrist and fingers. She also complained of numbness in all fingers. She had no history of recent trauma and ultrasound scans showed no evidence of vascular compromise. Past medical history was notable only for idiopathic hypertension and coeliac disease. The patient was taken to theatre urgently where flexor and extensor compartments and carpal tunnel were decompressed. Pronator Teres was found to be dusky initially but turned pink after decompression. All other muscles were normal. An interesting fact of this case was that combination of the high compartment pressures and anaesthetic related hypotension caused the forearm pulses to become impalpable at induction, these returned intra-operatively. The patient has been seen in the outpatient department following discharge. She is well apart from some mildly reduced grip strength in her right hand likely due to carpal tunnel decompression. No cause was found for the scenario after extensive medical investigation.

  16. [Chronic prostatitis with chronic pelvic pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Balvocius, Antanas

    2002-01-01

    Almost 10% of the adult male population suffer from prostatitis. The International Prostatitis Collaborative Network has devised and validated a clinically useful classification of prostatitis that urologists and primary care clinicians will find helpful. According to this schema, chronic bacterial prostatitis is clearly an infectious disease, and patients with chronic prostatitis associated with chronic pelvic pain syndrome can have either inflammatory or noninflammatory disease. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is uncommon, chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CPPS) is extremely common. Antibiotic therapy is indicated in management of chronic bacterial prostatitis and inflammatory chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Fluoroquinolones are safe and effective in managing chronic bacterial prostatitis. Based on literature, noninflammatory chronic pelvic pain syndrome can be treated using adrenergic blockade, analgesic, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepie, physical therapy. PMID:12556633

  17. Misconceived Retropharyngeal Calcific Tendinitis during Management of Myofascial Neck Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Youn; Lim, Jin Hun; Kim, Yong Seok; Kwon, Young Eun; Yu, Jae Yong

    2016-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of posterior neck pain is very challenging based on symptoms and physical examination only. Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis is a rare and frequently misdiagnosed entity in various causes of neck pain. It results from calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the longus colli muscle which is characterized by severe neck pain, painful restriction of neck movement, dysphagia, and odynophagia. We herein report a case of a patient with acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis, who complained of posterior neck pain, initially diagnosed and treated as a myofascial neck pain syndrome. PMID:26839671

  18. Misconceived Retropharyngeal Calcific Tendinitis during Management of Myofascial Neck Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Youn; Lim, Jin Hun; Kim, Yong Seok; Kwon, Young Eun; Yu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jun Hak

    2016-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of posterior neck pain is very challenging based on symptoms and physical examination only. Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis is a rare and frequently misdiagnosed entity in various causes of neck pain. It results from calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the longus colli muscle which is characterized by severe neck pain, painful restriction of neck movement, dysphagia, and odynophagia. We herein report a case of a patient with acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis, who complained of posterior neck pain, initially diagnosed and treated as a myofascial neck pain syndrome.

  19. The words of pain in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Casale, Roberto; Atzeni, Fabiola; Masala, Ignazio Francesco; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2015-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) encompasses a wide range of painful conditions, but it is characterised by continuing (spontaneous and/or evoked) limb pain that is seemingly disproportionate in time or degree to the usual course of any known trauma or other lesion. The pain is regional, with distal predominance usually but not related to a specific nerve territory or dermatome, and it is usually associated with abnormal sensory, motor, sudomotor, vasomotor and/or trophic findings. The complexity of the aetiopathogenetic factors making up the clinical picture of CRPS is mirrored by the inconsistency of almost all of the monotherapies used to treat it so far. Motor and sensory symptoms significantly interfere with the patients' daily function and quality of life, and almost all of them report substantial disability in their working and recreational activities, mood and mobility.

  20. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Alis Kolter

    2007-02-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic, painful bladder syndrome primarily found in women. Although the direct cause(s) of IC are unknown, several theories exist. Common symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, and pain. Treatment options include behavioral therapies, use of pharmacologic agents, and surgery. Patients benefit from prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatments. Important clinical features of IC in women including the pathology, common symptoms, and recommended evaluation and management strategies are reviewed.

  1. Foix-Alajouanine Syndrome Presenting as Acute Cauda Equina Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Menon, K. Venugopal; Sorour, Tamer M. M.; Raniga, Sameer B.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Present a case of Foix-Alajouanine syndrome that presented as acute cauda equina syndrome and discuss the pathophysiology and management. Methods An adult male patient developed sudden onset of back pain and leg pain with weakness of the lower limbs and bladder/bowel dysfunction typical of cauda equina syndrome. Emergency magnetic resonance imaging revealed no compressive lesion in the spine but showed tortuous flow voids and end-on blood vessels in the peridural region suggesting spinal arteriovenous malformation resulting in Foix-Alajouanine syndrome. Results The case was managed by endovascular embolization with excellent results. The pathophysiology, imaging features, management, and literature review of the syndrome is discussed. Conclusion The authors conclude that this condition may be an important differential diagnosis for cauda equina syndrome. PMID:25396108

  2. Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Missed as Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ansari-Ramandi, Mohammad Mostafa; Firoozi, Ata

    2016-01-01

    Although the aortic dissection is not common, its outcome is frequently fatal, and many patients with aortic dissection die before referral to the hospital or any diagnostic testing. The symptoms of aortic dissection can be similar to myocardial ischemia. A 66-year-old male was referred to our hospital with suspicion of aortic dissection after echocardiography done for evaluating his high blood pressure. He had symptoms of acute coronary syndrome two years before and had done coronary angiography. On presentation to our hospital he had a high blood pressure. On reviewing his past medical history and examining, in the film of coronary angiography, the dissection flap in ascending aorta was identified. Although type A aortic dissection is a catastrophic condition with high mortality and requires prompt surgical treatment but in some cases it may be misdiagnosed as acute coronary syndrome. Sometimes against its high mortality when left untreated, patients survive and are diagnosed later in life incidentally. So it is of great importance to have great clinical suspicion for aortic dissection in patients referring to the hospital with chest pain and the predisposing factors. PMID:27437290

  3. Chest radiography in acute aortic syndrome: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Ashish; Rajendran, Surendran; Yung, Wai Heng; Babu, Suresh Balasubramanian; Peh, Wilfred C

    2016-08-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is a group of life-threatening diseases of the thoracic aorta that usually present to the emergency department. It includes aortic dissection, aortic intramural hematoma, and penetrating aortic ulcer. Rare aortic pathologies of aorto-esophageal fistula and mycotic aneurysm may also be included in this list. All these conditions require urgent treatment with complex clinical care and management. Most patients who present with chest pain are evaluated with a chest radiograph in the emergency department. It is important that maximum diagnostic information is extracted from the chest radiograph as certain signs on the chest radiograph are extremely useful in pointing towards the diagnosis of acute aortic syndrome.

  4. Acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis with cavernous sinus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chi, Tzu-Hang; Chen, Hsien-Shen; Yuan, Chien-Han; Su, Feng-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis is most commonly found in immunocompromised patients with conditions such as diabetes mellitus, malignancies and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The most common pathogens are Aspergillus and Mucoraceae and the sinus most frequently involved is the maxillary sinus. Fever, rhinorrhea, facial pain, headache, and diplopia are common presenting symptoms. Complications of this infection include intracranial and / or intraorbital spread of the infection; the prognosis is poor. Here, a rare case of acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis with cavernous sinus syndrome is reported.

  5. [Acute low back pain--assessment and management].

    PubMed

    Gautschi, O P; Hildebrandt, G; Cadosch, D

    2008-01-23

    Acute low back pain is a very common symptom. Up to 90% of all adults suffer at least once in their life from a low back pain episode, in the majority of cases a nonspecific lumbago. They are, with or without sciatica, usually self-limited and have no serious underlying pathology and subside in 80-90% of the concerned patients within six weeks. Beside a sufficient pain medication and physiotherapy, reassurance about the overall benign character and the favourable prognosis of the medical condition should be in the centre of the therapeutic efforts. A more thorough assessment is required for selected patients with warning signs, so called "red flags" findings, because they are associated with an increased risk of cauda equina syndrome, cancer, infection, or fracture. These patients also require a closer follow-up and, in some cases, an urgent surgical intervention. Among patients with acute nonspecific mechanical low back pain, imaging diagnostic can be delayed for at least four to six weeks, which usually allows the medical condition to improve. From a therapeutic viewpoint, there is enough evidence for the effectiveness of paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, skeletal muscle relaxants, heat therapy, physiotherapy, and the advice to stay "active". A complete relief and protection represent an out-dated concept, because the deconditioning is stimulated and the return to the workplace is needlessly delayed. Spinal manipulative therapy may provide short-term benefits in certain patients. In a multimodal therapeutic concept, the patient education should focus on the natural history of an acute back pain episode, the overall good prognosis, and recommendations for an effective treatment.

  6. Acute lower-leg compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mauser, Nathan; Gissel, Hannah; Henderson, Corey; Hao, Jiandong; Hak, David; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2013-08-01

    Acute compartment syndrome remains a challenging problem for orthopedic surgeons because its diagnosis is not always straightforward and it has a high risk of associated limb morbidity if left undiagnosed or untreated. Failure to diagnose and treat acute compartment syndrome is one of the most common causes of successful medical liability claims. The authors review the current literature concerning the diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome and discuss new non-invasive technologies that may allow for earlier and more accurate diagnosis of impending acute compartment syndrome.

  7. Emergency pulpotomy in relieving acute dental pain among Tanzanian patients

    PubMed Central

    Nyerere, Joachim W; Matee, Mecky I; Simon, Elison NM

    2006-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, oral health services are mostly in the form of dental extractions aimed at alleviating acute dental pain. Conservative methods of alleviating acute dental pain are virtually non-existent. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine treatment success of emergency pulpotomy in relieving acute dental pain. Methods Setting: School of Dentistry, Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Study design: Longitudinal study. Participants: 180 patients who presented with dental pain due to acute irreversible pulpitis during the study period between July and August 2001. Treatment and evaluation: Patients were treated by emergency pulpotomy on permanent posterior teeth and were evaluated for pain after one, three and six week's post-treatment. Pain, if present, was categorised as either mild or acute. Results Of the patients with treated premolars, 25 (13.9%) patients did not experience pain at all while 19 (10.6%) experienced mild pain. None of the patients with treated premolars experienced acute pain. Among 136 patients with treated molars 56 (31%) did not experience any pain, 76 (42.2%) experienced mild pain and the other 4 (2.2%) suffered acute pain. Conclusion The short term treatment success of emergency pulpotomy was high being 100% for premolars and 97.1% for molars, suggesting that it can be recommended as a measure to alleviate acute dental pain while other conservative treatment options are being considered. PMID:16426455

  8. Evaluation and treatment of acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kinkade, Scott

    2007-04-15

    Acute low back pain with or without sciatica usually is self-limited and has no serious underlying pathology. For most patients, reassurance, pain medications, and advice to stay active are sufficient. A more thorough evaluation is required in selected patients with "red flag" findings associated with an increased risk of cauda equina syndrome, cancer, infection, or fracture. These patients also require closer follow-up and, in some cases, urgent referral to a surgeon. In patients with nonspecific mechanical low back pain, imaging can be delayed for at least four to six weeks, which usually allows the pain to improve. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, skeletal muscle relaxants, heat therapy, physical therapy, and advice to stay active. Spinal manipulative therapy may provide short-term benefits compared with sham therapy but not when compared with conventional treatments. Evidence for the benefit of acupuncture is conflicting, with higher-quality trials showing no benefit. Patient education should focus on the natural history of the back pain, its overall good prognosis, and recommendations for effective treatments. PMID:17477101

  9. Sensitization of the Nociceptive System in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Diedrichs, Carolina; Baron, Ralf; Gierthmühlen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is characterized by sensory, motor and autonomic abnormalities without electrophysiological evidence of a nerve lesion. Objective Aims were to investigate how sensory, autonomic and motor function change in the course of the disease. Methods 19 CRPS-I patients (17 with acute, 2 with chronic CRPS, mean duration of disease 5.7±8.3, range 1–33 months) were examined with questionnaires (LANSS, NPS, MPI, Quick DASH, multiple choice list of descriptors for sensory, motor, autonomic symptoms), motor and autonomic tests as well as quantitative sensory testing according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain at two visits (baseline and 36±10.6, range 16–53 months later). Results CRPS-I patients had an improvement of sudomotor and vasomotor function, but still a great impairment of sensory and motor function upon follow-up. Although pain and mechanical detection improved upon follow-up, thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity increased, including the contralateral side. Increase in mechanical pain sensitivity and loss of mechanical detection were associated with presence of ongoing pain. Conclusions The results demonstrate that patients with CRPS-I show a sensitization of the nociceptive system in the course of the disease, for which ongoing pain seems to be the most important trigger. They further suggest that measured loss of function in CRPS-I is due to pain-induced hypoesthesia rather than a minimal nerve lesion. In conclusion, this article gives evidence for a pronociceptive pain modulation profile developing in the course of CRPS and thus helps to assess underlying mechanisms of CRPS that contribute to the maintenance of patients’ pain and disability. PMID:27149519

  10. Pain Part 8: Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beneng, Kiran; Renton, Tara

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but impactful condition affecting mainly post-menopausal women resulting in constant pain and significant difficulty with eating, drinking and daily function. The aetiology of BMS remains an enigma. Recent evidence suggests it likely to be neuropathic in origin, the cause of which remains unknown. There is no cure for this condition and the unfortunate patients remain managed on a variety of neuropathic pain medication, salivary substitutes and other non-medical interventions that help the patient 'get through the day'. Some simple strategies can assist both clinician and patient to manage this debilitating condition. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The dental team will recognize patients presenting with burning mouth syndrome. They are difficult patients to manage and are often referred to secondary care and, ultimately, depend on their general medical practitioners for pain management. PMID:27439272

  11. Acute exercise-induced bilateral thigh compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boland, Michael R; Heck, Chris

    2009-03-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is rare due to the space's ability to accommodate large volumes of fluid and, with the exception of the lateral septum, its thin compliant linings. This article describes a case of bilateral exercise-induced severe compartment syndrome treated with anterior and posterior fasciotomies. A 29-year-old man was admitted to intensive care with myoglobinuria. His left thigh was evaluated 18 hours later for compartment syndrome. The patient reported that 14 hours prior to initial presentation, he had participated in a 1-hour session of vigorous basketball. He gradually developed bilateral moderately severe thigh pain and tea-colored urine. Physical examination revealed pain secondary to passive stretch of both knees at 20 degrees flexion, plus firm anterior and posterior compartments to palpation. A handheld pressure monitor revealed the following compartment pressures: left anterior 80 mm Hg; left posterior 75 mm Hg; right anterior 45 mm Hg; and right posterior 50 mm Hg. Bilateral emergent anterior and posterior compartment fasciotomies were performed. The patient developed a significant severe distal motor and sensory neurological deficit on the left side, which recovered to 3/5 motor strength and protective sensation. At 6-month follow-up, he ambulated with the assistance of a left ankle foot orthosis. Acute severe compartment syndrome can occur following vigorous exercise. We recommend fasciotomies after exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome rather than initial observation because of the severity of morbidity associated with undertreated compartment syndrome.

  12. Acute chest pain emergencies - spouses' prehospital experiences.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Kerstin; Quell, Robin; Sørlie, Venke

    2008-10-01

    The call to the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre is often a person's first contact with the health-care system in cases of acute illness or injury and acute chest pain is a common reason for calling. The aim was to illuminate how spouses to persons with acute chest pain experienced the alarm situation, the emergency call and the prehospital emergency care. Interviews were conducted with nineteen spouses. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used for the analyses. The themes responsibility and uneasiness emerged as well as an overall theme of aloneness. Being a spouse to a person in need of acute medical and nursing assistance was interpreted as "Being responsible and trying to preserve life" and "Being able to manage the uneasiness and having trust in an uncertain situation." When their partners' life was at risk the spouses were in an escalating spiral of worry, uncertainty, stress, fear of loss, feeling of loneliness and desperation. They had to manage emotional distress and felt compelled to act to preserve life, a challenging situation. PMID:18929341

  13. Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma mimicking acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Noor; Shahid, Muhammad; Haque, Munirul; Qureshi, Masood

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an acute neurological emergency which carries significant morbidity unless diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion. Some cases of SSEH are idiopathic but there is a well-recognised association with deranged coagulation and abnormalities of clotting. In recent years there has been increasing availability of novel anti-platelet agents, often prescribed in the setting of suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and following percutaneous coronary interventions and these agents also present an increased risk of SSEH. We present a case of SSEH following an acute presentation with chest pain and treatment with dual anti-platelet therapy. PMID:26807374

  14. Single dose dipyrone for acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Faura, Clara; Edwards, Jayne; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in others because of an association with life-threatening blood agranulocytosis. This review updates a 2001 Cochrane review, and no relevant new studies were identified, but additional outcomes were sought. Objectives To assess the efficacy and adverse events of single dose dipyrone in acute postoperative pain. Search methods The earlier review searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to December 1999. For the update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE,EMBASE and LILACS to February 2010. Selection criteria Single dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo or active controlled trials of dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We included oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. Derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Use and time to use of rescue medication were additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results Fifteen studies tested mainly 500 mg oral dipyrone (173 participants), 2.5 g intravenous dipyrone (101), 2.5 g intramuscular dipyrone (99); fewer than 60 participants received any other dose. All studies used active controls (ibuprofen, paracetamol, aspirin, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, ketorolac, pethidine, tramadol, suprofen); eight used placebo controls. Over 70% of participants

  15. Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Weissmann, Rotem; Uziel, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic, intensified localized pain condition that can affect children and adolescents as well as adults, but is more common among adolescent girls. Symptoms include limb pain; allodynia; hyperalgesia; swelling and/or changes in skin color of the affected limb; dry, mottled skin; hyperhidrosis and trophic changes of the nails and hair. The exact mechanism of CRPS is unknown, although several different mechanisms have been suggested. The diagnosis is clinical, with the aid of the adult criteria for CRPS. Standard care consists of a multidisciplinary approach with the implementation of intensive physical therapy in conjunction with psychological counseling. Pharmacological treatments may aid in reducing pain in order to allow the patient to participate fully in intensive physiotherapy. The prognosis in pediatric CRPS is favorable. PMID:27130211

  16. The intersection between asthma and acute chest syndrome in children with sickle-cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    DeBaun, Michael R; Strunk, Robert C

    2016-06-18

    Acute chest syndrome is a frequent cause of acute lung disease in children with sickle-cell disease. Asthma is common in children with sickle-cell disease and is associated with increased incidence of vaso-occlusive pain events, acute chest syndrome episodes, and earlier death. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation and an acute chest syndrome episode are similar, and both can present with shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and wheezing. Despite overlapping risk factors and symptoms, an acute exacerbation of asthma or an episode of acute chest syndrome are two distinct entities that need disease-specific management strategies. Although understanding has increased about asthma as a comorbidity in sickle-cell disease and its effects on morbidity, substantial gaps remain in knowledge about best management. PMID:27353685

  17. The intersection between asthma and acute chest syndrome in children with sickle-cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    DeBaun, Michael R; Strunk, Robert C

    2016-06-18

    Acute chest syndrome is a frequent cause of acute lung disease in children with sickle-cell disease. Asthma is common in children with sickle-cell disease and is associated with increased incidence of vaso-occlusive pain events, acute chest syndrome episodes, and earlier death. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation and an acute chest syndrome episode are similar, and both can present with shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and wheezing. Despite overlapping risk factors and symptoms, an acute exacerbation of asthma or an episode of acute chest syndrome are two distinct entities that need disease-specific management strategies. Although understanding has increased about asthma as a comorbidity in sickle-cell disease and its effects on morbidity, substantial gaps remain in knowledge about best management.

  18. Acute pediatric leg compartment syndrome in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Eric; Truntzer, Jeremy; Trunzter, Jeremy; Klinge, Steve; Schwartz, Kevin; Schiller, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is an orthopedic surgical emergency and may result in devastating complications in the setting of delayed or missed diagnosis. Compartment syndrome has a variety of causes, including posttraumatic or postoperative swelling, external compression, burns, bleeding disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rare cases of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in the setting of acute myeloid leukemia and, even less commonly, chronic myeloid leukemia have been reported. The authors report the first known case of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in a patient without a previously known diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. On initial examination, an 11-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of progressive left calf pain and swelling after playing soccer. Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a hematoma in the left superficial posterior compartment. The patient had unrelenting pain, intermittent lateral foot parethesias, and inability to bear weight. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with acute compartment syndrome and underwent fasciotomy and evacuation of a hematoma. Laboratory results showed an abnormal white blood cell count of 440×10(9)/L (normal, 4.4-11×10(9)) and international normalized ratio of 1.3 (normal, 0.8-1.2). Further testing included the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene located on the Philadelphia chromosome, leading to a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Monotherapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) was initiated. This report adds another unique case to the growing literature on compartment syndrome in the pediatric population and reinforces the need to consider compartment syndrome, even in unlikely clinical scenarios. PMID:25361367

  19. Acute pediatric leg compartment syndrome in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Eric; Truntzer, Jeremy; Trunzter, Jeremy; Klinge, Steve; Schwartz, Kevin; Schiller, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is an orthopedic surgical emergency and may result in devastating complications in the setting of delayed or missed diagnosis. Compartment syndrome has a variety of causes, including posttraumatic or postoperative swelling, external compression, burns, bleeding disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rare cases of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in the setting of acute myeloid leukemia and, even less commonly, chronic myeloid leukemia have been reported. The authors report the first known case of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in a patient without a previously known diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. On initial examination, an 11-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of progressive left calf pain and swelling after playing soccer. Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a hematoma in the left superficial posterior compartment. The patient had unrelenting pain, intermittent lateral foot parethesias, and inability to bear weight. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with acute compartment syndrome and underwent fasciotomy and evacuation of a hematoma. Laboratory results showed an abnormal white blood cell count of 440×10(9)/L (normal, 4.4-11×10(9)) and international normalized ratio of 1.3 (normal, 0.8-1.2). Further testing included the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene located on the Philadelphia chromosome, leading to a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Monotherapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) was initiated. This report adds another unique case to the growing literature on compartment syndrome in the pediatric population and reinforces the need to consider compartment syndrome, even in unlikely clinical scenarios.

  20. Behavioral Concepts in the Analysis of Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…

  1. Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system.

  2. Persistence behavior of chronic low back pain patients in an acute pain situation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A J; Brands, A M

    1986-01-01

    The test behavior of 24 chronic low back pain patients was compared with the behavior of 24 healthy control Ss., matched for age and sex, in an experimental, acute pain situation (cold pressor-test). Chronic low back pain patients showed poorer persistence behavior and reported more pain. Thus, elements of typical chronic low back pain behavior were also present in an acute pain situation. These findings are discussed within the framework of stimulus-generalization theory. In addition, the effect of different coping strategies on pain tolerance was reconfirmed. The chronic low back pain group and the control group did not cope differently.

  3. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Bennett, R

    1998-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies continue to provide evidence that fibromyalgia is part of a spectrum of chronic widespread pain. The prevalence of chronic widespread pain is several times higher than fibromyalgia as defined by the 1990 American College of Rheumatology guidelines. There is now compelling evidence of a familial clustering of fibromyalgia cases in female sufferers; whether this clustering results from nature or nature remains to be elucidated. A wide spectrum of fibromyalgia-associated symptomatology and syndromes continues to be described. During the past year the association with interstitial cystitis has been explored, and neurally mediated hypotension has been documented in both fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Abnormalities of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis have been also documented in both fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. The commonly reported but anecdotal association of fibromyalgia with whiplash-type neck trauma was validated in a report from Israel. However, unlike North America, 100% of Israeli patients with posttraumatic fibromyalgia returned to work. Basic research in fibromyalgia continues to pinpoint abnormal sensory processing as being integral to understanding fibromyalgia pain. Drugs such as ketamine, which block N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (which are often upregulated in central pain states) were shown to benefit fibromyalgia pain in an experimental setting. The combination of fluoxetine and amitriptyline was reported to be more beneficial than either drug alone in patients with fibromyalgia. A high prevalence of autoantibodies to cytoskeletal and nuclear envelope proteins was found in chronic fatigue syndrome, and an increased prevalence of antipolymer antibodies was found in symptomatic silicone breast implant recipients who often have fibromyalgia.

  4. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Thomas; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of topical NSAIDs to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions is widely accepted in some parts of the world, but not in others. Their main attraction is their potential to provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. Objectives To review the evidence from randomised, double-blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of topically applied NSAIDs in acute pain. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and our own in-house database to December 2009. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching on-line clinical trial registers and manufacturers web sites. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, active or placebo (inert carrier)-controlled trials in which treatments were administered to adult patients with acute pain resulting from strains, sprains or sports or overuse-type injuries (twisted ankle, for instance). There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Forty-seven studies were included; most compared topical NSAIDs in the form of a gel, spray, or cream with a similar placebo, with 3455 participants in the overall analysis of efficacy. For all topical NSAIDs combined, compared with placebo, the number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for clinical success, equivalent to 50% pain relief, was 4.5 (3.9 to 5.3) for treatment periods of 6 to 14 days. Topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and piroxicam were of similar efficacy, but indomethacin and benzydamine were not significantly better than placebo. Local skin reactions were generally mild and transient, and did not differ from

  5. Chronic pain syndromes, mechanisms, and current treatments.

    PubMed

    Sirianni, Justin; Ibrahim, Mohab; Patwardhan, Amol

    2015-01-01

    Although acute pain is a physiological response warning the human body of possible harm, chronic pain can be a pathological state associated with various diseases or a disease in itself. In the United States alone, around one-third of the population has experienced a chronic pain condition and annual cost to the society is in the range of 500-600 billion dollars.(1) It should be noted that if at all this is a very modest estimate, it surpasses the costs associated with cancer, heart disease, and diabetes combined.(1) Unfortunately, despite these humongous costs, the treatment of chronic pain is inadequate.(1) Chronic pain affects individuals in a variety of forms, and below we highlight some of the most common chronic pain conditions seen in a pain clinic. Most of these disorders are difficult to treat and typically require multimodal therapy including pharmacotherapy, behavioral modification, and targeted interventions. We have summarized the scope of each disorder, clinical features, proposed mechanisms, and current therapies for them (Table 1).

  6. New Concepts in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tajerian, Maral; Clark, John David

    2016-02-01

    Despite the severe pain and disability associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the lack of understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms supporting this enigmatic condition prevents the rational design of new therapies, a situation that is frustrating to both the physician and the patient. The review highlights some of the mechanisms thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of CRPS in preclinical models and CRPS patients, with the ultimate goal that understanding these mechanisms will lead to the design of efficacious, mechanism-based treatments available to the clinic.

  7. Towards Prevention of Acute Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A.; Thongprayoon, C.; Pickering, B.W.; Akhoundi, A.; Wilson, G.; Pieczkiewicz, D.; Herasevich, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Identifying patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) before their admission to intensive care is crucial to prevention and treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the performance of an automated algorithm for identifying selected ARDS predisposing conditions at the time of hospital admission. Methods This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study included 3,005 patients admitted to hospital between January 1 and December 31, 2010. The automated algorithm for five ARDS predisposing conditions (sepsis, pneumonia, aspiration, acute pancreatitis, and shock) was developed through a series of queries applied to institutional electronic medical record databases. The automated algorithm was derived and refined in a derivation cohort of 1,562 patients and subsequently validated in an independent cohort of 1,443 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an automated algorithm to identify ARDS risk factors were compared with another two independent data extraction strategies, including manual data extraction and ICD-9 code search. The reference standard was defined as the agreement between the ICD-9 code, automated and manual data extraction. Results Compared to the reference standard, the automated algorithm had higher sensitivity than manual data extraction for identifying a case of sepsis (95% vs. 56%), aspiration (63% vs. 42%), acute pancreatitis (100% vs. 70%), pneumonia (93% vs. 62%) and shock (77% vs. 41%) with similar specificity except for sepsis and pneumonia (90% vs. 98% for sepsis and 95% vs. 99% for pneumonia). The PPV for identifying these five acute conditions using the automated algorithm ranged from 65% for pneumonia to 91 % for acute pancreatitis, whereas the NPV for the automated algorithm ranged from 99% to 100%. Conclusion A rule-based electronic data extraction can reliably and accurately identify patients at risk of ARDS at the time of hospital

  8. Fascial components of the myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stecco, Antonio; Gesi, Marco; Stecco, Carla; Stern, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the muscle, sensory, motor, and autonomic nervous system symptoms caused by stimulation of myofascial trigger points (MTP). The participation of fascia in this syndrome has often been neglected. Several manual and physical approaches have been proposed to improve myofascial function after traumatic injuries, but the processes that induce pathological modifications of myofascial tissue after trauma remain unclear. Alterations in collagen fiber composition, in fibroblasts or in extracellular matrix composition have been postulated. We summarize here recent developments in the biology of fascia, and in particular, its associated hyaluronan (HA)-rich matrix that address the issue of MPS.

  9. Paclitaxel induces acute pain via directly activating toll like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xisheng; Maixner, Dylan W; Yadav, Ruchi; Gao, Mei; Li, Pei; Bartlett, Michael G; Weng, Han-Rong

    2015-12-01

    Paclitaxel, a powerful anti-neoplastic drug, often causes pathological pain, which significantly reduces the quality of life in patients. Paclitaxel-induced pain includes pain that occurs immediately after paclitaxel treatment (paclitaxel-associated acute pain syndrome, P-APS) and pain that persists for weeks to years after cessation of paclitaxel treatment (paclitaxel induced chronic neuropathic pain). Mechanisms underlying P-APS remain unknown. In this study, we found that paclitaxel causes acute pain in rodents in a dose-dependent manner. The paclitaxel-induced acute pain occurs within 2 hrs after a single intravenous injection of paclitaxel. This is accompanied by low levels of paclitaxel penetrating into the cerebral spinal fluid and spinal dorsal horn. We demonstrated that an intrathecal injection of paclitaxel induces mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Paclitaxel causes activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglions. Through activating TLR4, paclitaxel increases glutamatergic synaptic activities and reduces glial glutamate transporter activities in the dorsal horn. Activations of TLR4 are necessary in the genesis of paclitaxel-induced acute pain. The cellular and molecular signaling pathways revealed in this study could provide rationales for the development of analgesics and management strategies for P-APS in patients. PMID:25775962

  10. Complex regional pain syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Field, J

    2013-07-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome, formally known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, is a poorly understood condition that describes a collection of clinical symptoms and signs occurring in the peripheries most commonly after trauma. Pain is the main problem. It is generally out of proportion to the degree of injury and can be unresponsive to narcotics. In addition joint stiffness, temperature and colour changes, and swelling occur. The diagnosis and treatment are challenging for any clinician and a multidisciplinary approach is often necessary with physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and the pain team. The hand surgeon is involved for two reasons, firstly as the upper limb is the most frequently involved, and secondly because the condition may be a complication of the patient's surgery and result in a much prolonged recovery. This review elucidates the recent advances in the knowledge of the aetiology, classification and treatment of this fascinating condition.

  11. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buskila, D

    2001-03-01

    The prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population in Israel was comparable with reports from the USA, UK, and Canada. Comorbidity with fibromyalgia (FM) resulted in somatic hyperalgesia in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. One sixth of the subjects with chronic widespread pain in the general population were also found to have a mental disorder. Mechanisms involved in referred pain, temporal summation, muscle hyperalgesia, and muscle pain at rest were attenuated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, ketamine, in FM patients. Delayed corticotropin release, after interleukin-6 administration, in FM was shown to be consistent with a defect in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone neural function. The basal autonomic state of FM patients was characterized by increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic systems tones. The severity of functional impairment as assessed by the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form (SF-36) discriminated between patients with widespread pain alone and FM patients. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) occurred in about 0.42% of a random community-based sample of 28,673 adults in Chicago, Illinois. A significant clinical overlap between CFS and FM was reported. Cytokine dysregulation was not found to be a singular or dominant factor in the pathogenesis of CFS. A favorable outcome of CFS in children was reported; two thirds recovered and resumed normal activities. No major therapeutic trials in FM and CFS were reported over the past year.

  12. Coronary Intramural Hematoma Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takenobu; Kadota, Kazushige; Kubo, Shunsuke; Habara, Seiji; Mitsudo, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of intramural hematoma without ongoing myocardial ischemia that healed spontaneously with conservative treatment. A 37-year-old woman was admitted due to chest pain. Acute coronary syndrome was diagnosed by electrocardiography and echocardiography. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the distal portion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, where intravascular ultrasound showed a hematoma, but optical coherence tomography could not detect the entry point. Therefore, we identified the intramural hematoma as the etiology. Because the coronary flow was maintained and chest pain disappeared, we chose conservative treatment. Fifteen days after admission, coronary computed tomography showed an improvement in the intramural hematoma. PMID:27477409

  13. A Rare Case of Acute Coronary Syndrome in a Patient With Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kemaloglu, Tugba; Ozer, Nihat; Fikri Yapici, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In Turner syndrome, cardiovascular complications are the most important causes of early mortality. Congenital cardiovascular abnormalities are found in approximately one third of Turner syndrome patients. Developments in diagnosis and treatment have decreased the rate of mortality related to these abnormalities. In recent years, many papers have mentioned that coronary artery disease developing at early ages in patients with Turner syndrome causes sudden deaths. Case Presentation: The patient, a 27-year-old female was admitted to the emergency room with chest pain at rest. She was diagnosed with Turner Syndrome in her teenage years due to amenorrhea. Patients with ECG changes and cardiac enzyme elevations were treated with acute coronary syndrome. Conclusions: The young woman with Turner Syndrome have several risk factors for early Coronary Artery Disease development. In such cases, dramatic results like sudden death or heart attack at an early age may occur in cases of insufficient follow-up and treatment. PMID:26949693

  14. Immune mediators of chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Stephen F.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has yet to be established. Since the late 1980s, cytokine, chemokine, and immunological classification studies using human samples have focused on identifying biomarkers for CPPS, but no diagnostically beneficial biomarkers have been identified, and these studies have done little to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic prostatic pain. Given the large number of men thought to be affected by this condition and the ineffective nature of current treatments, there is a pressing need to elucidate these mechanisms. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. Mast cell activation is also known to suppress regulatory T cell (Treg) control of self-tolerance and also activate neural sensitization. This combination of established autoimmunity coupled with peripheral and central neural sensitization can result in the development of multiple symptoms, including pelvic pain and bladder irritation. Identifying these mechanisms as central mediators in CPPS offers new insight into the prospective treatment of the disease. PMID:24686526

  15. ED 02-1 ACUTE AORTIC SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Kwan

    2016-09-01

    ascending or aortic arch repairs. Currently available CT or TEE cannot identify this type of localized intimal tear, with the only imaging characteristic reported to be a localized eccentric bulging or aneurysm. This feature is too subtle to diagnose accurately using conventional imaging modalities, suggesting that surgical exploration be performed in patients with aortic pain and aortic root dilatation who show unexplained aortic regurgitation or pericardial effusion. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate the clinical significance and outcomes of patients with incomplete dissection.Non-invasive imaging modalities such as CT and TEE have contributed to a better understanding of acute aortic syndrome, resulting in inclusion of IMH and atypical dissection as new disease entities. Differences in imaging findings may be due to differences in the hemodynamic status of the false lumen, resulting from the wide spectrum of intimal tears, from a localized or 'micro-intimal tear' to a large tear with flow communication resulting in a 'double channel aorta'. Further investigation is required to determine whether the application of different treatment options following risk stratification based on imaging results is rational and can improve the clinical outcomes of patients with this syndrome. PMID:27643004

  16. Acute acalculous cholecystitis simulating Mirizzi syndrome: a very rare condition.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Sushil K

    2009-02-01

    Mirizzi syndrome, a rare complication of chronic cholelithiasis, is caused by an impacted stone in the cystic duct or the neck of the gallbladder. Patients present with abdominal pain, fever, and obstructive jaundice. The cholangiographic finding is a smooth stricture caused by lateral compression of the common hepatic duct. A similar appearance on cholangiogram can result from carcinoma of the gallbladder, carcinoma of the cystic duct, or hilar adenopathy. Acute acalculous cholecystitis simulating Mirizzi syndrome is extremely rare. This is the report of such a case in which marked inflammatory changes around the neck of the gallbladder likely caused significant mechanical obstruction of the common hepatic duct. PMID:19139716

  17. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome/bladder pain syndrome: taking stock, looking ahead: ICI-RS 2011.

    PubMed

    Hanno, Philip; Andersson, Karl Eric; Birder, Lori; Elneil, Suzy; Kanai, Anthony; Pontari, Michel

    2012-03-01

    This review reflects the presentations and subsequent discussions at the International consultation on Incontinence Research Society's annual meeting. It updates the current definitions and diagnostic and treatment algorithms for bladder pain syndrome and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (non-bacterial prostatitis), highlights some specific basic research findings from discussion participants, looks at what we can hope to eventually learn from a large multicenter National Institutes of Health study, reviews future research pathways as articulated by the National Urologic Research Agenda of the American Urological Association and others, discusses recent therapeutic efforts, and concludes with discussion points from the ICI-RS meeting.

  18. Chest wall myositis in a patient with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Laila; Al-Rawi, Harith

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a 42-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with severe left-sided chest pain and chest tenderness of 1-day duration. The pain was episodic and was aggravated by any chest wall movement. His initial blood tests and ECG were suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, his pattern of pain, lack of response to opiates, raised creatine kinase and signs of pleurisy on chest radiograph raised a suspicion of an alternative diagnosis. The patient showed a dramatic response in pain relief to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication. He was suspected to have chest wall myositis with pleural involvement in the form of pleurodynia. His serology test was positive for coxsackie virus antibodies. We will discuss in this case report the pathognomonic features, diagnosis and treatment of a rare infectious condition known as Bornholm disease. PMID:25312897

  19. Is migraine a neuropathic pain syndrome?

    PubMed

    Biondi, David M

    2006-06-01

    The understanding of migraine pathophysiology has evolved from the belief that migraine is a vascular disorder, to evidence that better defines migraine as a neurogenic disorder associated with secondary changes in brain perfusion. There is evidence to suggest that the early phase of migraine pain results from neurogenic inflammation affecting cranial blood vessels and dura. Allodynia, hyperalgesia, and expansion of nociceptive fields occur during most well-established migraine attacks. These clinical features of migraine are evocative of those traditionally associated with neuropathic pain. A hypothesis that defines migraine pain as a unique neuropathic pain disorder can imply the potential for neural plasticity and may provide insight into the mechanisms that underlie the transformation of episodic to chronic forms of migraine. The neuropathic pain model of migraine pathophysiology not only paves the way for mechanism-based treatment strategies that can improve the acute and preventive management of migraine attacks, but also opens the door for the discovery of novel therapeutic targets. It also lends momentum to an understanding of clinically intriguing topics such as opiate-induced hyperalgesia and medication-overuse headache (rebound headache), opioid resistance in the treatment of chronic headache, and disease modification in defending against the potential for migraine transformation.

  20. ACUTE PELVIC PAIN IN THE ADOLESCENT: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Samuels-Kalow, M.; Mollen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of acute pelvic pain in the adolescent female requires differentiating among a broad differential diagnosis that includes potentially serious illness across several organ systems. The case presented provides an illustration of the assessment and management of acute pelvic pain, and key teaching points about important potential causes. PMID:26273230

  1. Reduction of central neuropathic pain with ketamine infusion in a patient with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Tony Chung Tung; Yeung, Stephen Tung; Lee, Sujin; Skavinski, Kira; Liao, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Ehlers–Danlos syndrome frequently causes acute and chronic pain because of joint subluxations and dislocations secondary to hypermobility. Current treatments for pain related to Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and central pain syndrome are inadequate. This case report discusses the therapeutic use of ketamine intravenous infusion as an alternative. Case report A 27-year-old Caucasian female with a history of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and spinal cord ischemic myelopathy resulting in central pain syndrome, presented with severe generalized body pain refractory to multiple pharmacological interventions. After a 7-day course of ketamine intravenous infusion under controlled generalized sedation in the intensive care unit, the patient reported a dramatic reduction in pain levels from 7–8 out of 10 to 0–3 out of 10 on a numeric rating scale and had a significant functional improvement. The patient tolerated a reduction in her pain medication regimen, which originally included opioids, gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Conclusion Ketamine infusion treatment has been used in various pain syndromes, including central neuropathic pain, ischemic pain, and regional pain syndrome. Reports have suggested that ketamine modulates pain by the regression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor to a resting state. As such, propagation of nociceptive signal to brain is interrupted allowing for the restoration of physiological balance between pain inhibition and facilitation. The present report shows that this treatment option can be used in patients with refractory central pain syndrome in the setting of spinal cord myelopathy secondary to Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. In addition, as seen in this case, this protocol can potentially decrease the chronic use of pain medication, such as opioids.

  2. Reduction of central neuropathic pain with ketamine infusion in a patient with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Tony Chung Tung; Yeung, Stephen Tung; Lee, Sujin; Skavinski, Kira; Liao, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Ehlers–Danlos syndrome frequently causes acute and chronic pain because of joint subluxations and dislocations secondary to hypermobility. Current treatments for pain related to Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and central pain syndrome are inadequate. This case report discusses the therapeutic use of ketamine intravenous infusion as an alternative. Case report A 27-year-old Caucasian female with a history of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and spinal cord ischemic myelopathy resulting in central pain syndrome, presented with severe generalized body pain refractory to multiple pharmacological interventions. After a 7-day course of ketamine intravenous infusion under controlled generalized sedation in the intensive care unit, the patient reported a dramatic reduction in pain levels from 7–8 out of 10 to 0–3 out of 10 on a numeric rating scale and had a significant functional improvement. The patient tolerated a reduction in her pain medication regimen, which originally included opioids, gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Conclusion Ketamine infusion treatment has been used in various pain syndromes, including central neuropathic pain, ischemic pain, and regional pain syndrome. Reports have suggested that ketamine modulates pain by the regression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor to a resting state. As such, propagation of nociceptive signal to brain is interrupted allowing for the restoration of physiological balance between pain inhibition and facilitation. The present report shows that this treatment option can be used in patients with refractory central pain syndrome in the setting of spinal cord myelopathy secondary to Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. In addition, as seen in this case, this protocol can potentially decrease the chronic use of pain medication, such as opioids. PMID:27695362

  3. Psychological Evaluation of Acute Low Back Pain in Hospital Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Yves; Bousquet, Pierre; Elie, Robert; Courtois, Monique

    1983-01-01

    Personality, anxiety and depression were assessed in 62 hospital workers divided in three experimental groups: those with acute organic low back pain, those with acute functional low back pain, and asymptomatic control subjects. Results showed no statistical differences between groups in the evaluation of personality. Asymptomatic subjects had significantly lower scores for trait anxiety and depression than did patients suffering from low back pain. Patients with pain of organic origin were also more depressed than were patients with pain of functional origin. Anxiety and depression are two psychological variables which must be examined in acute back pain problems. Further studies should be conducted to develop more accurate psychological instruments to evaluate the large population of patients suffering from low back pain. PMID:21283394

  4. New concept for backache: biopsychosocial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Recently a new concept for explaining backache, “biopsychosocial pain syndrome,” has been suggested. Psychosocial factors play an important role in the development and persistence of backache from an early stage. Diagnosis and treatment of backache should be based on the new concept. A good relationship between doctors and patients influences treatment outcome and patient satisfaction. Treatment should be decided by patients themselves, after being informed of the natural history of the disease and the merit and demerit of the treatment. PMID:19005700

  5. [The importance of the cortex and subcortical structures of the brain in the perception of acute and chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Reschetniak, V K; Kukushkin, M L; Gurko, N S

    2014-01-01

    This review presents the current data in the literature about the importance of the cortex and subcortical structures of the brain in the perception of acute and chronic pain. Discussed the importance of various areas of the brain in perception discriminative and affective components of pain. Discusses also gender differences in pain perception depending on the functional activity of brain cortex and antinociceptive subcortical structures. Analyzed the morphological changes of cortical and subcortical structures of the brain in chronic pain syndromes. It is proved that the decrease in the volume of gray and white matter of cerebral cortex and subcortical structures is a consequence and not the cause of chronic pain syndrome. Discusses the features activate and deactivate certain areas of the cortex of the brain in acute and chronic pain. Analyzed same features the activation of several brain structures in migraine and cluster headache.

  6. IB4-saporin attenuates acute and eliminates chronic muscle pain in the rat.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Pedro; Gear, Robert W; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2012-02-01

    The function of populations of nociceptors in muscle pain syndromes remain poorly understood. We compared the contribution of two major classes, isolectin B4-positive (IB4(+)) and IB4-negative (IB4(-)) nociceptors, in acute and chronic inflammatory and ergonomic muscle pain. Baseline mechanical nociceptive threshold was assessed in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats treated with IB4-saporin, which selectively destroys IB4(+) nociceptors. Rats were then submitted to models of acute inflammatory (intramuscular carrageenan)- or ergonomic intervention (eccentric exercise or vibration)-induced muscle pain, and each of the three models also evaluated for the transition from acute to chronic pain, manifest as prolongation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2))-induced hyperalgesia, after recovery from the hyperalgesia induced by acute inflammation or ergonomic interventions. IB4-saporin treatment did not affect baseline mechanical nociceptive threshold. However, compared to controls, IB4-saporin treated rats exhibited shorter duration mechanical hyperalgesia in all three models and attenuated peak hyperalgesia in the ergonomic pain models. And, IB4-saporin treatment completely prevented prolongation of PGE(2)-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Thus, IB4(+) and IB4(-) neurons contribute to acute muscle hyperalgesia induced by diverse insults. However, only IB4+ nociceptors participate in the long term consequence of acute hyperalgesia.

  7. Pleuritic Chest Pain in a Young Female: A Reminder for Acute Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Alaa M.; Stroncek, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Chest pain is one of the most common reasons for emergency department visits. Emergency medicine doctors should focus their initial assessment on patients' stability. History, physical examination, and ancillary testing should exclude serious causes such as acute coronary syndrome, acute aortic syndromes, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, esophageal perforation, and rupture as well as pericardial tamponade. Young age should not be used alone as a predictor of a benign condition. Below we present a case of a 24-year-old female who was found to have ascending aortic dissection and was sent for emergent surgery. PMID:25247097

  8. Predictors of clinical pain intensity in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Staud, Roland

    2004-08-01

    Central changes in pain processing have been previously reported in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. These changes include decreased thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli (allodynia) and central sensitization, both of which are fundamental to the generation of clinical pain. Therefore, psychophysical measures of central pain processing may be useful predictors of clinical pain intensity of fibromyalgia syndrome patients. Previous studies of fibromyalgia syndrome patients have shown statistically significant correlations of psychophysical test results with clinical pain intensity. The tests used to characterize this important relationship were dependent on spinal cord pain mechanisms and included temporal summation of pain or wind-up and wind-up after-sensations. Particularly, the magnitude of wind-up after-sensations appeared to be one of the best predictors for clinical pain intensity of fibromyalgia syndrome patients (27%). Furthermore, the combination of tender point count, negative affect, and wind-up after-sensations accounted for approximately 50% of the variance in clinical pain intensity of fibromyalgia syndrome patients. Therefore, wind-up after-sensations, tender point count, and negative affect not only seem to represent relevant pain mechanisms but also strongly emphasize their importance for fibromyalgia syndrome pain.

  9. Patterns of hyperalgesia in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sieweke, N; Birklein, F; Riedl, B; Neundörfer, B; Handwerker, H O

    1999-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by a triad of sensory, motor and autonomic dysfunctions, with long-standing pain and temperature differences of the affected and contralateral limb as predominant symptoms. The pathogenesis of the disorder still remains unclear. Among the main hypotheses of an underlying pathophysiology we find inflammatory processes and dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system. Whether the main site of dysfunction is found centrally or peripherally is not known. With psychophysical methods we studied patterns of hyperalgesia to obtain a better understanding of the neuropathic pain component in CRPS. Forty patients in an acute phase of CRPS and a median duration of the disease of 10 weeks, were included in the study. Hyperalgesia to heat was tested with a thermode providing feedback-controlled temperature increases. Two forms of mechanical hyperalgesia were examined: phasic mechanical stimuli by using a custom-made impact stimulator for the determination of individual pain thresholds, tonic mechanical stimuli were applied using a pinch-device. Additionally a 'wind-up' paradigm was used to study a pain phenomenon of presumed central origin: a defined impact stimulus was given once and five times in repetition. A subpopulation of patients was reevaluated for mechanical hyperalgesia after i.v. injection of 500 mg acetyl-salicylic acid. Hyperalgesia to heat was insignificant. We found, however, a marked mechanical hyperalgesia to phasic impact stimuli (P < 0.005), whereas, static stimulation (squeezing skin folds) results were insignificant again. Wind-up related pain was also significantly enhanced in the affected limb (P < 0.02). The anti-inflammatory agent had no effect. These results indicate a non-inflammatory pathogenesis in CRPS presumably central in origin. PMID:10204729

  10. Perspectives on acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Théroux, Pierre

    2005-10-01

    The occurrence of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents a dramatic stage in the otherwise relatively slow and progressive course of coronary artery disease, bringing into perspective its life-threatening implications. The modern era of aggressive management of these syndromes was first introduced by the establishment of the coronary care unit, and later by the development of reperfusion therapies, which led, within two decades, to a reduction in death rates of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction from 30% or more to less than 10%. The insights gained into the pathophysiology of ACSs, combined with increasingly efficient risk stratification schemes in screening patients with non-ST segment ACS, have given a boost to the development of antithrombotic therapies. Acetylsalicylic acid, as well as the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and heparin with the addition of an intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist and/or the addition of an ADP P2Y12 receptor blocker, when combined with an invasive strategy targeting revascularization of the culprit coronary lesion (when appropriate), have successfully reduced the rates of adverse clinical outcomes in non-ST segment elevation ACS from 25% to 10%. These rates, however, did not improve further during the past few years, while the number of such patients is increasing to now account for the majority of admissions to coronary care units. A new research focus in cardiology is emerging, following the discovery that culprit lesions may be multiple and multifocal in association with a more diffuse inflammatory state. New therapeutic frontiers are thus being suggested to control the most fundamental mechanisms involved in ACSs and related to inflammation and autoimmunity. PMID:16234889

  11. Intrathecal clonidine and adenosine: effects on pain and sensory processing in patients with chronic regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rauck, Richard L; North, James; Eisenach, James C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain may be accompanied by hyperalgesia and allodynia, and analgesic interventions may reduce these hypersensitivity phenomena. Preclinical data suggest that intrathecal clonidine and adenosine reduce hypersensitivity, but only clonidine reduces pain; therefore, we tested the effects of these interventions in patients with chronic pain. Twenty-two subjects with pain and hyperalgesia in a lower extremity from complex regional pain syndrome were recruited in a double-blind crossover study to receive intrathecal clonidine, 100 μg, or adenosine, 2 mg. Primary outcome measure was proportion with ≥30% reduction in pain 2 hours after injection, and secondary measures were pain report, areas of hypersensitivity, and temporal summation to heat stimuli. Treatments did not differ in the primary outcome measure (10 met success criterion after clonidine administration and 5 after adenosine administration), although they did differ in pain scores over time, with clonidine having a 3-fold greater effect (P = 0.014). Both drugs similarly reduced areas of hyperalgesia and allodynia by approximately 30% and also inhibited temporal summation. The percentage change in pain report did not correlate with the percentage change in areas of hyperalgesia (P = 0.09, r = 0.08) or allodynia (P = 0.24, r = 0.24) after drug treatment. Both intrathecal clonidine and adenosine acutely inhibit experimentally induced and clinical hypersensitivity in patients with chronic regional pain syndrome. Although these drugs do not differ in analgesia by the primary outcome measure, their difference in effect on pain scores over time and lack of correlation between effect on pain and hypersensitivity suggest that analgesia does not parallel antihyperalgesia with these treatments.

  12. Treatment prostheses in TMJ dysfunction-pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L A

    1978-06-01

    Various types of acrylic resin therapeutic prostheses commonly used in the treatment of TMJ dysfunction-pain syndrome were described. Each design was related to recent data concerning optimum condylar positions in the fossae, the physiologic condylar suspension system, and individual treatment objectives for repositioning the mandibular condyles. For example, alteration of the vertical dimension of occlusion is a popular treatment procedure that is empirical in nature and is usually used without TMJ radiographs or a differential diagnosis. It can violate the physiologic requirements of the interocclusal distance or the speaking space and does not necessarily move the condyles forward as has been commonly thought. The dangers of empirical treatment procedures for a multicausal dysfunction syndrome have been pointed out. An example was cited where the mandible was moved forward for a long period of time with a repositioning prosthesis; this produced pathologic TMJ remodeling and continued pain. It was recommended that specific mandibular repositioning be based on the type of condylar displacement observed on the radiographs. Sometimes the condyles should be retruded, and other times they should be repositioned anteriorly or occasionally inferiorly on one side. Long-standing use of any acrylic resin repositioning prosthesis is contraindicated, particularly without close supervision. Acrylic resin anterior bite plates (with a minimum opening of 1 mm) were recommended for the relief of acute trismus or intractable pain. Usually the prosthesis is used in conjunction with heat and drug therapy. This type of prothesis can also be utilized to deprogram the muscles when a strong habit of eccentric occlusion develops as a result of missing teeth. (This should be confirmed by TMJ radiographs.) Occasionally atypical pain is present and a differential diagnosis can be established between TMJ dysfunction or neurologic etiology by the physiologic response to bite plate therapy

  13. A rare case of Guillain-Barré syndrome presenting with abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Michas, G; Nikolopoulou, A; Varytimiadi, E; Xydia, N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a heterogeneous condition that encompasses acute immune-mediated polyneuropathies. GBS is the most frequent cause of acute neuromuscular paralysis worldwide and constitutes one of the most serious emergencies in neurology. Description of case: As it presents extremely rarely with the first symptom being abdominal pain, herein we report the case of a 48-year-old man who presented with acute abdominal pain and diagnosed with GBS. The patient required mechanical ventilation for two weeks and was discharged one month later, after having had a tracheostomy and developed tetraplegia. Conclusion: GBS should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain when other medical or surgical causes have been excluded. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 374-375.

  14. Haemophagocytic syndrome complicating acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Stark, R.; Manoharan, A.

    1989-01-01

    A 41 year old female developed reactive haemophagocytic histiocytosis secondary to herpes simplex infection, during remission induction for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. She recovered fully with acyclovir and supportive treatment. Previous publications on the association between acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and haemophagocytic syndrome are reviewed, and the nature of the haemophagocytic disorder is discussed. Images Figure 1 PMID:2687829

  15. Responses to acute pain and the nursing implications.

    PubMed

    Wells, N

    1984-01-01

    Management of acute pain offers many techniques--peripherally, to reduce the sensory input from the nociceptors and ascending fibres, and centrally by altering cognition, evaluation and emotional arousal to the sensory input. Scientifically-based nursing intervention is imperative. Therefore, nurses needed a better understanding of recent research regarding pain. As well, recognition that all individuals express and cope with pain in different ways, and therefore exhibit different pain behaviours, is necessary if effective nursing care is to be given. Finally, with all the interacting variables and methods of intervention available, pain medication should never be the only intervention used for the patient with pain. PMID:6142910

  16. National Heart Attack Alert Program position paper: chest pain centers and programs for the evaluation of acute cardiac ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zalenski, R J; Selker, H P; Cannon, C P; Farin, H M; Gibler, W B; Goldberg, R J; Lambrew, C T; Ornato, J P; Rydman, R J; Steele, P

    2000-05-01

    The National Heart Attack Alert Program (NHAAP), which is coordinated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), promotes the early detection and optimal treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction and other acute coronary ischemic syndromes. The NHAAP, having observed the development and growth of chest pain centers in emergency departments with special interest, created a task force to evaluate such centers and make recommendations pertaining to the management of patients with acute cardiac ischemia. This position paper offers recommendations to assist emergency physicians in EDs, including those with chest pain centers, in providing comprehensive care for patients with acute cardiac ischemia. PMID:10783408

  17. Foreign body mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Havrankova, Enikö; Stenová, Emöke; Filkova, Marta

    2014-02-01

    The article presents a case study of a 37-year-old male who was admitted to the Acute Cardiology Unit of our hospital with suspicion of acute coronary syndrome. By invasive imaging examination, acute coronary syndrome was ruled out, but as a secondary finding a foreign body was found in the pericardium - a broken needle that had travelled to the heart after intravenous heroin administration into the right femoral vein, which was also confirmed on a computed tomography scan. Because of a developing pericardial tamponade, surgical intervention and the extraction of the foreign body was indicated. PMID:24640524

  18. Cardiac CT: atherosclerosis to acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Munnur, Ravi Kiran; Cameron, James D.; Ko, Brian S.; Meredith, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is a robust non-invasive method to assess coronary artery disease (CAD). Qualitative and quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic coronary stenosis with CCTA has been favourably compared with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Importantly, it allows the study of preclinical stages of atherosclerotic disease, may help improve risk stratification and monitor the progressive course of the disease. The diagnostic accuracy of CCTA in the assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) is excellent and the constantly improving technology is making the evaluation of stents feasible. Novel techniques are being developed to assess the functional significance of coronary stenosis. The excellent negative predictive value of CCTA in ruling out disease enables early and safe discharge of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the Emergency Department (ED). In addition, CCTA is useful in predicting clinical outcomes based on the extent of coronary atherosclerosis and also based on individual plaque characteristics such as low attenuation plaque (LAP), positive remodelling and spotty calcification. In this article, we review the role of CCTA in the detection of coronary atherosclerosis in native vessels, stented vessels, calcified arteries and grafts; the assessment of plaque progression, evaluation of chest pain in the ED, assessment of functional significance of stenosis and the prognostic significance of CCTA. PMID:25610801

  19. Acute Coronary Syndrome: Posthospital Outpatient Management.

    PubMed

    Veauthier, Brian; Sievers, Karlynn; Hornecker, Jaime

    2015-10-01

    When providing care for patients who are discharged from the hospital after experiencing acute coronary syndrome (ACS), several issues should be addressed. Drug regimens should be reviewed to ensure that patients are taking appropriate drugs, including antiplatelet agents, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, aldosterone antagonists, beta blockers/calcium channel blockers, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and nitroglycerin. The review also should confirm that patients understand when and how to take their drugs, and that there are no obstacles (eg, cost) that might result in nonadherence to drug regimens. Lifestyle modifications, including improvements in diet and exercise regimens, along with participation in a cardiac rehabilitation program, should be encouraged. Risk factor reduction measures include smoking cessation for smokers, weight management for patients who are overweight, and optimal control of blood pressure and blood glucose levels. Appropriate vaccinations should be administered; influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are indicated for all patients with ACS in the absence of contraindications. Patients requiring pain control should avoid use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs because they increase the risk of cardiovascular events; acetaminophen or other drugs should be used. Finally, depression is common among patients with ACS. Screening for and management of depression are significant components of care. PMID:26439396

  20. Novel Treatment of Chronic Bladder Pain Syndrome and Other Pelvic Pain Disorders by OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    PubMed Central

    Jhang, Jia-Fong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as pain in the pelvic organs and related structures of at least 6 months’ duration. The pathophysiology of CPP is uncertain, and its treatment presents challenges. Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A), known for its antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and muscle relaxant activity, has been used recently to treat refractory CPP with promising results. In patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, most studies suggest intravesical BoNT-A injection reduces bladder pain and increases bladder capacity. Repeated BoNT-A injection is also effective and reduces inflammation in the bladder. Intraprostatic BoNT-A injection could significantly improve prostate pain and urinary frequency in the patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Animal studies also suggest BoNT-A injection in the prostate decreases inflammation in the prostate. Patients with CPP due to pelvic muscle pain and spasm also benefit from localized BoNT-A injections. BoNT-A injection in the pelvic floor muscle improves dyspareunia and decreases pelvic floor pressure. Preliminary studies show intravesical BoNT-A injection is useful in inflammatory bladder diseases such as chemical cystitis, radiation cystitis, and ketamine related cystitis. Dysuria is the most common adverse effect after BoNT-A injection. Very few patients develop acute urinary retention after treatment. PMID:26094697

  1. Novel Treatment of Chronic Bladder Pain Syndrome and Other Pelvic Pain Disorders by OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection.

    PubMed

    Jhang, Jia-Fong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-06-18

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as pain in the pelvic organs and related structures of at least 6 months' duration. The pathophysiology of CPP is uncertain, and its treatment presents challenges. Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A), known for its antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and muscle relaxant activity, has been used recently to treat refractory CPP with promising results. In patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, most studies suggest intravesical BoNT-A injection reduces bladder pain and increases bladder capacity. Repeated BoNT-A injection is also effective and reduces inflammation in the bladder. Intraprostatic BoNT-A injection could significantly improve prostate pain and urinary frequency in the patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Animal studies also suggest BoNT-A injection in the prostate decreases inflammation in the prostate. Patients with CPP due to pelvic muscle pain and spasm also benefit from localized BoNT-A injections. BoNT-A injection in the pelvic floor muscle improves dyspareunia and decreases pelvic floor pressure. Preliminary studies show intravesical BoNT-A injection is useful in inflammatory bladder diseases such as chemical cystitis, radiation cystitis, and ketamine related cystitis. Dysuria is the most common adverse effect after BoNT-A injection. Very few patients develop acute urinary retention after treatment.

  2. Chest radiography in acute aortic syndrome: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Ashish; Rajendran, Surendran; Yung, Wai Heng; Babu, Suresh Balasubramanian; Peh, Wilfred C

    2016-08-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is a group of life-threatening diseases of the thoracic aorta that usually present to the emergency department. It includes aortic dissection, aortic intramural hematoma, and penetrating aortic ulcer. Rare aortic pathologies of aorto-esophageal fistula and mycotic aneurysm may also be included in this list. All these conditions require urgent treatment with complex clinical care and management. Most patients who present with chest pain are evaluated with a chest radiograph in the emergency department. It is important that maximum diagnostic information is extracted from the chest radiograph as certain signs on the chest radiograph are extremely useful in pointing towards the diagnosis of acute aortic syndrome. PMID:27282377

  3. Acute pain management in the opioid-tolerant patient.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Nicola

    The main goals in treating acute pain in opioid-tolerant patients are effective pain relief and prevention of withdrawal symptoms. This article provides an overview of the issues that practitioners need to consider when caring for potential and actual opioid-tolerant patients experiencing acute pain, for example following surgery or injury. It highlights the importance of a multimodal analgesic approach to pain control and the prevention of withdrawal. It defines the terminology used in managing opioid-tolerant patients in order to allay healthcare professionals' misconceptions.

  4. Effects of Acute Low Back Pain on Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Min Kyun; Lee, Sang Sook

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in static and dynamic postural control after the development of acute low back pain. Methods Thirty healthy right-handed volunteers were divided into three groups; the right back pain group, the left back pain group, and the control group. 0.5 mL of 5% hypertonic saline was injected into L4-5 paraspinal muscle for 5 seconds to cause muscle pain. The movement of the center of gravity (COG) during their static and dynamic postural control was measured with their eyes open and with their eyes closed before and 2 minutes after the injection. Results The COGs for the healthy adults shifted to the right quadrant and the posterior quadrant during their static and dynamic postural control test (p<0.05). The static and dynamic instability index while they had their eyes closed was significantly increased than when they had their eyes open with and without acute back pain. After pain induction, their overall and anterior/posterior instability was increased in both the right back pain group and the left back pain group during the static postural control test (p<0.05). A right deviation and a posterior deviation of the COG still remained, and the posterior deviation was greater in the right back pain group (p<0.05). Conclusion The static instability, particularly the anterior/posterior instability was increased in the presence of acute low back pain, regardless of the visual information and the location of pain. PMID:23526750

  5. Conditioned pain modulation in women with irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are more vigilant to pain-associated stimuli. The aims of this study were to compare women with IBS (n = 20) to healthy control (HC, n = 20) women on pain sensitivity, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) efficiency, and salivary corti...

  6. Chronic Pain Syndromes in Gynaecological Practice: Endometriosis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Siedentopf, F.

    2012-01-01

    As gynaecologists frequently function as “general practitioners” for women, gynaecologists are frequently confronted with questions which initially appear to have only a tenuous connection to their field. Chronic pain syndromes represent a particular challenge, especially as pain syndromes are often associated with severe psychosocial stress for the affected woman. This article discusses some of the psychometric aspects of chronic pain in endometriosis and fibromyalgia together with practical therapeutic approaches. PMID:26640283

  7. Acute pain services in Europe: a 17-nation survey of 105 hospitals. The EuroPain Acute Pain Working Party.

    PubMed

    Rawal, N; Allvin, R

    1998-05-01

    A 17-nation survey was undertaken with the aim of studying the availability of acute pain services (APS) and the use of newer analgesic techniques, such as epidural and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). A questionnaire was mailed to selected anaesthesiologists in 105 European hospitals from 17 countries. Depending on the population, between five and ten representative hospitals from each country were selected by a country coordinator. A total of 101 (96.2%) completed questionnaires were returned. A majority of respondents were dissatisfied with pain management on surgical wards. Pain management was better in post-anaesthesia care units (PACUs); however, 27% of participating hospitals did not have PACUs. There were no organized APS in 64% of hospitals, although anaesthesiologists from chronic pain centres were available for consultation. In the hospitals that had APS, the responsible person for the APS was either: (1) a junior anaesthesiologist (senior anaesthesiologist available for consultation); or (2) a specially trained nurse (supervised by consultant anaesthesiologists). Many anaesthesiologists were unable to introduce techniques such as PCA on wards because of the high equipment costs. Although 40% of hospitals used a visual analogue scale (VAS) or other methods for assessment of pain intensity, routine pain assessment and documenting on a vital sign chart was rarely practised. There was a great variation in routines for opioid prescription and documentation procedures. Nursing regulations regarding injection of drugs into epidural and intrathecal catheters also varied considerably between countries. This survey of 105 hospitals from 17 European countries showed that over 50% of anaesthesiologists were dissatisfied with post-operative pain management on surgical wards. Only 34% of hospitals had an organized APS, and very few hospitals used quality assurance measures such as frequent pain assessment and documentation. There is a need to establish organized

  8. Complex regional pain syndrome-significant progress in understanding.

    PubMed

    Birklein, Frank; Schlereth, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    Research into complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has made significant progress. First, there was the implementation of the official IASP "Budapest" diagnostic criteria. It would be desirable to also define exclusion and outcome criteria that should be reported in studies. The next step was to recognize the complex pathophysiology. After trauma, some inflammation is physiological; in acute CRPS, this inflammation persists for months. There is an abundance of inflammatory and a lack of anti-inflammatory mediators. This proinflammatory network (cytokines and probably also other mediators) sensitizes the peripheral and spinal nociceptive system, it facilitates the release of neuropeptides from nociceptors inducing the visible signs of inflammation, and it stimulates bone cell or fibroblast proliferation, and endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular changes. Trauma may also expose nervous system structures to the immune system and triggers autoantibodies binding to adreno- and acetylcholine receptors. In an individual time frame, the pain in this inflammatory phase pushes the transition into "centralized" CRPS, which is dominated by neuronal plasticity and reorganization. Sensory-motor integration becomes disturbed, leading to a loss of motor function; the body representation is distorted leading to numbness and autonomic disturbances. In an attempt to avoid pain, patients neglect their limb and learn maladaptive nonuse. The final step will be to assess large cohorts and to analyze these data together with data from public resources using a bioinformatics approach. We could then develop diagnostic toolboxes for individual pathophysiology and select focused treatments or develop new ones.

  9. Yoga intervention and functional pain syndromes: a selective review.

    PubMed

    Sutar, Roshan; Yadav, Suresh; Desai, Geetha

    2016-06-01

    The definition of functional pain syndromes is varied across literature. No effort has been made to see all functional pain disorder groups under broad nomenclature which would exclude conditions for which pathophysiology is strongly known. Since these disorders are commonly treated with alternative treatment modalities and impose significant burden on health utilization, an effort to look into studies on yoga-based interventions on 'functional pain syndromes' (FPS) was made. This study defined FPS as 'Chronic relapsing remitting pain conditions, the origin of which is difficult to trace with no definite physical pathology on clinical suspicion or available laboratory measures and are valid based on subjective pain reporting, associated distress and socio-occupational dysfunction'. Chronic headache, neck pain, back pain, fibromyalgia, pelvic pain, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and somatoform pain disorders were included for this review. The review found four meta-analyses on the selected topic both indicating modest efficacy and benefit of yoga in these disorders. Future efforts should be directed to do a large meta-analysis of functional pain syndromes. PMID:27291934

  10. Fentanyl-induced hyperalgesia in acute pain management.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Pamela J; Rivosecchi, Ryan M; Nery, Jose P; Kane-Gill, Sandra L

    2015-06-01

    There are safety concerns with the use of fentanyl, including respiratory depression, nausea, constipation, and possibly opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). The purpose of this review is to evaluate the occurrence and significance of opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) after acute fentanyl exposure. A literature search was conducted from October 1995 through January 2015 using MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus with the terms hyperalgesia, fentanyl, pronociceptive, acute tolerance, and acute. Published articles evaluating the adverse effects of fentanyl during acute pain management (≤96 hours) in humans were included. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia is a phenomenon defined by increasing pain after opioid exposure with the worsening of pain occurring when opioid doses are increased. Hyperalgesia has been described following remifentanil and morphine use, but the question remains about the associated risk with acute fentanyl exposure. Six randomized, controlled trials evaluating the effect of fentanyl on pain in the acute setting have been conducted. Two trials oppose whereas four trials support the occurrence of fentanyl-induced hyperalgesia. The data on OIH after acute fentanyl exposure are limited and conflicting. Hyperalgesia should be considered in patients with uncontrolled pain despite escalating fentanyl doses, since the possibility of fentanyl-induced OIH exists in the acute setting. Well-designed trials are needed to determine the clinical significance of this phenomenon.

  11. Acute scrotal pain: an uncommon manifestation of renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Jou, Yeong-Chin; Jong, Ing-Chin; Hsieh, Ying-Chen; Kang, Chun-Hsiung

    2014-03-01

    The clinical manifestation of renal vein thrombosis varies with the speed and degree of venous occlusion. Such patients may be asymptomatic, have minor nonspecific symptoms such as nausea or weakness, or have more specific symptoms such as upper abdominal pain, flank pain, or hematuria. Acute scrotal pain is a very uncommon clinical expression of renal vein thrombosis. Here, we report a case of membranous glomerulonephritis-induced renal vein thrombosis presented with the symptom of acute scrotal pain caused by thrombosis-induced varicocele. This case report suggests that renal vein thrombosis should be considered in the diagnosis of acute scrotal pain; it also emphasizes that an investigation of retroperitoneum should be performed for adult patients with the sudden onset of varicocele.

  12. Avoidance of affective pain stimuli predicts chronicity in patients with acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Louise; Haggman, Sonia; Nicholas, Michael; Dear, Blake F; Refshauge, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study of acute and sub-acute low back pain (LBP) patients was conducted to assess whether attentional biases predicted chronic pain status 3 and 6 months later. The attentional biases of 100 LBP patients were assessed within 3 months of developing pain and 6 months later. Participants also completed measures associated with outcome at 3 assessment points: baseline, 3 and 6 months later. Current pain status was assessed at follow-ups. Patients were classified as those that met standard criteria for chronic pain or those who did not (i.e., the comparison group). At baseline, participants demonstrated a bias toward sensory pain words. However, biases toward sensory pain words did not differentiate those who subsequently developed chronic pain and those who did not at either follow-up. The same bias was observed 6 months later, but again it failed to distinguish between the chronic pain and comparison groups. However, subjects who developed chronic pain at both 3 (n=22) and 6 (n=21) months demonstrated biases away from affective pain words at baseline but not 6 months later, in comparison to other participants. These results remained significant in multivariate analyses. These findings are consistent with patterns observed in the previous research, and suggest that avoidance of emotionally laden pain-related stimuli (i.e., affective pain words) is associated with negative outcomes for LBP patients in the acute and sub-acute phase. This research suggests that attentional biases in relation to pain-related stimuli are important for the development of chronic pain, but are more complex than initially thought. PMID:24028848

  13. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Down Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  14. Acute low back pain: systematic review of its prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Pengel, Liset H M; Herbert, Robert D; Maher, Chris G; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To describe the course of acute low back pain and sciatica and to identify clinically important prognostic factors for these conditions. Design Systematic review. Data sources Searches of Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Science Citation Index and iterative searches of bibliographies. Main outcome measures Pain, disability, and return to work. Results 15 studies of variable methodological quality were included. Rapid improvements in pain (mean reduction 58% of initial scores), disability (58%), and return to work (82% of those initially off work) occurred in one month. Further improvement was apparent until about three months. Thereafter levels for pain, disability, and return to work remained almost constant. 73% of patients had at least one recurrence within 12 months. Conclusions People with acute low back pain and associated disability usually improve rapidly within weeks. None the less, pain and disability are typically ongoing, and recurrences are common. PMID:12907487

  15. Clinical practice guidelines for chronic non-malignant pain syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Sanders, S H; Rucker, K S; Anderson, K O; Harden, R N; Jackson, K W; Vicente, P J; Gallagher, R M

    1995-01-01

    The current paper provides specific guidelines for treating chronic non-malignant pain syndrome patients. The guidelines were developed from an extensive review of existing literature on practice guidelines, the research literature, and common clinical practice across major pain treatment facilities in the USA. They are intended for application to all chronic pain syndrome patients (other than cancer pain) regardless of specific site or etiology of pain. They advocate goal directed treatment to reduce medication misuse and invasive medical procedures, maximize and maintain physical activity, return to productive activity, increase the patient's ability to manage pain, reduce subjective pain intensity, reduce or eliminate the use of healthcare services for primary pain complaint, provide useful information for case settlement, and minimize treatment cost without sacrificing quality. The guidelines recommend interdisciplinary integrated evaluation and treatment on a time limit basis with a focus on conservative medical, psychological behavioral, physical, and vocational interventions based upon the patient's needs. There is emphasis on increasing the patient's level of function and ability to manage pain and related problems. Outpatient care is strongly recommended, with specific upper limits regarding treatment intensity and the use of trigger point injections and nerve blocks delineated. The guidelines also recommend that the long term use of opioid or sedative-hypnotic medications, surgery, implantable spinal devices, or brain stimulation techniques be avoided with chronic pain syndrome patients. These guidelines are intended to serve as a starting point to effectively extend and complement those released by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research for other types of pain problems such as cancer and acute low back pain. PMID:24572192

  16. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome as a result of spontaneous bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Chenicheri; Jarrahnejad, Payam; Balakrishnan, Anila; Huettner, William C

    2008-01-01

    Acute carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compression neuropathy of the upper extremity following trauma. A rare occurence of spontaneous bleeding into the carpal tunnel, presenting as acute carpal tunnel syndrome, is presented. PMID:19721797

  17. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh in a rugby player.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard David James; Rust-March, Holly; Kluzek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of obvious trauma, diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the thigh can easily be delayed, as disproportional pain is not always present. We present a case of ACS of the anterior right thigh compartment in a healthy, semiprofessional rugby player with normal coagulation, who sustained a seemingly innocuous blow during a rugby match. Following early surgical fasciotomy, he returned to his preinjury playing standards within 12 months. Our literature review suggests that high muscle mass, young, athletic males participating in a contact sport are mostly at risk of developing ACS of the thigh.

  18. Acute Myocardial Infarction in Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Kavita; Hiremath, Shirish; Lakade, Sachin; Davakhar, Sudarshan

    2015-11-01

    A 28 year old male, known case of nephrotic syndrome since 12 years, hypertensive presented with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and accelerated hypertension. Coronary angiography revealed 100% thrombotic occlusion of mid left anterior descending artery, treated with thrombus aspiration and intracoronary tirofiban and nitroglycerine. He was stabilized within 24 hours. The pathogenesis of AMI in nephrotic syndrome has been discussed with this case report. PMID:27608787

  19. Inflammation: a trigger for acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sager, Hendrik B; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and a major cause of death worldwide. One of atherosclerosis' most dreadful complications are acute coronary syndromes that comprise ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. We now understand that inflammation substantially contributes to the initiation, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will focus on the role of inflammatory leukocytes, which are the cellular protagonists of vascular inflammation, in triggering disease progression and, ultimately, the destabilization that causes acute coronary syndromes. PMID:27273431

  20. Guideline for diagnosis and treatment of subacromial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Diercks, Ron; Bron, Carel; Dorrestijn, Oscar; Meskers, Carel; Naber, René; de Ruiter, Tjerk; Willems, Jaap; Winters, Jan; van der Woude, Henk Jan

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of “subacromial impingement syndrome” of the shoulder has changed drastically in the past decade. The anatomical explanation as “impingement” of the rotator cuff is not sufficient to cover the pathology. “Subacromial pain syndrome”, SAPS, describes the condition better. A working group formed from a number of Dutch specialist societies, joined by the Dutch Orthopedic Association, has produced a guideline based on the available scientific evidence. This resulted in a new outlook for the treatment of subacromial pain syndrome. The important conclusions and advice from this work are as follows: (1) The diagnosis SAPS can only be made using a combination of clinical tests. (2) SAPS should preferably be treated non-operatively. (3) Acute pain should be treated with analgetics if necessary. (4) Subacromial injection with corticosteroids is indicated for persistent or recurrent symptoms. (5) Diagnostic imaging is useful after 6 weeks of symptoms. Ultrasound examination is the recommended imaging, to exclude a rotator cuff rupture. (6) Occupational interventions are useful when complaints persist for longer than 6 weeks. (7) Exercise therapy should be specific and should be of low intensity and high frequency, combining eccentric training, attention to relaxation and posture, and treatment of myofascial trigger points (including stretching of the muscles) may be considered. (8) Strict immobilization and mobilization techniques are not recommended. (9) Tendinosis calcarea can be treated by shockwave (ESWT) or needling under ultrasound guidance (barbotage). (10) Rehabilitation in a specialized unit can be considered in chronic, treatment resistant SAPS, with pain perpetuating behavior. (11) There is no convincing evidence that surgical treatment for SAPS is more effective than conservature management. (12) There is no indication for the surgical treatment of asymptomatic rotator cuff tears. PMID:24847788

  1. Acute Pain Medicine in the United States: A Status Report

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Patrick; Buckenmaier, Chester C.; Boezaart, Andre P.; Carr, Daniel B.; Clark, Laura L.; Herring, Andrew A.; Kent, Michael; Mackey, Sean; Mariano, Edward R.; Polomano, Rosemary C.; Reisfield, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Consensus indicates that a comprehensive, multimodal, holistic approach is foundational to the practice of acute pain medicine (APM), but lack of uniform, evidence-based clinical pathways leads to undesirable variability throughout U. S. healthcare systems. Acute pain studies are inconsistently synthesized to guide educational programs. Advanced practice techniques involving regional anesthesia assume the presence of a physician-led, multidisciplinary acute pain service, which is often unavailable or inconsistently applied. This heterogeneity of educational and organizational standards may result in unnecessary patient pain and escalation of healthcare costs. Methods A multidisciplinary panel was nominated through the Acute Pain Medicine Shared Interest Group (APMSIG) of the American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM). The panel met in Chicago, Illinois, in July 2014, to identify gaps and set priorities in APM research and education. Results The panel identified 3 areas of critical need: 1) an open-source acute pain data registry and clinical support tool to inform clinical decision making and resource allocation and to enhance research efforts; 2) a strong professional APM identity as an accredited subspecialty; and 3) educational goals targeted toward third-party payers, hospital administrators, and other key stakeholders to convey the importance of APM. Conclusion This report is the first step in a 3-year initiative aimed at creating conditions and incentives for the optimal provision of APM services to facilitate and enhance the quality of patient recovery after surgery, illness, or trauma. The ultimate goal is to reduce the conversion of acute pain to the debilitating disease of chronic pain. PMID:26535424

  2. Patient-controlled modalities for acute postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Miaskowski, Christine

    2005-08-01

    Although numerous clinical practice guidelines for pain management have been published throughout the last 12 years, inadequate pain relief remains a significant health care issue. Several patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) modalities are currently available for the treatment of acute postoperative pain, including intravenous (IV) PCA, epidural (PCEA), and oral PCA. Although PCEA and IV PCA are both commonly used modalities, IV PCA is considered the standard of care for postoperative pain management. Limitations of this modality do exist, however. Consequently, noninvasive PCA systems are under development to circumvent many of these limitations, including the fentanyl hydrochloride patient-controlled transdermal system (PCTS); (IONSYS Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ) and a number of patient-controlled intranasal analgesia (PCINA) delivery systems. The objective of this article is to review the PCA modalities currently in use and to discuss those in development for the treatment of acute postoperative pain.

  3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with tumor lysis syndrome in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Alessandra; Genova, Selene; Maringhini, Silvio; Coffaro, Giancarlo; Ziino, Ottavio; D'Angelo, Paolo

    2015-02-24

    Tumor lysis syndrome is a serious and dangerous complication usually associated with antiblastic treatment in some malignancies characterized by high cell turn-over. Mild or severe electrolyte abnormalities including high serum levels of uric acid, potassium, phosphorus, creatinine, bun and reduction of calcium can be responsible for multi-organ failure, involving mostly kidneys, heart and central nervous system. Renal damage can be followed by acute renal failure, weight gain, progressive liver impairment, overproduction of cytokines, and subsequent maintenance of multi-organ damage. Life-threatening acute respiratory failure associated with tumor lysis syndrome is rare. We describe a child with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed an unusually dramatic tumor lysis syndrome, after administration of the first low doses of steroid, that was rapidly associated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Subsequent clinical course and treatment modalities that resulted in the gradual and full recovery of the child are also described. PMID:25918625

  4. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Associated with Tumor Lysis Syndrome in a Child with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Alessandra; Genova, Selene; Maringhini, Silvio; Coffaro, Giancarlo; Ziino, Ottavio; D’Angelo, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is a serious and dangerous complication usually associated with antiblastic treatment in some malignancies characterized by high cell turn-over. Mild or severe electrolyte abnormalities including high serum levels of uric acid, potassium, phosphorus, creatinine, bun and reduction of calcium can be responsible for multi-organ failure, involving mostly kidneys, heart and central nervous system. Renal damage can be followed by acute renal failure, weight gain, progressive liver impairment, overproduction of cytokines, and subsequent maintenance of multi-organ damage. Life-threatening acute respiratory failure associated with tumor lysis syndrome is rare. We describe a child with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed an unusually dramatic tumor lysis syndrome, after administration of the first low doses of steroid, that was rapidly associated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Subsequent clinical course and treatment modalities that resulted in the gradual and full recovery of the child are also described. PMID:25918625

  5. Preventing Chronic Pain following Acute Pain: Risk Factors, Preventive Strategies, and their Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    McGreevy, Kai; Bottros, Michael M.; Raja, Srinivasa N.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is the leading cause of disability in the United States. The transition from acute to persistent pain is thought to arise from maladaptive neuroplastic mechanisms involving three intertwined processes, peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, and descending modulation. Strategies aimed at preventing persistent pain may target such processes. Models for studying preventive strategies include persistent post-surgical pain (PPP), persistent post-trauma pain (PTP) and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Such entities allow a more defined acute onset of tissue injury after which study of the long-term effects is more easily examined. In this review, we examine the pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment strategies for the prevention of chronic pain using these models. Both pharmacological and interventional approaches are described, as well as a discussion of preventive strategies on the horizon. PMID:22102847

  6. Psychological aspects of acute low back pain in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, Iain C.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective controlled study of acute low back pain in general practice was carried out. The presence of psychiatric illness was measured by use of the general health questionnaire (GHQ), by clinical assessment, and personality factors by use of the Eysenck personality inventory (EPI). It was found that overall the amount of psychiatric illness did not differ between patients with back pain and their controls at the time of presentation, although there was a higher prevalence of previous psychiatric illness in the back-pain group. The only difference in the personality factors measured was a higher degree of extraversion in the back-pain patients. PMID:6224930

  7. Terminology, criteria, and definitions in complex regional pain syndrome: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Katherine; Littlejohn, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome has long been recognized as a severe and high impact chronic pain disorder. However, the condition has historically been difficult to define and classify and little attention has been given to where complex regional pain syndrome sits within other apparently similar chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia and regional pain syndrome. In this review challenges in regard to nomenclature, definitions, and classification of complex regional pain syndrome are reviewed and suggestions are provided about future directions.

  8. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of genital pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Romito, Silvia; Bottanelli, Mara; Pellegrini, Maria; Vicentini, Silvana; Rizzuto, Niccolò; Bertolasi, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose was to test the effect of botulinum toxin injections on hypertonic pelvic floor muscles of patients suffering from genital pain syndromes. We report two cases of women complaining of a genital pain syndrome resistant to pharmacological therapies and rehabilitation exercises associated with a documented involuntary tonic contraction of the levator ani muscle as a defense reaction triggered by vulvar pain. We performed botulinum toxin injections into the levator ani with the intent to relieve pelvic muscular spasms. Within a few days after the injections both the patients reported a complete resolution of the painful symptomatology, lasting for several months. Our experience suggests that botulinum injections are indicated in patients with genital pain syndrome with documented pelvic muscle hyperactivity, whose symptoms arise not only from genital inflammation and lesions, but also, and sometimes chiefly, from levator ani myalgia.

  9. [Peripheral artery disease and acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis that is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. When presented in the context of an acute coronary syndrome a differential diagnosis with aorta dissection should be made, because peripheral arterial disease may be asymptomatic despite the absence or asymmetry of femoral pulses.

  10. Chronic visceral pain secondary to ventral disc herniation: Development of visceral complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; de Oliveira, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    When an organ disease is ruled out as the origin of pelvic pain, the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) injury and consequent dysfunction could be the mechanism of visceral chronic pain perpetuation. As much as a dorsal discus herniation may harm the dorsal or ventral roots, a ventral discus herniation at L4-L5 or L5-S1 may result in direct physical trauma to the SHP, maintaining chronic visceral pain mediated by sympathetic dysfunction, conceivably also afferent fibers dysfunction. We propose that similarly to nociceptive somatic dysfunction named complex regional pain syndrome, the maintained sympathetic pelvic pain secondary to straight physical damage to the SHP characterize in fact the same disease, but in nociceptive visceral tissue, named visceral complex regional pain syndrome, a concept constructed based on the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria (1994).

  11. Chronic pain associated with the Chikungunya Fever: long lasting burden of an acute illness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for major epidemics worldwide. Autochthonous cases were recently reported in several European countries. Acute infection is thought to be monophasic. However reports on chronic pain related to CHIKV infection have been made. In particular, the fact that many of these patients do not respond well to usual analgesics suggests that the nature of chronic pain may be not only nociceptive but also neuropathic. Neuropathic pain syndromes require specific treatment and the identification of neuropathic characteristics (NC) in a pain syndrome is a major step towards pain control. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study at the end of the major two-wave outbreak lasting 17 months in Réunion Island. We assessed pain in 106 patients seeking general practitioners with confirmed infection with the CHIK virus, and evaluated its impact on quality of life (QoL). Results The mean intensity of pain on the visual-analogical scale (VAS) was 5.8 ± 2.1, and its mean duration was 89 ± 2 days. Fifty-six patients fulfilled the definition of chronic pain. Pain had NC in 18.9% according to the DN4 questionnaire. Conversely, about two thirds (65%) of patients with NC had chronic pain. The average pain intensity was similar between patients with or without NC (6.0 ± 1.7 vs 6.1 ± 2.0). However, the total score of the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ)(15.5 ± 5.2 vs 11.6 ± 5.2; p < 0.01) and both the affective (18.8 ± 6.2 vs 13.4 ± 6.7; p < 0.01) and sensory subscores (34.3 ± 10.7 vs 25.0 ± 9.9; p < 0.01) were significantly higher in patients with NC. The mean pain interference in life activities calculated from the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was significantly higher in patients with chronic pain than in patients without it (6.8 ± 1.9 vs 5.9 ± 1.9, p < 0.05). This score was also significantly higher in patients with NC than in those without such a feature (7.2 ± 1.5 vs 6.1 ± 1.9, p < 0.05). Conclusions There

  12. Patellofemoral pain syndrome: validity of clinical and radiological features.

    PubMed

    Haim, Amir; Yaniv, Moshe; Dekel, Samuel; Amir, Hagay

    2006-10-01

    Data regarding validity of clinical and radiographic findings in diagnosing patellofemoral pain syndrome are inconclusive. We prospectively assessed how sensitive and specific key patellofemoral physical examination tests are, and evaluated the prevalence of physical examination and radiographic findings. Sixty-one infantry soldiers with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 25 control subjects were evaluated. The sensitivity of the patellar tilt, active instability, patella alta, and apprehension tests was low (less than 50%); specificity ranged between 72% and 100%. Although the prevalence of positive patellar tilt and active instability tests was significantly greater in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome, there were no significant differences between the groups in the results of the other two tests. Soldiers with patellofemoral pain syndrome presented with increased quadriceps angle, lateral and medial retinacular tenderness, patellofemoral crepitation, squinting patella, and reduced mobility of the patella. There were no differences between the groups in the prevalence of lower limb and foot posture alignment and knee effusion. Plain radiography showed increased patellar subluxation in soldiers with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Other radiographic measures (sulcus angle, Laurin angle, Merchant angle, and Insall-Salvati index) were similar in both groups. We provide evidence regarding the validity of clinical and radiographic features commonly used for diagnosing patellofemoral pain syndrome. Physical examinations were more useful than plain radiography. PMID:16788411

  13. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736

  14. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Summary The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736

  15. New concepts in acute pain management: strategies to prevent chronic postsurgical pain, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Grosu, Irina; de Kock, Marc

    2011-06-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a pain syndrome that has attracted attention for more than 10 years. CPSP is a pain syndrome that develops postoperatively and lasts for at least 2 months in the absence of other causes for pain (eg, recurrence of malignancy, chronic infection, and so forth). Pain continuing from a preexisting disease is not considered as CPSP. In this article, the authors discuss the etiopathogenesis of CPSP and interventions that can help prevent and treat this condition.

  16. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and scurvy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravindra; Aggarwal, Anju; Faridi, M M A

    2009-06-01

    A 5 year old female developed features of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) i.e excessive pain to touch, decreased sweating and edema of left ankle 2 years after fracture of left tibia. Gum bleeding, petechiae and pseudoparalysis and suggestive radiograph characterized scurvy. Hyperesthesia improved and child walked with support following administration of vitamin C.

  17. Single dose oral flurbiprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Asquad; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Background Flurbiprofen is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), related to ibuprofen and naproxen, used to treat acute and chronic painful conditions. There is no systematic review of its use in acute postoperative pain. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral flurbiprofen in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to January 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered flurbiprofen in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Eleven studies compared flurbiprofen (699 participants) with placebo (362 participants) in studies lasting 6 to 12 hours. Studies were of adequate reporting quality, and most participants had pain following dental extractions. The dose of flurbiprofen used was 25 mg to 100 mg, with most information for 50 mg and 100 mg. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours for flurbiprofen 50 mg compared with placebo (692 participants) was 2.7 (2.3 to 3.3) and for 100 mg (416 participants) it was 2.5 (2.0 to 3.1). With flurbiprofen 50 mg and 100 mg 65% to 70% of participants experienced at least 50% pain relief, compared with 25% to 30% with placebo. Rescue medication was used by 25

  18. Central poststroke pain: somatosensory abnormalities and the presence of associated myofascial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is a neuropathic pain syndrome associated with somatosensory abnormalities due to central nervous system lesion following a cerebrovascular insult. Post-stroke pain (PSP) refers to a broader range of clinical conditions leading to pain after stroke, but not restricted to CPSP, including other types of pain such as myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), painful shoulder, lumbar and dorsal pain, complex regional pain syndrome, and spasticity-related pain. Despite its recognition as part of the general PSP diagnostic possibilities, the prevalence of MPS has never been characterized in patients with CPSP patients. We performed a cross-sectional standardized clinical and radiological evaluation of patients with definite CPSP in order to assess the presence of other non-neuropathic pain syndromes, and in particular, the role of myofascial pain syndrome in these patients. Methods CPSP patients underwent a standardized sensory and motor neurological evaluation, and were classified according to stroke mechanism, neurological deficits, presence and profile of MPS. The Visual Analogic Scale (VAS), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), and Beck Depression Scale (BDS) were filled out by all participants. Results Forty CPSP patients were included. Thirty-six (90.0%) had one single ischemic stroke. Pain presented during the first three months after stroke in 75.0%. Median pain intensity was 10 (5 to 10). There was no difference in pain intensity among the different lesion site groups. Neuropathic pain was continuous-ongoing in 34 (85.0%) patients and intermittent in the remainder. Burning was the most common descriptor (70%). Main aggravating factors were contact to cold (62.5%). Thermo-sensory abnormalities were universal. MPS was diagnosed in 27 (67.5%) patients and was more common in the supratentorial extra-thalamic group (P <0.001). No significant differences were observed among the different stroke location groups and pain questionnaires and

  19. Fibromyalgia syndrome and myofascial pain syndrome. Do they exist?

    PubMed

    Bohr, T W

    1995-05-01

    "It is in the healing business that the temptations of junk science are the strongest and the controls against it the weakest." Despite their subjective nature, these syndromes (particularly MPS) have little reliability and validity, and advocates paint them as "objective." Despite a legacy of poor-quality science, enthusiasts continue to cite small, methodologically flawed studies purporting to show biologic variables for these syndromes. Despite a wealth of traditional pain research, disciples continue to ignore the placebo effect, demonstrating a therapeutic hubris despite studies showing a dismal natural history for FS. In reviewing the literature on MPS and FS, F.M.R. Walshe's sage words come to mind that the advocates of these syndromes are "better armed with technique than with judgment." A sympathic observer might claim that labeling patients with monikers of nondiseases such as FS and MPS may not be such a bad thing. After all, there is still a stigma for psychiatric disease in our society, and even telling a sufferer that this plays only a partial role may put that patient on the defensive. Labeling may have iatrogenic consequences, however, particularly in the setting of the work place. Furthermore, review of a typical support group newsletter gives ipso facto proof of this noxious potential. The author of a flyer stuffed inside the newsletter complains that getting social security and disability benefits for "the invisible disability" can be "an uphill battle. But don't loose (sic) hope." Apparently the "seriousness of the condition" is not appreciated by the medical community at large, and "clinician bias may well be the largest threat," according to Boston epidemiologist Dr. John Mason. Sufferers are urged to trek to their local medical library and pull four particular articles claiming FS patients have more "stress," "daily hassles," and difficulty working compared with arthritis patients. If articles can't be located, patients are told to ask their

  20. Dress syndrome with sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumomediastinum.

    PubMed

    Giri, Prabhas Prasun; Roy, Swapan; Bhattyacharya, Sukanta; Pal, Priyankar; Dhar, Sandipan

    2011-11-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome reflects a serious hypersensitivity reaction to drugs, and is characterized by skin rash, fever, lymph node enlargement, and internal organ involvement. So far, numerous drugs such as sulfonamides, phenobarbital, sulfasalazine, carbamazepine, and phenytoin have been reported to cause DRESS syndrome. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl who developed clinical manifestations of fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, hypereosinophilia, and visceral involvement (hepatitis and pneumonitis) after taking phenobarbital for seizures, with subsequent development of sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and spontaneous air leak syndrome (pnemothorax and pneumomediastinum). She was put on steroids and various antibiotics and was ventilated, but ultimately succumbed to sepsis and pulmonary complications. PMID:22345792

  1. Evaluation of a novel topical essential oxygen oil for the treatment of pain in acute tendinopathy and sprains.

    PubMed

    Pappagallo, Marco; Leslie, John B; Raffa, Robert B; Kash, Peter; Fleischer, Charles; Sinclair, Nicholas; Labhestwar, Sumedha; Di Lorenzo, Luigi; Tabor, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Topical analgesics may play an increasingly important role in managing acute and chronic pain as acetaminophen, NSAIDs, and opioid drugs come under heightened scrutiny. This article reviews studies about essential oxygen oil, a topical over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic new to the American market but available for many years in Europe. Prospective studies evaluating the oil's safety and efficacy in acute and chronic pain patients, a dermatological study in which healthy subjects served as their own controls, and a post-marketing surveillance study were considered. These studies found the novel essential oxygen oil to be safe and effective in a variety of acute and chronic pain syndromes as well as being well tolerated with few side effects. Its mechanism of action is not understood and further study is warranted. Essential oxygen oil is safe and effective for the treatment of pain associated with many common conditions, including tendinopathy, arthritis, sprains, and others.

  2. Improvement of complex regional pain syndrome after plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Blaes, F; Dharmalingam, B; Tschernatsch, M; Feustel, A; Fritz, T; Kohr, D; Singh, P; Kaps, M; Szalay, G

    2015-04-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a severe complication following trauma that is associated with vasomotor, sudomotor and sensory disturbances in an affected limb or region of the body. The exact physiopathology is not fully understood yet. Recently, autoantibody findings suggested an immune-mediated physiopathology of the disease. We here describe two otherwise treatment-resistant patients with complex regional pain syndrome and high-titre beta2 adrenergic receptor autoantibodies, who did respond to plasmapheresis. Both patients showed strong improvement of pain and autonomic symptoms measured by impairment level sum score.

  3. Managing acute back pain patients to avoid the transition to chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Chou, Roger; McCarberg, Bill

    2011-01-01

    Chronic back pain is a major source of disability, decreased quality of life and healthcare costs. Treating chronic back pain is difficult, with even effective therapies only being modestly effective. Helping patients avoid the transition from acute to chronic low back pain is a promising strategy for preventing suffering and reducing healthcare utilization. The biopsychosocial model provides a useful framework for understanding factors that contribute to chronicity in low back pain, and are important targets for interventions. This article reviews recent research on predictors of chronicity and treatment strategies in higher risk patients that may be helpful for preventing chronicity. PMID:24654586

  4. [Botulinum toxin for the treatment of pain syndromes].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joaquim J; Couto, Marina; Costa, João; Coelho, Miguel; Rosa, Mário M; Sampaio, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Although botulinum toxin (BoNT) is being used for therapeutic purposes for more than 20 years, the list of potential new indications continues to increase and includes various pain syndromes. The pain relief experienced by patients with dystonia and spasticity from intramuscular BoNT injections suggested that other chronic skeletal-muscles pain conditions may also benefit. BoNT inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction thereby reducing striatal muscle contractions and the proposed analgesic property was initially attributed to muscular relaxation. A specific analgesic BoNT effect is difficult to conclude from studies where pain is conditioned by other associated symptoms like dystonia, muscle contraction or spasticity. One alternative is to critically appraise clinical trials where BoNT was studied as the active intervention and pain evaluated as an outcome. From this analysis there is convincing evidence for the effectiveness of BoNT in the treatment of pain associated with cervical dystonia. For all other pain syndromes there have been relatively few, small sized, placebo-controlled studies (myofascial pain syndrome, chronic neck and low back pain, piriformis syndrome and fibromyalgia) and the results of these studies have been contradictory or non conclusive. To establish the analgesic properties of BoNT there is a need for appropriately designed, exploratory randomized controlled studies in well accepted human models of nociceptive or neuropathic pain. This does not exclude the subsequent need to conduct pragmatic trials to evaluate the effectiveness of BoNT in conditions where the improvement of pain or any associated clinical sign or symptom may be of clinical relevance. PMID:17058384

  5. Carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetic neuropathy, fibromyalgia, glucosamine and chondroitin, hypnosis in pain management, marijuana for pain.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Scott M

    2007-01-01

    This feature presents information for patients in a question and answer format. It is written to simulate actual questions that many pain patients ask and to provide answers in a context and language that most pain patients will comprehend. Issues addressed in this issue are carpel tunnel syndrome, fibromyalgia, glucosamine and chondroitin, hypnosis, marijuana. PMID:17844729

  6. Role of Alternative Therapies for Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Donna-Ann; Maslin, Benjamin; Legler, Aron; Springer, Erin; Asgerally, Abbas; Vadivelu, Nalini

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of chronic pain. This review examines alternative and complimentary therapies, which can be incorporated as part of a biopsychosocial approach in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. In the present investigation, literature from articles indexed on PubMed was evaluated including topics of alternative therapies, complimentary therapies, pain psychology, biofeedback therapy, physical exercise therapies, acupuncture, natural and herbal supplements, whole-body cryotherapy, and smartphone technologies in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. This review highlights the key role of psychology in the treatment of chronic pain. Cognitive behavior therapy appears to be the most impactful while biofeedback therapy has also been shown to be effective for chronic pain. Exercise therapy has been shown to be effective in short-, intermediate-, and long-term pain states. When compared to that in sham controls, acupuncture has shown some benefit for neck pain immediately after the procedure and in the short term and improvement has also been demonstrated in the treatment of headaches. The role of smartphones and whole-body cryotherapy are new modalities and further studies are needed. Recent literature suggests that several alternate therapies could play a role in the treatment of chronic pain, supporting the biopsychosocial model in the treatment of pain states. PMID:27038968

  7. Acute central cervical spinal cord syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morse, S D

    1982-08-01

    Two cases of the acute central cervical spinal cord syndrome are presented. A 63-year-old diabetic hypertensive man manifested the syndrome as a result of atraumatic ischemia of the cord. A 32-year-old health man developed it after sustaining a hyperextension injury in a baseball game. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this entity are reviewed. Knowledge of this entity is of major importance in the analysis and management of head and neck trauma, as well as in the recognition and management of atraumatic neurologic dysfunction due to ischemia, hemorrhage, or thrombosis.

  8. Misdiagnosis of Abdominal Pain in Pregnancy: Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sunita; Gupta, Shweta; Begum, Jasmina; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis in a pregnant woman who presented to our emergency department with complaints of severe abdominal pain, was misdiagnosed as scar dehiscence and underwent emergency repeat caesarean section at 33 wks for fetal distress. The preterm baby developed severe respiratory distress and succumbed on the second postnatal day. Persistent severe pain in the postoperative period in the mother prompted further evaluation which led to a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Conservative and supportive management was instituted leading to an eventual favourable maternal outcome. PMID:25738042

  9. Fibromyalgia and Myofascial Pain Syndrome-A Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Chandola, H C; Chakraborty, Arunangshu

    2009-01-01

    Summary Pain and fatigue associated to the musculoskeletal system are among the leading causes of patients to visit their physicians and nearly one-third of such patients suffer from fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic debilitating disorder characterized by widespread pain with tenderness in specific areas, leading to fatigue, headache and sleep disorder. Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS), is also a localized musculoskeletal pain producing condition whose diagnostic and management criteria differ from FMS but still considered by many only a subtype of FMS. Till date no exact cause has been held responsible for these painful conditions, therefore treatment of these disorders is always a challenge. The therapies are not precise but multimodal including pharmacological and alternative approaches. This article describes the existing knowledge pertaining to these conditions in regard of causative factors diagnosis and management. PMID:20640108

  10. Interactions between Pain and the Motor Cortex: Insights from Research on Phantom Limb Pain and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Léonard, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Pain is a significantly disabling problem that often interacts with other deficits during the rehabilitation process. The aim of this paper is to review evidence of interactions between pain and the motor cortex in order to attempt to answer the following questions: (1) Does acute pain interfere with motor-cortex activity? (2) Does chronic pain interfere with motor-cortex activity, and, conversely, does motor-cortex plasticity contribute to chronic pain? (3) Can the induction of motor plasticity by means of motor-cortex stimulation decrease pain? (4) Can motor training result in both motor-cortex reorganization and pain relief? Summary of Key Points: Acute experimental pain has been clearly shown to exert an inhibitory influence over the motor cortex, which can interfere with motor learning capacities. Current evidence also suggests a relationship between chronic pain and motor-cortex reorganization, but it is still unclear whether one causes the other. However, there is growing evidence that interventions aimed at normalizing motor-cortex organization can lead to pain relief. Conclusions: Interactions between pain and the motor cortex are complex, and more studies are needed to understand these interactions in our patients, as well as to develop optimal rehabilitative strategies. PMID:22654236

  11. Prospective Predictors of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Evangelos; Wong-Tom, Wing M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common overuse injuries. Objective: To assess the collective evidence of predisposing factors to PFPS. Data Sources: MEDLINE (1960–June 2010), EMBASE (1980–June 2010), and CINAHL (1982–June 2010). Study Selection: Studies were included if patients were asymptomatic at baseline testing (free of PFPS) and were prospectively followed for the development of the disorder. Only studies that assessed at least 1 variable that can be measured at a typical clinic were included. After duplicates were removed, 973 studies were assessed from their titles or abstracts, 20 from the full text, and from these, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction: Data were extracted for age, weight, height, sample size, patient type (military vs civilian), follow-up periods, diagnostic methods, and diagnostic criteria. Means and standard deviations were extracted for all outcome variables. Results: Meta-analyses were performed for height, weight, leanness, Q angle, number of sit-ups, knee extension strength, and peak knee valgus angle during landing. Lower knee extension strength was the only variable that was predictive of PFPS (P < 0.01). Other variables that were identified as predictive of PFPS by single studies were vertical jump, push-ups, knee flexion and hip abduction strength, thumb-to-forearm flexibility, quadriceps and gastrocnemius flexibility, genu varum, navicular drop, knee valgus moment at initial contact during landing, social support, and palliative reaction. Conclusions: It appears that anthropometric variables are not associated with PFPS, while knee extension strength deficits appear to be predictors of PFPS. PMID:23016077

  12. Predicting Outcome in Acute Low-Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Joel; Gilbert, J.R.; Hutton, Tim; Taylor, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Patients presenting to their family physician with acute low-back pain were studied prospectively. Demographic factors and patient history at the initial visit were assessed to determine important predictors of selected clinical outcomes, including time to resumption of normal activities and time to relief from pain. While several predictors were significantly correlated with each of the outcomes assessed, the most consistent predictor of outcome proved to be the reported pain intensity at the initial visit. Baseline levels of pain intensity were related to expected time of recovery and probability of periodic pain in the future. Data collected in the initial history and physical examination of patients permit an assessment of factors that may be useful in establishing prognosis for relevant clinical outcomes. PMID:21263854

  13. Psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renata Antunes; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Queiroz, Bárbara Zille de; Rosa, Nayza Maciel de Britto; Pereira, Leani de Souza Máximo; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2015-05-01

    Measurement instruments of pain catastrophizing for middle-aged and elderly individuals are needed to understand its impact on low back pain. The goals were to cross-culturally adapt the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, assess the construct validity through Rasch analysis, and verify reliability and convergent validity of pain catastrophizing with psychosocial factors. 131 individuals aged 55 years and older with acute low back pain were interviewed . The intra-rater reliability was Kp = 0.80 and interrater Kp = 0.75. The Rasch analysis found adequate reliability coefficients (0.95 for items and 0.90 for individuals ). The separation index for the elderly was 2.95 and 4.59 items. Of the 13 items, one did not fit the model, which was justified in the sample evaluated. The pain catastrophizing correlated with most psychosocial factors. The instrument proved to be clinically useful. Subsequent studies should carry out the same analysis in different populations. PMID:26017211

  14. Acute Coronary Syndrome: Focus on Antiplatelet Therapy.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, Rodel V

    2016-02-01

    The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology in 2014 published a focused update of the 2007 and 2012 guidelines for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). The management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is described in a separate guideline published in 2013. The focused updates to the guidelines contain updated recommendations for dual antiplatelet therapy, including use of the P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor, which was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Nurses caring for patients with acute coronary syndrome must have a good understanding of the current treatment guidelines for such patients, to help ensure delivery of evidence-based care. This review article uses a case study-based approach to describe how the new guidelines affect clinical decision making when choosing appropriate antiplatelet therapy for patients with NSTE-ACS or STEMI, depending on the patient's clinical history and presenting characteristics. PMID:26830177

  15. [Pain syndromes following amputation. Analysis of 100 affected patients with chronic stump and phantom pain].

    PubMed

    Wörz, R; Wörz, E

    1990-02-10

    One hundred amputees (m = 95, f = 5) with a pain syndrome were analysed. In 80 patients post-amputation pain of the lower, in 20 of the upper, extremities presented. Thirty-two patients suffered bouts of pain, 68 constant pain of various types. The most commonly cited type of pain in the patients with intermittent pain was lancinating, in the case of constant pain a burning sensation. In some patients pain occurred immediately after the loss of the limb, in others not until several years, or even decades, later. Forty per cent of our patients indicated that the incidence and intensity of the pain increased with time. Neurological, orthopedic and internistic causes of stump or phantom pain have been described. In 72% of the patients with constant pain and in 34% of those suffering from bouts of pain, an algogenic psychosyndrome had developed. Complications and late sequelae of amputations are of considerable significance for the development and intensity of stump and phantom pain.

  16. Outcome After Pituitary Radiosurgery for Thalamic Pain Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Motohiro Chernov, Mikhail F.; Taira, Takaomi; Ochiai, Taku; Nakaya, Kotaro; Tamura, Noriko; Goto, Shinichi; Yomo, Shoji; Kouyama, Nobuo; Katayama, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoriko; Izawa, Masahiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes after pituitary radiosurgery in patients with post-stroke thalamic pain syndrome. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2006, 24 patients with thalamic pain syndrome underwent pituitary radiosurgery at Tokyo Women's Medical University and were followed at least 12 months thereafter. The radiosurgical target was defined as the pituitary gland and its connection with the pituitary stalk. The maximum dose varied from 140 to 180 Gy. Mean follow-up after treatment was 35 months (range, 12-48 months). Results: Initial pain reduction, usually within 48 h after radiosurgery, was marked in 17 patients (71%). However, in the majority of cases the pain recurred within 6 months after treatment, and at the time of the last follow-up examination durable pain control was marked in only 5 patients (21%). Ten patients (42%) had treatment-associated side effects. Anterior pituitary abnormalities were marked in 8 cases and required hormonal replacement therapy in 3; transient diabetes insipidus was observed in 2 cases, transient hyponatremia in 1, and clinical deterioration due to increase of the numbness severity despite significant reduction of pain was seen once. Conclusions: Pituitary radiosurgery for thalamic pain results in a high rate of initial efficacy and is accompanied by acceptable morbidity. It can be used as a primary minimally invasive management option for patients with post-stroke thalamic pain resistant to medical therapy. However, in the majority of cases pain recurrence occurs within 1 year after treatment.

  17. Myofascial pain syndrome and its suggested role in the pathogenesis and treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Helgard P

    2002-08-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a chronic muscle pain disorder in one or more muscles or groups of muscles accompanied by local and referred pain, decreased range of motion, weakness, and often autonomic phenomena. Patients are readily recognized by their history of muscle pain and the presence of myofascial trigger points, which are specific areas of hyperirritability in a muscle that cause local and referred pain on palpation. Failure to recognize MPS often leads to over-investigation, unnecessary medical intervention, and iatrogenic harm with serious cost implications. The purpose of this review is to present clinically relevant data regarding myofascial pain syndrome and to discuss its possible role in the pathophysiology and optimal treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.

  18. Evaluation of acute pelvic pain in women.

    PubMed

    Kruszka, Paul S; Kruszka, Stephen J

    2010-07-15

    Diagnosis of pelvic pain in women can be challenging because many symptoms and signs are insensitive and nonspecific. As the first priority, urgent life-threatening conditions (e.g., ectopic pregnancy, appendicitis, ruptured ovarian cyst) and fertility-threatening conditions (e.g., pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian torsion) must be considered. A careful history focusing on pain characteristics, review of systems, and gynecologic, sexual, and social history, in addition to physical examination helps narrow the differential diagnosis. The most common urgent causes of pelvic pain are pelvic inflammatory disease, ruptured ovarian cyst, and appendicitis; however, many other diagnoses in the differential may mimic these conditions, and imaging is often needed. Transvaginal ultrasonography should be the initial imaging test because of its sensitivities across most etiologies and its lack of radiation exposure. A high index of suspicion should be maintained for pelvic inflammatory disease when other etiologies are ruled out, because the presentation is variable and the prevalence is high. Multiple studies have shown that 20 to 50 percent of women presenting with pelvic pain have pelvic inflammatory disease. Adolescents and pregnant and postpartum women require unique considerations.

  19. Evaluation of acute pelvic pain in women.

    PubMed

    Kruszka, Paul S; Kruszka, Stephen J

    2010-07-15

    Diagnosis of pelvic pain in women can be challenging because many symptoms and signs are insensitive and nonspecific. As the first priority, urgent life-threatening conditions (e.g., ectopic pregnancy, appendicitis, ruptured ovarian cyst) and fertility-threatening conditions (e.g., pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian torsion) must be considered. A careful history focusing on pain characteristics, review of systems, and gynecologic, sexual, and social history, in addition to physical examination helps narrow the differential diagnosis. The most common urgent causes of pelvic pain are pelvic inflammatory disease, ruptured ovarian cyst, and appendicitis; however, many other diagnoses in the differential may mimic these conditions, and imaging is often needed. Transvaginal ultrasonography should be the initial imaging test because of its sensitivities across most etiologies and its lack of radiation exposure. A high index of suspicion should be maintained for pelvic inflammatory disease when other etiologies are ruled out, because the presentation is variable and the prevalence is high. Multiple studies have shown that 20 to 50 percent of women presenting with pelvic pain have pelvic inflammatory disease. Adolescents and pregnant and postpartum women require unique considerations. PMID:20642266

  20. Acute low back pain: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Della-Giustina, D; Kilcline, B A

    2000-01-01

    Low back pain is commonly seen in the primary care setting. Although the majority of patients have a benign etiology for their symptoms, one must approach these patients in a systematic fashion, looking for "red flags" of serious disease. PMID:10984818

  1. [Psychopathology and various mechanisms contributing to the formation of the Kandinsky syndrome in acute alcoholic hallucinosis].

    PubMed

    Guliamova, N M

    1983-01-01

    Forty patients with acute alcoholic hallucinosis associated with the Kandinsky syndrome were examined clinicopsychopathologically. Manifestation of the Kandinsky syndrome was limited by associative automatism in patients with stage II alcoholism with transient hallucinosis lasting 2-4 days. In patients with stage III alcoholism with more prolonged (6-9 days) psychoses, the non-extensive Kandinsky syndrome manifested itself in integrity. Psychopathological phenomena of the syndrome in the picture of acute alcoholic hallucinosis were notable for their descriptiveness, concreteness, extreme simplicity, and instability. Senestopathic and kinesthetic automatisms were localized at the sites of real painful disorders. Therefore, apart from cerebral disorders, the peripheral sensory mechanisms are considered to be of importance in the genesis of the Kandinsky syndrome.

  2. Usefulness of the Pain Tracking Technique in Acute Mechanical Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bravo Acosta, Tania; Martín Cordero, Jorge E.; Hernández Tápanes, Solangel; Pedroso Morales, Isis; Fernández Cuesta, José Ignacio; Leyva Serrano, Maritza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of the pain tracking technique in acute mechanical low back pain. Method. We performed an experimental prospective (longitudinal) explanatory study between January 2011 and September 2012. The sample was randomly divided into two groups. Patients were assessed at the start and end of the treatment using the visual analogue scale and the Waddell test. Treatment consisted in applying the pain tracking technique to the study group and interferential current therapy to the control group. At the end of treatment, cryotherapy was applied for 10 minutes. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Mann Whitney test were used. They were performed with a predetermined significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results. Pain was triggered by prolonged static posture and intense physical labor and intensified through trunk movements and when sitting and standing. The greatest relief was reported in lateral decubitus position and in William's position. The majority of the patients had contracture. Pain and disability were modified with the rehabilitation treatment in both groups. Conclusions. Both the pain tracking and interferential current techniques combined with cryotherapy are useful treatments for acute mechanical low back pain. The onset of analgesia is faster when using the pain tracking technique. PMID:26240758

  3. Usefulness of the Pain Tracking Technique in Acute Mechanical Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Bravo Acosta, Tania; Martín Cordero, Jorge E; Hernández Tápanes, Solangel; Pedroso Morales, Isis; Fernández Cuesta, José Ignacio; Leyva Serrano, Maritza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of the pain tracking technique in acute mechanical low back pain. Method. We performed an experimental prospective (longitudinal) explanatory study between January 2011 and September 2012. The sample was randomly divided into two groups. Patients were assessed at the start and end of the treatment using the visual analogue scale and the Waddell test. Treatment consisted in applying the pain tracking technique to the study group and interferential current therapy to the control group. At the end of treatment, cryotherapy was applied for 10 minutes. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Mann Whitney test were used. They were performed with a predetermined significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results. Pain was triggered by prolonged static posture and intense physical labor and intensified through trunk movements and when sitting and standing. The greatest relief was reported in lateral decubitus position and in William's position. The majority of the patients had contracture. Pain and disability were modified with the rehabilitation treatment in both groups. Conclusions. Both the pain tracking and interferential current techniques combined with cryotherapy are useful treatments for acute mechanical low back pain. The onset of analgesia is faster when using the pain tracking technique. PMID:26240758

  4. Usefulness of diastolic color kinesis imaging at rest in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Odo, Takafumi; Muro, Takashi; Odo, Kyoko; Kikuda, Kenji; Tamimoto, Ayako; Najima, Chiyo; Sakaino, Naritsugu; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2009-04-01

    The authors report two cases of acute coronary syndrome diagnosed by diastolic color kinesis imaging (CKI), an echocardiographic technique facilitating regional left ventricular wall motion analysis. Although both patients had experienced chest pain within the previous several days, the pain had remitted prior to visiting the clinic. In addition, neither electrocardiography nor routine echocardiography revealed ischemic changes. However, diastolic CKI clearly showed regional diastolic asynchrony of the left ventricle. Coronary angiography revealed significant stenosis compatible with the region of diastolic asynchrony observed on diastolic CKI. The patients underwent successful coronary revascularization, and diastolic asynchrony disappeared after revascularization. These findings suggest that diastolic CKI is useful for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, even at rest and in the absence of chest pain.

  5. Bertolotti Syndrome: A Diagnostic and Management Dilemma for Pain Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Jain, Suruchi; Shamshery, Chetna

    2013-01-01

    Background Bertolotti's syndrome (BS), a form of lumbago in lumbosacral transitional vertebrae, is an important cause of low back pain in young patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the etiology of low back pain and the efficacy of treatment offered to patients with BS. Methods All patients of BS Castellvi type1a during a period of 6 months were enrolled in the study. The patients underwent interventional pain procedures for diagnosis and pain relief. Response to the therapy was assessed based on VAS and ODI scores. A 50% decrease in VAS score or a VAS score less than 3 would be considered adequate pain relief. Results All 20 patients diagnosed with BS during the 6-month observation period had scoliosis. Common causes of back pain were the ipsilateral L5-S1 facet joint, neoarticulation, the SI joint, and disc degeneration. Responses to various interventions for pain relief were different and inconsistent from patient to patient. In particular, responses to interventions for neoarticular pain were generally poor. Conclusions Pain in patients with BS does not usually respond to interventional pain treatment. A very dynamic treatment approach must be pursued while managing BS patients, and the treatment plan must be individualized at various stages in order to obtain satisfactory pain relief. PMID:24156003

  6. [Differential diagnosis of polyarthritis pain syndrome of the locomotor apparatus].

    PubMed

    Menninger, H

    1998-02-28

    Widespread pain syndromes of the musculoskeletal system present to general practitioners, internists, neurologists and orthopedic surgeons every day. The syndromes may result both from organic diseases (inflammatory joint diseases, rheumatic manifestations of organ diseases) as well as dysfunctional syndromes, the latter including mainly biomechanically induced syndromes and fibromyalgia. The approach is predominantly clinically oriented and requires laboratory means or technical procedures only in a limited extend. The duration of history, the recognition of synovitis and of myofascial trigger points or of integumental tender points allow in most patients to achieve appropriate diagnostic criteria.

  7. Acute renal infarction: an unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Muhammad M; Butt, Mohammed A; Syed, Yadullah; Carr, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Acute renal infarction is an uncommon and under-diagnosed disease. Its clinical presentation is nonspecific and often mimics other more common disease entities. The diagnosis is usually missed or delayed, which frequently results in irreversible renal parenchyma damage. High index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis, as timely intervention may prevent loss of kidney function. We report a case of acute renal infarction following coronary angiography in a patient with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who initially presented with acute abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis.

  8. A nurse-initiated pain protocol in the ED improves pain treatment in patients with acute musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Pierik, Jorien G J; Berben, Sivera A; IJzerman, Maarten J; Gaakeer, Menno I; van Eenennaam, Fred L; van Vugt, Arie B; Doggen, Carine J M

    2016-07-01

    While acute musculoskeletal pain is a frequent complaint, its management is often neglected. An implementation of a nurse-initiated pain protocol based on the algorithm of a Dutch pain management guideline in the emergency department might improve this. A pre-post intervention study was performed as part of the prospective PROTACT follow-up study. During the pre- (15 months, n = 504) and post-period (6 months, n = 156) patients' self-reported pain intensity and pain treatment were registered. Analgesic provision in patients with moderate to severe pain (NRS ≥4) improved from 46.8% to 68.0%. Over 10% of the patients refused analgesics, resulting into an actual analgesic administration increase from 36.3% to 46.1%. Median time to analgesic decreased from 10 to 7 min (P < 0.05), whereas time to opioids decreased from 37 to 15 min (P < 0.01). Mean pain relief significantly increased to 1.56 NRS-points, in patients who received analgesic treatment even up to 2.02 points. The protocol appeared to lead to an increase in analgesic administration, shorter time to analgesics and a higher clinically relevant pain relief. Despite improvements, suffering moderate to severe pain at ED discharge was still common. Protocol adherence needs to be studied in order to optimize pain management. PMID:26968352

  9. Acute Achilles tendinopathy: effect of pain control on leg stiffness.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, J; Kokalj, A

    2014-03-01

    Tendinopathies are a major cause of disability in the athletic population; the main purpose of the treatment of these injuries is to reduce pain and improve function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NSAIDs on leg stiffness of patients suffering acute unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. Twenty-eight eligible male athletes (aged 39.1 ± 10.3 y) suffering acute Achilles tendinopathy were treated with etoricoxib (120 mg oral once daily) during 7 days. Pain (100-mm visual analogue scale-VAS), analgesic effect (percentage of 100-mm VAS reduction), and leg stiffness were evaluated pre- and post- anti-inflammatory treatment. Results of this study showed that over the 7-day treatment period, etoricoxib provided significant relief of Achilles tendon pain (VAS) compared to that experienced at baseline: 54.5 ± 21.6 and 24.5 ± 24.8, respectively (p<0.001). Leg stiffness showed a significant improvement after one-week NSAID therapy: LSR 0.89 ± 0.1 vs. 0.97 ± 0.1; (p=0.02). In conclusion, findings of this study demonstrated that patients suffering acute unilateral Achilles tendinopathy increased their leg stiffness of the affected side after oral anti-inflammatory therapy. Effective control of tendon pain in the acute phase of such sports-related injuries may contribute to improve capabilities associated with high performance like leg stiffness. PMID:24583548

  10. Contemporary therapy: aromatherapy in the management of acute pain?

    PubMed

    Ching, M

    1999-12-01

    Recent surveys indicate that people are increasingly using complementary therapies as an adjunct or alternative to conventional treatment options as well as for general health and well being. Whilst complementary therapies such as aromatherapy have been utilised in clinical settings as diverse as long term care facilities and palliative care, its application to the acute care setting has not been explored in depth. The changes in contemporary health care practices such as post-operative pain management and length of hospital admissions have provided nurses with the challenge of examining the range of therapeutic interventions that can be applied to their practice. The purpose of this paper is to examine critically the potential uses of aromatherapy in the management of acute post-operative pain. The concept of aromatherapy will be explored in relation to its effects on the pain pathways, methods of administration and therapeutic effects. Specific reference will be made to Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and its use in aromatherapy. A review of the literature points to gaps in the knowledge related to the clinical application of aromatherapy in relation to issues of dosage, methods of administration and therapeutic effects. The relatively small number of studies that have looked at aromatherapy in the acute care setting supports the literature reviewed. Issues such as small sample sizes and the difficulty in replicating these studies make it difficult to generalize the findings. In order to achieve best practice, further research is necessary to explore the use of aromatherapy in the management of acute post-operative pain.

  11. Signs and symptoms in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome: a diagnostic meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bruyninckx, Rudi; Aertgeerts, Bert; Bruyninckx, Pieter; Buntinx, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Prompt diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome is very important. Aim A systematic review was conducted to determine the accuracy of 10 important signs and symptoms in selected and non-selected patients. Design of study Diagnostic meta-analysis. Method Using MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, tracing references, and by contacting experts, studies were sought out that described one of the 10 signs and symptoms on one or both conditions. Studies were excluded if they were not based on original data. Validity was assessed using QUADAS and all data were pooled using a random effects model. Results Sixteen of the 28 included studies were about patients who were non-selected. In this group, absence of chest-wall tenderness on palpation had a pooled sensitivity of 92% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 86 to 96) for acute myocardial infarction and 94% (95% CI = 91 to 96) for acute coronary syndrome. Oppressive pain followed with a pooled sensitivity of 60% (95% CI = 55 to 66) for acute myocardial infarction. Sweating had the highest pooled positive likelihood ratio (LR+), namely 2.92 (95% CI = 1.97 to 4.23) for acute myocardial infarction. The other pooled LR+ fluctuated between 1.05 and 1.49. Negative LRs (LR−) varied between 0.98 and 0.23. Absence of chest-wall tenderness on palpation had a LR− of 0.23 (95% CI = 0.18 to 0.29). Conclusions Based on this meta-analysis it was not possible to define an important role for signs and symptoms in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome. Only chest-wall tenderness on palpation largely ruled out acute myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome in low-prevalence settings. PMID:18307844

  12. Pain, Catastrophizing, and Depression in Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jong Kyou

    2013-01-01

    Persistent and disabling pain is the hallmark of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, disease severity (as measured by objective indexes such as those that use radiography or serology) is only marginally related to patients' reports of pain severity, and pain-related presentation can differ widely among individuals with CP/CPPS. Increasing evidence in support of the biopsychosocial model of pain suggests that cognitive and emotional processes are crucial contributors to inter-individual differences in the perception and impact of pain. This review describes the growing body of literature relating depression and catastrophizing to the experience of pain and pain-related sequelae in CP/CPPS. Depression and catastrophizing are consistently associated with the reported severity of pain, sensitivity to pain, physical disability, poor treatment outcomes, and inflammatory disease activity and potentially with early mortality. A variety of pathways, from cognitive to behavioral to neurophysiological, seem to mediate these deleterious effects. Collectively, depression and catastrophizing are critically important variables in understanding the experience of pain in patients with CP/CPPS. Pain, depression, and catastrophizing might all be uniquely important therapeutic targets in the multimodal management of a range of such conditions. PMID:23869268

  13. [Small fiber neuropathy in a patient with complete Heerfordt syndrome manifesting as refractory facial pain].

    PubMed

    Hirai, Toshiaki; Miyagawa, Shinji; Matsui, Kazutaka; Kurita, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of complete Heerfordt syndrome accompanied by the involvement of small fiber neuropathy (SFN) manifesting as refracory facial pain. A 30-year-old man presented with pyrexia, a 2-week history of facial burning pain, and difficulty of mastication. After admission to our hospital, neurological examinations showed bilateral facial pain, trigeminal motor palsy, left facial nerve palsy, bilateral sensory neural deafness, uveitis and swelling of the parotid gland. Other examinations revealed bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, high serum titer of angiotensin coenzyme, and no response in a tuberculin-tested, non-caseating epithelioid granuloma from lip biopsy, leading to the diagnosis of complete Heerfordt syndrome. Mandibular skin biopsy with immunostaining for PGP 9.5 showed SFN. High-dose corticosteroids proved somewhat effective against SFN as facial pain, but reducing the corticosteroid dose proved difficult, as symptoms were refractory to other immunosuppressants and pain-control drugs such as anti-epileptics and anti-depressants. The patient died of acute pancreatitis 3 years after disease onset. Autopsy showed no granuloma in hilar lymph node, trigeminal nerve, cranial base, nerve root, and muscle. SFN in this case probably represent a cause of refractory facial pain. PMID:25087562

  14. A Brain Signature to Differentiate Acute and Chronic Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yifei; Wang, Yuzheng; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Jin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The transition from acute pain to chronic pain entails considerable changes of patients at multiple levels of the nervous system and in psychological states. An accurate differentiation between acute and chronic pain is essential in pain management as it may help optimize analgesic treatments according to the pain state of patients. Given that acute and chronic pain could modulate brain states in different ways and that brain states could greatly shape the neural processing of external inputs, we hypothesized that acute and chronic pain would show differential effects on cortical responses to non-nociceptive sensory information. Here by analyzing auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) to pure tones in rats with acute or chronic pain, we found opposite influences of acute and chronic pain on cortical responses to auditory inputs. In particular, compared to no-pain controls, the N100 wave of rat AEPs was significantly enhanced in rats with acute pain but significantly reduced in rats with chronic pain, indicating that acute pain facilitated cortical processing of auditory information while chronic pain exerted an inhibitory effect. These findings could be justified by the fact that individuals suffering from acute or chronic pain would have different vigilance states, i.e., the vigilance level to external sensory stimuli would be increased with acute pain, but decreased with chronic pain. Therefore, this auditory response holds promise of being a brain signature to differentiate acute and chronic pain. Instead of investigating the pain system per se, the study of pain-induced influences on cortical processing of non-nocicpetive sensory information might represent a potential strategy to monitor the progress of pain chronification in clinical applications. PMID:27199727

  15. Sensorimotor retuning [corrected] in complex regional pain syndrome parallels pain reduction.

    PubMed

    Pleger, Burkhard; Tegenthoff, Martin; Ragert, Patrick; Förster, Ann-Freya; Dinse, Hubert R; Schwenkreis, Peter; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph

    2005-03-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and intractable pain showed a shrinkage of cortical maps on primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) contralateral to the affected limb. This was paralleled by an impairment of the two-point discrimination thresholds. Behavioral treatment over 1 to 6 months consisting of graded sensorimotor retuning led to a persistent decrease in pain intensity, which was accompanied by a restoration of the impaired tactile discrimination and regaining of cortical map size in contralateral SI and SII. This suggests that the reversal of tactile impairment and cortical reorganization in CRPS is associated with a decrease in pain.

  16. Treatment of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome as a neuropathic pain condition

    PubMed Central

    Vas, Lakshmi; Pattanik, Manorama; Titarmore, Vaishali

    2014-01-01

    A lady of 52 years with painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) presented with chronic pelvic pain, irritative voiding with sphincter dominance on urodynamics. 3 yrs of oral analgesics, antispasmodics and intravesical therapy was ineffective. We surmised her pain, and irritative voiding to be secondary to constant straining against a dysfunctional pelvic floor. We treated PBS/IC as a neuropathic phenomenon with a combination of neuromodulator medications and continuous caudal epidural analgesia to reduce the pain induced peripheral and central sensitisation. Botulinum toxin type A injection into pelvic floor muscles appeared to address their dysfuction. Clinical and urodynamics response was encouraging. PMID:25097327

  17. Actinomyces infection causing acute right iliac fossa pain

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajah, Narendranath; Hameed, Waseem; Middleton, Simon; Booth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This is a case of a 75-year-old man being admitted to the on-call surgical department with acute abdominal pain. On arrival he was clinically dehydrated and shocked with localised pain over McBurney's point and examination findings were suggestive of appendiceal or other colonic pathology. Full blood testing revealed a white cell count of 38×109/L and a C reactive protein (CRP) of 278 mg/L. A CT scan revealed a gallbladder empyema that extended into the right iliac fossa. This case highlights the potential for a hyperdistended gallbladder empyema to present as acute right iliac fossa pain with blood tests suggestive of complicated disease. Further analysis confirmed Actinomyces infection as the underlying aetiology prior to a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy. This case serves to remind clinicians of this as a rare potential cause of atypical gallbladder pathology. PMID:24872493

  18. Acute abdominal pain and constipation due to lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mongolu, S; Sharp, P

    2013-01-01

    Although uncommon, lead poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of unexplained acute abdominal pain in both adults and children. We present the case of a 35-year-old Asian male who presented with abdominal pain and constipation secondary to lead poisoning. Initially, the source of lead exposure was not apparent; this was later found to be due to ingestion of an Ayurvedic herbal medicine for the treatment of infertility. Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of Ayurvedic remedies is well described. We discuss the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of lead poisoning. This case illustrates one of the rarer medical causes of acute abdominal pain and emphasizes the need to take a thorough history (including specific questioning regarding the use of over-the-counter and traditional/ herbal remedies) in cases of suspected poisoning or drug toxicity.

  19. Electrohydraulic Lithotripsy of an Impacted Enterolith Causing Acute Afferent Loop Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Sin; Hwang, Soon Oh; Lee, Sunhyo; Jung, Yunho; Chung, Il-Kwun; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Afferent loop syndrome caused by an impacted enterolith is very rare, and endoscopic removal of the enterolith may be difficult if a stricture is present or the normal anatomy has been altered. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy is commonly used for endoscopic fragmentation of biliary and pancreatic duct stones. A 64-year-old man who had undergone subtotal gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy presented with acute, severe abdominal pain for a duration of 2 hours. Initially, he was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis because of an elevated amylase level and pain, but was finally diagnosed with acute afferent loop syndrome when an impacted enterolith was identified by computed tomography. We successfully removed the enterolith using direct electrohydraulic lithotripsy conducted using a transparent cap-fitted endoscope without complications. We found that this procedure was therapeutically beneficial. PMID:25133128

  20. Pain acceptance-based coping in complex regional pain syndrome Type I: daily relations with pain intensity, activity, and mood.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungkun; McCracken, Lance M; Heiby, Elaine M; Moon, Dong-Eon; Lee, Jang-Han

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the temporal patterning of pain acceptance-based coping, activity, and mood in patients with complex regional pain syndrome Type I (CRPS-I), by using a daily diary method. A total of 30 patients with CRPS-I seeking treatment in a tertiary pain management center located in Seoul, Korea participated in the study. Multilevel random effects analyses indicated that (a) engagement in pain acceptance-based coping was significantly associated with lower same-day pain and negative mood and greater same-day activity and positive mood; (b) pain acceptance-based coping predicted increases in activity on the following day; (c) greater pain intensity was significantly associated with lower same-day pain acceptance-based coping and activity and greater same-day negative mood; and (d) pain intensity did not predict pain acceptance-based coping, activity, or mood on the following day. These findings suggest that patients with CRPS-I may benefit from responding to pain with acceptance. Further study and eventual application of this process in CRPS-I may improve upon the success of current approaches to this problem. PMID:22854886

  1. Acute opercular syndrome in 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Pniewska, Anna; Pawłowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Acute opercular syndrome is a rare described syndrome caused by a sudden damage of the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter, located around the insula. A rare cause of this syndrome can be an infectious agent, particularly herpes simplex virus. Quick diagnosis and immediate initiation of treatment significantly reduce the risk of neurological consequences and mortality. We present a case of encephalitis of unknown etiology and severe course, with the symptoms of acute opercular syndrome in 4-year-old boy. PMID:27154445

  2. Case report: acute forearm compartment syndrome due to sudden, forceful supination of the hand.

    PubMed

    Pantle, Hardin A; Chanmugam, Arjun

    2010-10-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening condition if not recognized and treated promptly. Appropriate management includes early fasciotomy, which often results in better functional outcomes. Although there are many causes of compartment syndrome, the common findings are significant pain, swelling, and limited range of motion. Diagnosis is usually based on physical findings in the setting of a compelling history. Before surgical intervention, the diagnosis is usually confirmed by measuring elevated compartment pressures. The patient described in this case report developed acute compartment syndrome of the forearm after his hand became trapped in machinery that applied sudden supination to the hand, and avulsed the distal portion of the left index finger. There was no direct trauma to the forearm. In this case, acute compartment syndrome was likely due to a combination of contained hemorrhage into the muscle sheath, closed muscle strain causing edema, and possibly axial traction applied to the tendons of the index finger. Acute compartment syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any patient complaining of severe pain in an extremity, even in the absence of commonly recognized mechanisms of injury.

  3. The transcendental meditation technique and acute experimental pain.

    PubMed

    Mills, W W; Farrow, J T

    1981-04-01

    The Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique decreases the distress associated with the experience of acute experimental pain. Fifteen advanced mediators and 15 controls were administered the cold pressor test before and after a 20 minute period of meditation (TM group) or relaxation (control group). Verbal reports of the intensity of pain sensation and pain distress were obtained at intervals during the cold pressor trials. Skin resistance and heart rate were measured throughout. The mean distress level for the TM group was significantly lower than controls during both trials; the mean pain sensation level for the TM group did not differ significantly from controls during either trial. Heart rate and skin resistant changed for both groups in the expected manner, with no significant differences between groups. The validity, implications, and possible causes of these results are discussed.

  4. From acute musculoskeletal pain to chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia: application of pain neurophysiology in manual therapy practice.

    PubMed

    Nijs, Jo; Van Houdenhove, Boudewijn

    2009-02-01

    During the past decade, scientific research has provided new insight into the development from an acute, localised musculoskeletal disorder towards chronic widespread pain/fibromyalgia (FM). Chronic widespread pain/FM is characterised by sensitisation of central pain pathways. An in-depth review of basic and clinical research was performed to design a theoretical framework for manual therapy in these patients. It is explained that manual therapy might be able to influence the process of chronicity in three different ways. (I) In order to prevent chronicity in (sub)acute musculoskeletal disorders, it seems crucial to limit the time course of afferent stimulation of peripheral nociceptors. (II) In the case of chronic widespread pain and established sensitisation of central pain pathways, relatively minor injuries/trauma at any locations are likely to sustain the process of central sensitisation and should be treated appropriately with manual therapy accounting for the decreased sensory threshold. Inappropriate pain beliefs should be addressed and exercise interventions should account for the process of central sensitisation. (III) However, manual therapists ignoring the processes involved in the development and maintenance of chronic widespread pain/FM may cause more harm then benefit to the patient by triggering or sustaining central sensitisation.

  5. Similarities between interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and vulvodynia: implications for patient management

    PubMed Central

    Moldwin, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and vulvodynia are chronic pain syndromes that appear to be intertwined from the perspectives of embryology, pathology and epidemiology. These associations may account for similar responses to various therapies. PMID:26816866

  6. Increased pain sensitivity in alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jochum, Thomas; Boettger, Michael K; Burkhardt, Christin; Juckel, Georg; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-08-01

    Withdrawal from analgesic and addictive substances such as opioids or ethanol is associated with increased sensitivity to sensory stimulation in animal models. Here, we investigated perception of innocuous and noxious thermal or electric stimuli applied to the left hand or sternum in 30 male patients undergoing withdrawal from alcohol, 30 male abstained alcoholics and matched controls. The alcohol withdrawal scale and the Banger score were obtained to estimate the severity of withdrawal. In addition, the Beck depression inventory was used to estimate the influence of depressive symptoms on pain perception. The data presented provide substantial evidence that subjects undergoing alcohol withdrawal show increased heat pain sensitivity. Interestingly, this effect was observed both on the left hand and sternum. Pain thresholds and tolerances of electric stimuli did not differ between groups. However, in a subgroup analysis, a higher sensitivity for electrical pain thresholds and tolerances was observed in those patients that were identified to require pharmacological treatment for withdrawal according to disease severity. Furthermore, the perceived painful thermal and electrical sensation was substantially influenced by the affective state of patients. No differences were found between patients of the abstained group and control subjects for any pain parameter. In conclusion, we demonstrate withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia upon thermal stimulation in patients. Since the influence of affective symptoms on pain perception during withdrawal is remarkable, we assume that peripheral and central mechanisms might account for this finding, which should be assessed in detail in future studies.

  7. Case study: Gluteal compartment syndrome as a cause of lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy and complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Andrew; Turk, David; Howard, Antonio; Reddy, Srinivas; Stern, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 24 yr old male who was diagnosed with gluteal compartment syndrome and was subsequently found to have developed lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy and complex regional pain syndrome. The patient's gluteal compartment syndrome was diagnosed within 24 h of presentation to the emergency room, and he underwent emergent compartment release. While recovering postoperatively, persistent weakness was noted in the right lower limb. Results of electrodiagnostic testing were consistent with a lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy. After admission to inpatient rehabilitation, the patient complained of pain, burning sensation, and numbness in the distal right lower limb. Based on clinical findings, he was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type II, or causalgia, and was referred for a lumbar sympathetic block under fluoroscopic guidance. Sympathetic block resulted in relief of the patient's symptoms. He was discharged home with good pain control on oral medications.

  8. Case study: Gluteal compartment syndrome as a cause of lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy and complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Andrew; Turk, David; Howard, Antonio; Reddy, Srinivas; Stern, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 24 yr old male who was diagnosed with gluteal compartment syndrome and was subsequently found to have developed lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy and complex regional pain syndrome. The patient's gluteal compartment syndrome was diagnosed within 24 h of presentation to the emergency room, and he underwent emergent compartment release. While recovering postoperatively, persistent weakness was noted in the right lower limb. Results of electrodiagnostic testing were consistent with a lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy. After admission to inpatient rehabilitation, the patient complained of pain, burning sensation, and numbness in the distal right lower limb. Based on clinical findings, he was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type II, or causalgia, and was referred for a lumbar sympathetic block under fluoroscopic guidance. Sympathetic block resulted in relief of the patient's symptoms. He was discharged home with good pain control on oral medications. PMID:27533628

  9. Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome with a Support Vector Machine.

    PubMed

    Berikol, Göksu Bozdereli; Yildiz, Oktay; Özcan, I Türkay

    2016-04-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a serious condition arising from an imbalance of supply and demand to meet myocardium's metabolic needs. Patients typically present with retrosternal chest pain radiating to neck and left arm. Electrocardiography (ECG) and laboratory tests are used indiagnosis. However in emergency departments, there are some difficulties for physicians to decide whether hospitalizing, following up or discharging the patient. The aim of the study is to diagnose ACS and helping the physician with his decisionto discharge or to hospitalizevia machine learning techniques such as support vector machine (SVM) by using patient data including age, sex, risk factors, and cardiac enzymes (CK-MB, Troponin I) of patients presenting to emergency department with chest pain. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of 228 patients presenting to emergency department with chest pain were reviewedand the performance of support vector machine. Four different methods (Support vector machine (SVM), Artificial neural network (ANN), Naïve Bayes and Logistic Regression) were tested and the results of SVM which has the highest accuracy is reported. Among 228 patients aged 19 to 91 years who were included in the study, 99 (43.4 %) were qualified as ACS, while 129 (56.5 %) had no ACS. The classification model using SVM attained a 99.13 % classification success. The present study showed a 99.13 % classification success for ACS diagnosis attained by Support Vector Machine. This study showed that machine learning techniques may help emergency department staff make decisions by rapidly producing relevant data.

  10. Evaluation of treatments for myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Rudin, Nathan J

    2003-12-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are complex conditions and pose significant challenges to clinicians and patients. This chapter explores available treatments for MPS and FM in the context of pathophysiology, clinical evidence, and experimental support. This information may prove to be helpful in designing individualized treatment for patients with these complex syndromes. New treatments should be critically and carefully evaluated as they appear.

  11. Surfactant treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Herce, J.; de Lucas, N.; Carrillo, A.; Bustinza, A.; Moral, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine prospectively the efficacy of surfactant in acute respiratory distress syndrome.
STUDY DESIGN—Twenty patients, 1 month to 16 years of age, diagnosed with an acute pulmonary disease with severe hypoxaemia (PaO2/FiO2 < 100) (13 with systemic or pulmonary disease and seven with cardiac disease) were treated with one to six doses of 50-200 mg/kg of porcine surfactant administered directly into the trachea. The surfactant was considered to be effective when the PaO2/FiO2 improved by > 20%.
RESULTS—After initial surfactant administration the PaO2/FiO2 increased significantly in patients with systemic or pulmonary disease from 68 to 111, and the oxygenation index (OI) diminished significantly from 36.9 to 27.1. The PaO2/FiO2 and OI did not improve in children with cardiac disease. The improvement of the patients who survived was greater than that of those who died.
CONCLUSIONS—Surfactant moderately improves oxygenation in some children with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to pulmonary or systemic disease.

 PMID:10325705

  12. MDCT evaluation of acute aortic syndrome (AAS).

    PubMed

    Valente, Tullio; Rossi, Giovanni; Lassandro, Francesco; Rea, Gaetano; Marino, Maurizio; Muto, Maurizio; Molino, Antonio; Scaglione, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Non-traumatic acute thoracic aortic syndromes (AAS) describe a spectrum of life-threatening aortic pathologies with significant implications on diagnosis, therapy and management. There is a common pathway for the various manifestations of AAS that eventually leads to a breakdown of the aortic intima and media. Improvements in biology and health policy and diffusion of technology into the community resulted in an associated decrease in mortality and morbidity related to aortic therapeutic interventions. Hybrid procedures, branched and fenestrated endografts, and percutaneous aortic valves have emerged as potent and viable alternatives to traditional surgeries. In this context, current state-of-the art multidetector CT (MDCT) is actually the gold standard in the emergency setting because of its intrinsic diagnostic value. Management of acute aortic disease has changed with the increasing realization that endovascular therapies may offer distinct advantages in these situations. This article provides a summary of AAS, focusing especially on the MDCT technique, typical and atypical findings and common pitfalls of AAS, as well as recent concepts regarding the subtypes of AAS, consisting of aortic dissection, intramural haematoma, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer and unstable aortic aneurysm or contained aortic rupture. MDCT findings will be related to pathophysiology, timing and management options to achieve a definite and timely diagnostic and therapeutic definition. In the present article, we review the aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, outcomes and therapeutic approaches to acute aortic syndromes. PMID:27033344

  13. Trajectories of acute low back pain: a latent class growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Downie, Aron S; Hancock, Mark J; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Williams, Christopher M; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Characterising the clinical course of back pain by mean pain scores over time may not adequately reflect the complexity of the clinical course of acute low back pain. We analysed pain scores over 12 weeks for 1585 patients with acute low back pain presenting to primary care to identify distinct pain trajectory groups and baseline patient characteristics associated with membership of each cluster. This was a secondary analysis of the PACE trial that evaluated paracetamol for acute low back pain. Latent class growth analysis determined a 5 cluster model, which comprised 567 (35.8%) patients who recovered by week 2 (cluster 1, rapid pain recovery); 543 (34.3%) patients who recovered by week 12 (cluster 2, pain recovery by week 12); 222 (14.0%) patients whose pain reduced but did not recover (cluster 3, incomplete pain recovery); 167 (10.5%) patients whose pain initially decreased but then increased by week 12 (cluster 4, fluctuating pain); and 86 (5.4%) patients who experienced high-level pain for the whole 12 weeks (cluster 5, persistent high pain). Patients with longer pain duration were more likely to experience delayed recovery or nonrecovery. Belief in greater risk of persistence was associated with nonrecovery, but not delayed recovery. Higher pain intensity, longer duration, and workers' compensation were associated with persistent high pain, whereas older age and increased number of episodes were associated with fluctuating pain. Identification of discrete pain trajectory groups offers the potential to better manage acute low back pain.

  14. Trajectories of acute low back pain: a latent class growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Downie, Aron S; Hancock, Mark J; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Williams, Christopher M; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Characterising the clinical course of back pain by mean pain scores over time may not adequately reflect the complexity of the clinical course of acute low back pain. We analysed pain scores over 12 weeks for 1585 patients with acute low back pain presenting to primary care to identify distinct pain trajectory groups and baseline patient characteristics associated with membership of each cluster. This was a secondary analysis of the PACE trial that evaluated paracetamol for acute low back pain. Latent class growth analysis determined a 5 cluster model, which comprised 567 (35.8%) patients who recovered by week 2 (cluster 1, rapid pain recovery); 543 (34.3%) patients who recovered by week 12 (cluster 2, pain recovery by week 12); 222 (14.0%) patients whose pain reduced but did not recover (cluster 3, incomplete pain recovery); 167 (10.5%) patients whose pain initially decreased but then increased by week 12 (cluster 4, fluctuating pain); and 86 (5.4%) patients who experienced high-level pain for the whole 12 weeks (cluster 5, persistent high pain). Patients with longer pain duration were more likely to experience delayed recovery or nonrecovery. Belief in greater risk of persistence was associated with nonrecovery, but not delayed recovery. Higher pain intensity, longer duration, and workers' compensation were associated with persistent high pain, whereas older age and increased number of episodes were associated with fluctuating pain. Identification of discrete pain trajectory groups offers the potential to better manage acute low back pain. PMID:26397929

  15. Fentanyl Iontophoretic Transdermal System: A Review in Acute Postoperative Pain.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2016-04-01

    Fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) [Ionsys(®)] is indicated for the management of acute postoperative pain in adults requiring opioid analgesia in the hospital setting. This article reviews the clinical use of fentanyl ITS for postoperative pain management, and summarizes the pharmacology of fentanyl and the characteristics of the two-component fentanyl ITS (Ionsys(®)) device. In well-designed, multicentre clinical trials, fentanyl ITS was an effective and generally well tolerated method for managing acute postoperative pain in inpatients who had undergone major abdominal, thoracic or orthopaedic surgery. Overall, fentanyl ITS provided equivalent analgesic efficacy to that with morphine patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA), but was perceived to be more convenient/easier to use than morphine PCIA by patients, nurses and physical therapists. Patients receiving fentanyl ITS also had a greater ability to mobilize after surgery than patients receiving morphine PCIA. In addition, relative to morphine PCIA, fentanyl ITS offers advantages in terms of the noninvasive administrative route (i.e. transdermal needle-free administration), pre-programmed delivery (no risk of programming errors/incorrect dosing) and improved tolerability with regard to the overall incidence of opioid-related adverse events (ORAEs) and some individual ORAEs. Hence, fentanyl ITS is a useful option for the management of acute postoperative pain in adults requiring opioid analgesia in the hospital setting.

  16. Systematic review of dexketoprofen in acute and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Barden, Jodie

    2008-01-01

    Background Dexketoprofen, an NSAID used in the management of acute and chronic pains, is licensed in several countries but has not previously been the subjected of a systematic review. We used published and unpublished information from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of dexketoprofen in painful conditions to assess evidence on efficacy and harm. Methods PubMed and Cochrane Central were searched for RCTs of dexketoprofen for pain of any aetiology. Reference lists of retrieved articles and reviews were also searched. Menarini Group produced copies of published and unpublished studies (clinical trial reports). Data were abstracted into a standard form. For studies reporting results of single dose administration, the number of patients with at least 50% pain relief was derived and used to calculate the relative benefit (RB) and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) for one patient to achieve at least 50% pain relief compared with placebo. Results Thirty-five trials were found in acute pain and chronic pain; 6,380 patients were included, 3,381 receiving dexketoprofen. Information from 16 trials (almost half the total patients) was obtained from clinical trial reports from previously unpublished trials or abstracts. Almost all of the trials were of short duration in acute conditions or recent onset pain. All 12 randomised trials that compared dexketoprofen (any dose) with placebo found dexketoprofen to be statistically superior. Five trials in postoperative pain yielded NNTs for 12.5 mg dexketoprofen of 3.5 (2.7 to 4.9), 25 mg dexketoprofen of 3.0 (2.4 to 3.9), and 50 mg dexketoprofen of 2.1 (1.5 to 3.5). In 29/30 active comparator trials, dexketoprofen at the dose used was at least equivalent in efficacy to comparator drugs. Adverse event withdrawal rates were low in postoperative pain and somewhat higher in trials of longer duration; no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Dexketoprofen was at least as effective as other NSAIDs and paracetamol/opioid combinations

  17. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome of the hip].

    PubMed

    Haviv, Barak; Bronak, Shlomo; Thein, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    Lateral pain of the hip with point tenderness at the Greater Trochanter is a common musculoskeletal complaint. It is frequently diagnosed as trochanteric bursitis; however, this term is inaccurate because of evident non-inflammatory pathologies, particularly of the abductor tendons of the hip. It is important to differentiate this extra-articular source from an intra-articular or a lower back source of pain. Imaging is useful in cases of trauma, prolonged pain or uncertain diagnosis. Non-operative treatment that involves modifying activities, physiotherapy, analgesics, steroid injections and shock wave therapy is usually helpful. Nevertheless, despite the above treatments, about one third of the patients suffer from chronic pain and disability. These patients may be candidates for operative intervention. Currently, there are endoscopic surgical techniques for local decompression, bursectomy and suture of torn tendons similar to surgery used in the shoulder. PMID:24716427

  18. Orofacial pain syndromes: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Klasser, Gary D

    2014-11-01

    Patients will often visit their primary medical practitioner with orofacial pain complaints. Hence, it is important to recognize and have an understanding of these conditions to properly evaluate and potentially manage these disorders. If the practitioner is uncertain or uncomfortable with these conditions, then patient referral to a knowledgeable health care practitioner should be considered for further evaluation and management. In this article, the evaluation and management of various neuropathic, neurovascular, and vascular pains are discussed. PMID:25443681

  19. Intramuscular Hemangioma Mimicking Myofascial Pain Syndrome : A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Miriam; Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, In Jong; Park, Yoon Kun

    2007-01-01

    Intramuscular hemangioma, an infrequent but important cause of musculoskeletal pain, is often difficult to establish the diagnosis clinically. This report describes a case of a 32-yr-old woman who presented with severe left calf pain for 10 yr. Initial conservative treatments consisting of intramuscular electrical stimulation, herb medication, acupuncture, and intramuscular lidocaine injection under the diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome in other facilities, failed to alleviate the symptoms. On physical examination, there was no motor weakness or sensory change. Conventional radiography of the leg revealed a soft tissue phlebolith. Conventional angiography study showed hemangioma. Intramuscular hemangioma within the soleus muscle was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Following surgical excision of the hemangioma, the patient's symptom resolved completely. Intramuscular hemangioma is a rare cause of calf pain and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if a patient with muscle pain, particularly if associated with a soft tissue mass, fails to respond to conservative treatment. PMID:17596677

  20. Intramuscular hemangioma mimicking myofascial pain syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwee; Hwang, Miriam; Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, In Jong; Park, Yoon Kun

    2007-06-01

    Intramuscular hemangioma, an infrequent but important cause of musculoskeletal pain, is often difficult to establish the diagnosis clinically. This report describes a case of a 32-yr-old woman who presented with severe left calf pain for 10 yr. Initial conservative treatments consisting of intramuscular electrical stimulation, herb medication, acupuncture, and intramuscular lidocaine injection under the diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome in other facilities, failed to alleviate the symptoms. On physical examination, there was no motor weakness or sensory change. Conventional radiography of the leg revealed a soft tissue phlebolith. Conventional angiography study showed hemangioma. Intramuscular hemangioma within the soleus muscle was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Following surgical excision of the hemangioma, the patient's symptom resolved completely. Intramuscular hemangioma is a rare cause of calf pain and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if a patient with muscle pain, particularly if associated with a soft tissue mass, fails to respond to conservative treatment. PMID:17596677

  1. Neuromodulation in Male Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: Rationale and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Claire C.

    2013-01-01

    This review explores the treatment of male chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) (i.e., chronic prostatitis) through the use of neuromodulation, which is the electrical stimulation of the nervous system. Neuromodulation has been used for the treatment of chronic pain for decades, and this review will examine the theory and use of neuromodulation and the various techniques available for the treatment of CPPS. Because of limited published research, much of the data presented will not be explicitly for male CPPS, but will be extrapolated from other chronic pelvic pain studies where neuromodulation has been used. Although several types of neuromodulation techniques are currently available for chronic pelvic pain conditions, none are considered standard therapies for treating CPPS. Despite the limited evidence, neuromodulation appears to provide benefits for some patients with CPPS. The improvement of urinary symptoms is more clearly defined than improvements in pain, but at least a subset of patients in most of the published studies and case series derive some benefit in the short term, and limited evidence suggests that long-term improvement of symptoms is possible. The debate about the pathophysiology of pelvic pain syndromes continues and the mechanism of action of neuromodulation on urinary and pain symptoms has yet to be defined. The fuller understanding of both will inform the evidence basis of using neuromodulation for male CPPS. PMID:23619478

  2. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a clinical enigma.

    PubMed

    Stein, Avi; May, Tal; Dekel, Yoram

    2014-07-01

    Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis is an ill-defined, painful clinical condition that is characterized by various nonspecific symptoms, some of which are related to urination or the male reproductive organs. Urologists diagnose this particular condition when the symptoms are not associated with urinary bacterial growth before and after transrectal prostate massage. In this review, we describe the recommended and optional tests that can be performed in these cases. There is significant overlap between chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and other unexplained pain conditions, raising the question as to whether the prostate is the culprit. The sources and mediators of pain and the psychological aspects of this complex condition are discussed. Treatments consist of traditional antibiotics and α-blockers. Because the pain relief is often temporary, patients seek other solutions. Various therapeutics have been introduced to satisfy the expectations of patients and physicians. We discuss other pain medications, as well as intraprostatic drug injections and shockwave therapy. Importantly, however, not all of these suggestions have been widely accepted by urologists or pain clinics.

  3. Acute coronary syndrome after levamisole-adultered cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Katarzyna; Grabherr, Silke; Shiferaw, Kebede; Doenz, Franceso; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine is a well known trigger of acute coronary syndromes. Over the last 10 years levamisole, a veterinary anthelminthic drug has been increasingly used as an adulterant of cocaine. Levamisole was used to treat pediatric nephritic syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis before being withdrawn from the market due to its significant toxicity, i.e. hematological complications and vasculitis. The major complications of levamisole-adultered cocaine reported up to now are hematological and dermatological. The case reported here is of a 25 year old man with a history of cocaine abuse who died at home after complaining of retrosternal pain. Postmortem CT-angiography, autopsy, and chemical and toxicological analyses were performed. An eroded coronary artery plaque was found at the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Two myocardial infarct scars were present in the left ventricle. Microscopic examination of the coronary artery revealed infiltration of eosinophils into the adventitia and intima. Toxicological examination confirmed the presence of cocaine and its metabolites in the peripheral blood, and of levamisole in the urine and pericardial fluid. Eosinophilic inflammatory coronary artery pathologies have been clinically linked to coronary dissection, hypersensitivity coronary syndrome and vasospastic allergic angina. The coronary pathology in the presented case could be a complication of levamisole-adultered cocaine use, in which an allergic or immune-mediated mechanism might play a role. The rise in cocaine addiction worldwide and the increase of levamisole adulterated cocaine highlights the importance of updating our knowledge of the effects of adultered cocaine abuse. PMID:24365689

  4. Pharmacotherapy of Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendran, Krishnan; Pryhuber, Gloria S.; Chess, Patricia R.; Davidson, Bruce A.; Knight, Paul R.; Notter, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are characterized by rapid-onset respiratory failure following a variety of direct and indirect insults to the parenchyma or vasculature of the lungs. Mortality from ALI/ARDS is substantial, and current therapy primarily emphasizes mechanical ventilation and judicial fluid management plus standard treatment of the initiating insult and any known underlying disease. Current pharmacotherapy for ALI/ARDS is not optimal, and there is a significant need for more effective medicinal chemical agents for use in these severe and lethal lung injury syndromes. To facilitate future chemical-based drug discovery research on new agent development, this paper reviews present pharmacotherapy for ALI/ARDS in the context of biological and biochemical drug activities. The complex lung injury pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS offers an array of possible targets for drug therapy, including inflammation, cell and tissue injury, vascular dysfunction, surfactant dysfunction, and oxidant injury. Added targets for pharmacotherapy outside the lungs may also be present, since multiorgan or systemic pathology is common in ALI/ARDS. The biological and physiological complexity of ALI/ARDS requires the consideration of combined-agent treatments in addition to single-agent therapies. A number of pharmacologic agents have been studied individually in ALI/ARDS, with limited or minimal success in improving survival. However, many of these agents have complementary biological/biochemical activities with the potential for synergy or additivity in combination therapy as discussed in this article. PMID:18691048

  5. Acute low back pain: diagnostics and treatment.

    PubMed

    Becker, F C

    2001-03-01

    How many times have you heard from a patient or groaned yourself "Oh, my aching back?" Innocuous movements such as reaching, stooping, or leaning are halted mid-performance as you sense "something" give, catch, snap, grab, or slide in your lower back. Such subjective complaints may also include sensations of discomfort described as stabbing, sharp, dull, hot/burning, tingling, or numbing. In practice, you will be required to assess these subjective symptoms, effectively document objective data, formulate a diagnosis, and plan appropriate treatment for your patients. Careful attention to history, associated symptoms, and following a systematic approach to back pain can make the rule-in/out differentials less taxing on both the practitioner and the patient.

  6. Topical rubefacients for acute and chronic pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Paul; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Rubefacients (containing salicylates or nicotinamides) cause irritation of the skin, and are believed to relieve various musculoskeletal pains. They are available on prescription, and are common components in over-the-counter remedies. A non-Cochrane review in 2004 found limited evidence for efficacy. Objectives To review current evidence for efficacy and safety of topically applied rubefacients in acute and chronic painful musculoskeletal conditions in adults. Search methods Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database, and reference lists of articles were searched; last search December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo or active controlled clinical trials of topical rubefacient for musculoskeletal pain in adults, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm, and reporting outcomes at close to 7 (minimum 3, maximum 10) days for acute conditions and 14 (minimum 7) days or longer for chronic conditions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and quality, and extracted data. Relative benefit or risk and number needed to treat to benefit or harm (NNT or NNH) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Acute and chronic conditions were analysed separately. Main results Six placebo and one active controlled studies (560 and 137 participants) in acute pain, and seven placebo and two active controlled studies (489 and 90 participants) in chronic pain were included. All used topical salicylates. The evidence in acute conditions was not robust; using only better quality, valid studies, there was no difference between topical rubefacient and topical control, though overall, including lower quality studies, the NNT for clinical success compared with placebo was 3.2 (95% CI: 2.4 to 4.9). In chronic conditions the NNT was 6.2 (95% CI: 4.0 to 13) compared with topical placebo. Adverse events and withdrawals occurred more often with rubefacients than placebo

  7. [Acute carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient with Marfan syndrome].

    PubMed

    Franke, J; Wenzel, W; Rehfuss, D; Keiner, H P; Manncke, K

    2008-05-01

    Acute carpal tunnel syndrome (ACTS) is rare and is mostly the result of fractures of the distal radius or the carpal bones. This paper gives the first report of an ACTS following contusion of the wrist as the result of an extensive haematoma of the flexor tendon sheath, which did not appear until 50 hours after the injury was sustained but then developed rapidly. The patient suffers from Marfan syndrome. This disease is associated with pathologic changes to the major vessels, and especially the aorta, and of the smaller peripheral vessels. It is assumed that the haematoma arose from an aneurysm of such a small vessel. The treatment of choice in ACTS is emergency incision of the carpal tunnel.

  8. Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tanya K; Gerardi, Diana M; Leckman, James F

    2014-09-01

    Whether some instances of obsessive-compulsive disorder are secondary to infectious and/or autoimmune processes is still under scientific debate. The nosology has undergone an iterative process of criteria and acronyms from PITANDS to PANDAS to PANS (or CANS for neurology). This review focuses on the clinical presentation, assessment, proposed pathophysiology, and treatment of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus (PANDAS), and the newest iteration, pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). Children who have these symptoms, which have become known as PANS, have been described by their parents as "changed children." PMID:25150567

  9. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection. PMID:19728962

  10. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection.

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome: more than a peripheral disease.

    PubMed

    Reinersmann, Annika; Maier, Christoph; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie

    2013-11-01

    SUMMARY At early stages, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is clinically characterized by damage of peripheral tissues and nerves (edema, activation of osteoblasts, hyperalgesia to blunt pressure). These signs are the result of a dysbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which normalizes approximately 6 months after the beginning of the disease, independent from clinical outcome. At the same time, evolving clinical signs such as allodynia, cold hyperalgesia, reduced tactile acuity or symptoms of disrupted body representation (e.g., neglect-like syndrome, impaired hand laterality recognition or shift of the body midline) suggest a crucial role of the CNS in the pathophysiology of this pain syndrome. Imaging studies have found a severe but reversible reduction of the cortical hand representation (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and primary motor cortices). Interestingly however, complex multisensory integration in central association areas are unaffected in CRPS, as patients are capable of integrating artificial body parts or recognize 2D forms despite tactile dysfunction. Furthermore, despite its unilateral clinical manifestation, it has been shown that in CRPS but not in other unilateral neuropathic pain syndromes, alterations in cortical excitability occur bilaterally, both in sensory and motor regions. In conclusion, a more widespread and bilateral pattern of CNS reorganization appears to characterize CRPS, which might be related to dysfunctions in the basal ganglia or in thalamo-cortical structures. Consequently, CRPS treatment should involve not only anti-inflammatory measures and pain therapy, but also the integration of neurorehabilitative training programs.

  12. Quadrilateral space syndrome: a rare cause of shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Cormier, P J; Matalon, T A; Wolin, P M

    1988-06-01

    The authors report a case of quadrilateral space syndrome in a baseball pitcher. The diagnosis was made by means of subclavian arteriography performed with the arm in abduction and external rotation. This entity is a rare cause of shoulder pain caused by occlusion of the posterior humeral circumflex artery in the quadrilateral space.

  13. [Cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Narrative review of physiotherapeutic treatment].

    PubMed

    Capó-Juan, M A

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that depends on the interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Between 15-25% of adults suffer from chronic pain at some point in their lives. Cervical chronic pain is considered a public health problem affecting 9.6% men and 21.9% women, according to the latest National Health Survey 2011-12. A high percentage of medical consultations due to muscle pain turn out to be myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Its existence implies the presence of myofascial trigger points which can be latent or active throughout the whole population. The aim of this review is to update knowledge in the various therapies applied by the physiotherapist in the treatment of this syndrome at cervical level. From the review it appears that some of the most used techniques that may be useful in the short or medium term are: ischemic compression and/or trigger point pressure release and dry needling. Furthermore, various combinations of treatment modalities are used to treat this syndrome, taking other aspects into account, such as education. PMID:25963463

  14. [Cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Narrative review of physiotherapeutic treatment].

    PubMed

    Capó-Juan, M A

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that depends on the interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Between 15-25% of adults suffer from chronic pain at some point in their lives. Cervical chronic pain is considered a public health problem affecting 9.6% men and 21.9% women, according to the latest National Health Survey 2011-12. A high percentage of medical consultations due to muscle pain turn out to be myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Its existence implies the presence of myofascial trigger points which can be latent or active throughout the whole population. The aim of this review is to update knowledge in the various therapies applied by the physiotherapist in the treatment of this syndrome at cervical level. From the review it appears that some of the most used techniques that may be useful in the short or medium term are: ischemic compression and/or trigger point pressure release and dry needling. Furthermore, various combinations of treatment modalities are used to treat this syndrome, taking other aspects into account, such as education.

  15. Painful Os Peroneum Syndrome: Underdiagnosed Condition in the Lateral Midfoot Pain.

    PubMed

    Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; de Souza, Barbara Nogueira Caracas; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Os peroneum is an accessory ossicle located within the peroneus longus tendon. The painful os peroneum syndrome (POPS) results from a wide spectrum of conditions, including fractures, diastases, and other causes. POPS can result in tenosynovitis or discontinuity of the peroneus longus tendon with a clinical presentation of pain in the lateral aspect of the midfoot. Authors report a typical case of POPS, illustrating this entity through different imaging methods (radiographs, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging). We emphasize the prevalence of this ossicle and discuss painful complications. PMID:27478674

  16. Painful Os Peroneum Syndrome: Underdiagnosed Condition in the Lateral Midfoot Pain

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Barbara Nogueira Caracas

    2016-01-01

    Os peroneum is an accessory ossicle located within the peroneus longus tendon. The painful os peroneum syndrome (POPS) results from a wide spectrum of conditions, including fractures, diastases, and other causes. POPS can result in tenosynovitis or discontinuity of the peroneus longus tendon with a clinical presentation of pain in the lateral aspect of the midfoot. Authors report a typical case of POPS, illustrating this entity through different imaging methods (radiographs, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging). We emphasize the prevalence of this ossicle and discuss painful complications. PMID:27478674

  17. Lumbar Disc Screening Using Back Pain Questionnaires: Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Yeon; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyung Chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of back pain questionnaires for lumbar disc screening among Korean young males. Methods We carried out a survey for lumbar disc screening through back pain questionnaires among the volunteers with or without back pain. Three types of back pain questionnaire (Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screeing Questionnaire) were randomly assigned to the examinees. The authors reviewed lumbar imaging studies (simple lumbar radiographs, lumbar computed tomography, and magnetic resolutional images), and the severity of lumbar disc herniation was categorized according to the guidelines issued by the Korean military directorate. We calculated the relationship between the back pain questionnaire scores and the severity of lumbar disc herniation. Results The scores of back pain questionnaires increased according to the severity of lumbar disc herniation. But, the range of scores was very vague, so it is less predictable to detect lumbar disc herniation using only back pain questionnaires. The sensitivity between the back pain questionnaires and the presence of lumbar disc herniation was low (16-64%). Conclusion Screening of lumbar disc herniation using only back pain questionnaires has limited value. PMID:25983807

  18. Acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb and the effect of postoperative analgesia on diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mar, G J; Barrington, M J; McGuirk, B R

    2009-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome can cause significant disability if not treated early, but the diagnosis is challenging. This systematic review examines whether modern acute pain management techniques contribute to delayed diagnosis. A total of 28 case reports and case series were identified which referred to the influence of analgesic technique on the diagnosis of compartment syndrome, of which 23 discussed epidural analgesia. In 32 of 35 patients, classic signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome were present in the presence of epidural analgesia, including 18 patients with documented breakthrough pain. There were no randomized controlled trials or outcome-based comparative trials available to include in the review. Pain is often described as the cardinal symptom of compartment syndrome, but many authors consider it unreliable. Physical examination is also unreliable for diagnosis. There is no convincing evidence that patient-controlled analgesia opioids or regional analgesia delay the diagnosis of compartment syndrome provided patients are adequately monitored. Regardless of the type of analgesia used, a high index of clinical suspicion, ongoing assessment of patients, and compartment pressure measurement are essential for early diagnosis.

  19. Pain management in the acute care setting: Update and debates.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Greta M

    2016-02-01

    Pain management in the paediatric acute care setting is underutilised and can be improved. An awareness of the analgesic options available and their limitations is an important starting point. This article describes the evolving understanding of relevant pharmacogenomics and safety data of the various analgesic agents with a focus on agents available in Australia and New Zealand. It highlights the concerns with the use of codeine in children and discusses alternative oral opioids. Key features of oral, parenteral, inhaled and intranasal analgesic agents are discussed, as well as evidence supported use of sweet tasting solutions and non-pharmacological interventions. One of the biggest changes in acute care pain management has been the advent of intranasal fentanyl providing reliable potent analgesia without the need for intravenous access. The article will also address the issue of multimodal analgesia where a single agent is insufficient.

  20. Controversies involving hypercapnic acidosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Liliane; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez

    2009-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by a diffuse inflammatory reaction of lung parenchyma induced by a direct insult to the alveolar epithelium (pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome) or an indirect lesion through the vascular endothelium (extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome). The main therapeutic strategy for acute respiratory distress syndrome is the ventilatory support. However, mechanical ventilation can worsen lung injury. In this context, a protective ventilatory strategy with low tidal volume has been proposed. The use of low tidal volume reduced the mortality rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, but result in hypercapnic acidosis. The current article presents a review of literature on the effects of permissive hypercapnia in acute respiratory distress syndrome. To that end, we carried out a systematic review of scientific literature based on established criteria for documental analysis including clinical and experimental articles, using as data bases MedLine, LILACS, SciELO, PubMed, Cochrane. Hypercapnic acidosis has been considered by some authors as a modulator of the inflammatory process of acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, clinical and experimental studies on the effects of hypercapnic acidosis have shown controversial results. Therefore it is important to better elucidate the role of hypercapnic acidosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  1. Unrecognized acute exertional compartment syndrome of the leg and treatment.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Nebojsa; Bottoni, Craig; Cassidy, Charles

    2011-04-01

    Acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome is rare and may be easily missed without a high degree of awareness and clinical suspicion. We report a case of unrecognized acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a recreational soccer player. The late sequela of this condition, foot drop, was successfully treated with transfer of the peroneus longus tendon.

  2. Acute exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot.

    PubMed

    Blacklidge, D K; Kurek, J B; Soto, A D; Kissel, C G

    1996-01-01

    A review of compartment syndrome, both acute and chronic, is presented. The pathophysiology, anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment are presented in relation to a unique case report. The case is one of acute exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot treated by fasciotomy. This condition is uncommon in both its nature and location.

  3. Carbamazepine for acute and chronic pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbamazepine is used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Objectives Evaluation of analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of carbamazepine for acute and chronic pain management (except headaches). Search methods Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of carbamazepine in acute, chronic or cancer pain were identified, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, SIGLE and Cochrane CENTRAL to June 2010, reference lists of retrieved papers, and reviews. Selection criteria RCTs reporting the analgesic effects of carbamazepine. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted results and scored for quality. Numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from dichotomous data for effectiveness, adverse effects and adverse event withdrawal. Issues of study quality, size, duration, and outcomes were examined. Main results Fifteen included studies (12 cross-over design; three parallel-group) with 629 participants. Carbamazepine was less effective than prednisolone in preventing postherpetic neuralgia following acute herpes zoster (1 study, 40 participants). No studies examined acute postoperative pain. Fourteen studies investigated chronic neuropathic pain: two lasted eight weeks, others were four weeks or less (mean 3 weeks, median 2 weeks). Five had low reporting quality. Ten involved fewer than 50 participants; mean and median maximum treatment group sizes were 34 and 29. Outcome reporting was inconsistent. Most placebo controlled studies indicated that carbamazepine was better than placebo. Five studies with 298 participants provided dichotomous results; 70% improved with carbamazepine and 12% with placebo. Carbamazepine at any dose, using any definition of improvement was significantly better than placebo (70% versus 12% improved; 5 studies, 298 participants); relative benefit 6.1 (3.9 to 9.7), NNT 1.7 (1.5 to 2.0). Four studies (188 participants) reporting outcomes equivalent to 50% pain reduction or more

  4. Filgrastim, Cladribine, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed or Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-26

    Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  5. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Lorna; Moore, R Andrew; Edwards, Jayne E; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2004-01-01

    Background A previous systematic review reported that topical NSAIDs were effective in relieving pain in acute conditions like sprains and strains, with differences between individual drugs for efficacy. More trials, a better understanding of trial quality and bias, and a reclassification of certain drugs necessitate a new review. Methods Studies were identified by searching electronic databases and writing to manufacturers. We selected randomised double blind trials comparing topical NSAID with either placebo or another active treatment in adults with acute pain, and extracted dichotomous information approximating to a 50% reduction in pain at one week, together with details of adverse events and withdrawals. Relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat (NNT), and relative risk and number-needed-to-harm (NNH) were calculated, with sensitivity analyses where appropriate to investigate differences between individual drugs and aspects of trial design. Results Twenty-six double blind placebo controlled trials had information from 2,853 patients for evaluation of efficacy. Topical NSAID was significantly better than placebo in 19 of the 26 trials, with a pooled relative benefit of 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 1.7), and NNT of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 3.4 to 4.4) compared with placebo for the outcome of half pain relief at seven days. Results were not affected by outcome reported, or condition treated, but smaller trials yielded a larger estimate of efficacy. Indirect comparisons of individual topical NSAIDs showed that ketoprofen was significantly better than all other topical NSAIDs, while indomethacin was barely distinguished from placebo. Three trials, with 433 patients, compared topical with oral NSAID (two trials compared the same drug, one compared different drugs) and found no difference in efficacy. Local adverse events, systemic adverse events, or withdrawals due to an adverse event were rare, and no different between topical NSAID and placebo

  6. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy--a complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner-Stokes, L

    2002-12-15

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a complex and poorly-understood condition characterized by: (a) pain and altered sensation; (b) motor disturbance and soft tissue change; (c) vasomotor and autonomic changes; and (d) psychosocial disturbance. Neurological symptoms typically do not conform to any particular pattern of nerve damage. Many different names have been ascribed to this condition and most recently the term 'complex regional pain syndrome' has been coined to emphasize the complex interaction of somatic, psychological and behavioural factors. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed by the International Association for the Study of Pain, but are still subject to debate. This review article describes the clinical features which may present as part of the condition, and the patho-physiology and pre-disposing factors so far identified. The evidence for effectiveness of different interventions is presented and a treatment approach outlined for inter-disciplinary management. While RSD is traditionally associated with pain in the extremities, the possibility is raised that the same process may underlie chronic pain syndromes affecting more central structures, such as testicular or pelvic pain.

  7. Botulinum Toxin A for Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Bin; Tai, Huai-Ching; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Birder, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A), derived from Clostridium botulinum, has been used clinically for several diseases or syndrome including chronic migraine, spasticity, focal dystonia and other neuropathic pain. Chronic pelvic or bladder pain is the one of the core symptoms of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). However, in the field of urology, chronic bladder or pelvic pain is often difficult to eradicate by oral medications or bladder instillation therapy. We are looking for new treatment modality to improve bladder pain or associated urinary symptoms such as frequency and urgency for patients with BPS/IC. Recent studies investigating the mechanism of the antinociceptive effects of BoNT A suggest that it can inhibit the release of peripheral neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators from sensory nerves. In this review, we will examine the evidence supporting the use of BoNTs in bladder pain from basic science models and review the clinical studies on therapeutic applications of BoNT for BPS/IC. PMID:27376330

  8. Acute Abdominal Pain in the Bariatric Surgery Patient.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kyle D; Takenaka, Katrin Y; Luber, Samuel D

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is present in epidemic proportions in the United States, and bariatric surgery has become more common. Thus, emergency physicians will undoubtedly encounter many patients who have undergone one of these procedures. Knowledge of the anatomic changes specific to these procedures aids the clinician in understanding potential complications and devising an organized differential diagnosis. This article reviews common bariatric surgery procedures, their complications, and the approach to acute abdominal pain in these patients. PMID:27133251

  9. Coronary CT Angiography versus Standard Evaluation in Acute Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Udo; Truong, Quynh A.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Chou, Eric T.; Woodard, Pamela K.; Nagurney, John T.; Pope, J. Hector; Hauser, Thomas H.; White, Charles S.; Weiner, Scott G.; Kalanjian, Shant; Mullins, Michael E.; Mikati, Issam; Peacock, W. Frank; Zakroysky, Pearl; Hayden, Douglas; Goehler, Alexander; Lee, Hang; Gazelle, G. Scott; Wiviott, Stephen D.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Udelson, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether an evaluation incorporating coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is more effective than standard evaluation in the emergency department in patients with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndromes. Methods In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned patients 40 to 74 years of age with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndromes but without ischemic electrocardiographic changes or an initial positive troponin test to early CCTA or to standard evaluation in the emergency department on weekdays during daylight hours between April 2010 and January 2012. The primary end point was length of stay in the hospital. Secondary end points included rates of discharge from the emergency department, major adverse cardiovascular events at 28 days, and cumulative costs. Safety end points were undetected acute coronary syndromes. Results The rate of acute coronary syndromes among 1000 patients with a mean (±SD) age of 54±8 years (47% women) was 8%. After early CCTA, as compared with standard evaluation, the mean length of stay in the hospital was reduced by 7.6 hours (P<0.001) and more patients were discharged directly from the emergency department (47% vs. 12%, P<0.001). There were no undetected acute coronary syndromes and no significant differences in major adverse cardiovascular events at 28 days. After CCTA, there was more downstream testing and higher radiation exposure. The cumulative mean cost of care was similar in the CCTA group and the standard-evaluation group ($4,289 and $4,060, respectively; P=0.65). Conclusions In patients in the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndromes, incorporating CCTA into a triage strategy improved the efficiency of clinical decision making, as compared with a standard evaluation in the emergency department, but it resulted in an increase in downstream testing and radiation exposure with no decrease in the overall costs of care. (Funded by the National

  10. Use of Scrambler Therapy in Acute Paediatric Pain: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Congedi, Sabrina; Spadini, Silvia; Di Pede, Chiara; Ometto, Martina; Franceschi, Tatiana; De Tommasi, Valentina; Agosto, Caterina; Lazzarin, Pierina; Benini, Franca

    2016-01-01

    We report our clinical experience on the effect of Scrambler Therapy (ST) for a child with acute mixed pain refractory to pharmacological treatment. ST, recently proposed as an alternative treatment for chronic neuropathic pain in adults, is a noninvasive approach to relieve pain, by changing pain perception at brain level. It is safe and has no side effects. Further research is needed to assess its efficacy for acute pain and for paediatric population.

  11. Use of Scrambler Therapy in Acute Paediatric Pain: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Spadini, Silvia; De Tommasi, Valentina; Benini, Franca

    2016-01-01

    We report our clinical experience on the effect of Scrambler Therapy (ST) for a child with acute mixed pain refractory to pharmacological treatment. ST, recently proposed as an alternative treatment for chronic neuropathic pain in adults, is a noninvasive approach to relieve pain, by changing pain perception at brain level. It is safe and has no side effects. Further research is needed to assess its efficacy for acute pain and for paediatric population. PMID:26977329

  12. [Clinico-diagnostic evaluation of acute delirious syndromes in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Panteleeva, G P

    1989-01-01

    Psychopathologic and nosologic issues of acute paranoid and Kandinsky-Clerambault syndromes are discussed on the background of clinical studies of 225 schizophrenic patients with these syndromes being initial manifestations. The data on the syndromes typology, clinical value and prognosis of acute delirious disorders are presented. These are shown to be not confined to progredient schizophrenia, including its paranoid form. Rather, they can manifest a course of the disease unspecific for schizophrenia, the so-called schizophrenic reactions and phasic states thus reflecting the course of latent schizophrenia. A differentiated approach to clinical and psychopathological analysis of acute delirious syndromes in schizophrenia is essential for adequate choice of medicosocial measures and epidemiologic investigations.

  13. [PECULIARITIES OF TREATMENT VERTEBROGENIC PAIN SYNDROMES].

    PubMed

    Klymenko, O; Belska, I

    2015-01-01

    The results of studying the pathogenetic features of back pain at vertebrogenic of Spine, and disorders of life of patients in relation to it. Application of therapy with the standard treatment and the complex medicine of the vitamins B. PMID:27089720

  14. Cardiac computed tomography in patients with acute chest pain.

    PubMed

    Nieman, Koen; Hoffmann, Udo

    2015-04-14

    The efficient and reliable evaluation of patients with acute chest pain is one of the most challenging tasks in the emergency department. Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography may play a major role, since it permits ruling out coronary artery disease with high accuracy if performed with expertise in properly selected and prepared patients. Several randomized trials have established early cardiac CT as a viable safe and potentially more efficient alternative to functional testing in the evaluation of acute chest pain. Ongoing investigations explore whether advanced anatomic and functional assessments such as high-risk coronary plaque, resting myocardial perfusion, and left ventricular function, or the simulation of the fractional coronary flow reserve will add information to the anatomic assessment for stenosis, which would allow expanding the benefits of cardiac CT from triage to treatment decisions. Especially, the combination of high-sensitive troponins and coronary computed tomography angiography may play a valuable role in future strategies for the management of patients presenting with acute chest pain.

  15. Acute postoperative pain management: focus on iontophoretic transdermal fentanyl

    PubMed Central

    Mattia, Consalvo; Coluzzi, Flaminia

    2007-01-01

    Despite progress in the management of chronic pain, acute pain remains an issue for many postoperative patients. Although patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) has demonstrated efficacy and patient satisfaction, current techniques using intravenous (IV) administration present limitations, including the risk of programming errors and the potential to limit patient mobility due to pumps, lines, and tubing. The patient-controlled fentanyl hydrochloride (HCl) iontophoretic transdermal system (fentanyl ITS) was designed to address these concerns. Fentanyl ITS is an innovative, needle-free, self-contained drug-delivery system that uses iontophoretic technology to deliver fentanyl through the skin by application of a low-intensity electrical field. The results of several clinical studies are presented in this review. In three phase 3 placebo-controlled trials, fentanyl ITS was shown to be superior to placebo for the treatment of postoperative pain following major abdominal, orthopedic, and thoracic surgery. The results of one active-comparator phase 3 trial demonstrated comparable safety and efficacy with a standard morphine IV PCA dosing regimen, without significant difference in the side effect profile. Fentanyl ITS represents a safe, easy to use, non-invasive, and convenient alternative to current acute postoperative pain management modalities. PMID:18360612

  16. Impact of d-Dimers on the Differential Diagnosis of Acute Chest Pain: Current Aspects Besides the Widely Known.

    PubMed

    Hahne, Kathrin; Lebiedz, Pia; Breuckmann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    d-dimers are cleavage products of fibrin that occur during plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis of blood clots. In the emergency department, d-dimer measurement represents a valuable and cost-effective tool in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain including the main life-threatening entities: acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolism, and acute aortic syndrome. Whereas the diagnostic and prognostic values of d-dimer testing in acute coronary syndrome is of less priority, increases of d-dimers are frequently found in venous thromboembolism and acute aortic syndromes, especially acute aortic dissection. As to the high negative predictive value of d-dimer in those disorders, patients with low to intermediate pretest probability may profit in terms of less necessity of further non-invasive or even invasive imaging, simultaneously reducing potential complications and healthcare-related costs. However, because of the low specificity of the different d-dimer tests in contrast to its frequent usage, adequate interpretation is required. Age-related adjustment of d-dimer levels may be used to increase its diagnostic power. PMID:25392700

  17. Can a back pain screening tool help classify patients with acute pain into risk levels for chronic pain?

    PubMed Central

    Mehling, W.E.; Avins, A.L.; Acree, M.C.; Carey, T.S.; Hecht, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The 9-item STarT-Back screening tool was developed in primary care patients with low back pain (LBP) to identify those at greatest risk for chronic pain and requiring targeted treatment. We conducted a secondary data analysis study to examine the performance of comparable questionnaire items in a sample of primary care patients with well-defined acute LBP. Methods In a prospective cohort study, 605 primary care patients with LBP of less than 30 days answered a questionnaire with 6 items identical and 3 items analogous to the 9-item STarT-Back. Participants were followed up at 6 months and 2 years. STarT-Back rules were applied to classify participant's risk of chronic LBP, and the performance of the screening items in predicting outcomes was assessed using likelihood ratios. Results The proportion of patients with chronic pain at follow-up was considerably lower (6 months: 22%; 2 years: 25%) than in the STarT-Back validation cohort (40%) of patients with pain of any duration. The probability of developing chronic pain given a high-risk designation by items similar to the STarT-Back increased the pre-test probability to 31% and 35%. Likelihood ratios were close to 1. Conclusions A risk classification schema using the recommended cut-off scores with items similar to the STarT-Back in a primary care population with strictly defined acute LBP had limited ability to identify persons who progressed to chronic pain. The results suggest caution when applying the STarT-Back in patients with acute LBP and a need to consider a modification of its cut-offs. PMID:25381748

  18. Chronic Pain Syndrome Caused by a Bird's Nest Filter: First Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Basheer, Mamoun Ahmad; Hamilton, Mark; Holdaway, Chris

    2008-07-15

    AimTo report the first case of a Bird's Nest IVC filter causing a chronic pain syndrome lasting 13 years through IVC wall penetration and subsequent break off of one of the filter struts.Materials and ResultsA 43-year-old female presented with a 13-year history of abdominal pain following uneventful insertion of a Bird's Nest vena cava filter through a right internal jugular percutanous approach. A year following the procedure, CT scan revealed one arm of the filter to be outside IVC borders. Nine years from the date of insertion the nature of the pain changed acutely following a five feet jump to more localized RUQ pain worse with twisting movements. A CT scan showed the strut to have pierced the IVC wall and penetrated the Unicate process of pancreas. Plain x-rays taken at different times in February 2006 showed one of the struts to be free floating in the peritoneal cavity. The floating strut was removed surgically from the wall of the Ileum. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged pain free three days later.ConclusionChronic pain is an added complication of BNF devices. Although rare, it further emphasizes the need for long-term follow up of patients with IVC filters.

  19. Backfire: AHCPR practice guideline for acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    de Jong, R H

    1995-11-01

    The AHCPR "Guideline for Acute Low Back Problems in Adults" is a must-read for every South Carolina physician treating low back pain. The 25-page pamphlet excels as a practical guide for swiftly triaging acute low back problems into the 90 percent majority who recover within a month, from the few "red flag" and "red herring" serious back problems requiring urgent attention. But the Guideline panel overstepped its policymaking mandate by venturing into the quicksand of treatment by committee edict, rather than by on-the-spot caretakers. The rumbling backfire is that U. S. Government document, intended as practice guideline for routine acute back care, will come to haunt us as a practice standard for all back care. One-size-fits-all proposals for the majority short-change the few with more demanding healthcare resource requirements. Be sure to read the pamphlet; your patients, insurers, providers, administrators, journalists and attorneys will! PMID:8544439

  20. Neuropathic pain with features of complex regional syndrome in the upper extremity after herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Milà, Marc; Busquets, Carme; Ojeda, Antonio; Faulí, Adela; Moreno, Luis Alfonso; Videla, Sebastian

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of a 73-year-old female who developed unbearable neuropathic pain after a herpes zoster episode. The pain persisted and could not be controlled despite multimodal analgesia. In addition to postherpetic neuralgia, myelitis and complex regional pain syndrome were diagnosed during the evolution of neuropathic pain. This complex neuropathic pain was resolved after sympathetic ganglion block.

  1. New trends in myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Zern

    2002-11-01

    This review article summarizes recent studies on myofascial trigger point (MTrP) to further clarify the mechanism of MTrP. MTrP is the major cause of muscle pain (myofascial pain) in clinical practice. There are multiple MTrP loci in an MTrP region. An MTrP locus contains a sensory component (sensitive locus) and a motor component (active locus). A sensitive locus is the site from which pain, referred pain (ReP), and local twitch response (LTR) can be elicited by needle stimulation. Sensitive loci are probably sensitized nociceptors based on a histological study. They are widely distributed in the whole muscle, but are concentrated in the endplate zone. An active locus is the site from which spontaneous electrical activity (SEA) can be recorded. Active loci are dysfunctional endplates since SEA is essentially the same as endplate noise (EPN) recorded from an abnormal endplate as reported by neurophysiologists. Both ReP and LTRs are mediated through spinal cord mechanisms, demonstrated in both human and animal studies. The pathogenesis of MTrPs appears to be related to the integration in the spinal cord (formation of MTrP circuits) in response to the disturbance of the nerve endings and abnormal contractile mechanism at multiple dysfunctional endplates. Methods usually applied to treat MTrPs include stretch, massage, thermotherapy, electrotherapy, laser therapy, MTrP injection, dry needling, and acupuncture. The mechanism of acupuncture is similar to dry needling or MTrP injection. The new technique of MTrP injection can also be used to treat neurogenic spasticity.

  2. The pain cycle: implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Everaert, K; Devulder, J; De Muynck, M; Stockman, S; Depaepe, H; De Looze, D; Van Buyten, J; Oosterlinck, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report our results of sacral nerve stimulation in patients with pelvic pain after failed conservative treatment. From 1992 to August 1998 we treated 111 patients (40 males, 71 females, ages 46 +/- 16 years) with chronic pelvic pain. All patients with causal treatment were excluded from this study. Pelvic floor training, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and intrarectal or intravaginal electrostimulation were applied and sacral nerve stimulation was used for therapy-resistant pain. The outcome of conservative treatment and sacral nerve stimulation (VAS <3/10; >50% pain relief) was related to symptoms of voiding dysfunction and dyschezia, and urodynamic proof of dysfunctional voiding, not to the pain localization or treatment modality. Outcome was inversely related to neuropathic pain. When conservative treatment failed, a test stimulation of the S3 root was effective in 16/26 patients, and 11 patients were implanted successfully with a follow-up of 36 +/- 8 months. So far no late failures have been seen. A longer test stimulation is needed in patients with pelvic pain because of a higher incidence of initial false positive tests. Our conclusion is that sacral nerve stimulation is effective in the treatment of therapy-resistant pelvic pain syndromes linked to pelvic floor dysfunction.

  3. Efficacy of dry needling for treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, Yacov; Kent, John

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial pain is a major cause of musculoskeletal regional pain. Myofascial pain, which is a high-prevalence but eminently treatable condition, is almost universally underdiagnosed by physicians and undertreated by physical therapy modalities. Large numbers of patients can be left suffering in chronic pain for years. Dry needling, also referred to as Intramuscular Stimulation, is a method in the arsenal of pain management which has been known for almost 200 years in Western medicine, yet has been almost completely ignored. With the increase in research in this field over the past two decades, there are many high-quality studies that demonstrate dry needling to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of myofascial pain when diagnosed and treated by adequately-trained physicians or physical therapists. This article provides an overview of recent literature regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome, evidence for the efficacy of dry needling as a central component of its management, and a glimpse at developments in recent imaging methods to aid in the treatment of these problems.

  4. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    López, Mario; Martín, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome (ARS) occurs after whole-body or significant partial-body irradiation (typically at a dose of >1 Gy). ARS can involve the hematopoietic, cutaneous, gastrointestinal and the neurovascular organ systems either individually or in combination. There is a correlation between the severity of clinical signs and symptoms of ARS and radiation dose. Radiation induced multi-organ failure (MOF) describes the progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems over time. Radiation combined injury (RCI) is defined as radiation injury combined with blunt or penetrating trauma, burns, blast, or infection. The classic syndromes are: hematopoietic (doses >2–3 Gy), gastrointestinal (doses 5–12 Gy) and cerebrovascular syndrome (doses 10–20 Gy). There is no possibility to survive after doses >10–12 Gy. The Phases of ARS are—prodromal: 0–2 days from exposure, latent: 2–20 days, and manifest illness: 21–60 days from exposure. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) at a dose of 5 μg/kg body weight per day subcutaneously has been recommended as treatment of neutropenia, and antibiotics, antiviral and antifungal agents for prevention or treatment of infections. If taken within the first hours of contamination, stable iodine in the form of nonradioactive potassium iodide (KI) saturates iodine binding sites within the thyroid and inhibits incorporation of radioiodines into the gland. Finally, if severe aplasia persists under cytokines for more than 14 days, the possibility of a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation should be evaluated. This review will focus on the clinical aspects of the ARS, using the European triage system (METREPOL) to evaluate the severity of radiation injury, and scoring groups of patients for the general and specific management of the syndrome. PMID:24376971

  5. Medical Management of Tumor Lysis Syndrome, Postprocedural Pain, and Venous Thromboembolism Following Interventional Radiology Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzalian, Ali; Armitage, Keith B.; Kapoor, Baljendra; Kalva, Sanjeeva P.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion of minimally invasive image-guided procedures has led to their extensive use in the interdisciplinary management of patients with vascular, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, and oncologic diseases. Given the increased availability and breadth of these procedures, it is important for physicians to be aware of common complications and their management. In this article, the authors describe management of select common complications from interventional radiology procedures including tumor lysis syndrome, acute on chronic postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism. These complications are discussed in detail and their medical management is outlined according to generally accepted practice and evidence from the literature. PMID:26038627

  6. Medical management of tumor lysis syndrome, postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism following interventional radiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Faramarzalian, Ali; Armitage, Keith B; Kapoor, Baljendra; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2015-06-01

    The rapid expansion of minimally invasive image-guided procedures has led to their extensive use in the interdisciplinary management of patients with vascular, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, and oncologic diseases. Given the increased availability and breadth of these procedures, it is important for physicians to be aware of common complications and their management. In this article, the authors describe management of select common complications from interventional radiology procedures including tumor lysis syndrome, acute on chronic postprocedural pain, and venous thromboembolism. These complications are discussed in detail and their medical management is outlined according to generally accepted practice and evidence from the literature. PMID:26038627

  7. Endogenous pain inhibition is unrelated to autonomic responses in acute whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    De Kooning, Margot; Daenen, Liesbeth; Roussel, Nathalie; Cras, Patrick; Buyl, Ronald; Ickmans, Kelly; Struyf, Filip; Nijs, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) demonstrate an inefficient endogenous pain inhibition and may experience a dysfunction in autonomic nervous system reactivity to pain. This study compared the autonomic response to painful stimuli between patients with acute and chronic WAD and healthy controls. In addition, the role of the autonomic nervous system for explaining inefficient endogenous pain inhibition was examined in acute WAD. Seventeen patients with acute WAD, 30 patients with chronic WAD, and 31 healthy controls participated in an experiment evaluating the autonomic nervous system at rest and during painful stimuli. Skin conductance and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were monitored continuously during conditioned pain modulation. A significant autonomic response to pain was present for skin conductance and two HRV parameters in all experimental groups. There was an interaction effect in the skin conductance response to pain but not in HRV responses in any of the groups. In patients with acute WAD, no significant correlations were present between pain, pressure pain thresholds, pain inhibition, and any of the autonomic parameters. This study refutes autonomic dysfunction at rest and in response to pain in acute WAD. The dysfunctional conditioned pain modulation appears unrelated to autonomic responses to pain. PMID:26348457

  8. Endogenous pain inhibition is unrelated to autonomic responses in acute whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    De Kooning, Margot; Daenen, Liesbeth; Roussel, Nathalie; Cras, Patrick; Buyl, Ronald; Ickmans, Kelly; Struyf, Filip; Nijs, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) demonstrate an inefficient endogenous pain inhibition and may experience a dysfunction in autonomic nervous system reactivity to pain. This study compared the autonomic response to painful stimuli between patients with acute and chronic WAD and healthy controls. In addition, the role of the autonomic nervous system for explaining inefficient endogenous pain inhibition was examined in acute WAD. Seventeen patients with acute WAD, 30 patients with chronic WAD, and 31 healthy controls participated in an experiment evaluating the autonomic nervous system at rest and during painful stimuli. Skin conductance and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were monitored continuously during conditioned pain modulation. A significant autonomic response to pain was present for skin conductance and two HRV parameters in all experimental groups. There was an interaction effect in the skin conductance response to pain but not in HRV responses in any of the groups. In patients with acute WAD, no significant correlations were present between pain, pressure pain thresholds, pain inhibition, and any of the autonomic parameters. This study refutes autonomic dysfunction at rest and in response to pain in acute WAD. The dysfunctional conditioned pain modulation appears unrelated to autonomic responses to pain.

  9. Management of pain and fatigue in the joint hypermobility syndrome (a.k.a. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type): principles and proposal for a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Celletti, Claudia; Celli, Mauro; Morrone, Aldo; Colombi, Marina; Camerota, Filippo; Grammatico, Paola

    2012-08-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS), or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) hypermobility type (EDS-HT), is a underdiagnosed heritable connective tissue disorder characterized by generalized joint hypermobility and a wide range of visceral, pelvic, neurologic, and cognitive dysfunctions. Deterioration of quality of life is mainly associated with pain and fatigue. Except for the recognized effectiveness of physiotherapy for some musculoskeletal features, there are no standardized guidelines for the assessment and treatment of pain and fatigue. In this work, a practical classification of pain presentations and factors contributing in generating painful sensations in JHS/EDS-HT is proposed. Pain can be topographically classified in articular limb (acute/subacute and chronic), muscular limb (myofascial and fibromyalgia), neuropathic limb, back/neck, abdominal and pelvic pain, and headache. For selected forms of pain, specific predisposing characteristics are outlined. Fatigue appears as the result of multiple factors, including muscle weakness, respiratory insufficiency, unrefreshing sleep, dysautonomia, intestinal malabsorption, reactive depression/anxiety, and excessive use of analgesics. A set of lifestyle recommendations to instruct patients as well as specific investigations aimed at characterizing pain and fatigue are identified. Available treatment options are discussed in the set of a structured multidisciplinary approach based on reliable outcome tools. PMID:22786715

  10. Ipilimumab and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Myelodysplastic Syndrome or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-12

    Chimerism; Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipient; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; RAEB-1; RAEB-2; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  11. Update: Acute coronary syndromes (IX). Secondary prevention strategies for acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Quiles, Juan; Miralles-Vicedo, Beatriz

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main health problem in Europe and the rest of the world and is the leading cause of death and health care expenditure. By reducing mortality and ischemic event recurrence, prevention strategies play a fundamental role in patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome. Although these prevention strategies have focused with great success on high-risk individuals, they should also be used in the general population, which is showing an increase in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and other comorbidities that may reverse this trend toward reduced mortality. The present article consists of an up-to-date review of the main cardiovascular prevention measures, particularly the new developments of the last year, as well as the particularities of these measures when they are targeted at patients with a prior acute coronary syndrome.

  12. Copeptin in acute coronary syndromes and heart failure management: State of the art and future directions.

    PubMed

    Schurtz, Guillaume; Lamblin, Nicolas; Bauters, Christophe; Goldstein, Patrick; Lemesle, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the use of multiple biomarkers has changed cardiovascular disease management. Recently, several trials have assessed the diagnostic and prognostic performances of copeptin, especially in patients with heart failure or acute coronary syndromes. Primary results are interesting, with copeptin looking promising for: the management of patients who present at emergency departments early after chest pain onset and the risk stratification of patients with heart failure. The purpose of this article is to review the data on the place of copeptin in the management of patients with chest pain or heart failure.

  13. Copeptin in acute coronary syndromes and heart failure management: State of the art and future directions.

    PubMed

    Schurtz, Guillaume; Lamblin, Nicolas; Bauters, Christophe; Goldstein, Patrick; Lemesle, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the use of multiple biomarkers has changed cardiovascular disease management. Recently, several trials have assessed the diagnostic and prognostic performances of copeptin, especially in patients with heart failure or acute coronary syndromes. Primary results are interesting, with copeptin looking promising for: the management of patients who present at emergency departments early after chest pain onset and the risk stratification of patients with heart failure. The purpose of this article is to review the data on the place of copeptin in the management of patients with chest pain or heart failure. PMID:26071835

  14. Exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome in a young man, occurring after a short race

    PubMed Central

    Matar, Mousa; Vaitilingham, Siddharthan; Chalise, Shyam; Irooegbu, Nkem; Bang, Jane

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in a 23-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician 48 hours after he attempted to run a 5K race. He noticed searing pain in his left leg after the first half mile but had no other symptoms. He was referred to the emergency department and diagnosed with ACS, and a fasciotomy was done. A presentation of limb pain that is out of proportion to a known or suspected injury should prompt consideration of ACS. Early recognition and surgical management are essential to achieving the best possible outcome. PMID:27034546

  15. Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-16

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  16. Acute Coronary Syndromes in Women: Recent Treatment Trends and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Graham, Garth

    2016-01-01

    In the USA and internationally, women experience farranging differences with respect to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and myocardial infarction (MI). Women suffer from more comorbidities than men, such as smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and poor mental health. They some-times exhibit atypical MI presentation symptoms and are overall less likely to present with chest pain. Women are more likely than men to encounter delays between the onset of symptoms and arrival at the hospital or to guideline treatment. The use of various surgical and pharmacological treatments, including revascularization approaches, also differs. Women, on average, have worse outcomes than men following MI, with more complications, higher mortality rates, and poorer recovery. Internationally, outcomes are similar despite various differences in health care and culture in non-US countries. In this review, we detail differences regarding ACS and MI in women, describing their complex correlations and discussing their possible causes. Educational approaches that are tailored to women might help to reduce the incidence of ACS and MI, as well as outcomes following hospitalization. Although outcomes following acute MI have been improving over the years, women may require special consideration in order to see continued improvement.

  17. Ultrasound guided, painful electrical stimulation of lumbar facet joint structures: an experimental model of acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Søren; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Manniche, Claus; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-07-01

    Quantitative sensory testing has indicated generalized muscle hyperalgesia in patients with chronic low back pain. The temporal development of such hyperalgesia is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate whether generalized muscle hyperalgesia can develop within minutes of acute low back pain using a new experimental model of lumbar facet joint pain. Thirteen healthy volunteers were included and baseline pressure pain thresholds were assessed at eight separate sites, outside the area of evoked low back and referred pain. Using ultrasonography, two electrode needles were placed either side of a lumbar facet joint (right L3-4) and used to induce experimental low back pain for 10 min with continuous stimulation. Thresholds, stimulus-response relationships, distribution and quality of the electrically induced pain were recorded. Electrical facet joint stimulation induced low back pain and pain referral into the anterior leg, ipsilaterally, proximal to the knee, similar to what is observed clinically. Pressure pain thresholds did not change significantly before, during and after facet joint stimulation. In conclusion, we describe a novel model of acute experimental low back pain and demonstrate that generalized hyperalgesia did not develop within minutes of acute low back pain. PMID:19376652

  18. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, D L

    1995-03-01

    Two important studies in which nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used convincingly demonstrated that muscle is not the primary pathologic factor in fibromyalgia. There were further studies reporting that fibromyalgia-chronic fatigue syndrome may follow well treated Lyme disease or mimic Lyme disease. The longest therapeutic trial to date in fibromyalgia demonstrated an initial modest effect of tricyclic medications, but at 6 months that efficacy was no longer evident. Investigation in both fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome now focuses on the central nervous system. The use of new technology, eg, neurohormonal assays and imaging such as single-photon emission computed tomography scan, may be important in understanding these elusive conditions.

  19. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, D L

    1996-03-01

    The prevalence of fibromyalgia in the general population was found to be 2% and increased with age. Multiple traumatic factors, including sexual and physical abuse, may be important initiating events. The most important pathophysiologic studies in fibromyalgia included evidence of altered blood flow to the brain and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysfunction. The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome is much less than that of fibromyalgia. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated that chronic fatigue and symptoms of fibromyalgia are distributed as continuous variables in the general population. No association between chronic fatigue and initial infections was seen in primary care practices.

  20. Association of anxiety with intracortical inhibition and descending pain modulation in chronic myofascial pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to answer three questions related to chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS): 1) Is the motor cortex excitability, as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters (TMS), related to state-trait anxiety? 2) Does anxiety modulate corticospinal excitability changes after evoked pain by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST)? 3) Does the state-trait anxiety predict the response to pain evoked by QST if simultaneously receiving a heterotopic stimulus [Conditional Pain Modulation (CPM)]? We included females with chronic MPS (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 11), aged 19 to 65 years. Motor cortex excitability was assessed by TMS, and anxiety was assessed based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The disability related to pain (DRP) was assessed by the Profile of Chronic Pain scale for the Brazilian population (B:PCP:S), and the psychophysical pain measurements were measured by the QST and CPM. Results In patients, trait-anxiety was positively correlated to intracortical facilitation (ICF) at baseline and after QST evoked pain (β = 0.05 and β = 0.04, respectively) and negatively correlated to the cortical silent period (CSP) (β = -1.17 and β = -1.23, respectively) (P <0.05 for all comparisons). After QST evoked pain, the DRP was positively correlated to ICF (β = 0.02) (P < 0.05). Pain scores during CPM were positively correlated with trait-anxiety when it was concurrently with high DRP (β = 0.39; P = 0.02). Controls’ cortical excitability remained unchanged after QST. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in chronic MPS, the imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory descending systems of the corticospinal tract is associated with higher trait-anxiety concurrent with higher DRP. PMID:24645677

  1. The Effects of Exercise on Decreasing Pain and Increasing Function in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Jamie L.; Ramey, Lindsay N.; Hart, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Exercise or rest is commonly prescribed as treatment for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Study Selection: This study is based on Level I or II research studies examining the effects of exercise and rest on decreasing pain (visual analog scale) and increasing function (Kujala Scoring Questionnaire) using human participants. Articles were limited to those printed in English from PubMed (1966–September 2010), CINAHL (1982–September 2010), and SPORTDiscus (1972–September 2010). Data Extraction: Weighted aggregate effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from means and standard deviations extracted from 10 studies, resulting in an analysis of 433 patients. Results: A very large effect for exercise was found for patient-reported functional outcomes (d = 2.19) and perceived pain (d = −1.24) in treated patients, which were larger than functional outcomes (d = 0.77) and pain (d = −0.14) in controls. Short-term follow-up of 191 patients from 4 data sets in 2 studies revealed a large effect for functional outcomes (d = 1.04) and pain (d = −0.82) in patients who performed an exercise intervention. One study reported moderate effect sizes for functional outcomes (d = 0.59) and pain (d = −0.35) at 3 months postintervention. Conclusions: Exercise is the more effective treatment for immediate decrease in pain and increase in function although these differences appear to be less distinguishable over time. PMID:23016088

  2. Increased bladder permeability in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Wisniewski, Amy B.; VanGordon, Samuel; Lin, HsuehKung; Kropp, Bradley P.; Towner, Rheal A.

    2015-01-01

    The definition of interstitial cystitis (IC) has evolved over the years from being a well-defined entity characterized by diagnostic lesion (Hunner’s ulcer) in the urothelium to a clinical diagnosis by exclusion [painful bladder syndrome (PBS)]. Although the etiology is unknown, a central theme has been an association with increased permeability of the bladder. This article reviews the evidence for increased permeability being important to the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and in treating the disorder. Recent work showing cross-communication among visceral organs is also reviewed to provide a basis for understanding IC/PBS as a systemic disorder of a complex, interconnected system consisting of the bladder, bowel and other organs, nerves, cytokine-responding cells and the nervous system. PMID:26751576

  3. [Myofascial pain syndrome--frequent occurrence and often misdiagnosed].

    PubMed

    Pongratz, D E; Späth, M

    1998-09-30

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a very common localized--sometimes also polytopic--painful musculoskeletal condition associated with trigger points, for which, however, diagnostic criteria established in well-designed studies are still lacking. These two facts form the basis for differentiating between MPS and the fibromyalgia syndrome. The difference between trigger points (MPS) and tender points (fibromyalgia) is of central importance--not merely in a linguistic sense. A knowledge of the signs and symptoms typically associated with a trigger point often obviates the need for time-consuming and expensive technical diagnostic measures. The assumption that many cases of unspecific complaints affecting the musculoskeletal system may be ascribed to MPS makes clear the scope for the saving of costs.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Risaku

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome affects military personnel and civilians following the uncontrolled dispersal of radiation, such as that caused by detonation of nuclear devices and inappropriate medical treatments. Therefore, there is a growing need for medical interventions that facilitate the improved recovery of victims and patients. One promising approach may be cell therapy, which, when appropriately implemented, may facilitate recovery from whole body injuries. This editorial highlights the current knowledge regarding the use of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the benefits and limitations of which are under investigation. Establishing successful therapies for acute radiation syndrome may require using such a therapeutic approach in addition to conventional approaches. PMID:27182446

  5. Acute Respiratory Distress: from syndrome to disease.

    PubMed

    Cardinal-Fernández, P; Correger, E; Villanueva, J; Rios, F

    2016-04-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is currently one of the most important critical entities given its high incidence, rate of mortality, long-term sequelae and non-specific pharmacological treatment. The histological hallmark of ARDS is diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Approximately 50% of ARDS patients present DAD, the rest is made up of a heterogeneous group of histological patterns, many of which correspond to a well-recognized disease. For that reason, if these patterns could be diagnosed, patients could benefit from a treatment. Recently, the effect of DAD in clinical and analytical evolution of ARDS has been demonstrated, so the classical approach to ARDS as an entity defined solely by clinical, radiological and gasometrical variables should be reconsidered. This narrative review aims to examine the need to evolve from the concept of ARDS as a syndrome to ARDS as a specific disease. So we have raised 4 critical questions: a) What is a disease?; b) what is DAD?; c) how is DAD considered according to ARDS definition?, and d) what is the relationship between ARDS and DAD?

  6. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buskila, D

    1999-03-01

    Fibromyalgia was almost completely absent from an urban affluent population compared with poor urban and rural communities. Seventeen percent of Gulf War veterans with soft tissue syndromes had fibromyalgia, a much higher rate than was seen in previous studies of rheumatic disease in the military population. A state of central hyperexcitability in the nociceptive system was reported in fibromyalgia. Altered functioning of the stress-response system has been further documented in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Administration of growth hormone to patients with fibromyalgia who have low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 resulted in improvement in their symptoms and tenderness. An association between chronic fatigue syndrome and initial infections was demonstrated. A correlation between particular immunologic abnormalities and measures of disease severity was documented in chronic fatigue syndrome. Concomitant fibromyalgia in other rheumatic diseases was a major contributor to poor quality of life. A favorable outcome of fibromyalgia in children was reported; the majority of patients improved over 2 to 3 years of follow-up. Treatment of patients with fibromyalgia continues to be of limited success.

  7. Efficacy of disintegrating aspirin in two different models for acute mild-to-moderate pain: sore throat pain and dental pain.

    PubMed

    Voelker, M; Schachtel, B P; Cooper, S A; Gatoulis, S C

    2016-02-01

    A recently developed fast-release aspirin tablet formulation has been evaluated in two different pain models. The dental impaction pain model and the sore throat pain model are widely used for assessing analgesia, including acute mild-to-moderate pain. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, parallel group and compared a single dose of 1000 mg aspirin with 1000 mg paracetamol and with placebo and investigated the onset and overall time course of pain relief. Speed of onset was measured by the double-stopwatch method for time to meaningful pain relief and time to first perceptible pain relief. Pain intensity and pain relief were rated subjectively over a 6-h (dental pain) and 2-h (sore throat pain) time period. In both models fast-release aspirin and commercial paracetamol were statistically significantly different from placebo for onset of action, summed pain intensity differences and total pain relief. Meaningful pain relief was achieved within a median of 42.3 and 42.9 min for aspirin and paracetamol, respectively, in the dental pain model. The corresponding numbers in sore throat pain were 48.0 and 40.4 min. All treatments in both studies were safe and well tolerated. No serious adverse events were reported and no subject was discontinued due to an adverse event. Overall the two studies clearly demonstrated efficacy over placebo in the two pain models and a comparable efficacy and safety profile between aspirin and an equivalent dose of paracetamol under the conditions of acute dental pain and acute sore throat pain. Trial registration These trials were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01420094, registration date: July 27, 2011 and registration number: NCT01453400, registration date: October 13, 2011. PMID:26603742

  8. Efficacy of disintegrating aspirin in two different models for acute mild-to-moderate pain: sore throat pain and dental pain.

    PubMed

    Voelker, M; Schachtel, B P; Cooper, S A; Gatoulis, S C

    2016-02-01

    A recently developed fast-release aspirin tablet formulation has been evaluated in two different pain models. The dental impaction pain model and the sore throat pain model are widely used for assessing analgesia, including acute mild-to-moderate pain. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, parallel group and compared a single dose of 1000 mg aspirin with 1000 mg paracetamol and with placebo and investigated the onset and overall time course of pain relief. Speed of onset was measured by the double-stopwatch method for time to meaningful pain relief and time to first perceptible pain relief. Pain intensity and pain relief were rated subjectively over a 6-h (dental pain) and 2-h (sore throat pain) time period. In both models fast-release aspirin and commercial paracetamol were statistically significantly different from placebo for onset of action, summed pain intensity differences and total pain relief. Meaningful pain relief was achieved within a median of 42.3 and 42.9 min for aspirin and paracetamol, respectively, in the dental pain model. The corresponding numbers in sore throat pain were 48.0 and 40.4 min. All treatments in both studies were safe and well tolerated. No serious adverse events were reported and no subject was discontinued due to an adverse event. Overall the two studies clearly demonstrated efficacy over placebo in the two pain models and a comparable efficacy and safety profile between aspirin and an equivalent dose of paracetamol under the conditions of acute dental pain and acute sore throat pain. Trial registration These trials were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01420094, registration date: July 27, 2011 and registration number: NCT01453400, registration date: October 13, 2011.

  9. Autoimmune etiology of complex regional pain syndrome (M. Sudeck).

    PubMed

    Blaes, F; Schmitz, K; Tschernatsch, M; Kaps, M; Krasenbrink, I; Hempelmann, G; Bräu, M E

    2004-11-01

    Sera of 12 patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) were tested for the occurrence of autoantibodies against nervous system structures. Immunohistochemistry revealed autoantibodies against autonomic nervous system structures in 5 of 12 (41.6%) of the patients. Western blot analysis showed neuronal reactivity in 11 of 12 (91.6%) patients. The authors hypothesize that CRPS can result from an autoimmune process against the sympathetic nervous system. PMID:15534271

  10. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage in evaluating acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Barbee, C L; Gilsdorf, R B

    1975-06-01

    A study was performed to determine the value of peritoneal lavage in the acute abdomen not related to trauma. Lavage was performed in 33 patients in the evaluation of abdominal pain of sufficient degree to warrant consideration for surgical intervention. Peritoneal lavage was truly positive or truly negative in 64% of the cases. It showed false negative results in 28% and false positive results in 8%. The lavage was most accurate in the evaluation of appendicitis, colonic disease, and intra abdominal bleeding. It was highly inaccurate in the evaluation of cholecystitis and peptic ulcer disease. It was concluded that the peritoneal lavage can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation of patients with abdominal pain and should be considered in difficult diagnostic problems but not routinely employed.

  11. An 86-year-old man with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Paul M E L; Posthouwer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    An 86-year-old man presented with severe pain in the upper abdomen along with fever. On physical examination, we found an arterial blood pressure of 84/43 mm Hg, a heart rate of 80 bpm and a temperature of 38.3°C. The abdomen was painful and peristalsis was absent. Empiric antibiotic therapy for sepsis was started with amoxicillin/clavulanate and gentamicin. CT scan of the abdomen revealed an emphysematous cholecystitis. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystostomy was applied. Bile cultures revealed Clostridium perfringens. Emphysematous cholecystitis is a life-threatening form of acute cholecystitis that occurs as a consequence of ischaemic injury to the gallbladder, followed by translocation of gas-forming bacteria (ie, C. perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Streptococci). The mortality associated with emphysematous cholecystitis is higher than in non-emphysematous cholecystitis (15% vs 4%). Therefore, early diagnosis with radiological imaging is of vital importance. PMID:26869625

  12. Hypnosis for Acute Procedural Pain: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Cassie; Sliwinski, Jim; Yu, Yimin; Johnson, Aimee; Fisher, William; Kekecs, Zoltán; Elkins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of acute procedural pain was critically evaluated based on reports from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Results from the 29 RCTs meeting inclusion criteria suggest that hypnosis decreases pain compared to standard care and attention control groups and that it is at least as effective as comparable adjunct psychological or behavioral therapies. In addition, applying hypnosis in multiple sessions prior to the day of the procedure produced the highest percentage of significant results. Hypnosis was most effective in minor surgical procedures. However, interpretations are limited by considerable risk of bias. Further studies using minimally effective control conditions and systematic control of intervention dose and timing are required to strengthen conclusions. PMID:26599994

  13. Presentation of Osteitis and Osteomyelitis Pubis as Acute Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Diane V; Scott, Kendall G

    2007-01-01

    Osteitis pubis is the most common inflammatory condition of the pubic symphysis and may present as acute abdominal, pelvic, or groin pain. Osteomyelitis pubis can occur concurrently and spontaneously with osteitis pubis. Primary care physicians should consider these conditions in patients presenting with abdominal and pelvic pain. A thorough history, including type of physical activity, and a focused physical examination will be useful, and imaging modalities may be helpful. A biopsy and culture of the pubic symphysis will usually confirm the diagnosis. Treatment for osteitis pubis generally involves rest and anti-inflammatory medications. Failure with this conservative treatment should alert the physician to the possibility of osteomyelitis, which needs treatment with antibiotics. Prognosis for recovery is excellent with definitive diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21461096

  14. A surprising cause of acute right upper quadrant pain.

    PubMed

    Stitt, Rodger Scott; Greenwood, Robert; Laczek, Jeffrey

    2014-08-06

    A 42 year-old African-American woman was admitted for severe acute right upper quadrant pain. Her liver function tests showed a cholestatic pattern of hepatitis. She had no known history of liver disease or sarcoidosis. Imaging of her liver and biliary tree did not reveal any apparent cause for her right upper quadrant pain. A liver biopsy was performed which showed granulomatous disease. This prompted a CT chest that showed mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of the mediastinal lymphnode revealed non-caseating granulomas. Despite having no pulmonary symptoms or history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, she was diagnosed with systemic pulmonary sarcoidosis. She was treated with corticosteroids and had complete resolution of symptoms over the next several weeks.

  15. Sex differences in a Murine Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tajerian, Maral; Sahbaie, Peyman; Sun, Yuan; Leu, David; Yang, Hsun Yu; Li, Wenwu; Huang, Ting Ting; Kingery, Wade; David Clark, J

    2015-09-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a major cause of chronic pain after surgery or trauma to the limbs. Despite evidence showing that the prevalence and severity of many forms of chronic pain, including CRPS, differ between males and females, laboratory studies on sex-related differences in animal models of CRPS are not available, and the impact of sex on the transition from acute to chronic CRPS pain and disability are unexplored. Here we make use of a tibia fracture/cast mouse model that recapitulates the nociceptive, functional, vascular, trophic, inflammatory and immune aspects of CRPS. Our aim is to describe the chronic time course of nociceptive, motor and memory changes associated with fracture/cast in male and female mice, in addition to exploring their underlying spinal mechanisms. Our behavioral data shows that, compared to males, female mice display lower nociceptive thresholds following fracture in the absence of any differences in ongoing or spontaneous pain. Furthermore, female mice show exaggerated signs of motor dysfunction, deficits in fear memory, and latent sensitization that manifests long after the normalization of nociceptive thresholds. Our biochemical data show differences in the spinal cord levels of the glutamate receptor NR2b, suggesting sex differences in mechanisms of central sensitization that could account for differences in duration and severity of CRPS symptoms between the two groups.

  16. Sex Differences in a Murine Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tajerian, Maral; Sahbaie, Peyman; Sun, Yuan; Leu, David; Yang, Hsun Yu; Li, Wenwu; Huang, Ting Ting; Kingery, Wade; Clark, J David

    2015-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a major cause of chronic pain after surgery or trauma to the limbs. Despite evidence showing that the prevalence and severity of many forms of chronic pain, including CRPS, differ between males and females, laboratory studies on sex-related differences in animal models of CRPS are not available, and the impact of sex on the transition from acute to chronic CRPS pain and disability are unexplored. Here we make use of a tibia fracture/cast mouse model that recapitulates the nociceptive, functional, vascular, trophic, inflammatory and immune aspects of CRPS. Our aim is to describe the chronic time course of nociceptive, motor and memory changes associated with fracture/cast in male and female mice, in addition to exploring their underlying spinal mechanisms. Our behavioral data shows that, compared to males, female mice display lower nociceptive thresholds following fracture in the absence of any differences in ongoing or spontaneous pain. Furthermore, female mice show exaggerated signs of motor dysfunction, deficits in fear memory, and latent sensitization that manifests long after the normalization of nociceptive thresholds. Our biochemical data show differences in the spinal cord levels of the glutamate receptor NR2b, suggesting sex differences in mechanisms of central sensitization that could account for differences in duration and severity of CRPS symptoms between the two groups. PMID:26070658

  17. Innovative Program Targets Five Common Pain Syndromes With Non-opioid Alternatives.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    To combat the prescription opioid problem, St. Joseph's Healthcare System in Paterson, NJ, has developed a new program that gives providers options they can use to effectively alleviate pain without resorting to highly addictive medication. Launched in January 2016 in the ED at St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center (SJRMC), the Alternatives to Opioids (ALTO) program utilizes protocols that primarily target five common conditions: renal colic, sciatica, headaches, musculoskeletal pain, and extremity fractures. Administrators say they have successfully treated more than 300 patients under the new program, and they see ALTO as a model other hospitals can duplicate. Among the alternative therapies called for in the ALTO program are trigger point injections, nitrous oxide, and ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. ALTO medications are specifically chosen because of how they affect the pain receptor sites for each different pain syndrome. While the primary goal of the program is to use alternatives to opioids when-ever possible, another important underlying goal is to stop acute pain from becoming chronic. While ALTO therapies typically take a bit longer to deliver than prescribing opioids, administrators note that this has not adversely affected patient flow in the ED. PMID:27295817

  18. Innovative Program Targets Five Common Pain Syndromes With Non-opioid Alternatives.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    To combat the prescription opioid problem, St. Joseph's Healthcare System in Paterson, NJ, has developed a new program that gives providers options they can use to effectively alleviate pain without resorting to highly addictive medication. Launched in January 2016 in the ED at St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center (SJRMC), the Alternatives to Opioids (ALTO) program utilizes protocols that primarily target five common conditions: renal colic, sciatica, headaches, musculoskeletal pain, and extremity fractures. Administrators say they have successfully treated more than 300 patients under the new program, and they see ALTO as a model other hospitals can duplicate. Among the alternative therapies called for in the ALTO program are trigger point injections, nitrous oxide, and ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. ALTO medications are specifically chosen because of how they affect the pain receptor sites for each different pain syndrome. While the primary goal of the program is to use alternatives to opioids when-ever possible, another important underlying goal is to stop acute pain from becoming chronic. While ALTO therapies typically take a bit longer to deliver than prescribing opioids, administrators note that this has not adversely affected patient flow in the ED.

  19. Iliotibial band syndrome: a common source of knee pain.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Razib; Flynn, Sharon H

    2005-04-15

    Iliotibial band syndrome is a common knee injury. The most common symptom is lateral knee pain caused by inflammation of the distal portion of the iliotibial band. The iliotibial band is a thick band of fascia that crosses the hip joint and extends distally to insert on the patella, tibia, and biceps femoris tendon. In some athletes, repetitive flexion and extension of the knee causes the distal iliotibial band to become irritated and inflamed resulting in diffuse lateral knee pain. Iliotibial band syndrome can cause significant morbidity and lead to cessation of exercise. Although iliotibial band syndrome is easily diagnosed clinically, it can be extremely challenging to treat. Treatment requires active patient participation and compliance with activity modification. Most patients respond to conservative treatment involving stretching of the iliotibial band, strengthening of the gluteus medius, and altering training regimens. Corticosteroid injections should be considered if visible swelling or pain with ambulation persists for more than three days after initiating treatment. A small percentage of patients are refractory to conservative treatment and may require surgical release of the iliotibial band.

  20. Gender inequality in acute coronary syndrome patients at Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mirghani, Hyder O.; Elnour, Mohammed A.; Taha, Akasha M.; Elbadawi, Abdulateef S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender differences among patients with the acute coronary syndrome is still being debated, no research has been done on gender inequality among coronary syndrome patients in Sudan. Objectives: To study gender differences in presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in Sudan. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive longitudinal study was conducted in Omdurman Teaching Hospital between July 2014 and August 2015. Patients were invited to sign a written informed consent form, were interviewed and examined by a physician, and then followed during their hospital stay. Information collected includes coronary risk factors, vital signs, echocardiography findings, arrhythmias, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and death. The Ethical Committee of Omdurman Teaching Hospital approved the research. Results: A total of 197 consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients were included, 43.1% were females. A significant statistical difference was evident between males and females regarding the type of acute coronary syndrome, its presentation, and time of presentation to the hospital, smoking, and receipt of thrombolysis (P < 0.05). No differences were found with regard to age, hypertension, diabetes, family history of myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, and in-hospital acute coronary complications (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Women were less likely to receive thrombolytic therapy, present with chest pain, and diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. No gender differences were found in acute coronary syndrome risk factors apart from smoking, which was more common in males, and there were no differences between males and females as regards in-hospital complications. PMID:27186156

  1. [Caffeine as adjuvant analgeticum for treating acute pain].

    PubMed

    Nikolajsen, Lone; Haroutiunian, Simon

    2013-10-14

    Based on 19 studies (7,238 participants) a Cochrane review concludes that the addition of caffeine to an analgesic drug provides superior analgesia compared with the analgesic drug alone. The benefit is small, with a number needed to treat of approx. 16. The use of analgesics containing caffeine is associated with an increased risk of the development of physical dependence, overuse headache, and withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation. Combination analgesics with caffeine should only be used temporarily and exclusively for the treatment of acute pain conditions. PMID:24629115

  2. Uncommon Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain – A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Mahesh; Balasubramaniam, Rajan; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Yadavalli, Shanthala; Ahetasham, Mohammed; Devarapalli, Sravya

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdomen is one of the most common clinical conditions requiring a radiological investigation. Ultrasound is the primary modality of choice which can diagnose some of the common causes of acute abdomen. However, sometimes the underlying cause for the pain is far more complicated than expected mandating a high degree of suspicion to suggest further investigation with contrast enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we have compiled a comprehensive series of selected cases to highlight the conditions which can be easily overlooked unless carefully sought for. This article also emphasizes the importance of multimodality approach to arrive at the final diagnosis with an increased overall diagnostic accuracy which in turn improves patient management and prognosis. PMID:27014500

  3. [The nutrition of acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Rie; Sebe, Mayu

    2016-03-01

    In this session, we describe the acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome from two sides; acute disease that occurs higher in patients with metabolic syndrome such as colonary heart disease and stroke, and acute aggravation of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. The electrolyte imbalance is frequently detected in critical ill patients. It is reported that the extreme abnormalities of ionized calcium concentrations are independent predictors of mortality. In addition, from clinical database MIMIC-Ⅱ,calcium supplementation improves clinical outcome in intensive care unit patients. Although metabolic syndrome; lifestyle-related disease, is a chronic disease, the possibility of falling into acute disease by having it becomes very high and improvement of electrolyte imbalance, especially hypocalcaemia is expected to effective on clinical outcome. PMID:26923986

  4. [The nutrition of acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Rie; Sebe, Mayu

    2016-03-01

    In this session, we describe the acute phase in patients with metabolic syndrome from two sides; acute disease that occurs higher in patients with metabolic syndrome such as colonary heart disease and stroke, and acute aggravation of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. The electrolyte imbalance is frequently detected in critical ill patients. It is reported that the extreme abnormalities of ionized calcium concentrations are independent predictors of mortality. In addition, from clinical database MIMIC-Ⅱ,calcium supplementation improves clinical outcome in intensive care unit patients. Although metabolic syndrome; lifestyle-related disease, is a chronic disease, the possibility of falling into acute disease by having it becomes very high and improvement of electrolyte imbalance, especially hypocalcaemia is expected to effective on clinical outcome.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    von Keudell, Arvind G; Weaver, Michael J; Appleton, Paul T; Appelton, Paul T; Bae, Donald S; Dyer, George S M; Heng, Marilyn; Jupiter, Jesse B; Vrahas, Mark S

    2015-09-26

    Acute compartment syndrome of the extremities is well known, but diagnosis can be challenging. Ineffective treatment can have devastating consequences, such as permanent dysaesthesia, ischaemic contractures, muscle dysfunction, loss of limb, and even loss of life. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the way in which acute extremity compartment syndromes should be diagnosed. Many surgeons suggest continuous monitoring of intracompartmental pressure for all patients who have high-risk extremity injuries, whereas others suggest aggressive surgical intervention if acute compartment syndrome is even suspected. Although surgical fasciotomy might reduce intracompartmental pressure, this procedure also carries the risk of long-term complications. In this paper in The Lancet Series about emergency surgery we summarise the available data on acute extremity compartment syndrome of the upper and lower extremities in adults and children, discuss the underlying pathophysiology, and propose a clinical guideline based on the available data.

  6. Associates of Physical Function and Pain in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Sara R.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Irrgang, James J.; Fritz, Julie M.; Wisniewski, Stephen; McGinty, Gerald T.; Childs, John D.; Domenech, Manuel A.; Jones, Scott; Delitto, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether impairment of muscle strength, soft tissue length, movement control, postural and biomechanic alterations, and psychologic factors are associated with physical function and pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Rehabilitation outpatient. Participants Seventy-four patients diagnosed with PFPS. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Measurements were self-reported function and pain; strength of quadriceps, hip abduction, and hip external rotation; length of hamstrings, quadriceps, plantar flexors, iliotibial band/tensor fasciae latae complex, and lateral retinaculum; foot pronation; Q-angle; tibial torsion; visual observation of quality of movement during a lateral step-down task; anxiety; and fear-avoidance beliefs. Results After controlling for age and sex, anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs about work and physical activity were associated with function, while only fear-avoidance beliefs about work and physical activity were associated with pain. Conclusions Psychologic factors were the only associates of function and pain in patients with PFPS. Factors related to physical impairments did not associate to function or pain. Our results should be validated in other samples of patients with PFPS. Further studies should determine the role of other psychologic factors, and how they relate to anxiety and fear-avoidance beliefs in these patients. PMID:19236982

  7. Plasma Amino Acids Changes in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Guillermo M.; Reichenberger, Erin; Peterlin, B. Lee; Perreault, Marielle J.; Grothusen, John R.; Schwartzman, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a severe chronic pain condition that most often develops following trauma. Blood samples were collected from 220 individuals, 160 CRPS subjects, and 60 healthy pain-free controls. Plasma amino acid levels were compared and contrasted between groups. L-Aspartate, L-glutamate, and L-ornithine were significantly increased, whereas L-tryptophan and L-arginine were significantly decreased in CRPS subjects as compared to controls. In addition, the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio demonstrated a significant increase, whereas the global arginine bioavailability ratio (GABR) was significantly decreased in the CRPS subjects. The CRPS subjects demonstrated a significant correlation between overall pain and the plasma levels of L-glutamate and the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio. CRPS subjects also showed a correlation between the decrease in plasma L-tryptophan and disease duration. This study shows that CRPS subjects exhibit significant changes in plasma levels of amino acids involved in glutamate receptor activation and in amino acids associated with immune function as compared to healthy pain-free controls. A better understanding of the role plasma amino acids play in the pathophysiology of CRPS may lead to novel treatments for this crippling condition. PMID:24303215

  8. [Cannabis and acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation].

    PubMed

    Ghannem, M; Belhadj, I; Tritar, A; Moukala, T; Amri, N; Noury, A; Zaghdoudi, M

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis is the most common substance of drug abuse in the world and has euphoric and hallucinogenic effects. Its cardiovascular effects are well-known. However, there is limited information concerning cannabis-induced acute coronary syndrome and the exact contribution of cannabis smoking to coronary artery disease. We report and discuss a case of ST-Elevation acute coronary syndrome occurring in a young patient aged 24 years, who was a heavy cannabis smoker. PMID:24182845

  9. [Cannabis and acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation].

    PubMed

    Ghannem, M; Belhadj, I; Tritar, A; Moukala, T; Amri, N; Noury, A; Zaghdoudi, M

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis is the most common substance of drug abuse in the world and has euphoric and hallucinogenic effects. Its cardiovascular effects are well-known. However, there is limited information concerning cannabis-induced acute coronary syndrome and the exact contribution of cannabis smoking to coronary artery disease. We report and discuss a case of ST-Elevation acute coronary syndrome occurring in a young patient aged 24 years, who was a heavy cannabis smoker.

  10. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, D L

    1997-03-01

    The diagnosis of fibromyalgia continues to generate heated debate. The presence of multiple lifetime psychiatric diagnoses was not intrinsically related to fibromyalgia but rather to the decision of patients to seek specialty medical care. Better outcome measures in fibromyalgia were tested. Neurally mediated hypotension may be associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Treatment of patients with fibromyalgia and CFS continues to be of limited success, although the role of multidisciplinary group intervention appears promising. Two position papers focused on the adverse aspects of the medicolegal issues in fibromyalgia and CFS.

  11. Sphenopalatine blocks in the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Janzen, V D; Scudds, R

    1997-10-01

    Sphenopalatine blocks have been used to treat pain for more than 80 years. Anecdotal support for sphenopalatine ganglion blocks has been very strong in those who believe in the technique, but the research results have been inconclusive. Therefore, a double blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on 61 patients, 42 with fibromyalgia and 19 with myofascial pain syndrome. Pain was measured using visual analogue scales prior to treatment, during treatment, and 28 days after the treatment. Headaches were evaluated in frequency and location prior to and after treatment. Sphenopalatine ganglion blocks were performed under direct vision using 4% lidocaine and sterile water as a placebo. Analysis of the results showed no statistical differences between the lidocaine and the placebo groups.

  12. [Septic shock Fusobacterium necrophorum from origin gynecological at complicated an acute respiratory distress syndrome: a variant of Lemierre's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Huynh-Moynot, Sophie; Commandeur, Diane; Danguy des Déserts, Marc; Drouillard, Isabelle; Leguen, Patrick; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a female patient of 47 years old who presents in a state of septic shock with acute insufficient respiratory complicated with syndrome of acute respiratory distress, together with a list of abdominal pain and polyarthralgia too. In her case of medical history, it is retained that she has had a intra-uterine device since 6 years without medical follow up. The initial thoraco-abdomino-pelvic scan shows a left ovarian vein thrombosis, as well as the opaqueness alveolus diffused interstitiel bilaterally and an aspect of ileitis. The IUD is taken off because of sudden occuring of purulent leucorrhoea. This results in a clinical and paraclinical improvement, whereas aminopenicillin was administered to the patient since 1 week. The microbiological blood test allows to put in evidence Fusobacterium necrophorum found in a blood culture and is sensitive to the amoxicilline-acide clavulanique and metronidazole. Isolation of this bacteria, classically found in Lemierre's syndrome, allowed to explain the multilfocalization of the symtoms and the list of pain. The whole concerns about a variant of Lemierre's syndrom: a state of septic shock secondary then caused by the anaerobic Gram negative bacilli, which is a commensal bacteria of the female genital tractus, complicated of septic emboli typical.

  13. Rheumatoid myositis leading to acute lower extremity compartment syndrome: a case-based review.

    PubMed

    Jo, Daniel; Pompa, Tiffany; Khalil, Ambreen; Kong, Frank; Wetz, Robert; Goldstein, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Muscle pain and weakness in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient has a broad differential, and myositis should be considered early in the disease course as serious limb and life-threatening sequelae may occur. A 55-year-old woman with a past medical history of methotrexate-controlled RA presented with right leg pain for 4 days. The patient suffered sensory loss in the right foot and decreased strength in the toes. Lab tests revealed elevated creatine kinase, ESR, and anti-rheumatoid factor antibody titers. CT scan revealed myositis of posterior compartment muscles. Progressive edema, pain, and neuromuscular deficits persisted despite steroid and antibiotic therapy, so the patient was taken for urgent fasciotomy for acute compartment syndrome. The muscle biopsy showed diffuse mononuclear cell infiltration as well as perivascular and perineural involvement consistent with rheumatoid myositis (RM). The patient did well post-op on a prednisone taper. This case underlines the systemic nature of RA and exemplifies the severity of inflammation that may lead to grave consequences such as compartment syndrome. The histopathology is diagnostic when there is evidence of mononuclear cell infiltration; however, this is not entirely specific. Early, aggressive therapy with immunosuppressives is warranted in such patients. RM has not, to our knowledge, been recorded to cause acute compartment syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of this uncommon manifestation of RA keeping the various presentations of rheumatoid disease in mind when faced with these patients.

  14. Acute compartment syndrome of the foot following fixation of a pilon variant ankle fracture.

    PubMed

    Henning, Amy; Gaines, Robert J; Carr, Donald; Lambert, Edward

    2010-12-01

    Acute traumatic compartment syndrome of the foot is a serious potential complication after fractures, crush injuries, or reperfusion injury after vascular repair. Foot compartment syndrome in association with injuries to the ankle is rare. This article presents a case of acute compartment syndrome of the foot following open reduction and internal fixation of an ankle fracture. A 16-year-old girl presented after sustaining a left ankle injury. Radiographs demonstrated a length-stable posterior and lateral malleolar ankle fracture. Initial treatment consisted of a bulky splint and crutches pending the improvement of her swelling. Over the course of a week, the soft tissue environment of the distal lower extremity improved, and the patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation of both her fibula and distal tibia through 2 approaches. Approximately 2 hours from the completion of surgery, the patient reported worsening pain over the medial aspect of her foot and into her calcaneus. Physical examination of the foot demonstrated a swollen and tense abductor hallicus and heel pad. Posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis pulses were palpable and her sensation was intact throughout her foot. Emergently, fasciotomy of both compartments was performed through a medial incision. Postoperatively, the patient reported immediate pain relief. At 18-month follow-up, she reported no pain and had returned to all of her preinjury athletic activities.

  15. Prognosis of acute low back pain: design of a prospective inception cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Henschke, Nicholas; Maher, Christopher G; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Herbert, Robert D; Cumming, Robert G; Bleasel, Jane; York, John; Das, Anurina; McAuley, James H

    2006-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines generally portray acute low back pain as a benign and self-limiting condition. However, evidence about the clinical course of acute low back pain is contradictory and the risk of subsequently developing chronic low back pain remains uncertain. There are few high quality prognosis studies and none that have measured pain, disability and return to work over a 12 month period. This study aims to provide the first estimates of the one year prognosis of acute low back pain (pain of less than 2 weeks duration) in patients consulting primary care practitioners. A secondary aim is to identify factors that are associated with the prognosis of low back pain. Methods/Design The study is a prospective inception cohort study. Consecutive patients consulting general medical practitioners, physiotherapists and chiropractors in the Sydney metropolitan region will complete a baseline questionnaire regarding their back pain. Subsequently these patients will be followed up by telephone 6 weeks, 3 months and 12 months after the initial consultation. Patients will be considered to have recovered from the episode of back pain if they have no pain and no limitation of activity, and have returned to pre-injury work status. Life tables will be generated to determine the one year prognosis of acute low back pain. Prognostic factors will be assessed using Cox regression. Discussion This study will provide the first estimates of the one year prognosis of acute low back pain in a representative sample of primary care patients. PMID:16790069

  16. Acute compartment syndrome in children: contemporary diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Bae, D S; Kadiyala, R K; Waters, P M

    2001-01-01

    Compartment syndrome can be difficult to diagnose in a child, with delays in diagnosis leading to disastrous outcomes. Thirty-six cases of compartment syndrome in 33 pediatric patients were treated at the authors' institution from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 1997. There were 27 boys and 6 girls, with nearly equal upper and lower extremity involvement. Approximately 75% of these patients developed compartment syndrome in the setting of fracture. Pain, pallor, paresthesia, paralysis, and pulselessness were relatively unreliable signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome in these children. An increasing analgesia requirement in combination with other clinical signs, however, was a more sensitive indicator of compartment syndrome: all 10 patients with access to patient-controlled or nurse-administered analgesia during their initial evaluation demonstrated an increasing requirement for pain medication. With early diagnosis and expeditious treatment, >90% of the patients studied achieved full restoration of function.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Casazza, Brian A

    2012-02-15

    Acute low back pain is one of the most common reasons for adults to see a family physician. Although most patients recover quickly with minimal treatment, proper evaluation is imperative to identify rare cases of serious underlying pathology. Certain red flags should prompt aggressive treatment or referral to a spine specialist, whereas others are less concerning. Serious red flags include significant trauma related to age (i.e., injury related to a fall from a height or motor vehicle crash in a young patient, or from a minor fall or heavy lifting in a patient with osteoporosis or possible osteoporosis), major or progressive motor or sensory deficit, new-onset bowel or bladder incontinence or urinary retention, loss of anal sphincter tone, saddle anesthesia, history of cancer metastatic to bone, and suspected spinal infection. Without clinical signs of serious pathology, diagnostic imaging and laboratory testing often are not required. Although there are numerous treatments for nonspecific acute low back pain, most have little evidence of benefit. Patient education and medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and muscle relaxants are beneficial. Bed rest should be avoided if possible. Exercises directed by a physical therapist, such as the McKenzie method and spine stabilization exercises, may decrease recurrent pain and need for health care services. Spinal manipulation and chiropractic techniques are no more effective than established medical treatments, and adding them to established treatments does not improve outcomes. No substantial benefit has been shown with oral steroids, acupuncture, massage, traction, lumbar supports, or regular exercise programs. PMID:22335313

  18. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Salu, P; Stempels, N; Vanden Houte, K; Verbeelen, D

    1990-01-01

    A case of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome (TINU syndrome) in an elderly woman is reported. The present case demonstrates that this entity originally observed in children, and more recently in adults, may also occur in the elderly. The aetiology and treatment are briefly discussed. Images PMID:2407289

  19. Does weather affect daily pain intensity levels in patients with acute low back pain? A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Duong, Vicky; Maher, Chris G; Steffens, Daniel; Li, Qiang; Hancock, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various weather parameters on pain intensity levels in patients with acute low back pain (LBP). We performed a secondary analysis using data from the PACE trial that evaluated paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the treatment of acute LBP. Data on 1604 patients with LBP were included in the analysis. Weather parameters (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Pain intensity was assessed daily on a 0-10 numerical pain rating scale over a 2-week period. A generalised estimating equation analysis was used to examine the relationship between daily pain intensity levels and weather in three different time epochs (current day, previous day, and change between previous and current days). A second model was adjusted for important back pain prognostic factors. The analysis did not show any association between weather and pain intensity levels in patients with acute LBP in each of the time epochs. There was no change in strength of association after the model was adjusted for prognostic factors. Contrary to common belief, the results demonstrated that the weather parameters of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure did not influence the intensity of pain reported by patients during an episode of acute LBP.

  20. Does weather affect daily pain intensity levels in patients with acute low back pain? A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Duong, Vicky; Maher, Chris G; Steffens, Daniel; Li, Qiang; Hancock, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various weather parameters on pain intensity levels in patients with acute low back pain (LBP). We performed a secondary analysis using data from the PACE trial that evaluated paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the treatment of acute LBP. Data on 1604 patients with LBP were included in the analysis. Weather parameters (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Pain intensity was assessed daily on a 0-10 numerical pain rating scale over a 2-week period. A generalised estimating equation analysis was used to examine the relationship between daily pain intensity levels and weather in three different time epochs (current day, previous day, and change between previous and current days). A second model was adjusted for important back pain prognostic factors. The analysis did not show any association between weather and pain intensity levels in patients with acute LBP in each of the time epochs. There was no change in strength of association after the model was adjusted for prognostic factors. Contrary to common belief, the results demonstrated that the weather parameters of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure did not influence the intensity of pain reported by patients during an episode of acute LBP. PMID:26759130

  1. Scalene Myofascial Pain Syndrome Mimicking Cervical Disc Prolapse: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Abd Jalil, Nizar; Awang, Mohammad Saufi; Omar, Mahamarowi

    2010-01-01

    Scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome wherein pain originates over the neck area and radiates down to the arm. This condition may present as primary or secondary to underlying cervical pathology. Although scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a well known medical entity, it is often misdiagnosed as being some other neck pain associated with radiculopathy, such as cervical disc prolapse, cervical spinal stenosis and thoracic outlet syndrome. Because scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimics cervical radiculopathy, this condition often leads to mismanagement, which can, in turn, result in persistent pain and suffering. In the worst-case scenarios, patients may be subjected to unjustifiable surgical intervention. Because the clinical findings in scalene myofascial pain syndrome are “pathognomonic”, clinicians should be aware of ways to recognize this disorder and be able to differentiate it from other conditions that present with neck pain and rediculopathy. We present two cases of unilateral scalene myofascial pain syndrome that significantly impaired the patients’ functioning and quality of life. This case report serves to create awareness about the existence of the syndrome and to highlight the potential morbidity due to clinical misdiagnosis. PMID:22135529

  2. Scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimicking cervical disc prolapse: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Abd Jalil, Nizar; Awang, Mohammad Saufi; Omar, Mahamarowi

    2010-01-01

    Scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome wherein pain originates over the neck area and radiates down to the arm. This condition may present as primary or secondary to underlying cervical pathology. Although scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a well known medical entity, it is often misdiagnosed as being some other neck pain associated with radiculopathy, such as cervical disc prolapse, cervical spinal stenosis and thoracic outlet syndrome. Because scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimics cervical radiculopathy, this condition often leads to mismanagement, which can, in turn, result in persistent pain and suffering. In the worst-case scenarios, patients may be subjected to unjustifiable surgical intervention. Because the clinical findings in scalene myofascial pain syndrome are "pathognomonic", clinicians should be aware of ways to recognize this disorder and be able to differentiate it from other conditions that present with neck pain and rediculopathy. We present two cases of unilateral scalene myofascial pain syndrome that significantly impaired the patients' functioning and quality of life. This case report serves to create awareness about the existence of the syndrome and to highlight the potential morbidity due to clinical misdiagnosis.

  3. [Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS)].

    PubMed

    Scheiner, David A; Perucchini, Daniele; Fink, Daniel; Betschart, Cornelia

    2015-08-19

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is still an etiologically poorly understood chronic pain syndrome. BPS is a clinical diagnosis. The current treatment modalities are aimed at symptom relief because no cure is possible. Analgesics may be used at any point in treatment but preferably for short-term relief for flares or bladder pain. AUA has issued clinical practice guidelines with a stepwise approach. The first-line therapy begins with self-care and behavior modification. Physical therapy and oral medications such as amitriptyline, PPS, or antihistamines belong to the second-line therapy. Third-line therapy requires cystoscopy and hydrodistension, treatment of Hunner lesions, or intravesical use of e.g. DMSO. Neuromodulation is considered a fourth-line therapy in patients who have failed third-line treatments. Fifth-line therapies consist of intravesical injection of BoNT or oral cyclosporin A. Cystectomy is the sixth-line therapy and the treatment of last resort. PMID:26286495

  4. [Clinical practice guideline 'Complex regional pain syndrome type I'].

    PubMed

    Perez, R S G M; Zollinger, P E; Dijkstra, P U; Thomassen-Hilgersom, I L; Zuurmond, W W A; Rosenbrand, C J G M; Geertzen, J H B

    2007-07-28

    The development and treatment ofthe complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) are a subject of much discussion. Using the method for the development ofevidence-based guidelines, a multidisciplinary guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome has been drawn up. The diagnosis of CRPS-I is based on the clinical observation of signs and symptoms. For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised up to step z. In case of pain ofa neuropathic nature, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For the treatment ofinflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. In order to enhance peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used for a cold extremity ifvasodilatory medication produces insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, the use of vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operation time and limited use of bloodlessness are advised for the secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Use of regional anaesthetic techniques can also be considered in this connection.

  5. Acute and chronic compartment syndromes: know when to act fast.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Heard, Hank; Kelham, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Compartment syndrome is a fairly common condition noted in patients with fractures or crush injuries to the extremities (acute compartment syndrome) and in athletes (chronic compartment syndrome). Compartments bound by fascia are found in the extremities, buttocks, and abdomen; conditions that cause intracompartmental swelling and hypertension can lead to ischemia and limb loss. This article reviews diagnosis of the problem, monitoring of compartment pressure, and appropriate treatment.

  6. Painful Bladder Filling and Painful Urgency Are Distinct Characteristics in Men and Women with Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes – A MAPP Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H. Henry; Krieger, John N.; Pontari, Michel A.; Buchwald, Dedra; Hou, Xiaoling; Landis, J. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe bladder-associated symptoms in patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS) and to correlate these symptoms with urologic, non-urologic, psychosocial, and quality of life measures. Methods Participants were 233 women and 191 men with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in a multi-center study. They completed a battery of measures, including items asking if their pain worsened with bladder filling (“painful filling”) or if their urge to urinate was due to pain, pressure, or discomfort (“painful urgency”). Participants were categorized into 3 groups: 1) “both” painful filling and painful urgency, 2) “either” painful filling or painful urgency, or 3) “neither.” Results Seventy-five percent of men and 88% of women were categorized as “both” or “either.” These bladder characteristics were associated with more severe urologic symptoms (increased pain, frequency, urgency), higher somatic symptom burden, depression, and worse quality of life (all p<0.01, 3-group trend test). A gradient effect was observed across groups (both > either > neither). Compared to those in the “neither” group, men categorized as “both” or “either” reported more frequent UCPPS symptom flares, catastrophizing, and irritable bowel syndrome, and women categorized as “both” or “either” were more likely to have negative affect and chronic fatigue syndrome. Conclusions Men and women with bladder symptoms characterized as painful filling or painful urgency had more severe urologic symptoms, more generalized symptoms, and worse quality of life than participants who reported neither characteristic, suggesting that these symptom characteristics might represent important subsets of UCPPS patients. PMID:26192257

  7. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted. PMID:25497431

  8. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted.

  9. [Epidemiology of acute coronary syndrome in Campania].

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Giovanni; Citro, Rodolfo; Chieffo, Carmine; Corsini, Fabrizio; Riccio, Carmine; Iacomino, Maria; Serafino, Maria

    2005-06-01

    Recent observational studies have pointed out many problems regarding the pre-hospital and in-hospital management of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The present study analyses the epidemiology of ACS in Campania Region. It has enrolled the 92.3% of coronary care units (CCU) of the Campania. The results indicate that 77% of patients admitted in CCU have ACS and the time of admission in CCU is still too long. Moreover the vast majority of patients arrive at the hospital without emergency ambulance and 48% of patients admitted in CCU for ACS with elevated ST segment do not receive any reperfusion therapy; compared with the 35.1% of patients included in the BLITZ study. The challenge of the SSN in the next future is to improve the "decision making" in the management of patients with ACS. This goal could be reached by an optimal organization of the hospital and out-of-hospital emergency services creating an integrated network of cardiological assistance.

  10. Prognostic biomarkers in acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of death around the globe. Beside a still high mortality rate, additional complications of ACS include arrhythmias, left ventricular mural thrombus, cardiac fibrosis, heart failure (HF), cardiogenic shock, mitral valve dysfunction, aneurysms, up to cardiac rupture. Despite many prognostic tools have been developed over the past decades, efforts are still ongoing to identify reliable and predictive biomarkers, which may help predict the prognosis of these patients and especially the risk of HF. Recent evidence suggests that the value of a discrete number of biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis, namely the soluble form of suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) and galectin-3 (GAL-3), may be predictive of HF and death in patients with ACS. Interestingly, the already promising predictive value of these biomarkers when measured alone was shown to be consistently magnified when combined with other and well-established cardiac biomarkers such natriuretic peptides and cardiac troponins. This article is hence aimed to review the current knowledge about cardiac biomarkers of fibrosis and adverse remodeling. PMID:27500159

  11. Cardiogenic shock in acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; Rucabado-Aguilar, Luis; Expósito-Ruiz, Manuela; Morante-Valle, Antonia; Castillo-Rivera, Ana; Pintor-Mármol, Antonio; Rosell-Ortiz, Fernando; Mellado-Vergel, Francisco José; Machado-Casas, Juan; Tejero-Pedregosa, Armando; Lara-Torrano, Juan

    2009-03-01

    This is a review of current knowledge on cardiogenic shock (CS), with particular attention to recommended management. The bibliography for the study was compiled through a search of different databases between 1966-2008. The references cited in the selected articles were also reviewed. The selection criteria included all reports published on CS, from case reports and case series to controlled studies. Languages used were Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, German, and English. Cardiogenic shock is the most frequent cause of in-hospital death as a complication of acute coronary syndrome. The incidence is about 7% and, despite therapeutic advances, it continues to have an ominous prognosis, with mortality rates of over 50%. Coronary reperfusion is fundamental in the management of cardiogenic shock, particularly with the use of percutaneous coronary intervention. However, if this is not available, systemic thrombolysis may be performed together with balloon counterpulsation or the use of pressor drugs. Despite the historical importance of the Swan-Ganz catheter, this would appear to have limited use, with echocardiography nonetheless having a fundamental role in the management of CS. Although patients with cardiogenic shock often present a left ventricular ejection fraction of around 30%, survivors often have a good functional classification one year after the event. Neurohormonal and inflammatory mechanisms play a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of CS. These mechanisms are currently the target of studies looking into developing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:19247258

  12. Acute Charles Bonnet Syndrome following Hughes procedure.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michelle E; Pointdujour-Lim, Renelle; Lally, Sara; Shields, Carol L; Rabinowitz, Michael P

    2016-10-01

    A 69-year-old male experienced monocular formed visual hallucinations after occlusion of the right eye following resection of eyelid basal cell carcinoma and reconstruction with a Hughes procedure (tarsoconjunctival flap). His symptoms included recurrent, well-defined, organized, complex, formed images of small children playing in the snow. These visual phenomena occurred only in the occluded eye, began several hours after surgery, and recurred intermittently several times daily for 4 days, lasting several minutes with each occurrence. The patient retained insight into the false nature of the images throughout the duration of his symptoms, and the hallucinations resolved spontaneously while the flap was still in place. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) following a Hughes procedure in a patient with normal visual acuity in the non-occluded fellow eye. Unlike other reported cases of acute onset CBS following transient monocular occlusion, hallucinations in the occluded eye remitted prior to restoration of vision in the occluded eye. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the potential for CBS following even transient monocular occlusion and should consider warning patients about its potential to occur. PMID:27467709

  13. Prognostic biomarkers in acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salvagno, Gian Luca; Pavan, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of death around the globe. Beside a still high mortality rate, additional complications of ACS include arrhythmias, left ventricular mural thrombus, cardiac fibrosis, heart failure (HF), cardiogenic shock, mitral valve dysfunction, aneurysms, up to cardiac rupture. Despite many prognostic tools have been developed over the past decades, efforts are still ongoing to identify reliable and predictive biomarkers, which may help predict the prognosis of these patients and especially the risk of HF. Recent evidence suggests that the value of a discrete number of biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis, namely the soluble form of suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) and galectin-3 (GAL-3), may be predictive of HF and death in patients with ACS. Interestingly, the already promising predictive value of these biomarkers when measured alone was shown to be consistently magnified when combined with other and well-established cardiac biomarkers such natriuretic peptides and cardiac troponins. This article is hence aimed to review the current knowledge about cardiac biomarkers of fibrosis and adverse remodeling. PMID:27500159

  14. Acute Charles Bonnet Syndrome following Hughes procedure.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michelle E; Pointdujour-Lim, Renelle; Lally, Sara; Shields, Carol L; Rabinowitz, Michael P

    2016-10-01

    A 69-year-old male experienced monocular formed visual hallucinations after occlusion of the right eye following resection of eyelid basal cell carcinoma and reconstruction with a Hughes procedure (tarsoconjunctival flap). His symptoms included recurrent, well-defined, organized, complex, formed images of small children playing in the snow. These visual phenomena occurred only in the occluded eye, began several hours after surgery, and recurred intermittently several times daily for 4 days, lasting several minutes with each occurrence. The patient retained insight into the false nature of the images throughout the duration of his symptoms, and the hallucinations resolved spontaneously while the flap was still in place. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) following a Hughes procedure in a patient with normal visual acuity in the non-occluded fellow eye. Unlike other reported cases of acute onset CBS following transient monocular occlusion, hallucinations in the occluded eye remitted prior to restoration of vision in the occluded eye. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the potential for CBS following even transient monocular occlusion and should consider warning patients about its potential to occur.

  15. Primary Sjogren's Syndrome Presenting as Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis/Hamman-Rich Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Humayun, Mohammad; Haider, Iqbal; Ayub, Maimoona; Shah, Zakir; Ajmal, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    A previously well, 45-year-old Pakistani lady was admitted to the medical unit on-call of Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH) Peshawar with a 5-day history of fever, productive cough with copious mucoid sputum, dyspnea, and pleuritic chest pain. She also complained of dry eyes, mouth, and vagina. Her chest X-ray showed diffuse alveolar shadowing and arterial gas analysis confirmed type 1 respiratory failure. Over the next few days, she deteriorated rapidly making an urgent transfer to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) necessary, where she was mechanically ventilated. An HRCT followed by bronchoscopic biopsies made a diagnosis of acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP), formerly known as Hamman-Rich syndrome. She also turned out to be positive for both anti-SS-A/Ro and anti-SS-B/La antibodies along with a positive Schirmer's test and lower lip biopsy. She received intravenous steroids and supportive care. The patient had a complete recovery after approximately three weeks' stay in the hospital with lung function returning back to normal. This is most probably the first ever case of primary Sjogren syndrome (pSjS) presenting as AIP, recovering completely in less than a month time.

  16. Potential Risk Factors for the Onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, Edward A.; Mulder, Roger T.

    2015-01-01

    Anaesthetists in the acute and chronic pain teams are often involved in treating Complex Regional Pain Syndromes. Current literature about the risk factors for the onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 (CRPS 1) remains sparse. This syndrome has a low prevalence, a highly variable presentation, and no gold standard for diagnosis. In the research setting, the pathogenesis of the syndrome continues to be elusive. There is a growing body of literature that addresses efficacy of a wide range of interventions as well as the likely mechanisms that contribute to the onset of CRPS 1. The objective for this systematic search of the literature focuses on determining the potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1. Eligible articles were analysed, dated 1996 to April 2014, and potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were identified from 10 prospective and 6 retrospective studies. Potential risk factors for the onset of CRPS 1 were found to include being female, particularly postmenopausal female, ankle dislocation or intra-articular fracture, immobilisation, and a report of higher than usual levels of pain in the early phases of trauma. It is not possible to draw definite conclusions as this evidence is heterogeneous and of mixed quality, relevance, and weighting strength against bias and has not been confirmed across multiple trials or in homogenous studies. PMID:25688265

  17. Coracoid syndrome: a neglected cause of anterior shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    GIGANTE, ANTONIO; BOTTEGONI, CARLO; BARBADORO, PAMELA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose the present prospective open-label study was designed to gain further insights into a condition thought to constitute a neglected but not uncommon syndrome characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process, not related to rotator cuff or pectoralis minor tendinopathy, long head of the biceps tendon disorders, or instability. The aim was to clarify its prevalence, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and response to corticosteroid injections. Methods patients with primary anterior shoulder pain precisely reproduced by deep pressure on the apex of the coracoid process were recruited. Patients with clinical or instrumental signs of other shoulder disorders were excluded. Patients were given an injection of triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg/ml 1 ml at the coracoid trigger point. They were evaluated after 15, 30 and 60 days and at 2 years using Equal Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) and the Italian version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Results between January 1 and December 31 2010, we treated 15 patients aged 26–66 years. The majority were women (86.67%). At 15 days, 6 (40%) patients reported complete resolution of their symptoms, while 9 (60%) complained of residual symptoms and received another injection. At 30 days, 14 (93.33%) patients were pain-free and very satisfied. At 2 years, the 14 patients who had been asymptomatic at 30 days reported that they had experienced no further pain or impaired shoulder function. The analysis of variance for repeated measures showed a significant effect of time on EQ-VAS and SST scores. Conclusions the present study documents the existence, and characteristics, of a “coracoid syndrome” characterized by anterior shoulder pain and tenderness to palpation over the apex of the coracoid process and showed that the pain is usually amenable to steroid treatment. This syndrome should be clearly distinguished from anterior shoulder pain due to other causes, in

  18. Availability of services to treat patients with acute low back pain.

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, M R; Vickers, M R; Barnett, A G

    1997-01-01

    Guidelines for the management of acute low back pain were published in 1994. This national survey, conducted soon after, showed that the availability of services for general practitioners (GPs) to treat acute back pain fell short of the guideline recommendations. A repeat survey will be performed to measure the impact of guideline publication and dissemination. PMID:9302790

  19. Current thinking about acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Shadgan, Babak; Menon, Matthew; Sanders, David; Berry, Gregg; Martin, Claude; Duffy, Paul; Stephen, David; O'Brien, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a clinical condition that, although uncommon, is seen fairly regularly in modern orthopedic practice. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known to physicians who care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The diagnosis, however, is often difficult to make. In this article, we review the clinical risk factors of acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity, identify the current concepts of diagnosis and discuss appropriate treatment plans. We also describe the Canadian medicolegal environment in regard to compartment syndrome of the lower extremity.

  20. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Dushianthan, A; Grocott, M P W; Postle, A D; Cusack, R

    2011-09-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life threatening respiratory failure due to lung injury from a variety of precipitants. Pathologically ARDS is characterised by diffuse alveolar damage, alveolar capillary leakage, and protein rich pulmonary oedema leading to the clinical manifestation of poor lung compliance, severe hypoxaemia, and bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph. Several aetiological factors associated with the development of ARDS are identified with sepsis, pneumonia, and trauma with multiple transfusions accounting for most cases. Despite the absence of a robust diagnostic definition, extensive epidemiological investigations suggest ARDS remains a significant health burden with substantial morbidity and mortality. Improvements in outcome following ARDS over the past decade are in part due to improved strategies of mechanical ventilation and advanced support of other failing organs. Optimal treatment involves judicious fluid management, protective lung ventilation with low tidal volumes and moderate positive end expiratory pressure, multi-organ support, and treatment where possible of the underlying cause. Moreover, advances in general supportive measures such as appropriate antimicrobial therapy, early enteral nutrition, prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism and gastrointestinal ulceration are likely contributory reasons for the improved outcomes. Although therapies such as corticosteroids, nitric oxide, prostacyclins, exogenous surfactants, ketoconazole and antioxidants have shown promising clinical effects in animal models, these have failed to translate positively in human studies. Most recently, clinical trials with β2 agonists aiding alveolar fluid clearance and immunonutrition with omega-3 fatty acids have also provided disappointing results. Despite these negative studies, mortality seems to be in decline due to advances in overall patient care. Future directions of research are likely to concentrate on identifying potential

  1. Intravesical chondroitin sulphate for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, DB; Curry, D; Cartwright, C; Downey, P; Pahuja, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder. Bladder instillation is one avenue of treatment but evidence for its effectiveness is limited. Chondroitin sulphate solution 2.0% (Urocyst) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) replenishment therapy instilled for patients with IC/PBS. We assessed its effectiveness for treating IC/PBS in Northern Ireland. Methods Patients with IC/PBS were assessed with the O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis index score and global response assessment questionnaire prior to commencing treatment. Assessment with these questionnaires was performed after 6 treatments (10 weeks) and again after 10 treatments (24 weeks). Assessment end points were pain, urgency, symptom score and problem score. Results Data was collected on 10 patients, 9 female and 1 male. 6 patients had failed RIMSO-50 dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) 50% treatment prior. At baseline the mean pain score was 6.6, urgency score 7.00, symptom score 13.5 and problem score 12.5. After 24 weeks the mean pain score fell to 2.0, urgency score to 1.80, symptom score to 6.89 and problem score to 5.67. At 10 weeks the global response to treatment was 100%. Nocturia was the first symptom to improve with urgency and pain following. No side effects were noted during instillation and all patients tolerated the treatments. Conclusion IC/PBS is a difficult disease to treat. It requires a multimodal approach. We found that intravesical chondroitin sulphate reduced pain, urgency and O'Leary-Sant symptom and problem scores in patients with IC/PBS. All patients tolerated the treatment and no side effects were reported. PMID:26668417

  2. Guideline update: what's the best approach to acute low back pain?

    PubMed

    Bach, Son M; Holten, Keith B

    2009-12-01

    GRADE A RECOMMENDATIONS (based on good-quality patient-oriented evidence): Advise patients to stay active and continue ordinary activity within the limits permitted by pain, avoid bed rest, and return to work early, which is associated with less disability. Consider McKenzie exercises, which are helpful for pain radiating below the knee. Recommend acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) if medication is necessary. COX-2 inhibitors, muscle relaxants, and opiate analgesics have not been shown to be more effective than NSAIDs for acute low back pain. Consider imaging if patients have no improvement after 6 weeks, although diagnostic tests or imaging is not usually required. GRADE B RECOMMENDATIONS (based on inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence): Reassure patients that 90% of episodes resolve within 6 weeks-regardless of treatment. Advise patients that minor flares-ups may occur in the subsequent year. Consider a plain lumbosacral spine x-ray if there is suspicion of spinal fracture or compression. Consider a bone scan after 10 days, if fracture is still suspected or the patient has multiple sites of pain. Suspect cauda equina syndrome or severe or progressive neurological deficit if red flags are present. Obtain complete blood count, urinalysis, and sedimentation rate if cancer or infection are possibilities. If still suspicious, consider referral or perform other studies. Remember that a negative plain film x-ray does not rule out disease. GRADE C RECOMMENDATIONS (based on consensus, usual practice, opinion, disease-oriented evidence, or case series): Recommend ice for painful areas and stretching exercises. Discuss the use of proper body mechanics and safe back exercises for injury prevention. Refer for goal-directed manual physical therapy if there is no improvement in 1 to 2 weeks, not modalities such as heat, traction, ultrasound, or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Do not refer for surgery in the absence of

  3. Ventricular Tachycardia and Resembling Acute Coronary Syndrome During Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lin; Pang, Zhan-qi; Ma, Ben; Li, Ya-wen; Yang, Jian; Dong, He

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors, and its cardiac involvement may include transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and even ventricular arrhythmias. A patient was referred for evaluation of stuttering chest pain, and his electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion over leads V1 to V4. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was stented. Five days later, the patient had ventricular tachycardia, and severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 224/76 and 70/50 mm Hg. The patient felt abdominal pain and his abdominal ultrasound showed suspicious right adrenal gland tumor. Enhanced computed tomography of adrenal gland conformed that there was a tumor in right adrenal gland accompanied by an upset level of aldosterone. The tumor was removed by laparoscope, and the pathological examination showed pheochromocytoma. After the surgery, the blood pressure turned normal gradually. There was no T-wave inversion in lead V1-V4. Our case illustrates a rare pheochromocytoma presentation with a VT and resembling ACS. In our case, the serious stenosis in the mid of LAD could be explained by worsen the clinical course of myocardial ischemia or severe coronary vasospasm by the excessive amounts of catecholamines released from the tumor. Coronary vasospasm was possible because he had no classic coronary risk factors (e.g. family history and smoking habit, essential hypertension, hyperglycemia and abnormal serum lipoprotein, high body mass index). Thus, pheochromocytoma was missed until he revealed the association of his symptoms with abdominalgia. As phaeochromocytomas that present with cardiovascular complications can be fatal, it is necessary to screen for the disease when patients present with symptoms indicating catecholamine excess. PMID:27057898

  4. New treatments for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Adam C.; Dimitrakov, Jordan D.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition among men of a wide age range, with detrimental effects on quality of life. The etiology, pathogenesis, and optimal treatment of CP/CPPS remain unknown, although progress has been made in these domains in recent years. A wide variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies have been studied in clinical trials, but most have shown limited efficacy in symptom alleviation. CP/CPPS is increasingly viewed as a condition that involves variable degrees of neuropathic pain. Medications such as gabapentin, pregabalin, memantine, and tricyclic antidepressants are often used in other neuropathic pain conditions and, therefore, are considered potential treatments for CP/CPPS. Few studies of these agents in patients with CP/CPPS have been reported, but future clinical trials should help to determine their utility and to characterize the pathogenetic mechanisms of pain in CP/CPPS. Combining treatment trials with biomarker, genomic, and imaging studies, in addition to epidemiologic and symptom-based assessments, will maximize the ability to probe disease etiology and pathogenesis, as well as identify effective treatment. PMID:20142810

  5. Neurogenic neuroinflammation in fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, Geoffrey

    2015-11-01

    Although fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) have distinct clinical phenotypes, they do share many other features. Pain, allodynia and dysaesthesia occur in each condition and seem to exist on a similar spectrum. Fibromyalgia and CRPS can both be triggered by specific traumatic events, although fibromyalgia is most commonly associated with psychological trauma and CRPS is most often associated with physical trauma, which is frequently deemed routine or minor by the patient. Fibromyalgia and CRPS also seem to share many pathophysiological mechanisms, among which the most important are those involving central effects. Nonetheless, peripheral effects, such as neurogenic neuroinflammation, are also important contributors to the clinical features of each of these disorders. This Review highlights the differing degrees to which neurogenic neuroinflammation might contribute to the multifactorial pathogenesis of both fibromyalgia and CRPS, and discusses the evidence suggesting that this mechanism is an important link between the two disorders, and could offer novel therapeutic targets.

  6. Comorbidity of fibromyalgia and cervical myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cakit, Burcu Duyur; Taskin, Suhan; Nacir, Baris; Unlu, Irem; Genc, Hakan; Erdem, Hatice Rana

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the frequency of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in patients with chronic cervical myofascial pain (CMP) and to investigate the FMS characteristics in CMP patients. Ninty-three patients with CMP and 30 age-matched healthy women were included in this study. Main outcome measures included visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and pain pressure thresholds. CMP patients were evaluated for the existence of FMS. The severity of FMS was assessed with total myalgic score (TMS) and control point score (CPS). Most common clinical characteristics of FMS were noted. Of the 93 CMP subjects, 22 (23.6%) patients fulfilled the classification criteria for FMS. Number of tender points were higher (p=0.0), while TMS (p=0.0) and CPS (p=0.0) values were lower in comorbid CMP and FMS patients than regional CMP group. There were statistically significant differences between regional CMP patients and comorbid CMP and FMS patients regarding presence of fatigue (p=0.0) and irritable bowel syndrome (p=0.022). There was no statistically significant difference between patient groups regarding VAS values (p>0.05). BDI values of the regional CMP were significantly lower than comorbid CMP and FMS patients (p=0.011). In conclusion, we found that nearly a quarter of CMP patients were comorbid with FMS, and psychological and comorbid symptoms were more prominent in comorbid patients. We thought that, these two syndromes might be overlapping conditions and as a peripheral pain generator or inducer of central sensitisation, MPS might lead to FMS or precipitate and worsen the FMS symptoms.

  7. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP): relationship to Hamman-Rich syndrome, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Parambil, Joseph G

    2012-10-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a term used for an idiopathic form of acute lung injury characterized clinically by acute respiratory failure with bilateral lung infiltrates and histologically by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), a combination of findings previously known as the Hamman-Rich syndrome. This review aims to clarify the diagnostic criteria of AIP, its relationship with DAD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), key etiologies that need to be excluded before making the diagnosis, and the salient clinical features. Cases that meet clinical and pathologic criteria for AIP overlap substantially with those that fulfill clinical criteria for ARDS. The main differences between AIP and ARDS are that AIP requires a histologic diagnosis of DAD and exclusion of known etiologies. AIP should also be distinguished from "acute exacerbation of IPF," a condition in which acute lung injury (usually DAD) supervenes on underlying usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

  8. Work-Related Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome can be a debilitating disorder, which, in its earliest stages, can be prevented by aggressive rehabilitation based on reactivation. It is critical to follow international criteria on making the diagnosis; overdiagnosis can lead to inappropriate interventions and further disability. When present, early recognition with reactivation is the cornerstone of treatment. This article presents a phased approach to treatment that suggests movements of nonresponders quickly to more integrated levels of care. Some commonly used invasive interventions, such as sympathectomy and spinal cord stimulation, have not been proved effective; these unproven and potentially harmful therapies should be avoided.

  9. Quercetin for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shoskes, Daniel A; Nickel, J Curtis

    2011-08-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition with a heterogeneous origin that responds best to multimodal therapy. The bioflavonoid quercetin has antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects that have proven useful for treating this condition. Using the clinical phenotype system UPOINT, quercetin can be helpful for those with organ-specific complaints (bladder or prostate) and pelvic floor spasm. This article discusses the current understanding of CP/CPPS and how treatment with quercetin can be used alone or as part of multimodal therapy.

  10. Chronic abdominal pain due to periostitis pubis. A new syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, N H

    1992-01-01

    Periostitis pubis is a clinical syndrome previously undescribed in the literature. It is characterized by lower abdominal pain that may have persisted for several weeks to several years. Physical findings are limited to tenderness in one of the lower abdominal quadrants and over the os pubis on the affected side. The diagnosis can be confirmed by injecting lidocaine hydrochloride into the area of point tenderness over the os pubis, which should relieve tenderness in both sites. An elaborate laboratory workup is not necessary. The condition can be cured with an injection of prednisolone tebutate at the site of tenderness over the os pubis.

  11. [Temporo-mandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    Gagnon, P P

    1978-12-01

    Otalgia is a common symptom in children. Otological examination usually reveals a local pathology as the causative agent. However, it does occur that otoscopy reveals normal ear drums and canals. The otologist must then review the causes of referred otalgia. We know that the ear is a nervous crossroad: vagus, trigeminal and third cervical nerve. The most common causes of referred otalgia are the teeth, the sinus, the mouth, the pharynx, and the larynx. If none of these factors is involved, one must then think about the painful temporomandibular dysfunction syndrome.

  12. [Sanatorium-based treatment of lumbar quadrate myofascial pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Avershin, V A; Oleĭnikov, B V; Pil'kevich, R P; Sofel', S A; Kniazhishche, A N; Grebenkin, S S

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes experience gained in the Central Military Sanatorium, Sochi, in the field of diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of patients with myofascial pain syndrome affecting the quadratum lumborum muscle. Conditions facilitating development of triggering myofascial structures in these muscles are analysed and methods of their diagnosis are discussed. The proposed compression test allows active trigger structures to be identified in the quadratum lumborum muscle. Detailed description of the method of myofascial meridional reflexotherapy is presented (ischemic compression of condensed trigger structures or points with dry needling, taking account of the breathing act). The authors emphasize the importance of correction of structural disproportions responsible for the formation of myofascial trigger structures.

  13. [Postoperative pain management. Aims and organization of a strategy for postoperative acute pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Nolli, M; Nicosia, F

    2000-09-01

    The Health Services, not only the Italian one, is under pressure because of request for improving treatment quality and the financial need for reorganization and cost-saving. It's required a rationalization of intervention, together with a careful choice of the best and cheapest techniques and the demonstration of their efficacy. The anaesthesia service activity, in a period of cost rationalization and funds restriction should be aimed to appropriate outcome measures corrected by both patient's risk factors and surgical-anaesthesiological case-mix. The development of a complete strategy for surgical pain management might run into two phases. The first phase, internal and mono-specialistic, should develop like the creation of an Acute Pain Team. The main processes are: focusing the problem (charge of the care), training, information, teaching methodology (timing, methods, drugs, techniques, etc.) and the audit (before and after changes). The main aims are the evaluation of the level of analgesia and pain relief or patient's satisfaction which are partial endpoints useful to demonstrate the improvement and the efficacy of the new pain management strategies. The second phase, multidisciplinary, is directed toward the creation of a Postoperative Evaluation Team. The main objective is to set up a collaborative clinical group able to identify the criteria for quality, efficacy and safety. The major purpose is the evaluation of major outcome measures: surgical outcome, morbidity, mortality and length of hospitalization. The improvement in the quality of postoperative pain treatment goes through a better organization and a progressive increase of the already available therapy. The achievement of the result and the quality projects depend on the interaction among staff members with different behaviours and settings. Internal teaching and training, continuous education for doctors and nurses, and external information, marketing and improvement of attractive capability of

  14. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, V Marco; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Thompson, B Taylor; Ferguson, Niall D; Caldwell, Ellen; Fan, Eddy; Camporota, Luigi; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2012-06-20

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined in 1994 by the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC); since then, issues regarding the reliability and validity of this definition have emerged. Using a consensus process, a panel of experts convened in 2011 (an initiative of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine) developed the Berlin Definition, focusing on feasibility, reliability, validity, and objective evaluation of its performance. A draft definition proposed 3 mutually exclusive categories of ARDS based on degree of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300 mm Hg), moderate (100 mm Hg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 200 mm Hg), and severe (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 100 mm Hg) and 4 ancillary variables for severe ARDS: radiographic severity, respiratory system compliance (≤40 mL/cm H2O), positive end-expiratory pressure (≥10 cm H2O), and corrected expired volume per minute (≥10 L/min). The draft Berlin Definition was empirically evaluated using patient-level meta-analysis of 4188 patients with ARDS from 4 multicenter clinical data sets and 269 patients with ARDS from 3 single-center data sets containing physiologic information. The 4 ancillary variables did not contribute to the predictive validity of severe ARDS for mortality and were removed from the definition. Using the Berlin Definition, stages of mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were associated with increased mortality (27%; 95% CI, 24%-30%; 32%; 95% CI, 29%-34%; and 45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%, respectively; P < .001) and increased median duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors (5 days; interquartile [IQR], 2-11; 7 days; IQR, 4-14; and 9 days; IQR, 5-17, respectively; P < .001). Compared with the AECC definition, the final Berlin Definition had better predictive validity for mortality, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.577 (95% CI, 0.561-0.593) vs 0.536 (95% CI, 0.520-0.553; P

  15. 'Pseudofailure' of spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain following a new severe noxious stimulus: learning points from a case series of failed spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome and failed back surgery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muquit, Samiul; Moussa, Ahmad Abdelhai; Basu, Surajit

    2016-05-01

    Failure of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be due to hardware problems, migration of electrodes and, in the long-term, plasticity in the spinal cord with habituation to the stimulation current. We describe a series of seven patients who experienced acute therapeutic loss of SCS effects following an acute nociceptive event unrelated to primary pathology. There were no hardware problems. We called this 'Pseudofailure', as the effective stimulation returned in all patients following a period off stimulation or reprogramming. This phenomenon has not been reported previously in the literature. Over a 4-year period, we managed seven patients with this feature: four had received SCS for complex regional pain syndrome and three for failed back surgery syndrome. In all seven cases, there was cessation of the pain relief afforded by SCS following an acute painful event: four patients had trauma, two patients had domestic electric shock and one patient suffered shingles (varicella zoster infection). We excluded hardware-related problems in all cases. In two patients, SCS effects could be regained by an initial attempt at reprogramming. In the remaining five cases reprogramming was unsuccessful, and stimulation was switched off for several months before recommencing, when we discovered a return of good therapeutic effect. We conclude that SCS may seem to fail following a separate strong nociceptive stimulus. Stimulation may be regained with reprogramming or following a period with stimulation switched off. We would, therefore, advise against removal of SCS hardware in the first instance.

  16. ‘Pseudofailure’ of spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain following a new severe noxious stimulus: learning points from a case series of failed spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome and failed back surgery syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muquit, Samiul; Moussa, Ahmad Abdelhai; Basu, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Failure of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be due to hardware problems, migration of electrodes and, in the long-term, plasticity in the spinal cord with habituation to the stimulation current. We describe a series of seven patients who experienced acute therapeutic loss of SCS effects following an acute nociceptive event unrelated to primary pathology. There were no hardware problems. We called this ‘Pseudofailure’, as the effective stimulation returned in all patients following a period off stimulation or reprogramming. This phenomenon has not been reported previously in the literature. Over a 4-year period, we managed seven patients with this feature: four had received SCS for complex regional pain syndrome and three for failed back surgery syndrome. In all seven cases, there was cessation of the pain relief afforded by SCS following an acute painful event: four patients had trauma, two patients had domestic electric shock and one patient suffered shingles (varicella zoster infection). We excluded hardware-related problems in all cases. In two patients, SCS effects could be regained by an initial attempt at reprogramming. In the remaining five cases reprogramming was unsuccessful, and stimulation was switched off for several months before recommencing, when we discovered a return of good therapeutic effect. We conclude that SCS may seem to fail following a separate strong nociceptive stimulus. Stimulation may be regained with reprogramming or following a period with stimulation switched off. We would, therefore, advise against removal of SCS hardware in the first instance. PMID:27551417

  17. 'Pseudofailure' of spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain following a new severe noxious stimulus: learning points from a case series of failed spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome and failed back surgery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muquit, Samiul; Moussa, Ahmad Abdelhai; Basu, Surajit

    2016-05-01

    Failure of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be due to hardware problems, migration of electrodes and, in the long-term, plasticity in the spinal cord with habituation to the stimulation current. We describe a series of seven patients who experienced acute therapeutic loss of SCS effects following an acute nociceptive event unrelated to primary pathology. There were no hardware problems. We called this 'Pseudofailure', as the effective stimulation returned in all patients following a period off stimulation or reprogramming. This phenomenon has not been reported previously in the literature. Over a 4-year period, we managed seven patients with this feature: four had received SCS for complex regional pain syndrome and three for failed back surgery syndrome. In all seven cases, there was cessation of the pain relief afforded by SCS following an acute painful event: four patients had trauma, two patients had domestic electric shock and one patient suffered shingles (varicella zoster infection). We excluded hardware-related problems in all cases. In two patients, SCS effects could be regained by an initial attempt at reprogramming. In the remaining five cases reprogramming was unsuccessful, and stimulation was switched off for several months before recommencing, when we discovered a return of good therapeutic effect. We conclude that SCS may seem to fail following a separate strong nociceptive stimulus. Stimulation may be regained with reprogramming or following a period with stimulation switched off. We would, therefore, advise against removal of SCS hardware in the first instance. PMID:27551417

  18. Effectiveness of core muscle strengthening for improving pain and dynamic balance among female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Al Saif, Amer; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah; Mamdouh, Khaled A

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a frequent musculoskeletal disorder, which can result from core muscles instability that can lead to pain and altered dynamic balance. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of core muscle strengthening on pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female patients with age ranging from 16 to 40 years with patellofemoral pain syndrome were divided into study (N=10) and control (N=10) groups. Both groups were given 4 weeks of conventional physical therapy program and an additional core muscle strengthening for the study group. The tools used to assess the outcome were Visual Analogue Scale and Star Excursion Balance Test. [Results] The results of the study show that participants in the study group revealed a significantly greater improvement in the intensity of pain and dynamic balance as compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Adding a core muscle-strengthening program to the conventional physical therapy management improves pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27313363

  19. Effectiveness of core muscle strengthening for improving pain and dynamic balance among female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Al Saif, Amer; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah; Mamdouh, Khaled A

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a frequent musculoskeletal disorder, which can result from core muscles instability that can lead to pain and altered dynamic balance. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of core muscle strengthening on pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female patients with age ranging from 16 to 40 years with patellofemoral pain syndrome were divided into study (N=10) and control (N=10) groups. Both groups were given 4 weeks of conventional physical therapy program and an additional core muscle strengthening for the study group. The tools used to assess the outcome were Visual Analogue Scale and Star Excursion Balance Test. [Results] The results of the study show that participants in the study group revealed a significantly greater improvement in the intensity of pain and dynamic balance as compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Adding a core muscle-strengthening program to the conventional physical therapy management improves pain and dynamic balance in female patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:27313363

  20. The Potential Role of an Extended-Release, Abuse-Deterrent Oxycodone/Acetaminophen Fixed-Dose Combination Product for the Treatment of Acute Pain.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; Raffa, Robert B

    2015-06-01

    Acute pain, prevalent as part of postoperative and traumatic pain, is often sub-optimally or inadequately treated. Fixed-dose combination analgesic products that combine a reduced amount of opioid with a nonopioid analgesic such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) in a single tablet offer potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic benefits, and may also result in an opioid-sparing effect. A new analgesic product (XARTEMIS™ XR, Mallinckrodt Brand Pharmaceuticals, Dublin, Ireland) combines oxycodone (7.5 mg) with acetaminophen (325 mg) in an immediate-release/extended-release (ER) formulation that is indicated for the treatment of acute pain. The ER formulation of this product provides stable serum drug concentrations that in this case lasts 12 h. Oxycodone/acetaminophen is a drug combination that offers safe and effective pain relief in a variety of acute pain syndromes such as postoperative pain. The combination formulation allows a smaller amount of oxycodone per tablet and the biphasic-layered matrix of the pill for ER may present obstacles to potential abusers. No opioid is totally abuse resistant, but the lower opioid content and tamper-resistant formulation of this product might discourage abuse. Clinicians must still be mindful of the acetaminophen part of this product in the patient's overall daily intake (in light of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity). The new product appears to provide an important new choice in the armamentarium against acute pain.

  1. Compartment syndrome: a complication of acute extremity trauma.

    PubMed

    Mabee, J R

    1994-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a serious potential complication of trauma to the extremities. Fractures, crush injuries, burns, and arterial injuries, among others, can result in increased tissue pressure within closed osseofascial or compartmental spaces. Prolonged exposure to elevated pressure can result in nerve and muscle necrosis. Extreme pain unrelieved with analgesia, subjective complaint of pressure, pain with passive muscle stretching, paresis, paresthesia, and intact pulses, in the presence of a physically tight compartment, should alert the physician to the presence of a compartment syndrome. The diagnosis is a clinical one, but it may be aided by measurements of intracompartmental tissue pressures. Compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency requiring prompt treatment by fasciotomy. Time is a critical factor; the longer the duration of elevated tissue pressure, the greater the potential for disastrous sequelae. Emergency medicine providers must be cognizant of this clinical syndrome so that early emergent surgical consultation can be obtained to avoid complications.

  2. High Frequency Migraine Is Associated with Lower Acute Pain Sensitivity and Abnormal Insula Activity Related to Migraine Pain Intensity, Attack Frequency, and Pain Catastrophizing

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vani A.; Moayedi, Massieh; Keaser, Michael L.; Khan, Shariq A.; Hubbard, Catherine S.; Goyal, Madhav; Seminowicz, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a pain disorder associated with abnormal brain structure and function, yet the effect of migraine on acute pain processing remains unclear. It also remains unclear whether altered pain-related brain responses and related structural changes are associated with clinical migraine characteristics. Using fMRI and three levels of thermal stimuli (non-painful, mildly painful, and moderately painful), we compared whole-brain activity between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched controls. Although, there were no significant differences in pain thresholds nor in pre-scan pain ratings to mildly painful thermal stimuli, patients did have aberrant suprathreshold nociceptive processing. Brain imaging showed that, compared to controls, patients had reduced activity in pain modulatory regions including left dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal, and middle temporal cortices and, at a lower-threshold, greater activation in the right mid-insula to moderate pain vs. mild pain. We also found that pain-related activity in the insula was associated with clinical variables in patients, including associations between: bilateral anterior insula and pain catastrophizing (PCS); bilateral anterior insula and contralateral posterior insula and migraine pain intensity; and bilateral posterior insula and migraine frequency at a lower-threshold. PCS and migraine pain intensity were also negatively associated with activity in midline regions including posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed a negative correlation between fractional anisotropy (a measure of white matter integrity; FA) and migraine duration in the right mid-insula and a positive correlation between left mid-insula FA and PCS. In sum, while patients showed lower sensitivity to acute noxious stimuli, the neuroimaging findings suggest enhanced nociceptive processing and significantly disrupted modulatory networks, particularly involving the insula, associated with indices

  3. Improvement in Anxiety and Pain After Whole Body Whirlpool Hydrotherapy Among Patients With Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sang Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the Whirlpool hydrotherapy on pain and anxiety in chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) patients, compared to the conventional hydrocollator pack therapy. Methods Forty-one subjects who have MPS in the upper trapezius muscles without depression were recruited. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups: the whirlpool therapy group whose bodies were immersed in a whirlpool bath at 34℃-36℃ for 30 minutes; the hydrocollator group who took a 30-minute application of a standard hot hydrocollator pack. Patients in both groups received therapy three days a week for 2 weeks and underwent several evaluations at baseline and after treatment. The variables we analyzed during evaluations were as follows: the primary outcome we considered was pain severity using a visual analogue scale. And the secondary outcomes examined included anxiety using the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and quality of life (QoL) using the Korean version of the World Health Organization QoL Assessment, Brief Form. All follow-up values were compared with the baseline values. Results The baseline parameters did not show significant differences between two groups. And after 2-week treatment, both groups revealed significant improvement in anxiety levels and QoL, as well as in pain. However, the improvement on pain (p=0.002) and anxiety (p=0.010) was significantly greater in the whirlpool group, compared to the hydrocollator group. Conclusion The whirlpool hydrotherapy can be used as a more effective therapeutic method to reduce pain and anxiety in chronic MPS patients without depression. PMID:24020034

  4. Spinal cord stimulation for treatment of pain in a patient with post thoracotomy pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Graybill, Jordan; Conermann, Till; Kabazie, Abraham J; Chandy, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Post Thoracotomy Pain Syndrome (PTPS) is defined as pain that occurs or persists in the area of the thoracotomy incision for at least 2 months following the initial procedure.  The true incidence of PTPS is hard to define as literature reports a wide range of occurrence from 5% to 90%.  Thoracotomy is associated with a high risk of severe chronic postoperative pain.  Presenting symptoms include both neuropathic pain in the area of the incision, as well as myofascial pain commonly in the ipsilateral scapula and shoulder.  Pain management can be challenging in these patients.  Multiple treatments have been described including conservative treatments with oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); topically applied, peripherally acting drugs; neuromodulating agents; physical therapy; transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation as well as more invasive treatments including intercostal nerve blocks, trigger point steroid injections, epidural steroid injections, radiofrequency nerve ablation, cryoablation, and one case report of spinal cord stimulation.  Unfortunately, a portion of these patients will have persistent pain in spite of multiple treatment modalities, and in some cases will experience worsening of pain. This case report describes the novel utility and complete resolution of symptoms with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in treatment of a patient with persistent PTPS. In the operating room, a percutaneous octet electrode lead was placed using sterile technique under fluoroscopic guidance and loss-of-resistance technique.  The octet electrode lead was subsequently advanced with the aid of fluoroscopy to the level of the T3 superior endplate just right of midline.  The patient's pain distribution was captured optimally with stimulation at this level.  With the assistance of a neurosurgeon, the lead was anchored, tunneled, and connected to a generator, which was implanted over the right iliac crest.  The patient tolerated the procedure well with

  5. Pubic inguinal pain syndrome: the so-called sports hernia.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Marta; Bombini, Grazia; Campanelli, Giampiero

    2014-03-01

    The "sportsman's hernia" commonly presents as a painful groin in those sports that involve kicking and twisting movements while running, particularly in rugby, football, soccer, and ice hockey players. Moreover, sportsman's hernia can be encountered even in normally physically active people. The pain experienced is recognized at the common point of origin of the rectus abdominis muscle and the adductor longus tendon on the pubic bone and the insertion of the inguinal ligament on the pubic bone. It is accepted that this chronic pain caused by abdominal wall weakness or injury occurs without a palpable hernia. We proposed the new name "pubic inguinal pain syndrome." In the period between January 2006 and November 2013 all patients afferent in our ambulatory clinic for chronic groin pain without a clinically evident hernia were assessed with medical history, physical examination, dynamic ultrasound, and pelvic and lumbar MRI. All patients were proposed for a conservative treatment and then, if it was not effective, for a surgical treatment. Our etiopathogenetic theory is based on three factors: (1) the compression of the three nerves of the inguinal region, (2) the imbalance in strength of adductor and abdominal wall muscles caused by the hypertrophy and stiffness of the insertion of rectus muscle and adductor longus muscle, and (3) the partial weakness of the posterior wall. Our surgical procedure includes the release of all three nerves of the region, the correction of the imbalance in strength with the partial tenotomy of the rectus and adductor longus muscles, and the repair of the partial weakness of the posterior wall with a lightweight mesh. This treatment reported excellent results with complete relief of symptoms after resumption of physical activity in all cases. PMID:24526429

  6. Think twice - Diagnostic delay in a patient with acute chest pain.

    PubMed

    Bang, Cæcilie Larsen; Porsbjerg, Celeste Michala

    2016-01-01

    Heart involvement is the most critical and potentially lethal systemic manifestation in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). We present a case of acute chest pain in a 58-year-old male with severe asthma, which regressed after sublingual administration of nitroglycerine. At the time of hospital admission, there were non-specific ST-changes on the ecg, coronary enzymes were increased, and the patient was concluded to have a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and treated as such. A subacute cardiac catheterization showed no signs of significant coronary stenosis. During the next days, there was increasing pain and reduced strength in both feet. Paraclinical imaging and neurological examinations could not explain the symptoms, and physiotherapy was initiated. At the time, no connection to patient's diagnosis of severe asthma was made. The patient was seen in the respiratory outpatient clinic for a routine check-up, three weeks after the initial hospital admission. At this point, there was increasing pain in both legs and the patient had difficulty walking and experienced increasing dyspnea. Blood eosinophils were elevated (12.7 × 10(9)/L), and an acute HRCT scan showed bilateral peribronchial infiltrates with ground glass opacification and small noduli. A diagnosis of EGPA was established, and administration of systemic glucocorticoids was initiated. A year and a half later, there is still reduced strength and sensory loss. This case illustrates that it is important to consider alternative diagnoses in patients with atypical symptoms and a low risk profile. Heart involvement is the most critical and potentially lethal systemic manifestation in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome), which makes a quick diagnosis and prompt initiation of correct treatment imperative. PMID:27625985

  7. MS-275 and Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Preoperative Pain, Symptoms, and Psychological Factors related to Higher Acute Pain Trajectories during Hospitalization for Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Maren Falch; Miaskowski, Christine; Rustøen, Tone; Rosseland, Leiv Arne; Paul, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Unrelieved postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a significant problem. This longitudinal study investigated how preoperative pain intensity, as well as a comprehensive list of preoperative and perioperative factors, influenced the severity of acute average and worst pain after TKA. Methods Prior to surgery, 203 patients completed a demographic questionnaire, Lee Fatigue Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Brief Pain Inventory was completed prior to surgery as well as through postoperative days (POD) 0 to 4. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. Results Several factors were associated with higher levels of preoperative and postoperative pain. Lower preoperative average and worst pain intensity scores were associated with increases in average and worst postoperative pain from POD1 to POD4. A higher number of comorbidities, higher C-reactive protein values, and higher pain interference with function were associated with higher preoperative levels of average pain. Older age, higher fatigue levels, and higher scores on identity and emotional responses to osteoarthritis (OA) were associated with higher preoperative levels of worst pain. Lower perceived consequences of OA were associated with higher pain from POD1 to POD4. Males and patients with lower preoperative scores for average pain had higher worst pain following surgery. Discussion Patients at higher risk for more severe postoperative pain can be identified through an assessment of pain and other risk factors identified in this study. Future research needs to test the efficacy of interventions that modify patients’ perceptions of living with OA and pain intensity before surgery on short and long term postoperative outcomes. PMID:27583551

  9. Rehabilitation outcomes after combined acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in a child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Korupolu, Radha; Ngo, Thien; Hack, Nawaz; Escott, Edward; Salles, Sara

    2014-01-01

    A 5-year old female presented with acute tetraparesis and areflexia. Initial imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Minimal clinical response with intravenous steroids prompted further work up. Limited nerve conduction studies suggested possible acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy, a rare variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Repeat imaging was compatible with polyradiculopathy indicating concomitance of ADEM and GBS. The patient suffered severe motor deficits and neuropathic pain. Slow but significant functional recovery was noted after intensive inpatient rehabilitation followed by continued rehabilitation via home health services.

  10. BMS-214662 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-22

    Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  11. [From Morbus Sudeck to complex regional pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Agarwal-Kozlowski, K; Schumacher, T; Goerig, M; Beck, H

    2011-04-01

    Burning pain and autonomic disorders, such as change of skin color, hyperhidrosis, edema and stiffness in joints of extremities were first described in 1864 by Silas W. Mitchell. The German expression "Morbus Sudeck" takes its name from the surgeon Paul Sudeck from Hamburg who described spotty decalcification in x-rays in 1900. In the Anglo-Saxon world, the theory that the sympathetic nervous system was involved in the generation and sustention of these alterations was based on the observations of the French surgeon René Leriche and in 1846 James A. Evans introduced the expression sympathetic reflex dystrophy. As doubts arose that the sympathetic nervous system could not be the sole culprit, the descriptive phrase of complex regional pain syndrome was introduced to substitute for more than 60 synonyms focusing on the fact that the disease develops after minor trauma or nerve lesions and does not correlate with the severity of the trauma. Diagnosing this syndrome is still hampered by the fact that no specific laboratory or radiological marker has yet been identified. Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to therapy seem to be inevitable. Since Sudeck first described the disease, 110 years have passed. The underlying hypothesis and theories as well as the development during this time period are summarized. PMID:21350971

  12. Patellofemoral pain syndrome: electromyography in a frequency domain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelli, D. S.; Kuriki, H. U.; Polito, L. F.; Azevedo, F. M.; Negrão Filho, R. F.; Alves, N.

    2011-09-01

    The Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), has a multifactorial etiology and affects approximately 7 to 15% of the population, mostly women, youth, adults and active persons. PFPS causes anterior or retropatelar pain that is exacerbated during functional motor gestures, such as up and down stairs or spending long periods of time sitting, squatting or kneeling. As the diagnostic evaluation of this syndrome is still indirect, different mechanisms and methodologies try to make a classification that distinguishes patients with PFPS in relation to asymptomatic. Thereby, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of the electromyographic (EMG) signal in the frequency domain of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) in patients with PFPS, during the ascent of stairs. 33 young women (22 control group and 11 PFPS group), were evaluated by EMG during ascent of stairs. The VMO mean power frequency (MPF) and the VL frequency 95% (F95) were lower in symptomatic individuals. This may be related to the difference in muscle recruitment strategy exerted by each muscle in the PFPS group compared to the control group.

  13. Complex regional pain syndrome of the upper limb: a review.

    PubMed

    Żyluk, Andrzej; Puchalski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present some impressions and thoughts about CRPS which we found useful in our proceedings with CRPS patients. The clinical sub-types of the CRPS are presented and differences in their characteristics are discussed. The current pathophysiological concepts for CRPS are outlined. Diagnostic criteria are presented and critically discussed. Both classification and diagnosing have translation on research and clinical practice. Treatment modalities are provided, addressing separately acute/early and chronic forms of the syndrome. The "Szczecin" protocol of management of early CRPS is presented in details. Some information about prevention of the syndrome is given. We believe that the information presented may support doctors in resolving their diagnostic dilemmas associated with CRPS.

  14. Interprofessional Education for the Dentist in Managing Acute and Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Shaefer, Jeffry; Barreveld, Antje M; Arnstein, Paul; Kulich, Ronald J

    2016-10-01

    Dental education is at the intersection of affordable health care, opioid-abuse crisis, and collaborative practice benefits. Students must engage in interprofessional education (IPE) for pain management. Graduates must recognize appropriate management of acute dental pain and understand the dentist's role in interprofessional treatment of chronic disease, including management of temporomandibular disorders and orofacial neuropathic pain, chronic pain in general, and the consideration of opioids. This article reviews accreditation standards, compares these standards with recommendations from the International Association for the Study of Pain and regulatory boards, and presents examples of enhanced pain education. PMID:27671956

  15. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines. PMID:20356382

  16. Movement, Function, Pain, and Postoperative Edema in Axillary Web Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blaes, Anne H.; Haddad, Tuffia C.; Hunter, David W.; Hirsch, Alan T.; Ludewig, Paula M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Axillary web syndrome (AWS) is a condition that may develop following breast cancer surgery and that presents as a palpable axillary cord of tissue. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the clinical characteristics of AWS related to movement, function, pain, and postoperative edema and (2) to define the incidence of and risk factors for AWS within the first 3 months following breast cancer surgery. Design This was a prospective cohort study with a repeated-measures design. Methods Women who underwent breast cancer surgery with sentinel node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection (N=36) were assessed for AWS, shoulder range of motion, function, pain, and postoperative edema (using girth measurements, bioimpedance, and tissue dielectric constant) at 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Demographic characteristics were used for risk analysis. Results Seventeen women (47.2%) developed AWS, and AWS persisted in 10 participants (27.8%) at 12 weeks. Abduction range of motion was significantly lower in the AWS group compared with the non-AWS group at 2 and 4 weeks. There were no differences between groups in measurements of function, pain, or edema at any time point. Trunk edema measured by dielectric constant was present in both groups, with an incidence of 55%. Multivariate analysis determined lower body mass index as being significantly associated with AWS (odds ratio=0.86; 95% confidence interval=0.74, 1.00). Limitations Limitations included a short follow-up time and a small sample size. Conclusion Axillary web syndrome is prevalent following breast/axilla surgery for early-stage breast cancer and may persist beyond 12 weeks. The early consequences include movement restriction, but the long-term effects of persistent AWS cords are yet unknown. Low body mass index is considered a risk factor for AWS. PMID:25977305

  17. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 in a pediatric patient: Case report.

    PubMed

    Demirdal, Ümit Seçil; Bükülmez, Ayşegül; Solak, Özlem

    2014-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 is one of the causes of morbidity of childhood which is also named reflex symphathetic dystrophia. The syndrome is characterized with regional pain and vasomotor, sudomotor and sensory changes in the distal parts of the extremities involved. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 shows difference in children in terms of clinical picture and imaging methods compared to adults. The most important point is that the prognosis is generally better in children if early diagnosis and treatment is provided. On the other hand, causes including presence of psychological factors or less contribution of imaging methods in children lead to delayed diagnosis or erroneous diagnosis. In this article, a 10 year-old male patient who was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 was described. Thus, we aimed to remind clinicians that this syndrome should also be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pain in children.

  18. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 in a pediatric patient: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Demirdal, Ümit Seçil; Bükülmez, Ayşegül; Solak, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 is one of the causes of morbidity of childhood which is also named reflex symphathetic dystrophia. The syndrome is characterized with regional pain and vasomotor, sudomotor and sensory changes in the distal parts of the extremities involved. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 shows difference in children in terms of clinical picture and imaging methods compared to adults. The most important point is that the prognosis is generally better in children if early diagnosis and treatment is provided. On the other hand, causes including presence of psychological factors or less contribution of imaging methods in children lead to delayed diagnosis or erroneous diagnosis. In this article, a 10 year-old male patient who was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 was described. Thus, we aimed to remind clinicians that this syndrome should also be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pain in children. PMID:26078637

  19. Invasive treatments for complex regional pain syndrome in children and adolescents: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Zernikow, Boris; Wager, Julia; Brehmer, Hannah; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Maier, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    This review aimed to synthesize the current evidence on the effectiveness of invasive treatments for complex regional pain syndrome in children and adolescents. Studies on children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome that evaluated the effects of invasive treatment were identified in PubMed (search March 2013). Thirty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Articles reported on a total of 173 children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome. Generally, many studies lack methodological quality. The invasive treatments applied most often were singular sympathetic blocks, followed by epidural catheters and continuous sympathetic blocks. Rarely, spinal cord stimulation and pain-directed surgeries were reported. An individual patient frequently received more than one invasive procedure. Concerning outcome, for approximately all patients, an improvement in pain and functional disability was reported. However, these outcomes were seldom assessed with validated tools. In conclusion, the evidence level for invasive therapies in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome in children and adolescents is weak.

  20. Effectiveness of therapeutic physical exercise in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alba-Martín, Pablo; Gallego-Izquierdo, T; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Conclusion] The intervention programs that were most effective in relieving pain and improving function in patellofemoral pain syndrome included proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and strengthening exercises for the hip external rotator and abductor muscles and knee extensor muscles. PMID:26311988

  1. Correlates of satisfaction with pain treatment in the acute postoperative period: results from the international PAIN OUT registry.

    PubMed

    Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Gerbershagen, Hans J; Taylor, Rod S; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther; Komann, Marcus; Rothaug, Judith; Volk, Thomas; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Zaslansky, Ruth; Brill, Silviu; Ullrich, Kristin; Gordon, Debra B; Meissner, Winfried

    2014-07-01

    Patient ratings of satisfaction with their postoperative pain treatment tend to be high even in those with substantial pain. Determinants are poorly understood and have not previously been studied in large-scale, international datasets. PAIN OUT, a European Union-funded acute pain registry and research project, collects patient-reported outcome data on postoperative day 1 using the self-reported International Pain Outcome Questionnaire (IPO), and patient, clinical, and treatment characteristics. We investigated correlates of satisfaction and consistency of effects across centres and countries using multilevel regression modelling. Our sample comprised 16,868 patients (median age 55 years; 55% female) from 42 centres in 11 European countries plus Israel, USA, and Malaysia, who underwent a wide range of surgical procedures, for example, joint, limb, and digestive tract surgeries. Median satisfaction was 9 (interquartile range 7-10) on a 0-10 scale. Three IPO items showed strong associations and explained 35% of the variability present in the satisfaction variable: more pain relief received, higher allowed participation in pain treatment decisions, and no desire to have received more pain treatment. Patient factors and additional IPO items reflecting pain experience (eg, worst pain intensity), pain-related impairment, and information on pain treatment added little explanatory value, partially due to covariate correlations. Effects were highly consistent across centres and countries. We conclude that satisfaction with postoperative pain treatment is associated with the patients' actual pain experience, but more strongly with impressions of improvement and appropriateness of care. To the degree they desire, patients should be provided with information and involved in pain treatment decisions. PMID:24785269

  2. [Management of acute pain therapy: guidelines, recommendations and current practice in german hospitals].

    PubMed

    Erlenwein, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Organisational requirements and the education and training of stuff provide the basis for an adequate supply of quality in acute pain and should be the focus of efforts. Although organizational recommendations of the German guideline on "treatment of acute perioperative and post-traumatic pain" have been increasingly established in practice within the last few years, in many German hospitals there is still lagging far behind in the implementation of general supply conditions, such as regular pain measurement or the introduction of appropriate standardized treatment protocols for all areas of the hospital.As specialized care structures acute pain services have been implemented in 80% of the German hospitals, but only 45% of them meet quality criteria. Due to the heterogeneous realization of acute pain management in different hospitals, it comes apparent, that general guideline recommendations and binding definitions are required to achieve adequate supply conditions. PMID:26863643

  3. DoD–NCCAM/NIH Workshop on Acupuncture for Treatment of Acute Pain

    PubMed Central

    Belard, Jean Louis; Glowa, John; Khalsa, Partap; Weber, Wendy; Huntley, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cosponsored a workshop that explored the possible benefits of acupuncture treatment for acute pain. One goal of the workshop was to establish a roadmap to building an evidence base on that would indicate whether acupuncture is helpful for treating active-duty military personnel experiencing acute pain. The workshop highlighted brief presentations on the most current research on acupuncture and acute pain mechanisms. The impact of various modifiers (stress, genetics, population, phenotypes, etc.) on acute pain pathways and response to acupuncture treatment was discussed. Additional presentations focused on common neural mechanisms, an overview of real-world experience with using acupuncture to treat traumatic acute pain, and best tools and methods specific for acupuncture studies. Three breakout groups addressed the gaps, opportunities, and barriers to acupuncture use for acute pain in military and trauma settings. Different models of effectiveness research and optimal research designs for conducting trials in acute traumatic pain were also discussed. PMID:23020611

  4. DoD-NCCAM/NIH workshop on acupuncture for treatment of acute pain.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Emmeline; Belard, Jean Louis; Glowa, John; Khalsa, Partap; Weber, Wendy; Huntley, Kristen

    2013-03-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cosponsored a workshop that explored the possible benefits of acupuncture treatment for acute pain. One goal of the workshop was to establish a roadmap to building an evidence base on that would indicate whether acupuncture is helpful for treating active-duty military personnel experiencing acute pain. The workshop highlighted brief presentations on the most current research on acupuncture and acute pain mechanisms. The impact of various modifiers (stress, genetics, population, phenotypes, etc.) on acute pain pathways and response to acupuncture treatment was discussed. Additional presentations focused on common neural mechanisms, an overview of real-world experience with using acupuncture to treat traumatic acute pain, and best tools and methods specific for acupuncture studies. Three breakout groups addressed the gaps, opportunities, and barriers to acupuncture use for acute pain in military and trauma settings. Different models of effectiveness research and optimal research designs for conducting trials in acute traumatic pain were also discussed.

  5. Chronic pain in hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): it is a challenge.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul Hh

    2015-01-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers-Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3).

  6. Chronic pain in hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): it is a challenge

    PubMed Central

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul HH

    2015-01-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers–Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers–Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3). PMID:26316810

  7. Chronic pain in hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): it is a challenge.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul Hh

    2015-01-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers-Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3). PMID:26316810

  8. WEE1 Inhibitor AZD1775 With or Without Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Advanced Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-12

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Isolated Del(5q); Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  9. [Pain syndrome in patients with spastic torticollis before and after the treatment with dysport].

    PubMed

    Zalialova, Z A; Abdulgalimova, D M

    2010-01-01

    53 patients with the syndrome of spastic torticollis (ST) were examined to assess the nature and dynamics of pain syndrome during the treatment with dysport. The patient's condition assessment was examined before and 1 month after injection of dysport using Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS). The TWSTRS scale includes 3 subscales (severity of torticollis, disability and pain), each of which consists of the attributes estimated for scores. Observations showed that 1 month after injection of dysport with doses ranging from 500 to 1000 units in the affected muscles of the neck pain intensity decreased by an average of 55%, which has averaged 6,2 points of the TWSTRS pain subscale (p<0,01). Observation confirmed that pain is one of the leading complaints in patients with ST. Pathogenetic basis of the pain formation in this disease and prospects of botulinum toxin therapy in pain syndrome correction were discussed. PMID:21389941

  10. Effect of yoga on the Myofascial Pain Syndrome of neck.

    PubMed

    Sharan, D; Manjula, M; Urmi, D; Ajeesh, Ps

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) refers to pain attributed to muscle and its surrounding fascia, which is associated with "myofascial trigger points" (MTrPs). MTrPs in the trapezius has been proposed as the main cause of temporal and cervicogenic headache and neck pain. Literature shows that the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among physiotherapists is high. Yoga has traditionally been used to treat MSDs in various populations. But there is scarcity of literature which explains the effects of yoga on reducing MPS of the neck in terms of various physical parameters and subjective responses. Therefore, a pilot study was done among eight physiotherapists with minimum six months of experience. A structured yoga protocol was designed and implemented for five days in a week for four weeks. The outcome variables were Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands (DASH) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) for Trigger Points, Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) - active & passive, grip and pinch strengths. The variables were compared before and after the intervention. Finally, the result revealed that all the variables (DASH: P<0.00, NDI: P<0.00, VAS: P<0.00, PPT: Left: P<0.00, PPT: Right: P<0.00, Grip strength: left: P<0.00, Grip strength: right: P<0.01, Key pinch: left: P<0.01, Key pinch: right: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: left: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: right: P<0.00, Tip pinch: left: P<0.01, Tip pinch: Right: P<0.01) improved significantly after intervention.

  11. Effect of yoga on the Myofascial Pain Syndrome of neck

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, D; Manjula, M; Urmi, D; Ajeesh, PS

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) refers to pain attributed to muscle and its surrounding fascia, which is associated with “myofascial trigger points” (MTrPs). MTrPs in the trapezius has been proposed as the main cause of temporal and cervicogenic headache and neck pain. Literature shows that the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among physiotherapists is high. Yoga has traditionally been used to treat MSDs in various populations. But there is scarcity of literature which explains the effects of yoga on reducing MPS of the neck in terms of various physical parameters and subjective responses. Therefore, a pilot study was done among eight physiotherapists with minimum six months of experience. A structured yoga protocol was designed and implemented for five days in a week for four weeks. The outcome variables were Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands (DASH) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) for Trigger Points, Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) - active & passive, grip and pinch strengths. The variables were compared before and after the intervention. Finally, the result revealed that all the variables (DASH: P<0.00, NDI: P<0.00, VAS: P<0.00, PPT: Left: P<0.00, PPT: Right: P<0.00, Grip strength: left: P<0.00, Grip strength: right: P<0.01, Key pinch: left: P<0.01, Key pinch: right: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: left: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: right: P<0.00, Tip pinch: left: P<0.01, Tip pinch: Right: P<0.01) improved significantly after intervention. PMID:25035608

  12. Effects of intracutaneous injections of sterile water in patients with acute low back pain: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cui, J Z; Geng, Z S; Zhang, Y H; Feng, J Y; Zhu, P; Zhang, X B

    2016-03-01

    Intracutaneous sterile water injection (ISWI) is used for relief of low back pain during labor, acute attacks of urolithiasis, chronic neck and shoulder pain following whiplash injuries, and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of ISWI for relief of acute low back pain (aLBP). A total of 68 patients (41 females and 27 males) between 18 and 55 years old experiencing aLBP with moderate to severe pain (scores ≥5 on an 11-point visual analogue scale [VAS]) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either ISWIs (n=34) or intracutaneous isotonic saline injections (placebo treatment; n=34). The primary outcome was improvement in pain intensity using the VAS at 10, 45, and 90 min and 1 day after treatment. The secondary outcome was functional improvement, which was assessed using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) 1 day after treatment. The mean VAS score was significantly lower in the ISWI group than in the control group at 10, 45, and 90 min, and 1 day after injection (P<0.05, t-test). The mean increment in PSFS score of the ISWI group was 2.9±2.2 1 day after treatment, while that in the control group was 0.9±2.2. Our study showed that ISWI was effective for relieving pain and improving function in aLBP patients at short-term follow-up. ISWI might be an alternative treatment for aLBP patients, especially in areas where medications are not available, as well as in specific patients (e.g., those who are pregnant or have asthma), who are unable to receive medications or other forms of analgesia because of side effects. PMID:26840703

  13. Effects of intracutaneous injections of sterile water in patients with acute low back pain: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cui, J.Z.; Geng, Z.S.; Zhang, Y.H.; Feng, J.Y.; Zhu, P.; Zhang, X.B.

    2016-01-01

    Intracutaneous sterile water injection (ISWI) is used for relief of low back pain during labor, acute attacks of urolithiasis, chronic neck and shoulder pain following whiplash injuries, and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of ISWI for relief of acute low back pain (aLBP). A total of 68 patients (41 females and 27 males) between 18 and 55 years old experiencing aLBP with moderate to severe pain (scores ≥5 on an 11-point visual analogue scale [VAS]) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either ISWIs (n=34) or intracutaneous isotonic saline injections (placebo treatment; n=34). The primary outcome was improvement in pain intensity using the VAS at 10, 45, and 90 min and 1 day after treatment. The secondary outcome was functional improvement, which was assessed using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) 1 day after treatment. The mean VAS score was significantly lower in the ISWI group than in the control group at 10, 45, and 90 min, and 1 day after injection (P<0.05, t-test). The mean increment in PSFS score of the ISWI group was 2.9±2.2 1 day after treatment, while that in the control group was 0.9±2.2. Our study showed that ISWI was effective for relieving pain and improving function in aLBP patients at short-term follow-up. ISWI might be an alternative treatment for aLBP patients, especially in areas where medications are not available, as well as in specific patients (e.g., those who are pregnant or have asthma), who are unable to receive medications or other forms of analgesia because of side effects. PMID:26840703

  14. Tactile localization training for pain, sensory disturbance, and distorted body image: a case study of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Osumi, Michihiro; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Nishigami, Tomohiko; Ueta, Kozo; Morioka, Shu

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a case of complex regional pain syndrome. The patient presented with severe pain, sensory disturbance, and distorted body image at the site of initial injury and other body sites. Tactile localization training (TLT) at only the site of initial injury decreased severe pain at the site of initial injury and the secondary affected sites, whereas TLT at secondary affected sites had no effect. These results highlighted the importance of assessing changes in patients' pain processes to determine the part of the body where TLT should be applied.

  15. MELAS syndrome presenting as an acute surgical abdomen.

    PubMed

    Dindyal, S; Mistry, K; Angamuthu, N; Smith, G; Hilton, D; Arumugam, P; Mathew, J

    2014-01-01

    MELAS (mitochondrial cytopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a syndrome in which signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal disease are uncommon if not rare. We describe the case of a young woman who presented as an acute surgical emergency, diagnosed as toxic megacolon necessitating an emergency total colectomy. MELAS syndrome was suspected postoperatively owing to persistent lactic acidosis and neurological symptoms. The diagnosis was later confirmed with histological and genetic studies. This case highlights the difficulties in diagnosing MELAS because of its unpredictable presentation and clinical course. We therefore recommend a high index of suspicion in cases of an acute surgical abdomen with additional neurological features or raised lactate.

  16. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in lambs. Hematology.

    PubMed

    Ulvund, M J; Grønstøl, H

    1984-01-01

    Lambs suffering from Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) showed elevated PCV, neutrophilia, a tendency towards lymphopenia, eosinopenia, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia and extremely low serum Ca values during the first couple of days after the outbreak of symptoms. During the very early phase, plasma potassium values were mostly lowered (Figs. 1-3, Table I). The possible involvement of histamine is shortly discussed: either 1) through an atopic reaction, 2) because of acute ruminal acidosis and sudden histamine formation, or 3) involvement of endotoxins.

  17. Toll-like Receptor 4 and Comorbid Pain in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain Research Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Schrepf, Andrew; Bradley, Catherine S.; O'Donnell, Michael; Luo, Yi; Harte, Steven E.; Kreder, Karl; Lutgendorf, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS) is a condition characterized by pelvic pain and urinary symptoms. Some IC/BPS patients have pain confined to the pelvic region, while others suffer widespread pain. Inflammatory processes have previously been linked to pelvic pain in IC/BPS, but their association with widespread pain in IC/BPS has not been characterized. Methods Sixty-six women meeting criteria for IC/BPS completed self-report measures of pain as part of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP), collected 3 days of saliva for cortisol assays, and provided blood samples. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 agonists and cytokines were measured in supernatant; IL-6 was also measured in plasma. Associations between inflammatory variables and the likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain, or the presence of a comorbid syndrome, were tested by logistic regression and General Linear Models, respectively. A subset of patients (n=32) completed Quantitative Sensory Testing. Results A one standard deviation increase in TLR-4 inflammatory response was associated with a 1.59 greater likelihood of endorsing extra-pelvic pain (p = .019). Participants with comorbid syndromes also had higher inflammatory responses to TLR-4 stimulation in PBMCs (p = .016). Lower pressure pain thresholds were marginally associated with higher TLR-4 inflammatory responses (p = .062), and significantly associated with higher IL-6 in plasma (p = .031). Conclusions TLR-4 inflammatory responses in PBMCs are a marker of widespread pain in IC/BPS, and should be explored in other conditions characterized by medically unexplained pain. PMID:25771510

  18. Implementation of a portable electronic system for providing pain relief to patellofemoral pain syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Lin, Guo-Hong; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a portable electromyogram (EMG) system and a stimulator are developed for patellofemoral pain syndrome patients, with the objective of reducing the pain experienced by these patients; the patellar pain is caused by an imbalance between the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and the vastus lateralis (VL). The EMG measurement circuit and the electrical stimulation device proposed in this study are specifically designed for the VMO and the VL; they are capable of real-time waveform recording, possess analyzing functions, and can upload their measurement data to a computer for storage and analysis. The system can calculate and record the time difference between the EMGs of the VMO and the VL, as well as the signal strengths of both the EMGs. As soon as the system detects the generation of the EMG of the VL, it quickly calculates and processes the event and stimulates the VMO as feedback through electrical stimulation units, in order to induce its contraction. The system can adjust the signal strength, time length, and the sequence of the electrical stimulation, both manually and automatically. The output waveform of the electrical stimulation circuit is a dual-phase asymmetrical pulse waveform. The primary function of the electrical simulation circuit is to ensure that the muscles contract effectively. The performance of the device can be seen that the width of each pulse is 20-1000 μs, the frequency of each pulse is 10-100 Hz, and current strength is 10-60 mA.

  19. Idarubicin, Cytarabine, and Tipifarnib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-09

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm caused by calcific tendinitis of the distal biceps.

    PubMed

    Garayoa, Santiago Amillo; Romero-Muñoz, Luis M; Pons-Villanueva, Juan

    2010-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm requires immediate treatment to avoid damage of the soft tissues and a poor functional outcome for the forearm. Muscular and bone lesions are the main causes of acute compartment syndromes. We report a case of acute compartment syndrome of the forearm caused by a calcific tendinitis of the distal biceps.

  1. Meperidine (pethidine) versus morphine in acute pain management of opioid-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Solhi, Hassan; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein; Solhi, Sadra; Azizi Nadian, Mohammad Ali; Gharibi, Morteza; Sadeghi Sedeh, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of morphine and meperidine (pethidine) as pain relief in opioid-dependent patients with acute pain. A total of 122 opioid-dependent patients with acute pain were included in the study. Their pain severity was assessed, using visual analog scale (VAS) scores ranging from 0 to 10. The patients randomly received intravenous morphine (up to 0.15 mg/kg) or meperidine (up to 1.5 mg/kg) for pain control by patient control analgesia (PCA) pump. The clinical opioid withdrawal scale (COWS) was employed for the assessment of withdrawal symptoms. The pain relief and the emergence of withdrawal symptoms were measured at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after drug administration. The patients who received morphine reported a better pain control compared to those who received meperidine (mean ± standard deviation [SD] VAS scores 4.11±1.90 vs 5.85±2.08 at the end of the study; P<0.001). On the other hand, the patients who received meperidine indicated prominent withdrawal symptoms (mean ± SD COWS scores 4.80±2.18 vs. 1.98±0.82 at the end of the study; P<0.001). Our findings revealed that morphine can be recommended in acute pain management of opioid-dependent patients. In addition, emergency physicians should ask their patients about any drug dependence before selecting the appropriate drug for their acute pain management. PMID:27621675

  2. Meperidine (pethidine) versus morphine in acute pain management of opioid-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Solhi, Hassan; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein; Solhi, Sadra; Azizi Nadian, Mohammad Ali; Gharibi, Morteza; Sadeghi Sedeh, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of morphine and meperidine (pethidine) as pain relief in opioid-dependent patients with acute pain. A total of 122 opioid-dependent patients with acute pain were included in the study. Their pain severity was assessed, using visual analog scale (VAS) scores ranging from 0 to 10. The patients randomly received intravenous morphine (up to 0.15 mg/kg) or meperidine (up to 1.5 mg/kg) for pain control by patient control analgesia (PCA) pump. The clinical opioid withdrawal scale (COWS) was employed for the assessment of withdrawal symptoms. The pain relief and the emergence of withdrawal symptoms were measured at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after drug administration. The patients who received morphine reported a better pain control compared to those who received meperidine (mean ± standard deviation [SD] VAS scores 4.11±1.90 vs 5.85±2.08 at the end of the study; P<0.001). On the other hand, the patients who received meperidine indicated prominent withdrawal symptoms (mean ± SD COWS scores 4.80±2.18 vs. 1.98±0.82 at the end of the study; P<0.001). Our findings revealed that morphine can be recommended in acute pain management of opioid-dependent patients. In addition, emergency physicians should ask their patients about any drug dependence before selecting the appropriate drug for their acute pain management.

  3. Meperidine (pethidine) versus morphine in acute pain management of opioid-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Solhi, Hassan; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein; Solhi, Sadra; Azizi Nadian, Mohammad Ali; Gharibi, Morteza; Sadeghi Sedeh, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of morphine and meperidine (pethidine) as pain relief in opioid-dependent patients with acute pain. A total of 122 opioid-dependent patients with acute pain were included in the study. Their pain severity was assessed, using visual analog scale (VAS) scores ranging from 0 to 10. The patients randomly received intravenous morphine (up to 0.15 mg/kg) or meperidine (up to 1.5 mg/kg) for pain control by patient control analgesia (PCA) pump. The clinical opioid withdrawal scale (COWS) was employed for the assessment of withdrawal symptoms. The pain relief and the emergence of withdrawal symptoms were measured at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after drug administration. The patients who received morphine reported a better pain control compared to those who received meperidine (mean ± standard deviation [SD] VAS scores 4.11±1.90 vs 5.85±2.08 at the end of the study; P<0.001). On the other hand, the patients who received meperidine indicated prominent withdrawal symptoms (mean ± SD COWS scores 4.80±2.18 vs. 1.98±0.82 at the end of the study; P<0.001). Our findings revealed that morphine can be recommended in acute pain management of opioid-dependent patients. In addition, emergency physicians should ask their patients about any drug dependence before selecting the appropriate drug for their acute pain management. PMID:27621675

  4. A Case of Acute Aortic Dissection Type B Associated with Cushing's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Petramala, Luigi; Cotesta, Dario; Sapienza, Paolo; Zinnamosca, Laura; Moroni, Enrico; di Marzio, Luca; De Toma, Giorgio; Letizia, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of a 63-year-old man, with a previous history of hypertension and glucose intolerance associated troncular obesity that was emergently admitted to our Institution for evaluation of a severe, constant posterior chest pain which radiated anteriorly and dyspnoea with a suspected diagnosis of acute aortic dissection. A CT scan of thorax and abdomen demonstrated a dissection starting just below left succlavian artery and extending downward to the left renal artery, involving the celiac tripod and superior mesenteric artery. The dissection was classified as Stanford B, De Bakey III. Moreover, CT scan of abdomen revealed incidentally a left adrenal tumor of 25 mm of diameter. An emergent prosthetic graft was placed just below the origin of the left succlavian artery up-to the diaphragmatic hiatus. Furthermore, a diagnostic evaluation of the mass revealed an increase of cortisol production, and a diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome was done and the patient underwent an adrenalectomy via laparotomic approach. We report an association of acute aortic dissection of acute aortic dissection type B associated to Cushing's syndrome. Keywords Cushing's syndrome; Adrenocortical adenoma; Aortic dissection type B PMID:22505966

  5. Acute coronary syndrome in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Chan, Mark Y; Du, Xin; Eccleston, David; Ma, Changsheng; Mohanan, Padinhare P; Ogita, Manabu; Shyu, Kou-Gi; Yan, Bryan P; Jeong, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    More than 4.2 billion inhabitants populate the Asia-Pacific region. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is now a major cause of death and disability in this region with in-hospital mortality typically exceeding 5%. Yet, the region still lacks consensus on the best approach to overcoming its specific challenges in reducing mortality from ACS. The Asia-Pacific Real world evIdenCe on Outcome and Treatment of ACS (APRICOT) project reviewed current published and unpublished registry data, unmet needs in ACS management and possible approaches towards improving ACS-related mortality in the region. There was striking heterogeneity in the use of invasive procedures, pharmacologic practice (hospitalization/post-discharge), and in short- and long-term clinical outcomes across healthcare systems; this heterogeneity was perceived to be far greater than in Western Europe or the United States. 'Benchmark' short-term clinical outcomes are preferred over long-term outcomes due to difficulties in follow-up, recording and maintenance of medication adherence in a geographically large and culturally diverse region. Key 'barriers' towards improving outcomes include patient education (pain awareness, consequences of missing medication and secondary prevention), geographical landscape (urban vs. metropolitan), limited long-term adherence to guideline-based management and widespread adoption of cost-based rather than value-based healthcare systems. Initiatives to overcome these barriers should include implementation of pre-hospital management strategies, toolkits to aid in-hospital treatment, greater community outreach with online patient/physician education and telemedicine, sustainable economic models to improve accessibility to effective pharmacotherapies and the acquisition of high-quality 'real-world' regional data to tailor secondary prevention initiatives that meet the unique needs of countries in this region. PMID:26476044

  6. Bertolotti's syndrome: A commonly missed cause of back pain in young patients.

    PubMed

    Manmohan, S; Dzulkarnain, A; Nor Azlin, Z A; Fazir, M

    2015-01-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome must be considered as a differential diagnosis for lower back pain in young people. Treatment, whether conservative or operative, is still debatable. In this paper, we report a case of a 20-year-old girl presenting with lower back pain for 8 years. We administered injection with local anaesthetic and steroid injections within the pseudo-articulation; however, the pain was relieved for 3 weeks. Surgical excision of the pseudo-articulation successfully treated her back pain and the sciatica.

  7. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: Different from the Adult Chronic Pain Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; King, Christopher; Ting, Tracy V; Arnold, Lesley M

    2016-04-01

    While a majority of research has focused on adult fibromyalgia (FM), recent evidence has provided insights into the presence and impact of FM in children and adolescents. Commonly referred as juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM), youths, particularly adolescent girls, present with persistent widespread pain and cardinal symptoms observed in adult FM. A majority of youth with JFM continue to experience symptoms into adulthood, which highlights the importance of early recognition and intervention. Some differences are observed between adult and juvenile-onset FM syndrome with regard to comorbidities (e.g., joint hypermobility is common in JFM). Psychological comorbidities are common but less severe in JFM. Compared to adult FM, approved pharmacological treatments for JFM are lacking, but non-pharmacologic approaches (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy and exercise) show promise. A number of conceptual issues still remain including (1) directly comparing similarities and differences in symptoms and (2) identifying shared and unique mechanisms underlying FM in adults and youths. PMID:26984803

  8. Multi-slice computed tomography in the evaluation of patients with acute chest pain.

    PubMed

    Schuijf, J D; Jukema, J W; van der Wall, E E; Bax, J J

    2007-01-01

    Every year, a considerable number of patients present at the Emergency Department (ED) with acute chest pain complaints. In these patients, determining accurate diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains clinically challenging. In general, triage is based on the initial clinical assessment including (stress) ECG and serial serum markers measurements. While management is relatively straightforward in case of ECG changes and elevated serum markers, a considerable number of patients presents with both serum markers and ECG that are either within normal limits or inconclusive. In these patients, non-invasive cardiac imaging has become an important tool in decision-making. Recently, non-invasive visualization of the coronary arteries has become possible with computed tomography (CT) techniques. Both electron beam CT (EBCT) and multi-slice CT (MSCT) allow assessment of coronary calcium burden as a marker of coronary artery disease (CAD). More recently, non-invasive coronary angiography can also be performed, for which MSCT in particular is increasingly used. Potentially these techniques could become useful in the clinical work-up of patients presenting with suspected ACS. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the potential roles of calcium scoring and non-invasive coronary angiography in patients presenting with suspected ACS. PMID:18030626

  9. An overview of the management of post-vasectomy pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Phin; Levine, Laurence A

    2016-01-01

    Post-vasectomy pain syndrome remains one of the more challenging urological problems to manage. This can be a frustrating process for both the patient and clinician as there is no well-recognized diagnostic regimen or reliable effective treatment. Many of these patients will end up seeing physicians across many disciplines, further frustrating them. The etiology of post-vasectomy pain syndrome is not clearly delineated. Postulations include damage to the scrotal and spermatic cord nerve structures via inflammatory effects of the immune system, back pressure effects in the obstructed vas and epididymis, vascular stasis, nerve impingement, or perineural fibrosis. Post-vasectomy pain syndrome is defined as at least 3 months of chronic or intermittent scrotal content pain. This article reviews the current understanding of post-vasectomy pain syndrome, theories behind its pathophysiology, evaluation pathways, and treatment options.

  10. [Pain relief in lumbosacral radicular syndrome: the role of transforaminal epidural injections with glucocorticoids].

    PubMed

    ter Meulen, Bastiaan C; van der Vegt, Rien H; Wouda, Ernest; van Tuder, Maurits; Ostelo, Raymond; Weinstein, Henry C

    2014-01-01

    Lumbosacral radicular syndrome is characterized by radiating pain into a part of the leg typically served by one nerve root in the lumbar or sacral spine. The most common cause of radicular syndrome is a herniated disk. The estimated annual incidence of radicular syndrome in The Netherlands is 9 cases per 1000 adults per year. The course of radicular syndrome is favorable, with resolution of leg pain within 3 months from onset in the majority of patients. During the first few weeks post-onset treatment focusses on pain relief. Besides pain medication, transforaminal, fluoroscopic injections with corticosteroids can be chosen. Transforaminal, fluoroscopic injections with glucocorticoids are safe and effective compared to placebo. The position within the treatment protocol for radicular pain of epidural steroid injections has yet to be determined based upon further scientific knowledge. PMID:25322354

  11. An overview of the management of post-vasectomy pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wei Phin; Levine, Laurence A

    2016-01-01

    Post-vasectomy pain syndrome remains one of the more challenging urological problems to manage. This can be a frustrating process for both the patient and clinician as there is no well-recognized diagnostic regimen or reliable effective treatment. Many of these patients will end up seeing physicians across many disciplines, further frustrating them. The etiology of post-vasectomy pain syndrome is not clearly delineated. Postulations include damage to the scrotal and spermatic cord nerve structures via inflammatory effects of the immune system, back pressure effects in the obstructed vas and epididymis, vascular stasis, nerve impingement, or perineural fibrosis. Post-vasectomy pain syndrome is defined as at least 3 months of chronic or intermittent scrotal content pain. This article reviews the current understanding of post-vasectomy pain syndrome, theories behind its pathophysiology, evaluation pathways, and treatment options. PMID:26952956

  12. How can we strengthen the quadriceps femoris in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Defne; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Callaghan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose: the aim of this article was to review the clinical approach of quadriceps strengthening programmes. Methods: a literature search was carried out from 1980 up to September 2011. Eligible studies were those that: (1) evaluated the patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (not healthy or asymptomatic subjects) (2) examined the effect of kinetic chain exercises (3) examined the effect of weight-bearing exercises (4) compared the effect of the combined exercises programme in the treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Results and conclusion: patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome may tolerate a closed kinetic chain exercises programme better than open kinetic chain. Weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing quadriceps exercises can significantly improve subjective and clinical outcomes in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Combining treatments as an initial approach to treating patellofemoral pain but developing individualized more functional, global treatments are essential. PMID:23738270

  13. Optical diagnosis of internal cystitis / painful bladder syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn

    Background: Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is defined as a syndrome of urgency, frequency, and suprapubic pain in the absence of positive urine culture or obvious bladder pathology. As no specific etiology has been identified yet, no specific methodology exists for diagnosis of this condition. One potential etiology of PBS/IC is inflammation of the bladder mucosa associated with abnormal angiogenesis and ulcerative lesions. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using transcutaneous near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the bladder to monitor tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics as a means of differentiating subjects diagnosed with PBS/IC from those with other bladder conditions. Methods: Twenty-four adult patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction were divided into 2 groups, PBS/IC and non-PBS/IC after standard diagnostic investigations. Detrusor oxygen saturation percentage (TSI%) was measured in all subjects while they were at rest in a supine position, using a spatially resolved (SR) NIRS instrument. Mean values of detrusor TSI% were significantly different between the two groups (74.2%+/-4.9 in PBS/IC vs. 63.6%+/-5.5 in non-PBS/IC, P<0.0005). Results: Noninvasive NIRS interrogation of the bladder demonstrated that patients diagnosed as having PBS/IC had significantly higher detrusor oxygen saturation at rest. Conclusions: SR-NIRS as a feasible non-noninvasive entity for use in the evaluation of patients for the presence or absence of physiologic changes associated with PBS/IC.

  14. Acute low back pain: patients' perceptions of pain four weeks after initial diagnosis and treatment in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Chavannes, A.W.; Gubbels, J.; Post, D.; Rutten, G.; Thomas, S.

    1986-01-01

    In a nationwide study of the treatment of acute low back pain with and without radiation in general practice in the Netherlands the subjective well-being of patients was evaluated by means of a short questionnaire sent to patients four weeks after the initial contact with their general practitioner. After this period pain had disappeared in 28% of the patients, was diminished in 47%, was unchanged in 2% and was aggravated in 4%. There was no difference in the pain score of patients with and without follow-up encounters with their general practitioner. In all instances patients with low back pain without radiation fared significantly better than those with radiation. Radiation of pain was not constant — during the four-week follow-up period it developed in 19% of the patients originally without radiation and it disappeared in 44% of the patients originally suffering radiation. PMID:2945009

  15. Research design considerations for single-dose analgesic clinical trials in acute pain: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen A; Desjardins, Paul J; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H; Katz, Nathaniel P; Kehlet, Henrik; Ballantyne, Jane C; Burke, Laurie B; Carragee, Eugene; Cowan, Penney; Croll, Scott; Dionne, Raymond A; Farrar, John T; Gilron, Ian; Gordon, Debra B; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Kalso, Eija A; Kerns, Robert D; McDermott, Michael P; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Royal, Mike A; Segerdahl, Märta; Stauffer, Joseph W; Todd, Knox H; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Wallace, Mark S; West, Christine; White, Richard E; Wu, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    This article summarizes the results of a meeting convened by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) on key considerations and best practices governing the design of acute pain clinical trials. We discuss the role of early phase clinical trials, including pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) trials, and the value of including both placebo and active standards of comparison in acute pain trials. This article focuses on single-dose and short-duration trials with emphasis on the perioperative and study design factors that influence assay sensitivity. Recommendations are presented on assessment measures, study designs, and operational factors. Although most of the methodological advances have come from studies of postoperative pain after dental impaction, bunionectomy, and other surgeries, the design considerations discussed are applicable to many other acute pain studies conducted in different settings. PMID:26683233

  16. Young children's behavioural responses to acute pain: strategies for getting better.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, R; Kristjanson, L J

    1995-08-01

    Behavioural responses of hospitalized young children in acute pain were examined and described. Eleven children, aged 24-79 months, who experienced acute pain in response to surgical intervention, and their parents, participated in the study. A qualitative, naturalistic methodology was used. Participant observation and child and parent interviews were the primary data collection methods. The constant comparative method of data analysis was employed to identify beginning behavioural response categories. Findings revealed that the children used the process of 'getting better' in response to pain. This process involved three strategies: 'hiding away', 'fighting it' and 'making it good'. Each of these strategies was characterized by specific behaviours. The more pain the children experienced, the more frequently these strategies were employed. Recommendations specific to assessing behavioural responses in young children experiencing acute pain are offered.

  17. Research design considerations for single-dose analgesic clinical trials in acute pain: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen A; Desjardins, Paul J; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H; Katz, Nathaniel P; Kehlet, Henrik; Ballantyne, Jane C; Burke, Laurie B; Carragee, Eugene; Cowan, Penney; Croll, Scott; Dionne, Raymond A; Farrar, John T; Gilron, Ian; Gordon, Debra B; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Kalso, Eija A; Kerns, Robert D; McDermott, Michael P; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Royal, Mike A; Segerdahl, Märta; Stauffer, Joseph W; Todd, Knox H; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Wallace, Mark S; West, Christine; White, Richard E; Wu, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    This article summarizes the results of a meeting convened by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) on key considerations and best practices governing the design of acute pain clinical trials. We discuss the role of early phase clinical trials, including pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) trials, and the value of including both placebo and active standards of comparison in acute pain trials. This article focuses on single-dose and short-duration trials with emphasis on the perioperative and study design factors that influence assay sensitivity. Recommendations are presented on assessment measures, study designs, and operational factors. Although most of the methodological advances have come from studies of postoperative pain after dental impaction, bunionectomy, and other surgeries, the design considerations discussed are applicable to many other acute pain studies conducted in different settings.

  18. Development of Cardiovascular Indices of Acute Pain Responding in Infants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Jordana A.; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R.; Tablon, Paula; Schmidt, Louis A.; Pinhasov, Angelina

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular indices of pain are pervasive in the hospital setting. However, no prospective research has examined the development of cardiac responses to acutely painful procedures in the first year of life. Objectives. Our main goal was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the development of cardiovascular responses to acutely painful medical procedures over the first year of life in preterm and term born infants. Methods. A systematic search retrieved 6994 articles to review against inclusion criteria. A total of 41 studies were included in the review. Results. In response to acutely painful procedures, most infants had an increase in mean heart rate (HR) that varied in magnitude both across and within gestational and postnatal ages. Research in the area of HR variability has been inconsistent, limiting conclusions. Conclusions. Longitudinal research is needed to further understand the inherent variability of cardiovascular pain responses across and within gestational and postnatal ages and the causes for the variability. PMID:27445630

  19. Cognitive correlates of "neglect-like syndrome" in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Leonie; Lang, Christoph; Seifert, Frank; Maihöfner, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) often show distinct neurocognitive dysfunctions, which were initially termed "neglect-like symptoms." So far, particularly the patients' feelings about the affected extremity, motor, and sensory aspects of the "neglect-like symptoms" have been investigated, possibly pointing to a disturbed body schema. Because patients with classical neurological neglect show diminished awareness regarding the perception of their body, as well as of the space around them, our hypothesis was that CRPS patients exhibit some signs of personal neglect and extrapersonal visuospatial problems over and beyond those seen in patients simply suffering from limb pain. We used quantitative sensory testing and motor assessment aimed at detecting motor and sensory loss, a standardized questionnaire calculating a neglect score, and applied a detailed neuropsychological test battery assessing different parietal lobe functions, including visual neglect. We examined 20 CRPS patients and 2 matched control groups, one consisting of healthy subjects and the other one of patients with limb pain other than CRPS. Results show significant higher neglect scores for CRPS patients and the pain control group, but interestingly, CRPS patients and pain patients were indistinguishable. The results of the neuropsychological test battery did not demonstrate systematic variances, which would be indicative of a classical neurological neglect in CRPS patients, even though there were 3 CRPS patients who differed ≥ 2 SD from the mean of our healthy control group, with poorer results in ≥ 3 different tests. We assume that the "neglect-like syndrome" in most CRPS patients is different from typical neglect.

  20. Large twisted ovarian fibroma associated with Meigs’ syndrome, abdominal pain and severe anemia treated by laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Meigs' syndrome is a rare but well-known syndrome defined as the triad of benign solid ovarian tumor, ascites, and pleural effusion. Meigs' syndrome always requires surgical treatment. However, the optimal approach for its management has not been sufficiently investigated. Case presentation We report a patient with a large twisted ovarian fibroma associated with Meigs’ syndrome, abdominal pain and severe hemolytic anemia that was treated by laparoscopic surgery. This case highlights the difficulties that may be encountered in the management of patients with Meigs’ syndrome, including potential misdiagnosis of the tumor as a malignant ovarian neoplasm that may influence the medical and surgical approach and the adverse impact that Meigs’ syndrome can have on the patient’s condition, especially if it is associated with acute pain and severe anemia. Considering the patient’s serious clinical condition and assuming that she had Meigs' syndrome with a twisted large ovarian mass and possible hemolytic anemia, we first concentrated on effective medical management of our patient and chose the most appropriate surgical treatment after laparoscopic examination. The main aim of our initial approach was preoperative management of the anemia. Blood transfusions and glucocorticoid therapy resulted in stabilization of the hemoglobin level and normalization of the bilirubin levels, which confirmed the appropriateness of this approach. Laparoscopic surgery 4 days after admission enabled definitive diagnosis of the tumor, confirmed torsion and removed the bulky ovarian fibroma, resulting in timely resolution of symptoms, short hospitalization, relatively low morbidity and a rapid return to her social and professional life. Conclusions This case highlights the difficulties that may be encountered in the management of patients with Meigs' syndrome, including potential misdiagnosis of the tumor as a malignant ovarian neoplasm that may influence the medical and

  1. Experiences of Indonesian mother managing preschool children's acute abdominal pain in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chiu-Lien; Huang, Chu-Yu; Park, Jeong-Hwan; Lin, Hung-Ru; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Cheng, Su-Fen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the Indonesian mothers' experiences of managing preschool children's acute abdominal pain. The descriptive qualitative research design comprises semi-structured interviews with 11 Indonesian mothers. The qualitative content analysis revealed three themes, including (1) insight of abdominal pain, (2) "inheritance of the strategies for assessment of management for abdominal pain from the family of origin", (3) "obstacles and insights related to cultural differences". The results presented that pain management was affected by family, environment, cultural background and religious beliefs. Healthcare providers should provide culturally competent pain management care for the patients of difference nationalities.

  2. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  3. Vorinostat and Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-27

    Acute Erythroid Leukemia; Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ring Sideroblasts

  4. Physical Activity and Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Chomistek, Andrea K.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wu, Kana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent urologic disorder among men, but its etiology is still poorly understood. Our objective was to examine the relationship between physical activity and incidence of CP/CPPS in a large cohort of male health professionals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed from 1986 to 2008. The study population included 20,918 men who completed all CP/CPPS questions on the 2008 questionnaire. Leisure-time physical activity, including type and intensity of activity, was measured by questionnaire in 1986. A National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index pain score was calculated based on the responses on the 2008 questionnaire. Participants with pain scores ≥ 8 were considered CP/CPPS cases (n=689). Results Higher leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risk of CP/CPPS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing >35.0 to ≤3.5 MET-h/wk of physical activity was 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56, 0.92, p for trend <0.001). Observed inverse associations between physical activity and CP/CPPS were similar for both moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Sedentary behavior, measured as time spent watching television, was not associated with risk of CP/CPPS (p for trend 0.64). Conclusions Findings from this study, the first large scale and most comprehensive study to date on this association, suggest that higher levels of leisure-time physical activity may lower risk of CP/CPPS in middle-aged and older men. PMID:25116086

  5. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and glycosaminoglycans replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating chronic disease characterized by discomfort or recurrent abdominal and pelvic pains in the absence of urinary tract infections. Its symptomatology includes discomfort, increased bladder pressure, sensitivity and intense pain in the bladder and pelvic areas, increased voiding frequency and urgency, or a combination of these symptoms. For these reasons, this pathology has a very negative impact on quality of life. The etiology of IC/BPS is still not well understood and different hypotheses have been formulated, including autoimmune processes, allergic reactions, chronic bacterial infections, exposure to toxins or dietary elements, and psychosomatic factors. The finding of an effective and specific therapy for IC/BPS remains a challenge for the scientific community because of the lack of a consensus regarding the causes and the inherent difficulties in the diagnosis. The last recent hypothesis is that IC/BPS could be pathophysiologically related to a disruption of the bladder mucosa surface layer with consequent loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This class of mucopolysaccharides has hydrorepellent properties and their alteration expose the urothelium to many urinary toxic agents. It has been hypothesized that when these substances penetrate the bladder wall a chain is triggered in the submucosa. In order to improve the integrity and function of the bladder lining, GAG layer replenishment therapy is widely accepted as therapy for patients with IC/BPS who have poor or inadequate response to conventional therapy. Currently, Chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin, hyaluronic acid (HA), and pentosan polysulphate (PPS), and combinations of two GAGs (CS and HA) are the available substances with different effectiveness rates in patients with IC/BPS. There are four different commercially available products for GAG replenishment including CS, heparin, HA and PPS. Each product has different concentrations and

  6. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Prevention in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2004-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a newly identified respiratory disease that threatened Taiwan between April 14 and July 5, 2003. Chang Gung University experienced various SARS-related episodes, such as the postponement of classes for 7 days, the reporting of probable SARS cases, and the isolation of students under Level A and B…

  7. Acute myelogenous leukemia treated with daunomycin associated with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M; de Arriba, G; Ordi, J; Oliva, H; Hernando, L

    1989-01-01

    We report a 33-year-old patient with a diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia that developed a nephrotic syndrome 9 days after starting treatment with daunomycin. Pathological studies of the kidneys revealed minimal change disease with IgM deposits. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed.

  8. An evidence-based approach to acute aortic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bruce M

    2013-12-01

    Aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer are parts of a spectrum of acute aortic syndromes that represent uncommon--but potentially deadly--diagnoses seen in the emergency department. The differential for acute aortic syndromes is large, as many conditions (including the much more common conditions of acute coronary syndromes and pulmonary embolism) present with many of the same chief complaints. This review looks at the features and classifications of acute aortic syndromes and presents evidence regarding the risk factors and chief complaints that can assist emergency clinicians in identifying the patients who require further investigation. Although no set of clinical factors has been shown to rule out aortic dissection, elements of a complete history and physical examination are critical in identifying patients who may be at risk for these diseases. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the various available advanced imaging strategies, the evidence regarding efficacy of laboratory testing (including D-dimer), as well as surgical and nonsurgical treatment options are reviewed.

  9. A feasibility trial of a cognitive-behavioural symptom management program for chronic pelvic pain for men with refractory chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Dean A; Nickel, J. Curtis; Katz, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to determine the feasibility of a cognitive behavioural symptom management program for the acute improvement of psychosocial risk factors of diminished quality of life (QoL) in men suffering from chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Materials and Methods: We assessed CP/CPPS symptoms and impact (i.e., chronic prostatitis symptom index [CPSI] pain, urinary, QoL domains), psychosocial risk factors were assessed at baseline and weekly for 8 weeks. We included the following psychosocial risk factors: catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PCS), mood (Center for Epidemiological Studies in Depression Scale, CES-D), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS) and general pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire). Patient sessions dispute and replace pessimistic thinking with health-focused thinking and behaviour. Results: Eleven men completed the psychosocial management program (mean age = 51.3, standard deviaton [SD] = 12.49). Mean CPSI baseline total score was 25.2 (SD = 10.21). Repeated measures ANOVAs showed the program was associated with significant linear reductions for pain (p = 0.051), disability (p= 0.020) and catastrophizing (p = 0.005), but no changes in depressive symptoms or social support. The CPSI baseline scores compared to follow-up scores (n = 8) were significantly reduced (p = 0.007), with CPSI pain (p = 0.015) and QoL impact (p = 0.013) reduced, but not for urinary scores. Correlations between change scores at the baseline and at 8 weeks for CPSI and psychosocial risk factors indicated that reductions in catastrophizing were most strongly associated with score reductions for the CPSI; these reductions, however, were not significant. Conclusions: The psychosocial management program targets and significantly reduces several empirically supported psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer CP/CPPS outcomes. Psychosocial management for CP/CPPS is feasible, but requires a

  10. [The use of nimesulide in the treatment of acute low back pain].

    PubMed

    Shikhkerimov, R K

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to study the efficacy and safety of nimesulide (nemulex) in the treatment of acute low back pain (LBP). The medical documentation of 54 patients with primary syndrome of LBP, which were treated in a polyclinic with nemulex at a dose of 200 mg per day had been studied. The assessment of patients' condition and efficacy and safety of the treatment was conducted based on the information after three visits (1-st, 5-th and 10-th day). The analysis took into account the data of clinical-neurological examination and the assessment of pain intensity at rest and at movement according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the severity of Lasegue symptom and limitation of movements in the lumbar spine. Safety of the therapy was evaluated on the basis of accounting of undesirable side reactions and data analysis and physical examination and laboratory testing. Cardiovascular safety was assessed by blood pressure and blood lipid profile on day 10. The use of nemulex at a dose of 200 mg per day resulted in relief of pain and increase of mobility in the lumbar spine on the 5th day of treatment that indicates the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory therapy to restore the previous functional status of patients with LBP. The use of nemulex was accompanied not only by statistically significant analgesic effect (0,78±0,14 points alone; 1,12±0,18 points when moving by VAS on the 10th day of the treatment) and high security (only 1 of the 54 patients was recorded to have elevation of hepatic transaminases; and 2 patients with dyspepsia without endoscopic changes of gastrointestinal tract). PMID:27240177

  11. [The use of nimesulide in the treatment of acute low back pain].

    PubMed

    Shikhkerimov, R K

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to study the efficacy and safety of nimesulide (nemulex) in the treatment of acute low back pain (LBP). The medical documentation of 54 patients with primary syndrome of LBP, which were treated in a polyclinic with nemulex at a dose of 200 mg per day had been studied. The assessment of patients' condition and efficacy and safety of the treatment was conducted based on the information after three visits (1-st, 5-th and 10-th day). The analysis took into account the data of clinical-neurological examination and the assessment of pain intensity at rest and at movement according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the severity of Lasegue symptom and limitation of movements in the lumbar spine. Safety of the therapy was evaluated on the basis of accounting of undesirable side reactions and data analysis and physical examination and laboratory testing. Cardiovascular safety was assessed by blood pressure and blood lipid profile on day 10. The use of nemulex at a dose of 200 mg per day resulted in relief of pain and increase of mobility in the lumbar spine on the 5th day of treatment that indicates the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory therapy to restore the previous functional status of patients with LBP. The use of nemulex was accompanied not only by statistically significant analgesic effect (0,78±0,14 points alone; 1,12±0,18 points when moving by VAS on the 10th day of the treatment) and high security (only 1 of the 54 patients was recorded to have elevation of hepatic transaminases; and 2 patients with dyspepsia without endoscopic changes of gastrointestinal tract).

  12. The Efficacy of Thermotherapy and Cryotherapy on Pain Relief in Patients with Acute Low Back Pain, A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute low back pain is one of the most common health problems especially in industrialized countries where 75 per cent of the population develop it at least once during their life. This study examined the efficacy of thermotherapy and cryotherapy, alongside a routine pharmacologic treatment, on pain relief in patients with acute low back pain referring an orthopedic clinic in Shahrekord, Iran. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 87 patients randomly assigned to three (thermotherapy and cryotherapy as intervention, and naproxen as control) groups of 29 each. The first (thermotherapy) group underwent treatment with hot water bag and naproxen, the second (cryotherapy) group was treated with ice and naproxen, and the naproxen group was only treated with naproxen, all for one week. All patients were examined on 0, 3rd, 8th, and 15th day after the first visit and the data gathered by McGill Pain Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using paired t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square. Results: In this study, mean age of the patients was 34.48 (20–50) years and 51.72 per cent were female. Thermotherapy patients reported significantly less pain compared to cryotherapy and control (p≤0.05). In thermotherapy and cryotherapy groups, mean pain in the first visit was 12.70±3.7 and 12.06±2.6, and on the 15th day after intervention 0.75±0.37 and 2.20±2.12, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that the application of thermo–therapy and cryotherapy accompanied with a pharmacologic treatment could relieve pain in the patients with acute low back pain. PMID:25386469

  13. Acute low back pain is marked by variability: An internet-based pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pain variability in acute LBP has received limited study. The objectives of this pilot study were to characterize fluctuations in pain during acute LBP, to determine whether self-reported 'flares' of pain represent discrete periods of increased pain intensity, and to examine whether the frequency of flares was associated with back-related disability outcomes. Methods We conducted a cohort study of acute LBP patients utilizing frequent serial assessments and Internet-based data collection. Adults with acute LBP (lasting ≤3 months) completed questionnaires at the time of seeking care, and at both 3-day and 1-week intervals, for 6 weeks. Back pain was measured using a numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), and disability was measured using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). A pain flare was defined as 'a period of increased pain lasting at least 2 hours, when your pain intensity is distinctly worse than it has been recently'. We used mixed-effects linear regression to model longitudinal changes in pain intensity, and multivariate linear regression to model associations between flare frequency and disability outcomes. Results 42 of 47 participants (89%) reported pain flares, and the average number of discrete flare periods per patient was 3.5 over 6 weeks of follow-up. More than half of flares were less than 4 hours in duration, and about 75% of flares were less than one day in duration. A model with a quadratic trend for time best characterized improvements in pain. Pain decreased rapidly during the first 14 days after seeking care, and leveled off after about 28 days. Patients who reported a pain flare experienced an almost 3-point greater current NPRS than those not reporting a flare (mean difference [SD] 2.70 [0.11]; p < 0.0001). Higher flare frequency was independently associated with a higher final ODI score (ß [SE} 0.28 (0.08); p = 0.002). Conclusions Acute LBP is characterized by variability. Patients with acute LBP report multiple distinct flares

  14. Multidetector CT in emergency radiology: acute and generalized non-traumatic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Paolantonio, Pasquale; Rengo, Marco; Ferrari, Riccardo; Laghi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Multidetector CT (MDCT) is an imaging technique that provides otherwise unobtainable information in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A correct working diagnosis depends essentially on understanding the individual patient's clinical data and laboratory findings. In haemodynamically stable patients with acute severe and generalized abdominal pain, MDCT is now the preferred imaging test and gives invaluable diagnostic information, also in unstable patients after stabilization. In this descriptive review, we focus our attention on acute, severe and generalized or undifferentiated non-traumatic abdominal pain. The main differential diagnoses are acute pancreatitis, gastrointestinal perforation, ruptured abdominal aneurysm and acute mesenteric ischaemia. We will provide radiologist readers with a technical guide to optimize MDCT imaging protocols and list the major CT signs essential to reach a correct diagnosis and guide the best treatment. PMID:26689097

  15. The multilevel organization of vicarious pain responses: effects of pain cues and empathy traits on spinal nociception and acute pain.

    PubMed

    Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Martel, Marc O; Roy, Mathieu; Caron, Etienne; Jackson, Philip L; Rainville, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    The shared-representation model of empathy suggests that vicarious pain processes rely partly on the activation of brain systems underlying self-pain in the observer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that self-pain may be facilitated by the vicarious priming of neural systems underlying pain perception. Pictures illustrating painful agents applied to the hand or the foot (sensory information), or painful facial expressions (emotional information) were shown to 43 participants to test the effects of vicarious pain on the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) of the lower limb and pain intensity and unpleasantness produced by transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied over the sural nerve. Results confirmed the expected priming effects of vicarious pain on spinal and perceptual processes. However, for comparable pain intensity and arousal evoked by the pain pictures, the facilitation of the NFR and the self-pain unpleasantness measurements was more robust in response to pictures depicting pain sensory compared to emotional information. Furthermore, the facilitation of the NFR by pain pictures was positively correlated with the empathy trait of the observer. In contrast, the change in perceived shock-pain intensity was negatively correlated with empathic traits. This dissociation implies that low-level vicarious priming processes underlying pain facilitation may be downregulated at higher pain-processing stages in individuals reporting higher levels of empathy. We speculate that this process contributes to reducing self-other assimilation and is necessary to adopt higher-order empathic responses and altruistic behaviors.

  16. Connective tissue, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s), and head and cervical pain.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Ghibellini, Giulia; Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an umbrella term for a growing group of hereditary disorders of the connective tissue mainly manifesting with generalized joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and vascular and internal organ fragility. In contrast with other well known heritable connective tissue disorders with severe cardiovascular involvement (e.g., Marfan syndrome), most EDS patients share a nearly normal life span, but are severely limited by disabling features, such as pain, fatigue and headache. In this work, pertinent literature is reviewed with focus on prevalence, features and possible pathogenic mechanisms of headache in EDSs. Gathered data are fragmented and generally have a low level of evidence. Headache is reported in no less than 1/3 of the patients. Migraine results the most common type in the hypermobility type of EDS. Other possibly related headache disorders include tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, headache attributed to spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage, headache secondary to Chiari malformation, cervicogenic headache and neck-tongue syndrome, whose association still lacks of reliable prevalence studies. The underlying pathogenesis seems complex and variably associated with cardiovascular dysautonomia, cervical spine and temporomandibular joint instability/dysfunction, meningeal fragility, poor sleep quality, pain-killer drugs overuse and central sensitization. Particular attention is posed on a presumed subclinical cervical spine dysfunction. Standard treatment is always symptomatic and usually unsuccessful. Assessment and management procedures are discussed in order to put some basis for ameliorating the actual patients' needs and nurturing future research. PMID:25655119

  17. Endogenous inhibition of somatic pain is impaired in girls with irritable bowel syndrome compared with healthy girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endogenous pain inhibition is often deficient in adults with chronic pain conditions including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is unclear whether deficiencies in pain inhibition are present in young children with IBS. The present study compared endogenous pain inhibition, somatic pain threshold, ...

  18. Persistence of pain induced by startle and forehead cooling after sympathetic blockade in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, P; Finch, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Stimuli arousing sympathetic activity can increase ratings of clinical pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Objective: To determine whether the increase in pain is mediated by peripheral sympathetic activity. Methods: The effect of sympathetic ganglion blockade on pain evoked by a startle stimulus and cooling the forehead was investigated in 36 CRPS patients. Results: Loss of vasoconstrictor reflexes and warming of the limb indicated that sympathetic blockade was effective in 26 cases. Before sympathetic blockade, pain increased in 12 of these 26 patients when they were startled. Pain increased in seven of the 12 patients and in another five cases when their forehead was cooled. As expected, pain that increased during sympathetic arousal generally subsided in patients with signs of sympathetic blockade. However, pain still increased in three of 12 of patients after the startle stimulus and in six of 12 of patients during forehead cooling, despite indisputable sympathetic blockade. Conclusions: These findings suggest that stimuli arousing sympathetic activity act by a central process to exacerbate pain in some patients, independent of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. This may account for the lack of effect of peripheral sympathetic blockade on pain in some CRPS patients. PMID:14707316

  19. Extended-release morphine sulfate in treatment of severe acute and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Balch, Robert J; Trescot, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Morphine is the archetypal opioid analgesic. Because it is a short-acting opioid, its use has been limited to the management of acute pain. The development of extended-release formulations have resulted in the increased utilization of morphine in chronic pain conditions. This review documents the history of morphine use in pain treatment, and describes the metabolism, pharmacodynamics, formulations, and efficacy of the currently available extended-release morphine medications. PMID:21197323

  20. Churg-Strauss presenting as acute coronary syndrome: sometimes it's zebras.

    PubMed

    Kakouros, Nicholaos; Bastiaenen, Rachel; Kourliouros, Antonios; Anderson, Lisa

    2011-04-13

    A 53-year-old patient presented to our institution with troponin-positive chest pain and new-onset peripheral oedema. A week prior, while abroad, he had developed visual disturbances and fever in conjunction with an elevated troponin. Coronary angiography had revealed minor coronary artery disease and he was treated for acute coronary syndrome and occult infection. On arrival to our coronary care unit, further review elicited a history of recently diagnosed and worsening severity asthma with nasal polyposis. A mononeuritis and a vasculitic rash were noted and blood screen showed hypereosinophilia and immunoglobulin E (IgE) elevation. A clinical diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome was made and the patient was treated urgently and successfully with immunosuppressants. The case illustrates a fulminant presentation mode of this rare vasculitis and the importance of seeking a unifying diagnosis in cases presenting with apparently disparate symptoms and findings.