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Sample records for acute physiological effects

  1. The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, P T; Lane, J; Moore, K L; Aspen, J; Rycroft, J A; O'Brien, D C

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine level in tea and coffee on acute physiological responses and mood. Randomised full crossover design in subjects after overnight caffeine abstention was studied. In study 1 (n = 17) the caffeine level was manipulated naturalistically by preparing tea and coffee at different strengths (1 or 2 cups equivalent). Caffeine levels were 37.5 and 75 mg in tea, 75 and 150 mg in coffee, with water and no-drink controls. In study 2 (n = 15) caffeine level alone was manipulated (water, decaffeinated tea, plus 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg caffeine). Beverage volume and temperature (55 degrees C) were constant. SBP, DBP, heart rate, skin temperature, skin conductance, and mood were monitored over each 3-h study session. In study 1, tea and coffee produced mild autonomic stimulation and an elevation in mood. There were no effects of tea vs. coffee or caffeine dose, despite a fourfold variation in the latter. Increasing beverage strength was associated with greater increases in DBP and energetic arousal. In study 2, caffeinated beverages increased SBP, DBP, and skin conductance and lowered heart rate and skin temperature compared to water. Significant dose-response relationships to caffeine were seen only for SBP, heart rate, and skin temperature. There were significant effects of caffeine on energetic arousal but no consistent dose-response effects. Caffeinated beverages acutely stimulate the autonomic nervous system and increase alertness. Although caffeine can exert dose-dependent effects on a number of acute autonomic responses, caffeine level is not an important factor. Factors besides caffeine may contribute to these acute effects.

  2. The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, P T; Lane, J; Moore, K L; Aspen, J; Rycroft, J A; O'Brien, D C

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine level in tea and coffee on acute physiological responses and mood. Randomised full crossover design in subjects after overnight caffeine abstention was studied. In study 1 (n = 17) the caffeine level was manipulated naturalistically by preparing tea and coffee at different strengths (1 or 2 cups equivalent). Caffeine levels were 37.5 and 75 mg in tea, 75 and 150 mg in coffee, with water and no-drink controls. In study 2 (n = 15) caffeine level alone was manipulated (water, decaffeinated tea, plus 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg caffeine). Beverage volume and temperature (55 degrees C) were constant. SBP, DBP, heart rate, skin temperature, skin conductance, and mood were monitored over each 3-h study session. In study 1, tea and coffee produced mild autonomic stimulation and an elevation in mood. There were no effects of tea vs. coffee or caffeine dose, despite a fourfold variation in the latter. Increasing beverage strength was associated with greater increases in DBP and energetic arousal. In study 2, caffeinated beverages increased SBP, DBP, and skin conductance and lowered heart rate and skin temperature compared to water. Significant dose-response relationships to caffeine were seen only for SBP, heart rate, and skin temperature. There were significant effects of caffeine on energetic arousal but no consistent dose-response effects. Caffeinated beverages acutely stimulate the autonomic nervous system and increase alertness. Although caffeine can exert dose-dependent effects on a number of acute autonomic responses, caffeine level is not an important factor. Factors besides caffeine may contribute to these acute effects. PMID:10837840

  3. Dissociable Behavioral, Physiological and Neural Effects of Acute Glucose and Fructose Ingestion: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina Karin; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Schmidt, André; Zimak, Nina; Peterli, Ralph; Beglinger, Christoph; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that glucose and fructose ingestion differentially modulate release of satiation hormones. Recent studies have begun to elucidate brain-gut interactions with neuroimaging approaches such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but the neural mechanism underlying different behavioral and physiological effects of glucose and fructose are unclear. In this paper, we have used resting state functional MRI to explore whether acute glucose and fructose ingestion also induced dissociable effects in the neural system. Using a cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we compared resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network in 12 healthy lean males. Each subject was administered fructose, glucose and placebo on three separate occasions. Subsequent correlation analysis was used to examine relations between rsFC findings and plasma concentrations of satiation hormones and subjective feelings of appetite. Glucose ingestion induced significantly greater elevations in plasma glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP, while feelings of fullness increased and prospective food consumption decreased relative to fructose. Furthermore, glucose increased rsFC of the left caudatus and putamen, precuneus and lingual gyrus more than fructose, whereas within the basal ganglia/limbic network, fructose increased rsFC of the left amygdala, left hippocampus, right parahippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex and precentral gyrus more than glucose. Moreover, compared to fructose, the increased rsFC after glucose positively correlated with the glucose-induced increase in insulin. Our findings suggest that glucose and fructose induce dissociable effects on rsFC within the basal ganglia/limbic network, which are probably mediated by different insulin levels. A larger study would be recommended in order to confirm these findings.

  4. The effects of sex and hormonal status on the physiological response to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Kajantie, Eero; Phillips, David I W

    2006-02-01

    Whether one is male or female is one of the most important determinants of human health. While males are more susceptible to cardiovascular and infectious disease, they are outnumbered by women for many autoimmune disorders, fibromyalgia and chronic pain. Recently, individual differences in the physiological response to stress have emerged as a potentially important risk factor for these disorders. This raises the possibility that sex differences in prevalence of disease could at least in part be explained by sex differences in the nature of the physiological response to stress. In a psychophysiological laboratory, the autonomic nervous system response can be provoked by many different stressors including physical, mental and psychosocial tasks, while the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) response seems to be more specific to a psychosocial challenge incorporating ego involvement. The responses of both systems to different psychosocial challenges have been subject to extensive research, although in respect of sex differences the HPAA response has probably been more systematically studied. In this review, we focus on sex differences in HPAA and autonomic nervous system responses to acute psychosocial stress. Although some differences are dependent on the stressor used, the responses of both systems show marked and consistent differences according to sex, with the phase of the menstrual cycle, menopausal status and pregnancy having marked effects. Between puberty and menopause, adult women usually show lower HPAA and autonomic responses than men of same age. However, the HPAA response is higher in the luteal phase, when for example post stress free cortisol levels approach those of men. After menopause, there is an increase in sympathoadrenal responsiveness, which is attenuated during oral hormone replacement therapy, with most evidence suggesting that HPAA activity shows the same trends. Interestingly, pregnancy is associated with an attenuated response of

  5. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Katja; Schmidt, Mirko; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention that included cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6–8 years old) attended a 20-min sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children's updating, inhibition, and shifting performance as well as salivary cortisol were assessed before (pre-test), immediately after (post-test), and 40 min after (follow-up) the intervention or control condition, respectively. Results revealed a significantly stronger improvement in inhibition in the experimental group compared to the control group, while it appeared that acute physical activity had no specific effect on updating and shifting. The intervention effect on inhibition leveled out 40 min after physical activity. Salivary cortisol increased significantly more in the experimental compared to the control group between post-test and follow-up and results support partly the assumed inverted U-shaped relationship between cortisol level and cognitive performance. In conclusion, results indicate that acute physical activity that includes cognitive engagement may have immediate positive effects on inhibition, but not necessarily on updating and shifting in elementary school children. This positive effect may partly be explained through cortisol elevation after acute physical activity. PMID:25566148

  6. Acute and subacute effects of the ultrasonic blade and electrosurgery on nerve physiology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chaoyang; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Cavanaugh, John M.; Broughton, Duan; Clymer, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ultrasonic blades have been shown to cause less acute electrophysiological damage when applied near nerves than monopolar electrosurgery (ES). This study was performed to determine whether the acute nerve damage observed for ES, as well as the relative lack of damage observed for ultrasonic dissection, extends through a subacute timeframe. Muscle incisions were made in rat with the Harmonic® Blade (HB) and ES at a distance of 2 mm from the sciatic nerve. Sham surgery was also performed which consisted of similar exposure of the sciatic nerve without use of an energized device. Electrophysiological function was assessed acutely over a 3-h period, and subacutely after a 7-day survival, by monitoring the sciatic nerve compound action potential (CAP), conduction velocity (CV), von Frey hair (VFH) stimulation force, leukocyte infiltration, and impaired axonal transport via β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) immunocytochemistry. During the acute period, ES produced significantly lower CAP and CV, and higher levels of leukocytes and β-APP than sham, whereas the ultrasonic blade was not significantly different from sham, and had significantly lower VFH force than ES. After the subacute survival, ES continued to display significantly lower CAP and CV, and higher levels of leukocytes and β-APP than sham, whereas ultrasonic blade had higher CAP and CV than sham, and lower VFH than ES. This study confirms that incisions made with an ultrasonic blade cause less acute nerve damage than monopolar ES, and are comparable to sham surgery at a distance of 2 mm from the sciatic nerve. The negative effects of electrosurgery extend through at least a 7-day survival period, whereas subacute recovery after application of the ultrasonic blade was comparable to that of sham surgery. For surgical procedures in the vicinity of vital nerves, use of the ultrasonic blade represents a lower risk than ES for both acute and subacute neural trauma. PMID:25812024

  7. Physiological and behavioral responses to an acute-phase response in zebra finches: immediate and short-term effects.

    PubMed

    Sköld-Chiriac, Sandra; Nord, Andreas; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the immune system to clear pathogens and mitigate infection is a costly process that might incur fitness costs. When vertebrates are exposed to pathogens, their first line of defense is the acute-phase response (APR), which consists of a suite of physiological and behavioral changes. The dynamics of the APR are relatively well investigated in mammals and domesticated birds but still rather unexplored in passerine birds. In this study, we injected male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) to assess the potential physiological, immunological, and behavioral responses during the time course of an APR and also to record any potential short-term effects by measuring the birds during the days after the expected APR. We found that LPS-injected zebra finches decreased activity and gained less body mass during the APR, compared to control individuals. In addition, LPS-injected birds increased their production of LPS-reactive antibodies and reduced their metabolic rate during the days after the expected APR. Our results show that zebra finches demonstrate sickness behaviors during an APR but also that physiological effects persist after the expected time course of an APR. These delayed effects might be either a natural part of the progression of an APR, which is probably true for the antibody response, or a short-term carryover effect, which is probably true for the metabolic response.

  8. Conflicting Physiological and Genomic Cardiopulmonary Effects of Recruitment Maneuvers in Murine Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Voiriot, Guillaume; Zhou, Tong; Marcos, Elisabeth; Dudek, Steven M.; Jacobson, Jeff R.; Machado, Roberto; Adnot, Serge; Brochard, Laurent; Maitre, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Low tidal volume ventilation, although promoting atelectasis, is a protective strategy against ventilator-induced lung injury. Deep inflation (DI) recruitment maneuvers restore lung volumes, but potentially compromise lung parenchymal and vascular function via repetitive overdistention. Our objective was to examine cardiopulmonary physiological and transcriptional consequences of recruitment maneuvers. C57/BL6 mice challenged with either PBS or LPS via aspiration were placed on mechanical ventilation (5 h) using low tidal volume inflation (TI; 8 μl/g) alone or in combination with intermittent DIs (0.75 ml twice/min). Lung mechanics during TI ventilation significantly deteriorated, as assessed by forced oscillation technique and pressure–volume curves. DI mitigated the TI-induced alterations in lung mechanics, but induced a significant rise in right ventricle systolic pressures and pulmonary vascular resistances, especially in LPS-challenged animals. In addition, DI exacerbated the LPS-induced genome-wide lung inflammatory transcriptome, with prominent dysregulation of a gene cluster involving vascular processes, as well as increases in cytokine concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma. Gene ontology analyses of right ventricular tissue expression profiles also identified inflammatory signatures, as well as apoptosis and membrane organization ontologies, as potential elements in the response to acute pressure overload. Our results, although confirming the improvement in lung mechanics offered by DI, highlight a detrimental impact in sustaining inflammatory response and exacerbating lung vascular dysfunction, events contributing to increases in right ventricle afterload. These novel insights should be integrated into the clinical assessment of the risk/benefit of recruitment maneuver strategies. PMID:22135358

  9. Physiological and behavioral effects of acute ethanol hangover in juvenile, adolescent, and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Susan M; Spear, Norman E

    2002-04-01

    This study examined differential responding of juvenile, adolescent, and adult rats after intoxication from an acute alcohol challenge. Experiment I generated blood ethanol curves for subjects 25, 35, or 110 days postnatal, after doses of 2.0 or 4.0 g/kg, assessing elimination rates and time of drug clearance. Experiment 2 compared ethanol's initial hypothermic and delayed hyperthermic effect across age by 48-hr temperature measurement with telemetry. At clearance or 24 hr after alcohol exposure, Experiment 3 tested subjects for changes in acoustic startle reactivity and ultrasonic vocalization (USV). Younger rats showed an absent or reduced tendency for residual hyperthermia, and adults showed alterations in USV observed as aftereffects of intoxication, despite greater initial blood alcohol levels and ethanol hypothermia in the former. The lesser ethanol hangover effects in weanlings and adolescents may be due in part to faster ethanol elimination at these ages compared with adults.

  10. Acute effects of heat on neuropsychological changes and physiological responses under noise condition.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Tripathi, S R; Pradhan, C K; Kashyap, S K

    1990-09-01

    To examine the effects of heat and noise individually and jointly on certain physiological responses and cognitive and neuromotor based functions, 12 male participants were tested under 6 experimental conditions which resulted by combining 3 levels of heat (25 degrees, 30 degrees and 35 degrees C) and 2 levels of white noise (70 and 100 dB). The experiment was carried out in a controlled climatic chamber following two 6 x 6 latin square designs. The results indicated elevations in heart rate, oxygen uptake and body temperature due to the independent effect of heat or the combined effects of heat and noise. The independent action of noise was found to be depressive on the first two responses. On the neuropsychological effects, the heat adversely affected the speed in card sorting (by design configuration) and digit symbol tests, and also the accuracy and error rate in the reasoning ability test. The noise caused performance improvements in critical flicker frequency (simultaneous) and in error rates in card sorting (by design configuration). The combined effects of heat and noise indicated higher error rates in card sorting (by face value), decreased accuracy in reasoning ability and improvements in performance in accuracy scores and error rates in digit symbol test. PMID:2279778

  11. Acute physiological responses to castration-related pain in piglets: the effect of two local anesthetics with or without meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Bonastre, C; Mitjana, O; Tejedor, M T; Calavia, M; Yuste, A G; Úbeda, J L; Falceto, M V

    2016-09-01

    Methods to reduce castration-related pain in piglets are still issues of concern and interest for authorities and producers. Our objectives were to estimate the effectiveness of two protocols of local anesthesia (lidocaine and the combination of lidocaine+bupivacaine) as well as the use of meloxicam as a postoperative analgesic in alleviating castration-related pain, measured by acute physiological responses. Eight groups (15 piglets/group) were included in the study: (1) castration without anesthesia or analgesia, without meloxicam (TRAD WITHOUT), (2) castration without anesthesia or analgesia, but with meloxicam (TRAD WITH), (3) handling without meloxicam (SHAM WITHOUT), (4) handling with meloxicam (SHAM WITH), (5) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine but without meloxicam (LIDO WITHOUT), (6) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine and meloxicam (LIDO WITH), (7) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine+bupivacaine without meloxicam (LIDO+BUPI WITHOUT), (8) castration after local anesthesia with lidocaine+bupivacaine and meloxicam (LIDO+BUPI WITH). Acute physiological responses measured included skin surface temperature and serum glucose and cortisol concentrations. On days 4 and 11 post-castration BW was recorded and average daily gain was calculated over this period. Furthermore, piglet mortality was recorded over the 11-day post-castration period. Administration of local anesthetic or meloxicam did not prevent the decrease in skin surface temperature associated with castration. Lidocaine reduced the increase in glucose concentration associated with castration. For castrated pigs, the joint use of lidocaine and meloxicam caused a significant decrease in cortisol concentration; the combination of intratesticular lidocaine and bupivacaine did not seem to be more effective than lidocaine alone. No effect of treatments on mortality and growth were detected. PMID:27080170

  12. Part 2: effect of training surface on acute physiological responses after sport-specific training.

    PubMed

    Binnie, Martyn J; Dawson, Brian; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the effect of sand and grass training surfaces during a sport-specific conditioning session in well-trained team sport athletes (n = 10). The participants initially completed a preliminary testing session to gather baseline (BASE) performance data for vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and 3-km running time trial. Three days subsequent to BASE, all the athletes completed the first sport-specific conditioning session, which was followed by a repeat of the BASE performance tests the following day (24 hours postexercise). Seven days later, the same training session was completed on the opposing surface and was again followed 24 hours later by the BASE performance tests. During each session, blood lactate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and heart rate (HR) were recorded, with player movement patterns also monitored via global positioning system units. Additionally, venous blood was collected preexercise, postexercise, and 24 hours postexercise, and analyzed for serum concentrations of Myoglobin, Haptoglobin, and C-Reactive Protein. Results showed significantly higher HR and RPE responses on SAND (p > 0.05), despite significantly lower distance and velocity outputs for the training session (p > 0.05). There were no differences in 24 hours postexercise performance (p > 0.05), and blood markers of muscle damage, inflammation and hemolysis were also similar between the surfaces (p > 0.05). These results suggest that performing a sport-specific conditioning session on a sand (vs. grass) surface can result in a greater physiological response, without any additional decrement to next-day performance.

  13. Methyl parathion and fenvalerate toxicity in American kestrels: Acute physiological responses and effects of cold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o. methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10-h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?C) and cold (-5?C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (estimated median lethal dose of 3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits of 2.29 -4.14 mg/kg), producing dose-dependent inhibition of brain and plasma cholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Brain and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% was associated with transient but pronounced hypothermia 2 h after intubation, although the magnitude of this response was yariable. Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Cold intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. Thus, it would appear that organophosphorus insecticides pose far greater hazard than pyrethroids to raptorial birds.

  14. Effects of acute thermal stress on the survival, predator avoidance, and physiology of juvenile fall Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Weiland, L.K.; Wagner, P.

    2002-01-01

    We subjected juvenile fall chinook salmon from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to acute thermal stressors in the laboratory that were derived from field data. We assessed the effects of thermal stress on: (1) the extent of direct mortality; (2) the vulnerability of fish to predation by smallmouth bass; and (3) some general physiological stress responses and synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). Thermally-stressed fish showed little direct mortality and no increases in vulnerability to predation. However, these fish showed transient increases in plasma concentrations of cortisol, glucose, and lactate, and a dramatic (25-fold higher than controls) and persistent (lasting 2 wk) increase in levels of liver hsp70. Our results indicate that exposure of Hanford Reach juvenile fall chinook salmon to such stressors did not lead to significant increases in direct mortality or vulnerability to predation, but did alter physiological homeostasis, which should be of concern to those managing this resource. Because our fish received only a single exposure to one of the stressors we examined, we are also concerned about the consequences of exposing fish to multiple, cumulative stressors - a likely scenario for fish in the wild.

  15. The Psychological and Physiological Effects of Acute Occupational Stress in New Anesthesiology Residents: A Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eisenach, John H.; Sprung, Juraj; Clark, Matthew M.; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Kruse, Timothy N.; Chantigian, Daniel P.; Carter, Jason R.; Long, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational stress in resident physicians has profound implications for wellness, professionalism, and patient care. This observational pilot trial measured psychological and physiological stress biomarkers before, during, and after the start of anesthesia residency. Methods Eighteen physician interns scheduled to begin anesthesia residency were recruited for evaluation at three time points: baseline (collected remotely before residency in June 2013); first month visit 1 (July); and follow-up visit 2 (residency month 3–5, Sept–Nov). Validated scales were used to measure stress, anxiety, resilience, and wellness at all 3 time points. During visits 1 and 2, we measured resting heart rate variability, responses to laboratory mental stress (hemodynamic, catecholamine, cortisol, and interleukin-6) and chronic stress indices (C-reactive protein, 24 h ambulatory heart rate and blood pressure, 24 h urinary cortisol and catecholamines, overnight heart rate variability). Results Thirteen interns agreed to participate (72% enrollment). There were seven men and six women, ages 27–33 years. The mean ± SD of all study variables are reported. Conclusion The novelty of our report is the prospective design in a defined cohort of residents newly exposed to the similar occupational stress of the operating environment. Because of the paucity of literature specific to the measures and stress conditions in this investigation, no data were available to generate a priori definition of primary outcomes and a data analytic plan. These findings will allow power analysis for future design of trials examining occupational stress and stress-reducing interventions. Given the importance of physician burnout in our country, the impact of chronic stress on resident wellness requires further study. PMID:25093592

  16. Physiological effects of intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Powell, F L; Garcia, N

    2000-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH), or periodic exposure to hypoxia interrupted by return to normoxia or less hypoxic conditions, occurs in many circumstances. In high altitude mountaineering, IH is used to optimize acclimatization although laboratory studies have not generally revealed physiologically significant benefits. IH enhances athletic performance at sea level if blood oxygen capacity increases and the usual level of training is not decreased significantly. IH for high altitude workers who commute from low altitude homes is of considerable practical interest and the ideal commuting schedule for physical and mental performance is being studied. The effect of oxygen enrichment at altitude (i.e., intermittent normoxia on a background of chronic hypoxia) on human performance is under study also. Physiological mechanisms of IH, and specifically the differences between effects of IH and acute or chronic continuous hypoxia remains to be determined. Biomedical researchers are defining the molecular and cellular mechanisms for effects of hypoxia on the body in health and disease. A comparative approach may provide additional insight about the biological significance of these effects.

  17. Psychomotor performance, subjective and physiological effects and whole blood Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations in heavy, chronic cannabis smokers following acute smoked cannabis.

    PubMed

    Schwope, David M; Bosker, Wendy M; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-07-01

    Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the illicit drug most frequently observed in accident and driving under the influence of drugs investigations. Whole blood is often the only available specimen collected during such investigations, yet few studies have examined relationships between cannabis effects and whole blood concentrations following cannabis smoking. Nine male and one female heavy, chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked ad libitum one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC were quantified in whole blood and plasma. Assessments were performed before and up to 6 h after smoking, including subjective [visual analog scales (VAS) and Likert scales], physiological (heart rate, blood pressure and respirations) and psychomotor (critical-tracking and divided-attention tasks) measures. THC significantly increased VAS responses and heart rate, with concentration-effect curves demonstrating counter-clockwise hysteresis. No significant differences were observed for critical-tracking or divided-attention task performance in this cohort of heavy, chronic cannabis smokers. The cannabis influence factor was not suitable for quantifying psychomotor impairment following cannabis consumption and was not precise enough to determine recent cannabis use with accuracy. These data inform our understanding of impairment and subjective effects following acute smoked cannabis and interpretation of whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in forensic investigations.

  18. Psychomotor performance, subjective and physiological effects and whole blood Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations in heavy, chronic cannabis smokers following acute smoked cannabis.

    PubMed

    Schwope, David M; Bosker, Wendy M; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-07-01

    Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the illicit drug most frequently observed in accident and driving under the influence of drugs investigations. Whole blood is often the only available specimen collected during such investigations, yet few studies have examined relationships between cannabis effects and whole blood concentrations following cannabis smoking. Nine male and one female heavy, chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked ad libitum one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC were quantified in whole blood and plasma. Assessments were performed before and up to 6 h after smoking, including subjective [visual analog scales (VAS) and Likert scales], physiological (heart rate, blood pressure and respirations) and psychomotor (critical-tracking and divided-attention tasks) measures. THC significantly increased VAS responses and heart rate, with concentration-effect curves demonstrating counter-clockwise hysteresis. No significant differences were observed for critical-tracking or divided-attention task performance in this cohort of heavy, chronic cannabis smokers. The cannabis influence factor was not suitable for quantifying psychomotor impairment following cannabis consumption and was not precise enough to determine recent cannabis use with accuracy. These data inform our understanding of impairment and subjective effects following acute smoked cannabis and interpretation of whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in forensic investigations. PMID:22589524

  19. Physiology in Medicine: A physiologic approach to prevention and treatment of acute high-altitude illnesses.

    PubMed

    Luks, Andrew M

    2015-03-01

    With the growing interest in adventure travel and the increasing ease and affordability of air, rail, and road-based transportation, increasing numbers of individuals are traveling to high altitude. The decline in barometric pressure and ambient oxygen tensions in this environment trigger a series of physiologic responses across organ systems and over a varying time frame that help the individual acclimatize to the low oxygen conditions but occasionally lead to maladaptive responses and one or several forms of acute altitude illness. The goal of this Physiology in Medicine article is to provide information that providers can use when counseling patients who present to primary care or travel medicine clinics seeking advice about how to prevent these problems. After discussing the primary physiologic responses to acute hypoxia from the organ to the molecular level in normal individuals, the review describes the main forms of acute altitude illness--acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral edema, and high-altitude pulmonary edema--and the basic approaches to their prevention and treatment of these problems, with an emphasis throughout on the physiologic basis for the development of these illnesses and their management.

  20. Physiology in Medicine: A physiologic approach to prevention and treatment of acute high-altitude illnesses.

    PubMed

    Luks, Andrew M

    2015-03-01

    With the growing interest in adventure travel and the increasing ease and affordability of air, rail, and road-based transportation, increasing numbers of individuals are traveling to high altitude. The decline in barometric pressure and ambient oxygen tensions in this environment trigger a series of physiologic responses across organ systems and over a varying time frame that help the individual acclimatize to the low oxygen conditions but occasionally lead to maladaptive responses and one or several forms of acute altitude illness. The goal of this Physiology in Medicine article is to provide information that providers can use when counseling patients who present to primary care or travel medicine clinics seeking advice about how to prevent these problems. After discussing the primary physiologic responses to acute hypoxia from the organ to the molecular level in normal individuals, the review describes the main forms of acute altitude illness--acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral edema, and high-altitude pulmonary edema--and the basic approaches to their prevention and treatment of these problems, with an emphasis throughout on the physiologic basis for the development of these illnesses and their management. PMID:25539941

  1. Effect of a Six-Week Preparation Period on Acute Physiological Responses to a Simulated Combat in Young National-Level Taekwondo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Chtourou, Hamdi; Torres-Luque, Gema; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis G; Heller, Jan; Padulo, Johnny

    2015-09-29

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in physical attributes, physiological characteristics and responses that occurred in a simulated combat during a six-week preparatory period in young taekwondo athletes. Seven athletes (age 12.17 ± 1.11 years) were examined before (pre-intervention) and after (post-intervention) a preparatory period for physical fitness and physiological responses to a 2×90 s simulated bout with a 30 s rest period. The heart rate (HR) was monitored during the simulated combat, and handgrip muscle strength (HMS) along with the countermovement jump (CMJ) were recorded before and after the combat. When compared with pre-intervention values, in post-intervention we observed a decrease in body mass, body fat percentage, and the HR at rest and during recovery after a 3 min step test, and an increase in maximal velocity of the cycle ergometer force-velocity test, the CMJ and mean power during the 30 s continuous jumping test (p<0.05). Furthermore, HR responses to a simulated combat were lower in the post-intervention session (p<0.05). CMJ values increased after the bout in both pre and post-intervention, with higher absolute values in the latter case (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference in HMS. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the acute physiological responses to a simulated taekwondo combat vary during a season, which might be explained by changes in physical fitness.

  2. Effect of a Six-Week Preparation Period on Acute Physiological Responses to a Simulated Combat in Young National-Level Taekwondo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Chtourou, Hamdi; Torres-Luque, Gema; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis G.; Heller, Jan; Padulo, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in physical attributes, physiological characteristics and responses that occurred in a simulated combat during a six-week preparatory period in young taekwondo athletes. Seven athletes (age 12.17 ± 1.11 years) were examined before (pre-intervention) and after (post-intervention) a preparatory period for physical fitness and physiological responses to a 2×90 s simulated bout with a 30 s rest period. The heart rate (HR) was monitored during the simulated combat, and handgrip muscle strength (HMS) along with the countermovement jump (CMJ) were recorded before and after the combat. When compared with pre-intervention values, in post-intervention we observed a decrease in body mass, body fat percentage, and the HR at rest and during recovery after a 3 min step test, and an increase in maximal velocity of the cycle ergometer force-velocity test, the CMJ and mean power during the 30 s continuous jumping test (p<0.05). Furthermore, HR responses to a simulated combat were lower in the post-intervention session (p<0.05). CMJ values increased after the bout in both pre and post-intervention, with higher absolute values in the latter case (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference in HMS. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the acute physiological responses to a simulated taekwondo combat vary during a season, which might be explained by changes in physical fitness. PMID:26557196

  3. Effect of a Six-Week Preparation Period on Acute Physiological Responses to a Simulated Combat in Young National-Level Taekwondo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Chtourou, Hamdi; Torres-Luque, Gema; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis G; Heller, Jan; Padulo, Johnny

    2015-09-29

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in physical attributes, physiological characteristics and responses that occurred in a simulated combat during a six-week preparatory period in young taekwondo athletes. Seven athletes (age 12.17 ± 1.11 years) were examined before (pre-intervention) and after (post-intervention) a preparatory period for physical fitness and physiological responses to a 2×90 s simulated bout with a 30 s rest period. The heart rate (HR) was monitored during the simulated combat, and handgrip muscle strength (HMS) along with the countermovement jump (CMJ) were recorded before and after the combat. When compared with pre-intervention values, in post-intervention we observed a decrease in body mass, body fat percentage, and the HR at rest and during recovery after a 3 min step test, and an increase in maximal velocity of the cycle ergometer force-velocity test, the CMJ and mean power during the 30 s continuous jumping test (p<0.05). Furthermore, HR responses to a simulated combat were lower in the post-intervention session (p<0.05). CMJ values increased after the bout in both pre and post-intervention, with higher absolute values in the latter case (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference in HMS. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the acute physiological responses to a simulated taekwondo combat vary during a season, which might be explained by changes in physical fitness. PMID:26557196

  4. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  5. Physiological responses to an acute bout of sprint interval cycling.

    PubMed

    Freese, Eric C; Gist, Nicholas H; Cureton, Kirk J

    2013-10-01

    Sprint interval training has been shown to improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and health outcomes. However, the acute physiological responses to 4-7 maximal effort intervals have not been determined. To determine the V[Combining Dot Above]O2, cardiorespiratory responses, and energy expenditure during an acute bout of sprint interval cycling (SIC), health, college-aged subjects, 6 men and 6 women, completed 2 SIC sessions with at least 7 days between trials. Sprint interval cycling was performed on a cycle ergometer and involved a 5-minute warm-up followed by four 30-second all-out sprints with 4-minute active recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg·min) during the 4 sprints were 35.3 ± 8.2, 38.8 ± 10.1, 38.8 ± 10.6, and 36.8 ± 9.3, and peak heart rate (b·min) were 164 ± 17, 172 ± 10, 177 ± 12, and 175 ± 22. We conclude that an acute bout of SIC elicits submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and cardiorespiratory responses during each interval that are above 80% of estimated maximal values. Although the duration of exercise in SIC is very short, the high level of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and cardiorespiratory responses are sufficient to potentially elicit adaptations to training associated with elevated aerobic energy demand.

  6. ACUTE MENTAL STRESS AND HEMOSTASIS: WHEN PHYSIOLOGY BECOMES VASCULAR HARM

    PubMed Central

    von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced activation of the sympathoadrenal medullary system activates both the coagulation and fibrinolysis system resulting in net hypercoagulability. The evolutionary interpretation of this physiology is that stress-hypercoagulability protects a healthy organism from excess bleeding should injury occur in fight-or-flight situations. In turn, acute mental stress, negative emotions and psychological trauma also are triggering factors of atherothrombotic events and possibly of venous thromboembolism. Individuals with pre-existent atherosclerosis and impaired endothelial anticoagulant function are the most vulnerable to experience onset of acute coronary events within two hours of intense emotions. A range of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors (e.g., chronic stress and negative affect) might critically intensify and prolong stress-induced hypercoagulability. In contrast, several pharmacological compounds, dietary flavanoids, and positive affect mitigate the acute prothrombotic stress response. Studies are needed to investigate whether attenuation of stress-hypercoagulability through medications and biobehavioral interventions reduce the risk of thrombotic incidents in at-risk populations. PMID:25861135

  7. Sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Sarah; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-08-01

    Females begin to demonstrate greater negative affective responses to stress than males in adolescence. This may reflect the concurrent emergence of underlying differences in physiological response systems, including corticolimbic circuitries, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This review examines when sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress emerge and the directionality of these differences over development. Indeed, the literature indicates that sex differences emerge during adolescence and persist into adulthood for all three physiological response systems. However, the directionality of the differences varies by system. The emerging corticolimbic reactivity literature suggests greater female reactivity, particularly in limbic regions densely innervated by gonadal hormone receptors. In contrast, males generally show higher levels of HPAA and ANS reactivity. We argue that the contrasting directionality of corticolimbic and peripheral physiological responses may reflect specific effects of gonadal hormones on distinct systems and also sex differences in evolved behavioral responses that demand different levels of peripheral physiological activation. Studies that examine both subjective reports of negative affect and physiological responses indicate that beginning in adolescence, females respond to acute stressors with more intense negative affect than males despite their comparatively lower peripheral physiological responses. This dissociation is not clearly explained by sex differences in the strength of the relationship between physiological and subjective responses. We suggest that females' greater subjective responsivity may instead arise from a greater activity in brain regions that translate stress responses to subjective awareness in adolescence. Future research directions include investigations of the role of pubertal hormones in physiological reactivity across all systems

  8. Acute physiological responses of squirrel monkeys exposed to hyperdynamic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral responses to a hyperdynamic environment were examined in four adult male squirrel monkeys. After baseline monitoring at 1 G, monkeys were exposed to one of three conditions: (1) +2 Gz for 60 minutes, (2) +2.9 Gz max for 8 minutes (simulating Space Shuttle launch), or (3) +1.7 Gz max for 19 minutes (simulating Space Shuttle reentry). During all experimental conditions, heart rate rose, and colonic temperature began to decline within the first ten minutes of centrifugation and decreased by as much as 2 C in some instances. Behaviorally, during centrifugation, the monkeys seemed to exhibit drowsiness and fall asleep, an observation not made during the control period. It is concluded that primates are susceptible to acute hyperdynamic field exposure.

  9. Physiologic effects of dry needling.

    PubMed

    Cagnie, Barbara; Dewitte, Vincent; Barbe, Tom; Timmermans, Frank; Delrue, Nicolas; Meeus, Mira

    2013-08-01

    During the past decades, worldwide clinical and scientific interest in dry needling (DN) therapy has grown exponentially. Various clinical effects have been credited to dry needling, but rigorous evidence about its potential physiological mechanisms of actions and effects is still lacking. Research identifying these exact mechanisms of dry needling action is sparse and studies performed in an acupuncture setting do not necessarily apply to DN. The studies of potential effects of DN are reviewed in reference to the different aspects involved in the pathophysiology of myofascial triggerpoints: the taut band, local ischemia and hypoxia, peripheral and central sensitization. This article aims to provide the physiotherapist with a greater understanding of the contemporary data available: what effects could be attributed to dry needling and what are their potential underlying mechanisms of action, and also indicate some directions at which future research could be aimed to fill current voids.

  10. Variations of physiological and innate immunological responses in goldfish (Carassius auratus) subjected to recurrent acute stress.

    PubMed

    Eslamloo, Khalil; Akhavan, Sobhan R; Fallah, Farzin Jamalzad; Henry, Morgane A

    2014-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of repeated acute stress on the physiological status and non-specific immune response of goldfish, Carassius auratus. The acute stress was a succession of a 3 min-chasing period followed by a 2 min-air exposure. The goldfish in triplicate tanks were subjected 3 times daily to this stress for one (S3) or three (S9) days. A separate group of unstressed fish was used as control for each sampling time. Blood samples were collected 12, 48 and 120 h after the last stress procedure. Variations of globulin levels, plasma anti-protease and bactericidal activities were not significant in the present study. The haematological parameters and plasma total protein and albumin strongly declined in S9 fish 12 h post-stress compared to control fish. However, plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in both S3 and S9 transiently increased compared to the control fish. Similarly, plasma peroxidase activity transiently increased in both stressed groups 12 h after stress. An increase in plasma lysozyme and complement activities suggested a hormesis-like effect with one-day acute stress improving the immunological response of goldfish while an extension of the stress period to three days impaired physiology and immunity for up to 5 days. This study revealed that recurrent acute stress could immunosuppress goldfish as usually expected of chronic stress.

  11. Dried citrus pulp modulates the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding dried citrus pulp (CP) pellets on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-received crossbred heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.3±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported...

  12. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to an endotoxin challenge. Heifers (n = 24; 219 ± 2.4 kg) were separated into treatment groups receiving a Control diet (n = 8), ...

  13. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  14. Increased serotonin release in mice frontal cortex and hippocampus induced by acute physiological stressors.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Kaoru; Yoshitake, Takashi; Inoue, Osamu; Ibii, Nobuhiro; Kehr, Jan; Ishida, Junichi; Nohta, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi

    2002-03-01

    The effects of acute physiological stressors (5 s tail pinch, handling and forced swimming at +25 and +5 degrees C for 3 min each) on serotonin (5-HT) release in the mouse brain were investigated using in vivo microdialysis. The extracellular 5-HT levels were determined by a newly developed highly-sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography method based on derivatization with benzylamine and fluorescence detection. The basal levels of 5-HT in 3 min microdialysates from the ventral hippocampus and frontal cortex were 0.68+/-0.21 and 0.75+/-0.28 fmol/6 microl (n=24), respectively. All three stressors caused an immediate, significant and reversible increase (handling: 150%; swimming: 240%) of extracellular 5-HT levels in both brain structures, suggesting a more dynamic role played by the serotonergic system in response to acute stress.

  15. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration.

  16. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration. PMID:26924539

  17. Tail docking in pigs: acute physiological and behavioural responses.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Bryer, P J; Krebs, N; McGlone, J J

    2008-02-01

    Tail docking of piglets is a routine procedure on farms to control tail-biting behaviour; however, docking can cause an acute stress response. The objectives of this research were to determine the stress responses to tail docking in piglets and to compare two methods of tail docking; cautery iron (CAUT) and the more commonly used blunt trauma cutters (BT). At approximately 6 days of age, piglets were tail docked using CAUT (n = 20), BT (n = 20) or sham tail docked with their tails remaining intact (CON; n = 40). Blood samples were taken prior to tail docking and at 30, 60 and 90 min after tail docking to evaluate the effect of tail docking on white blood cell (WBC) measures and cortisol concentrations. The above experiment was repeated to observe behaviour without the periodic blood sampling, so as not to confound the effects of blood sampling on piglet behaviour. Piglet behaviour was recorded in the farrowing crate using 1 min scan-samples via live observations for 60 min prior to and 90 min after tail docking. Total WBC counts were reduced (P > 0.05) among BT and CAUT compared with CON piglets 30 min after tail docking. Cortisol concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) among BT compared with CON and CAUT piglets 60 min after tail docking. Cautery and BT-docked piglets spent more (P < 0.05) time posterior scooting compared with CON piglets between 0 and 15 min, and 31 and 45 min after tail docking. Piglets tail docked using CAUT and BT tended to spend more (P < 0.07) time sitting than CON piglets between 0 and 15 min post tail docking. Elevated blood cortisol can be reduced by the use of the CAUT rather than the BT method of tail docking. Although the tail docking-induced rise in cortisol was prevented by using CAUT, the behavioural response to BT and CAUT docking methods was similar. PMID:22445023

  18. Infusion of glucose and lipids at physiological rates causes acute endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Boden, Guenther; Song, Weiwei; Duan, Xunbao; Cheung, Peter; Kresge, Karen; Barrero, Carlos; Merali, Salim

    2011-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has recently been implicated as a cause for obesity-related insulin resistance; however, what causes ER stress in obesity has remained uncertain. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that macronutrients can cause acute (ER) stress in rat liver. Examined were the effects of intravenously infused glucose and/or lipids on proximal ER stress sensor activation (PERK, eIF2-α, ATF4, Xbox protein 1 (XBP1s)), unfolded protein response (UPR) proteins (GRP78, calnexin, calreticulin, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), stress kinases (JNK, p38 MAPK) and insulin signaling (insulin/receptor substrate (IRS) 1/2 associated phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)) in rat liver. Glucose and/or lipid infusions, ranging from 23.8 to 69.5 kJ/4 h (equivalent to between ~17% and ~50% of normal daily energy intake), activated the proximal ER stress sensor PERK and ATF6 increased the protein abundance of calnexin, calreticulin and PDI and increased two GRP78 isoforms. Glucose and glucose plus lipid infusions induced comparable degrees of ER stress, but only infusions containing lipid activated stress kinases (JNK and p38 MAPK) and inhibited insulin signaling (PI3K). In summary, physiologic amounts of both glucose and lipids acutely increased ER stress in livers 12-h fasted rats and dependent on the presence of fat, caused insulin resistance. We conclude that this type of acute ER stress is likely to occur during normal daily nutrient intake.

  19. Physiological, Psychological, and Social Effects of Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kryter, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    The physiological, and behavioral effects of noise on man are investigated. Basic parameters such as definitions of noise, measuring techniques of noise, and the physiology of the ear are presented prior to the development of topics on hearing loss, speech communication in noise, social effects of noise, and the health effects of noise pollution. Recommendations for the assessment and subsequent control of noise is included.

  20. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  1. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-12-22

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  2. A comparison of Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scoring system in predicting mortality and length of stay at surgical intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Gilani, Mahryar Taghavi; Razavi, Majid; Azad, Azadeh Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Background: In critically ill patients, several scoring systems have been developed over the last three decades. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) are the most widely used scoring systems in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic accuracy of SAPS II and APACHE II and APACHE III scoring systems in predicting short-term hospital mortality of surgical ICU patients. Materials and Methods: Prospectively collected data from 202 patients admitted to Mashhad University Hospital postoperative ICU were analyzed. Calibration was estimated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. Discrimination was evaluated by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under a ROC curve (AUC). Result: Two hundred and two patients admitted on post-surgical ICU were evaluated. The mean SAPS II, APACHE II, and APACHE III scores for survivors were found to be significantly lower than of non-survivors. The calibration was best for APACHE II score. Discrimination was excellent for APACHE II (AUC: 0.828) score and acceptable for APACHE III (AUC: 0.782) and SAPS II (AUC: 0.778) scores. Conclusion: APACHE II provided better discrimination than APACHE III and SAPS II calibration was good at APACHE II and poor at APACHE III and SAPS II. Use of APACHE II was excellent in this post-surgical ICU. PMID:24791049

  3. Physiological and Cognitive Effects of Expressive Dissonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jennifer L.; Demaree, Heath A.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional well-being depends in part on affect modulation. The present study extends research on emotion regulation by assessing the physiological and cognitive effects of a novel response-focused regulation strategy, termed "expressive dissonance." Expressive dissonance refers to the incongruence between an emotional state (e.g., sadness) and a…

  4. Effects of acute caffeine administration on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Dewey, Amber M; Briatico, Laura N

    2010-12-01

    Acute caffeine administration has physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects. Despite its widespread use, few studies have described the impact of caffeine consumption in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine administration in adolescents. We measured cardiovascular responses and snack food intake after acute administration of 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg of caffeine. We also compared usual food intake and subjective effects of caffeine between high- and low-caffeine consumers. Finally, we conducted a detailed analysis of caffeine sources and consumption levels. We found main effects of caffeine dose on heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with HR decreasing and DBP increasing with increasing caffeine dose. There were significant interactions among gender, caffeine use, and time on DBP. High caffeine consumers (>50 mg/day) reported using caffeine to stay awake and drinking coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks more than low consumers (<50 mg/day). Boys were more likely than girls to report using getting a rush, more energy, or improved athletic performance from caffeine. Finally, when we examined energy and macronutrient intake, we found that caffeine consumption was positively associated with laboratory energy intake, specifically from high-sugar, low-fat foods and also positively associated with protein and fat consumption outside of the laboratory. When taken together, these data suggest that acute caffeine administration has a broad range of effects in adolescents and that the magnitude of these effects is moderated by gender and chronic caffeine consumption. PMID:21186925

  5. Acute anoxic changes in peripheral nerve: anatomic and physiologic correlations

    PubMed Central

    Punsoni, Michael; Drexler, Steven; Palaia, Thomas; Stevenson, Matthew; Stecker, Mark M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The response of the peripheral nerve to anoxia is modulated by many factors including glucose and temperature. The purposes of this article are to demonstrate the effects of these factors on the pathological changes induced by anoxia and to compare the electrophysiologic changes and pathological changes in the same nerves. Methods Sciatic nerves were harvested from rats and placed in a perfusion apparatus where neurophysiologic responses could be recorded continuously during a 16 h experiment. After the experiment, light microscopy and electron microscopy were performed. Results Light microscopic images showed mild changes from anoxia at normoglycemia. Hypoglycemic anoxia produced massive axonal swelling while hyperglycemic anoxia produced apparent changes in the myelin. Anoxic changes were not uniform in all axons. Electron microscopy showed only minor disruptions of the cytoskeleton with anoxia during normoglycemia. At the extremes of glucose concentration especially with hyperglycemia, there was a more severe disruption of intermediate filaments and loss of axonal structure with anoxia. Hypothermia protected axons from the effect of anoxia and produced peak axonal swelling in the 17–30°C range. Conclusions The combination of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia and anoxia produces extremely severe axonal disruption. Changes in axonal diameter are complex and are influenced by many factors. PMID:26221572

  6. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill).

  7. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health

    PubMed Central

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases. PMID:27618093

  8. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; Dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases. PMID:27618093

  9. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; Dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-09-08

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases.

  10. Respirator physiological effects under simulated work conditions.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Siddharth; Harber, Philip; Yun, David; Liu, David; Liu, Yihang; Wu, Samantha; Ng, David; Santiago, Silverio

    2009-04-01

    This study compared the physiological impacts of two respirator types in simulated work conditions. Fifty-six subjects included normal volunteers and persons with mild respiratory impairments (chronic rhinitis, mild COPD, and mild asthma). Respiratory parameters and electrocardiogram were measured using respiratory inductive plethysmography while performing eight work tasks involving low to moderate exertion using two respirators: (1) a dual cartridge half face mask (HFM) respirator, and (2) the N95. Mixed model regression analyses evaluating the effect of task and respirator type showed that task affected tidal volume, minute ventilation, breathing frequency and heart rate; all were greater in heavier tasks. Although respirator type did not affect respiratory volume parameters and flow rates, the HFM led to increase in the inspiratory time, reduction of the expiratory time, and increase in the duty cycle in comparison with the N95. The magnitude of differences was relatively small. The results suggest that most individuals, including persons with mild respiratory impairments, will physiologically tolerate either type of respirator at low to moderate exertion tasks. However, because effective protection depends on proper use, differences in subjective effect may have greater impact than physiological differences. Using respirators may be feasible on a widespread basis if necessary for maintaining essential services in the face of widespread concern about an infectious or terrorist threat. PMID:19180375

  11. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  12. Study of physiological responses to acute carbon monoxide exposure with a human patient simulator.

    PubMed

    Cesari, Whitney A; Caruso, Dominique M; Zyka, Enela L; Schroff, Stuart T; Evans, Charles H; Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K

    2006-12-01

    Human patient simulators are widely used to train health professionals and students in a clinical setting, but they also can be used to enhance physiology education in a laboratory setting. Our course incorporates the human patient simulator for experiential learning in which undergraduate university juniors and seniors are instructed to design, conduct, and present (orally and in written form) their project testing physiological adaptation to an extreme environment. This article is a student report on the physiological response to acute carbon monoxide exposure in a simulated healthy adult male and a coal miner and represents how 1) human patient simulators can be used in a nonclinical way for experiential hypothesis testing; 2) students can transition from traditional textbook learning to practical application of their knowledge; and 3) student-initiated group investigation drives critical thought. While the course instructors remain available for consultation throughout the project, the relatively unstructured framework of the assignment drives the students to create an experiment independently, troubleshoot problems, and interpret the results. The only stipulation of the project is that the students must generate an experiment that is physiologically realistic and that requires them to search out and incorporate appropriate data from primary scientific literature. In this context, the human patient simulator is a viable educational tool for teaching integrative physiology in a laboratory environment by bridging textual information with experiential investigation.

  13. Production and Physiological Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a physiological mediator with a variety of functions. It regulates synaptic transmission, vascular tone, inflammation, transcription, and angiogenesis; protects cells from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury; and promotes healing of ulcers. Recent Advances: In addition to cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase along with cysteine aminotransferase was recently demonstrated to produce H2S. Even in bacteria, H2S produced by these enzymes functions as a defense against antibiotics, suggesting that the cytoprotective effect of H2S is a universal defense mechanism in organisms from bacteria to mammals. Critical Issues: The functional form of H2S—undissociated H2S gas, dissociated HS ion, or some other form of sulfur—has not been identified. Future Directions: The regulation of H2S production by three enzymes may lead to the identification of the physiological signals that are required to release H2S. The identification of the physiological functions of other forms of sulfur may also help understand the biological significance of H2S. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 783–793. PMID:23581969

  14. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  15. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures

    PubMed Central

    Siller, Alexander; Ambach, Wolfgang; Vaitl, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT), in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate (HR), and reaction times. The participants (n = 154) were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full) or without replacement (pseudo) and were either presented category-wise (cat) or regardless of categories (nocat). To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment. PMID:26500600

  16. Investigating expectation effects using multiple physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Siller, Alexander; Ambach, Wolfgang; Vaitl, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at experimentally investigating whether the human body can anticipate future events under improved methodological conditions. Previous studies have reported contradictory results for the phenomenon typically called presentiment. If the positive findings are accurate, they call into doubt our views about human perception, and if they are inaccurate, a plausible conventional explanation might be based on the experimental design of the previous studies, in which expectation due to item sequences was misinterpreted as presentiment. To address these points, we opted to collect several physiological variables, to test different randomization types and to manipulate subjective significance individually. For the latter, we combined a mock crime scenario, in which participants had to steal specific items, with a concealed information test (CIT), in which the participants had to conceal their knowledge when interrogated about items they had stolen or not stolen. We measured electrodermal activity, respiration, finger pulse, heart rate (HR), and reaction times. The participants (n = 154) were assigned randomly to four different groups. Items presented in the CIT were either drawn with replacement (full) or without replacement (pseudo) and were either presented category-wise (cat) or regardless of categories (nocat). To understand how these item sequences influence expectation and modulate physiological reactions, we compared the groups with respect to effect sizes for stolen vs. not stolen items. Group pseudo_cat yielded the highest effect sizes, and pseudo_nocat yielded the lowest. We could not find any evidence of presentiment but did find evidence of physiological correlates of expectation. Due to the design differing fundamentally from previous studies, these findings do not allow for conclusions on the question whether the expectation bias is being confounded with presentiment. PMID:26500600

  17. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  18. Repeated thermal stressor causes chronic elevation of baseline corticosterone and suppresses the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressor in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Extreme environmental temperature could impact the physiology and ecology of animals. The stress endocrine axis provides necessary physiological stress response to acute (day-day) stressors. Presently, there are no empirical evidences showing that exposure to extreme thermal stressor could cause chronic stress in amphibians. This could also modulate the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressors and have serious implications for stress coping in amphibians, particularly those living in fragmented and disease prone environments. We addressed this important question using the cane toad (Rhinella marina) model from its introduced range in Queensland, Australia. We quantified their physiological endocrine sensitivity to a standard acute (capture and handling) stressor after exposing the cane toads to thermal shock at 35°C for 30min daily for 34 days. Corticosterone (CORT) responses to the capture and handling protocol were measured on three sampling intervals (days 14, 24, and 34) to determine whether the physiological endocrine sensitivity was maintained or modulated over-time. Two control groups (C1 for baseline CORT measurement only and C2 acute handled only) and two temperature treatment groups (T1 received daily thermal shock up to day 14 only and a recovery phase of 20 days and T2 received thermal shock daily for 34 days). Results showed that baseline CORT levels remained high on day 14 (combined effect of capture, captivity and thermal stress) for both T1 and T2. Furthermore, baseline CORT levels decreased for T1 once the thermal shock was removed after day 14 and returned to baseline by day 29. On the contrary, baseline CORT levels kept on increasing for T2 over the 34 days of daily thermal shocks. Furthermore, the magnitudes of the acute CORT responses or physiological endocrine sensitivity were consistently high for both C1 and T1. However, acute CORT responses for T2 toads were dramatically reduced between days 24 and 34. These novel findings

  19. Repeated thermal stressor causes chronic elevation of baseline corticosterone and suppresses the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressor in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Extreme environmental temperature could impact the physiology and ecology of animals. The stress endocrine axis provides necessary physiological stress response to acute (day-day) stressors. Presently, there are no empirical evidences showing that exposure to extreme thermal stressor could cause chronic stress in amphibians. This could also modulate the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressors and have serious implications for stress coping in amphibians, particularly those living in fragmented and disease prone environments. We addressed this important question using the cane toad (Rhinella marina) model from its introduced range in Queensland, Australia. We quantified their physiological endocrine sensitivity to a standard acute (capture and handling) stressor after exposing the cane toads to thermal shock at 35°C for 30min daily for 34 days. Corticosterone (CORT) responses to the capture and handling protocol were measured on three sampling intervals (days 14, 24, and 34) to determine whether the physiological endocrine sensitivity was maintained or modulated over-time. Two control groups (C1 for baseline CORT measurement only and C2 acute handled only) and two temperature treatment groups (T1 received daily thermal shock up to day 14 only and a recovery phase of 20 days and T2 received thermal shock daily for 34 days). Results showed that baseline CORT levels remained high on day 14 (combined effect of capture, captivity and thermal stress) for both T1 and T2. Furthermore, baseline CORT levels decreased for T1 once the thermal shock was removed after day 14 and returned to baseline by day 29. On the contrary, baseline CORT levels kept on increasing for T2 over the 34 days of daily thermal shocks. Furthermore, the magnitudes of the acute CORT responses or physiological endocrine sensitivity were consistently high for both C1 and T1. However, acute CORT responses for T2 toads were dramatically reduced between days 24 and 34. These novel findings

  20. Rapid changes in cell physiology as a result of acute thermal stress house sparrows, Passer domesticus.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana G; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-12-01

    Given that our climate is rapidly changing, Physiological Ecologists have the critical task of identifying characteristics of species that make them either resilient or susceptible to changes in their natural air temperature regime. Because climate change models suggest that heat events will become more common, and in some places more extreme, it is important to consider how extreme heat events might affect the physiology of a species. The implications of more frequent heat wave events for birds have only recently begun to be addressed, however, the impact of these events on the cellular physiology of a species is difficult to assess. We have developed a novel approach using dermal fibroblasts to explore how short-term thermal stress at the whole animal level might affect cellular rates of metabolism. House sparrows, Passer domesticus were separated into a "control group" and a "heat shocked" group, the latter acclimated to 43°C for 24h. We determined the plasticity of cellular thermal responses by assigning a "recovery group" that was heat shocked as above, but then returned to room temperature for 24h. Primary dermal fibroblasts were grown from skin of all treatment groups and the pectoralis muscle was collected. We found that glycolysis (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rates (OCR), measured using a Seahorse XF 96 analyzer, were significantly higher in the fibroblasts from the heat shocked group of House sparrows compared with their control counterparts. Additionally, muscle fiber diameters decreased and, in turn, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal activity in the muscle significantly increased in heat shocked sparrows compared with birds in the control group. All of these physiological alterations due to short-term heat exposure were reversible within 24h of recovery at room temperature. These results show that acute exposure to heat stress significantly alters the cellular physiology of sparrows, but that this species is plastic enough to recover from such a thermal

  1. Rapid changes in cell physiology as a result of acute thermal stress house sparrows, Passer domesticus.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana G; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-12-01

    Given that our climate is rapidly changing, Physiological Ecologists have the critical task of identifying characteristics of species that make them either resilient or susceptible to changes in their natural air temperature regime. Because climate change models suggest that heat events will become more common, and in some places more extreme, it is important to consider how extreme heat events might affect the physiology of a species. The implications of more frequent heat wave events for birds have only recently begun to be addressed, however, the impact of these events on the cellular physiology of a species is difficult to assess. We have developed a novel approach using dermal fibroblasts to explore how short-term thermal stress at the whole animal level might affect cellular rates of metabolism. House sparrows, Passer domesticus were separated into a "control group" and a "heat shocked" group, the latter acclimated to 43°C for 24h. We determined the plasticity of cellular thermal responses by assigning a "recovery group" that was heat shocked as above, but then returned to room temperature for 24h. Primary dermal fibroblasts were grown from skin of all treatment groups and the pectoralis muscle was collected. We found that glycolysis (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rates (OCR), measured using a Seahorse XF 96 analyzer, were significantly higher in the fibroblasts from the heat shocked group of House sparrows compared with their control counterparts. Additionally, muscle fiber diameters decreased and, in turn, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal activity in the muscle significantly increased in heat shocked sparrows compared with birds in the control group. All of these physiological alterations due to short-term heat exposure were reversible within 24h of recovery at room temperature. These results show that acute exposure to heat stress significantly alters the cellular physiology of sparrows, but that this species is plastic enough to recover from such a thermal

  2. Physiological and cognitive effects of expressive dissonance.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer L; Demaree, Heath A

    2007-02-01

    Emotional well-being depends in part on affect modulation. The present study extends research on emotion regulation by assessing the physiological and cognitive effects of a novel response-focused regulation strategy, termed 'expressive dissonance.' Expressive dissonance refers to the incongruence between an emotional state (e.g., sadness) and a behavioral expression (e.g., a smile). Fifty-five participants watched a series of sad film clips in which they were asked to either naturally watch or express the opposite of what they were feeling. Results suggest that persons using the expressive dissonant strategies evidenced greater sympathetic arousal and performed worse on subsequent memory tasks than persons in the natural-watch conditions.

  3. Preservation of high glycolytic phenotype by establishing new acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines at physiologic oxygen concentration.

    PubMed

    Sheard, Michael A; Ghent, Matthew V; Cabral, Daniel J; Lee, Joanne C; Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Ji, Lingyun; Wu, Samuel Q; Kang, Min H; Sposto, Richard; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Reynolds, C Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Cancer cells typically exhibit increased glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and they continue to exhibit some elevation in glycolysis even under aerobic conditions. However, it is unclear whether cancer cell lines employ a high level of glycolysis comparable to that of the original cancers from which they were derived, even if their culture conditions are changed to physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations. From three childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients we established three new pairs of cell lines in both atmospheric (20%) and physiologic (bone marrow level, 5%) oxygen concentrations. Cell lines established in 20% oxygen exhibited lower proliferation, survival, expression of glycolysis genes, glucose consumption, and lactate production. Interestingly, the effects of oxygen concentration used during cell line initiation were only partially reversible when established cell cultures were switched from one oxygen concentration to another for eight weeks. These observations indicate that ALL cell lines established at atmospheric oxygen concentration can exhibit relatively low levels of glycolysis and these levels are semi-permanent, suggesting that physiologic oxygen concentrations may be needed from the time of cell line initiation to preserve the high level of glycolysis commonly exhibited by leukemias in vivo.

  4. Preservation of high glycolytic phenotype by establishing new acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines at physiologic oxygen concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Sheard, Michael A.; Ghent, Matthew V.; Cabral, Daniel J.; Lee, Joanne C.; Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Ji, Lingyun; Wu, Samuel Q.; Kang, Min H.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Cancer cells typically exhibit increased glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and they continue to exhibit some elevation in glycolysis even under aerobic conditions. However, it is unclear whether cancer cell lines employ a high level of glycolysis comparable to that of the original cancers from which they were derived, even if their culture conditions are changed to physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations. From three childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients we established three new pairs of cell lines in both atmospheric (20%) and physiologic (bone marrow level, 5%) oxygen concentrations. Cell lines established in 20% oxygen exhibited lower proliferation, survival, expression of glycolysis genes, glucose consumption, and lactate production. Interestingly, the effects of oxygen concentration used during cell line initiation were only partially reversible when established cell cultures were switched from one oxygen concentration to another for eight weeks. These observations indicate that ALL cell lines established at atmospheric oxygen concentration can exhibit relatively low levels of glycolysis and these levels are semi-permanent, suggesting that physiologic oxygen concentrations may be needed from the time of cell line initiation to preserve the high level of glycolysis commonly exhibited by leukemias in vivo. - Highlights: • Establishing new ALL cell lines in 5% oxygen resulted in higher glycolytic expression and function. • Establishing new ALL cell lines in 5% oxygen resulted in higher proliferation and lower cell death. • The divergent metabolic phenotypes selected in 5% and 20% oxygen are semi-permanent.

  5. How to regulate the acute physiological response to "aerobic" high-intensity interval exercise.

    PubMed

    Tschakert, Gerhard; Kroepfl, Julia; Mueller, Alexander; Moser, Othmar; Groeschl, Werner; Hofmann, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The acute physiological processes during "aerobic" high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and their regulation are inadequately studied. The main goal of this study was to investigate the acute metabolic and cardiorespiratory response to long and short HIIE compared to continuous exercise (CE) as well as its regulation and predictability. Six healthy well-trained sport students (5 males, 1 female; age: 25.7 ± 3.1 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.04 m; weight: 76.7 ± 6.4 kg; VO2max: 4.33 ± 0.7 l·min(-1)) performed a maximal incremental exercise test (IET) and subsequently three different exercise sessions matched for mean load (Pmean) and exercise duration (28 min): 1) long HIIE with submaximal peak workloads (Ppeak = power output at 95 % of maximum heart rate), peak workload durations (tpeak) of 4 min, and recovery durations (trec) of 3 min, 2) short HIIE with Ppeak according to the maximum power output (Pmax) from IET, tpeak of 20 s, and individually calculated trec (26.7 ± 13.4 s), and 3) CE with a target workload (Ptarget) equating to Pmean of HIIE. In short HIIE, mean lactate (Lamean) (5.22 ± 1.41 mmol·l(-1)), peak La (7.14 ± 2.48 mmol·l(-1)), and peak heart rate (HRpeak) (181.00 ± 6.66 b·min(-1)) were significantly lower compared to long HIIE (Lamean: 9.83 ± 2.78 mmol·l(-1); Lapeak: 12.37 ± 4.17 mmol·l(-1), HRpeak: 187.67 ± 5.72 b·min(-1)). No significant differences in any parameters were found between short HIIE and CE despite considerably higher peak workloads in short HIIE. The acute metabolic and peak cardiorespiratory demand during "aerobic" short HIIE was significantly lower compared to long HIIE and regulable via Pmean. Consequently, short HIIE allows a consciously aimed triggering of specific and desired or required acute physiological responses. Key pointsHigh-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) with short peak workload durations (tpeak) induce a lower acute metabolic and peak cardiorespiratory response compared to intervals with long tpeak

  6. Comparison of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation IV to predict intensive care unit mortality

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Bashu Dev; Shrestha, Gentle S.; Pradhan, Bishwas; Amatya, Roshana

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical assessment of severity of illness is an essential component of medical practice to predict the outcome of critically ill-patient. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) model is one of the widely used scoring systems. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the Performance of APACHE II and IV scoring systems in our Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Settings and Design: A prospective study in 6 bedded ICU, including 76 patients all above 15 years. Subjects and Methods: APACHE II and APACHE IV scores were calculated based on the worst values in the first 24 h of admission. All enrolled patients were followed, and outcome was recorded as survivors or nonsurvivors. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 17. Results: The mean APACHE score was significantly higher among nonsurvivors than survivors (P < 0.005). Discrimination for APACHE II and APACHE IV was fair with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 and 0.79 respectively. The cut-off point with best Youden index for APACHE II was 17 and for APACHE IV was 85. Above cut-off point, mortality was higher for both models (P < 0.005). Hosmer–Lemeshow Chi-square coefficient test showed better calibration for APACHE II than APACHE IV. A positive correlation was seen between the models with Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.748 (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Discrimination was better for APACHE IV than APACHE II model however Calibration was better for APACHE II than APACHE IV model in our study. There was good correlation between the two models observed in our study. PMID:25722550

  7. The greenhouse effect: Physiological changes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, R.; Harrison, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide is timely topic of study for all biology students at all levels. The stimulatory effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (700 {mu}l/l) on plant growth, flower induction, protein production and the Calvin-Benson cycle can be easily demonstrated in seedlings in student laboratories. In our lab, the shoot growth of rapid cycling brassicas (Wisconsin fast plants) was measured under ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} conditions for three weeks. Plants grown under elevated CO{sub 2} conditions were significantly taller and showed earlier flower development. These plants also contained greater protein content per gram fresh weight. Crude leaf extracts was used as a source of pentose-5-isomerase which controls the conversion of ribose-5-phosphate to ribulose-5-phosphate in carbon fixation. The activity of this enzyme was measured spectrophotometrically and found to be somewhat greater in plants grown under the higher CO{sub 2} conditions. These physiological changes associated with elevated CO{sub 2} can be used as an introduction to the greenhouse effect as well as to study the regulation of carbon fixation.

  8. Acute transient non-physiological over-sensing in the ventricle with a DF4 lead

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kevin Kit; Gould, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The DF-4 is a new defibrillator lead technology. We present two cases of non-physiological transient ventricular over-sensing in patients who underwent implantation of an ICD for secondary prevention. Case 1 had ventricular over-sensing during pacing threshold evaluation post defibrillation testing while Case 2 had the lead integrity alert triggered immediately post discharge with transient over-sensing. No lead-connector issues were found. Case 1 was likely due to improper venting of the header and trapped air. Case 2 was hypothesized to be due to intermittent header pin non-contact secondary to blood in the header. These cases reveal that DF-4 leads are subject to both reported and potentially novel causes of transient acute ventricular over-sensing. PMID:26937124

  9. Loss of appetite in acutely ill medical inpatients: physiological response or therapeutic target?

    PubMed

    Schütz, Philipp; Bally, Martina; Stanga, Zeno; Keller, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Loss of appetite and ensuing weight loss is a key feature of severe illnesses. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) contributes significantly to the adverse outcome of these conditions. Pharmacological interventions to target appetite stimulation have little efficacy but considerable side effects. Therefore nutritional therapy appears to be the logical step to combat inadequate nutrition. However, clinical trial data demonstrating benefits are sparse and there is no current established standard algorithm for use of nutritional support in malnourished, acutely ill medical inpatients. Recent high-quality evidence from critical care demonstrating harmful effects when parenteral nutritional support is used indiscriminately has led to speculation that loss of appetite in the acute phase of illness is indeed an adaptive, protective response that improves cell recycling (autophagy) and detoxification. Outside critical care, there is an important gap in high quality clinical trial data shedding further light on these important issues. The selection, timing, and doses of nutrition should be evaluated as carefully as with any other therapeutic intervention, with the aim of maximising efficacy and minimising adverse effects and costs. In light of the current controversy, a reappraisal of how nutritional support should be used in acutely ill medical inpatients outside critical care is urgently required. The aim of this review is to discuss current pathophysiological concepts of PEM and to review the current evidence for the efficacy of nutritional support regarding patient outcomes when used in an acutely ill medical patient population outside critical care. PMID:24782139

  10. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  11. Sublethal landrin toxicity: Behavioral and physiological effects on captive vultures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forthman-Quick, D.L.; Hill, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been proposed to reduce consumption of California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) eggs by ravens (Corvus corax). Although landrin has induced aversions in ravens and other birds, no data were available on behavioral and physiological effects of landrin on condors, non-target birds that might consume treated eggs. Because condors are endangered, we selected taxonomically related surrogates to approximate the effects on condors of acute oral doses of landrin. Seven black vultures (Coragyps atratus), 2 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), and 2 king vultures (Sarcoramphus papa) received landrin and placebo treatments 1 week apart. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was monitored at zero, 3, and 24 hours posttreatment, and behavioral observations were made for 2 hours posttreatment. The doses tested were nonlethal, and ChE levels approached normal within 24 hours after treatment. Only the frequency of vomiting differed statistically between the placebo and landrin treatment. We conclude that with appropriate precautions, landrin can be used in applications of CTA to discourage consumption of condor eggs by ravens, while posing no apparent risk to reintroduced condors.

  12. Effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Skylab and Spacelab data on changes occurring in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. The combined results for all three Spacelab studies show that hyponatremia developed within 20 h after the onset of weightlessness and continued throughout the flights, and hypokalemia developed by 40 h. Antidiuretic hormone was increased in plasma throughout the flights. Aldosterone decreased by 40 h, but after 7 days it had reached preflight levels.

  13. Effects of Weightlessness on Human Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The changes that occur in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. A number of questions remain to be answered. At a time when plasma volume and extracellular fluid volume are contracted and salt and water intake is unrestricted. ADH does not correct the volume deficit and serum sodium decreases. Change in secretion or activity of a natriuretic factor during spaceflight is one possible explanation. Recent identification of a polypeptide hormone produced in cardiac muscle cells which is natiuretic, is hypotensive, and has an inhibitory effect on renin and aldosterone secretion has renewed interest in the role of a natriuretic factor. The role of this atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in both long- and short-term variation in extracellular volumes and in the inability of the kidney to bring about an escape from the sodium-retaining state accompanying chronic cardiac dysfunction makes it reasonable to look for a role of ANF in the regulation of sodium during exposure to microgravity. Prostaglandin-E is another hormone that may antagonize the action of ADH. Assays of these hormones will be performed on samples from crew members in the future.

  14. Possible heliogeophysical effects on human physiological state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla

    2009-03-01

    A group of 86 healthy volunteers was examined in periods of high solar and geomagnetic activity. In this study hourly Dst-index values and hourly data about intensity of cosmic rays were used. Results revealed statistically significant increments for the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and subjective psycho-physiological complaints of the group with geomagnetic activity increase and cosmic rays intensity decrease.

  15. Physiologic and subjective effects of respirator mask type.

    PubMed

    Harber, P; Beck, J; Brown, C; Luo, J

    1991-09-01

    The effect of alternate airflow path designs on full-face mask air-purifying respirators was assessed in 14 healthy volunteers during submaximal exercise. Respirator designs included no respirator (N), full-face mask, dual-cartridge with no nasal deflector (FN), full-face mask respirator with nasal deflector (FD), and a powered air-purifying respirator (PA). Physiologic effects were measured by using respiratory inductive plethysmography and subjective responses by two visual analog scales. There were significant effects of airflow path design upon the physiologic parameters of ventilation, tidal volume, and mean flow rate. There were no significant physiologic or subjective differences between the full-face mask respirators with and without the nasal deflector in place. The PA had less physiologic impact than the nonpowered models but did not show significant subjective benefit. The study suggests that both subjective and objective physiologic responses must be utilized in assessing respirator design. PMID:1781441

  16. Physiological effects of microgravity on bone cells.

    PubMed

    Arfat, Yasir; Xiao, Wei-Zhong; Iftikhar, Salman; Zhao, Fan; Li, Di-Jie; Sun, Yu-Long; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Ai-Rong

    2014-06-01

    Life on Earth developed under the influence of normal gravity (1g). With evidence from previous studies, scientists have suggested that normal physiological processes, such as the functional integrity of muscles and bone mass, can be affected by microgravity during spaceflight. During the life span, bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks but also adapts for efficiency. The lack of weight-bearing forces makes microgravity an ideal physical stimulus to evaluate bone cell responses. One of the most serious problems induced by long-term weightlessness is bone mineral loss. Results from in vitro studies that entailed the use of bone cells in spaceflights showed modification in cell attachment structures and cytoskeletal reorganization, which may be involved in bone loss. Humans exposed to microgravity conditions experience various physiological changes, including loss of bone mass, muscle deterioration, and immunodeficiency. In vitro models can be used to extract valuable information about changes in mechanical stress to ultimately identify the different pathways of mechanotransduction in bone cells. Despite many in vivo and in vitro studies under both real microgravity and simulated conditions, the mechanism of bone loss is still not well defined. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent research on bone cells under microgravity conditions based on advances in the field.

  17. Physiological effects of handling and hauling stress on smallmouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, G.J.; Wedemeyer, G.A.; McCraren, J.P.; Millard, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Basic physiological information on the stress caused by current hatchery practices is helpful in developing new and improved techniques to increase survival. In view of the present fishery management requirements for stocking smallmouth bas (Micropterus dolomieu), baseline information on the physiological effects of handling and hauling hatchery-reared fish is needed to serve as the foundation for improving transport methods. Shell (1959) summarized several physiological characteristics of smallmouth bass, but little information on their physiological tolerance to stress exists. The present study was designed to determine the physiological effects of handling and short-term hauling in small mouth bass. Plasma chloride, sodium, potassium, and glucose dynamics were monitored in indicate the severity of the resulting stress and the recovery time needed.

  18. [Defense mechanism to prevent ectopic activation of pancreatic digestive enzymes under physiological conditions and its breakdown in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Kaku, Midori; Otsuko, Makoto

    2004-11-01

    Independent of the etiology, acute pancreatitis is associated with significant morbidity and the potential for mortality. In most patients, acute pancreatitis follows an uncomplicated or mild course. Recent studies in hereditary pancreatitis have clearly revealed that trypsin is the key enzyme at the onset of pancreatitis. However, there are several defense mechanisms to prevent ectopic activation of trypsin under physiological conditions. If the defense mechanisms failed or activation of trypsin occurred over defense ability, trypsin would activate other digestive enzymes and self-digestion of the pancreas would occur.

  19. Rapid Sensitization of Physiological, Neuronal, and Locomotor Effects of Nicotine: Critical Role of Peripheral Drug Actions

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Magalie; Tang, Jeremy S.; Woods, Amina S.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated exposure to nicotine and other psychostimulant drugs produces persistent increases in their psychomotor and physiological effects (sensitization), a phenomenon related to the drugs' reinforcing properties and abuse potential. Here we examined the role of peripheral actions of nicotine in nicotine-induced sensitization of centrally mediated physiological parameters (brain, muscle, and skin temperatures), cortical and VTA EEG, neck EMG activity, and locomotion in freely moving rats. Repeated injections of intravenous nicotine (30 μg/kg) induced sensitization of the drug's effects on all these measures. In contrast, repeated injections of the peripherally acting analog of nicotine, nicotine pyrrolidine methiodide (nicotinePM, 30 μg/kg, i.v.) resulted in habituation (tolerance) of the same physiological, neuronal, and behavioral measures. However, after repeated nicotine exposure, acute nicotinePM injections induced nicotine-like physiological responses: powerful cortical and VTA EEG desynchronization, EMG activation, a large brain temperature increase, but weaker hyperlocomotion. Additionally, both the acute locomotor response to nicotine and nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization were attenuated by blockade of peripheral nicotinic receptors by hexamethonium (3 mg/kg, i.v.). These data suggest that the peripheral actions of nicotine, which precede its direct central actions, serve as a conditioned interoceptive cue capable of eliciting nicotine-like physiological and neural responses after repeated nicotine exposure. Thus, by providing a neural signal to the CNS that is repeatedly paired with the direct central effects of nicotine, the drug's peripheral actions play a critical role in the development of nicotine-induced physiological, neural, and behavioral sensitization. PMID:23761889

  20. The foveal 'crowding' effect: physics or physiology?

    PubMed

    Hess, R F; Dakin, S C; Kapoor, N

    2000-01-01

    It has been known for some time that both foveal and peripheral visual acuity is higher for single letters than for letters in a row. Early work showed that this was due to the destructive interaction of adjacent contours (termed 'crowding' or contour interaction). It has been assumed to have a neural basis and a number of competing explanations have been advanced which implicate either high-level or low-level stages of visual processing. Our results suggest a much simpler explanation, one primarily determined by the physics of the stimulus rather than the physiology of the visual system. We show that, under conditions of contour interaction or 'crowding', the most relevant physical spatial frequency band of the letter is displaced to higher spatial frequencies and that foveal vision tracks this change in spatial scale.

  1. Genetic influences on the neural and physiological bases of acute threat: A research domain criteria (RDoC) perspective.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Powers, Abigail; Jovanovic, Tanja; Koenen, Karestan C

    2016-01-01

    The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative aims to describe key dimensional constructs underlying mental function across multiple units of analysis-from genes to observable behaviors-in order to better understand psychopathology. The acute threat ("fear") construct of the RDoC Negative Valence System has been studied extensively from a translational perspective, and is highly pertinent to numerous psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and trauma-related disorders. We examined genetic contributions to the construct of acute threat at two units of analysis within the RDoC framework: (1) neural circuits and (2) physiology. Specifically, we focused on genetic influences on activation patterns of frontolimbic neural circuitry and on startle, skin conductance, and heart rate responses. Research on the heritability of activation in threat-related frontolimbic neural circuitry is lacking, but physiological indicators of acute threat have been found to be moderately heritable (35-50%). Genetic studies of the neural circuitry and physiology of acute threat have almost exclusively relied on the candidate gene method and, as in the broader psychiatric genetics literature, most findings have failed to replicate. The most robust support has been demonstrated for associations between variation in the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes with threat-related neural activation and physiological responses. However, unbiased genome-wide approaches using very large samples are needed for gene discovery, and these can be accomplished with collaborative consortium-based research efforts, such as those of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.

  2. Changes of pathological and physiological indicators affecting drug metabolism in rats after acute exposure to high altitude

    PubMed Central

    LI, WENBIN; WANG, RONG; XIE, HUA; ZHANG, JUANHONG; JIA, ZHENGPING

    2015-01-01

    High altitude environments cause the human body to undergo a series of pathological, physiological and biochemical changes, which have a certain effect on drug pharmacokinetics. The objective of the present study was to observe changes in factors affecting pharmacokinetics in rats following acute exposure to high altitude and return to low altitude. A total of 21 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups. The rats in group A were maintained at low altitude in Shanghai, 55 m above sea level; those in group B were acutely exposed to high altitude in Maqu, Gansu, 4,010 m above sea level; and those in group C were acutely exposed to high altitude and then returned to low altitude. Blood was collected from the orbit for the analysis of significant biochemical indicators and from the abdominal aorta for blood gas analysis. Brain, lung and kidney tissues were removed to observe pathological changes. In group B, the pH, buffer base (BB), base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide content (ctCO2), oxygen saturation of arterial blood (sO2), oxygen tension of arterial blood (pO2), serum sodium (Na+) concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and total protein (TP) level were significantly reduced, and the carbon dioxide tension of arterial blood (pCO2), serum chloride (Cl−) concentration, serum total bilirubin (TBIL) level and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly increased compared with those in group A (P<0.05). In group C, the pH, BB, BE, sO2, pO2, hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum Na+ concentration, LDH activity and TP level were significantly reduced, and the pCO2, serum Cl− concentration, alanine transaminase activity, TBIL and urea levels were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with those in group A. The Hb and ALP levels in group C were significantly lower than those in group B (P<0.05); and the TP, TBIL and urea levels in group C were significantly higher than those in group B (P<0.05). Pathological observation revealed that

  3. Physiological complexity of acute traumatic brain injury in patients treated with a brain oxygen protocol: utility of symbolic regression in predictive modeling of a dynamical system.

    PubMed

    Narotam, Pradeep K; Morrison, John F; Schmidt, Michael D; Nathoo, Narendra

    2014-04-01

    Predictive modeling of emergent behavior, inherent to complex physiological systems, requires the analysis of large complex clinical data streams currently being generated in the intensive care unit. Brain tissue oxygen protocols have yielded outcome benefits in traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the critical physiological thresholds for low brain oxygen have not been established for a dynamical patho-physiological system. High frequency, multi-modal clinical data sets from 29 patients with severe TBI who underwent multi-modality neuro-clinical care monitoring and treatment with a brain oxygen protocol were analyzed. The inter-relationship between acute physiological parameters was determined using symbolic regression (SR) as the computational framework. The mean patient age was 44.4±15 with a mean admission GCS of 6.6±3.9. Sixty-three percent sustained motor vehicle accidents and the most common pathology was intra-cerebral hemorrhage (50%). Hospital discharge mortality was 21%, poor outcome occurred in 24% of patients, and good outcome occurred in 56% of patients. Criticality for low brain oxygen was intracranial pressure (ICP) ≥22.8 mm Hg, for mortality at ICP≥37.1 mm Hg. The upper therapeutic threshold for cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was 75 mm Hg. Eubaric hyperoxia significantly impacted partial pressure of oxygen in brain tissue (PbtO2) at all ICP levels. Optimal brain temperature (Tbr) was 34-35°C, with an adverse effect when Tbr≥38°C. Survivors clustered at [Formula: see text] Hg vs. non-survivors [Formula: see text] 18 mm Hg. There were two mortality clusters for ICP: High ICP/low PbtO2 and low ICP/low PbtO2. Survivors maintained PbtO2 at all ranges of mean arterial pressure in contrast to non-survivors. The final SR equation for cerebral oxygenation is: [Formula: see text]. The SR-model of acute TBI advances new physiological thresholds or boundary conditions for acute TBI management: PbtO2≥25 mmHg; ICP≤22 mmHg; CPP≈60-75

  4. Physiology in medicine: acute altitude exposure in patients with pulmonary and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Seccombe, Leigh M; Peters, Matthew J

    2014-03-01

    Travel is more affordable and improved high-altitude airports, railways, and roads allow rapid access to altitude destinations without acclimatization. The physiology of exposure to altitude has been extensively described in healthy individuals; however, there is a paucity of data pertaining to those who have reduced reserve. This Physiology in Medicine article discusses the physiological considerations relevant to the safe travel to altitude and by commercial aircraft in patients with pulmonary and/or cardiac disease.

  5. Space flight effects on bacterial physiology.

    PubMed

    Leys, N M E J; Hendrickx, L; De Boever, P; Baatout, S; Mergeay, M

    2004-01-01

    The study of bacterial behavior under space flight conditions is highly important for the early detection of changes in bacterial communities and bacteria with medical, environmental, or life support consequences for survival of the crew in closed space environments. Although many species of prokaryotes have been studied in ground simulation facilities or have been flown in space flights, at present only few hard research data are available to predict the effects of cosmic radiation, microgravity, vibration and hypervelocity on microbial behavior in space flight. The results that are available tend to be fragmentary and often lack a classical, controlled experimental context to interpret them. Thus, many basic questions concerning the effects of space on microbial behavior have yet to be resolved.

  6. Ethanol Effects On Physiological Retinoic Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) serves essential functions during embryogenesis and throughout post-natal vertebrate life. Insufficient or excess atRA causes teratogenic and/or toxic effects in the developing embryo: interference with atRA biosynthesis or signaling likely underlies some forms of cancer. Many symptoms of vitamin A (atRA precursor) deficiency and/or toxicity overlap with those of another pleiotropic agent—ethanol. These overlapping symptoms have prompted research to understand whether interference with atRA biosynthesis and/or action may explain (in part) pathology associated with excess ethanol consumption. Ethanol affects many aspects of retinoid metabolism and mechanisms of action site-specifically, but no robust data support inhibition of vitamin A metabolism, resulting in decreased atRA in vivo during normal vitamin A nutriture. Actually, ethanol either has no effect on or increases atRA at select sites. Despite this realization, insight into whether interactions between ethanol and retinoids represent cause vs. effect requires additional research. PMID:21766417

  7. Consequences of acute stress and cortisol manipulation on the physiology, behavior, and reproductive outcome of female Pacific salmon on spawning grounds.

    PubMed

    McConnachie, Sarah H; Cook, Katrina V; Patterson, David A; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-06-01

    Life-history theory predicts that stress responses should be muted to maximize reproductive fitness. Yet, the relationship between stress and reproduction for semelparous salmon is unusual because successfully spawning individuals have elevated plasma cortisol levels. To tease apart the effects of high baseline cortisol levels and stress-induced elevation of cortisol titers, we determined how varying degrees of cortisol elevation (i.e., acute and chronic) affected behavior, reproductive physiology, and reproductive success of adult female pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) relative to different states of ovulation (i.e., ripe and unripe). Exhaustive exercise and air exposure were applied as acute stressors to manipulate plasma cortisol in salmon either confined to a behavioral arena or free-swimming in a spawning channel. Cortisol (eliciting a cortisol elevation to levels similar to those in post-spawn female salmon) and metyrapone (a corticosteroid synthesis inhibitor) implants were also used to chemically manipulate plasma cortisol. Cortisol implants elevated plasma cortisol, and impaired reproductive success; cortisol-treated fish released fewer eggs and died sooner than fish in other treatment groups. In contrast, acute stressors elevated plasma cortisol and the metyrapone implant suppressed plasma cortisol, but neither treatment significantly altered reproductive success, behavior, or physiology. Our results suggest that acute stressors do not influence behavior or reproductive outcome when experienced upon arrival at spawning grounds. Thus, certain critical aspects of salmonid reproduction can become refractory to various stressful conditions on spawning grounds. However, there is a limit to the ability of these fish to tolerate elevated cortisol levels as revealed by experimental elevation of cortisol.

  8. [Serotonin and its immune and physiological effects].

    PubMed

    Sepiashvili, R I; Balmasova, I P; Staurina, L N

    2013-01-01

    Now that the neurotransmitter serotonin modulates the immune system cells, and its main sources for antigenpresenting cells and lymphocytes are enterochromaffin cells of the gut, peripheral nerves, platelets and mast cells in case of inflammation. Immune cells uptake serotonin because they express receptors for this monoamine and intracellular serotonin transporters. The dendritic cells have a mechanism to transfer serotonin to T lymphocytes during antigen presentation. The macrophages and T cells have the ability to serotonin synthesis. Serotonin can influence mobility and proliferation of lymphocytes, phagocytosis, cytolytic properties, synthesis of chemokines and cytokines. Diversity of immunomodulating effects of serotonin is determined by heterogeneity of serotoninergic receptors. Immunomodulating action of serotonin is evidence of the close relationship between nervous and immune systems.

  9. Acute marijuana effects on social conversation.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L

    1986-01-01

    The present study assessed the acute effects of smoked marijuana on social conversation. Speech quantity was recorded continuously in seven moderate marijuana users during separate 1 h experimental sessions following the paced smoking of 0, 1.01, 1.84, and 2.84% THC marijuana cigarettes. Subjects engaged in conversation with undrugged partners who smoked placebo marijuana cigarettes. The active marijuana produced significant decreases in speech quantity, increases in heart rate, and increases in self-reports of "high" and sedation. Partners showed no effects in speech quantity or self-reports of drug effects that were systematically related to the doses administered to the subject pair members. The effects on speech quantity observed in the present study after acute dosing are similar to the effects on social conversation reported previously during chronic marijuana dosing. Marijuana appears to be an exception to the general rule that drugs of abuse increase verbal interaction.

  10. [Physiological effects of ultra-marathon run].

    PubMed

    Akimov, E B; Son'kin, V D

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the performance of vegetative systems of the body, and gas exchange in the implementation of one athlete (master of skiing, 27 years, MaxVO2 = 67 ml/min/kg) during 6 hours ultra-marathon race in a closed stadium at an average speed of 2.7 m/s. Continuous monitoring of heart rate was carried out using the heart rate monitor Polar RS 800. During the first hour and then for 20-30 minutes each hour gas analysis was performed with Metamaxdevice (Germany), mounted on the test subject during all the time of the race. Before and after the passages of the measured interval distance blood lactate content was measured. These data demonstrate a number of features that accompany fatigue in the final stretches a distance: reduction of body economy, which is to increase heart rate and oxygen cost of work; activation of anaerobic-glycolitic energy production mechanism, the intensification of respiratory function. Along with this, the methods of correlation and regression analysis revealed changes (increase or decrease) the relationship between the functions depending on whether the body is in the initial stage of the physical load, sustainable high performance or in either a state of extreme fatigue. These results suggest the interference effects of the central and tissue mechanisms of fatigue in the organization of the oxygen transport function of the body. Apparently, in the case of ultra-marathon run, that is, long-term work of moderate power, the main limiting factor is not the energy of the body, and the autonomic software. PMID:23393784

  11. The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare.

    PubMed

    Alworth, Leanne C; Buerkle, Shawna C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological and psychological effects of listening to music have been documented in humans. The changes in physiology, cognition and brain chemistry and morphology induced by music have been studied in animal models, providing evidence that music may affect animals similarly to humans. Information about the potential benefits of music to animals suggests that providing music may be used as a means of improving the welfare of laboratory animals, such as through environmental enrichment, stress relief and behavioral modification. The authors review the current research on music's effect on animals' physiology and behavior and discuss its potential for improving animal welfare. They conclude that the benefits of providing music to laboratory animals depend on the species and the type of music.

  12. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a potent regulator of a range of physiological processes in most tissues. Solid epidemiological data show that exercise training can reduce disease risk and mortality for several cancer diagnoses, suggesting that exercise training may directly regulate tumor physiology and metabolism. Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental intervention studies are still needed to verify the cause-effect relationship between these mechanisms and the control of tumor growth.

  13. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  14. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    PubMed Central

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  15. Physiological Effects of Trace Elements and Chemicals in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, M. M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The physiological effects on humans and animals of trace amounts of organic and unorganic pollutants in natural and waste waters are examined. The sensitivity of particular organs and species is emphasized. Substances reviewed include mercury, arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, fluorides, nitrates and organics, including polychlounated biphenyls.…

  16. Effects of expectancy on physiological responsivity in novice meditators.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, M M

    1985-09-01

    Forty non-meditators were randomly assigned to 4 experimental cells devised to control for order and expectation effects. The subjects (all female) were continuously monitored on 7 physiological measures during both meditation and rest. Each subject was her own control in an 'abab' experimental paradigm comparing meditation to rest. The subjects, meditating for the first time, showed marginally lower psychophysiological arousal during the meditation than rest condition for systolic blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance level and digital skin temperature. Deliberately fostering positive expectations of meditation was associated with lower physiological arousal in terms of diastolic and systolic blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance level.

  17. The effect of some drugs on acute toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamadto, H H; Rashed, S M; Marii, N E; Sobhy, M M; el-Ridi, A M; el-Fakahany, A F

    1989-12-01

    The effect of some chemotherapeutics, on the course of acute toxoplasmosis in experimentally infected mice was studied. Obtained results showed that, praziquantel, levamisole had no effect on acute toxoplasmosis, while trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and clindamycin showed some prophylactic effect on acute toxoplasmosis in mice. PMID:2788673

  18. Combined cadmium and temperature acclimation in Daphnia magna: physiological and sub-cellular effects.

    PubMed

    Muyssen, Brita T A; Messiaen, Marlies; Janssen, Colin R

    2010-07-01

    Effects of temperature and Cd acclimation (>or=6 generations) on life history and tolerance responses to stress in three clones of Daphnia magna was examined using a 2x2 design (20 and 24 degrees C, 0 and 5 microg L(-1) Cd). Endpoints include acute Cd and heat tolerance, individual traits such as ingestion rates, growth and reproduction responses and physiological attributes such as acute Cd and heat tolerance, energy reserves, electron transport system activity, haemoglobin and oxidative stress enzymes. Cd (20 degrees C+Cd) did reduce reproduction, but acclimation to 24 degrees C+Cd did not decrease reproductive output additionally. For energy reserves, on which Cd and temperature acted similarly, no synergistic effect could be demonstrated. Generally, the effect of 24 degrees C+Cd was comparable to that of the 24 degrees C acclimation. Cd acclimation at 20 degrees C resulted in organisms, which were more tolerant to acute Cd and heat shock challenge, while the contrary was observed at 24 degrees C. A relationship between tolerance to Cd and heat shock and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was observed. Significant interclonal variation and genotypexenvironmental interactions in the measured traits evidenced that clones responded differently. As natural populations are invariably exposed to multiple stressors and genetic variability may change accordingly, it is essential to improve our knowledge on the effects of such scenarios in order to allow a correct incorporation in ecological risk assessment methodologies. PMID:20061023

  19. Acute physiology, age, and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score is an alternative efficient predictor of mortality in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yohei; Shimizu, Mikio; Hirabayashi, Hidemitsu

    2007-05-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of the acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score in burn patients. We hypothesised that APACHE III score efficiently predicts mortality of burn patients as it reflects the physiological changes in the acute phase and the severity of the underlying illness. Data such as age, gender, inhalation injury, total burn surface area (TBSA), burn index (BI), prognostic burn index (PBI), APACHE III score and outcome of 105 hospitalised patients were analysed retrospectively. TBSA, BI, PBI, and APACHE III score in the mortality group were significantly higher than those of surviving group. The mean scores of surviving versus mortality groups were as follows: TBSA, 19.2+/-17.8% versus 69.1+/-28.4%, p<0.0001; BI, 12.8+/-13.1% versus 66.8+/-28.6%, p<0.0001; PBI, 68.8+/-26.0% versus 124.4+/-33.6%, p<0.0001; APACHE III score, 28.4+/-22.2% versus 71.3+/-32.1%, p<0.0001. PBI and APACHE III score showed marked associations between higher scores and higher mortality. APACHE III score showed a significant correlation with PBI (p<0.0001). The present study suggested that APACHE III score could be used as an alternative efficient predictor of mortality in burn patients.

  20. Acute Physiological Stress Down-Regulates mRNA Expressions of Growth-Related Genes in Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toshiki; Afonso, Luis O. B.; Beckman, Brian R.; Iwama, George K.; Devlin, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) binding to the GH receptor (GHR). Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish. PMID:23990952

  1. Acute effects of meals, noise and nightwork.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Miles, C

    1986-08-01

    An experimental study of the acute effects of meals, noise and nightwork showed that there was a post-meal impairment in detection of targets in a cognitive vigilance task. This was found both during the day and at night, although certain features of the results suggested that the day and night effects were not equivalent. Noise increased the number of false alarms but reduced the post-meal impairment in hit rate. Subjects with low levels of trait or state anxiety showed the greatest post-lunch impairments in performance, but this effect was reduced when the meal was eaten at night.

  2. Positive expiratory pressure - Common clinical applications and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Lannefors, Louise; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    Breathing out against resistance, in order to achieve positive expiratory pressure (PEP), is applied by many patient groups. Pursed lips breathing and a variety of devices can be used to create the resistance giving the increased expiratory pressure. Effects on pulmonary outcomes have been discussed in several publications, but the expected underlying physiology of the effect is seldom discussed. The aim of this article is to describe the purpose, performance, clinical application and underlying physiology of PEP when it is used to increase lung volumes, decrease hyperinflation or improve airway clearance. In clinical practice, the instruction how to use an expiratory resistance is of major importance since it varies. Different breathing patterns during PEP increase or reduce expiratory flow, result in movement of EPP centrally or peripherally and can increase or decrease lung volume. It is therefore necessary to give the right instructions to obtain the desired effects. As the different PEP techniques are being used by diverse patient groups it is not possible to give standard instructions. Based on the information given in this article the instructions have to be adjusted to give the optimal effect. There is no consensus regarding optimal treatment frequency and number of cycles included in each treatment session and must also be individualized. In future research, more precise descriptions are needed about physiological aims and specific instructions of how the treatments have been performed to assure as good treatment quality as possible and to be able to evaluate and compare treatment effects. PMID:25573419

  3. Study of Physiological Responses to Acute Carbon Monoxide Exposure with a Human Patient Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesari, Whitney A.; Caruso, Dominique M.; Zyka, Enela L.; Schroff, Stuart T.; Evans, Charles H., Jr.; Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K.

    2006-01-01

    Human patient simulators are widely used to train health professionals and students in a clinical setting, but they also can be used to enhance physiology education in a laboratory setting. Our course incorporates the human patient simulator for experiential learning in which undergraduate university juniors and seniors are instructed to design,…

  4. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

    PubMed

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2010-10-01

    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  5. Tennis for physical health: acute age- and gender-based physiological responses to cardio tennis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Alistair P; Duffield, Rob; Reid, Machar

    2014-11-01

    This study described physiological and perceptual responses to Cardio tennis for "younger" and "older" adult populations of both sexes for health-related outcomes. Thirty-one active participants, each with prior recreational tennis experience (∼2 years) (8 younger and 8 older males, and 7 younger and 8 older females) performed preliminary testing and a 50-minute instructor-led Cardio tennis session. Cardio tennis is a conditioning-based tennis program comprised of warm-up movements, drill-based exercises (set movement and hitting games), and competitive play scenarios. Participants performed the 20-m shuttle run test to determine maximal heart rate (HR) during preliminary testing. Before, after, and 30-minute post Cardio tennis session, HR, blood pressure (BP), rate pressure product (RPP), and capillary blood lactate and glucose were determined. Furthermore, HR and pedometer-derived step counts were measured throughout, while the session was filmed and coded for technical skill. After the session, ratings of perceived exertion, enjoyment, and challenge were obtained. Heart rate, systolic BP, and RPP were significantly increased by Cardio tennis (p ≤ 0.05), though returned to pre-exercise levels after 30 minutes (p > 0.05). Heart rate and BP did not differ between groups pre- or 30-minute postexercise (p > 0.05); however, these were lower in younger males during and higher in younger females postsession (p ≤ 0.05). Lactate and glucose concentrations were increased in all groups (p ≤ 0.05), with lactate being highest in male groups (p ≤ 0.05), without differences in glucose between groups (p > 0.05). Stroke and step counts were not different between groups (p > 0.05). Ratings of perceived exertion and perceived challenge were lowest in the younger male group compared with all other groups (p ≤ 0.05). Cardio tennis presents as an effective stimulus to invoke sufficient cardiovascular and metabolic load to benefit health and fitness, though age- and sex

  6. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    PubMed

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2007-10-03

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony.

  7. Environmental pollution of cadmium biological physiological and health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides reviews of topics in biochemical, physiological and health effects due to cadmium exposure particularly in the area of detoxification and intoxication mechanism and its modes of action. It reflects the most current data available and the wide range of potential directions for research related to this response to cadmium toxicity. Attention is focussed on the underlying mechanism of cadmium toxicity in primates and humans.

  8. Sweat-inducing physiological challenges do not result in acute changes in hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Gao, Wei; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to provide a stable, integrative marker of long-term systemic cortisol secretion. However, contrary to this assumption, some recent observations have raised the possibility that HCC may be subject to acute influences, potentially related to cortisol incorporation from sweat. Here, we provide a first detailed in vivo investigation of this possibility comprising two independent experimental studies: study I (N=42) used a treadmill challenge to induce sweating together with systemic cortisol reactivity while in study II (N=52) a sauna bathing challenge induced sweating without systemic cortisol changes. In both studies, repeated assessments of HCC, salivary cortisol, cortisol in sweat and individuals' sweating rate (single assessment) were conducted on the experimental day and at a next-day follow-up. Results across the two studies consistently revealed that HCC were not altered by the acute interventions. Further, HCC were found to be unrelated to acute salivary cortisol reactivity, sweat cortisol levels, sweating rate or the time of examination. In line with previous data, cortisol levels in sweat were strongly related to total salivary cortisol output across the examined periods. The present results oppose recent case report data by showing that single sweat-inducing interventions do not result in acute changes in HCC. Our data also tentatively speak against the notion that cortisol in sweat may be a dominant source of HCC. Further, our findings also indicate that HCC are not subject to diurnal variation. This research provides further support for hair cortisol analysis as a marker of integrated long-term systemic cortisol secretion.

  9. [Acute tonsillopharyngitis: the effectiveness of topical therapy].

    PubMed

    Nosulya, E V; Kim, I A; Chernykh, N M; Karnoukhova, O A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a furasol sore throat gargle solution for the treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis. Forty patients presenting with acute tonsillopharyngitis were allocated to two groups, 20 subjects in each, by means of independent sequential randomization. Prior to the onset of the treatment, all the patients were examined for determining the species composition of pharyngeal microflora with the use of an «AutoScan4 System» analyzer («Siemens», USA) and estimating the resistance to antibacterial preparations (by the disk diffusion method). All the participants of the study were prescribed antibacterial therapy. In the patients of group 1 (study group), the antibacterial treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis was supplemented by a furasol sore throat gargle solution whereas those of group 2 (controls) were treated without topical therapy. The quantitative evaluation of the severity of manifestations of the disease before and after the treatment was based on a 5-point visual-analog scale. It was shown that systemic antibacterial therapy resulted in the consistent decrease of the frequency of occurrence of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic microflora in the patients comprising both groups. Treatment with a furasol sore throat gargle solution did not lead to the appearance of bacterial species alien to the oropharynx, nor was it accompanied by the impairment of resistance of its mucous membrane to the colonization by microorganisms. The results of the study give evidence of the well apparent regression of the subjective signs of tonsillopharyngitis and the inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the pharynx in the patients given the topical treatment in the form of a furasol sore throat gargle solution in addition to antibacterial therapy. It is concluded that a furasol sore throat gargle solution can be recommended for the introduction into the combined treatment of the patients

  10. Association of serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score with clinical outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Swaroopa, Deme; Bhaskar, Kakarla; Mahathi, T.; Katkam, Shivakrishna; Raju, Y. Satyanarayana; Chandra, Naval; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Studies on potential biomarkers in experimental models of acute lung injury (ALI) and clinical samples from patients with ALI have provided evidence to the pathophysiology of the mechanisms of lung injury and predictor of clinical outcome. Because of the high mortality and substantial variability in outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), identification of biomarkers such as cytokines is important to determine prognosis and guide clinical decision-making. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have included thirty patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit diagnosed with ARDS, and serum samples were collected on day 1 and 7 and were analyzed for serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 by ELISA method, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring was done on day 1. Results: The mortality in the patients observed with ARDS was 34%. APACHE II score was significantly higher in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors. There were no significant differences in gender and biochemical and hematological parameters among the survivors and nonsurvivors. Serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels on day 1 were significantly higher in all the ARDS patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels were returned to near-normal basal levels on day 7. The serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels measured on day 7 were of survivors. As compared to survivors, the IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors measured on day 1. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation of APACHE II with IL-8. By using APACHE II score, IL-6, and IL-8, the receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted and the provided predictable accuracy of mortality (outcome) was 94%. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the importance of measuring the cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with ARDS in predicting the clinical outcome. PMID:27688627

  11. Association of serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score with clinical outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Swaroopa, Deme; Bhaskar, Kakarla; Mahathi, T.; Katkam, Shivakrishna; Raju, Y. Satyanarayana; Chandra, Naval; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Studies on potential biomarkers in experimental models of acute lung injury (ALI) and clinical samples from patients with ALI have provided evidence to the pathophysiology of the mechanisms of lung injury and predictor of clinical outcome. Because of the high mortality and substantial variability in outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), identification of biomarkers such as cytokines is important to determine prognosis and guide clinical decision-making. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have included thirty patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit diagnosed with ARDS, and serum samples were collected on day 1 and 7 and were analyzed for serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 by ELISA method, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring was done on day 1. Results: The mortality in the patients observed with ARDS was 34%. APACHE II score was significantly higher in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors. There were no significant differences in gender and biochemical and hematological parameters among the survivors and nonsurvivors. Serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels on day 1 were significantly higher in all the ARDS patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels were returned to near-normal basal levels on day 7. The serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels measured on day 7 were of survivors. As compared to survivors, the IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in nonsurvivors measured on day 1. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation of APACHE II with IL-8. By using APACHE II score, IL-6, and IL-8, the receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted and the provided predictable accuracy of mortality (outcome) was 94%. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the importance of measuring the cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with ARDS in predicting the clinical outcome.

  12. Acute marijuana effects on human risk taking.

    PubMed

    Lane, Scott D; Cherek, Don R; Tcheremissine, Oleg V; Lieving, Lori M; Pietras, Cythia J

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have established a relationship between marijuana use and risky behavior in natural settings. A limited number of laboratory investigations of marijuana effects on human risk taking have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the acute effects of smoked marijuana on human risk taking, and to identify behavioral mechanisms that may be involved in drug-induced changes in the probability of risky behavior. Using a laboratory measure of risk taking designed to address acute drug effects, 10 adults were administered placebo cigarettes and three doses of active marijuana cigarettes (half placebo and half 1.77%; 1.77%; and 3.58% Delta9-THC) in a within-subject repeated-measures experimental design. The risk-taking task presented subjects with a choice between two response options operationally defined as risky and nonrisky. Data analyses examined cardiovascular and subjective effects, response rates, distribution of choices between the risky and nonrisky option, and first-order transition probabilities of trial-by-trial data. The 3.58% THC dose increased selection of the risky response option, and uniquely shifted response probabilities following both winning and losing outcomes following selection of the risky option. Acute marijuana administration thereby produced measurable changes in risky decision making under laboratory conditions. Consistent with previous risk-taking studies, shifts in trial-by-trial response probabilities at the highest dose suggested a change in sensitivity to both reinforced and losing risky outcomes. Altered sensitivity to consequences may be a mechanism in drug-induced changes in risk taking. Possible neurobiological sites of action related to THC are discussed.

  13. Acute Physiological Responses to Strongman Training Compared to Traditional Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nigel K; Woulfe, Colm J; Wood, Matthew R; Dulson, Deborah K; Gluchowski, Ashley K; Keogh, Justin B

    2016-05-01

    Strongman training (ST) has become an increasingly popular modality, but data on physiological responses are limited. This study sought to determine physiological responses to an ST session compared to a traditional strength exercise training (RST) session. Ten healthy men (23.6 ± 27.5 years, 85.8 ± 10.3 kg) volunteered in a crossover design, where all participants performed an ST session, an RST session, and a resting session within 7 days apart. The ST consisted of sled drag, farmer's walk, 1 arm dumbbell clean and press, and tire flip at loads eliciting approximately 30 seconds of near maximal effort per set. The RST consisted of squat, deadlift, bench press, and power clean, progressing to 75% of 1 repetition maximum. Sessions were equated for approximate total set duration. Blood lactate and salivary testosterone were recorded immediately before and after training sessions. Heart rate, caloric expenditure, and substrate utilization were measured throughout the resting session, both training protocols and for 80 minutes after training sessions. Analyses were conducted to determine differences in physiological responses within and between protocols. No significant changes in testosterone occurred at any time point for either session. Lactate increased significantly immediately after both sessions. Heart rate, caloric expenditure, and substrate utilization were all elevated significantly during ST and RST. Heart rate and fat expenditure were significantly elevated compared to resting in both sessions' recovery periods; calorie and carbohydrate expenditures were not. Compared to RST, ST represents an equivalent physiological stimulus on key parameters indicative of potential training-induced adaptive responses. Such adaptations could conceivably include cardiovascular conditioning. PMID:26439778

  14. Physiological and psychophysical modeling of the precedence effect.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jing; Brughera, Andrew; Colburn, H Steven; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    Many past studies of sound localization explored the precedence effect (PE), in which a pair of brief, temporally close sounds from different directions is perceived as coming from a location near that of the first-arriving sound. Here, a computational model of low-frequency inferior colliculus (IC) neurons accounts for both physiological and psychophysical responses to PE click stimuli. In the model, IC neurons have physiologically plausible inputs, receiving excitation from the ipsilateral medial superior olive (MSO) and long-lasting inhibition from both ipsilateral and contralateral MSOs, relayed through the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. In this model, physiological suppression of the lagging response depends on the inter-stimulus delay (ISD) between the lead and lag as well as their relative locations. Psychophysical predictions are generated from a population of model neurons. At all ISDs, predicted lead localization is good. At short ISDs, the estimated location of the lag is near that of the lead, consistent with subjects perceiving both lead and lag from the lead location. As ISD increases, the estimated lag location moves closer to the true lag location, consistent with listeners' perception of two sounds from separate locations. Together, these simulations suggest that location-dependent suppression in IC neurons can explain the behavioral phenomenon known as the precedence effect.

  15. Therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygenation in acute acoustic trauma.

    PubMed

    Vavrina, J; Müller, W

    1995-01-01

    Retrospectively 78 patients with uni- or bilateral acute acoustic trauma (AAT) were evaluated to assess the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO). All subjects received saline or dextran (Rheomacodrex) infusions with Ginkgo extracts (Tebonin) and prednisone. Thirty six patients underwent additional hyperbaric oxygenation at a pressure of 2 atmospheres absolute for 60 minutes once daily. Both treatment groups were comparable as far as age, gender, initial hearing loss and prednisone dose are concerned. The delay of therapy onset was 15 hours in both groups and treatment was started within 72 hours in all cases. Control audiometry was performed after 6.5 days, when the HBO group had had 5 exposures to hyperbaric oxygenation. The average hearing gain in the group without HBO was 74.3 dB and in the group treated additionally with HBO 121.3 dB (P < 0.004). It is concluded, that hyperbaric oxygenation significantly improves hearing recovery after AAT. Therefore acute acoustic trauma with significant hearing threshold depression remains an otological emergency. Minimal therapy involving waiting for spontaneous recovery, which is mostly incomplete leaving a residual C5 or C6 and handicapping tinnitus, is not the treatment of choice. Randomized prospective clinical trials with a larger patient series are needed and further experimental studies are required to understand the physiological mechanisms of HBO responsible for the clinical success in AAT.

  16. After-effects of acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Regan, S G

    1988-01-01

    Female, Long-Evans hooded rats (N = 10, 4 months of age) were given ethanol via intragastric intubation in doses of 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg (repeated measures design). After-effects (hypothermia, free operant activity, motor performance) were measured at six, twelve and sixteen hours, respectively, for the above doses and were compared to the effects observed after the intubation of equivolume amounts of tap water. The after-effects of ethanol on rectal temperature were varied. Both rotarod performance and free operant activity were impaired after each of the above doses of ethanol. Blood ethanol analyses revealed low blood levels of ethanol (range 6.6 +/- 1.5 to 24.6 +/- 3.4 mg/100 ml) at the time behavioral tests were performed. Thus, quantifiable behavioral impairment was observed after blood ethanol values had declined following acute intoxication episodes. These changes may be related to "hangover" symptomatology in man and may serve as a model for investigating the influence of a variety of factors related to drug dosage, rate of ethanol ingestion, type of alcoholic beverage, and prophylactic or acute intervention therapeutics.

  17. A Puzzle of Vestibular Physiology in a Meniere's Disease Acute Attack

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lopez, Marta; Manrique-Huarte, Raquel; Perez-Fernandez, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present for the first time the functional evaluation of each of the vestibular receptors in the six semicircular canals in a patient diagnosed with Meniere's disease during an acute attack. A 54-year-old lady was diagnosed with left Meniere's disease who during her regular clinic review suffers an acute attack of vertigo, with fullness and an increase of tinnitus in her left ear. Spontaneous nystagmus and the results in the video head-impulse test (vHIT) are shown before, during, and after the attack. Nystagmus was initially left beating and a few minutes later an upbeat component was added. No skew deviation was observed. A decrease in the gain of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) and the presence of overt saccades were observed when the stimuli were in the plane of the left superior semicircular canal. At the end of the crisis nystagmus decreased and vestibuloocular reflex returned to almost normal. A review of the different possibilities to explain these findings points to a hypothetical utricular damage. PMID:26167320

  18. Hostility and Physiological Responses to Acute Stress in People With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Ruth A.; Lazzarino, Antonio I.; Carvalho, Livia A.; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Hostility is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and one of the mechanisms may involve heightened reactivity to mental stress. However, little research has been conducted in populations at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between hostility and acute stress responsivity in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A total of 140 individuals (median age [standard deviation] 63.71 [7.00] years) with Type 2 diabetes took part in laboratory-based experimental stress testing. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), and salivary cortisol were assessed at baseline, during two stress tasks, and 45 and 75 minutes later. Cynical hostility was assessed using the Cook Medley Cynical Hostility Scale. Results Participants with greater hostility scores had heightened increases in IL-6 induced by the acute stress tasks (B = 0.082, p = .002), independent of age, sex, body mass index, smoking, household income, time of testing, medication, and baseline IL-6. Hostility was inversely associated with cortisol output poststress (B = −0.017, p = .002), independent of covariates. No associations between hostility and blood pressure or heart rate responses were observed. Conclusions Hostile individuals with Type 2 diabetes may be susceptible to stress-induced increases in inflammation. Further research is needed to understand if such changes increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:25886832

  19. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect.

    PubMed

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W; McGeary, John E; Monti, Peter M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2011-02-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed.

  20. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2013-01-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed. PMID:24319318

  1. Physiological mechanisms of the effect of weightlessness on the body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental data show that physiological reactions observed under weightlessness conditions are caused by: (1) The direct effect of weightlessness, as a consequence of decrease (""disappearance'') of the weight of body tissues and organs; and (2) the mediated effect of weightlessness, as a result of changes in the functional state of the central nervous system and the cooperative work of the analyzers. The human body adopts to weightless conditions under the prolonged effects of it. In this case, four periods can be distinguished: The first period, a transitional process lasting from 1 to 24 hours; second period, initial adaptation to conditions of weightlessness and readjustment of all functional systems of the body; the third period, adaptation to the unusual mechanical conditions of the external environment, lasting from 3 to 8 days and more; and the fourth period, the stage of possible imbalance of the functions and the systems of some astronauts, as a result of the prolonged effect of weightlessness.

  2. Risk assessment of physiological effects of atmospheric composition and pressure in Constellation vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuring, Richard; Conkin, Johnny; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    Introduction: To limit the risk of fire and reduce denitrogenation time to prevent decompression sickness to support frequent extravehicular activities on the Moon, a hypobaric (PB=414mmHg) and mildly hypoxic ( ppO2=132mmHg, 32% O2-68%N2) living environment is considered for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). With acute change in ppO2 from 145-178mmHg at standard vehicular operating pressure to less than 125mmHg at desired lunar surface vehicular operating pressures, there is the possibility that some crewmembers may develop symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS). The signs and symptoms of AMS (headache plus nausea, dizziness, fatigue, or sleeplessness) could impact crew health and performance on lunar surface missions. Methods: We performed a literature review on the topic of the physiological effects of reduced ppO2 and absolute pressure. The results of nine studies were evaluated. Results: There is evidence for an absolute pressure effect per se on AMS, so the higher the altitude for a given hypoxic alveolar oxygen (O2) partial pressure (PAO2), the greater the AMS response is. Between 7% and 25% of adults may experience mild AMS near 2000 m altitude following a rapid ascent from sea level while breathing air (6500 ft, acute PAO2=75mmHg). The operational experience with the Shuttle staged denitrogenation protocol at 528mmHg (3048 m) while breathing 26.5% O2 (acute PAO2=85mmHg) in astronauts adapting to microgravity suggests a similar likely experience in the proposed CEV environment. Conclusions: We believe the risk of mild AMS is greater given a PAO2 of 77mmHg at 4876 m altitude while breathing 32% O2 than at 1828 m altitude while breathing 21% O2. Only susceptible astronauts would develop mild and transient AMS with prolonged exposure to 414 mmHg (4876 m) while breathing 32% O2 (acute PAO2=77mmHg). So the following may be employed for operational risk reduction: (1) develop procedures to increase PB as needed in the

  3. Acute Physiological Responses to Short- and Long-Stage High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tschakert, Gerhard; Kroepfl, Julia M; Mueller, Alexander; Harpf, Hanns; Harpf, Leonhard; Traninger, Heimo; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Meinitzer, Andreas; Pichlhoefer, Patriz; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Despite described benefits of aerobic high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), the acute responses during different HIIE modes and associated health risks have only been sparsely discovered in heart disease patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the acute responses for physiological parameters, cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers, and catecholamines yielded by two different aerobic HIIE protocols compared to continuous exercise (CE) in phase III cardiac rehabilitation. Eight cardiac patients (7 with coronary heart disease, 1 with myocarditis; 7 males, 1 female; age: 63.0 ± 9.4 years; height: 1.74 ± 0.05 m; weight: 83.6 ± 8.7 kg), all but one treated with ß-blocking agents, performed a maximal symptom-limited incremental exercise test (IET) and three different exercise tests matched for mean load (Pmean) and total duration: 1) short HIIE with a peak workload duration (tpeak) of 20 s and a peak workload (Ppeak) equal to the maximum power output (Pmax) from IET; 2) long HIIE with a tpeak of 4 min, Ppeak was corresponding to the power output at 85 % of maximal heart rate (HRmax) from IET; 3) CE with a target workload equal to Pmean of both HIIE modes. Acute metabolic and peak cardiorespiratory responses were significantly higher during long HIIE compared to short HIIE and CE (p < 0.05) except HRpeak which tended to be higher in long HIIE than in short HIIE (p = 0.08). Between short HIIE and CE, no significant difference was found for any parameter. Acute responses of cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers and catecholamines didn't show any significant difference between tests (p > 0.05). All health-related variables remained in a normal range in any test except NT-proBNP, which was already elevated at baseline. Despite a high Ppeak particularly in short HIIE, both HIIE modes were as safe and as well tolerated as moderate CE in cardiac patients by using our methodological approach. Key pointsHigh-intensity interval exercise (HIIE

  4. Acute Physiological Responses to Short- and Long-Stage High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tschakert, Gerhard; Kroepfl, Julia M.; Mueller, Alexander; Harpf, Hanns; Harpf, Leonhard; Traninger, Heimo; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Meinitzer, Andreas; Pichlhoefer, Patriz; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite described benefits of aerobic high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), the acute responses during different HIIE modes and associated health risks have only been sparsely discovered in heart disease patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the acute responses for physiological parameters, cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers, and catecholamines yielded by two different aerobic HIIE protocols compared to continuous exercise (CE) in phase III cardiac rehabilitation. Eight cardiac patients (7 with coronary heart disease, 1 with myocarditis; 7 males, 1 female; age: 63.0 ± 9.4 years; height: 1.74 ± 0.05 m; weight: 83.6 ± 8.7 kg), all but one treated with ß-blocking agents, performed a maximal symptom-limited incremental exercise test (IET) and three different exercise tests matched for mean load (Pmean) and total duration: 1) short HIIE with a peak workload duration (tpeak) of 20 s and a peak workload (Ppeak) equal to the maximum power output (Pmax) from IET; 2) long HIIE with a tpeak of 4 min, Ppeak was corresponding to the power output at 85 % of maximal heart rate (HRmax) from IET; 3) CE with a target workload equal to Pmean of both HIIE modes. Acute metabolic and peak cardiorespiratory responses were significantly higher during long HIIE compared to short HIIE and CE (p < 0.05) except HRpeak which tended to be higher in long HIIE than in short HIIE (p = 0.08). Between short HIIE and CE, no significant difference was found for any parameter. Acute responses of cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers and catecholamines didn’t show any significant difference between tests (p > 0.05). All health-related variables remained in a normal range in any test except NT-proBNP, which was already elevated at baseline. Despite a high Ppeak particularly in short HIIE, both HIIE modes were as safe and as well tolerated as moderate CE in cardiac patients by using our methodological approach. Key points High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE

  5. Acute toxic effects of fragrance products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate whether fragrance products can produce acute toxic effects in mammals, we allowed groups of male Swiss-Webster mice to breathe the emissions of five commercial colognes or toilet water for 1 h. We used the ASTM-E-981 test method to evaluate sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation. We used a computerized version of this test to measure the duration of the break at the end of inspiration and the duration of the pause at the end of expiration. Decreases in expiratory flow velocity indicated airflow limitation. We subjected the mice to a functional observational battery to probe for changes in nervous system function. The emissions of these fragrance products caused various combinations of sensory irritation, pulmonary irritation, decreases in expiratory airflow velocity, as well as alterations of the functional observational battery indicative of neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity was more severe after mice were repeatedly exposed to the fragrance products. Evaluation of one of the test atmospheres with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed the presence of chemicals for which irritant and neurotoxic properties had been documented previously. In summary, some fragrance products emitted chemicals that caused a variety of acute toxicities in mice.

  6. Physiological effects and therapeutic potential of proinsulin C-peptide

    PubMed Central

    Maric-Bilkan, Christine; Luppi, Patrizia; Wahren, John

    2014-01-01

    Connecting Peptide, or C-peptide, is a product of the insulin prohormone, and is released with and in amounts equimolar to those of insulin. While it was once thought that C-peptide was biologically inert and had little biological significance beyond its role in the proper folding of insulin, it is now known that C-peptide binds specifically to the cell membranes of a variety of tissues and initiates specific intracellular signaling cascades that are pertussis toxin sensitive. Although it is now clear that C-peptide is a biologically active molecule, controversy still remains as to the physiological significance of the peptide. Interestingly, C-peptide appears to reverse the deleterious effects of high glucose in some tissues, including the kidney, the peripheral nerves, and the vasculature. C-peptide is thus a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes-associated long-term complications. This review addresses the possible physiologically relevant roles of C-peptide in both normal and disease states and discusses the effects of the peptide on sensory nerve, renal, and vascular function. Furthermore, we highlight the intracellular effects of the peptide and present novel strategies for the determination of the C-peptide receptor(s). Finally, a hypothesis is offered concerning the relationship between C-peptide and the development of microvascular complications of diabetes. PMID:25249503

  7. Effects of carbon nanofiber on physiology of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shin-Hae; Lee, Hye-Yeon; Lee, Eun-Ji; Khang, Dongwoo; Min, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    As nanomaterials are now widely utilized in a wide range of fields for both medical and industrial applications, concerns over their potential toxicity to human health and the environment have increased. To evaluate the toxicity of long-term exposure to carbon nanofibers (CNFs) in an in vivo system, we selected Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Oral administration of CNFs at a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL had adverse effects on fly physiology. Long-term administration of a high dose of CNFs (1,000 μg/mL) reduced larval viability based on the pupa:egg ratio, adult fly lifespan, reproductive activity, climbing activity, and survival rate in response to starvation stress. However, CNFs at a low concentration (100 μg/mL) did not show any significant deleterious effect on developmental rate or fecundity. Furthermore, long-term administration of a low dose of CNFs (100 μg/mL) increased lifespan and climbing ability, coincident with mild reactive oxygen species generation and stimulation of the antioxidant system. Taken together, our data suggest that a high dose of CNFs has obvious physiological toxicity, whereas low-dose chronic exposure to CNFs can actually have beneficial effects via stimulation of the antioxidant defense system. PMID:26056448

  8. Transportation of young beef bulls alters circulating physiological parameters that may be effective biomarkers of stress.

    PubMed

    Buckham Sporer, K R; Weber, P S D; Burton, J L; Earley, B; Crowe, M A

    2008-06-01

    Transportation causes stress in cattle that may alter numerous physiological variables with a negative impact on production and health. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the physiological effects of truck transportation and to characterize a pattern of phenotypes in the circulation that may aid in the early identification of stress-susceptible animals that often succumb to severe respiratory disease. Thirty-six young beef bulls (Aberdeen Angus, n = 12; Friesian, n = 12; and Belgian Blue x Friesian, n = 12) were subjected to a 9-h truck transportation by road. Blood (10 mL) was collected at -24, 0, 4.5, 9.75, 14.25, 24, and 48 h relative to the initiation of transportation (0 h). Plasma was collected for the assay of various metabolic, inflammatory, and steroid variables, and total leukocyte counts were determined in whole blood at each time point. Body weight and rectal temperature were recorded at -24, 9.75, and 48 h. Transportation decreased measures of protein metabolism in the plasma, including albumin (P = 0.002), globulin (P < 0.001), urea (P = 0.006), and total protein (P < 0.001), and increased creatine kinase (P < 0.001). The energy substrate beta-hydroxybutyrate was not changed (P = 0.27). Acute phase proteins haptoglobin and fibrinogen were both decreased (P < 0.001), whereas total leukocyte counts were elevated (P = 0.002). Circulating steroid concentrations were altered, because a classical acute increase in plasma cortisol was observed with the onset of transit (P < 0.001), in association with a decrease in dehydroepiandrosterone (P = 0.07), resulting in a profound increase in cortisol:dehydroepiandrosterone ratio (P < 0.001). Plasma testosterone was decreased, whereas plasma progesterone was increased (P < 0.001) in association with the increase in cortisol (P < 0.001). There was also an effect of breed for all variables except plasma urea, creatine kinase, and testosterone, perhaps indicating that a genetic component

  9. Top predators negate the effect of mesopredators on prey physiology.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maria M; Killen, Shaun S; Nadler, Lauren E; White, James R; McCormick, Mark I

    2016-07-01

    Predation theory and empirical evidence suggest that top predators benefit the survival of resource prey through the suppression of mesopredators. However, whether such behavioural suppression can also affect the physiology of resource prey has yet to be examined. Using a three-tier reef fish food web and intermittent-flow respirometry, our study examined changes in the metabolic rate of resource prey exposed to combinations of mesopredator and top predator cues. Under experimental conditions, the mesopredator (dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus) continuously foraged and attacked resource prey (juveniles of the damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis) triggering an increase in prey O2 uptake by 38 ± 12·9% (mean ± SE). The visual stimulus of a top predator (coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus) restricted the foraging activity of the mesopredator, indirectly allowing resource prey to minimize stress and maintain routine O2 uptake. Although not as strong as the effect of the top predator, the sight of a large non-predator species (thicklip wrasse, Hemigymnus melapterus) also reduced the impact of the mesopredator on prey metabolic rate. We conclude that lower trophic-level species can benefit physiologically from the presence of top predators through the behavioural suppression that top predators impose on mesopredators. By minimizing the energy spent on mesopredator avoidance and the associated stress response to mesopredator attacks, prey may be able to invest more energy in foraging and growth, highlighting the importance of the indirect, non-consumptive effects of top predators in marine food webs. PMID:27113316

  10. Decreasing Nicotine Content Reduces Subjective and Physiological Effects of Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; Lindsey, Kimberly P.; Peters, Erica N.; Juliano, Trisha M.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Assessment of the subjective and physiological effects of smoking cigarettes with different machine-smoked nicotine yields. Methods Eight volunteers rated the characteristics of cigarettes with varying levels of nicotine (Quest®). At 30 minute intervals, participants smoked one of three different Quest® brand cigarettes in a counterbalanced order (reported machine-smoked nicotine yield: 0.6 mg, 0.3 mg, or 0.05 mg). Smoking satisfaction and sensations were measured on a cigarette evaluation questionnaire. A mood questionnaire measured self-reported subjective changes in ‘happy’, ‘stimulated’, ‘anxious’, ‘desire to smoke’, and ‘desire not to smoke’. Heart rate and skin temperature were recorded continuously. Results As nicotine yield decreased, cigarettes produced smaller changes in subjective ratings on the evaluation questionnaire with the placebo nicotine cigarette always rated lower or less potent than the other two cigarettes evaluated. Heart rate was significantly increased by the reduced nicotine cigarettes, but was not affected by the nicotine-free cigarette. Conclusion These results indicate that machine-smoked yield is an important determinant of both the subjective and physiological effects of smoking. The use of reduced and nicotine free cigarettes in smoking cessation programs remains to be evaluated. PMID:25253991

  11. Physiological effects of nonthyroidal illness syndrome in patients after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Spratt, D I; Frohnauer, M; Cyr-Alves, H; Kramer, R S; Lucas, F L; Morton, J R; Cox, D F; Becker, K; Devlin, J T

    2007-07-01

    In a prospective randomized placebo-controlled study, we assessed potential physiological effects of nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) in acute illness. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery was employed as a prospective model of acute illness and NTIS. Triiodothyronine (T(3)) or placebo was infused for 24 h after surgery, with a T(3) dose selected to maintain postoperative serum T(3) concentrations at preoperative levels. Patients were evaluated before coronary artery bypass graft and during the postoperative period. Cardiovascular function was monitored with Swan-Ganz catheter measurements and ECG. Urinary nitrogen excretion and L-[1-(13)C]leucine flux were used to evaluate protein metabolism. Serum measurements of relevant hormones, iron, and total iron-binding capacity were used to assess effects on sex steroid, growth hormone axis, and iron responses to illness. Cardiovascular function was not affected by T(3) infusion, except for a transient higher cardiac index in the T(3) group 6 h after surgery (3.04 +/- 0.12 for T(3) and 2.53 +/- 0.08 for placebo, P = 0.0016). Protein metabolism was not affected; changes in urinary nitrogen excretion and L-[1-(13)C]leucine flux were equivalent in the two groups (P = 0.35 and P = 0.95, respectively). No differences were observed in changes in testosterone, estrogens, growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone I, iron, or total iron-binding capacity between T(3) and placebo groups. We conclude that, in the early stages of major illness, the decrease in circulating T(3) concentrations in NTIS has only a minimal transient physiological impact on cardiac function and plays no significant role in protecting against protein catabolism or modulating other endocrine responses or iron responses to illness.

  12. Effect of Paroxetine on Physiological Response to Stress and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyar, Michael; a’Absi, Mustafa; Thuras, Paul; Vuchetich, John P.; Adson, David E.; Nowack, April L.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Smokers often smoke during stressful events, which leads to large increases in cardiovascular measures such as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Since exaggerated cardiovascular response to stress is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, this study examined paroxetine’s effect on the physiological response to combining stress and smoking. Methods Sixty-two participants completed this randomized, double blind, cross-over study in which BP, HR, plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol concentrations were measured at rest, while smoking and during a speech and math task. Laboratory sessions occurred after one month of paroxetine and after one month of placebo. Results Significant increases occurred for all measures (except cortisol) during smoking with further increases occurring during the speech task (time effect p values <0.001). After one month of paroxetine, NE and HR values were lower and cortisol values higher (vs. placebo) throughout the lab session (treatment effect p values < 0.001). Treatment × time effects were observed for blood pressure and heart rate (all p<0.01). For systolic and diastolic BP, a smaller increase (from baseline to measures during speech) was observed after paroxetine compared to placebo (both p <0.006). In both measures, the increase in response to smoking was similar for both treatments, however the further increase during the speech was smaller when taking paroxetine (vs. placebo). Conclusions This study suggests that paroxetine affects physiological response to stress in smokers. Further research is needed to determine the impact of these results on cardiovascular health. PMID:23504241

  13. Physiological and behavioral effects of an antivertigo antihistamine in adults.

    PubMed

    Lauter, J L; Lynch, O; Wood, S B; Schoeffler, L

    1999-06-01

    12 neurologically normal adults were tested before and after administration of meclizine, an over-the-counter medication for motion sickness. A battery of four tests was used: (1) distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, (2) the Repeated Evoked Potentials version of the Auditory Brainstem Response, (3) quantitative electroencephalography measured over the left and right sides of the auditory cortex, and (4) a hand-eye coordination task. The battery required approximately 1.5 hr. to complete. Each subject was tested with the battery in each of eight longitudinal sessions: three times on a control day (9 am, 1 pm, 3 pm--no medication); the same times on a second day one week later (medication at approximately 11:30 am), and 24- and 48-hr. check-up sessions following the medication day. Analysis indicated changes in all components, with details suggesting the site(s) of action of this type of antihistamine. The cross-section of the auditory system yielded by this battery makes it possible to observe effects at the periphery, in the brainstem, and in the cortex, including evidence linking otoacoustic emissions with central auditory physiology. Implications range from cautions regarding the use of antihistamines to physiological support for employing such medications to enhance patients' response to vestibular rehabilitation as well as to improve performance in learning-disordered children. PMID:10407877

  14. Effects of Deployment on Musculoskeletal and Physiological Characteristics and Balance.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Keenan, Karen A; McGrail, Mark A; Smalley, Brian W; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-09-01

    Despite many nonbattle injuries reported during deployment, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of deployment on musculoskeletal and physiological characteristics and balance. A total of 35 active duty U.S. Army Soldiers participated in laboratory testing before and after deployment to Afghanistan. The following measures were obtained for each Soldier: shoulder, trunk, hip, knee, and ankle strength and range of motion (ROM), balance, body composition, aerobic capacity, and anaerobic power/capacity. Additionally, Soldiers were asked about their physical activity and load carriage. Paired t tests or Wilcoxon tests with an α = 0.05 set a priori were used for statistical analyses. Shoulder external rotation ROM, torso rotation ROM, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, torso rotation strength, and anaerobic power significantly increased following deployment (p < 0.05). Shoulder extension ROM, shoulder external rotation strength, and eyes-closed balance (p < 0.05) were significantly worse following deployment. The majority of Soldiers (85%) engaged in physical activity. In addition, 58% of Soldiers reported regularly carrying a load (22 kg average). The deployment-related changes in musculoskeletal and physiological characteristics and balance as well as physical activity and load carriage during deployment may assist with proper preparation with the intent to optimize tactical readiness and mitigate injury risk. PMID:27612352

  15. SNAPPE-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology with Perinatal Extension-II) in Predicting Mortality and Morbidity in NICU

    PubMed Central

    Archana, Banur Raju

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A number of illness severity scores have evolved which would predict mortality and morbidity in intensive care units. One such scoring system developed by Richardson was SNAPPE-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology with Perinatal extension-II). Aim The present study was conducted to assess the validity of SNAPPE-II score as a predictor of mortality and morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 248 neonates who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study and SNAPPE-II score was calculated. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to derive the best cut-off score and SPSS package (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) was used for statistical analysis. Results SNAPPE-II score was higher among expired neonates compared to survived ones. A mean score of 37 was associated with higher mortality. However, it didn’t accurately predict the length of stay. Conclusion SNAPPE II score is a better predictor of mortality irrespective of gestational ages and it is not a good predictor of morbidity. PMID:26557585

  16. Weight loss in combat sports: physiological, psychological and performance effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present article briefly reviews the weight loss processes in combat sports. We aimed to discuss the most relevant aspects of rapid weight loss (RWL) in combat sports. Methods This review was performed in the databases MedLine, Lilacs, PubMed and SciELO, and organized into sub-topics: (1) prevalence, magnitude and procedures, (2) psychological, physiological and performance effects, (3) possible strategies to avoid decreased performance (4) organizational strategies to avoid such practices. Results There was a high prevalence (50%) of RWL, regardless the specific combat discipline. Methods used are harmful to performance and health, such as laxatives, diuretics, use of plastic or rubber suits, and sauna. RWL affects physical and cognitive capacities, and may increase the risk of death. Conclusion Recommendations during different training phases, educational and organizational approaches are presented to deal with or to avoid RWL. PMID:23237303

  17. Reactive Oxygen Species: Physiological and Physiopathological Effects on Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Beckhauser, Thiago Fernando; Francis-Oliveira, José; De Pasquale, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian central nervous system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is counterbalanced by antioxidant defenses. When large amounts of ROS accumulate, antioxidant mechanisms become overwhelmed and oxidative cellular stress may occur. Therefore, ROS are typically characterized as toxic molecules, oxidizing membrane lipids, changing the conformation of proteins, damaging nucleic acids, and causing deficits in synaptic plasticity. High ROS concentrations are associated with a decline in cognitive functions, as observed in some neurodegenerative disorders and age-dependent decay of neuroplasticity. Nevertheless, controlled ROS production provides the optimal redox state for the activation of transductional pathways involved in synaptic changes. Since ROS may regulate neuronal activity and elicit negative effects at the same time, the distinction between beneficial and deleterious consequences is unclear. In this regard, this review assesses current research and describes the main sources of ROS in neurons, specifying their involvement in synaptic plasticity and distinguishing between physiological and pathological processes implicated. PMID:27625575

  18. Physiological effects of hunting red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, P; Bradshaw, E L

    1997-01-01

    When red deer (Cervus elaphus) were hunted by humans with hounds the average distance travelled was at least 19 km. This study of 64 hunted red deer provides the first empirical evidence on their state at the time of death. Blood and muscle samples obtained from hunted deer after death were compared with samples from 50 non-hunted red deer that had been cleanly shot with rifles. The effects on deer of long hunts were (i) depletion of carbohydrate resources for powering muscles, (ii) disruption of muscle tissue, and (iii) elevated secretion of beta-endorphin. High concentrations of cortisol, typically associated with extreme physiological and psychological stress, were found. Damage to red blood cells occurred early in the hunts; possible mechanisms are discussed. Taken together, the evidence suggests that red deer are not well-adapted by their evolutionary or individual history to cope with the level of activity imposed on them when hunted with hounds. PMID:9447728

  19. Reactive Oxygen Species: Physiological and Physiopathological Effects on Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Beckhauser, Thiago Fernando; Francis-Oliveira, José; De Pasquale, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian central nervous system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is counterbalanced by antioxidant defenses. When large amounts of ROS accumulate, antioxidant mechanisms become overwhelmed and oxidative cellular stress may occur. Therefore, ROS are typically characterized as toxic molecules, oxidizing membrane lipids, changing the conformation of proteins, damaging nucleic acids, and causing deficits in synaptic plasticity. High ROS concentrations are associated with a decline in cognitive functions, as observed in some neurodegenerative disorders and age-dependent decay of neuroplasticity. Nevertheless, controlled ROS production provides the optimal redox state for the activation of transductional pathways involved in synaptic changes. Since ROS may regulate neuronal activity and elicit negative effects at the same time, the distinction between beneficial and deleterious consequences is unclear. In this regard, this review assesses current research and describes the main sources of ROS in neurons, specifying their involvement in synaptic plasticity and distinguishing between physiological and pathological processes implicated. PMID:27625575

  20. Physiological Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Muzumdar, Hiren; Arens, Raanan

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing in children refers to a group of respiratory disorders that occur or are exacerbated during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the most significant disorders in this group. OSAS can present in all age groups from early infancy to adolescent years. The cardinal feature of OSAS is limitation of inspiratory flow and volume during sleep resulting in abnormal gas exchange and/or alteration of sleep patterns. When OSAS is a chronic condition it often results in adverse physiological effects that impact on health and development. The present review discusses genesis of OSAS in children and consequent end organ injury with special emphasis on behavior and cognition, cardiovascular function, autonomic regulation, inflammation, endothelial function and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23707879

  1. Effect of distillery effluents on some physiological aspects in maize.

    PubMed

    Ramana, S; Biswas, A K; Singh, A B

    2002-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to study the effect of application of different distillery effluents: raw spent wash (RSW), biomethanated spent wash (BSW), lagoon sludge (LS), recommended NPK + FYM (farm yard manure) and control (no fertilizer and effluent) on some physiological aspects in maize. The study revealed that the application of distillery effluents resulted in increased leaf area, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase activity total dry weight and grain yield. Among the effluents, the highest grain yield (36.9 qha(-1)) was obtained in BSW followed by RSW (32.2 qha(-1)) and LS (28.3 qha(-1)). Overall, NPK + FYM treatment recorded the highest grain yield (51.8 qha(-1)). However, to achieve the full manurial potential of the effluents, some amount of fertilizer should be supplemented. PMID:12118710

  2. Effects of deep pressure stimulation on physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stacey; Lane, Shelly J; Mullen, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deep pressure stimulation has been used in therapeutic practice because of the assumption that it changes physiological arousal. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of deep pressure stimulation, applied with a Vayu Vest (Therapeutic Systems), on both autonomic arousal and performance in a normative adult sample. A repeated-measures, repeated-baseline design was used with participants completing a performance test before and after deep pressure application. A convenience sample of 50 adults participated in the study. Results showed that wearing the Vayu Vest for even short periods of time reduced sympathetic arousal and non-stimulus-driven electrical occurrences. Concomitant increases in parasympathetic arousal were found. Performance improvements were noted after wearing the Vayu Vest, potentially because of changes in arousal. We conclude that deep pressure stimulation is capable of eliciting changes in autonomic arousal and may be a useful modality in diagnostic groups seen by occupational therapy practitioners. PMID:25871605

  3. Reactive Oxygen Species: Physiological and Physiopathological Effects on Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Beckhauser, Thiago Fernando; Francis-Oliveira, José; De Pasquale, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian central nervous system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is counterbalanced by antioxidant defenses. When large amounts of ROS accumulate, antioxidant mechanisms become overwhelmed and oxidative cellular stress may occur. Therefore, ROS are typically characterized as toxic molecules, oxidizing membrane lipids, changing the conformation of proteins, damaging nucleic acids, and causing deficits in synaptic plasticity. High ROS concentrations are associated with a decline in cognitive functions, as observed in some neurodegenerative disorders and age-dependent decay of neuroplasticity. Nevertheless, controlled ROS production provides the optimal redox state for the activation of transductional pathways involved in synaptic changes. Since ROS may regulate neuronal activity and elicit negative effects at the same time, the distinction between beneficial and deleterious consequences is unclear. In this regard, this review assesses current research and describes the main sources of ROS in neurons, specifying their involvement in synaptic plasticity and distinguishing between physiological and pathological processes implicated.

  4. Risk Assessment of Physiological Effects of Atmospheric Composition and Pressure in Constellation Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Conkin, Johnny; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce denitrogenation time to prevent decompression sickness to support frequent extravehicular activities on the Moon, and to limit the risk of fire, a hypobaric (P(sub B) = 414 mmHg) and mildly hypoxic (ppO2 = 132 mmHg, 32% O2 - 68% N2) living environment is being considered during lunar missions for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). If the vehicular ppO2 is acutely changed from 145-178 mmHg at standard vehicular operating pressure to less than 125 mmHg at desired lunar surface outpost operating pressures, there is the possibility that some crewmembers may develop symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS). The signs and symptoms of AMS (headache plus nausea, dizziness, fatigue, or sleeplessness), could impact crew health and performance on lunar surface missions. Methods: An exhaustive literature review on the topic of the physiological effects of reduced ppO2 and absolute pressure as may contribute to the development of hypoxia and altitude symptoms or AMS. The results of the nine most rigorous studies were collated, analyzed and contents on the physiological concerns associated with hypobaric operations, AMS and hypoxia symptoms summarized. Results: Although space vehicles have operated in hypobaric conditions previously, they have not operated in a mildly hypoxic ppO2. There is evidence for an absolute pressure effect per se on AMS, such that the higher the altitude for a given hypoxic alveolar O2 partial pressure (P(sub A)O2), the greater the likelihood of an AMS response. About 25% of adults are likely to experience mild AMS near 2,000 m (xxx mmHg) altitude following a rapid ascent from sea level while breathing air (6,500 feet, acute (P(sub A)O2) = 75 mmHg). The operational experience with the Shuttle staged denitrogenation protocol at 528 mmHg (3,048 m) while breathing 26.5% O2 (acute (P(sub A)O2) = 85 mmHg) in astronauts adapting to microgravity suggests a similar likely experience in the proposed CEV

  5. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making. PMID:27679566

  6. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making. PMID:27679566

  7. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making.

  8. Physiological effects of wearing graduated compression stockings during running.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ajmol; Creasy, Robert H; Edge, Johann A

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the effect of wearing different grades of graduated compression stockings (GCS) on physiological and perceptual measures during and following treadmill running in competitive runners. Nine males and one female performed three 40-min treadmill runs (80 +/- 5% maximal oxygen uptake) wearing either control (0 mmHg; CON), low (12-15 mmHg; LO-GCS), or high (23-32 mmHg; HI-GCS) grade GCS in a double-blind counterbalanced order. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were measured. Perceptual scales were used pre- and post-run to assess comfort, tightness and any pain associated with wearing GCS. Changes in muscle function, soreness and damage were determined pre-run, immediately after running and 24 and 48 h post-run by measuring creatine kinase and myoglobin, counter-movement jump height, perceived soreness diagrams, and pressure sensitivity. There were no significant differences between trials for oxygen uptake, heart rate or blood lactate during exercise. HI-GCS was perceived as tighter (P < 0.05) and more pain-inducing (P < 0.05) than the other interventions; CON and LO-GCS were rated more comfortable than HI-GCS (P < 0.05). Creatine kinase (P < 0.05), myoglobin (P < 0.05) and jump height (P < 0.05) were higher and pressure sensitivity was more pronounced (P < 0.05) immediately after running but not after 24 and 48 h. Only four participants reported muscle soreness during recovery from running and there were no differences in muscle function between trials. In conclusion, healthy runners wearing GCS did not experience any physiological benefits during or following treadmill running. However, athletes felt more comfortable wearing low-grade GCS whilst running.

  9. Depressant Effects of Salvia divinorum Involve Disruption of Physiological Sleep.

    PubMed

    González-Trujano, María Eva; Brindis, Fernando; López-Ruiz, Edith; Ramírez-Salado, Ignacio; Martínez, Adrián; Pellicer, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Although Salvia divinorum is traditionally known as a 'mind-altering' or psychoactive herb used, among others things, as a tranquilizer, this property has not been validated with regard to its efficacy and safety. The objective of this study is to provide evidence for the sedative effects of S. divinorum and discriminate the nature of the responsible constituents by examining different experimental models. A battery of tests, including the open-field, hole-board, exploration cylinder, plus-maze and sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis potentiation, were used in mice after administration of non-polar, medium polar and/or polar extracts of the plant (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg). Polysomnographic analysis in rats receiving an active medium polar extract (10 and 100 mg/kg) containing salvinorins was also assessed to study the effects of this plant on sleep architecture. All tested extracts produced significant sedative-like responses, although those of the medium polar extract were more pronounced in mice. The sedative effect of this latter extract, which contains a mixture of salvinorins, caused fragmented sleep architecture in rats by diminishing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and increased the quiet awake stage at 10 and 100 mg/kg. Our results provide evidence that S. divinorum exhibits sedative-like depressant properties that alter physiological sleep architecture. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Physiological effects of toxic substances on wildlife species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.D.; Kacmar, Peter; Legath, J.

    1983-01-01

    Study of the physiological effects of contaminants on wildlife species has expanded as more sophisticated medical techniques are adapted to wildlife and as the mode of action of new classes of pesticides increase the number of organ systems which may be sublethally or lethally impacted. This paper summarizes some of the latest data published on toxicant affects on organ systems of warm-blooded vertebrates. Reporting on effects with enzyme systems concentrates on cholinesterase in blood and plasma after sublethal and lethal exposure to organophosphate end carbamate pesticides, but also covers, recent work with Na+, k+-ATPases, AST, AAT, and AL.AD. A discussion of recent work on hormones, biogenlc amines, and other compounds which indicate alteration of specific organ systems, is followed by examples of histopathological lesions associated both pathognomically and non-specifically with widely-used and/or severely toxic contaminants. All these specific effects and lesions are then discussed in terms of their potential for use diagnostically in field problems and their practical and possible impact on wildlife populations.

  11. Depressant Effects of Salvia divinorum Involve Disruption of Physiological Sleep.

    PubMed

    González-Trujano, María Eva; Brindis, Fernando; López-Ruiz, Edith; Ramírez-Salado, Ignacio; Martínez, Adrián; Pellicer, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Although Salvia divinorum is traditionally known as a 'mind-altering' or psychoactive herb used, among others things, as a tranquilizer, this property has not been validated with regard to its efficacy and safety. The objective of this study is to provide evidence for the sedative effects of S. divinorum and discriminate the nature of the responsible constituents by examining different experimental models. A battery of tests, including the open-field, hole-board, exploration cylinder, plus-maze and sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis potentiation, were used in mice after administration of non-polar, medium polar and/or polar extracts of the plant (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg). Polysomnographic analysis in rats receiving an active medium polar extract (10 and 100 mg/kg) containing salvinorins was also assessed to study the effects of this plant on sleep architecture. All tested extracts produced significant sedative-like responses, although those of the medium polar extract were more pronounced in mice. The sedative effect of this latter extract, which contains a mixture of salvinorins, caused fragmented sleep architecture in rats by diminishing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and increased the quiet awake stage at 10 and 100 mg/kg. Our results provide evidence that S. divinorum exhibits sedative-like depressant properties that alter physiological sleep architecture. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037508

  12. Effects of acute corticosterone treatment on partner preferences in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    LaPlante, Kimberly A; Huremovic, Enida; Tomaszycki, Michelle L

    2014-04-01

    Stress alters physiology and behavior across species. Most research on the effects of stress on behavior uses chronic stressors, and most are correlational. The effects of acute stressors on physiology and behavior have been mixed. Here, we use zebra finches, a highly gregarious species that forms long-term pair bonds, to test the effects of an acute corticosterone (CORT) on opposite-sex partner preferences over a same-sex individual or a group (the latter is a highly appealing option). We had two competing hypotheses. First, we predicted that acute CORT would alter preferences for the opposite sex bird in both conditions in both sexes. However, since there is a sex difference in the effects of CORT on partner preferences in voles, these effects may be more pronounced in males than in females. To test our hypotheses, we administered 2 doses of CORT (10μg and 20μg) or vehicle (control) using a repeated measures design. In the male vs. female test, there was a significant Sex by Treatment interaction, such that in males, 10μg CORT increased preferences for a female over the male compared to when these same males were treated with saline at baseline. There were no effects of treatment in females. In the opposite-sex vs. group condition, there was an overall effect of Treatment, such that the 10μg dose increased preference for the opposite-sex individual over both saline treatments, regardless of sex. These findings further our understanding of the effects of an acute stressor on sexual partner preferences.

  13. Effects of atrazine on endocrinology and physiology in juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Hook, Sharon E; Jones, Dean; Metcalfe, Suzanne; Osborn, Hannah L

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to certain environmental contaminants such as agricultural pesticides can alter normal endocrine and reproductive parameters in wild fish populations. Recent studies have found widespread pesticide contamination across the rivers that discharge into the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Potential impacts on native fish species exposed to known endocrine disrupting chemicals such as atrazine, simazine, and diuron have not been assessed. In the present study, the authors examined the endocrine and physiological effects of short-term, acute exposure of environmentally relevant concentrations of analytical grade atrazine in juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer) in a controlled laboratory experiment. Expression of hepatic vitellogenin was not affected, supporting results of previous studies that showed that atrazine does not have a direct estrogenic effect via mediation of estrogen receptors. The lack of effect on brain cytochrome P19B (CYP19B) expression levels, combined with increases in testosterone (T) and 17β estradiol and a stable T:17β estradiol ratio, does not support the hypothesis that atrazine has an indirect estrogenic effect via modulation of aromatase expression. Gill ventilation rate, a measure of oxidative stress, did not change in contrast to other studies finding enhanced osmoregulatory disturbance and gill histopathology after atrazine exposure. To more closely reflect field conditions, the authors recommend that laboratory studies should focus more on examining the effects of commercial pesticide formulations that contain additional ingredients that have been found to be disruptive to endocrine function.

  14. Simplified Acute Physiology Score II as Predictor of Mortality in Intensive Care Units: A Decision Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Allyn, Jérôme; Ferdynus, Cyril; Bohrer, Michel; Dalban, Cécile; Valance, Dorothée; Allou, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background End-of-life decision-making in Intensive care Units (ICUs) is difficult. The main problems encountered are the lack of a reliable prediction score for death and the fact that the opinion of patients is rarely taken into consideration. The Decision Curve Analysis (DCA) is a recent method developed to evaluate the prediction models and which takes into account the wishes of patients (or surrogates) to expose themselves to the risk of obtaining a false result. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical usefulness, with DCA, of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) to predict ICU mortality. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study from January 2011 to September 2015, in a medical-surgical 23-bed ICU at University Hospital. Performances of the SAPS II, a modified SAPS II (without AGE), and age to predict ICU mortality, were measured by a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and DCA. Results Among the 4.370 patients admitted, 23.3% died in the ICU. Mean (standard deviation) age was 56.8 (16.7) years, and median (first-third quartile) SAPS II was 48 (34–65). Areas under ROC curves were 0.828 (0.813–0.843) for SAPS II, 0.814 (0.798–0.829) for modified SAPS II and of 0.627 (0.608–0.646) for age. DCA showed a net benefit whatever the probability threshold, especially under 0.5. Conclusion DCA shows the benefits of the SAPS II to predict ICU mortality, especially when the probability threshold is low. Complementary studies are needed to define the exact role that the SAPS II can play in end-of-life decision-making in ICUs. PMID:27741304

  15. The acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sarah J; Aisbett, Brad; Tait, Jamie L; Turner, Anne I; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night. Sixteen healthy males aged 25 ± 4 years (mean ± SD) spent four consecutive days and nights in a sleep laboratory. This research used a within-participants design with repeated measures for time, alarm condition (alarm or control), and trial (day or night). When an alarm sounded, participants were required to mobilize immediately. Saliva samples for cortisol analysis were collected 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min after mobilization, and at corresponding times in control conditions. Heart rate was measured continuously throughout the study. Heart rate was higher in the day (F20,442 = 9.140, P < 0.001) and night (F23,459 = 8.356, P < 0.001) alarm conditions compared to the respective control conditions. There was no difference in saliva cortisol between day alarm and day control conditions. Cortisol was higher (F6,183 = 2.450, P < 0.001) following the night alarm and mobilization compared to the night control condition. The magnitude of difference in cortisol between night control and night alarm conditions was greater (F6,174 = 4.071, P < 0.001) than the magnitude of difference between the day control and day alarm conditions. The augmented heart rate response to the day and night alarms supports previous observations in field settings. Variations in the cortisol responses between conditions across the day and night may relate to differences in participants’ ability to interpret the alarm when sleeping versus when awake. PMID:27157688

  16. The acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sarah J; Aisbett, Brad; Tait, Jamie L; Turner, Anne I; Ferguson, Sally A; Main, Luana C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute physiological stress response to an emergency alarm and mobilization during the day and at night. Sixteen healthy males aged 25 ± 4 years (mean ± SD) spent four consecutive days and nights in a sleep laboratory. This research used a within-participants design with repeated measures for time, alarm condition (alarm or control), and trial (day or night). When an alarm sounded, participants were required to mobilize immediately. Saliva samples for cortisol analysis were collected 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min after mobilization, and at corresponding times in control conditions. Heart rate was measured continuously throughout the study. Heart rate was higher in the day (F(20,442) = 9.140, P < 0.001) and night (F(23,459) = 8.356, P < 0.001) alarm conditions compared to the respective control conditions. There was no difference in saliva cortisol between day alarm and day control conditions. Cortisol was higher (F(6,183) = 2.450, P < 0.001) following the night alarm and mobilization compared to the night control condition. The magnitude of difference in cortisol between night control and night alarm conditions was greater (F(6,174) = 4.071, P < 0.001) than the magnitude of difference between the day control and day alarm conditions. The augmented heart rate response to the day and night alarms supports previous observations in field settings. Variations in the cortisol responses between conditions across the day and night may relate to differences in participants' ability to interpret the alarm when sleeping versus when awake.

  17. An overview of the issues: physiological effects of bed rest and restricted physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Bloomfield, S. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of exercise capacity with confinement to bed rest is well recognized. Underlying physiological mechanisms include dramatic reductions in maximal stroke volume, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake. However, bed rest by itself does not appear to contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Increased muscle fatigue is associated with reduced muscle blood flow, red cell volume, capillarization and oxidative enzymes. Loss of muscle mass and bone density may be reflected by reduced muscle strength and higher risk for injury to bones and joints. The resultant deconditioning caused by bed rest can be independent of the primary disease and physically debilitating in patients who attempt to reambulate to normal active living and working. A challenge to clinicians and health care specialists has been the identification of appropriate and effective methods to restore physical capacity of patients during or after restricted physical activity associated with prolonged bed rest. The examination of physiological responses to bed rest deconditioning and exercise training in healthy subjects has provided significant information to develop effective rehabilitation treatments. The successful application of acute exercise to enhance orthostatic stability, daily endurance exercise to maintain aerobic capacity, or specific resistance exercises to maintain musculoskeletal integrity rather than the use of surgical, pharmacological, and other medical treatments for clinical conditions has been enhanced by investigation and understanding of underlying mechanisms that distinguish physical deconditioning from the disease. This symposium presents an overview of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning associated with reduced physical work capacity following prolonged bed rest and exercise training regimens that have proven successful in ameliorating or reversing these adverse effects.

  18. Physiological effects of solar heat load in a fighter cockpit.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, S A; Myhre, L G

    1976-09-01

    The use of bubble canopies to improve vision in fighter aircraft exposes the cockpit to a high radiant heat load. Incoming sunlight increases the heat stress on crewmembers, both by raising air temperature and by directly heating exposed skin and clothing. An F-15 aircraft at Edwards AFB was modified to permit cockpit ventilation by external ground carts. Eight volunteers from the Test Pilot School were studied during 1-h periods in the closed cockpit, in sun and in shade. Mean cockpit air temperatures were 35.2 degrees C in shade and 51.9 degrees C in sun with PH2O less than 10 torr. The corresponding WBGT's were 22.6 and 36.4 degrees C. Sunlight added significantly to overall heat stress, as indicated by a rising heart rate and evaporative weight loss of 284 g/m2 - h (shade value was 109 g/m2 - hr). Mean skin temperatures were 34.3 degrees C in shade and 35.8 degrees C in sun. Particularly high skin temperatures were observed on the chest, the forehead and the top of the head under the helmet. The legs remained cool due to the flow of conditioned air, and this may explain why rectal temperature showed no meaningful change. Heat stress, which alone poses no physiological hazard, may cause crew performance decrements as well as diminishing acceleration tolerance. Possible means of eliminating or ameliorating these effects are discussed.

  19. Herbivore tooth oxygen isotope compositions: Effects of diet and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Matthew J.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; Valley, John W.

    1996-10-01

    The applicability of rapid and precise laser probe analysis of tooth enamel for δ18O has been verified, and the method has been applied to different modern herbivores in East Africa. Sampling and pretreatment procedures involve initial bleaching and grinding of enamel to <75 μm, and elimination of adsorbed water and organic compounds with BrF 5. Typical analytical reproducibilities for 0.5-2 mg samples are ±0.08‰ (± 1σ). Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of pretreated but unanalyzed samples show no alteration compared to fresh enamel. Solid reaction products are nearly pure CaF 2 with little evidence for residual O 2. Because laser probe fluorination extracts oxygen from all sites in the apatite structure (phosphate, structural carbonate, and hydroxyl), only unaltered tooth enamel (>95% apatite) can be analyzed reliably. Different East African herbivores exhibit previously unsuspected compositional differences. Average enamel δ18O values (V-SMOW) are approximately: 25‰ (goat), 27‰ (oryx), 28‰ (dikdik and zebra), 29‰ (topi), 30‰ (gerenuk), and 32‰ (gazelle). These compositions differ from generalized theoretical models, but are broadly consistent with expected isotope effects associated with differences in how much each animal (a) drinks, (b) eats C3 vs. C4 plants, and (c) pants vs. sweats. Consideration of diet, water turnover, and animal physiology will allow the most accurate interpretation of ancient teeth and targeting of environmentally-sensitive animals in paleoclimate studies.

  20. Effect of fulvic acids on the electrolytes physiology in vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, O. Y.; Navarrete, J. M.; Gracia, I.; Macias, L.; Rivera, M.; Sanchez, F.

    2011-10-01

    Fulvic acids are the active principle in humus fertilizers which are the cause of better absorption of mineral ions from soil to plant tissues. Tested in mice by making use of radioactive labeled ions, they showed their action of enhancing by a factor greater than two the filtration through liver of PO 43- and Ca 2+ from digestive tract to blood serum as well as through kidney from blood serum to urine. Following this research, Fe 3+ and I 1- ions labeled with 59Fe and 131I have been tested and reported in the present paper. Results showed that iron ions are completely fixed in red cells, with no residue eliminated by urine, while iodine ions are fixed in thyroid gland, with some residue eliminated by urine. Both ions were fixed in said tissues by factors larger than two when they are escorted by fulvic acids. A general distribution of these ions in blood, urine, feces, liver, kidney and thyroid gland has been surveyed, trying to find the earliest effect of fulvic acids in the physiology of vertebrates.

  1. Importance of Airflow for Physiologic and Ergogenic Effects of Precooling

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shawnda A.; Cheung, Stephen; Cotter, James D.

    2014-01-01

    the extent of the physiologic and ergogenic benefits for typical athlete-endurance situations. Precooling increases work capacity effectively when airflow is restricted but may have little or no benefit when airflow is present. PMID:25144598

  2. Physiological dead space and effective parabronchial ventilation in ducks.

    PubMed

    Hastings, R H; Powell, F L

    1986-01-01

    Gas exchange in avian lungs is described by a cross-current model that has several differences from the alevolar model of mammalian gas exchange [e.g., end-expired PCO2 greater than arterial PCO2 (PaCO2)]. Consequently the methods available for estimating effective ventilation and physiological dead space (VDphys) in alveolar lungs are not suitable for an analysis of gas exchange in birds. We tested a method for measuring VDphys in birds that is functionally equivalent to the conventional alveolar VDphys. A cross-current O2-CO2 diagram was used to define the ideal expired point (PEi) and VDphys was calculated as from the equation, VDphys = [(PEiCO2--PECO2)/PEiCO2]. VT, where VT is tidal volume. In seven Pekin ducks VDphys was 13.8 ml greater than anatomic dead space and measured changes in the instrument dead space volume. VDphys also reflected changes in ventilation-perfusion inequality induced by temporary unilateral pulmonary arterial occlusion. Bohr dead space, calculated by substituting end-expired PCO2 for PEiCO2, was insensitive to such inhomogeneity. Enghoff dead space, calculated by substituting PaCO2 for PEiCO2, is theoretically incorrect for cross-current gas exchange and was often less than anatomic dead space. We conclude that VDphys is a useful index of avian gas exchange and propose a standard definition for effective parabronchial ventilation (VP) analogous to alveolar ventilation (i.e., VP = VE--VDphys, where VE is total ventilation).

  3. Risk Assessment of Physiological Effects of Atmospheric Composition and Pressure in Constellation Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Conkin, Johnny; Jones, J. A.; Gernhardt, M.

    2007-01-01

    To limit the risk of fire and reduce denitrogenation time to prevent decompression sickness to support frequent extravehicular activities on the Moon, a hypobaric (PB = 414 mmHg) and mildly hypoxic (ppO2 = 132 mmHg, 32% O2 - 68% N2) living environment is considered for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). With acute change in ppO2 from 145-178 mmHg at standard vehicular operating pressure to less than 125 mmHg at desired lunar surface vehicular operating pressures, there is the possibility that some crewmembers may develop symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS). The signs and symptoms of AMS (headache plus nausea, dizziness, fatigue, or sleeplessness), could impact crew health and performance on lunar surface missions. An exhaustive literature review on the topic of the physiological effects of reduced ppO2 and absolute pressure as may contribute to the development of altitude symptoms or AMS was performed. The results of the nine most rigorous studies were collated, analyzed and contents on AMS and hypoxia symptoms summarized. There is evidence for an absolute pressure effect per se on AMS, so the higher the altitude for a given hypoxic alveolar O2 partial pressure (PAO2), the greater the AMS response. About 25% of adults are likely to experience mild AMS near 2,000 m altitude following a rapid ascent from sea level while breathing air (6,500 feet, acute PAO2 = 75 mmHg). The operational experience with the Shuttle staged denitrogenation protocol at 528 mmHg (3,048 m) while breathing 26.5% O2 (acute PAO2 = 85 mmHg) in astronauts adapting to microgravity suggests a similar likely experience in the proposed CEV environment. We believe the risk of mild AMS is greater given a PAO2 of 77 mmHg at 4,876 m altitude while breathing 32% O2 than at 1,828 m altitude while breathing 21% O2. Only susceptible astronauts would develop mild and transient AMS with prolonged exposure to 414 mmHg (4,876 m) while breathing 32% O2 (acute PAO2

  4. The Effect of Exertion on Heart Rate and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Acutely Concussed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Andrea; Leddy, John; Freitas, Michael; Czuczman, Natalie; Willer, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Objective Research suggests that one physiological effect of concussion is a disruption in regulation of autonomic nervous system control that affects the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic output. While changes in heart rate after concussion have been observed, the nature of the heart rate change during progressive exercise has not been well evaluated in acutely symptomatic patients. Additionally, little is known about the relationship between HR and RPE in this population. Methods We compared changes in heart rate and perceived effort during graded treadmill exertion in recently concussed patients to elucidate the effect of brain injury on cardiovascular response to exercise. Resting HR, HR on exercise initiation, and changes in HR and RPE during the Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test (BCTT) were compared on two test visits: When patients were symptomatic (acute) and after recovery. Results were compared with the test-retest results obtained from a control group consisting of healthy, non-concussed individuals. Results Patients had a significantly lower HR at onset of exercise when acutely concussed as compared to when recovered and reported greater perceived exertion at every exercise intensity level when symptomatic, despite exercising at lower workloads, than when recovered. Sympathetic response to increased exertion was not affected by concussion - HR increased in response to exercise at a comparable rate in both tests. These differences observed in response to exercise between the first BCTT and follow-up evaluation in initially concussed patients were not present in non-concussed individuals. Conclusion Our results suggest that during the acute phase after concussion, acutely concussed patients demonstrated an impaired ability to shift from parasympathetic to sympathetic control over heart rate at the onset of exercise. Changes in the autonomic nervous system after concussion may be more complex than previously reported. Continued evaluation of

  5. Herbivore tooth oxygen isotope compositions: Effects of diet and physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, M.J.; Valley, J.W.; Schoeninger, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    The applicability of rapid and precise laser probe analysis of tooth enamel for {delta}{sup 18}O has been verified, and the method has been applied to different modern herbivores in East Africa. Sampling and pretreatment procedures involve initial bleaching and grinding of enamel to <75 {mu}m, and elimination of adsorbed water and organic compounds with BrF{sub 5}. Typical analytical reproducibilities for 0.5-2 mg samples are {+-}0.08{per_thousand} ({+-} 1{sigma}). Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of pretreated but unanalyzed samples show no alteration compared to fresh enamel. Solid reaction products are nearly pure CaF{sub 2} with little evidence for residual O{sub 2}. Because laser probe fluorination extracts oxygen from all sites in the apatite structure (phosphate, structural carbonate, and hydroxyl), only unaltered tooth enamel ( >95% apatite) can be analyzed reliably. Different East African herbivores exhibit previously unsuspected compositional differences. Average enamel {delta}{sup 18}O values (V-SMOW) are approximately: 25{per_thousand} (goat). 27{per_thousand} (oryx), 28{per_thousand} (dikdik and zebra), 29{per_thousand} (topi), 30{per_thousand} (gerenuk), and 32{per_thousand} (gazelle). These compositions differ from generalized theoretical models, but are broadly consistent with expected isotope effects associated with differences in how much each animal (a) drinks, (b) eats C3 vs. C4 plants, and (c) pants vs. sweats. Consideration of diet, water turnover. and animal physiology will allow the most accurate interpretation of ancient teeth and targeting of environmentally-sensitive animals in paleoclimate studies. 66 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Physiological effects of NaCl on Apocynum venetum seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling

    2016-04-01

    The physiological effects of NaCl on the Apocynum venetum seedlings were investigated, including the chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf potential and growth rate, etc. The findings indicated that along with hardness index increasing, the leaf sample's chlorophyll content assumed the fluctuation condition which dropped firstly elevated again; the leaf water potential maintained stable basically; the energy of light absorption, the assignment and the dissipation balanced at 10 g/L and the growth rate presented the maximum value 9.8 mm/d; Along with the stress extension, the greatest quantum yield Fv/Fm dropped, metallic ion's absorption increased. In the 21st day, non-photochemical quenching coefficient NPQ presented the maximum value, absorbed energy proportion parameter Y(II) dropped firstly restored again, 3 kind of energy absorptions, the assignment dissipation parameter proportion stabilized in 10 g/L at Y(II):Y(NO):Y(NPQ) = 65%:20%:15%.The results suggested that in the A. venetum nursery process in the southern edge of Taklimakan Desert, phased tending should be adopted according to the seedling stage: 5-10 g/L salinity water should be used in irrigation in the seedling stage to maintain a more high leaf water potential which could prevent the decomposition of chlorophyll in which higher proportion of photochemical energy conversion could be stable using 10 g/L salt water irrigation to give A. venetum a full play of stronger salt adaptability to the southern margin of the Taklimakan Desert Oasis-Desert Ecotone in its restoration and construction. Key words: saline water irrigation; leaf water potential; energy allocation strategies; growth rate

  7. Effect of transport stress on physiological responses of male bovines.

    PubMed

    Chacon, G; Garcia-Belenguer, S; Villarroel, M; Maria, G A

    2005-12-01

    Forty-eight slaughter bulls were transported by road in groups of eight for approximately 30 min, 3 h and 6 h in two replicates. Animal welfare during the transport process was assessed. Loadings and unloadings were evaluated with a scoring method. Heart rates were monitored at the farm before loading and during all stages of transport. Blood samples were taken from all animals a week before transport and at sticking and analysed in terms of haematological values: hematocrit, haemoglobin, red and white blood cells (RBC and WBC), differential WBC counts and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. Glucose, creatine kinase, lactate and cortisol were also determined. To evaluate differences in meat quality, pH and water-holding capacity (WHC) were measured 24 h after slaughter. The loading and unloading scores were very low (low stress) but were associated with changes in heart rate, especially loading. Animals recovered their resting heart rate during the journey in medium and long transports. On the other hand, animals transported around 30 min maintained an elevated heart rate during the whole journey. All animals showed a stress response with significantly higher (p < 0.05) levels of erythrocyte series, N:L ratio, glucose and lactate. Animals transported for 3 and 6 hours had significantly (P<0.05) higher levels of cortisol than controls or 30 min transports, without differences between control and the shortest journey. Different transport times did not influence meat quality. Under good conditions, the transport had a slight effect on welfare, meat quality or physiological parameters related with stress.

  8. Characterization of the Psychological, Physiological and EEG Profile of Acute Betel Quid Intoxication in Naïve Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Peter G.; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (P<0.001) above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05) and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01) and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05) in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05) relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug. PMID:21909371

  9. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Peter G; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (P<0.001) above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05) and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01) and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05) in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05) relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  10. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Peter G; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (P<0.001) above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05) and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01) and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05) in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05) relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug. PMID:21909371

  11. Co-species housing in mice and rats: effects on physiological and behavioral stress responsivity.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Saskia S; Lohavech, Dissaya; van't Klooster, José; Ohl, Frauke

    2010-03-01

    Co-species housing of mice and rats is common practice at most breeding facilities and research laboratories, neglecting the possible effects on the animals. We investigated physiological as well as behavioral stress-reactivity in mice and rats which were either derived from a co-species or species-separated housing condition at the breeding facilities. The animals were kept under the housing condition they were used to or assigned to the opposite one. Co-species housing had a significant impact on acute stress reactivity in mice and rats but only if they were used to this housing condition throughout their lives. Moreover, the stress-effects appeared to be long lasting. Assigning animals, derived from a species-separated housing condition, to co-species housing led to chronic stress in mice and affected experimental behavior of rats. Our findings led to the conclusion that co-species housing in mice and rats should be avoided, supporting the recommendations by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport (VWS). In order to support the interpretation, facilitate the reproducibility and comparability and subsequently the generalizability of experimental results, breeding facilities should at least provide detailed information about their housing conditions. PMID:20079742

  12. Physiological noise in murine solid tumours using T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging: a marker of tumour acute hypoxia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudelet, Christine; Ansiaux, Réginald; Jordan, Bénédicte F.; Havaux, Xavier; Macq, Benoit; Gallez, Bernard

    2004-08-01

    T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (T2*-weighted GRE MRI) was used to investigate spontaneous fluctuations in tumour vasculature non-invasively. FSa fibrosarcomas, implanted intramuscularly (i.m.) in the legs of mice, were imaged at 4.7 T, over a 30 min or 1 h sampling period. On a voxel-by-voxel basis, time courses of signal intensity were analysed using a power spectrum density (PSD) analysis to isolate voxels for which signal changes did not originate from Gaussian white noise or linear drift. Under baseline conditions, the tumours exhibited spontaneous signal fluctuations showing spatial and temporal heterogeneity over the tumour. Statistically significant fluctuations occurred at frequencies ranging from 1 cycle/3 min to 1 cycle/h. The fluctuations were independent of the scanner instabilities. Two categories of signal fluctuations were reported: (i) true fluctuations (TFV), i.e., sequential signal increase and decrease, and (ii) profound drop in signal intensity with no apparent signal recovery (SDV). No temporal correlation between tumour and contralateral muscle fluctuations was observed. Furthermore, treatments aimed at decreasing perfusion-limited hypoxia, such as carbogen combined with nicotinamide and flunarizine, decreased the incidence of tumour T2*-weighted GRE fluctuations. We also tracked dynamic changes in T2* using multiple GRE imaging. Fluctuations of T2* were observed; however, fluctuation maps using PSD analysis could not be generated reliably. An echo-time dependency of the signal fluctuations was observed, which is typical to physiological noise. Finally, at the end of T2*-weighted GRE MRI acquisition, a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed to characterize the microenvironment in which tumour signal fluctuations occurred in terms of vessel functionality, vascularity and microvascular permeability. Our data showed that TFV were predominantly located in regions with functional vessels, whereas SDV occurred in regions

  13. Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Elia, M; Cummings, J H

    2007-12-01

    short-chain fatty acids. The exact amounts and types of carbohydrate that reach the caecum are unknown, but are probably between 20 and 40 g/day in countries with 'westernized' diets, whereas they may reach 50 g/day where traditional staples are largely cereal or diets are high in fruit and vegetables. Non-starch polysaccharides clearly affect bowel habit and so, to a lesser extent, does resistant starch. However, the short-chain carbohydrates, which are also found in breast milk, have little if any laxative role, although do effect the balance of the flora. This latter property has led to the term 'prebiotic', which is defined as the capacity to increase selectively the numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli without growth of other genera. This now well-established physiological property has not so far led through to clear health benefits, but current studies are focused on their potential to prevent diarrhoeal illnesses, improve well-being and immunomodulation, particularly in atopic children and on increased calcium absorption.

  14. Laser blood irradiation effect on electrophysiological characteristics of acute coronary syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.; Doger-Guerrero, E.; Glebova, L.; Svirid, V.; Sirenko, Yuri

    1996-11-01

    This paper treats electro-physiological effects of the low- level laser irradiation of blood (LBI). The data presented here are based on the observation of almost 200 patients suffering from the acute disruption of coronary blood circulation, unstable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Statistically significant changes of the electro-physiological characteristics were observed in the group of 65 patients, treated by the LBI. In particular, the significant 6 percent extension of the effective refractory period was observed. The electrical situation threshold has increased by 20.6 percent. The significant changes of some other important electro-physiological characteristics were within the range of 5-15 percent. In this paper, the data obtained on the LBI effectiveness are compared also with the results obtained on 94 patients who in addition to the standard anti-angina therapy were treated by the autohaemo- transfusion performed simultaneously with the UV-light irradiation of the transfused blood. The results obtained demonstrate the significant positive effect of the low energy LBI. The electrophysiological data obtained have good correlation with observed anti-arrhythmic effect of the LBI. This is proved by the data obtained on the electro- physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system and by other clinical data on the experimental and control group of patients. In the course of this research the exact effect of the low level LBI was established. LBI led to the pronounced positive changes in electro-physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system of the patients, it also led to the pronounced anti-arrhythmic effect.

  15. Effects of Acute Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Anaerobic Performance in Trained Female Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jordan M; Smith, Keyona; Moyen, Nicole E; Binns, Ashley; Gray, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal beta-alanine (BA) supplementation can improve exercise performance in males through increases in carnosine; however, females experience greater relative increases in carnosine compared to males. This potentially allows females to benefit from acute BA doses; however, effects of an acute BA dose on performance in females remain unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate how an acute dose of 1.6 g BA affects anaerobic performance in female cyclists. Twelve females (age=26.6±1.3 y) volunteered to participate in this randomized, double-blind study. All participants completed two supplement trials: 1) Placebo=34 g dextrose and 2) BA=1.6 g BA + 34 g dextrose. Thirty-minutes after supplementation, participants performed three repeated Wingate cycling tests with 2 min of active rest after each. Fatigue index, mean power, and peak power were measured during each Wingate. Lactate, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, immediately after each Wingate, and after each active rest period. RPE significantly decreased (p<0.001) immediately following Wingates 1 and 2 and after each 2-min rest period for the BA trials; however, no differences were observed immediately after Wingate 3 (p>0.05). No significant supplementation effect was observed for any performance or physiological variable (p>0.05 for all variables). Findings suggest that an acute dose of BA (1.6 g) decreases RPE during anaerobic power activities in trained female cyclists.

  16. Effects of Exercise on Physiological and Psychological Variables in Cancer Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Timothy; Wilcox, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of aerobic exercise on physiological and psychological function in people rehabilitating from cancer treatment. Data on people participating in control, moderate-intensity exercise, and low-intensity exercise groups indicated that both exercise programs were equally effective in improving physiological function,…

  17. Cardiac power index, mean arterial pressure, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II are strong predictors of survival and response to revascularization in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Batric; Fay, Renaud; Cravoisy-Popovic, Aurelie; Levy, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Short-term prognostic factors in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) have previously been established using only hemodynamic parameters without taking into account classic intensive care unit (ICU) severity score or organ failure/support. The aim of this study was to assess early predictors of in-hospital mortality of a monocentric cohort of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by early CS. We retrospectively studied 85 consecutive patients with CS complicating acute myocardial infarction and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3 after percutaneous coronary revascularization. All patients were managed according to the following algorithm: initial resuscitation by a mobile medical unit or in-hospital critical care physician unit followed by percutaneous coronary revascularization and CS management in the ICU. Prehospital CS was diagnosed in 69% of cases, initially complicated by an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in 64% of cases. All patients were treated with vasopressors, 82% were ventilated, and 22% underwent extrarenal epuration. The 28-day mortality rate was 39%. Under multivariate analysis, initial cardiac power index, mean arterial pressure of less than 75 mmHg at hour 6 of ICU management, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II were independent predictive factors of in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, parameters directly related to cardiac performance and vascular response to vasopressors and admission Simplified Acute Physiology Score II are strong predictors of in-hospital mortality.

  18. [Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on microbial physiological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Li, Zong-Jun; Xu, Jian-Xing

    2005-08-01

    Physiological characterizations of Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 11994 and Escherichia coli ATCC 80739 have deeply changed by high hydrostatic pressure. The results showed that counts of both microbial strains decreased 7 log cfu at 400MPa, 10 min. Pressure treatments also resulted in change of Intracellular pH value, lowed membrane potential, have internal potassium filtered out, and decreased ATP concentration.

  19. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  20. Experiencing and Regulating Sadness: Physiological and Cognitive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jennifer L.; Demaree, Heath A.

    2009-01-01

    No prior study has examined the two most prominent response-focused regulation strategies (suppression and exaggeration) using a within-subjects design. Utilizing this design allows for a direct comparison of physiological patterns and cognitive impairment associated with such efforts. One hundred and nine participants were asked to view a series…

  1. Effects of acute stressors on nociception, adrenocortical responses and behavior of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Herskin, Mette S; Munksgaard, Lene; Ladewig, Jan

    2004-12-15

    Effects of acute stressors on behavioral, adrenocortical and nociceptive responses were examined in 24 dairy cows kept in tie stalls, using 15 min of social isolation in novel surroundings (ISOL), fixation by the head in the home stall (FIX) and the provision of novel neighbors/stall (NEIGH) as acute stressors as well as a control treatment (CON). Each cow was exposed to one treatment daily in a balanced order. All stressors led to signs of hypoalgesia as indicated by slower (P=0.01) and reduced responses (P<0.10) toward nociceptive laser stimulation after exposure to the acute stressors. ISOL, however, had stronger effects than FIX or NEIGH. ISOL or FIX led to increased plasma concentration of cortisol (P<0.001), whereas NEIGH or CON did not. The behavioral responses were affected by treatments as well, as shown by decreased rumination for all stressors (P<0.001) and a gradual increase in active avoidance from CON to NEIGH to FIX (P<0.001). Furthermore, exposure to NEIGH led to increased exploration (P<0.001), aggression (P<0.10) and self-grooming behavior (P<0.10) compared with the CON treatment. The results suggest that nociceptive changes are part of responses toward acute stress in dairy cows. The nociceptive changes, however, were not direct reflections of the adrenocortical or behavioral responses toward the acute stressors. Therefore, quantification of nociceptive changes, in combination with behavioral and physiological registrations, can be one way to broaden the range of biological systems, considered for the study of animals under stress, and thereby extend the understanding of responses toward acute stress in dairy cows. PMID:15581663

  2. Physiological effect of high, sustained +Gz forces on man.

    PubMed

    Leverett, S D; Burton, R R

    1979-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate physiological responses and possible tolerance to high sustained +Gz forces at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, using the 20-ft (6.10 m) radius Human Centrifuge. In the first study (A), 14 human volunteer subjects--fully protected with an anti-G suit and performing the M-1 or L-1 straining maneuver--were exposed to +Gz forces. These forces began at +6.5 Gz, and increased weekly in 0.5 G increments to +9.0 Gz, for a duration of 45 sec at each level. Physiological performance was based mostly on the subjects' ability to maintain clear vision during the 45 sec exposure. Of the 14 subjects, 9 were able to maintain vision and remain at the +9 Gz level for 45 sec. In the second study (B), 12 human volunteer subjects--also protected with anti-G suits and using the straining maneuvers--were exposed to levels of +1, 3, 6, and 8 Gz, for 60 sec at each level. Extensive physiologic parameters were recorded in order to detect objective criteria which could be used as determinants for a medical tolerance endpoint to the particular level of +Gz stress. In both studies, the reasons for stopping the runs at levels exceeding +7.5 Gz included: fatigue, cardiac arrhythmias, blackout, and one occurrence of ventricular tachycardia. Other physiological responses to the sustained +Gz stress (such as heart rate, arterial blood pressure, central venous blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, gastric pressure, and ankle venous pressure) did not furnish specific information that could be used as "physiological tolerance limit" criteria.

  3. Identifying Drug (Cocaine) Intake Events from Acute Physiological Response in the Presence of Free-living Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Syed Monowar; Ali, Amin Ahsan; Rahman, Mahbubur; Ertin, Emre; Epstein, David; Kennedy, Ashley; Preston, Kenzie; Umbricht, Annie; Chen, Yixin; Kumar, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    A variety of health and behavioral states can potentially be inferred from physiological measurements that can now be collected in the natural free-living environment. The major challenge, however, is to develop computational models for automated detection of health events that can work reliably in the natural field environment. In this paper, we develop a physiologically-informed model to automatically detect drug (cocaine) use events in the free-living environment of participants from their electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements. The key to reliably detecting drug use events in the field is to incorporate the knowledge of autonomic nervous system (ANS) behavior in the model development so as to decompose the activation effect of cocaine from the natural recovery behavior of the parasympathetic nervous system (after an episode of physical activity). We collect 89 days of data from 9 active drug users in two residential lab environments and 922 days of data from 42 active drug users in the field environment, for a total of 11,283 hours. We develop a model that tracks the natural recovery by the parasympathetic nervous system and then estimates the dampening caused to the recovery by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system due to cocaine. We develop efficient methods to screen and clean the ECG time series data and extract candidate windows to assess for potential drug use. We then apply our model on the recovery segments from these windows. Our model achieves 100% true positive rate while keeping the false positive rate to 0.87/day over (9+ hours/day of) lab data and to 1.13/day over (11+ hours/day of) field data. PMID:25531010

  4. Psycho-Physiological Effects of Television Viewing During Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Brian C.; Bassett, David R.; Strohacker, Kelley; Overstreet, Brittany S.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose that enjoyment is an important factor in the adoption and long-term maintenance of exercise. Television (TV) viewing is believed to be a highly enjoyed leisure-time activity, combining it with exercise may make for a more enjoyable exercise experience. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of television (TV) viewing on psychological and physiological variables during a moderate-intensity exercise bout. Twenty-eight insufficiently active (<150 minutes per week of moderate intensity PA and/or 75 minutes of vigorous PA) adults (Age: M = 47.4 ± 7.6 years) participated in this study. Each participant performed three separate 30-minute walking bouts on a motorized treadmill. During each bout, participants watched a program they selected (30-minute scripted show) (self-selected TV condition), a British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) nature program (standardized TV condition), or no TV program (no TV condition). Participants were unable to select the nature program as their self-selected program, as it was not a 30-minute scripted program. A Polar Heart Rate (HR) monitor and validated surveys on affect and enjoyment were used. Participants reported greater enjoyment of exercise for both self-selected and standardized TV conditions (97.1 ± 15.2 and 92.7 ± 15.2), compared to the No TV condition (77.5 ± 13.4, p < 0.001). The two TV conditions resulted in similar levels of focus on TV viewing (self-selected TV: 81.2 ± 19.7; standardized TV: 79.1 ± 14.2, p > 0.05) and dissociation from walking (self-selected TV: 38.1 ± 6.7 and standardized TV: 33.2 ± 3.9); they also resulted in more dissociation than the no TV condition (TV: 72.6 ± 5.6, p = 0.002). The findings indicate that TV viewing, regardless of whether the programming is self-selected or standardized, associates with greater enjoyment of exercise. Key points The use of TV viewing is a novel method of increasing enjoyment of exercise. TV viewing resulted in greater reported enjoyment of

  5. Physiological and psychological effects of a high dose of alcohol in young men and women.

    PubMed

    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago; Parra, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a high dose of alcohol on physiological and psychological parameters in young men and women with a previous history of alcohol consumption. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, state anxiety, attention, time estimation and manual dexterity were registered before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intake of alcohol (38.4 g) or a non-alcoholic beverage. Trait anxiety was registered in phase 2 only. The results showed that acute consumption of a high dose of alcohol: i) improves attention in men (although the performance of alcohol consumers was not better than that of non-consumers); ii) blocks the systolic blood pressure habituation phenomenon (observed in controls) in women; and iii) blocks the improvement in manual dexterity (associated with experience in non-consumers) in both sexes. On the other hand, male consumers had a lower heart rate than non-consumers, independently of the phase, while female consumers had a higher state anxiety and performed worse in attention than controls, also independently of the phase. These results help to understand the extent of performance impairment of different tasks produced by risk alcohol consumption in young men and women.

  6. Innocence and resisting confession during interrogation: effects on physiologic activity.

    PubMed

    Guyll, Max; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Lannin, Daniel G; Scherr, Kyle; Greathouse, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    Innocent suspects may not adequately protect themselves during interrogation because they fail to fully appreciate the danger of the situation. This experiment tested whether innocent suspects experience less stress during interrogation than guilty suspects, and whether refusing to confess expends physiologic resources. After experimentally manipulating innocence and guilt, 132 participants were accused and interrogated for misconduct, and then pressured to confess. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period (PEP) responses quantified stress reactions. As hypothesized, the innocent evidenced smaller stress responses to interrogation for SBP, DBP, HR, and RSA than did the guilty. Furthermore, innocents who refused to confess exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system activation, as evidenced by shorter PEPs, than did innocent or guilty confessors. These findings suggest that innocent suspects underestimate the threat of interrogation and that resisting pressures to confess can diminish suspects' physiologic resources and lead to false confessions. PMID:23914920

  7. Innocence and resisting confession during interrogation: effects on physiologic activity.

    PubMed

    Guyll, Max; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Lannin, Daniel G; Scherr, Kyle; Greathouse, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    Innocent suspects may not adequately protect themselves during interrogation because they fail to fully appreciate the danger of the situation. This experiment tested whether innocent suspects experience less stress during interrogation than guilty suspects, and whether refusing to confess expends physiologic resources. After experimentally manipulating innocence and guilt, 132 participants were accused and interrogated for misconduct, and then pressured to confess. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period (PEP) responses quantified stress reactions. As hypothesized, the innocent evidenced smaller stress responses to interrogation for SBP, DBP, HR, and RSA than did the guilty. Furthermore, innocents who refused to confess exhibited greater sympathetic nervous system activation, as evidenced by shorter PEPs, than did innocent or guilty confessors. These findings suggest that innocent suspects underestimate the threat of interrogation and that resisting pressures to confess can diminish suspects' physiologic resources and lead to false confessions.

  8. Medical legacy of Apollo. [physiological effects of stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Since Apollo crews enjoyed freedom of movement and experienced many of the same problems as earlier crews, confinement had to be ruled out in the etiology of space flight-related changes. Apollo was a mission of physiological firsts: the first inflight illnesses were reported, and a series of cardiac arrhythmias occurred. The most important physiological changes were decreased cardiovascular responsiveness, reduced red blood cell mass, and musculoskeletal deterioration. Vestibular-related problems were also noted for the first time. Crewmen lost weight as a result of a hypocaloric regimen inflight and a tendency to lose body tissue under hypogravic conditions. Aldosterone production increased causing some intracellular fluid loss. Very few of the crewmen experienced any psychological problems after Apollo.

  9. Geo-Effective Heliophysical Variations and Human Physiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2006-03-01

    A group of 86 volunteers was examined on each working day in autumn 2001 and in spring 2002. These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. There were 26 persons in the group on a drug treatment, mainly because of hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were registered. Pulse pressure was calculated. Data about subjective psycho-physiological complaints of the persons examined were also gathered. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and analyzed. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were as follows: 1) geomagnetic activity estimated by H-component of the local geomagnetic field and divided into five levels; 2) gender - males and females; 3) presence of medication. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors' levels. The average arterial blood pressure, pulse pressure and the percentage of the persons in the group with subjective psycho-physiological complaints were found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity. The maximal increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 10-11% and for pulse pressure 13.6%. Analyses revealed that females and persons on a medication were more sensitive to the increase of geomagnetic activity than respectively males and persons with no medication.

  10. Effects of manufactured nanomaterials on fishes: a target organ and body systems physiology approach.

    PubMed

    Handy, R D; Al-Bairuty, G; Al-Jubory, A; Ramsden, C S; Boyle, D; Shaw, B J; Henry, T B

    2011-10-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials (NM) are already used in consumer products and exposure modelling predicts releases of ng to low µg l(-1) levels of NMs into surface waters. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems, and therefore fishes, to manufactured NMs is inevitable. This review uses a physiological approach to describe the known effects of NMs on the body systems of fishes and to identify the internal target organs, as well as outline aspects of colloid chemistry relevant to fish biology. The acute toxicity data, suggest that the lethal concentration for many NMs is in the mg l(-1) range, and a number of sublethal effects have been reported at concentrations from c. 100 µg to 1 mg l(-1). Exposure to NMs in the water column can cause respiratory toxicity involving altered ventilation, mucus secretion and gill pathology. This may not lead, however, to overt haematological disturbances in the short term. The internal target organs include the liver, spleen and haematopoietic system, kidney, gut and brain; with toxic effects involving oxidative stress, ionoregulatory disturbances and organ pathologies. Some pathology appears to be novel for NMs, such as vascular injury in the brain of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with carbon nanotubes. A lack of analytical methods, however, has prevented the reporting of NM concentrations in fish tissues, and the precise uptake mechanisms across the gill or gut are yet to be elucidated. The few dietary exposure studies conducted show no effects on growth or food intake at 10-100 mg kg(-1) inclusions of NMs in the diet of O. mykiss, but there are biochemical disturbances. Early life stages are sensitive to NMs with reports of lethal toxicity and developmental defects. There are many data gaps, however, including how water quality alters physiological responses, effects on immunity and chronic exposure data at environmentally relevant concentrations. Overall, the data so far suggest that the manufactured NMs are not as toxic as some

  11. Physiological responses and evaluation of effects of BMI, smoking and drinking in high altitude acclimatization: a cohort study in Chinese Han young males.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian-Qian; Basang, Zhuoma; Cui, Chao-Ying; Li, Lei; Qian, Ji; Gesang, Quzhen; Yang, La; La, Zong; De, Yang; Dawa, Puchi; Qu, Ni; Suo, Qu; Dan, Zhen; Xiao, Duoji; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Jin, Li

    2013-01-01

    High altitude acclimatization is a series of physiological responses taking places when subjects go to altitude. Many factors could influence these processes, such as altitude, ascending speed and individual characteristics. In this study, based on a repeated measurement design of three sequential measurements at baseline, acute phase and chronic phase, we evaluated the effect of BMI, smoking and drinking on a number of physiological responses in high altitude acclimatization by using mixed model and partial least square path model on a sample of 755 Han Chinese young males. We found that subjects with higher BMI responses were reluctant to hypoxia. The effect of smoking was not significant at acute phase. But at chronic phase, red blood cell volume increased less while respiratory function increased more for smoking subjects compared with nonsmokers. For drinking subjects, red blood cell volume increased less than nondrinkers at both acute and chronic phases, while blood pressures increased more than nondrinkers at acute phase and respiratory function, red blood cell volume and oxygen saturation increased more than nondrinkers at chronic phase. The heavy and long-term effect of smoking, drinking and other factors in high altitude acclimatization needed to be further studied.

  12. Effects of an acute seizure on associative learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Holley, Andrew J; Lugo, Joaquin N

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that inducing several seizures or continuous seizures in neonatal or adult rats results in impairments in learning and memory. The impact of a single acute seizure on learning and memory has not been investigated in mice. In this study, we exposed adult 129SvEvTac mice to the inhalant flurothyl until a behavioral seizure was induced. Our study consisted of 4 experiments where we examined the effect of one seizure before or after delay fear conditioning. We also included a separate cohort of animals that was tested in the open field after a seizure to rule out changes in locomotor activity influencing the results of memory tests. Mice that had experienced a single seizure 1h, but not 6h, prior to training showed a significant impairment in associative conditioning to the conditioned stimulus when compared with controls 24h later. There were no differences in freezing one day later for animals that experienced a single seizure 1h after associative learning. We also found that an acute seizure reduced activity levels in an open-field test 2h but not 24h later. These findings suggest that an acute seizure occurring immediately before learning can have an effect on the recall of events occurring shortly after that seizure. In contrast, an acute seizure occurring shortly after learning appears to have little or no effect on long-term memory. These findings have implications for understanding the acute effects of seizures on the acquisition of new knowledge.

  13. The toxicity and physiological effects of copper on the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Grosell, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the freshwater pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis is extremely sensitive to metals (Co, Ni, Pb) in chronic exposures. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute and chronic sensitivity of L. stagnalis to Cu and investigate the underlying mechanism(s) of toxic action. A 96-h LC50 of 31μg L(-1) Cu was estimated indicating L. stagnalis was moderately acutely sensitive to Cu relative to other aquatic organisms. However, in a 30-day chronic exposure using juvenile snails an EC20 of 1.8μg L(-1) Cu was estimated for snail growth making L. stagnalis the most sensitive organism tested to date for Cu. Hardness-based and BLM-based water quality criteria for Cu at the water quality conditions used in this study were 7.8 and 1.5μg L(-1), respectively, indicating L. stagnalis is significantly under-protected by hardness-based WQC. Investigations into the mechanism(s) of toxic action for Cu were conducted on young adult snails necessitating higher Cu exposures. Exposure to Cu at 12μg L(-1) resulted in no detectable effects on hemolymph osmolality, net Ca(2+) uptake, titratable acid excretion, or ammonia excretion. Exposure to 48μg L(-1) Cu was shown to significantly reduce (91%) net Ca(2+) uptake which is strongly correlated with shell deposition and corresponding snail growth. Snails exposed to 48μg L(-1) Cu also exhibited reduced ammonia excretion, a marked hemolymph acidosis, and a compensatory increase in titratable acid excretion. The reduction in net Ca(2+) uptake was hypothesized to be a secondary effect of Cu-induced inhibition of carbonic anhydrase, but no reduction in carbonic anhydrase activity was detected. Overall, it remains unclear whether inhibition of Ca(2+) uptake is a direct result of Cu exposure or, along with the other observed physiological effects, is secondary to an unidentified primary mode of toxic action. Given the hypersensitivity of L. stagnalis to Cu, further study into the

  14. Effect of Selected "Desirable Difficulty" Learning Strategies on the Retention of Physiology Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of interleaving and expanding retrieval on the retention of physiology concepts. Participants (n = 189) read and then reread 30 immunology and reproductive physiology passages. Half of the participants read and then reread the passages in a blocked manner (e.g., a[subscript 1]a[subscript…

  15. DEET insect repellent: effects on thermoregulatory sweating and physiological strain.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Ely, Brett R; Palombo, Laura J; Sawka, Michael N

    2011-12-01

    Insect repellents (e.g. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET) applied to the skin can potentially interfere with sweat production and evaporation, thus increasing physiological strain during exercise-heat stress. The purpose was to determine the impact of 33% DEET lotion on sweating responses, whole body thermoregulation and thermal sensation during walking exercise in the heat. Nine volunteers (2 females, 7 males; 22.1 ± 4.9 years; 176.4 ± 10.0 cm; 79.9 ± 12.9 kg) completed 5 days of heat acclimation (45°C, 20% rh; 545 watts; 100 min/day) and performed three trials: control (CON); DEET applied to forearm (DEET(LOC), 12 cm(2)); and DEET applied to ~13% body surface area (DEET(WB),). Trials consisted of 30 min walking (645 watts) in 40°C, 20% rh environment. Local sweat rate (SR), onset and skin wettedness were measured in DEET(LOC), and heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (T (re)), skin temperature (T (sk)), RPE, and thermal sensations (TS) were measured during DEET(WB). No differences (p > 0.05) were observed between DEET(LOC) versus CON, respectively, for steady state SR (1.89 ± 0.44 vs. 2.09 ± 0.84 mg/cm(2)/min), SR area under the curve (46.9 ± 11.7 vs. 55.0 ± 20.8 mg/cm(2)), sweating onset, or skin wettedness. There were no differences (p > 0.05) in HR, T (re), T (sk), Physiological Strain Index, RPE or TS between DEET(WB) versus CON. DEET did not impact measures of local forearm sweating and when applied according to military doctrine, did not adversely impact physiological responses during exercise-heat stress. DEET can be safely worn during military, occupational and recreational activities in hot, insect infested environments.

  16. The physiological effects of cycling on tandem and single bicycles

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, J; Bacharach, D; Burke, E; Langenfeld, M; Snyder, A

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this field study was to compare the physiological responses from cycling on a tandem road bicycle to those from cycling on a single road bicycle. Methods: Nine pairs of experienced, recreational tandem cyclists rode a tandem or their single bicycle for 5 min at each velocity of 19.3, 22.5, 25.8, and 29.0 kph on a flat, paved surface. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and lactic acid (LA) data were collected after each interval. Results: Riding a tandem resulted in lower HR, RPE, and LA mean values across the four velocities compared to the single bicycle. Mean (SD) HR, RPE, and LA for tandem and single bicycles were 126 (20.7) v 142 (20.1) bpm, 10.1 (1.7) v 11.3 (2.6), and 1.46 (1.0) mM/L v 2.36 (1.7) mM/L, respectively. No position differences were observed between the captain and stoker (front and rear positions) when both were on the tandem. Stokers had significantly lower HR, LA, and RPE values when they rode a tandem compared to a single bicycle. No statistical differences were observed between bicycles for the captains. When on the single bicycle, captains exhibited significantly lower HR, RPE, and LA values than stokers. Conclusion: Cycling on a tandem resulted in lower physiological stress than when cycling at the same velocity on a single bicycle. Cyclists were able to ride from 4.8–8.0 kph faster on a tandem than on a single bicycle at similar physiological stress. Apparently, stokers can add to power output on a tandem without adding significantly to wind resistance. PMID:12547743

  17. Physiological effects of light on the human circadian pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanahan, T. L.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The physiology of the human circadian pacemaker and its influence and on the daily organization of sleep, endocrine and behavioral processes is an emerging interest in science and medicine. Understanding the development, organization and fundamental properties underlying the circadian timing system may provide insight for the application of circadian principles to the practice of clinical medicine, both diagnostically (interpretation of certain clinical tests are dependent on time of day) and therapeutically (certain pharmacological responses vary with the time of day). The light-dark cycle is the most powerful external influence acting upon the human circadian pacemaker. It has been shown that timed exposure to light can both synchronize and reset the phase of the circadian pacemaker in a predictable manner. The emergence of detectable circadian rhythmicity in the neonatal period is under investigation (as described elsewhere in this issue). Therefore, the pattern of light exposure provided in the neonatal intensive care setting has implications. One recent study identified differences in both amount of sleep time and weight gain in infants maintained in a neonatal intensive care environment that controlled the light-dark cycle. Unfortunately, neither circadian phase nor the time of day has been considered in most clinical investigations. Further studies with knowledge of principles characterizing the human circadian timing system, which governs a wide array of physiological processes, are required to integrate these findings with the practice of clinical medicine.

  18. Cognitive Imagery and Physiological Feedback Relaxation Protocols Applied to Clinically Tense Young Adults: A Comparison of State, Trait, and Physiological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schandler, Steven L.; Dana, Edward R.

    1983-01-01

    Examined changes in tension behaviors and reductions in physiological tension associated with cognitive imagery and electromyographic biofeedback relaxation procedures in 45 college students. Results showed: imagery significantly reduced state anxiety. Self-rest was less effective; biofeedback greatly reduced physiological tension, but not state…

  19. Effect of hysterectomy on anorectal and urethrovesical physiology.

    PubMed

    Prior, A; Stanley, K; Smith, A R; Read, N W

    1992-02-01

    To investigate whether vaginal or total abdominal hysterectomy is associated with changes in anorectal and urethrovesical physiology, 26 women were studied before operation and six weeks and six months afterwards. The results showed a postoperative increase in both rectal and vesical sensitivity (p less than 0.01). Similar results were observed irrespective of the type of hysterectomy. No significant changes in rectal or bladder compliance were noted, and anal pressure and urethral pressure and length were unchanged after surgery. Whole gut transit was not affected by hysterectomy. Urinary symptoms occurred de novo in 6/26 women and gastrointestinal symptoms in 2/26 women. These results show that significant changes in rectal and vesical sensitivity occur after hysterectomy for benign disease. These persist for at least six months postoperatively but are not always associated with development of urinary or gastrointestinal symptoms.

  20. Transcendental medication and progressive relaxation: their physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Throll, D A

    1982-07-01

    Measured oxygen consumption, tidal volume, respiration rate, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure before the Ss (N = 39) learned Transcendental Meditation (TM: N = 21) or Jacobson's Progressive Relaxation (PR: N = 18). Ss were tested immediately after learning either technique and again 5, 10, and 15 weeks later. While there were no significant differences between groups for any of the physiological variables at pretest, the TM group displayed more significant decreases during meditation and during activity than did the PR group. Both groups displayed significantly lowered metabolic rates during TM or PR. The generally more significant and comprehensive results for mediators were explained primarily in terms of the greater amount of time the TM group spent on their technique, plus the differences in the two techniques themselves. Several avenues for future research are discussed.

  1. Physiological effects of fast oscillating magnetic field gradients.

    PubMed

    Budinger, T F; Fischer, H; Hentschel, D; Reinfelder, H E; Schmitt, F

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the physiological thresholds of neuromuscular stimulation relevant to very fast NMR imaging studies that use gradient switching at frequencies of 1-2 kHz and a maximum magnetic field of up to 10 mT, a series of studies were done with human volunteers using an experimental echo planar gradient coil set. The threshold for induction of localized and momentary sensations in the human back and abdomen for 10 subjects is 60 T/s for sinusoidally oscillating magnetic fields at 1.27 kHz. The threshold relates to an E field of 6 V/m and is shown to vary with number of oscillations and frequency in accord with theory. Using a simple model of E field induction, the threshold for stimulation of cardiac electrical events should be greater than 4 times this value.

  2. ECOMORPH: A modelling approach to the physiological effects of contaminant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, A.J.A.; Soares, A.M.V.M.; Baird, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Daphnia magna is both an ubiquitous filter feeder in freshwater ecosystems and a standard organism in ecotoxicology. Physiological effects of toxicants under chronic exposure have been extensively documented for Daphnia in the literature. In ecotoxicology, the usual individual test endpoints are growth, reproduction and survival. These are not always the direct result of exposure to a contaminant although they can be a side-effect of feeding depression. Thus, food deprivation experiments were used to identify and model key physiological processes under contaminant exposure. Insight from these experiments was used to develop an individual physiological model. The model was fully validated for D. magna using several classes of toxicants (including metals and organics). The model describes Daphnia growth, moulting, and reproduction dynamically while incorporating direct, non-lethal effects of toxicants. This ECOMORPH model is currently being developed for other organisms using the same structural framework, and can be used to predict the physiological effects of contaminant exposure.

  3. REPRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AQUATIC EXPOSURE TO TRENBOLONE, AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive and Physiological Effects of Aquatic Exposure to Trenbolone, an Environmental Androgen (Abstract). To be presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: Changing Environmental Awareness: Societal Concerns and Scientific...

  4. Physiological, volatile, and SEM surface effects resulting from cutting and dipping treatments in cantaloupe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research examined sanitation treatments on cut cantaloupe tissue, to deliver germicidal and food safety effects; however, an apparent compromise between volatile loss and treatment/sampling efficacy appeared. Subsequently, a physiological and volatile reassessment of thinly sliced tissue v...

  5. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  6. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  7. Is racecadotril effective for acute diarrhea in children? -First update.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Josefina; Cifuentes, Lorena

    2016-05-06

    This article updates the December 2015 Living FRISBEE (Living FRISBEE: Living FRIendly Summary of the Body of Evidence using Epistemonikos), based on the detection of two systematic reviews not identified in the previous version. Gastroenteritis or acute watery diarrhea is usually a self-limited disease, but it is still associated to substantial healthcare costs and remains a frequent demand for medical care. Racecadotril, an intestinal enkephalinase inhibitor, has been used as treatment because it would decrease the duration of acute diarrhea and fluid loss. However there is still no evidence supporting its routine use. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified five systematic reviews including nine randomized trials relevant for our question. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded racecadotril probably reduces the duration of acute diarrhea in pediatric patients, without increasing adverse effects.

  8. Is racecadotril effective for acute diarrhea in children? -First update.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Josefina; Cifuentes, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    This article updates the December 2015 Living FRISBEE (Living FRISBEE: Living FRIendly Summary of the Body of Evidence using Epistemonikos), based on the detection of two systematic reviews not identified in the previous version. Gastroenteritis or acute watery diarrhea is usually a self-limited disease, but it is still associated to substantial healthcare costs and remains a frequent demand for medical care. Racecadotril, an intestinal enkephalinase inhibitor, has been used as treatment because it would decrease the duration of acute diarrhea and fluid loss. However there is still no evidence supporting its routine use. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified five systematic reviews including nine randomized trials relevant for our question. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded racecadotril probably reduces the duration of acute diarrhea in pediatric patients, without increasing adverse effects. PMID:26731112

  9. Studying the Spatial Distribution of Physiological Effects on BOLD Signals Using Ultrafast fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yunjie; Frederick, Blaise deB.

    2014-01-01

    The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal in functional MRI (fMRI) reflects both neuronal activations and global physiological fluctuations. These physiological fluctuations can be attributed to physiological low frequency oscillations (pLFOs), respiration, and cardiac pulsation. With typical TR values, i.e., 2 s or longer, the high frequency physiological signals (i.e., from respiration and cardiac pulsation) are aliased into the low frequency band, making it hard to study the individual effect of these physiological processes on BOLD. Recently developed multiband EPI sequences, which offer full brain coverage with extremely short TR values (400 ms or less) allow these physiological signals to be spectrally separated. In this study, we applied multiband resting state scans on nine healthy participants with TR = 0.4 s. The spatial distribution of each physiological process on BOLD fMRI was explored using their spectral features and independent component analysis (ICA). We found that the spatial distributions of different physiological processes are distinct. First, cardiac pulsation affects mostly the base of the brain, where high density of arteries exists. Second, respiration affects prefrontal and occipital areas, suggesting the motion associated with breathing might contribute to the noise. Finally, and most importantly, we found that the effects of pLFOs dominated many prominent ICA components, which suggests that, contrary to the popular belief that aliased cardiac and respiration signals are the main physiological noise source in BOLD fMRI, pLFOs may be the most influential physiological signals. Understanding and measuring these pLFOs are important for denoising and accurately modeling BOLD signals. PMID:24744722

  10. Acute Achilles tendinopathy: effect of pain control on leg stiffness.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, J; Kokalj, A

    2014-03-01

    Tendinopathies are a major cause of disability in the athletic population; the main purpose of the treatment of these injuries is to reduce pain and improve function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NSAIDs on leg stiffness of patients suffering acute unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. Twenty-eight eligible male athletes (aged 39.1 ± 10.3 y) suffering acute Achilles tendinopathy were treated with etoricoxib (120 mg oral once daily) during 7 days. Pain (100-mm visual analogue scale-VAS), analgesic effect (percentage of 100-mm VAS reduction), and leg stiffness were evaluated pre- and post- anti-inflammatory treatment. Results of this study showed that over the 7-day treatment period, etoricoxib provided significant relief of Achilles tendon pain (VAS) compared to that experienced at baseline: 54.5 ± 21.6 and 24.5 ± 24.8, respectively (p<0.001). Leg stiffness showed a significant improvement after one-week NSAID therapy: LSR 0.89 ± 0.1 vs. 0.97 ± 0.1; (p=0.02). In conclusion, findings of this study demonstrated that patients suffering acute unilateral Achilles tendinopathy increased their leg stiffness of the affected side after oral anti-inflammatory therapy. Effective control of tendon pain in the acute phase of such sports-related injuries may contribute to improve capabilities associated with high performance like leg stiffness. PMID:24583548

  11. Young children's reasoning about the effects of emotional and physiological states on academic performance.

    PubMed

    Amsterlaw, Jennifer; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed young children's understanding of the effects of emotional and physiological states on cognitive performance. Five, 6-, 7-year-olds, and adults (N= 96) predicted and explained how children experiencing a variety of physiological and emotional states would perform on academic tasks. Scenarios included: (a) negative and positive emotions, (b) negative and positive physiological states, and (c) control conditions. All age groups understood the impairing effects of negative emotions and physiological states. Only 7-year-olds, however, showed adult-like reasoning about the potential enhancing effects of positive internal states and routinely cited cognitive mechanisms to explain how internal states affect performance. These results shed light on theory-of-mind development and also have significance for children's everyday school success.

  12. Modeling Variable Phanerozoic Oxygen Effects on Physiology and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Jew, Corey J; Wegner, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    Geochemical approximation of Earth's atmospheric O2 level over geologic time prompts hypotheses linking hyper- and hypoxic atmospheres to transformative events in the evolutionary history of the biosphere. Such correlations, however, remain problematic due to the relative imprecision of the timing and scope of oxygen change and the looseness of its overlay on the chronology of key biotic events such as radiations, evolutionary innovation, and extinctions. There are nevertheless general attributions of atmospheric oxygen concentration to key evolutionary changes among groups having a primary dependence upon oxygen diffusion for respiration. These include the occurrence of Devonian hypoxia and the accentuation of air-breathing dependence leading to the origin of vertebrate terrestriality, the occurrence of Carboniferous-Permian hyperoxia and the major radiation of early tetrapods and the origins of insect flight and gigantism, and the Mid-Late Permian oxygen decline accompanying the Permian extinction. However, because of variability between and error within different atmospheric models, there is little basis for postulating correlations outside the Late Paleozoic. Other problems arising in the correlation of paleo-oxygen with significant biological events include tendencies to ignore the role of blood pigment affinity modulation in maintaining homeostasis, the slow rates of O2 change that would have allowed for adaptation, and significant respiratory and circulatory modifications that can and do occur without changes in atmospheric oxygen. The purpose of this paper is thus to refocus thinking about basic questions central to the biological and physiological implications of O2 change over geological time. PMID:27343111

  13. Physiology of invasion: cane toads are constrained by thermal effects on physiological mechanisms that support locomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that constrain the invasiveness of introduced animals is essential for managing invasions and for predicting their limits. In most vertebrate species, the capacity for invasion relies upon the physiological systems that support locomotion, and oxygen transport and metabolism may become limiting as environmental temperatures increase as predicted by the oxygen limitation hypothesis. Here we test the oxygen limitation hypothesis and propose the alternative hypothesis that within-individual plasticity will compensate for thermal variation. We show that during exercise in the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) oxygen transport by the cardiovascular system was maximised in warm-acclimated toads at high (30°C) temperatures, and that oxygen content of arterial blood was not affected by temperature. Resting oxygen consumption remained stable across a 10°C temperature range (20-30°C) when toads were allowed to acclimate, so that there was no increase in resting oxygen demand that could lead to a decrease in aerobic scope at high temperatures. Additionally, temperature acclimation had no effect on arterial-venous differences in oxygen partial pressures. Toads relied more on glycolytic ATP production at low temperatures to support locomotor activity. Mitochondrial capacities (citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities) were greatest at warmer temperatures. Interestingly, the metabolic cost of exercise increased at low temperatures. In contradiction to predictions by the oxygen limitation hypothesis, aerobic performance was not limited by high temperatures. On the contrary, the relatively slow advance of cane toads to cooler climates can be explained by the constraints of low temperatures on the physiological systems supporting locomotion. It is likely that human-induced global warming will facilitate invasions of environments that are currently too cool to support cane toads.

  14. Acute effects of alcohol on memory: impact of emotional context and serial position.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennie; Brignell, Catherine M; Dhiman, Sharinjeet K; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2010-03-01

    Although the amnestic effects of alcohol in humans are well known, its effects on emotional memory are unclear. In this study, using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, we examine narrative emotional episodic memory in healthy human female volunteers (n=32) who received either a single dose of alcohol (0.6g/kg), or a placebo and then viewed neutral story elements presented in either a neutral or emotional context. Memory was tested for gist and detail of the neutral elements 3days later in a surprise recognition test. Since alcohol modulates GABAergic neurotransmission and may exert its effects on emotion through the limbic system, we predicted that acute alcohol treatment would reduce the expected emotional memory-advantage for gist, leaving detail memory relatively unaffected. Furthermore, given previous findings showing that 'primacy' memory is enhanced by physiological arousal, we predicted that reduced arousal produced by alcohol would have the opposite effect and impair primacy memory relative to the middle or 'recency' sections of the narrative. Emotional arousal was expected to oppose this effect, so impaired primacy memory following alcohol was only expected in the neutral version of the narrative. Although there was a main effect of story phase (though not of story version), contrary to expectations, alcohol impaired primacy memory for emotionally encoded neutral material. The results suggest that under certain circumstances emotional context or physiological arousal make memories labile and susceptible to disruption through pharmacological manipulation during encoding.

  15. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations.

  16. Differential effects of predator stress and the antidepressant tianeptine on physiological plasticity in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Vouimba, Rose-Marie; Muñoz, Carmen; Diamond, David M

    2006-03-01

    Stress can profoundly affect memory and alter the functioning of the hippocampus and amygdala. Studies have also shown that the antidepressant tianeptine can block the effects of stress on hippocampal and amygdala morphology and synaptic plasticity. We examined the effects of acute predator stress and tianeptine on long-term potentiation (LTP; induced by 100 pulses in 1 s) and primed burst potentiation (PB; a low threshold form of LTP induced by only five physiologically patterned pulses) in CA1 and in the basolateral nucleus (BLA) of the amygdala in anesthetized rats. Predator stress blocked the induction of PB potentiation in CA1 and enhanced LTP in BLA. Tianeptine blocked the stress-induced suppression of PB potentiation in CA1 without affecting the stress-induced enhancement of LTP in BLA. In addition, tianeptine administered under non-stress conditions enhanced PB potentiation in the hippocampus and LTP in the amygdala. These findings support the hypothesis that acute stress impairs hippocampal functioning and enhances amygdaloid functioning. The work also provides insight into the actions of tianeptine with the finding that it enhanced electrophysiological measures of plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala under stress, as well as non-stress, conditions.

  17. Ecological and physiological/toxicological effects of petroleum on aquatic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Dieter, M.P.; Tait, H.D.; Hall, C.

    1979-01-01

    The physiological and ecological effects of oil on waterbirds were examined in a series of laboratory and field experiments. Chemical methodology was developed in support of these studies. Research conducted from 1 July 1975 to 30 September 1978 by the US Fish and Wildlife Service about the effects of petroleum on aquatic birds is summarized. The following assessments were made: effects of oiling on hatchability of eggs; effects of oil ingestion on physiological condition and survival of birds; effects of oil ingestion on reproduction in birds; accumulation and loss of oil by birds; and development of analytical methods for identification and quantification of oil breakdown products in tissues and eggs of ducks.

  18. Anatomy and physiology for nursing students: is problem-based learning effective?

    PubMed

    Mayner, Lidia; Gillham, David; Sansoni, Julita

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether problem-based learning (PBL) was an effective strategy for nursing students learning anatomy and physiology. Anatomy and physiology are subject areas that have posed long standing difficulty for nursing students. Since anatomy and physiology underpin clinical decision making it is important that nursing students are able to understand and retain this knowledge and apply it to practice. Problem-based learning offers potential advantages for teaching anatomy and physiology as clinical cases can provide the impetus for student problem solving. This project trialled a simple PBL scenario and investigated students' response to the task of problem solving in a laboratory setting adapted to simulate a hospital ward. The study found students learn better, retain the knowledge and merge theory with simulated practice when a PBL teaching mode is used. While PBL was effective, blended, web based and hybrid PBL models warrant investigation.

  19. Physiologic benefits of pulsatile perfusion during mechanical circulatory support for the treatment of acute and chronic heart failure in adults.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yulong; Karkhanis, Tushar; Wang, Shigang; Rider, Alan; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; El Banayosy, Aly; Undar, Akif

    2010-07-01

    A growing population experiencing heart failure (100,000 patients/year), combined with a shortage of donor organs (less than 2200 hearts/year), has led to increased and expanded use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices. MCS devices have successfully improved clinical outcomes, which are comparable with heart transplantation and result in better 1-year survival than optimal medical management therapies. The quality of perfusion provided during MCS therapy may play an important role in patient outcomes. Despite demonstrated physiologic benefits of pulsatile perfusion, continued use or development of pulsatile MCS devices has been widely abandoned in favor of continuous flow pumps owing to the large size and adverse risks events in the former class, which pose issues of thrombogenic surfaces, percutaneous lead infection, and durability. Next-generation MCS device development should ideally implement designs that offer the benefits of rotary pump technology while providing the physiologic benefits of pulsatile end-organ perfusion.

  20. Psychological and physiological evaluation of emotional effects of a perfume in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Abriat, A; Barkat, S; Bensafi, M; Rouby, C; Fanchon, C

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, we familiarized menopausal women with a pleasant smell in the skin care products, they used for 1 week and assessed whether their mood and emotions improved using behavioural and physiological tools. Eventually, we studied the effects of inhaling the familiar fragrance on physiological response of the subjects. An anhedonia questionnaire was used to distinguish the effects of the test products according to low vs. high score of anhedonia. Familiarization with the fragrance induced a modification of some physiological parameters, reflecting a relaxing effect, and these unconscious effects paralleled the conscious positive effects on mood recorded during the familiarization phase; it appeared that the effects were more prominent in subjects with higher scores of anhedonia. These results suggest that the pleasant smell of a skin care product contributes to the quality of life in a population of menopausal women with low easiness to experience pleasure.

  1. Effect of heat on firefighters' work performance and physiology.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rodney; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-10-01

    Wildland firefighters often perform their duties under both hot and mild ambient temperatures. However, the direct impact of different ambient temperatures on firefighters' work performance has not been quantified. This study compared firefighters' work performance and physiology during simulated wildland firefighting work in hot (HOT; 32°C, 43% RH) and temperate (CON; 19°C, 56% RH) conditions. Firefighters (n=38), matched and allocated to either the CON (n=18) or HOT (n=20) condition, performed simulated self-paced wildland fire suppression tasks (e.g., hose rolling/dragging, raking) in firefighting clothing for six hours, separated by dedicated rest breaks. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area). Core temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Tsk), and heart rate were recorded continuously throughout the protocol. Urine output was measured before and during the protocol, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. Ad libitum fluid intake was also recorded. There were no differences in overall work output between conditions for any physical task. Heart rate was higher in the HOT (55±2% HRmax) compared to the CON condition (51±2% HRmax) for the rest periods between bouts, and for the static hose hold task (69±3% HRmax versus 65±3% HRmax). Tc and Tsk were 0.3±0.1°C and 3.1±0.2°C higher in the HOT compared to the CON trial. Both pre- and within- shift fluid intake were increased two-fold in the heat, and participants in the heat recorded lower USG results than their CON counterparts. There was no difference between the CON and HOT conditions in terms of their work performance, and firefighters in both experimental groups increased their work output over the course of the simulated shift. Though significantly hotter, participants in the heat also managed to avoid excessive cardiovascular and thermal strain, likely aided by the frequent rest breaks in the protocol, and through doubling their fluid intake. Therefore

  2. Green perspectives for public health: a narrative review on the physiological effects of experiencing outdoor nature.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Schönbauer, Regina; Cervinka, Renate

    2014-05-19

    Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological stress reactions, was

  3. The effects of acute and chronic stress on diabetes control.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2012-10-23

    Stress is an important contributor to pathological conditions in humans. Hormonal changes that occur during acute and chronic stress situations can affect glucose homeostasis in both healthy people and in those with diabetes. Several studies have reported a negative effect of acute stress on maintenance of blood glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The effect of stress on glycemic control in people with diabetes may be related to a direct effect of stress hormones on blood glucose levels and an indirect effect of stress on patient behaviors related to diabetes treatment and monitoring and meal and exercise plans. In contrast, there is no clear evidence that stressful life events promote the development of diabetes in children or in adults. Stress hyperglycemia, the development of hyperglycemia during acute illness, represents another interesting connection between the stress system and glucose homeostasis. A large body of evidence supports an association between stress hyperglycemia and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Interestingly, there is some evidence supporting a beneficial effect of insulin in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units. Finally, stress can influence the development of type 2 diabetes indirectly by promoting obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23092890

  4. Effect of acute and fractionated irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Seolhwa; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Insub; Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun

    2012-08-08

    Ionizing radiation has become an inevitable health concern emanating from natural sources like space travel and from artificial sources like medical therapies. In general, exposure to ionizing radiation such as γ-rays is one of the methods currently used to stress specific model systems. In this study, we elucidated the long-term effect of acute and fractionated irradiation on DCX-positive cells in hippocampal neurogenesis. Groups of two-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at acute dose (5 Gy) or fractional doses (1 Gy × 5 times and 0.5 Gy × 10 times). Six months after exposure to γ-irradiation, the hippocampus was analyzed. Doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry was used to measure changes of neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The number of DCX-positive cells was significantly decreased in all acute and fractionally irradiation groups. The long-term changes in DCX-positive cells triggered by radiation exposure showed a very different pattern to the short-term changes which tended to return to the control level in previous studies. Furthermore, the number of DCX-positive cells was relatively lower in the acute irradiation group than the fractional irradiation groups (approximately 3.6-fold), suggesting the biological change on hippocampal neurogenesis was more susceptible to being damaged by acute than fractional irradiation. These results suggest that the exposure to γ-irradiation as a long-term effect can trigger biological responses resulting in the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  5. Mercury: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of mercury compound contamination of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of mercury pollution on the environment. The possible sources of mercury contamination in sea water are identified. The effects of mercury on food sources, as represented by swordfish, are analyzed. The physiological effects of varying concentrations of mercury are reported. Emphasis is placed on the situation existing in the Hawaiian Islands.

  6. Acute IOP elevation with scleral suction: effects on retrobulbar haemodynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, A; Joos, K; Kay, M; Evans, D; Shetty, R; Sponsel, W E; Martin, B

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Mechanical and vascular factors may both contribute to glaucoma. This study investigated the relation of mechanical to vascular factors by examining how acute IOP elevation altered flow velocities in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries. METHODS: IOP was elevated from a baseline near 14 to approximately 45 mm Hg using suction ophthalmodynamometry. During recovery from scleral suction, IOP fell to near 8 mm Hg. At each IOP, peak systolic and end diastolic velocities (PSV and EDV) were measured in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries using colour Doppler imaging (Siemens Quantum 2000). Eleven healthy people served as subjects. RESULTS: Acute elevation in IOP had no effect upon PSV, EDV, or the derived resistance index in the ophthalmic artery: flow velocities in this vessel were identical at IOP of 8 mm Hg or 45 mm Hg. In contrast, in the central retinal artery, PSV and EDV fell, and the resistance index rose, in steady progression as IOP was acutely elevated (each p < 0.01). At IOP of 45 mm Hg, EDV was virtually absent and the resistance index was very nearly 1.0. CONCLUSION: Ophthalmic arterial haemodynamics are unrelated to acute fluctuations of the IOP over a wide range, suggesting that ocular hypertension itself cannot induce vascular dysfunction in this artery. In contrast, flow velocities in the central retinal artery were highly IOP dependent, implying that haemodynamic and mechanical factors are closely linked in this vascular bed. PMID:9059269

  7. Effect of acute exposure to low environmental calcium on respiration and locomotion in Lymnaea stagnalis (L.).

    PubMed

    Dalesman, Sarah; Lukowiak, Ken

    2010-05-01

    Environmental calcium is a major factor affecting the distribution of freshwater gastropods. Whilst the effects on growth and morphology are fairly well understood, little is known about how calcium availability affects other aspects of gastropod biology. Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) is considered a calciphile and exhibits reduced growth and survival in environments containing less than 20 mg l(-1) Ca(2+). Many freshwater systems exhibit fluctuations in calcium concentration over time: where calcium levels are normally high there may be periods of low [Ca(2+)], for example following periods of flooding. Here we examined the effects of acute periods of low (20 mg l(-1)) environmental calcium on the physiology and behaviour of L. stagnalis, specifically measuring how locomotion and respiration differ between high calcium (80 mg l(-1)) and low calcium (20 mg l(-1)) environments. We found that in a low calcium environment crawling speed is reduced, and that this coincides with an increase in cutaneous respiration, indicating that the increased metabolic demands of calcium acquisition at low [Ca(2+)] reduce the energy available for locomotion. Conversely we found a decrease in aerial respiration in hypoxic conditions in the low calcium relative to the high calcium environment. In conclusion, we found that acute exposure to low environmental calcium has a highly significant effect on locomotion and respiration, which may have consequences for snail fitness when no morphological effects are apparent.

  8. Evaluation of the acute cardiac and central nervous system effects of the fluorocarbon trifluoromethane in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, C.A.; Goldberg, D.A.; Ewing, J.R.; Butt, S.S.; Gayner, J.; Fagan, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    The gaseous fluorocarbon trifluoromethane has recently been investigated for its potential as an in vivo gaseous indicator for nuclear magnetic resonance studies of brain perfusion. Trifluoromethane may also have significant value as a replacement for chlorofluorocarbon fire retardants. Because of possible species-specific cardiotoxic and anesthetic properties, the toxicological evaluation of trifluoromethane in primates (Papio anubis) is necessary prior to its evaluation in humans. We report the acute cardiac and central nervous system effects of trifluoromethane in eight anesthetized baboons. A dose-response effect was established for respiratory rate, electroencephalogram, and cardiac sinus rate, which exhibited a stepwise decrease from 10% trifluoromethane. No spontaneous arrhythmias were noted, and arterial blood pressure remained unchanged at any inspired level. Intravenous epinephrine infusions (1 {mu}g/kg) induced transient cardiac arrhythmia in 1 animal only at 70% FC-23 (v/v) trifluoromethane. Trifluoromethane appears to induce mild dose-related physiological changes at inspired levels of 30% or more, indicative of an anesthetic effect. These data suggest that trifluoromethane may be safe to use in humans, without significant adverse acute effects, at an inspired level of 30%. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Alcohol and Tension Reduction: Cognitive and Physiological Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This research examines separately the cognitive and pharmacological effects of alcohol by manipulating subjects' expectancies. It was found that although alcohol is a pharmacologic sedative and reduces anxiety, the cognition that one is drinking alcohol increases anxiety. (Editor/RK)

  10. [Steroids: The physiologic and pharmacologic effects of glucocorticoids].

    PubMed

    Zelena, Dóra; Makara, B Gábor

    2015-08-30

    Glucocorticoids are widely used in medical practice mainly for suppression of the immune system. According to Selye - who named them - the endogenous molecules are very important for the adaptation to challenges, stress. They were synthesized in the 1940s. Since then numerous data have been published about their production (also locally in several organs), transportation (primarily cortisol-binding globulin) and receptors (nuclear and non-genomic effects). Although glucocorticoids are primarily under the control of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, several other molecules (especially catecholamines) may also increase their secretion. Their permissive influences are dominant, thereby they are indispensable for the effect of numerous other molecules. Thus, glucocorticoids have very diverse influence from metabolism through cardiovascular effect to bone-metabolism, affecting even the central nervous system. They are also important in metabolic syndrome. Their extensive therapeutic usage are limited by side-effects, which could be diminished - among others - with concomitant usage of the anabolic dehydroepiandrosterone. PMID:26299833

  11. Formaldehyde exposure and acute health effects study

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.; Michaud, J.P.; Bronnimann, D. )

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effects of formaldehyde exposures on health, exposure groups were defined using baseline exposure and health questionnaires. Formaldehyde concentrations were poorly correlated with these exposure classifications, perhaps due to the time delay between classification and monitoring. The 151 households reported here had a mean HCHO concentration of 35 (S.E. 1.5 and median 30) {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Passive samplers prepared in our lab were calibrated in a chamber to derive an estimated sampling rate of 0.311 {mu}g/(mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} {center dot} hr). They were also compared to commercially available samplers inside of the homes, with a correlation coefficient of 0.896 and mean difference of 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. In this report of initial findings from an ongoing study, daily symptoms and peak expiratory flow measurements were compared with an HCHO exposure classification based on the median measured concentrations. None of the symptoms groups were related to HCHO exposure when controlling for age and sex. There was a significant relationship between HCHO exposure and variability in peak expiratory flows that was dependent on age group. It may be especially important to assess the variability in reactive individuals and children to determine the short-term effects of HCHO exposures and possible long-term consequences.

  12. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  13. Pain control by melatonin: Physiological and pharmacological effects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Pain and anxiety are the most common neurological responses to many harmful or noxious stimuli and their management clinically is often challenging. Many of the frequently used morphine-based drugs, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen, while efficient for treating pain, lead to patients suffering from several unwanted side effects. Melatonin, produced from the pineal body is a hormone of darkness, is involved in the control of circadian rhythms, and exerts a number of pharmacological effects. Melatonin mediates its actions through MT1/MT2 melatonin receptors on the cell membrane and also through RZR/ROR nuclear orphan receptors. Chronic pain syndromes are often associated with the desynchronization of circadian and biological rhythms, which also cause disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle. Melatonin-mediated analgesic effects seem to involve β-endorphins, GABA receptor, opioid receptors and the nitric oxide-arginine pathway. The effectiveness of melatonin as an analgesic and anxiolytic agent has been demonstrated in various animal models of pain and this led to the use of melatonin clinically in different pathological conditions and also in patients undergoing surgery. Melatonin was found to be effective in many of these cases as an anxiolytic and analgesic agent, indicating its clinical application. PMID:27698681

  14. Pain control by melatonin: Physiological and pharmacological effects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Pain and anxiety are the most common neurological responses to many harmful or noxious stimuli and their management clinically is often challenging. Many of the frequently used morphine-based drugs, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen, while efficient for treating pain, lead to patients suffering from several unwanted side effects. Melatonin, produced from the pineal body is a hormone of darkness, is involved in the control of circadian rhythms, and exerts a number of pharmacological effects. Melatonin mediates its actions through MT1/MT2 melatonin receptors on the cell membrane and also through RZR/ROR nuclear orphan receptors. Chronic pain syndromes are often associated with the desynchronization of circadian and biological rhythms, which also cause disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle. Melatonin-mediated analgesic effects seem to involve β-endorphins, GABA receptor, opioid receptors and the nitric oxide-arginine pathway. The effectiveness of melatonin as an analgesic and anxiolytic agent has been demonstrated in various animal models of pain and this led to the use of melatonin clinically in different pathological conditions and also in patients undergoing surgery. Melatonin was found to be effective in many of these cases as an anxiolytic and analgesic agent, indicating its clinical application.

  15. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  16. Effects of acute exercise on long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Labban, Jeffrey D; Etnier, Jennifer L

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: exercise prior to exposure, exercise after exposure, or no-exercise. Exercise consisted of 30 min on a cycle ergometer including 20 min at moderate intensity. Only the exercise prior group recalled significantly more than the control group (p < .05). Differences among the exercise groups failed to reach significance (p = .09). Results indicated that acute exercise positively influenced recall and that exercise timing relative to memory task may have an impact on this effect.

  17. Effect of a puzzle on the process of students' learning about cardiac physiology.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Lais Tono; Miranda, Aline Soares; Moura, Maria José Costa Sampaio; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of using a puzzle to learn about cardiac physiology. Students were divided into control and game groups. In class 1, the control group had a 2-h theoretical class about cardiac physiology, including a detailed description of the phases of the cardiac cycle, whereas the game group had a 50-min theoretical class without the description of the cardiac cycle. In class 2, the control group did an assessment exercise before an activity with the cardiac puzzle and the game group answered questions after the above-mentioned activity. While solving the puzzle, the students had to describe the cardiac cycle by relating the concepts of heart morphology and physiology. To evaluate short-term learning, the number of wrong answers and grades in the assessment exercise were compared between the control and game groups. To evaluate medium-term learning, we compared the grades obtained by students of the control and game groups in questions about cardiac physiology that formed part of the academic exam. In the assessment exercise, the game group presented a lower number of errors and higher score compared with the control group. In the academic exam, applied after both groups had used the puzzle, there was no difference in the scores obtained by the control and game groups in questions about cardiac physiology. These results showed a positive effect of the puzzle on students' learning about cardiac physiology compared with those not using the puzzle. PMID:27516391

  18. Elucidation of a physiological adjustment effect in a forest environment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    There is a significant positive relationship between exposure to forest environments and physical and mental health. However, there are individual differences within these responses, and this phenomenon has posed questions in various fields. Here, we show that the physiological effect of a forest environment can differ depending on a subject's initial values and that forests have a physiological adjustment effect close to an appropriate level. Subjects with high initial blood pressure and pulse rate showed a decrease in these values after walking in a forested area, whereas those with low initial values showed an increase. There was no physiological adjustment effect observed in an urban area; thus, these effects are specific to a forest environment.

  19. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function during spaceflight are reflected by spatial disorientation, motion sickness, gaze destabilization and decrements in balance, locomotion and eye-hand coordination that occur during and following transitions between different gravitational states. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis of data from spaceflight analogs to evaluate their effectiveness in simulating adaptive changes in sensorimotor function. METHODS. The analogs under review were categorized as either acute analogs used to simulate performance decrements accompanied with transient changes, or adaptive analogs used to drive sensorimotor learning to altered sensory feedback. The effectiveness of each analog was evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, magnitude and time course of observed deficits compared to spaceflight data, and the effects of amplitude and exposure duration. RESULTS. Parabolic flight has been used extensively to examine effects of acute variation in gravitational loads, ranging from hypergravity to microgravity. More recently, galvanic vestibular stimulation has been used to elicit acute postural, locomotor and gaze dysfunction by disrupting vestibular afferents. Patient populations, e.g., with bilateral vestibular loss or cerebellar dysfunction, have been proposed to model acute sensorimotor dysfunction. Early research sponsored by NASA involved living onboard rotating rooms, which appeared to approximate the time course of adaptation and post-exposure recovery observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Exposure to different bed-rest paradigms (6 deg head down, dry immersion) result in similar motor deficits to that observed following spaceflight. Shorter adaptive analogs have incorporated virtual reality environments, visual distortion paradigms, exposure to conflicting tilt-translation cues, and exposure to 3Gx centrifugation. As with spaceflight, there is considerable variability in responses to most of the analogs

  20. Vagomimetic Effects of Fingolimod: Physiology and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Vanoli, Emilio; Pentimalli, Francesco; Botto, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Fingolimod is a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator approved to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Initiation of treatment with fingolimod has been found to produce transient bradycardia and/or slowing of atrioventricular impulse conduction in a small proportion of patients. This effect is thought to be due to the interaction of fingolimod with S1P receptors on the surface membrane of atrial myocytes causing a vagomimetic effect, similar to the action of acetylcholine on muscarinic receptors. As a precaution, patients are under electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring for 6 h after receiving their first dose. Fingolimod is contraindicated in patients with overt or concealed cardiac diseases. However, the Fingolimod Initiation and caRdiac Safety Trial (FIRST), which was designed specifically to investigate the cardiac profile of fingolimod, did not show an increased risk of clinically relevant cardiac events with fingolimod. This review examines the electrophysiology and pathophysiology of cardiac impulse formation in the context of fingolimod. It concludes that these vagomimetic effects should be considered benign and should not prevent the effective use of fingolimod in the treatment of patients with MS. PMID:24836740

  1. Morpho-physiological effects of ibuprofen on Scenedesmus rubescens.

    PubMed

    Moro, Isabella; Matozzo, Valerio; Piovan, Anna; Moschin, Emanuela; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2014-09-01

    The pollution of aquatic bodies by drugs is an emerging environmental problem, because of their extensive use in animal and human context. Ibuprofen, 2-[4-(2-methylpropyl)phenyl]propanoic acid, is the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug mainly present both in wastewater and in rivers and lakes in Europe. Since in literature there is little information about the effects of ibuprofen on microalgae, in this paper we presented the results on the effects of this molecule at different concentrations (62.5μgL(-1), 250μgL(-1) and 1000μgL(-1)) on cultures of the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus rubescens (P.J.L. Dangeard) E. Kesslet et al. Ibuprofen effects on the alga were assayed at first through analyses of the growth curve. Moreover, analyses of cell morphology, ultrastructure, and photosynthetic pigments were additionally performed. The first negative effect of the drug was on the microalga growth, suggesting a drug action dose-dependent mechanism type, more evident at the concentration of 1000μgL(-1) ibuprofen and in the last phase of the growth curve. In support of this, following ibuprofen exposure, the cells exhibited morphological and ultrastructural alterations, mainly consisting in large cytoplasmic inclusions, probably of lipids and/or carotenoids. The decrease of chlorophyll amounts and, on the contrary, the increase of carotenoids were correlated with a stressful condition induced by drug.

  2. Colour and Light Effects on Students' Achievement, Behavior and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlfarth, H.

    A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was used to investigate the effects of full-spectrum light, prescribed color and light/color combinations, ultra-violet light, and electromagnetic radiation in an elementary school environment. Four schools in the Wetaskiwin School District, Alberta, were involved in the study; three served…

  3. In-depth Physiological Analysis of Defined Cell Populations in Acute Tissue Slices of the Mouse Vomeronasal Organ.

    PubMed

    Ackels, Tobias; Drose, Daniela R; Spehr, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In most mammals, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemosensory structure that detects both hetero- and conspecific social cues. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) express a specific type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) from at least three different chemoreceptor gene families allowing sensitive and specific detection of chemosensory cues. These families comprise the V1r and V2r gene families as well as the formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-related sequence (Fpr-rs) family of putative chemoreceptor genes. In order to understand the physiology of vomeronasal receptor-ligand interactions and downstream signaling, it is essential to identify the biophysical properties inherent to each specific class of VSNs. The physiological approach described here allows identification and in-depth analysis of a defined population of sensory neurons using a transgenic mouse line (Fpr-rs3-i-Venus). The use of this protocol, however, is not restricted to this specific line and thus can easily be extended to other genetically modified lines or wild type animals. PMID:27684435

  4. Effects of Acutely Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure on Running Economy and Physical Performance in Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Kilding, Andrew E; Dobson, Bryan P; Ikeda, Erika

    2016-07-01

    Kilding, AE, Dobson, BP, and Ikeda, E. Effects of acutely intermittent hypoxic exposure on running economy and physical performance in basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2033-2042, 2016-The aim of this study was to determine the effect of short duration intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) on physical performance in basketball players. Using a single-blind placebo-controlled group design, 14 trained basketball players were subjected to 15 days of passive short duration IHE (n = 7), or normoxic control (CON, n = 7), using a biofeedback nitrogen dilution device. A range of physiological, performance, and hematological variables were measured at baseline, and 10 days after IHE. After intervention, the IHE group, relative to the CON group, exhibited improvements in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (+4.8 ± 1.6%; effect size [ES]: 1.0 ± 0.4) and repeated high-intensity exercise test performance (-3.5 ± 1.6%; ES: -0.4 ± 0.2). Changes in hematological parameters were minimal, although soluble transferrin receptor increased after IHE (+9.2 ± 10.1%; ES: 0.3 ± 0.3). Running economy at 11 km·h (-9.0 ± 9.7%; ES: -0.7 ± 0.7) and 13 km·h was improved (-8.2 ± 6.9%; ES: -0.7 ± 0.5), but changes to V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, HRpeak, and lactate were unclear. In summary, acutely IHE resulted in worthwhile changes in physical performance tests among competitive basketball players. However, physiological measures explaining the performance enhancement were in most part unclear.

  5. Practicing Novel, Praxis-Like Movements: Physiological Effects of Repetition

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, Joshua B.; Pillai, Ajay S.; McAuliffe, Danielle; Lakshmanan, Balaji M.; Ament, Katarina; Hallett, Mark; Crone, Nathan E.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2016-01-01

    Our primary goal was to develop and validate a task that could provide evidence about how humans learn praxis gestures, such as those involving the use of tools. To that end, we created a video-based task in which subjects view a model performing novel, meaningless one-handed actions with kinematics similar to praxis gestures. Subjects then imitated the movements with their right hand. Trials were repeated six times to examine practice effects. EEG was recorded during the task. As a control, subjects watched videos of a model performing a well-established (over learned) tool-use gesture. These gestures were also imitated six times. Demonstrating convergent validity, EEG measures of task-related cortical activation were similar in topography and frequency between the novel gesture task and the overlearned, praxis gesture task. As in studies assessing motor skill learning with simpler tasks, cortical activation during novel gesture learning decreased as the same gestures were repeated. In the control condition, repetition of overlearned tool-use gestures were also associated with reductions in activation, though to a lesser degree. Given that even overlearned, praxis gestures show constriction of EEG activity with repetition, it is possible that that attentional effects drive some of the repetition effects seen in EEG measures of activation during novel gesture repetition. PMID:26903835

  6. REINFORCEMENT ENHANCING EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE VIA ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Michael, Valerie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. Methods We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10 ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled “36 mg/ml”) or placebo (“0”) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one’s own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Results Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Conclusions Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. PMID:26070455

  7. Heat acclimation attenuates physiological strain and the HSP72, but not HSP90α, mRNA response to acute normobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Oliver R; Turner, Gareth; Tuttle, James A; Taylor, Lee; Watt, Peter W; Maxwell, Neil S

    2015-10-15

    Heat acclimation (HA) attenuates physiological strain in hot conditions via phenotypic and cellular adaptation. The aim of this study was to determine whether HA reduced physiological strain, and heat shock protein (HSP) 72 and HSP90α mRNA responses in acute normobaric hypoxia. Sixteen male participants completed ten 90-min sessions of isothermic HA (40°C/40% relative humidity) or exercise training [control (CON); 20°C/40% relative humidity]. HA or CON were preceded (HYP1) and proceeded (HYP2) by a 30-min normobaric hypoxic exposure [inspired O2 fraction = 0.12; 10-min rest, 10-min cycling at 40% peak O2 uptake (V̇O2 peak), 10-min cycling at 65% V̇O2 peak]. HA induced greater rectal temperatures, sweat rate, and heart rates (HR) than CON during the training sessions. HA, but not CON, reduced resting rectal temperatures and resting HR and increased sweat rate and plasma volume. Hemoglobin mass did not change following HA nor CON. HSP72 and HSP90α mRNA increased in response to each HA session, but did not change with CON. HR during HYP2 was lower and O2 saturation higher at 65% V̇O2 peak following HA, but not CON. O2 uptake/HR was greater at rest and 65% V̇O2 peak in HYP2 following HA, but was unchanged after CON. At rest, the respiratory exchange ratio was reduced during HYP2 following HA, but not CON. The increase in HSP72 mRNA during HYP1 did not occur in HYP2 following HA. In CON, HSP72 mRNA expression was unchanged during HYP1 and HYP2. In HA and CON, increases in HSP90α mRNA during HYP1 were maintained in HYP2. HA reduces physiological strain, and the transcription of HSP72, but not HSP90α mRNA in acute normobaric hypoxia.

  8. Heat acclimation attenuates physiological strain and the HSP72, but not HSP90α, mRNA response to acute normobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Oliver R; Turner, Gareth; Tuttle, James A; Taylor, Lee; Watt, Peter W; Maxwell, Neil S

    2015-10-15

    Heat acclimation (HA) attenuates physiological strain in hot conditions via phenotypic and cellular adaptation. The aim of this study was to determine whether HA reduced physiological strain, and heat shock protein (HSP) 72 and HSP90α mRNA responses in acute normobaric hypoxia. Sixteen male participants completed ten 90-min sessions of isothermic HA (40°C/40% relative humidity) or exercise training [control (CON); 20°C/40% relative humidity]. HA or CON were preceded (HYP1) and proceeded (HYP2) by a 30-min normobaric hypoxic exposure [inspired O2 fraction = 0.12; 10-min rest, 10-min cycling at 40% peak O2 uptake (V̇O2 peak), 10-min cycling at 65% V̇O2 peak]. HA induced greater rectal temperatures, sweat rate, and heart rates (HR) than CON during the training sessions. HA, but not CON, reduced resting rectal temperatures and resting HR and increased sweat rate and plasma volume. Hemoglobin mass did not change following HA nor CON. HSP72 and HSP90α mRNA increased in response to each HA session, but did not change with CON. HR during HYP2 was lower and O2 saturation higher at 65% V̇O2 peak following HA, but not CON. O2 uptake/HR was greater at rest and 65% V̇O2 peak in HYP2 following HA, but was unchanged after CON. At rest, the respiratory exchange ratio was reduced during HYP2 following HA, but not CON. The increase in HSP72 mRNA during HYP1 did not occur in HYP2 following HA. In CON, HSP72 mRNA expression was unchanged during HYP1 and HYP2. In HA and CON, increases in HSP90α mRNA during HYP1 were maintained in HYP2. HA reduces physiological strain, and the transcription of HSP72, but not HSP90α mRNA in acute normobaric hypoxia. PMID:26205540

  9. Beer and beer compounds: physiological effects on skin health.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Becker, T; Qian, F; Ring, J

    2014-02-01

    Beer is one of the earliest human inventions and globally the most consumed alcoholic beverage in terms of volume. In addition to water, the 'German Beer Purity Law', based on the Bavarian Beer Purity Law from 1516, allows only barley, hops, yeasts and water for beer brewing. The extracts of these ingredients, especially the hops, contain an abundance of polyphenols such as kaempferol, quercetin, tyrosol, ferulic acid, xanthohumol/isoxanthohumol/8-prenylnaringenin, α-bitter acids like humulone and β-bitter acids like lupulone. 8-prenylnaringenin is the most potent phytoestrogen known to date. These compounds have been shown to possess various anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-angiogenic, anti-melanogenic, anti-osteoporotic and anti-carcinogenic effects. Epidemiological studies on the association between beer drinking and skin disease are limited while direct evidence of beer compounds in clinical application is lacking. Potential uses of these substances in dermatology may include treatment of atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, pigmentary disorders, skin infections, skin ageing, skin cancers and photoprotections, which require an optimization of the biostability and topical delivery of these compounds. Further studies are needed to determine the bioavailability of these compounds and their possible beneficial health effects when taken by moderate beer consumption. PMID:23802910

  10. Beer and beer compounds: physiological effects on skin health.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Becker, T; Qian, F; Ring, J

    2014-02-01

    Beer is one of the earliest human inventions and globally the most consumed alcoholic beverage in terms of volume. In addition to water, the 'German Beer Purity Law', based on the Bavarian Beer Purity Law from 1516, allows only barley, hops, yeasts and water for beer brewing. The extracts of these ingredients, especially the hops, contain an abundance of polyphenols such as kaempferol, quercetin, tyrosol, ferulic acid, xanthohumol/isoxanthohumol/8-prenylnaringenin, α-bitter acids like humulone and β-bitter acids like lupulone. 8-prenylnaringenin is the most potent phytoestrogen known to date. These compounds have been shown to possess various anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-angiogenic, anti-melanogenic, anti-osteoporotic and anti-carcinogenic effects. Epidemiological studies on the association between beer drinking and skin disease are limited while direct evidence of beer compounds in clinical application is lacking. Potential uses of these substances in dermatology may include treatment of atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, pigmentary disorders, skin infections, skin ageing, skin cancers and photoprotections, which require an optimization of the biostability and topical delivery of these compounds. Further studies are needed to determine the bioavailability of these compounds and their possible beneficial health effects when taken by moderate beer consumption.

  11. The Effects of Anxious Thoughts on the Physiological Measures of High-Anxious Ss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komechak, Marilyn G.

    In this study, the task was to analyze the separate effects of contingent reinforcement (money) and monitoring (counting) on the frequency of responses indicative of anxiety. Observed (physiological) and introspective (covert statements about experiencing anxiety) were used to determine the effects of reinforcement and monitoring on anxiety prone…

  12. Digestive and physiological effects of a wheat bran extract, arabino-xylan-oligosaccharide, in breakfast cereal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed whether a wheat bran extract containing arabino-xylan-oligosaccharide (AXOS) elicited a prebiotic effect and influenced other physiologic parameters when consumed in ready-to-eat cereal at two dose levels. This double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial evaluated the effects o...

  13. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Islambulchilar, Mina; Asvadi, Iraj; Sanaat, Zohreh; Esfahani, Ali; Sattari, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally). Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years). The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05) increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05) lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes. PMID:25789226

  14. Physiological Effects of Nature Therapy: A Review of the Research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2016-08-03

    Humans have evolved into what they are today after the passage of 6-7 million years. If we define the beginning of urbanization as the rise of the industrial revolution, less than 0.01% of our species' history has been spent in modern surroundings. Humans have spent over 99.99% of their time living in the natural environment. The gap between the natural setting, for which our physiological functions are adapted, and the highly urbanized and artificial setting that we inhabit is a contributing cause of the "stress state" in modern people. In recent years, scientific evidence supporting the physiological effects of relaxation caused by natural stimuli has accumulated. This review aimed to objectively demonstrate the physiological effects of nature therapy. We have reviewed research in Japan related to the following: (1) the physiological effects of nature therapy, including those of forests, urban green space, plants, and wooden material and (2) the analyses of individual differences that arise therein. The search was conducted in the PubMed database using various keywords. We applied our inclusion/exclusion criteria and reviewed 52 articles. Scientific data assessing physiological indicators, such as brain activity, autonomic nervous activity, endocrine activity, and immune activity, are accumulating from field and laboratory experiments. We believe that nature therapy will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  15. Physiological Effects of Nature Therapy: A Review of the Research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Humans have evolved into what they are today after the passage of 6-7 million years. If we define the beginning of urbanization as the rise of the industrial revolution, less than 0.01% of our species' history has been spent in modern surroundings. Humans have spent over 99.99% of their time living in the natural environment. The gap between the natural setting, for which our physiological functions are adapted, and the highly urbanized and artificial setting that we inhabit is a contributing cause of the "stress state" in modern people. In recent years, scientific evidence supporting the physiological effects of relaxation caused by natural stimuli has accumulated. This review aimed to objectively demonstrate the physiological effects of nature therapy. We have reviewed research in Japan related to the following: (1) the physiological effects of nature therapy, including those of forests, urban green space, plants, and wooden material and (2) the analyses of individual differences that arise therein. The search was conducted in the PubMed database using various keywords. We applied our inclusion/exclusion criteria and reviewed 52 articles. Scientific data assessing physiological indicators, such as brain activity, autonomic nervous activity, endocrine activity, and immune activity, are accumulating from field and laboratory experiments. We believe that nature therapy will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future. PMID:27527193

  16. Physiological Effects of Nature Therapy: A Review of the Research in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Humans have evolved into what they are today after the passage of 6–7 million years. If we define the beginning of urbanization as the rise of the industrial revolution, less than 0.01% of our species’ history has been spent in modern surroundings. Humans have spent over 99.99% of their time living in the natural environment. The gap between the natural setting, for which our physiological functions are adapted, and the highly urbanized and artificial setting that we inhabit is a contributing cause of the “stress state” in modern people. In recent years, scientific evidence supporting the physiological effects of relaxation caused by natural stimuli has accumulated. This review aimed to objectively demonstrate the physiological effects of nature therapy. We have reviewed research in Japan related to the following: (1) the physiological effects of nature therapy, including those of forests, urban green space, plants, and wooden material and (2) the analyses of individual differences that arise therein. The search was conducted in the PubMed database using various keywords. We applied our inclusion/exclusion criteria and reviewed 52 articles. Scientific data assessing physiological indicators, such as brain activity, autonomic nervous activity, endocrine activity, and immune activity, are accumulating from field and laboratory experiments. We believe that nature therapy will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future. PMID:27527193

  17. Effect of yogic training on physiological variables in working women.

    PubMed

    Kurwale, Manisha V; Gadkari, Jayeshree V

    2014-01-01

    Depression and anxiety in women sharply rising. Working women have high level of stress than non working women. Increasing amount of work stress at home and work place and its impact on family and home environment can be seen, which affect their emotional, psychological and physical health. The concept of yoga is helpful for reducing anxiety and improving cardiorespiratory parameters has created a great interest in the medical research field. The present study was conducted to assessing the effect of yogic exercises and meditation in working women. Yogic session was carried out for 16 weeks. Cardiorespiratory parameters (pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure and breath holding time) were measured before and after yoga training. Stress was measured by anxiety score as an indicator of stress, also Visual reaction time as an indicator of cognitive function and finger dexterity score as an indicator of motor skills were measured before and after yoga training. Statistical analysis was done by paired 't' test. It was found that statistically significant improvement in cardiorespiratory parameters, anxiety score, visual reaction time and finger dexterity score (P < 0.05) after yogic training. Thus, a combined practice of asana, breathing exercises, and meditation & relaxation technique in a sequence is the best available resource to meet the.present day needs of society. PMID:25906618

  18. Cellular and physiological effects of C-peptide.

    PubMed

    Hills, Claire E; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, accumulating evidence indicates a biological function for proinsulin C-peptide. These results challenge the traditional view that C-peptide is essentially inert and only useful as a surrogate marker of insulin release. Accordingly, it is now clear that C-peptide binds with high affinity to cell membranes, probably to a pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptor. Subsequently, multiple signalling pathways are potently and dose-dependently activated in multiple cell types by C-peptide with the resulting activation of gene transcription and altered cell phenotype. In diabetic animals and Type 1 diabetic patients, short-term studies indicate that C-peptide also enhances glucose disposal and metabolic control. Furthermore, results derived from animal models and clinical studies in Type 1 diabetic patients suggest a salutary effect of C-peptide in the prevention and amelioration of diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy. Therefore a picture of Type 1 diabetes as a dual-hormone-deficiency disease is developing, suggesting that the replacement of C-peptide alongside insulin should be considered in its management. PMID:19243312

  19. Combined effects of acute, very-low-dose ethanol and delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael E.; de Wit, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Previous studies examining the combined effects of ethanol and cannabis, or its primary psychoactive ingredient, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), have provided mixed results. Data from an in vitro study suggests that combined, sub-threshold doses of these drugs may interact to produce synergistic effects. Very low doses of the two drugs in combination have not been tested in humans. Materials and Methods This study assessed whether combinations of acute, very-low doses of ethanol and THC produce synergistic effects on subjective, cognitive, and physiological measures. Healthy volunteers (n=11) received capsules containing placebo or THC (2.5mg), and beverages containing placebo or ethanol (0.1 and 0.2g/kg) alone, and in combination, across separate sessions, in a within-subjects, randomized, double-blind design. During each session, participants completed measures of working memory, psychomotor ability, and simple reaction time, and provided subjective mood and drug effect ratings. Cardiovascular measures were obtained at regular intervals. Results As intended, when administered alone, these very-low doses of ethanol and THC had only moderate effects on isolated measures. The combined effects of these drugs were not synergistic, and in some cases appeared to be less-than-additive. Conclusions Our data provide no evidence for synergistic effects of acute combinations of very-low-dose ethanol and THC on subjective or physiologic response, or on cognitive performance. PMID:21110996

  20. Non-visual effects of the color temperature of fluorescent lamps on physiological aspects in humans.

    PubMed

    Yasukouchi, Akira; Ishibashi, Keita

    2005-01-01

    The non-visual effects of the color temperature of fluorescent lamps were reviewed based mainly on our recent studies with special reference to physiological aspects in humans such as arousal level, autonomic nerve system including heart rate variability, blood pressure and body temperature regulation, and sleep architecture. It was concluded that there obviously existed the non-visual effects of the spectral composition of fluorescent lamps on physiological aspects, as predicted based on the functions of the nuclei located on the photic non-visual pathway.

  1. Acute effects of aldosterone on the epithelial Na channel in rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Frindt, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The acute effects of aldosterone administration on epithelial Na channels (ENaC) in rat kidney were examined using electrophysiology and immunodetection. Animals received a single injection of aldosterone (20 μg/kg body wt), which reduced Na excretion over the next 3 h. Channel activity was assessed in principal cells of cortical collecting ducts as amiloride-sensitive whole cell clamp current (INa). INa averaged 100 pA/cell, 20–30% of that reported for the same preparation under conditions of chronic stimulation. INa was negligible in control animals that did not receive hormone. The acute physiological response correlated with changes in ENaC processing and trafficking. These effects included increases in the cleaved forms of α-ENaC and γ-ENaC, assessed by Western blot, and increases in the surface expression of β-ENaC and γ-ENaC measured after surface protein biotinylation. These changes were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of chronic stimulation. This suggests that altered trafficking to or from the apical membrane is an early response to the hormone and that later increases in channel activity require stimulation of channels residing at the surface. PMID:25520012

  2. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Bahareh; Nakhsaz, Alireza; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated using forced swim test (FST). In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals), antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST). Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg) and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg) produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg). Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration. PMID:26468466

  3. Detection of clinically relevant levels of protein analyte under physiologic buffer using planar field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Samit; Elias, Mark; Wen, Xuejin; Shapiro, John; Brillson, Leonard; Lu, Wu; Lee, Stephen Craig

    2008-12-01

    Electrochemical detection of protein binding at physiological salt concentration by planar field effect transistor platforms has yet to be documented convincingly. Here we report detection of streptavidin and clinically relevant levels of biotinylated monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG) at physiological salt concentrations with AlGaN heterojunction field effect transistors (HFETs). The AlGaN HFETs are functionalized with a silane linker and analyte-specific affinity elements. Polarity of sensor responses is as expected from n-type HFETs to negatively and positively charged analytes. Sensitivity of the HFET sensors increases when salt concentration decreases, and the devices also exhibit dose-dependent responses to analyte. Detection of clinically relevant MIG concentrations at physiological salt levels demonstrates the potential for AlGaN devices to be used in development of in vivo biosensors.

  4. Sublethal effects of cadmium on physiological responses in the pocketbook mussel, Lampsilis ventricosa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naimo, T.J.; Atchison, G.J.; Holland Bartels, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    Several physiological responses have been used to evaluate the effects of contaminants on marine bivalves. Respiration rate, food clearance rate, ammonia excretion rate, and food assimilation efficiency can be quantified and incorporated into a bioenergetics model known as scope for growth. This model estimates an organism's instantaneous energy budget and quantifies the available energy for growth and reproduction. We applied some of these physiological techniques to freshwater mussels to determine the sublethal effects of cadmium. The objective of our study was to quantify the physiological responses of adult pocketbook mussels, Lampsilis ventricosa , exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium. We selected L. ventricosa for study because it is abundant in the upper Mississippi River and its life history has been partially documented.

  5. Effect of noisy stimulation on neurobiological sensitization systems and its role for normal and pathological physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Martin; Braun, Hans; Krieg, J.\\:Urgen-Christian

    2004-03-01

    Sensitization is discussed as an important phenomenon playing a role in normal physiology but also with respect to the initiation and progression of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsia, substance-related disorders or recurrent affective disorders. The relevance to understand the dynamics of sensitization phenomena is emphasized by recent findings that even single stimulations can induce longlasting changes in biological systems. To address specific questions associated with the sensitization dynamics, we use a computational approach and develop simple but physiologically-plausible models. In the present study we examine the effect of noisy stimulation on sensitization development in the model. We consider sub- and suprathresold stimulations with varying noise intensities and determine as response measures the (i) absolute number of stimulus-induced sensitzations and (ii) the temporal relsation of stimulus-sensitization coupling. The findings indicate that stochastic effects including stochastic resonance might well contribute to the physiology of sensitization mechanisms under both nomal and pathological conditions.

  6. Effects of restricted feeding on physiological stress parameters in growing broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    de Jong, I C; van Voorst, S; Ehlhardt, D A; Blokhuis, H J

    2002-05-01

    1. In previous studies, a lack of agreement in measurements of plasma corticosterone concentrations and heterophil:lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as physiological indices of stress, caused by hunger and frustration in restricted-fed broiler breeders, was observed. It could be suggested that the differences between previous studies were caused by differences in duration of restriction and time of the day of the measurements. Therefore, in the present study the plasma corticosterone concentration and the H/L ratio were again determined in restricted- and ad libitum-fed growing broiler breeders, taking possible causes of disagreement between previous studies into account. In addition, we measured the daily rhythm in body temperature and heart rate, and the corticosterone responses to an acute stressor as physiological indices of stress. 2. Female broiler breeders (64 per treatment, housed in groups of 4 birds) were used in the experiment. Behaviour, baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations and H/L ratio were determined at 21 d of age (immediately after the start of food restriction), and at 42 and 63 d of age. Body temperature, heart rate and activity were measured by radiotelemetry for 36 h at 49 and 70 d of age. In addition, the plasma corticosterone response to acute stress (5 min manual restraint) was measured at 77 or 78 d of age. 3. Restricted broiler breeders had higher plasma corticosterone concentrations at 42 and 63 d of age, but no differences in H/L. ratio were found between restricted birds and unrestricted control birds. Restricted broiler breeders had a higher corticosterone response to 5 min manual restraint than unrestricted birds. Restricted birds displayed a clear day-night rhythm in body temperature, heart rate and activity whereas such a rhythm was blunted in ad libitum-fed birds. 4. It is discussed that some physiological differences (plasma corticosterone concentrations, body temperature and heart rate) between ad libitum-fed and restricted broiler

  7. Physiological Correlation of Airway Pressure and Transpulmonary Pressure Stress Index on Respiratory Mechanics in Acute Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chun; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Yun-Hang; Liu, Wei; Urbino, Rosario; Ranieri, V Marco; Qiu, Hai-Bo; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress index at post-recruitment maneuvers could be a method of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. However, airway pressure (Paw) stress index may not reflect lung mechanics in the patients with high chest wall elastance. This study was to evaluate the Paw stress index on lung mechanics and the correlation between Paw stress index and transpulmonary pressure (PL) stress index in acute respiratory failure (ARF) patients. Methods: Twenty-four ARF patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) were consecutively recruited from July 2011 to April 2013 in Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing, China and Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista-Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy. All patients underwent MV with volume control (tidal volume 6 ml/kg) for 20 min. PEEP was set according to the ARDSnet study protocol. The patients were divided into two groups according to the chest wall elastance/respiratory system elastance ratio. The high elastance group (H group, n = 14) had a ratio ≥30%, and the low elastance group (L group, n = 10) had a ratio <30%. Respiratory elastance, gas-exchange, Paw stress index, and PL stress index were measured. Student's t-test, regression analysis, and Bland–Altman analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: Pneumonia was the major cause of respiratory failure (71.0%). Compared with the L group, PEEP was lower in the H group (5.7 ± 1.7 cmH2O vs. 9.0 ± 2.3 cmH2O, P < 0.01). Compared with the H group, lung elastance was higher (20.0 ± 7.8 cmH2O/L vs. 11.6 ± 3.6 cmH2O/L, P < 0.01), and stress was higher in the L group (7.0 ± 1.9 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9, P = 0.02). A linear relationship was observed between the Paw stress index and the PL stress index in H group (R2= 0.56, P < 0.01) and L group (R2= 0.85, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In the ARF patients with MV, Paw stress index can substitute for PL to guide ventilator settings. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02196870 (https

  8. Comparing the Effects of Isoflurane and Alpha Chloralose upon Mouse Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Lucy C.; Klaunberg, Brenda A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging of mice requires that the physiology of the mouse (body temperature, respiration and heart rates, blood pH level) be maintained in order to prevent changes affecting the outcomes of functional scanning, namely blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) measures and cerebral blood flow (CBF). The anesthetic used to sedate mice for scanning can have major effects on physiology. While alpha chloralose has been commonly used for functional imaging of rats, its effects on physiology are not well characterized in the literature for any species. In this study, we anesthetized or sedated mice with isoflurane or alpha chloralose for up to two hours, and monitored physiological parameters and arterial blood gasses. We found that, when normal body temperature is maintained, breathing rates for both drugs decrease over the course of two hours. In addition, alpha chloralose causes a substantial drop in heart rate and blood pH with severe hypercapnia (elevated blood CO2) that is not seen in isoflurane-treated animals. We suggest that alpha chloralose does not maintain normal mouse physiology adequately for functional brain imaging outcome measures. PMID:27148970

  9. Comparing the Effects of Isoflurane and Alpha Chloralose upon Mouse Physiology.

    PubMed

    Low, Lucie A; Bauer, Lucy C; Klaunberg, Brenda A

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging of mice requires that the physiology of the mouse (body temperature, respiration and heart rates, blood pH level) be maintained in order to prevent changes affecting the outcomes of functional scanning, namely blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) measures and cerebral blood flow (CBF). The anesthetic used to sedate mice for scanning can have major effects on physiology. While alpha chloralose has been commonly used for functional imaging of rats, its effects on physiology are not well characterized in the literature for any species. In this study, we anesthetized or sedated mice with isoflurane or alpha chloralose for up to two hours, and monitored physiological parameters and arterial blood gasses. We found that, when normal body temperature is maintained, breathing rates for both drugs decrease over the course of two hours. In addition, alpha chloralose causes a substantial drop in heart rate and blood pH with severe hypercapnia (elevated blood CO2) that is not seen in isoflurane-treated animals. We suggest that alpha chloralose does not maintain normal mouse physiology adequately for functional brain imaging outcome measures. PMID:27148970

  10. Physiological Integration Ameliorates Negative Effects of Drought Stress in the Clonal Herb Fragaria orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems – effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast. PMID:22957054

  11. Physiological integration ameliorates negative effects of drought stress in the clonal herb Fragaria orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems--effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast. PMID:22957054

  12. [Is physiological saline really physiological? Hyponatreamia treatment--small deviations from the rules of appropriate therapy create serious complications and side effects].

    PubMed

    Krotkiewski, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    Physiological saline can hardly be treated as physiological as it contains qualitatively and quantitatively different amounts of electrolytes. In particular, it contains 50% more chlorine ions than serum. Physiological saline can cause metabolic acidosis and in diabetic patients hyperchloremic acidosis. In comparison with Ringer solution and plasma-lyte, physiological saline is causing higher number of untoward effects and mortality associated with surgery. Ringer solution should be used in the situations requiring expansion of extracellular fluid. Physiological saline is a solution of choice in hypochloremic alkalosis in the case of brain injuries quite unfavourable is unnecessary rapid correction with physiological saline which can lead to serious sequelae in form of brain oedema and central extrapontine myelinolysis (osmotic demyelinisation) and permanent brain lesions. The hyponatremia's treatment depends on severity of symptoms, neurological deficit motivates immediate 4-6 mmol/l infusion, but further correction should be prolonged to 24-hrs; cautious correction corresponds to 8-mmol/l for 24 hrs. The modern treatment encompasses the introduction of vasopressin receptors antagonist--vaptans. PMID:26608493

  13. [Is physiological saline really physiological? Hyponatreamia treatment--small deviations from the rules of appropriate therapy create serious complications and side effects].

    PubMed

    Krotkiewski, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    Physiological saline can hardly be treated as physiological as it contains qualitatively and quantitatively different amounts of electrolytes. In particular, it contains 50% more chlorine ions than serum. Physiological saline can cause metabolic acidosis and in diabetic patients hyperchloremic acidosis. In comparison with Ringer solution and plasma-lyte, physiological saline is causing higher number of untoward effects and mortality associated with surgery. Ringer solution should be used in the situations requiring expansion of extracellular fluid. Physiological saline is a solution of choice in hypochloremic alkalosis in the case of brain injuries quite unfavourable is unnecessary rapid correction with physiological saline which can lead to serious sequelae in form of brain oedema and central extrapontine myelinolysis (osmotic demyelinisation) and permanent brain lesions. The hyponatremia's treatment depends on severity of symptoms, neurological deficit motivates immediate 4-6 mmol/l infusion, but further correction should be prolonged to 24-hrs; cautious correction corresponds to 8-mmol/l for 24 hrs. The modern treatment encompasses the introduction of vasopressin receptors antagonist--vaptans.

  14. Effects of experiment start time and duration on measurement of standard physiological variables.

    PubMed

    Page, Amanda J; Cooper, Christine E; Withers, Philip C

    2011-07-01

    Duration and start time of respirometry experiments have significant effects on the measurement of basal values for several commonly measured physiological variables (metabolic rate, evaporative water loss and body temperature). A longer measurement duration reduced values for all variables for all start times, and this was an effect of reduced animal activity rather than random sampling. However, there was also an effect of circadian rhythm on the timing of minimal physiological values. Experiment start time had a significant effect on time taken to reach minimal values for all variables, ranging from 0400 hours ± 38 min (body temperature, start time 2300 hours) to 0854 hours ± 52 min (evaporative water loss, start time 1700 hours). It also influenced the time of day that minimal values were obtained, ranging from 2224 hours ± 40 min (carbon dioxide production, start time 1500 hours) to 0600 hours ± 57 min (oxygen consumption, start time 2300 hours), and the minimum values measured. Consequently, both the measurement duration and the experiment start time should be considered in experimental design to account for both a handling and a circadian effect on the animal's physiology. We suggest that experiments to measure standard physiological variables for small diurnal birds should commence between 1700 and 2100 hours, and measurement duration should be at least 9 h.

  15. Acute effects of ethanol on renal folate clearance in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.; McMartin, K.E.

    1986-03-05

    Studies of the renal clearance of folic acid in primates demonstrate net reabsorption of folate by a saturable system. The acute administration of ethanol to rats causes a significant increase in urinary folate excretion. The mechanism for this effect is unknown and thus the effect of acute administration of ethanol on the renal absorption and urinary clearance of folate was studied in rats. Folic acid was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via continuous intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 3-75 micromoles/kg and renal clearance relative to inulin was determined. The effects of various dose levels of ethanol on these parameters were then determined. At a dose of 15 micromoles/kg, the renal clearance of folate relative to that of inulin was about 0.65 mg/min. At a plasma ethanol level about 100 mg/dl, the renal clearance of folate was not markedly altered. These results suggests that there is net reabsorption of folate in the rat kidney and that moderate doses of ethanol have little effect on renal effect on renal folate reabsorption.

  16. Toxicological dose assessment and acute health effect criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, A.C.; White, B.

    1992-01-01

    The use of hazardous materials requires the means of assessing doses from postulated accidental exposures to the hazardous materials. Hazardous materials include radiological and toxicological substances. Health effects are often divided into either acute (short term exposure) or chronic (long-term-exposure)-categories. Dose assessments and health effects are used in Hazard Classification, Safety Analysis Reports and Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations. The use of hazardous substances requires a means of assessing the potential health effects from exposure. Two types of toxicological data exist. The first is measured effects from human exposure, either accidentally or studies. The second consists of data from toxicity and lethality studies on mammals, often mice or rats. Because the data for human exposure is severely limited, an approach is needed that uses basic toxicity and lethality data from animal studies to estimate acute health effects in humans. The approach chosen is the one suggested jointly by the EPA, FEMA, and DOT in their Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis'', December 1987.

  17. Toxicological dose assessment and acute health effect criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, A.C.; White, B.

    1992-09-01

    The use of hazardous materials requires the means of assessing doses from postulated accidental exposures to the hazardous materials. Hazardous materials include radiological and toxicological substances. Health effects are often divided into either acute (short term exposure) or chronic (long-term-exposure)-categories. Dose assessments and health effects are used in Hazard Classification, Safety Analysis Reports and Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations. The use of hazardous substances requires a means of assessing the potential health effects from exposure. Two types of toxicological data exist. The first is measured effects from human exposure, either accidentally or studies. The second consists of data from toxicity and lethality studies on mammals, often mice or rats. Because the data for human exposure is severely limited, an approach is needed that uses basic toxicity and lethality data from animal studies to estimate acute health effects in humans. The approach chosen is the one suggested jointly by the EPA, FEMA, and DOT in their ``Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis``, December 1987.

  18. Effects of acute exposure to aluminum on cognition in humans.

    PubMed

    Molloy, D W; Standish, T I; Nieboer, E; Turnbull, J D; Smith, S D; Dubois, S

    2007-12-01

    There is epidemiological evidence suggesting an association between aluminum in drinking water and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and between aluminum in dialysate and dialysis dementia. The exact role of aluminum in the pathogenesis of these and other dementias is not clear. This study examined the acute effects of aluminum on cognitive function in patients with AD and related dementias and in age-matched and younger volunteers with normal cognitive function. Whether individuals with AD and/or the APOE epsilon4 genotype had enhanced gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum was tested, and whether individuals with elevated blood aluminum concentrations exhibited acute cognitive effects was determined. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of aluminum orally (Amphojel plus citrate) for 3 d followed by a 3-wk washout, and then 3 d of matched placebo administration, or vice versa. Serum aluminum levels were measured and the daily dose of Amphojel was adjusted to a target aluminum level between 50 and 150 microg/L. Neuropsychological tests were administered at baseline and 90 min after the third dose of Amphojel or placebo. There was a large interindividual variation in aluminum serum levels in all study groups after the same initial dose of Amphojel. There were no significant differences in neuropsychological test scores after aluminum ingestion in normal volunteers or in patients with cognitive impairment. There was no association between APOE epsilon4 genotype and aluminum absorption. The results did not support the hypothesis that aluminum ingested at these doses produces acute effects on cognition or adverse effects, nor did they reveal that AD patients are more vulnerable to such outcomes. Further inquiry is required to explore any possible association between aluminum and cognition, but controlled trials may be limited by safety concerns.

  19. Vascular Physiology according to Clinical Scenario in Patients with Acute Heart Failure: Evaluation using the Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index.

    PubMed

    Goto, Toshihiko; Wakami, Kazuaki; Mori, Kento; Kikuchi, Shohei; Fukuta, Hidekatsu; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Increased aortic stiffness may be an important cause of acute heart failure (AHF). Clinical scenario (CS), which classifies the pathophysiology of AHF based on the initial systolic blood pressure (sBP), was proposed to provide the most appropriate therapy for AHF patients. In CS, elevated aortic stiffness, vascular failure, has been considered as a feature of patients categorized as CS1 (sBP > 140 mmHg at initial presentation). However, whether elevated aortic stiffness, vascular failure, is present in such patients has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we assessed aortic stiffness in AHF patients using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), which is considered to be independent of instantaneous blood pressure. Sixty-four consecutive AHF patients (mean age, 70.6 ± 12.8 years; 39 men) were classified with CS, based on their initial sBP: CS1: sBP > 140 mmHg (n = 29); CS2: sBP 100-140 mmHg (n = 22); and CS3: sBP < 100 mmHg (n = 13). There were significant group differences in CAVI (CS1 vs. CS2 vs. CS3: 9.7 ± 1.4 vs. 8.4 ± 1.7 vs. 8.3 ± 1.7, p = 0.006, analysis of variance). CAVI was significantly higher in CS1 than in CS2 (p = 0.02) and CS3 (p = 0.04). CAVI did not significantly correlate with sBP at the time of measurement of CAVI (r = 0.24 and p = 0.06). Aortic stiffness assessed using blood pressure-independent methodology apparently increased in CS1 AHF patients. We conclude that vascular failure is a feature of CS1 AHF initiation. PMID:27594650

  20. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH, BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF DOUGLAS-FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the interactive effects of CO2 concentration and mean annual temperature on physiology, biochemistry and growth of Douglas fir seedlings. Seedlings were grown at ambient CO2 or ambient + 200 ppm CO2 and at ambient temperature or ambient + 4 ?C. Needle gas exchange m...

  1. Physiological and psychological effects on high school students of viewing real and artificial pansies.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Miho; Aga, Mariko; Ikei, Harumi; Namekawa, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-03-01

    The relaxation effects of gardening have attracted attention; however, very few studies have researched its physiological effects on humans. This study aimed to clarify the physiological and psychological effects on high school students of viewing real and artificial pansies. Forty high school students (male: 19, female: 21) at Chiba Prefectural Kashiwanoha Senior High School, Japan, participated in this experiment. The subjects were presented with a visual stimulation of fresh yellow pansies (Viola x wittrockiana "Nature Clear Lemon") in a planter for 3 min. Artificial yellow pansies in a planter were used as the control. Heart rate variability was used as a physiological measurement and the modified semantic differential method was used for subjective evaluation. Compared with artificial pansies, visual stimulation with real flowers resulted in a significant decrease in the ratio of low- to high-frequency heart rate variability component, which reflects sympathetic nerve activity. In contrast, high frequency, which reflects parasympathetic nerve activity, showed no significant difference. With regard to the psychological indices, viewing real flowers resulted in "comfortable", "relaxed", and "natural" feelings. The findings indicate that visual stimulation with real pansies induced physiological and psychological relaxation effects in high school students. PMID:25723647

  2. Effectiveness of Inquiry-Based Learning in an Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nybo, Lars; May, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of changing a laboratory physiology course for undergraduate students from a traditional step-by-step guided structure to an inquiry-based approach. With this aim in mind, quantitative and qualitative evaluations of learning outcomes (individual subject-specific tests and group interviews)…

  3. The Quantitative Effect of Students Using Podcasts in a First Year Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt, Grant; Barry, Tim

    2007-01-01

    This study reports the quantitative effect of students using podcasts in a 1st year undergraduate exercise physiology module. From a cohort of 70 students, 50 volunteered and completed the study. Using a pre-post random allocation research design, students were allocated to either a podcast group (PG) or control group (CG) based on a 32-question…

  4. Research report on the physiological effects of air ions and their significance as environmental factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varga, A.

    1978-01-01

    The series of experiments performed have shown that small air ions generated artificially using radioactive materials produced physiological effects in all test subjects, which are described. These results show that the air ions were important climatic factors in the production of comfortable and healthy room climates.

  5. Physiological and Psychological Effects on High School Students of Viewing Real and Artificial Pansies

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Miho; Aga, Mariko; Ikei, Harumi; Namekawa, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The relaxation effects of gardening have attracted attention; however, very few studies have researched its physiological effects on humans. This study aimed to clarify the physiological and psychological effects on high school students of viewing real and artificial pansies. Forty high school students (male: 19, female: 21) at Chiba Prefectural Kashiwanoha Senior High School, Japan, participated in this experiment. The subjects were presented with a visual stimulation of fresh yellow pansies (Viola x wittrockiana “Nature Clear Lemon”) in a planter for 3 min. Artificial yellow pansies in a planter were used as the control. Heart rate variability was used as a physiological measurement and the modified semantic differential method was used for subjective evaluation. Compared with artificial pansies, visual stimulation with real flowers resulted in a significant decrease in the ratio of low- to high-frequency heart rate variability component, which reflects sympathetic nerve activity. In contrast, high frequency, which reflects parasympathetic nerve activity, showed no significant difference. With regard to the psychological indices, viewing real flowers resulted in “comfortable”, “relaxed”, and “natural” feelings. The findings indicate that visual stimulation with real pansies induced physiological and psychological relaxation effects in high school students. PMID:25723647

  6. The effect of three space allowances on the physiology and behavior of weaned pigs during transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocking density is an important aspect of transport which could affect animal health and welfare, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of three different space allowances on the physiology and behavior of weaned pig...

  7. Effects of dieldrin treatment on physiological and biochemical aspects of the toad embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Gauna, L.; Caballero de Castro, A.; Chifflet de Llamas, M.; Pechen de D'Angelo, A.M. )

    1991-04-01

    Dieldrin is a cylclodiene insecticide highly persistent in nature due to its chemical stability. The exposure of toad embryos to Dieldrin induces hyperactivity in the swimming larvae and inhibition of cholinesterases. However, the inhibition of these enzymes during early development is not life threatening. The present report provides a physiological and biochemical study of the noxious effect of Dieldrin on the toad embryonic development.

  8. The effects of the pollutant, sodium cyanide, on the morphology and physiology of oedogonium cardiacum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, E.

    1977-01-01

    OEDOGONIUM cardiacum exposed to varying concentrations of sodium cyanide for 15 day periods exhibited both morphological and physiological alterations. Organisms were exposed to the pollutant in concentrations of 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 parts per million. Exposure period for organisms in each concentration was 15 days. As the concentration of the pollutant increased fragmentation also increased. Exposure also caused organisms to lose chlorophyll. The third morphological alteration was the incidence of rupture. Physiological effects altered by exposure included: reduced oxygen evolution, retardation of starch production and death. Death occurs when organisms are exposed to high concentrations over the total 15 day period.

  9. Juvenile pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and hybrid pallidxshovelnose (S. albusxplatorynchus) sturgeons exhibit low physiological responses to acute handling and severe confinement.

    PubMed

    Barton, B A; Bollig, H; Hauskins, B L; Jansen, C R

    2000-05-01

    Following a 7.5-h transport haul, juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) showed a small but significant increase in plasma cortisol to 4.7 ng ml(-1) but similar increases did not occur after fish were handled in a net held in the air for 30 s. Subsequent experiments on yearling pallid sturgeon and hybrid pallidxshovelnose (S. albusxplatorynchus) sturgeon using the same 30-s handling stressor failed to evoke increases in plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose. Plasma cortisol increased significantly from about 2 to 13-14 ng ml(-1) in both pallid and hybrid sturgeon during a 6-h severe confinement stressor with handling. Plasma cortisol in 2-year-old pallid sturgeon subjected to the same stressor demonstrated a linear pattern of increase during the initial 1 h. Plasma lactate increased from 1.11 to about 2.11 mmol l(-1) in hybrid sturgeon during the first hour of severe confinement but did not change throughout the entire confinement period in pallid sturgeon. A significant increase in plasma cortisol to 5.4 ng ml(-1) in 2-year-old pallid sturgeon 1 h after being subjected to 30 s handling at 19:00 h but not at 07:00 or 13:00 h suggests that a small diurnal variation in their stress response may exist. Although both pallid and hybrid sturgeons were responsive to stress, they exhibited very low physiological responses compared with those following equivalent stressors in most teleostean fishes or another chondrostean, the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula). Reasons for the apparent low responses to handling and confinement in scaphirhynchid sturgeons are not known but may relate to their evolutionary history, neuroendocrine mechanisms involved in their corticosteroid responses, or anatomy of their interrenal tissue structure.

  10. Study on the effect of steady, simple pulsatile and physiological pulsatile flows through a stenosed artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, P.; Mandal, D. K.; Manna, N. K.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, the comparison of steady, simple pulsatile flow and physiological pulsatile flow on flow reversal zone and hemodynamic wall parameters [wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI)] for the progression of the disease, atherosclerosis has been investigated numerically. The governing equations have been solved by finite volume method. For the numerical analysis, Womersley number, Reynolds number and percentage of restriction are taken as 10, 100 and 50 % respectively. From this study it is revealed that the separated flow from the stenosis strongly depends on inlet flow situations, the maximum chance of deposition of plaque material due to streamline contour is higher at time step t* = 0.75 for simple pulsatile flow and at time step t* = 0 for physiological pulsatile flow and this chance is lower in case of steady flow. The effect of WSS on the disease is higher in physiological pulsatile flow compared to steady as well as simple pulsatile flow. The maximum possibility of initiation as well as progression for atherosclerosis in arterial wall due to high WSS takes place at t* = 0.25 for physiological pulsatile flow. OSI indicates same length of separation for two cases of transient flow, but the rate of cyclic departure of WSS is higher in case of physiological pulsatile flow.

  11. [Interest of ambulatory simplified acute physiology score (ASAPS) applied to patients admitted in an intensive care unit of an infectious diseases unit in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Dia, N M; Diallo, I; Manga, N M; Diop, S A; Fortes-Deguenonvo, L; Lakhe, N A; Ka, D; Seydi, M; Diop, B M; Sow, P S

    2015-08-01

    The evaluation of patients by a scale of gravity allows a better categorization of patients admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Our study had for objective to estimate interest of Ambulatory Simplified Acute Physiologic Score (ASAPS) applied to patients admitted in ICU of infectious diseases department of FANN hospital. It was about a descriptive and analytical retrospective study, made from the data found in patients' files admitted into the USI infectious diseases department of FANN hospital in Dakar, from January 1(st), 2009 till December 31st, 2009.The data of 354 patients' files were analyzed. The sex-ratio was 1.77 with an average age of 37.6 years ± 19.4 years old [5-94 years]. The majority of the patients were unemployed paid (39.6%). The most frequent failures were the following ones: neurological (80.5%), cardio-respiratory (16.7%). The average duration of stay was 6.2 days ± 8.2 days going of less than 24 hours to more than 10 weeks. The deaths arose much more at night (53.1%) than in the daytime (46.9%) and the strongest rate of death was recorded in January (61.5%), most low in October (26.7%). The global mortality was 48.3%. The rate of lethality according to the highest main diagnosis was allocated to the AIDS (80.5%). The average ambulatory simplified acute physiology score was 5.3 ± 3.6 with extremes of 0 and 18. The deaths in our series increased with this index (p = 0.000005). The female patients had a rate of lethality higher than that of the men people, 55.5% against 44.2% (p = 0.03). In spite of a predictive score of a high survival (ASAPS < 8), certain number of patients died (n = 105) that is 61.4% of the deaths. The metabolic disturbances, hyperleukocytosis or leukopenia when realised, the presence of a chronic disease, seemed also to influence this lethality. ASAPS only, although interesting, would not good estimate the gravity of patients, where from the necessity thus of a minimum biological balance sheet. It seems better adapted

  12. Marijuana-laced brownies: behavioral effects, physiologic effects, and urinalysis in humans following ingestion.

    PubMed

    Cone, E J; Johnson, R E; Paul, B D; Mell, L D; Mitchell, J

    1988-01-01

    Five drug-free male subjects ingested marijuana-laced brownies in a double-blind crossover study designed to test for behavioral effects, physiologic effects, and urinary cannabinoid metabolites produced as a result of consumption of marijuana plant material cooked in foodstuff. On three separate occasions, each subject consumed two brownies which contained 1.6 g of marijuana plant material. Placebo marijuana plant material (0% THC) was mixed with marijuana plant material (2.8% THC) so that each subject ingested equivalent marijuana plant material of 0, 1, and 2 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% THC). Subjects scored significantly higher on behavioral measures after consumption of brownies containing THC than with placebo; however, the effects were slow to appear and variable. Peak effects occurred 2.5 to 3.5 h after dosing. Modest changes in pulse and blood pressure also were noted. Urinalyses by EMIT d.a.u. assay and Abuscreen RIA for cannabinoids and GC/MS assay for THCCOOH indicated that substantial amounts of marijuana-related metabolites were excreted over a period of 3 to 14 days. No positives were produced as a result of ingestion of placebo brownies.

  13. Biophysical evaluation of physiological effects of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) farming using FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Cagatay; Tanrikul, Tansel; Özgener, Hüseyin

    2014-02-15

    Sparus aurata is one of the two most important cultured fish species in the Mediterranean region. The present work investigates the effects of culturing in S. aurata liver tissue at the molecular level using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy revealed dramatic differences between the wild and aquacultured fish liver cells, which mainly indicated that the level of glycogen increased in the aquacultured samples and the protein/lipid ratio decreased by 42.29% indicating that triglycerides and cholesterol esters increased and the protein content decreased in the aquacultured samples. The 15.99% increase in the level of unsaturation indicated elevated lipid peroxidation. Structural/organisational changes in the nucleic acids along with increased transcriptional status of the liver tissue cells were observed in the cultured fish tissue. All these results indicated that culturing induces significant changes in fish physiology. In addition FTIR spectroscopy is a promising method to monitor the physiological changes in fish physiology.

  14. Effects of coping and cooperative instructions on guilty and informed innocents' physiological responses to concealed information.

    PubMed

    Zvi, Liza; Nachson, Israel; Elaad, Eitan

    2012-05-01

    Previous research on the Concealed Information Test indicates that knowledge of the critical information of a given event is sufficient for the elicitation of strong physiological reactions, thus facilitating detection by the test. Other factors that affect the test's efficacy are deceptive verbal responses to the test's questions and motivation of guilty examinees to avoid detection. In the present study effects of coping and cooperative instructions - delivered to guilty and innocent participants - on detection were examined. In a mock-theft experiment guilty participants who actually committed a mock-crime, and informed innocent participants who handled the critical items of the crime in an innocent context, were instructed to adopt either a coping or a cooperative attitude toward the polygraph test. Results indicated that both, guilt and coping behavior, were associated with enhanced physiological responses to the critical information, whereas innocence and cooperative behavior attenuated physiological responses. Theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed. PMID:22330977

  15. The effect of hyperhydration on physiological and perceived strain during treadmill exercise in personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Hostler, David; Gallagher, Michael; Goss, Fredric L; Seitz, Jennifer R; Reis, Steven E; Robertson, Robert J; Northington, William E; Suyama, Joe

    2009-03-01

    Work in personal protective equipment (PPE) impairs thermoregulation causing cardiovascular stress, increased core body temperature, and hypohydration. We examined the effect of pretreating first responders performing treadmill exercise in PPE with an infusion of normal saline on physiological and perceptual strain. Ten (eight males, two females) euhydrated subjects performed treadmill exercise on two occasions wearing a chemical resistant coverall, air purifying respirator, butyl gloves, and heavy boots. During the hyperhydration session, normal saline was rapidly infused through an arm vein prior to donning PPE. Exercise duration and maximum core temperature did not differ between euhydrated and hyperhydrated conditions. Perceptual strain index (PeSI) was higher than physiological strain index (PhSI) in the euhydrated condition (P = 0.002) but neither index differed between the control and experimental conditions. Intravenous hyperhydration did not reduce physiological stress, increase exercise, or influence perceptual strain time when compared to the euhydrated condition in moderately fit individuals. PMID:19037655

  16. Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score versus Simplified Acute Physiology score to analyze multiple organ dysfunction in infectious diseases in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Remyasri; Bhandary, Nithish M.; D’Souza, Ashton D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), who were diagnosed with infectious disease, as an indicator of multiple organ dysfunction and to examine if initial SOFA score is a better mortality predictor compared to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). Materials and Methods: Hospital-based study done in medical ICU, from June to September 2014 with a sample size of 48. Patients aged 18 years and above, diagnosed with infectious disease were included. Patients with history of chronic illness (renal/hepatic/pulmonary/  cardiovascular), diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, those on immunosuppressive therapy/chemoradiotherapy for malignancy and patients in immunocompromised state were excluded. Blood investigations were obtained. Six organ dysfunctions were assessed using initial SOFA score and graded from 0 to 4. SAPS was calculated as the sum of points assigned to each of the 17 variables (12 physiological, age, type of admission, and three underlying diseases). The outcome measure was survival status at ICU discharge. Results: We categorized infectious diseases into dengue fever, leptospirosis, malaria, respiratory tract infections, and others which included undiagnosed febrile illness, meningitis, urinary tract infection and gastroenteritis. Initial SOFA score was both sensitive and specific; SAPS lacked sensitivity. We found no significant association between age and survival status. Both SAPS and initial SOFA score were found to be statistically significant as mortality predictors. There is significant association of initial SOFA score in analyzing organ dysfunction in infectious diseases (P < 0.001). SAPS showed no statistical significance. There was statistically significant (P = 0.015) percentage of nonsurvivors with moderate and severe dysfunction, based on SOFA score. Nonsurvivors had higher SAPS but was not statistically significant (P

  17. Circulating endothelial and progenitor cells: Evidence from acute and long-term exercise effects

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumpi, Matina; Dimopoulos, Stavros; Psarra, Katherini; Kyprianou, Theodoros; Nanas, Serafim

    2012-01-01

    Circulating bone-marrow-derived cells, named endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), are capable of maintaining, generating, and replacing terminally differentiated cells within their own specific tissue as a consequence of physiological cell turnover or tissue damage due to injury. Endothelium maintenance and restoration of normal endothelial cell function is guaranteed by a complex physiological procedure in which EPCs play a significant role. Decreased number of peripheral blood EPCs has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and high cardiovascular risk. In this review, we initially report current knowledge with regard to the role of EPCs in healthy subjects and the clinical value of EPCs in different disease populations such as arterial hypertension, obstructive sleep-apnea syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus, peripheral arterial disease, coronary artery disease, pulmonary hypertension, and heart failure. Recent studies have introduced the novel concept that physical activity, either performed as a single exercise session or performed as part of an exercise training program, results in a significant increase of circulating EPCs. In the second part of this review we provide preliminary evidence from recent studies investigating the effects of acute and long-term exercise in healthy subjects and athletes as well as in disease populations. PMID:23272272

  18. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Walk in Urban Parks in Fall.

    PubMed

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Igarashi, Miho; Takagaki, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-11-09

    In recent times, attention has been focused on the role of urban green spaces in promoting human health and well-being. However, there is a lack of evidence-based research on the physiological effects of walking in urban green areas. This study aimed to clarify the physiological and psychological effects of walking in urban parks during fall. Twenty-three males (mean age 22.3 ± 1.2 years) were instructed to walk predetermined 15-min courses in an urban park and in a nearby city area (control). Heart rate and heart rate variability were measured to assess physiological responses, and the semantic differential method, Profile of Mood States, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to measure psychological responses. We observed that walking in an urban park resulted in a significantly lower heart rate, higher parasympathetic nerve activity, and lower sympathetic nerve activity than walking through the city area. In subjective evaluations, participants were more "comfortable," "natural," "relaxed," and "vigorous" after a walk in the urban park. Furthermore, they exhibited significantly lower levels of negative emotions and anxiety. These findings provide scientific evidence for the physiological and psychological relaxation effects of walking in urban parks during fall.

  19. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Walk in Urban Parks in Fall.

    PubMed

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Igarashi, Miho; Takagaki, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-11-01

    In recent times, attention has been focused on the role of urban green spaces in promoting human health and well-being. However, there is a lack of evidence-based research on the physiological effects of walking in urban green areas. This study aimed to clarify the physiological and psychological effects of walking in urban parks during fall. Twenty-three males (mean age 22.3 ± 1.2 years) were instructed to walk predetermined 15-min courses in an urban park and in a nearby city area (control). Heart rate and heart rate variability were measured to assess physiological responses, and the semantic differential method, Profile of Mood States, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to measure psychological responses. We observed that walking in an urban park resulted in a significantly lower heart rate, higher parasympathetic nerve activity, and lower sympathetic nerve activity than walking through the city area. In subjective evaluations, participants were more "comfortable," "natural," "relaxed," and "vigorous" after a walk in the urban park. Furthermore, they exhibited significantly lower levels of negative emotions and anxiety. These findings provide scientific evidence for the physiological and psychological relaxation effects of walking in urban parks during fall. PMID:26569271

  20. High novelty-seeking rats are resilient to negative physiological effects of the early life stress.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between early life adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1-14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs' already high physiological response to stress - stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs' (but not bHRs') neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals' response to early life stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals.

  1. Acute effects of routine firefighting on lung function.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D; Distefano, S; Morse, L; Becker, C

    1986-01-01

    We undertook a study to determine the acute effects of routine firefighting on lung function and the relationship between these acute effects and nonspecific airway responsiveness. For 29 firefighters from a single fire station, we calculated the concentration of methacholine aerosol that caused a 100% increase in specific airway resistance (Pc100). Over an 8-week period we than measured FEV1 and FVC in each firefighter before and after each 24-hr workshift and after every fire. From 199 individual workshifts without fires, we calculated the mean +/- 2 SD across-workshift change in FEV1 and FVC for each firefighter. Eighteen of 76 measurements obtained within 2 hr after a fire (24%) showed a greater than 2 SD fall in FEV1 and/or FVC compared to two of 199 obtained after routine workshifts without fires (1%; p less than .001). On 13 of 18 occasions when spirometry decreased significantly, we obtained repeat spirometry (postshift) 3-18.5 hr after fires, and on four of these occasions FEV1 and/or FVC were still more than 2 SD below baseline. Decrements in spirometry occurred as often in firefighters with high Pc100s as in those with low Pc100s. In two firefighters in whom FEV1 and FVC fell by more than 10% after fires, we repeated measurements of methacholine sensitivity, and it was increased over the prestudy baseline. These findings suggest that routine firefighting is associated with a high incidence of acute decrements in lung function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients.

  3. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. PMID:25271215

  4. Metabolic fingerprinting to understand therapeutic effects and mechanisms of silybin on acute liver damage in rat

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qun; Wang, Cong; Li, Binbing; Zhang, Ai-hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic fingerprinting is a rapid and noninvasive analysis, representing a powerful approach for the characterization of phenotypes and the distinction of specific metabolic states due to environmental alterations. It has become a valuable analytical approach for the characterization of phenotypes and is the rapidly evolving field of the comprehensive measurement of ideally all endogenous metabolites in bio-samples. Silybin has displayed bright prospects in the prevention and therapy of liver injury, and we had conducted a preliminary exploration on the molecular mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of silybin. Because the knowledge on the metabolic responses of an acute liver damage rat to the silybin is still scarce, metabolic fingerprinting can provide relevant information on the intrinsic metabolic adjustments. Materials and Methods: Here, the physiological and metabolic changes in the acute liver damage rat were investigated by performing a metabolic analysis. The phenotypic response was assessed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) combined with pattern recognition approaches such as principal components analysis and partial least squares projection to supervised latent structures and discriminant analysis. Multivariate analysis of the data showed trends in scores plots that were related to the concentration of the silybin. Results: Results indicate 10 ions (7 upregulated and 3 downregulated) as differentiating metabolites. Key observations include perturbations of metabolic pathways linked to glutathione metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, etc., Overall, this investigation illustrates the power of the LC/MS combined with the pattern recognition methods that can engender new insights into silybin affecting on metabolism pathways of an acute liver damage rat. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the combination of metabolic fingerprinting with appropriate chemometric analysis is a

  5. Medical treatment of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mayerle, Julia; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M

    2004-12-01

    Eighty percent of all cases of acute pancreatitis are linked etiologically to gallstone disease or caused by immoderate alcohol consumption. No specific causal treatment for acute pancreatitis exists. Early prognostic factors that indicate severe disease are three or more signs on organ failure scores according to Ranson, Imrie, or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) 11, extrapancreatic complications of the disease, or the detection of pancreatic necrosis on CT scans. Elevated CRP levels above 130 mg/L can also predict a severe course of acute pancreatitis. The essential medical treatment for acute pancreatitis is the correction of hypovolemia. Moreover, relief of often severe visceral pain is a high priority. Prophylactic antibiotics should be restricted to patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, infected necrosis, or other infectious complications. Enteral nutrition has no adverse effect compared with parenteral nutrition during the course of acute pancreatitis, and is probably beneficial in regard to outcome.

  6. Long-Term Effects of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors on Reproductive Physiology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Adewale, Heather B.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that, over the course of development, hormones shape the vertebrate brain such that sex specific physiology and behaviors emerge. Much of this occurs in discrete developmental windows that span gestation through the prenatal period, although it is now becoming clear that at least some of this process continues through puberty. Perturbation of this developmental progression can permanently alter the capacity for reproductive success. Wildlife studies have revealed that exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), either naturally occurring or man made, can profoundly alter reproductive physiology and ultimately impact entire populations. Laboratory studies in rodents and other species have elucidated some of the mechanisms by which this occurs and strongly indicate that humans are also vulnerable to disruption. Use of hormonally active compounds in human medicine has also unfortunately revealed that the developing fetus can be exposed to and affected by endocrine disruptors, and that it might take decades for adverse effects to manifest. Research within the field of environmental endocrine disruption has also contributed to the general understanding of how early life experiences can alter reproductive physiology and behavior through non-genomic, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation. These types of effects have the potential to impact future generations if the germ line is affected. This review provides an overview of how exposure to EDCs, particularly those that interfere with estrogen action, impacts reproductive physiology and behaviors in vertebrates. PMID:19587848

  7. Effects of age on physiological and psychological functioning among COPD patients in an exercise program.

    PubMed

    Emery, C F

    1994-02-01

    Older adults with chronic illness may be at greater risk of psychological distress than healthy older adults. This study examined the effect of age on physiological and psychological functioning of exercising older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sixty-four older adults (mean age = 67.4 plus or minus 7.0; 35 male, 29 female) with COPD were included in the study. All subjects participated in a 30-day rehabilitation program consisting of exercise (walking, stationary bicycle, pool exercises), education, and stress management. Subjects underwent assessments of physiological functioning (e.g., bicycle ergometry,12-minute walk), cognitive status (e.g., memory, psychomotor speed, concentration), and psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety, depression, psychiatric symptoms) before and after the exercise program. Results were analyzed by repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance, with age (median split = 67.5 years) as a between-subject factor. Although the exercise program appeared to have a greater effect on physiological functioning and on concentration and short-term memory of younger-old subjects, both groups of subjects achieved gains in physiological functioning, and psychological well-being.

  8. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Corbella, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy.

  9. Acute effects of carbon monoxide on cardiac electrical stability

    SciTech Connect

    Verrier, R.L.; Mills, A.K.; Skornik, W.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the effects of acute carbon monoxide exposure on cardiac electrical stability. To obtain a comprehensive assessment, diverse biological models were employed. These involved cardiac electrical testing in the normal and ischemic heart in anesthetized and conscious dogs. The experimental plan was designed both to examine the direct effects of carbon monoxide exposure on the myocardium and to evaluate possible indirect influences through alterations in platelet aggregability or changes in central nervous system activity in the conscious animal. Our results indicate that exposure to relatively high levels of carbon monoxide, leading to carboxyhemoglobin concentrations of up to 20 percent, is without significant effect on ventricular electrical stability. This appears to be the case in the acutely ischemic heart as well as in the normal heart. It is important to note that the total exposure period was in the range of 90 to 124 minutes. The possibility that longer periods of exposure or exacerbation from nicotine in cigarette smoke could have a deleterious effect cannot be excluded. We also examined whether or not alterations in platelet aggregability due to carbon monoxide exposure could be a predisposing factor for cardiac arrhythmias. A model involving partial coronary artery stenosis was used to simulate the conditions under which platelet plugs could lead to myocardial ischemia and life-threatening arrhythmias. We found no changes either in the cycle frequency of coronary blood flow oscillations or in platelet aggregability during carbon monoxide exposure. Thus, carbon monoxide exposure does not appear to alter platelet aggregability or its effect on coronary blood flow during stenosis. In the final series of experiments, we examined the effects of carbon monoxide exposure in the conscious state.

  10. Adverse Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids: Management of Acute Toxicity and Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D

    2016-05-01

    Although several chemical structural classes of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) were recently classified as Schedule I substances, rates of use and cases of serious toxic effects remain high. While case reports and media bring attention to severe SC toxicity, daily SC use resulting in dependence and withdrawal is a significant concern that is often overlooked when discussing the risks of these drugs. There is a rich literature on evidence-based approaches to treating substance use disorders associated with most abused drugs, yet little has been published regarding how to best treat symptoms related to SC dependence given its recency as an emerging clinically significant issue. This review provides a background of the pharmacology of SCs, recent findings of adverse effects associated with both acute intoxication and withdrawal as a consequence of daily use, and treatment approaches that have been implemented to address these issues, with an emphasis on pharmacotherapies for managing detoxification. In order to determine prevalence of use in cannabis smokers, a population at high risk for SC use, we obtained data on demographics of SC users, frequency of use, and adverse effects over a 3.5-year period (2012-2015) in the New York City metropolitan area, a region with a recent history of high SC use. While controlled studies on the physiological and behavioral effects of SCs are lacking, it is clear that risks associated with using these drugs pertain not only to the unpredictable and severe nature of acute intoxication but also to the effects of long-term, chronic use. Recent reports in the literature parallel findings from our survey, indicating that there is a subset of people who use SCs daily. Although withdrawal has not been systematically characterized and effective treatments have yet to be elucidated, some symptom relief has been reported with benzodiazepines and the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Given the continued use and abuse of SCs, empirical studies

  11. Adverse Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids: Management of Acute Toxicity and Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although several chemical structural classes of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) were recently classified as Schedule I substances, rates of use and cases of serious toxic effects remain high. While case reports and media bring attention to severe SC toxicity, daily SC use resulting in dependence and withdrawal is a significant concern that is often overlooked when discussing the risks of these drugs. There is a rich literature on evidence-based approaches to treating substance use disorders associated with most abused drugs, yet little has been published regarding how to best treat symptoms related to SC dependence given its recency as an emerging clinically significant issue. This review provides a background of the pharmacology of SCs, recent findings of adverse effects associated with both acute intoxication and withdrawal as a consequence of daily use, and treatment approaches that have been implemented to address these issues, with an emphasis on pharmacotherapies for managing detoxification. In order to determine prevalence of use in cannabis smokers, a population at high risk for SC use, we obtained data on demographics of SC users, frequency of use, and adverse effects over a 3.5-year period (2012–2015) in the New York City metropolitan area, a region with a recent history of high SC use. While controlled studies on the physiological and behavioral effects of SCs are lacking, it is clear that risks associated with using these drugs pertain not only to the unpredictable and severe nature of acute intoxication but also to the effects of long-term, chronic use. Recent reports in the literature parallel findings from our survey, indicating that there is a subset of people who use SCs daily. Although withdrawal has not been systematically characterized and effective treatments have yet to be elucidated, some symptom relief has been reported with benzodiazepines and the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Given the continued use and abuse of SCs, empirical studies

  12. Adverse Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids: Management of Acute Toxicity and Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D

    2016-05-01

    Although several chemical structural classes of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) were recently classified as Schedule I substances, rates of use and cases of serious toxic effects remain high. While case reports and media bring attention to severe SC toxicity, daily SC use resulting in dependence and withdrawal is a significant concern that is often overlooked when discussing the risks of these drugs. There is a rich literature on evidence-based approaches to treating substance use disorders associated with most abused drugs, yet little has been published regarding how to best treat symptoms related to SC dependence given its recency as an emerging clinically significant issue. This review provides a background of the pharmacology of SCs, recent findings of adverse effects associated with both acute intoxication and withdrawal as a consequence of daily use, and treatment approaches that have been implemented to address these issues, with an emphasis on pharmacotherapies for managing detoxification. In order to determine prevalence of use in cannabis smokers, a population at high risk for SC use, we obtained data on demographics of SC users, frequency of use, and adverse effects over a 3.5-year period (2012-2015) in the New York City metropolitan area, a region with a recent history of high SC use. While controlled studies on the physiological and behavioral effects of SCs are lacking, it is clear that risks associated with using these drugs pertain not only to the unpredictable and severe nature of acute intoxication but also to the effects of long-term, chronic use. Recent reports in the literature parallel findings from our survey, indicating that there is a subset of people who use SCs daily. Although withdrawal has not been systematically characterized and effective treatments have yet to be elucidated, some symptom relief has been reported with benzodiazepines and the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Given the continued use and abuse of SCs, empirical studies

  13. Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) mimics cocaine in its physiological and behavioral effects but induces distinct changes in NAc glucose.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ken T; Ren, Suelynn E; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2015-01-01

    Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is generally considered to be a more potent cocaine-like psychostimulant, as it shares a similar pharmacological profile with cocaine and induces similar physiological and locomotor responses. Recently, we showed that intravenous cocaine induces rapid rise in nucleus accumbens (NAc) glucose and established its relation to neural activation triggered by the peripheral drug actions. This study was conducted to find out whether MDPV, at a behaviorally equivalent dose, shares a similar pattern of NAc glucose dynamics. Using enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with amperometery in freely moving rats, we found that MDPV tonically decreases NAc glucose levels, a response that is opposite to what we previously observed with cocaine. By analyzing Skin-Muscle temperature differentials, a valid measure of skin vascular tone, we found that MDPV induces vasoconstriction; a similar effect at the level of cerebral vessels could be responsible for the MDPV-induced decrease in NAc glucose. While cocaine also induced comparable, if not slightly stronger peripheral vasoconstriction, this effect was overpowered by local neural activity-induced vasodilation, resulting in rapid surge in NAc glucose. These results imply that cocaine-users may be more susceptible to addiction than MDPV-users due to the presence of an interoceptive signal (i.e., sensory cue), which may result in earlier and more direct reward detection. Additionally, while health complications arising from acute cocaine use are typically cardiovascular related, MDPV may be more dangerous to the brain due to uncompensated cerebral vasoconstriction. PMID:26441499

  14. Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) mimics cocaine in its physiological and behavioral effects but induces distinct changes in NAc glucose

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Ken T.; Ren, Suelynn E.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2015-01-01

    Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is generally considered to be a more potent cocaine-like psychostimulant, as it shares a similar pharmacological profile with cocaine and induces similar physiological and locomotor responses. Recently, we showed that intravenous cocaine induces rapid rise in nucleus accumbens (NAc) glucose and established its relation to neural activation triggered by the peripheral drug actions. This study was conducted to find out whether MDPV, at a behaviorally equivalent dose, shares a similar pattern of NAc glucose dynamics. Using enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with amperometery in freely moving rats, we found that MDPV tonically decreases NAc glucose levels, a response that is opposite to what we previously observed with cocaine. By analyzing Skin-Muscle temperature differentials, a valid measure of skin vascular tone, we found that MDPV induces vasoconstriction; a similar effect at the level of cerebral vessels could be responsible for the MDPV-induced decrease in NAc glucose. While cocaine also induced comparable, if not slightly stronger peripheral vasoconstriction, this effect was overpowered by local neural activity-induced vasodilation, resulting in rapid surge in NAc glucose. These results imply that cocaine-users may be more susceptible to addiction than MDPV-users due to the presence of an interoceptive signal (i.e., sensory cue), which may result in earlier and more direct reward detection. Additionally, while health complications arising from acute cocaine use are typically cardiovascular related, MDPV may be more dangerous to the brain due to uncompensated cerebral vasoconstriction. PMID:26441499

  15. The physiological effects of resveratrol and its potential application in high altitude medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui-li; Nie, Hong-jing; Li, Pei-bing; Deng, Bing-nan; Duan, Rui-feng; Jin, Hong; Chen, Zhao-li

    2015-11-01

    Resveratrol, as a natural polyphenolic compound, has a wide range of beneficial effects, which includes anti-tumor, cardiovascular protection, anti-oxidant and estrogen-like effects, and so on. Its various physiological properties are closely related to the therapeutic principle for prevention and treatment of high altitude hypoxia injury. Resveratrol may play an important role in relieving or curing high altitude diseases, especially high altitude polycythemia(HAPC). However, the literature about study and application of resveratrol in plateau medicine field is rarely reported up to now. In this review, we summarized the physiological effects of resveratrol, discussed the possible main principle of resveratrol for HAPC therapy, and looked forward to resveratrol's perspective or potential application in high altitude medicine.

  16. Seasonal pattern of the acute mortality effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhengmin; Lin, Hung-Mo; Stewart, Walter F; Kong, Linli; Xu, Fen; Zhou, Denjin; Zhu, Zhicao; Liang, Shengwen; Chen, Weiqing; Shah, Nirav; Stetter, Christy; He, Qingci

    2010-04-01

    Evidence of seasonal variation of acute mortality effects of air pollution is inconsistent. The seasonal patterns of associations between daily mortality and daily mean concentrations of particulate matter 10 microm or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were examined using 4 yr of data (2001-2004) in Wuhan, China. Four distinct seasons occur in Wuhan, where approximately 4.5 million residents live in the city core area of 201 km2. Air pollution levels are higher and pollution ranges are wider in Wuhan than in most cities. Quasi-likelihood estimation within the context of the generalized additive models (natural spline [NS] models in R) was used to model the natural logarithm of the expected daily death counts as a function of the predictor variables. The estimates of the interaction between seasons and pollution were obtained from the main effects and pollutant season interaction models. It was found that the interactions between three pollutants and cause-specific mortality were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The strongest effects occurred consistently in winter for all-natural, cardiovascular, stroke, and respiratory mortality. Every 10-microg/m3 increase in PM10 daily concentration at lag 0-1 days was associated with an increase in all-natural mortality of 0.69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-0.94%) for winter, 0.34% (95% CI: 0.00-0.69%) for spring, 0.45% (95% CI: -0.13 to 1.04%) for summer, and -0.21% (95% CI: -0.54 to 0.12%) for fall. The results show a clear seasonal pattern of acute mortality effects of ambient air pollution and the strongest effects occurred during winter in the study city.

  17. Acute Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM) Alters Physiologic and Toxicologic Endpoints in a Rat Model of Heart Failure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient PM from fossil-fuel emissions is linked to cardiovascular disease and death. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases—especially heart failure (HF). We previously examined the effects of PM on HF by exposing Sponta...

  18. Quadratic function between arterial partial oxygen pressure and mortality risk in sepsis patients: an interaction with simplified acute physiology score

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Ji, Xuqing

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen therapy is widely used in emergency and critical care settings, while there is little evidence on its real therapeutic effect. The study aimed to explore the impact of arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) on clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis. A large clinical database was employed for the study. Subjects meeting the diagnostic criteria of sepsis were eligible for the study. All measurements of PaO2 were extracted. The primary endpoint was death from any causes during hospital stay. Survey data analysis was performed by using individual ICU admission as the primary sampling unit. Quadratic function was assumed for PaO2 and its interaction with other covariates were explored. A total of 199,125 PaO2 samples were identified for 11,002 ICU admissions. Each ICU stay comprised 18 PaO2 samples in average. The fitted multivariable model supported our hypothesis that the effect of PaO2 on mortality risk was in quadratic form. There was significant interaction between PaO2 and SAPS-I (p = 0.007). Furthermore, the main effect of PaO2 on SOFA score was nonlinear. The study shows that the effect of PaO2 on mortality risk is in quadratic function form, and there is significant interaction between PaO2 and severity of illness. PMID:27734905

  19. The stress-buffering effect of acute exercise: Evidence for HPA axis negative feedback.

    PubMed

    Zschucke, Elisabeth; Renneberg, Babette; Dimeo, Fernando; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Ströhle, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    According to the cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis, physically trained individuals show lower physiological and psychological responses to stressors other than exercise, e.g. psychosocial stress. Reduced stress reactivity may constitute a mechanism of action for the beneficial effects of exercise in maintaining mental health. With regard to neural and psychoneuroendocrine stress responses, the acute stress-buffering effects of exercise have not been investigated yet. A sample of highly trained (HT) and sedentary (SED) young men was randomized to either exercise on a treadmill at moderate intensity (60-70% VO2max; AER) for 30 min, or to perform 30 min of "placebo" exercise (PLAC). 90 min later, an fMRI experiment was conducted using an adapted version of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST). The subjective and psychoneuroendocrine (cortisol and α-amylase) changes induced by the exercise intervention and the MIST were assessed, as well as neural activations during the MIST. Finally, associations between the different stress responses were analysed. Participants of the AER group showed a significantly reduced cortisol response to the MIST, which was inversely related to the previous exercise-induced α-amylase and cortisol fluctuations. With regard to the sustained BOLD signal, we found higher bilateral hippocampus (Hipp) activity and lower prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in the AER group. Participants with a higher aerobic fitness showed lower cortisol responses to the MIST. As the Hipp and PFC are brain structures prominently involved in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, these findings indicate that the acute stress-buffering effect of exercise relies on negative feedback mechanisms. Positive affective changes after exercise appear as important moderators largely accounting for the effects related to physical fitness.

  20. Studies on the radioprotective potency of amifostine on salivary glands of rats during fractionated irradiation: acute and late effects.

    PubMed

    Sagowski, Christoph; Wenzel, Soeren; Metternich, Frank Uwe; Kehrl, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective potential of amifostine on the salivary glands of rats with respect to the acute and late effects. The head and neck area of WAG/RijH rats was irradiated with (60)Co-gamma rays (60 Gy/30f for 6 weeks). Amifostine (250 mg/m(2) body surface) or an equal volume of physiologic saline was applied intravenously 15 min before each irradiation. In the course of treatment the salivary glands were examined histopathologically. Body weight was measured sequentially during irradiation. A cytoprotective effect of amifostine on the acute toxicity of salivary glands could not be detected under fractionated irradiation. However, late effects such as fibrosis and necrosis of the glands 6 months after irradiation were less developed in the amifostine group. The weight loss of the amifostine-treated animals during fractioned irradiation was higher than in the irradiated group. Amifostine has a significant cytoprotective effect on the late toxicity of irradiated salivary glands. However, the acute toxicity of the glands during radiotherapy cannot be reduced. PMID:12520356

  1. Combined effects of short-term exposure to elevated CO2 and decreased O2 on the physiology and energy budget of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yanming; Kong, Hui; Huang, Xizhi; Dupont, Sam; Hu, Menghong; Storch, Daniela; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Lu, Weiqun; Wang, Youji

    2016-07-01

    Hypoxia and ocean acidification are two consequences of anthropogenic activities. These global trends occur on top of natural variability. In environments such as estuarine areas, short-term acute pH and O2 fluctuations are occurring simultaneously. The present study tested the combined effects of short-term seawater acidification and hypoxia on the physiology and energy budget of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus. Mussels were exposed for 72 h to six combined treatments with three pH levels (8.1, 7.7 and 7.3) and two dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (2 mg L(-1), 6 mg L(-1)). Clearance rate (CR), food absorption efficiency (AE), respiration rate (RR), ammonium excretion rate (ER), O:N ratio and scope for growth (SFG) were significantly reduced, and faecal organic dry weight ratio (E) was significantly increased at low DO. Low pH did not lead to a reduced SFG. Interactive effects of pH and DO were observed for CR, E and RR. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed positive relationships among most physiological indicators, especially between SFG and CR under normal DO conditions. These results demonstrate that Mytilus coruscus was sensitive to short-term (72 h) exposure to decreased O2 especially if combined with decreased pH levels. In conclusion, the short-term oxygen and pH variation significantly induced physiological changes of mussels with some interactive effects. PMID:27115845

  2. Integrating metabolic performance, thermal tolerance, and plasticity enables for more accurate predictions on species vulnerability to acute and chronic effects of global warming.

    PubMed

    Magozzi, Sarah; Calosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Predicting species vulnerability to global warming requires a comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of sublethal and lethal thermal tolerances. To date, however, most studies investigating species physiological responses to increasing temperature have focused on the underlying physiological traits of either acute or chronic tolerance in isolation. Here we propose an integrative, synthetic approach including the investigation of multiple physiological traits (metabolic performance and thermal tolerance), and their plasticity, to provide more accurate and balanced predictions on species and assemblage vulnerability to both acute and chronic effects of global warming. We applied this approach to more accurately elucidate relative species vulnerability to warming within an assemblage of six caridean prawns occurring in the same geographic, hence macroclimatic, region, but living in different thermal habitats. Prawns were exposed to four incubation temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) for 7 days, their metabolic rates and upper thermal limits were measured, and plasticity was calculated according to the concept of Reaction Norms, as well as Q10 for metabolism. Compared to species occupying narrower/more stable thermal niches, species inhabiting broader/more variable thermal environments (including the invasive Palaemon macrodactylus) are likely to be less vulnerable to extreme acute thermal events as a result of their higher upper thermal limits. Nevertheless, they may be at greater risk from chronic exposure to warming due to the greater metabolic costs they incur. Indeed, a trade-off between acute and chronic tolerance was apparent in the assemblage investigated. However, the invasive species P. macrodactylus represents an exception to this pattern, showing elevated thermal limits and plasticity of these limits, as well as a high metabolic control. In general, integrating multiple proxies for species physiological acute and chronic responses to increasing

  3. Food makes you a target: disentangling genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects determining susceptibility to infection.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Haataja, Maarit; Kuosa, Marja; Jokela, Jukka

    2011-05-01

    Genetics, physiology, and behavior are all expected to influence the susceptibility of hosts to parasites. Furthermore, interactions between genetic and other factors are suggested to contribute to the maintenance of genetic polymorphism in resistance when the relative susceptibility of host genotypes is context dependent. We used a maternal sibship design and long- and short-term food deprivation treatments to test the role of family-level genetic variation, body condition, physiological state, and foraging behavior on the susceptibility of Lymnaea stagnalis snails to infection by a trematode parasite that uses chemical cues to locate its hosts. In experimental exposures, we found that snails in the long-term food deprivation treatment contracted fewer parasites than snails that were continuously well-fed, possibly because well-fed snails grew larger and attracted more transmission stages. When we kept the long-term feeding rates the same, but manipulated the physiological state and foraging behavior of the snails with short-term food deprivation treatment, we found that snails that were fed before the exposure contracted more parasites than snails that were fed during the exposure. This suggests that direct physiological effects of food processing, but not foraging behavior, predisposed snails to infection. Feeding treatments also affected the family-level variation in snail susceptibility, suggesting that the relative susceptibility of host genotypes was context dependent.

  4. The Interaction of Motor Performance and Psycho-Physiological Effects During Acceleration to Hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardiera, Simon; Schneider, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    Several studies reported that human motor performance is impaired during acceleration to hypergravity. While physiological explanations (e.g. vestibular activity) are widely discussed, psycho-physiological reasons (e.g. stress) are less considered. The present study therefore evaluates the interaction between psycho-physiological effects and motor performance in hypergravity. Eleven subjects performed a manual tracking task. Additionally, stress hormone concentration, EEG and subjective mood were evaluated. All measurements were performed in normal (+1Gz), and in (or directly after) three times gravitational acceleration (+3Gz). Motor performance decreased, while all determined stress hormone concentrations increased in +3Gz. EEG analysis revealed an increase of brain cortical activity in right frontal lobe in +3Gz. Subjective mood decreased due to +3Gz. Our data confirm, that motor performance is decreased in hypergravity, whereas an increase in psychophysiological stress markers could be obtained. We conclude that psycho-physiological changes have to be regarded as a possible explanation for deficits in motor performance in hypergravity.

  5. Acute and chronic respiratory effects of sodium borate particulate exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Wegman, D H; Eisen, E A; Hu, X; Woskie, S R; Smith, R G; Garabrant, D H

    1994-01-01

    This study examined work-related chronic abnormality in pulmonary function and work-related acute irritant symptoms associated with exposure to borate dust in mining and processing operations. Chronic effects were examined by pulmonary function at the beginning and end of a 7-year interval. Time-specific estimates of sodium borate particulate exposures were used to estimate cumulative exposure during the study interval. Change in pulmonary function over the 7 years was found unrelated to the estimate of cumulative exposure during that interval. Exposure-response associations also were examined with respect to short-term peak exposures and incidence of five symptoms of acute respiratory irritation. Hourly measures of health outcome and continuous measures of particulate exposure were made on each subject throughout the day. Whenever a subject reported one of the irritant symptoms, a symptom intensity score was also recorded along with the approximate time of onset. The findings indicated that exposure-response relationships were present for each of the specific symptoms at several symptom intensity levels. The associations were present when exposure was estimated by both day-long and short-term (15-min) time-weighted average exposures. Associations persisted after taking account of smoking, age, and the presence of a common cold. No significant difference in response rate was found between workers exposed to different types of sodium borate dusts. PMID:7889871

  6. A Review of the Cognitive Effects Observed in Humans Following Acute Supplementation with Flavonoids, and Their Associated Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lynne; Lamport, Daniel J.; Butler, Laurie T.; Williams, Claire M.

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in varying concentrations in many plant-based foods. Recent studies suggest that flavonoids can be beneficial to both cognitive and physiological health. Long term flavonoid supplementation over a period of weeks or months has been extensively investigated and reviewed, particularly with respect to cognitive ageing and neurodegenerative disease. Significantly less focus has been directed towards the short term effects of single doses of flavonoids on cognition. Here, we review 21 such studies with particular emphasis on the subclass and dose of flavonoids administered, the cognitive domains affected by flavonoid supplementation, and the effect size of the response. The emerging evidence suggests that flavonoids may be beneficial to attention, working memory, and psychomotor processing speed in a general population. Episodic memory effects are less well defined and may be restricted to child or older adult populations. The evidence also points towards a dose-dependent effect of flavonoids, but the physiological mechanisms of action remain unclear. Overall, there is encouraging evidence that flavonoid supplementation can benefit cognitive outcomes within an acute time frame of 0–6 h. But larger studies, combining cognitive and physiological measures, are needed to strengthen the evidence base. PMID:26690214

  7. A Review of the Cognitive Effects Observed in Humans Following Acute Supplementation with Flavonoids, and Their Associated Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Bell, Lynne; Lamport, Daniel J; Butler, Laurie T; Williams, Claire M

    2015-12-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in varying concentrations in many plant-based foods. Recent studies suggest that flavonoids can be beneficial to both cognitive and physiological health. Long term flavonoid supplementation over a period of weeks or months has been extensively investigated and reviewed, particularly with respect to cognitive ageing and neurodegenerative disease. Significantly less focus has been directed towards the short term effects of single doses of flavonoids on cognition. Here, we review 21 such studies with particular emphasis on the subclass and dose of flavonoids administered, the cognitive domains affected by flavonoid supplementation, and the effect size of the response. The emerging evidence suggests that flavonoids may be beneficial to attention, working memory, and psychomotor processing speed in a general population. Episodic memory effects are less well defined and may be restricted to child or older adult populations. The evidence also points towards a dose-dependent effect of flavonoids, but the physiological mechanisms of action remain unclear. Overall, there is encouraging evidence that flavonoid supplementation can benefit cognitive outcomes within an acute time frame of 0-6 h. But larger studies, combining cognitive and physiological measures, are needed to strengthen the evidence base. PMID:26690214

  8. Acute physiological responses of the freshwater snail Elimia flava (Mollusca: Pleuroceridae) to environmental pH and calcium.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Mary Lou; Feminella, Jack W; Lenertz, Kristin K; Henry, Raymond P

    2009-08-01

    The individual and interactive effects of environmental pH (7 [control], 6, 5, and 4) and calcium (0, 5, and 50 mg/L) were studied on hemolymph ions (pH, Ca(2+), total CO(2), Na(+), K(+)) and osmolality in the freshwater snail, Elimia flava, over a 72-h exposure. All hemolymph factors strongly differed with environmental pH. Snails exposed to pH 4 were inactive and experienced more dramatic ionic disturbances than snails at pH 5, 6, and 7, including reduced hemolymph pH, depressed Na(+) concentrations, and increased Ca(2+) and total CO(2) concentrations. There was an initial but transient increase in hemolymph K(+) over the 72 h exposure period. Environmental calcium ameliorated effects of acidification on hemolymph pH and Na(+), reducing the degree of depression in both variables irrespective of environmental pH or exposure time. In a separate experiment, effects of acidification on snail respiration were examined in which VO(2) was measured over 24 h in snails exposed to pH 7 and 4. Exposure to pH 4 caused a 64% reduction in oxygen uptake at 2 h and a maximum reduction (81%) at 11 h. Our results suggest that snails exposed to pH 4 cease interacting with the surrounding medium and use internal stores of CaCO(3) to buffer hemolymph acidification, whereas snails at pH 5 and higher appear to use environmental calcium as a buffer source. These results suggest an important role of environmental calcium in ameliorating the impacts of short-term, sublethal acidification.

  9. Effects of GSM-Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khirazova, E E; Baizhumanov, A A; Trofimova, L K; Deev, L I; Maslova, M V; Sokolova, N A; Kudryashova, N Yu

    2012-10-01

    Single exposure of white outbred rats to electromagnetic radiation with a frequency 905 MHz (GSM frequency) for 2 h increased anxiety, reduced locomotor, orientation, and exploration activities in females and orientation and exploration activities in males. Glucocorticoid levels and antioxidant system activity increased in both males and females. In addition to acute effects, delayed effects of radiation were observed in both males and females 1 day after the exposure. These results demonstrated significant effect of GSM-range radiation on the behavior and activity of stress-realizing and stress-limiting systems of the body.

  10. Effects of competition on endurance performance and the underlying psychological and physiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Andrew; Kavussanu, Maria; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Competition can influence performance, however, the underlying psychological and physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue we tested mechanisms underlying the competition-performance relationship. Measures of anxiety, effort, enjoyment, autonomic activity and muscle activity were obtained from 94 participants during a handgrip endurance task completed in individual and competition conditions. Competition improved endurance performance, increased anxiety, effort, enjoyment, heart rate and muscle activity, and decreased heart rate variability, R-wave to pulse interval and pulse amplitude. Enjoyment fully mediated whereas effort and heart rate variability partially mediated the effects of competition on performance. In addition, anxiety moderated the competition-performance relationship; those with lower anxiety performed better in competition. We confirm that competition elicits effects on performance through psychological and physiological pathways, and identify mechanisms that underlie improved endurance performance during competition. PMID:21295108

  11. Effects of blue light on the circadian system and eye physiology

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Ian; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been used to provide illumination in industrial and commercial environments. LEDs are also used in TVs, computers, smart phones, and tablets. Although the light emitted by most LEDs appears white, LEDs have peak emission in the blue light range (400–490 nm). The accumulating experimental evidence has indicated that exposure to blue light can affect many physiologic functions, and it can be used to treat circadian and sleep dysfunctions. However, blue light can also induce photoreceptor damage. Thus, it is important to consider the spectral output of LED-based light sources to minimize the danger that may be associated with blue light exposure. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the effects of blue light on the regulation of physiologic functions and the possible effects of blue light exposure on ocular health. PMID:26900325

  12. Effects of blue light on the circadian system and eye physiology.

    PubMed

    Tosini, Gianluca; Ferguson, Ian; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been used to provide illumination in industrial and commercial environments. LEDs are also used in TVs, computers, smart phones, and tablets. Although the light emitted by most LEDs appears white, LEDs have peak emission in the blue light range (400-490 nm). The accumulating experimental evidence has indicated that exposure to blue light can affect many physiologic functions, and it can be used to treat circadian and sleep dysfunctions. However, blue light can also induce photoreceptor damage. Thus, it is important to consider the spectral output of LED-based light sources to minimize the danger that may be associated with blue light exposure. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the effects of blue light on the regulation of physiologic functions and the possible effects of blue light exposure on ocular health.

  13. Pravastatin acute neuroprotective effects depend on blood brain barrier integrity in experimental cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Carone, D; Librizzi, L; Cattalini, A; Sala, G; Conti, E; Cuccione, E; Versace, A; Cai, R; Monza, L; de Curtis, M; Ferrarese, C; Beretta, S

    2015-07-30

    Statins have since long been reported to exert acute neuroprotection in experimental stroke models. However, crucial questions still need to be addressed as far as the timing of their cerebral effects after intravascular administration and the role played by the blood brain barrier (BBB) crossing properties. We tested the effects of an hydrophilic statin (pravastatin, 100 nM), which poorly crosses BBB under physiological conditions. Pravastatin was administered either 90 min before or immediately after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain preparation. A multi-modal outcome assessment was performed, through electrophysiological and cerebral vascular tone recordings, MAP-2 immunohistochemistry, BBB evaluation via ZO-1/FITC-albumin analysis, AKT and ERK activation and whole-cell antioxidant capacity. Pravastatin pre-ischemic administration did not produce any significant effect. Pravastatin post-ischemic administration significantly prevented MAP-2 immunoreactivity loss in ischemic areas, increased ERK phosphorylation in the ischemic hemisphere and enhanced whole-cell antioxidant capacity. Electrophysiological parameters, vascular tone and AKT signaling were unchanged. In all tested ischemic brains, ZO-1 fragmentation and FITC albumin extravasation was observed, starting 30 min from ischemia onset, indicating loss of BBB integrity. Our findings indicate that the rapid anti-ischemic effects of intravascular pravastatin are highly dependent on BBB increased permeability after stroke.

  14. Acute Ethanol Effects on Brain Activation in Low- and High-Level Responders to Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Trim, Ryan S.; Simmons, Alan N.; Tolentino, Neil J.; Hall, Shana A.; Matthews, Scott C.; Robinson, Shannon K.; Smith, Tom L.; Padula, Claudia B.; Paulus, Martin P.; Tapert, Susan F.; Schuckit, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A low level of response (LR) to alcohol is an important endophenotype associated with an increased risk for alcoholism. However, little is known about how neural functioning may differ between individuals with low and high LRs to alcohol. This study examined whether LR group effects on neural activity varied as a function of acute alcohol consumption. Methods 30 matched high- and low-LR pairs (N=60 healthy young adults) were recruited from the University of California, San Diego and administered a structured diagnostic interview and laboratory alcohol challenge followed by two fMRI sessions under placebo and alcohol conditions, in randomized order. Task performance and BOLD response contrast to high relative to low working memory load in an event-related visual working memory (VWM) task was examined across 120 fMRI sessions. Results Both LR groups performed similarly on the VWM task across conditions. A significant LR group by condition interaction effect was observed in inferior frontal and cingulate regions, such that alcohol attenuated the LR group differences found under placebo (p<.05). The LR group by condition effect remained even after controlling for cerebral blood flow, age, and typical drinking quantity. Conclusions Alcohol had differential effects on brain activation for low and high LR individuals within frontal and cingulate regions. These findings represent an additional step in the search for physiological correlates of a low LR, and identify brain regions that may be associated with the low LR response. PMID:20477775

  15. [Physiological effects of rare earth elements and their application in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Guo, Lanping; Xiao, Wenjuan; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao; Shi, Xin'gang; Dan, Staerk

    2012-08-01

    The process in the studies on physiological effects of rare earth elements in plants and their action mechanisms were summarized in the aspects of seed germination, photosynthesis, mineral metabolism and stress resistance. And the applications of rare earth elements in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in recent years were also overviewed, which will provide reference for further development and application of rare earth elements in TCM.

  16. Promoting the translation of intentions into action by implementation intentions: behavioral effects and physiological correlates

    PubMed Central

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J. Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The present review addresses the physiological correlates of planning effects on behavior. Although intentions to act qualify as predictors of behavior, accumulated evidence indicates that there is a substantial gap between even strong intentions and subsequent action. One effective strategy to reduce this intention–behavior gap is the formation of implementation intentions that specify when, where, and how to act on a given goal in an if-then format (“If I encounter situation Y, then I will initiate action Z!”). It has been proposed that implementation intentions render the mental representation of the situation highly accessible and establish a strong associative link between the mental representations of the situation and the action. These process assumptions have been examined in behavioral research, and in physiological research, a field that has begun to investigate the temporal dynamics of and brain areas involved in implementation intention effects. In the present review, we first summarize studies on the cognitive processes that are central to the strategic automation of action control by implementation intentions. We then examine studies involving critical samples with impaired self-regulation. Lastly, we review studies that have applied physiological measures such as heart rate, cortisol level, and eye movement, as well as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on the neural correlates of implementation intention effects. In support of the assumed processes, implementation intentions increased goal attainment in studies on cognitive processes and in critical samples, modulated brain waves related to perceptual and decision processes, and generated less activity in brain areas associated with effortful action control. In our discussion, we reflect on the status quo of physiological research on implementation intentions, methodological and conceptual issues, related research, and propose future

  17. Behavioural and physiological effects of finely balanced decision-making in chickens.

    PubMed

    Davies, Anna C; Nicol, Christine J; Persson, Mia E; Radford, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    In humans, more difficult decisions result in behavioural and physiological changes suggestive of increased arousal, but little is known about the effect of decision difficulty in other species. A difficult decision can have a number of characteristics; we aimed to monitor how finely balanced decisions, compared to unbalanced ones, affected the behaviour and physiology of chickens. An unbalanced decision was one in which the two options were of unequal net value (1 (Q1) vs. 6 (Q6) pieces of sweetcorn with no cost associated with either option); a finely balanced decision was one in which the options were of equal net value (i.e. hens were "indifferent" to both options). To identify hens' indifference, a titration procedure was used in which a cost (electromagnetic weight on an access door) was applied to the Q6 option, to find the individual point at which hens chose this option approximately equally to Q1 via a non-weighted door. We then compared behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal (head movements, latency to choose, heart-rate variability and surface body temperature) when chickens made decisions that were unbalanced or finely balanced. Significant physiological (heart-rate variability) and behavioural (latency to pen) differences were found between the finely balanced and balanced conditions, but these were likely to be artefacts of the greater time and effort required to push through the weighted doors. No other behavioural and physiological measures were significantly different between the decision categories. We suggest that more information is needed on when best to monitor likely changes in arousal during decision-making and that future studies should consider decisions defined as difficult in other ways. PMID:25275440

  18. Behavioural and Physiological Effects of Finely Balanced Decision-Making in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Anna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Persson, Mia E.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, more difficult decisions result in behavioural and physiological changes suggestive of increased arousal, but little is known about the effect of decision difficulty in other species. A difficult decision can have a number of characteristics; we aimed to monitor how finely balanced decisions, compared to unbalanced ones, affected the behaviour and physiology of chickens. An unbalanced decision was one in which the two options were of unequal net value (1 (Q1) vs. 6 (Q6) pieces of sweetcorn with no cost associated with either option); a finely balanced decision was one in which the options were of equal net value (i.e. hens were "indifferent" to both options). To identify hens' indifference, a titration procedure was used in which a cost (electromagnetic weight on an access door) was applied to the Q6 option, to find the individual point at which hens chose this option approximately equally to Q1 via a non-weighted door. We then compared behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal (head movements, latency to choose, heart-rate variability and surface body temperature) when chickens made decisions that were unbalanced or finely balanced. Significant physiological (heart-rate variability) and behavioural (latency to pen) differences were found between the finely balanced and balanced conditions, but these were likely to be artefacts of the greater time and effort required to push through the weighted doors. No other behavioural and physiological measures were significantly different between the decision categories. We suggest that more information is needed on when best to monitor likely changes in arousal during decision-making and that future studies should consider decisions defined as difficult in other ways. PMID:25275440

  19. An Effective and Reproducible Model of Ventricular Fibrillation in Crossbred Yorkshire Swine (Sus scrofa) for Use in Physiologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Burgert, James M; Johnson, Arthur D; Garcia-Blanco, Jose C; Craig, W John; O'Sullivan, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical induction (TCEI) has been used to induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) in laboratory swine for physiologic and resuscitation research. Many studies do not describe the method of TCEI in detail, thus making replication by future investigators difficult. Here we describe a detailed method of electrically inducing VF that was used successfully in a prospective, experimental resuscitation study. Specifically, an electrical current was passed through the heart to induce VF in crossbred Yorkshire swine (n = 30); the current was generated by using two 22-gauge spinal needles, with one placed above and one below the heart, and three 9V batteries connected in series. VF developed in 28 of the 30 pigs (93%) within 10 s of beginning the procedure. In the remaining 2 swine, VF was induced successfully after medial redirection of the superior parasternal needle. The TCEI method is simple, reproducible, and cost-effective. TCEI may be especially valuable to researchers with limited access to funding, sophisticated equipment, or colleagues experienced in interventional cardiology techniques. The TCEI method might be most appropriate for pharmacologic studies requiring VF, VF resulting from the R-on-T phenomenon (as in prolonged QT syndrome), and VF arising from other ectopic or reentrant causes. However, the TCEI method does not accurately model the most common cause of VF, acute coronary occlusive disease. Researchers must consider the limitations of TCEI that may affect internal and external validity of collected data, when designing experiments using this model of VF. PMID:26473349

  20. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in Adults: Physiological Benefits, Indication, Clinical Benefits, and Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masaji

    2016-04-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is carried out using an air/oxygen blender, active humidifier, single heated tube, and nasal cannula. Able to deliver adequately heated and humidified medical gas at flows up to 60 L/min, it is considered to have a number of physiological advantages compared with other standard oxygen therapies, including reduced anatomical dead space, PEEP, constant F(IO2), and good humidification. Although few large randomized clinical trials have been performed, HFNC has been gaining attention as an alternative respiratory support for critically ill patients. Published data are mostly available for neonates. For critically ill adults, however, evidence is uneven because the reports cover various subjects with diverse underlying conditions, such as hypoxemic respiratory failure, exacerbation of COPD, postextubation, preintubation oxygenation, sleep apnea, acute heart failure, and conditions entailing do-not-intubate orders. Even so, across the diversity, many published reports suggest that HFNC decreases breathing frequency and work of breathing and reduces the need for respiratory support escalation. Some important issues remain to be resolved, such as definitive indications for HFNC and criteria for timing the starting and stopping of HFNC and for escalating treatment. Despite these issues, HFNC has emerged as an innovative and effective modality for early treatment of adults with respiratory failure with diverse underlying diseases. PMID:27016353

  1. Water chemistry and its effects on the physiology and survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liebich, T.; McCormick, S.D.; Kircheis, D.; Johnson, K.; Regal, R.; Hrabik, T.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological effects of episodic pH fluctuations on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in eastern Maine, U.S.A., were investigated. During this study, S. salar smolts were exposed to ambient stream-water chemistry conditions at nine sites in four catchments for 3 and 6 day intervals during the spring S. salar smolt migration period. Plasma chloride, plasma glucose, gill aluminium and gill Na+- and K+-ATPase levels in S. salar smolts were assessed in relation to ambient stream-water chemistry during this migration period. Changes in both plasma chloride and plasma glucose levels of S. salar smolts were strongly correlated with stream pH, and S. salar smolt mortality occurred in one study site with ambient stream pH between 5??6 and 5??8 during the study period. The findings from this study suggest that physiological effects on S. salar smolts are strongly correlated with stream pH and that in rivers and streams with low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations the threshold for physiological effects and mortality probably occurs at a higher pH and shorter exposure period than in rivers with higher DOC. Additionally, whenever an acidification event in which pH drops below 5??9 coincides with S. salar smolt migration in eastern Maine rivers, there is potential for a significant reduction in plasma ions of S. salar smolts. ?? 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Water chemistry and its effects on the physiology and survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Liebich, T; McCormick, S D; Kircheis, D; Johnson, K; Regal, R; Hrabik, T

    2011-08-01

    The physiological effects of episodic pH fluctuations on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in eastern Maine, U.S.A., were investigated. During this study, S. salar smolts were exposed to ambient stream-water chemistry conditions at nine sites in four catchments for 3 and 6 day intervals during the spring S. salar smolt migration period. Plasma chloride, plasma glucose, gill aluminium and gill Na(+)- and K(+)-ATPase levels in S. salar smolts were assessed in relation to ambient stream-water chemistry during this migration period. Changes in both plasma chloride and plasma glucose levels of S. salar smolts were strongly correlated with stream pH, and S. salar smolt mortality occurred in one study site with ambient stream pH between 5·6 and 5·8 during the study period. The findings from this study suggest that physiological effects on S. salar smolts are strongly correlated with stream pH and that in rivers and streams with low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations the threshold for physiological effects and mortality probably occurs at a higher pH and shorter exposure period than in rivers with higher DOC. Additionally, whenever an acidification event in which pH drops below 5·9 coincides with S. salar smolt migration in eastern Maine rivers, there is potential for a significant reduction in plasma ions of S. salar smolts.

  3. Seasonal variations and aeration effects on water quality improvements and physiological responses of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Huang, Min-Sheng; Dai, Ling-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variations and aeration effects on water quality improvements and the physiological responses of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi were investigated with mesocosm experiments. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in six purifying tanks (aerated, non-aerated) and the characteristics of the plants were measured. Water quality improvements in purifying tanks were evaluated by comparing to the control tanks. The results showed that continuous aeration affected the plant morphology and physiology. The lengths of the roots, petioles and leaf limbs in aeration conditions were shorter than in non-aeration conditions. Chlorophyll and soluble protein contents of the leaf limbs in aerated tanks decreased, while peroxidase and catalase activities of roots tissues increased. In spring and summer, effects of aeration on the plants were less than in autumn. Total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) in aerated tanks were lower than in non-aerated tanks, while total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved phosphorus (DP) increased in spring and summer. In autumn, effects of aeration on the plants became more significant. TN, NH4(+)-N, TP and DP became higher in aerated tanks than in non-aerated tanks in autumn. This work provided evidences for regulating aeration techniques based on seasonal variations of the plant physiology in restoring polluted stagnant water.

  4. Seasonal variations and aeration effects on water quality improvements and physiological responses of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Huang, Min-Sheng; Dai, Ling-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variations and aeration effects on water quality improvements and the physiological responses of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi were investigated with mesocosm experiments. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in six purifying tanks (aerated, non-aerated) and the characteristics of the plants were measured. Water quality improvements in purifying tanks were evaluated by comparing to the control tanks. The results showed that continuous aeration affected the plant morphology and physiology. The lengths of the roots, petioles and leaf limbs in aeration conditions were shorter than in non-aeration conditions. Chlorophyll and soluble protein contents of the leaf limbs in aerated tanks decreased, while peroxidase and catalase activities of roots tissues increased. In spring and summer, effects of aeration on the plants were less than in autumn. Total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) in aerated tanks were lower than in non-aerated tanks, while total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved phosphorus (DP) increased in spring and summer. In autumn, effects of aeration on the plants became more significant. TN, NH4(+)-N, TP and DP became higher in aerated tanks than in non-aerated tanks in autumn. This work provided evidences for regulating aeration techniques based on seasonal variations of the plant physiology in restoring polluted stagnant water. PMID:23819294

  5. Physiological Effects Associated with Quinoa Consumption and Implications for Research Involving Humans: a Review.

    PubMed

    Simnadis, Thomas George; Tapsell, Linda C; Beck, Eleanor J

    2015-09-01

    Quinoa is a pseudo-grain consumed as a dietary staple in South America. In recent years, consumer demand for quinoa in the developed world has grown steadily. Its perceived health benefits have been cited as a driving force behind this trend, but there are very few human studies investigating the impact of quinoa consumption. The aim of this review was to identify physiological effects of quinoa consumption with potential for human health. A critical evaluation of animal model studies was conducted. The quality of identified studies was assessed using a methodological quality assessment tool and summative conclusions were drawn to guide the direction of future human research. The majority of studies were of fair quality. Purported physiological effects of quinoa consumption included decreased weight gain, improved lipid profile and improved capacity to respond to oxidative stress. These physiological effects were attributed to the presence of saponins, protein and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the quinoa seed. The implications of these findings are that human studies should investigate the impact of quinoa consumption on weight gain and lipid levels. The role of quinoa as an antioxidant is still unclear and requires further elucidation in animal models.

  6. Physiological Effects Associated with Quinoa Consumption and Implications for Research Involving Humans: a Review.

    PubMed

    Simnadis, Thomas George; Tapsell, Linda C; Beck, Eleanor J

    2015-09-01

    Quinoa is a pseudo-grain consumed as a dietary staple in South America. In recent years, consumer demand for quinoa in the developed world has grown steadily. Its perceived health benefits have been cited as a driving force behind this trend, but there are very few human studies investigating the impact of quinoa consumption. The aim of this review was to identify physiological effects of quinoa consumption with potential for human health. A critical evaluation of animal model studies was conducted. The quality of identified studies was assessed using a methodological quality assessment tool and summative conclusions were drawn to guide the direction of future human research. The majority of studies were of fair quality. Purported physiological effects of quinoa consumption included decreased weight gain, improved lipid profile and improved capacity to respond to oxidative stress. These physiological effects were attributed to the presence of saponins, protein and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the quinoa seed. The implications of these findings are that human studies should investigate the impact of quinoa consumption on weight gain and lipid levels. The role of quinoa as an antioxidant is still unclear and requires further elucidation in animal models. PMID:26249220

  7. Does Empathy Have a Cost? Diverging Psychological and Physiological Effects Within Families

    PubMed Central

    Manczak, Erika. M.; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Objective Parental empathy is associated with a host of beneficial psychosocial outcomes for children. However, less is known about the effects of being empathic for parents. The current study tested the hypothesis that, although parental empathy may be beneficial to children both psychologically and physiologically, it may take a physiological toll on parents. Methods The current study examined psychological and physiological correlates of parental empathy in 247 parent-adolescent dyads. During a baseline laboratory visit, parents and adolescents provide blood samples from which markers of systemic inflammation, including interleukin 1-ra, interleukin 6,and C-reactive protein, were assayed. Parents completed self-report questionnaires of empathy, well-being, and self-esteem, and also reported on their child's emotion regulation. Following the laboratory visit, adolescents completed two weeks of daily diary reporting on their emotion regulation abilities. Results In adolescents, parental empathy was significantly associated with both better emotion regulation and with less systemic inflammation. For parents, being empathic was associated with greater self-esteem and purpose in life, but also with higher systemic inflammation. Conclusions These findings reinforce the importance of simultaneously considering both psychological and physical health-related effects of psychosocial traits and suggests that empathy may have diverging effects across providers and recipients of empathy. PMID:26348495

  8. Analysis of Structural and Physiological Profiles To Assess the Effects of Cu on Biofilm Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Massieux, B.; Boivin, M. E. Y.; van den Ende, F. P.; Langenskiöld, J.; Marvan, P.; Barranguet, C.; Admiraal, W.; Laanbroek, H. J.; Zwart, G.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of copper on the structure and physiology of freshwater biofilm microbial communities. For this purpose, biofilms that were grown during 4 weeks in a shallow, slightly polluted ditch were exposed, in aquaria in our laboratory, to a range of copper concentrations (0, 1, 3, and 10 μM). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed changes in the bacterial community in all aquaria. The extent of change was related to the concentration of copper applied, indicating that copper directly or indirectly caused the effects. Concomitantly with these changes in structure, changes in the metabolic potential of the heterotrophic bacterial community were apparent from changes in substrate use profiles as assessed on Biolog plates. The structure of the phototrophic community also changed during the experiment, as observed by microscopic analysis in combination with DGGE analysis of eukaryotic microorganisms and cyanobacteria. However, the extent of community change, as observed by DGGE, was not significantly greater in the copper treatments than in the control. Yet microscopic analysis showed a development toward a greater proportion of cyanobacteria in the treatments with the highest copper concentrations. Furthermore, copper did affect the physiology of the phototrophic community, as evidenced by the fact that a decrease in photosynthetic capacity was detected in the treatment with the highest copper concentration. Therefore, we conclude that copper affected the physiology of the biofilm and had an effect on the structure of the communities composing this biofilm. PMID:15294780

  9. The physiological and psychological relaxing effects of viewing rose flowers in office workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, the physiological relaxing effect brought by nature is becoming clear; however, many workers find it difficult to be exposed to nature in their working environment. Exposure to fresh flowers represents an opportunity to incorporate nature into their working lives. In this study, we examined the effects of exposure to roses on physiological and psychological variables (heart rate variability, pulse rate, and subjective responses) in office workers. Results The experimental site was Mizuho Information & Research Institute, Inc., in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Thirty-one male office workers were included in the present study. The subjects were exposed to thirty unscented pink roses (Rosa, Dekora) arranged in a cylindrical glass vase for 4 min. In the control condition, the subjects were not exposed to flowers. After the experiments, the subjects completed a questionnaire. The order of exposure was counterbalanced among subjects. Among subjects exposed to roses, the high-frequency component of heart rate variability was significantly higher than in controls. Similarly, 'comfortable,’ 'relaxed’ and 'natural’ feelings were more common in subjects exposed to roses. Conclusions Data from this study support the presence of physiological and psychological relaxing effects of being exposed to flowers on office workers. PMID:24607069

  10. Toward cost-benefit analysis of acute behavioral effects of toluene in humans.

    PubMed

    Benignus, Vernon A; Bushnell, Philip J; Boyes, William K

    2005-04-01

    There is increasing interest in being able to express the consequences of exposure to potentially toxic compounds in monetary terms in order to evaluate potential cost-benefit relationships of controlling exposure. Behavioral effects of acute toluene exposure could be subjected to cost-benefit analysis if the effects of toluene were quantitatively compared to those of ethanol ingestion, which has been monetized for applied contexts. Behavioral effects of toluene and ethanol were quantified by meta-analysis of studies from the peer-reviewed literature describing their effects on choice reaction time (reaction time in a test requiring a subject to choose among two or more alternatives before responding). The internal doses of these compounds were estimated by a general physiological and toxicokinetic (GPAT) simulation from exposure parameters provided in the reports. The reported effects were converted to a common metric (proportion of baseline) and related to the estimated internal doses of toluene and ethanol, from which dose-effect equations were fitted. The estimated effect of toluene was compared to the estimated effect of ethanol on the same dependent variable by deriving a dose-equivalence equation (DEE) to express the dose of toluene as an equivalent dose of ethanol on the basis of equal effect magnitude. A nomogram was constructed by GPAT simulation to relate the environmental exposure concentration of toluene to the equivalent effect magnitude of a range of ethanol internal doses. Behavioral effects and their evaluation are determined by internal doses, which in turn are determined by a variety of variables. In addition to concentration and duration of exposure, which determine internal dose by pharmacokinetic processes, the activity level of exposed persons is a major factor. This analysis provides a continuous function of the consequences of toluene exposure expressed as ethanol-equivalent doses within confidence limits. The resulting function has the

  11. The effect of differential growth rates across plants on spectral predictions of physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Rapaport, Tal; Hochberg, Uri; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Karnieli, Arnon

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of various ages and positions in a plant's canopy can present distinct physiological, morphological and anatomical characteristics, leading to complexities in selecting a single leaf for spectral representation of an entire plant. A fortiori, as growth rates between canopies differ, spectral-based comparisons across multiple plants--often based on leaves' position but not age--becomes an even more challenging mission. This study explores the effect of differential growth rates on the reflectance variability between leaves of different canopies, and its implication on physiological predictions made by widely-used spectral indices. Two distinct irrigation treatments were applied for one month, in order to trigger the formation of different growth rates between two groups of grapevines. Throughout the experiment, the plants were physiologically and morphologically monitored, while leaves from every part of their canopies were spectrally and histologically sampled. As the control vines were constantly developing new leaves, the water deficit plants were experiencing growth inhibition, resulting in leaves of different age at similar nodal position across the treatments. This modification of the age-position correlation was characterized by a near infrared reflectance difference between younger and older leaves, which was found to be exponentially correlated (R(2) = 0.98) to the age-dependent area of intercellular air spaces within the spongy parenchyma. Overall, the foliage of the control plant became more spectrally variable, creating complications for intra- and inter-treatment leaf-based comparisons. Of the derived indices, the Structure-Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI) was found indifferent to the age-position effect, allowing the treatments to be compared at any nodal position, while a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-based stomatal conductance prediction was substantially affected by differential growth rates. As various biotic and abiotic

  12. The Effect of Differential Growth Rates across Plants on Spectral Predictions of Physiological Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Tal; Hochberg, Uri; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Karnieli, Arnon

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of various ages and positions in a plant's canopy can present distinct physiological, morphological and anatomical characteristics, leading to complexities in selecting a single leaf for spectral representation of an entire plant. A fortiori, as growth rates between canopies differ, spectral-based comparisons across multiple plants – often based on leaves' position but not age – becomes an even more challenging mission. This study explores the effect of differential growth rates on the reflectance variability between leaves of different canopies, and its implication on physiological predictions made by widely-used spectral indices. Two distinct irrigation treatments were applied for one month, in order to trigger the formation of different growth rates between two groups of grapevines. Throughout the experiment, the plants were physiologically and morphologically monitored, while leaves from every part of their canopies were spectrally and histologically sampled. As the control vines were constantly developing new leaves, the water deficit plants were experiencing growth inhibition, resulting in leaves of different age at similar nodal position across the treatments. This modification of the age-position correlation was characterized by a near infrared reflectance difference between younger and older leaves, which was found to be exponentially correlated (R2 = 0.98) to the age-dependent area of intercellular air spaces within the spongy parenchyma. Overall, the foliage of the control plant became more spectrally variable, creating complications for intra- and inter-treatment leaf-based comparisons. Of the derived indices, the Structure-Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI) was found indifferent to the age-position effect, allowing the treatments to be compared at any nodal position, while a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-based stomatal conductance prediction was substantially affected by differential growth rates. As various biotic and

  13. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  14. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  15. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a

  16. Combined effects of noise, vibration, and low temperature on the physiological parameters of labor employees.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pao-Chiang; Juang, Yow-Jer; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Dai, Yu-Tung; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Hu, Ching-Yao

    2013-10-01

    Noise, vibration, and low temperature render specific occupational hazards to labor employees. The purpose of this research was to investigate the combined effects of these three physical hazards on employees' physiological parameters. The Taguchi experimental method was used to simulate different exposure conditions caused by noise, vibration, and low temperature, and their effects on the physiological parameters of the test takers were measured. The data were then analyzed using statistical methods to evaluate the combined effects of these three factors on human health. Results showed that the factor that influenced the finger skin temperature, manual dexterity, and mean artery pressure (MAP) most was air temperature, and exposure time was the second most influential factor. Noise was found to be the major factor responsible for hearing loss; in this case, hand-arm vibration and temperature had no effect at all. During the study, the temperature was confined in the 5-25°C range (which was not sufficient to study the effects at extremely high- and low-temperature working conditions) because the combined effects of even two factors were very complicated. For example, the combined effects of hand-arm vibration and low temperature might lead to occupational hazards such as vibration-induced white finger syndrome in working labors. Further studies concerning the occupational damage caused by the combined effects of hazardous factors need to be conducted in the future.

  17. Effects of cloned-cattle meat on reproductive physiology in rats.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S; Lee, N-J; Hwang, J-S; Yang, B-C; Im, G-S; Ko, Y-G; Park, E-W; Park, S-B; Kang, J-K; Seong, H-H

    2010-02-01

    The influence of the cloned-cattle meat diets upon reproduction in mammals was rarely studied. This study was performed to analyze the effects of the diets containing cloned-cattle (Korean native beef, Hanwoo) meat on the reproductive physiology in rats. The male and female rats were fed with the diets containing 5% or 10% of normal- (N-5 or N-10) or cloned- (C-5 or C-10) cattle meat during test periods. The rats fed with commercial pellets were used as control. Lower food consumption in normal- and cloned-cattle meat diet groups is detected in both male and female rats compared with that of control (P < 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001). No signs of cloned-cattle meat diets on male reproductive parameters are found in all groups, except for lower sperm deformity in C-5 group (P < 0.05) and higher testosterone concentration in C-10 group (P < 0.05), respectively. There are no significant test substance-related differences of Caesarean section and delivery in dams and external examination and physiological development test in neonate compared with control and normal meat groups. Based on these results, it can be postulated that there are no obvious negative effects on the reproductive physiology in rats fed with cloned-cattle meat diets compared to their comparators.

  18. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Mersereau, Eric J.; Boyle, Cody A.; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C.; Darland, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults. PMID:27258254

  19. Physiological effects of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-47) on pregnant gartersnakes and resulting offspring.

    PubMed

    Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Carr, James; Vaughn, Katelynn; French, Susannah S

    2015-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants and are persistent contaminants found in virtually every environment and organism sampled to date, including humans. There is growing evidence that PBDEs are the source of thyroid, neurodevelopmental, and reproductive toxicity. Yet little work has focused on how this pervasive contaminant may influence the reproduction and physiology of non-traditional model species. This is especially critical because in many cases non-model species, such as reptiles, are most likely to come into contact with PBDEs in nature. We tested how short-term, repeated exposure to the PBDE congener BDE-47 during pregnancy affected physiological processes in pregnant female gartersnakes (thyroid follicular height, bactericidal ability, stress responsiveness, reproductive output, and tendency to terminate pregnancy) and their resulting offspring (levels of corticosterone, bactericidal ability, and size differences). We found potential effects of BDE-47 on both the mother, such as increased size and higher thyroid follicular height, and her offspring (increased size), suggesting the effects on physiological function of PBDEs do indeed extend beyond the traditional rodent models. PMID:25845721

  20. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and "Forest Therapy" has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more "comfortable," "relaxed," and "natural" according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for "tension-anxiety" was significantly lower, while that for "vigor" was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  1. Physiological and Metabolic Effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for Mitigating Salinity Stress in Creeping Bentgrass

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhimin; Chang, Zuoliang; Sun, Lihong; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L−1) weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid), amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid), and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose). ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense. PMID:25551443

  2. Can medical therapy mimic the clinical efficacy or physiological effects of bariatric surgery?

    PubMed

    Miras, A D; le Roux, C W

    2014-03-01

    The number of bariatric surgical procedures performed has increased dramatically. This review discusses the clinical and physiological changes, and in particular, the mechanisms behind weight loss and glycaemic improvements, observed following the gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding bariatric procedures. The review then examines how close we are to mimicking the clinical or physiological effects of surgery through less invasive and safer modern interventions that are currently available for clinical use. These include dietary interventions, orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, pramlintide, dapagliflozin, the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner, gastric pacemakers and gastric balloons. We conclude that, based on the most recent trials, we cannot fully mimic the clinical or physiological effects of surgery; however, we are getting closer. A 'medical bypass' may not be as far in the future as we previously thought, as the physician's armamentarium against obesity and type 2 diabetes has recently got stronger through the use of specific dietary modifications, novel medical devices and pharmacotherapy. Novel therapeutic targets include not only appetite but also taste/food preferences, energy expenditure, gut microbiota, bile acid signalling, inflammation, preservation of β-cell function and hepatic glucose output, among others. Although there are no magic bullets, an integrated multimodal approach may yield success. Non-surgical interventions that mimic the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery, with a reduced morbidity and mortality burden, remain tenable alternatives for patients and health-care professionals. PMID:24213310

  3. Physiological and metabolic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid for mitigating salinity stress in creeping bentgrass.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhimin; Chang, Zuoliang; Sun, Lihong; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L-1) weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid), amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid), and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose). ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense.

  4. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mersereau, Eric J; Boyle, Cody A; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C; Darland, Tristan

    2016-05-31

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults.

  5. Effects of Oxidative Stress on Behavior, Physiology, and the Redox Thiol Proteome of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kumsta, Caroline; Thamsen, Maike

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been implicated in various diseases and aging. However, the precise physiological effects of accumulating oxidants are still largely undefined. Here, we applied a short-term peroxide stress treatment to young Caenorhabditis elegans and measured behavioral, physiological, and cellular consequences. We discovered that exposure to peroxide stress causes a number of immediate changes, including loss in mobility, decreased growth rate, and decreased cellular adenosine triphosphate levels. Many of these alterations, which are highly reminiscent of changes in aging animals, are reversible, suggesting the presence of effective antioxidant systems in young C. elegans. One of these antioxidant systems involves the highly abundant protein peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX-2), whose gene deletion causes phenotypes symptomatic of chronic peroxide stress and shortens lifespan. Applying the quantitative redox proteomic technique OxICAT to oxidatively stressed wild-type and prdx-2 deletion worms, we identified oxidation-sensitive cysteines in 40 different proteins, including proteins involved in mobility and feeding (e.g., MYO-2 and LET-75), protein translation and homeostasis (e.g., elongation factor 1 [EFT-1] and heat shock protein 1), and adenosine triphosphate regeneration (e.g., nucleoside diphosphate kinase). The oxidative modification of some of these redox-sensitive cysteines may contribute to the physiological and behavioral changes observed in oxidatively stressed animals. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1023–1037. PMID:20649472

  6. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mersereau, Eric J; Boyle, Cody A; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C; Darland, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults. PMID:27258254

  7. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and “Forest Therapy” has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for “tension–anxiety” was significantly lower, while that for “vigor” was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females. PMID:26633447

  8. Physiological Effects of an Ultra-Cycle Ride in an Amateur Athlete - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Neumayr, Günther; Gänzer, Hannes; Sturm, Wolfgang; Pfister, Rudolf; Mitterbauer, Günther; Hörtnagl, Helmut

    2002-01-01

    The physiological effects of ultraendurance exercise are poorly investigated. The present case report describes the exercise intensity of ultraendurance cycling and its physiological impacts on various organ functions in an amateur cyclist performing the Ötztal Radmarathon twice en bloque in a circuit of 2 identical laps (distance 460 km; cumulative altitude difference 11,000 m). In a pre-race laboratory test the athlete's performance capacity was measured as the maximal aerobic power (VO2max= 70 ml.kg-1.min-1), a maximal power output (5.7 W.kg-1) and lactate threshold of 89%. The overall intensity during the ride was moderate (HRmean = 131 b.min-1; %HRmax = 0.71) and significantly declined during the course of the race. Extensive biochemical laboratory testing performed pre- and post-race excluded major exercise-induced organ disturbances. For further confirmation and better understanding of the physiological effects of ultra-cycle events future studies of larger athlete populations are required. PMID:24672268

  9. Can medical therapy mimic the clinical efficacy or physiological effects of bariatric surgery?

    PubMed

    Miras, A D; le Roux, C W

    2014-03-01

    The number of bariatric surgical procedures performed has increased dramatically. This review discusses the clinical and physiological changes, and in particular, the mechanisms behind weight loss and glycaemic improvements, observed following the gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding bariatric procedures. The review then examines how close we are to mimicking the clinical or physiological effects of surgery through less invasive and safer modern interventions that are currently available for clinical use. These include dietary interventions, orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, pramlintide, dapagliflozin, the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner, gastric pacemakers and gastric balloons. We conclude that, based on the most recent trials, we cannot fully mimic the clinical or physiological effects of surgery; however, we are getting closer. A 'medical bypass' may not be as far in the future as we previously thought, as the physician's armamentarium against obesity and type 2 diabetes has recently got stronger through the use of specific dietary modifications, novel medical devices and pharmacotherapy. Novel therapeutic targets include not only appetite but also taste/food preferences, energy expenditure, gut microbiota, bile acid signalling, inflammation, preservation of β-cell function and hepatic glucose output, among others. Although there are no magic bullets, an integrated multimodal approach may yield success. Non-surgical interventions that mimic the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery, with a reduced morbidity and mortality burden, remain tenable alternatives for patients and health-care professionals.

  10. [The effects of media violence on affective, cognitive, and physiological reactions of viewers].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, S; Yoshida, F

    1998-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of media violence on affective, cognitive, and physiological reactions of viewers. Eighty undergraduate student (male = 40, female = 40) participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent films whose levels of violence and entertainment were based on ratings taken in a previous study (Yoshida & Yukawa, 1996). Immediately after viewing the film, subjects described their thoughts which occurred during watching the film and rated their affective reactions toward the film. Heart rate and eyeblink rate as indicators of physiological arousal were measured continuously before, during, and after the film. Results showed that the film high in violence elicited more negative and empty-powerless affects, while the film high in entertainment evoked more positive affects.

  11. Physiological effects of thermomechanical newsprint mill effluent on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Linton, E D; Scuton, D A; McKinley, R S

    2005-11-01

    Anadramous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) returning to Exploits River, Newfoundland, Canada, to spawn encounter low concentrations of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) effluent as they migrate upstream past an integrated newsprint mill. Various physiological responses of adult Atlantic salmon from the Exploits River were studied under laboratory conditions. The effects of a 6-h exposure to 0%, 6%, 12%, or 25% (v/v) TMP effluent or an increasing concentration gradient of effluent (0-25%) on cardiac output (Q ), critical swimming performance (U(crit)), hematocrit, and blood glucose, cortisol, lactate, and osmolality were examined. Relative to other treatment groups, Q during routine and low-level activity was 7-10% higher in fish exposed to at least 12% effluent. The 25% exposure group had a distinctly lower U(crit) and scope for increase in Q than the other treatment groups. These findings suggest that effluent exposure elevates physiological maintenance and repair costs, resulting in a reallocation of energetic resources.

  12. Some physiological aspects of artificial gravity. [gravitational effects on human orthostatic tolerance and physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. B.; Graybiel, A.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of increasing artificial gravity exposure on four aspects of physiological fitness are examined in four young men who, prior to exposure, were deconditioned with bed rest and water immersion. The four aspects of physiological fitness are orthostatic tolerance, exercise tolerance, forearm endurance, and maximum strength. Orthostatic tolerance was sharply reduced by deconditioning and was substantially improved by walking in simulated lunar gravity (1/6 g) for 2.5 hours daily for 7 days or by walking in 1/2 g and 1 g for 1 hour daily for 3 days. Exercise tolerance was also sharply reduced by deconditioning but did not significantly improve with increasing g-exposure. Walking in 1 g for 1 hour daily for 3 days raised exercise tolerance only a little above the low produced by deconditioning. Forearm endurance and maximum strength were relatively unaffected by deconditioning and subsequent g-exposure.

  13. Biochemical and physiological effects of metazoan endoparasites on their host species.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N

    1983-01-01

    1. The integrative nature of the parasite-host association was discussed, specifically with regard to the metabolic effects of parasitization as well as the physiological manifestation of infection in relation to the host's nutritional physiology. Endocrine interactions were also considered. 2. Relationships involving parasitic insects, including members of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera and Strepsiptera, parasitic helminths, including members of the phyla Acanthocephala and Nematoda and the classes Cestoidea and Trematoda of the Platyhelminthes, as well as parasitic crustaceans in association with their invertebrate and/or vertebrate, intermediate, paratenic as well as definitive hosts were considered. 3. A broad conceptual or "topic" approach to understanding symbiotic relationships was emphasized. De-emphasis of descriptive categorization and the use of benefit/harm as criteria characterizing parasitic relationships was suggested. 4. The hypothetical concept of host regulation was briefly examined and the use of anthropometric descriptors such as "beneficial" and "harmonious" in parasitology discussed. PMID:6339157

  14. [Effects of cinnamic acid on physiological characteristics of Cucumis sativus seedling].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengzhi; Pan, Kai; Zhou, Xiuyan

    2005-05-01

    With substrate culture, this paper studied the effects of different concentrations of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of Cucumis sativus seedling. The results showed that 25 micromol.L(-1) of cinnamic acid had an inhibition effect on carotenoids, but a promotion effect on chlorophyll a and b. 50 micromol.L(-1) of this compound could significantly inhibit the photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and root activity (P < 0.05), and this effect was getting stronger when the concentration was higher. 150 micromol cinnamic acid.L(-1) had a significant inhibition effect on chlorophyll a and b (P < 0.05). Cinnamic acid had a weak inhibition effect on root activity when its concentration was low (25-50 micromol.L(-1)), but the effect was significant when the concentration was high (100-150 micromol.L(-1)), which became stronger with the longer handling time (P < 0.05).

  15. Comparative In Vivo Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers (HBOC) with Varying Prooxidant and Physiological Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Ioana; Sevastre, Bogdan; Hathazi, Denisa; Scurtu, Florina; Damian, Grigore; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    A series of hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier candidates (HBOC), previously noted for their differences in prooxidative and physiological reactivity, were compared in terms of the negative effects displayed upon injection in Wistar rats. At the concentrations tested, antioxidant strategies based on albumin as well as based on rubrerythrin appear to offer observable physiological advantages. PMID:27097326

  16. Comparative In Vivo Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers (HBOC) with Varying Prooxidant and Physiological Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Toma, Vlad Al; Farcaș, Anca D; Roman, Ioana; Sevastre, Bogdan; Hathazi, Denisa; Scurtu, Florina; Damian, Grigore; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    A series of hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier candidates (HBOC), previously noted for their differences in prooxidative and physiological reactivity, were compared in terms of the negative effects displayed upon injection in Wistar rats. At the concentrations tested, antioxidant strategies based on albumin as well as based on rubrerythrin appear to offer observable physiological advantages. PMID:27097326

  17. A dynamic opto-physiological model to effectively interpret retinal microvascular circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Harnani; Hu, Sijung; Dwyer, Vincent M.

    2015-03-01

    The demand of non-invasive ocular screening is rapidly growing due to an increase of age related eye diseases worldwide. An indeed in-depth understanding of optical properties is required to elucidate nature of retinal tissue. The research aims to investigate an effective biomedical engineering approach to allow process region of interests (ROIs) in eyes to reveal physiological status. A dynamic opto-physiological model (DOPM) representing retinal microvascular circulation underlying a diffusion approximation to solve radiative transport theorem (RTT) has being developed to interpret patho-physiological phenomena. DOPM is being applied in imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) to extract PPG signals from a series of 2D matrix images to access blood perfusion and oxygen saturation distributions. A variation of microvascular circulation could be mapped for an effectively diagnostic screening. The work presents mathematical modelling based ten layers of ocular tissue tested with four set of controlled parameters demontrated detection ratio between normal tissue damage or abnormal tissue and significant change of AC signal amplitude in these tissues. The result shows signicant change of AC signal amplitude in abnormal tissue. The preliminary results show extractable PPG signals from eye fundus video; experimented at five ROIs: whole fundus, optical disk, main vein vessel, lesion area and affected area. The outcome shows optical disk region gave a better performance compared to whole fundus region and main vein vessel. The robustness, miniaturization and artefact reduction capability of DOPM to discriminate oxygenation levels in retina could offer a new insight to access retinal patho-physiological status.

  18. Effect of food availability on the growth and thermal physiology of juvenile Dungeness crabs (Metacarcinus magister)

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Katherine M.; Todgham, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Dungeness crabs spend ~1 year in the San Francisco Estuary, where they undergo considerable growth before returning to the coastal ocean. Previous studies suggest that competition, food scarcity and avoidance of conspecifics may cause some juvenile Dungeness crabs in the San Francisco Estuary to become food limited. Food limitation may force these crabs to forage in higher temperature intertidal environments in the estuary, exposing them to stressful conditions in order to sustain growth and, potentially, necessitating physiological trade-offs in energy allocation between growth and stress tolerance. To investigate the effects of food limitation on aerobic metabolism and physiological performance of crabs, we assessed growth, moulting frequency, metabolic rate, citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase enzyme activity and cardiac performance, as an index of temperature sensitivity and upper temperature tolerance. Summer- and winter-caught crabs were acclimated to either a high- or a low-food ration for 5 weeks. Overall, our results demonstrated that while food limitation had a negative effect on growth of juvenile Dungeness crabs in both the summer and the winter feeding trials, crabs in the low-food group maintained both metabolic rate at ambient San Francisco Estuary temperatures (15°C; summer trial only) and upper temperature tolerance as determined by failure of cardiac function when compared with crabs in the high-food group (summer and winter trials). Therefore, the ability to maintain stress tolerance when food is limited appears to come as a physiological trade-off to growth. Food-limited crabs were unable to increase their metabolic rate to the same level as that achieved by well-fed crabs; therefore, if exposure to elevated temperatures persists and requires more energy than can be met by crabs in their food-limited state, physiological performance may be compromised. PMID:27293698

  19. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  20. WHY DO THE ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OT TOLUENE IN RATS DEPEND ON THE ROUTE OF EXPOSURE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite evidence suggesting that the acute effects of organic solvents are related to their concentration in the brain, we have observed route-dependent differences in the acute behavioral effects of toluene. Whereas inhaled toluene disrupts the performance of rats on a visual si...

  1. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cocaine on the Spontaneous Behavior of Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effects of acute and daily cocaine on spontaneous behavior patterns of pigeons. After determining the acute effects of a range of doses, 9 pigeons were divided into three groups that received one of three doses of cocaine daily, either 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg cocaine. Measures were taken of spontaneous…

  2. Effect of alkali treatment on physiological activity of cotton condensed tannin.

    PubMed Central

    Rousselle, M A; Elissalde, M H; Domelsmith, L N

    1990-01-01

    Cotton dusts contain condensed tannins and endotoxins, which are suspected of contributing to the development of acute and chronic biological responses in some cotton textile mill workers. Condensed tannin extracted from cotton dust was coated on to cellulose powder, and the tannin coated powder was treated with an alkali solvent system previously developed to reduce the endotoxin content and pulmonary toxicity of cotton dust. Physiological activities of the dusts and powders were compared by assaying the production of the arachidonic acid metabolites prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), thromboxane A2 (TxA2) (the precursor to thromboxane B2 (TxB2], leukotriene C4 (LTC4), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by guinea pig pulmonary cells obtained by lung lavage. Cotton dust stimulated the pulmonary cells to produce a total of 29 pg metabolites per 10(6) cells. Production of metabolites by cells stimulated with tannin coated cellulose powder was reduced to 8.3 pg/10(6) cells. Alkali treatment of the tannin coated cellulose powder resulted in a further decrease in its ability to stimulate the cells, producing 3.5 pg metabolites per 10(6) cells. The ability of the dusts and powders to stimulate production of metabolites of arachidonic acid by pulmonary cells from guinea pigs was highly correlated with tannin content of the materials, but not with endotoxin content as measured by the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. PMID:2223662

  3. Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects of Thermal Shock, Air Exposure, and Fishing Capture on the Physiological Stress of Squilla mantis (Stomatopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Raicevich, Saša; Minute, Fabrizio; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Caranfa, Francesca; Di Muro, Paolo; Scapolan, Lucia; Beltramini, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the effects of multiple stressors (thermal shock, fishing capture, and exposure to air) on the benthic stomatopod Squilla mantis, a burrowing crustacean quite widespread in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory analyses were carried out to explore the physiological impairment onset over time, based on emersion and thermal shocks, on farmed individuals. Parallel field-based studies were carried out to also investigate the role of fishing (i.e., otter trawling) in inducing physiological imbalance in different seasonal conditions. The dynamics of physiological recovery from physiological disruption were also studied. Physiological stress was assessed by analysing hemolymph metabolites (L-Lactate, D-glucose, ammonia, and H+), as well as glycogen concentration in muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out according to a factorial scheme considering the three factors (thermal shock, fishing capture, and exposure to air) at two fixed levels in order to explore possible synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects among factors. Additive effects on physiological parameters were mainly detected when the three factors interacted together while synergistic effects were found as effect of the combination of two factors. This finding highlights that the physiological adaptive and maladaptive processes induced by the stressors result in a dynamic response that may encounter physiological limits when high stress levels are sustained. Thus, a further increase in the physiological parameters due to synergies cannot be reached. Moreover, when critical limits are encountered, mortality occurs and physiological parameters reflect the response of the last survivors. In the light of our mortality studies, thermal shock and exposure to air have the main effect on the survival of S. mantis only on trawled individuals, while lab-farmed individuals did not show any mortality during exposure to air until after 2 hours. PMID:25133593

  4. The effects of acute cold exposure on morphology and gene expression in the heart of neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Shimamoto, Saki; Ijiri, Daichi; Ohtsuka, Akira; Kanai, Yukio; Hirabayashi, Miho

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure induces an increase in blood flow and blood pressure, and long-term exposure to cold causes cardiac hypertrophy. Neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) are highly sensitive to cold exposure, because their capacity for thermogenesis is immature until 1 week after hatching. Hence, we hypothesized that the heart of chicks at around 1 week of age acutely responds to cold environment. To investigate the effect of acute (24 h) and long-term (2 weeks) cold on the heart of chicks, 7-day-old chicks were exposed to cold temperature (4 °C) or kept warm (30 °C). Chicks exposed to the cold showed cardiac hypertrophy with marked left ventricular (LV) chamber dilation and wall thickening. On the other hand, long-term cold exposure (2 weeks from 7-day-old) induced an increase in total ventricular mass, but not in LV morphological parameters. Then, we investigated the details of acute cardiac hypertrophy in chicks. Electron microscopy revealed that cardiomyocytes in the hypertrophied LV had enlarged mitochondria with less dense cristae. Although the mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase in the LV of the cold-exposed chicks significantly increased, the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation did not change in response to cold exposure. In addition, the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, which enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and function under physiological cardiac hypertrophy, increased in LV of cold-exposed chicks. The study found that acute cold exposure to neonatal chicks induces LV hypertrophy. However, these results suggest that acute cold exposure to chicks might induce both adaptive and maladaptive responses of the LV. PMID:26733397

  5. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    PubMed

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  6. Antitumoral effect of Ocoxin on acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Elena; Hernández-García, Susana; Sanz, Eduardo; Pandiella, Atanasio

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematological malignancy whose incidence is growing in developed countries. In the relapse setting, very limited therapeutic options are available and in most cases only palliative care can be offered to patients. The effect of a composite formulation that contains several antioxidants, Ocoxin Oral solution (OOS), was tested in this condition. When analyzed in vitro, OOS exhibited anti-AML action that was both time and dose dependent. In vivo OOS induced a ralentization of tumor growth that was due to a decrease in cell proliferation. Such effect could, at least partially, be due to an increase in the cell cycle inhibitor p27, although other cell cycle proteins seemed to be altered. Besides, OOS induced an immunomodulatory effect through the induction of IL6. When tested in combination with other therapeutic agents normally used in the treatment of AML patients, OOS demonstrated a higher antiproliferative action, suggesting that it may be used in combination with those standard of care treatments to potentiate their antiproliferative action in the AML clinic. PMID:26756220

  7. Antidepressant Effects of Mallotus oppositifolius in Acute Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Kukuia, Kennedy K. E.; Mante, Priscilla K.; Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Adongo, Donatus W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Mallotus oppositifolius (MOE), a plant used for CNS conditions in Ghana, was investigated for acute antidepressant effects in the forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Results. In both FST and TST, MOE (10, 30, and 100 mg kg−1) significantly decreased immobility periods and frequencies. A 3-day pretreatment with 200 mg kg−1, i.p., para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, reversed the decline in immobility and the increase of swimming score induced by MOE in the modified FST. Pretreatment with reserpine alone (1 mg kg−1), α-methyldopa alone (400 mg kg−1, i.p.), or a combination of both drugs failed to reverse the decline in immobility or the increase in swimming score caused by the extract in the modified FST. The extract potentiated the frequency of head twitch responses induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine. Pretreatment with d-serine (600 mg kg−1, i.p.), glycine/NMDA agonist, abolished the behavioural effects of MOE while d-cycloserine (2.5 mg kg−1, i.p.), a glycine/NMDA partial agonist, potentiated it in both TST and modified FST. Conclusion. The extract exhibited antidepressant effects in mice which is mediated by enhancement of serotoninergic neurotransmission and inhibition of glycine/NMDA receptor activation. PMID:25045543

  8. Physiological effects of compensatory growth during the larval stage of the ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Pan, Chang; Li, Haosen; Zhang, Yuhong; Pang, Hong

    2015-12-01

    The growth rate of insects may vary in response to shifty environments. They may achieve compensatory growth after a period of food restriction followed by ad libitum food, which may further affect the reproductive performance and lifespan of the resulting phenotypes. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms associated with such growth acceleration in insects. The present study examined the metabolic rate, the antioxidant enzyme activity and the gene expression of adult Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) after experiencing compensatory growth during its larval stages. Starved C. montrouzieri individuals achieved a similar developmental time and adult body mass as those supplied with ad libitum food during their entire larval stage, indicating that compensatory growth occurred as a result of the switch in larval food regime. Further, the compensatory growth was found to exert effects on the physiological functions of C. montrouzieri, in terms of its metabolic rates and enzyme activities. The adults undergoing compensatory growth were characterized by a higher metabolic rate, a lower activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase and a lower gene expression of P450 and trehalase. Taken together, the results indicate that although compensatory growth following food restriction in early larval life prevents developmental delay and body mass loss, the resulting adults may encounter physiological challenges affecting their fitness. PMID:26546057

  9. The Physiologic Effects of Isoflurane, Sevoflurane, and Hypothermia Used for Anesthesia in Neonatal Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Huss, Monika K; Chum, Helen H; Chang, Angela G; Jampachairsi, Katechan; Pacharinsak, Cholawat

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding effective anesthetic regimens for neonatal rat pups is limited. Here we investigated whether isoflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia maintains physiologic parameters more consistently than does hypothermia anesthesia in neonatal rat pups. Rat pups (age, 4 d) were randomly assigned to receive isoflurane, sevoflurane, or hypothermia. Physiologic parameters monitored at 1, 5, 10, and 15 min included heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and oxygen saturation (%SpO2). Other parameters evaluated were loss and return of righting reflex, paw withdrawal reflex, and maternal acceptance. Corticosterone and glucose were sampled at 20 min and 24 h after anesthesia induction. Once a surgical plane of anesthesia was achieved, a skin incision was made on the right lateral thigh. After the procedure, all pups were accepted and cared for by their dam. Isoflurane- and sevoflurane-treated pups maintained higher HR, RR, %SpO2, and glucose levels than did hypothermia-treated pups. For both the isoflurane and sevoflurane groups, HR and RR were significantly lower at 10 and 15 min after anesthesia than at 1 min. Compared with hypothermia, isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia provided shorter times to loss of and return of the righting reflex. Although corticosterone did not differ among the groups, glucose levels were higher at 20 min after anesthesia induction than at 24 h in all anesthetic groups. We conclude that both isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia maintain physiologic parameters (HR, RR, %SpO2) more consistently than does hypothermia anesthesia in 4-d-old rat pups. PMID:26817984

  10. Intrauterine growth restriction: effects of physiological fetal growth determinants on diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Haram, Kjell; Søfteland, Eirik; Bukowski, Radek

    2013-01-01

    The growth of the fetus, which is strongly associated with the outcome of pregnancy, reflects interplay of several physiological and pathological factors. The assessment of fetal growth is based on comparison of birthweight (BW) or estimated fetal weight (EFW) to standards which define reference ranges at a spectrum of gestational ages. Most birthweight standards do not take into account effects of physiological determinants of fetal growth. Additionally, gestational age in many standards is based on the menstrual history and is often inaccurate. Fetal growth norms should be based on an early ultrasound estimate of gestational age. Customized standards, which have included only ultrasound-dated pregnancies, seem to be superior to population-based birthweight norms in predicting perinatal mortality and morbidity. Adjustment for individual variation in customized growth curves reduces false-positive diagnosis of IUGR and may lead to a very significant reduction in intervention for suspected IUGR. Customized growth potential identifies better the risk for adverse outcome than the currently used national standards, but customized charts may fail in detecting growth-restricted stillbirth. An individual's birthweight is the sum of physiological and pathological influences operating during pregnancy. Growth potential norms are a better discriminator of aberrations of fetal growth than population, ultrasound, and customized norms.

  11. Physiological effects of compensatory growth during the larval stage of the ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Pan, Chang; Li, Haosen; Zhang, Yuhong; Pang, Hong

    2015-12-01

    The growth rate of insects may vary in response to shifty environments. They may achieve compensatory growth after a period of food restriction followed by ad libitum food, which may further affect the reproductive performance and lifespan of the resulting phenotypes. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms associated with such growth acceleration in insects. The present study examined the metabolic rate, the antioxidant enzyme activity and the gene expression of adult Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) after experiencing compensatory growth during its larval stages. Starved C. montrouzieri individuals achieved a similar developmental time and adult body mass as those supplied with ad libitum food during their entire larval stage, indicating that compensatory growth occurred as a result of the switch in larval food regime. Further, the compensatory growth was found to exert effects on the physiological functions of C. montrouzieri, in terms of its metabolic rates and enzyme activities. The adults undergoing compensatory growth were characterized by a higher metabolic rate, a lower activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase and a lower gene expression of P450 and trehalase. Taken together, the results indicate that although compensatory growth following food restriction in early larval life prevents developmental delay and body mass loss, the resulting adults may encounter physiological challenges affecting their fitness.

  12. The effect of time trial cycling position on physiological and aerodynamic variables.

    PubMed

    Fintelman, D M; Sterling, M; Hemida, H; Li, F-X

    2015-01-01

    To reduce aerodynamic resistance cyclists lower their torso angle, concurrently reducing Peak Power Output (PPO). However, realistic torso angle changes in the range used by time trial cyclists have not yet been examined. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of torso angle on physiological parameters and frontal area in different commonly used time trial positions. Nineteen well-trained male cyclists performed incremental tests on a cycle ergometer at five different torso angles: their preferred torso angle and at 0, 8, 16 and 24°. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide expiration, minute ventilation, gross efficiency, PPO, heart rate, cadence and frontal area were recorded. The frontal area provides an estimate of the aerodynamic drag. Overall, results showed that lower torso angles attenuated performance. Maximal values of all variables, attained in the incremental test, decreased with lower torso angles (P < 0.001). The 0° torso angle position significantly affected the metabolic and physiological variables compared to all other investigated positions. At constant submaximal intensities of 60, 70 and 80% PPO, all variables significantly increased with increasing intensity (P < 0.0001) and decreasing torso angle (P < 0.005). This study shows that for trained cyclists there should be a trade-off between the aerodynamic drag and physiological functioning.

  13. [Effects of grafting on physiological characteristics of melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings under copper stress].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming-min; Zhang, Xin-ying; Fu, Qiu-shi; He, Zhong-qun; Wang, Huai-song

    2014-12-01

    The effects of grafting on physiological characters of melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings under copper stress were investigated with Pumpkin Jingxinzhen No. 3 as stock and oriental melon IVF09 as scion. The results showed that the physiological characters of melon seedlings were inhibited significantly under copper stress. Compared with self-rooted seedlings, the biomass, the contents of photosynthetic pigment, glucose and fructose, the photosynthetic parameters, the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase, neutral invertase and acid invertase in the leaves of the grafted seedlings were increased significantly. The uptake of nutrients was improved with the contents of K, P, Na increased and the content of Cu decreased. When the concentration of Cu2+ stress was 800 micromol L(-1), the contents of Cu in the leaves and roots of the grafted seedlings were decreased by 31.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Endogenous hormone balance of seedlings was improved by grafting. In the grafted seedlings, the content of IAA and peroxidase activity were higher, whereas the contents of ABA, maleicdialdehyde, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were lower than that in the control. It was concluded that the copper stress on the physiological characters of melon seedlings was relieved by grafting which improved the resistance of the grafted seedlings. PMID:25876409

  14. Effects of G-trainer, cycle ergometry, and stretching on physiological and psychological recovery from endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    West, Amy D; Cooke, Matthew B; LaBounty, Paul M; Byars, Allyn G; Greenwood, Mike

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 3 treatment modes (Anti-Gravity Treadmill [G-trainer], stationary cycling [CompuTrainer], and static stretching) on the physiological and psychological recovery after an acute bout of exhaustive exercise. In a crossover design, 12 aerobically trained men (21.3 ± 2.3 years, 72.1 ± 8.1 kg, 178.4 ± 6.3 cm, (Equation is included in full-text article.): 53.7 ± 6.3 ml·kg·min) completed a 29-km stationary cycling time trial. Immediately after the time trial, subjects completed 30 minutes of G-trainer or CompuTrainer (40% (Equation is included in full-text article.)) or static stretching exercises. A significant time effect was detected for plasma lactate (p = 0.010) and serum cortisol (p = 0.039) after exercise. No treatment or treatment by time interaction was identified for lactate or cortisol, respectively. No main effects for time, treatment, or treatment by time interaction were identified for interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). No differences were observed among treatments in skeletal muscle peak power output, mean power output, time to peak power, and rate to fatigue at 24 hours postexercise bout. Finally, no significant changes in mood status were observed after exercise and between treatment groups. When compared with stationary cycling and static stretching, exercise recovery performed on the G-trainer was unable to reduce systemic markers of stress and inflammation, blood lactate, or improve anaerobic performance and psychological mood states after an exhaustive bout of endurance exercise. Further research is warranted that includes individualized recovery modalities to create balances between the stresses of training and competition.

  15. Organizational and activational effects of testosterone on masculinization of female physiological and behavioral stress responses.

    PubMed

    Goel, Nirupa; Bale, Tracy L

    2008-12-01

    The prevalence of affective disorders is two times greater in women than in men. The onset of anxiety and depression occurs at different ages that may correspond to key developmental periods when the brain is more vulnerable to hormonal and exogenous influences. Because stressful life events can precipitate disease onset, the development of greater stress sensitivity in females may contribute to their increased vulnerability. Gonadal hormone exposure in males during early development and again from puberty onward plays a prominent role in sexually dimorphic brain formation, possibly contributing to sex differences in stress responsivity. Therefore, organizational effects of testosterone propionate (TP) administered postnatally and activational effects of TP administered beginning at puberty on adult female physiological and behavioral stress responses were examined in mice. Although the activational effects of TP in females ameliorated the sex difference in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response, there was no effect of postnatal TP. Similarly, higher immobile time in intact females in the tail suspension test was blunted by activational TP in the absence of postnatal TP. However, in the marble-burying test of anxiety-like behaviors, organizational and activational TP independently resulted in increased burying behaviors. These results show that TP administration has distinct effects on reducing physiological and behavioral stress responsivity in rodent models and suggest that sex differences in these responses may partially result from the absence of testosterone in females.

  16. PPARα mediates acute effects of palmitoylethanolamide on sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Khasabova, Iryna A.; Xiong, Yee; Coicou, Lia G.; Piomelli, Daniele; Seybold, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The amplitude of the depolarization-evoked Ca2+ transient is larger in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from tumor-bearing mice compared to that of neurons from naive mice, and the change is mimicked by co-culturing DRG neurons with the fibrosarcoma cells used to generate the tumors (Khasabova et al., 2007). The effect of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a ligand for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα), was determined on the evoked-Ca2+ transient in the co-culture condition. The level of PEA was reduced in DRG cells from tumor-bearing mice as well as those co-cultured with fibrosarcoma cells. Pretreatment with PEA, a synthetic PPARα agonist (GW7647), or ARN077, an inhibitor of the enzyme that hydrolyses PEA, acutely decreased the amplitude of the evoked Ca2+ transient in small DRG neurons co-cultured with fibrosarcoma cells. The PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocked the effect of each. In contrast, the PPARα agonist was without effect in the control condition, but the antagonist increased the amplitude of the Ca2+ transient suggesting that PPARα receptors are saturated by endogenous ligand under basal conditions. Effects of drugs on mechanical sensitivity in vivo paralleled their effects on DRG neurons in vitro. Local injection of ARN077 decreased mechanical hyperalgesia in tumor-bearing mice, and the effect was blocked by GW6471. These data support the conclusion that the activity of DRG neurons is rapidly modulated by PEA through a PPARα-dependent mechanism. Moreover, agents that increase the activity of PPARα may provide a therapeutic strategy to reduce tumor-evoked pain. PMID:22972997

  17. [Acute Toxic Effects of Bromate on Aquatic Organisms].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhang, Wen-juan; Cui, Fu-yi

    2016-02-15

    Acute toxic effects of potassium bromate, sodium bromate and potassium bromide on luminescent bacteria, water flea, green alga and zebrafish were studied using standard toxic testing methods. The results showed that the pollutants had no effect on the luminous intensity of luminescent bacteria. The 96 h EC5. of potassium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 738.18 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 on Daphnia magna and Moina was 154.01 mg x L(-1) was 161.80 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 198 52 mg x L(-1), 175.68 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 931.4 mg x L(-1). The 96 h EC50 of sodium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 540.26 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 Daphnia magna and Moina was 127.90 mg x L(-1), 111.07 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 161.80 mg x L(-1), 123.47 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 1065.6 mg x L(-1). But the effects of potassium bromide on the above several kinds of aquatic organisms were far smaller than those of potassium bromate and sodium bromate. The toxic effects on test organisms were due to the impacts of bromate after the comparison of different pollutants, and the effects were more obvious with the increase of exposure time. The order of sensitivity to the toxic effects of bromate was Daphnia magna, Moina > Scenedesmus obliquus > zebrafish > Chlorella vulgaris, luminescent bacteria. PMID:27363170

  18. Effectiveness of inquiry-based learning in an undergraduate exercise physiology course.

    PubMed

    Nybo, Lars; May, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of changing a laboratory physiology course for undergraduate students from a traditional step-by-step guided structure to an inquiry-based approach. With this aim in mind, quantitative and qualitative evaluations of learning outcomes (individual subject-specific tests and group interviews) were performed for a laboratory course in cardiorespiratory exercise physiology that was conducted in one year with a traditional step-by-step guided manual (traditional course) and the next year completed with an inquiry-based structure (I-based course). The I-based course was a guided inquiry course where students had to design the experimental protocol and conduct their own study on the basis of certain predefined criteria (i.e., they should evaluate respiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise and provide indirect and direct measures of aerobic exercise capacity). The results indicated that the overall time spent on the experimental course as well as self-evaluated learning outcomes were similar across groups. However, students in the I-based course used more time in preparation (102 ± 5 min) than students in the traditional course (42 ± 3 min, P < 0.05), and 65 ± 5% students in the I-based course searched for additional literature before experimentation compared with only 2 ± 1% students in the traditional course. Furthermore, students in the I-based course achieved a higher (P < 0.05) average score on the quantitative test (45 ± 3%) compared with students in the traditional course (31 ± 4%). Although students were unfamiliar with cardiorespiratory exercise physiology and the experimental methods before the course, it appears that an inquiry-based approach rather than one that provides students with step-by-step instructions may benefit learning outcomes in a laboratory physiology course.

  19. [Effect of red and blue spectrum on photosynthesis physiological characteristics of two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chan; Yang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Kun

    2008-07-01

    Photosynthesis physiological characteristics of two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis were studied under different red and blue light excitation by LED red and blue lamp-house. Photosynthesis did not carry on under red and blue light of 50 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1). When red and blue light intensity was increased, photosynthesis rate, stoma limit value and transpiration rate of the two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis were all increased. But photosynthesis rate stopped increasing under red and blue light of 1 150 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis and of 907 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis, which is known as light saturation. And the effect of blue light on photosynthesis became weaker than red light under higher light intensity. Increasing light intensity can promote plant photosynthesis rate in the range of low light intensity. But when light intensity reaches light saturation, photosynthesis rate does not increases but decreases. Because though light quantum numbers is increasing, the numbers of coloring mater does not change and is saturated. On the other hand, when the light intensity is of light saturation, the stoma limit value was increased and the transpiration rate was decreased in order to reduce water waste. When light intensity reaches the value that plant can bear, the plant will automatically close stoma in order to decrease transpiration and to save water. Plant balances every physiological index and makes sure that physiology damage is the least and production is the greatest. Although grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis has lower stoma limit and higher water waste, it also has higher photosynthesis rate than yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis. And the photosynthesis capability and physiology adaptation of grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis is greater than that of yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis.

  20. Effectiveness of inquiry-based learning in an undergraduate exercise physiology course.

    PubMed

    Nybo, Lars; May, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of changing a laboratory physiology course for undergraduate students from a traditional step-by-step guided structure to an inquiry-based approach. With this aim in mind, quantitative and qualitative evaluations of learning outcomes (individual subject-specific tests and group interviews) were performed for a laboratory course in cardiorespiratory exercise physiology that was conducted in one year with a traditional step-by-step guided manual (traditional course) and the next year completed with an inquiry-based structure (I-based course). The I-based course was a guided inquiry course where students had to design the experimental protocol and conduct their own study on the basis of certain predefined criteria (i.e., they should evaluate respiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise and provide indirect and direct measures of aerobic exercise capacity). The results indicated that the overall time spent on the experimental course as well as self-evaluated learning outcomes were similar across groups. However, students in the I-based course used more time in preparation (102 ± 5 min) than students in the traditional course (42 ± 3 min, P < 0.05), and 65 ± 5% students in the I-based course searched for additional literature before experimentation compared with only 2 ± 1% students in the traditional course. Furthermore, students in the I-based course achieved a higher (P < 0.05) average score on the quantitative test (45 ± 3%) compared with students in the traditional course (31 ± 4%). Although students were unfamiliar with cardiorespiratory exercise physiology and the experimental methods before the course, it appears that an inquiry-based approach rather than one that provides students with step-by-step instructions may benefit learning outcomes in a laboratory physiology course. PMID:26031722

  1. The Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Physiological Responses to Submaximal Exercise in Endurance-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise, with a focus on blood lactate concentration ([BLa]). Methods Using a randomised, single-blind, crossover design; 16 endurance-trained, male cyclists (age: 38 ± 8 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.6 ± 7.8 kg; V˙O2max: 4.3 ± 0.6 L∙min-1) completed four trials on an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer. Each trial consisted of a six-stage incremental test (3 minute stages) followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. One hour before trials 2–4, participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg∙kg-1 of either caffeine or placebo (maltodextrin). Trials 2 and 3 were designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on various physiological responses during exercise and recovery. In contrast, Trial 4 was designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on [BLa] during passive recovery from an end-exercise concentration of 4 mmol∙L-1. Results Relative to placebo, caffeine increased [BLa] during exercise, independent of exercise intensity (mean difference: 0.33 ± 0.41 mmol∙L-1; 95% likely range: 0.11 to 0.55 mmol∙L-1), but did not affect the time-course of [BLa] during recovery (p = 0.604). Caffeine reduced ratings of perceived exertion (mean difference: 0.5 ± 0.7; 95% likely range: 0.1 to 0.9) and heart rate (mean difference: 3.6 ± 4.2 b∙min-1; 95% likely range: 1.3 to 5.8 b∙min-1) during exercise, with the effect on the latter dissipating as exercise intensity increased. Supplement × exercise intensity interactions were observed for respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.004) and minute ventilation (p = 0.034). Conclusions The results of the present study illustrate the clear, though often subtle, effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise. Researchers should be aware of these responses, particularly when evaluating the physiological effects of various experimental interventions. PMID:27532605

  2. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output. PMID:24878317

  3. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output.

  4. Physiological response to aerosol propellants.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, R D; Newton, P E; Baretta, E D; Herrmann, A A; Forster, H V; Soto, R J

    1978-01-01

    Acute exposures to isobutane, propane, F-12, and F-11 in concentrations of 250, 500, or 1000 ppm for periods of 1 min to 8 hr did not produce any untoward physiological effects as determined by the methods employed which included serial EKG's and continuous monitoring of modified V5 by telemetry during exposure. Repetitive exposures to these four propellants were also without measurable untoward physiological effect with the exception of the eight male subjects repetitively exposed to 1000 ppm, F-11, who did show minor decrements in several of the cognitive tests. Of particular importance is the observation that none of the subjects showed any decrement in pulmonary function or alteration in cardiac rhythm as the result of exposure to concentrations of the gases or vapors far greater than encountered in the normal use of aerosol products in the home. PMID:214300

  5. Sensory and Cognitive Effects of Acute Exposure to Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Nancy; Kipen, Howard; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhang, Junfeng; Weisel, Clifford; Laumbach, Robert; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Olejeme, Kelechi; Lioy, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Some epidemiologic studies have reported compromised cognitive and sensory performance among individuals exposed to low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Objectives We hypothesized a dose–response increase in symptom severity and reduction in sensory and cognitive performance in response to controlled H2S exposures. Methods In separate exposure sessions administered in random order over three consecutive weeks, 74 healthy subjects [35 females, 39 males; mean age (± SD) = 24.7 ± 4.2; mean years of education = 16.5 ± 2.4], were exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5 ppm H2S. During each exposure session, subjects completed ratings and tests before H2S exposure (baseline) and during the final hour of the 2-hr exposure period. Results Dose–response reduction in air quality and increases in ratings of odor intensity, irritation, and unpleasantness were observed. Total symptom severity was not significantly elevated across any exposure condition, but anxiety symptoms were significantly greater in the 5-ppm than in the 0.05-ppm condition. No dose–response effect was observed for sensory or cognitive measures. Verbal learning was compromised during each exposure condition. Conclusions Although some symptoms increased with exposure, the magnitude of these changes was relatively minor. Increased anxiety was significantly related to ratings of irritation due to odor. Whether the effect on verbal learning represents a threshold effect of H2S or an effect due to fatigue across exposure requires further investigation. These acute effects in a healthy sample cannot be directly generalized to communities where individuals have other health conditions and concomitant exposures. PMID:18197303

  6. Aflatrem: a tremorgenic mycotoxin with acute neurotoxic effects.

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, J J; Cameron, J E; Cole, R J

    1985-01-01

    Tremorgenic mycotoxins induce neurologic symptoms ranging from mental confusion to tremors, seizures and death, and are apparently the only class of mycotoxins with significant central nervous system activity. Tremorgens have been implicated in a number of neurologic diseases of cattle collectively known as staggers syndromes, and pose significant agricultural and health problems for both cattle and humans. Although the effects of tremorgens are thought to result from transient perturbations of amino acid neurotransmitter release mechanisms, there is reason to believe that acute exposures to toxins with such synaptic effects may result in degeneration of neuronal fiber processes. To test this hypothesis, rats were given a single tremorgenic (3 mg/kg, IP) dose of aflatrem, and kinetics of amino acid neurotransmitter uptake was assessed in isolated hippocampal nerve terminals at 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks after injection. Results indicate a decrease in the capacity of the GABA and glutamate uptake systems, which was interpreted as a loss of nerve terminals. The affinity constants suggest a decrease in release of these transmitters as well. In addition to its transient influence on transmitter release, a single low dose of aflatrem is able to induce degeneration of neuronal processes in hippocampal neurotransmitter systems and therefore represents a long-term health threat. PMID:2867895

  7. Physiological effects of oral glucosamine on joint health: current status and consensus on future research priorities.

    PubMed

    Henrotin, Yves; Chevalier, Xavier; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel; McAlindon, Timothy; Mobasheri, Ali; Pavelka, Karel; Schön, Christiane; Weinans, Harrie; Biesalski, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current knowledge and understanding of the potential beneficial physiological effects of glucosamine (GlcN) on joint health. The objective was to reach a consensus on four critical questions and to provide recommendations for future research priorities. To this end, nine scientists from Europe and the United States were selected according to their expertise in this particular field and were invited to participate in the Hohenheim conference held in August 2011. Each expert was asked to address a question that had previously been posed by the chairman of the conference. Based on a systematic review of the literature and the collection of recent data, the experts documented the effects of GlcN on cartilage ageing, metabolic/kinetic and maintenance of joint health as well as reduction of risk of OA development. After extensive debate and discussion the expert panel addressed each question and a general consensus statement was developed, agreeing on the current state-of-the-art and future areas for basic and clinical studies. This paper summarizes the available evidence for beneficial effects of GlcN on joint health and proposes new insight into the design of future clinical trials aimed at identifying beneficial physiological effect of GlcN on joint tissues. PMID:23531101

  8. Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF) of the electromyogram (EMG), rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), skin blood flow (SBF), concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb), and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue. PMID:22980588

  9. Perceiving blocks of emotional pictures and sounds: effects on physiological variables

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Wouwe, Nelleke; Mühl, Christian; van Erp, Jan; Toet, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on physiological effects of emotion-inducing images and sounds examine stimulus locked variables reflecting a state of at most a few seconds. We here aimed to induce longer lasting emotional states using blocks of repetitive visual, auditory, and bimodal stimuli corresponding to specific valence and arousal levels. The duration of these blocks enabled us to reliably measure heart rate variability as a possible indicator of arousal. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance were determined without taking stimulus timing into account. Heart rate was higher for pleasant and low arousal stimuli compared to unpleasant and high arousal stimuli. Heart rate variability and skin conductance increased with arousal. Effects of valence and arousal on cardiovascular measures habituated or remained the same over 2-min intervals whereas the arousal effect on skin conductance increased. We did not find any effect of stimulus modality. Our results indicate that blocks of images and sounds of specific valence and arousal levels consistently influence different physiological parameters. These parameters need not be stimulus locked. We found no evidence for differences in emotion induction between visual and auditory stimuli, nor did we find bimodal stimuli to be more potent than unimodal stimuli. The latter could be (partly) due to the fact that our bimodal stimuli were not optimally congruent. PMID:23801957

  10. Augmented visual feedback counteracts the effects of surface muscular functional electrical stimulation on physiological tremor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that surface muscular functional electrical stimulation (FES) might suppress neurological upper limb tremor. We assessed its effects on upper limb physiological tremor, which is mainly driven by mechanical-reflex oscillations. We investigated the interaction between FES and augmented visual feedback, since (a) most daily activities are performed using visual cues, and (b) augmented visual feedback exacerbates upper limb tremor. Methods 10 healthy subjects (23.4 ± 7.7 years) performed 2 postural tasks with combinations of FES (4 sites; frequency of stimulation: 30 Hz; pulse width: 300 microsec; range of current delivered 10–34 mAmp) and augmented visual feedback. Results Spectral analysis of tremor showed a decrease of power spectral density to 62.18% (p = 0.01), of the integral in the 8-12 Hz frequency band to 57.67% (p = 0.003), and of tremor root mean square (RMS) to 57.16% (p = 0.002) during FES, without any changes in tremor frequency. Augmented visual feedback blocked the beneficial effect of FES, as confirmed by power spectral analysis (p = 0.01). We found a statistically significant interaction between augmented visual feedback and electrical stimulation (p = 0.039). Conclusions Augmented visual feedback antagonizes the effects of FES on physiological tremor. The absence of changes of peak frequency argues against an effect of FES on mechanical properties of the upper limb. PMID:24063436

  11. Effects of post-exercise recovery interventions on physiological, psychological, and performance parameters.

    PubMed

    Cortis, C; Tessitore, A; D'Artibale, E; Meeusen, R; Capranica, L

    2010-05-01

    At present, there is no consensus on the effectiveness of post-exercise recovery interventions on subsequent daily performances. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 20 min low-intensity water exercises, supine electrostimulation, and passive (sitting rest) recovery modalities on physiological (oxygen consumption, blood lactate concentration, and percentage of hemoglobin saturation in the muscles), psychological (subjective ratings of perceived exertion, muscle pain, and feeling of recovery), and performance (countermovement, bouncing jumping) parameters. During three experimental sessions, 8 men (age: 21.9+/-1.3 yrs; height: 175.8+/-10.7 cm; body mass: 71.2+/-9.8 kg; VO(2max): 57.9+/-5.1 ml x kg x min(-1)) performed a morning and an afternoon submaximal running test. The recovery interventions were randomly administered after the first morning tests. Activity and dietary intake were replicated on each occasion. ANOVA for repeated measures (p<0.05) showed no difference between the morning and afternoon physiological (ratios: range 0.90-1.18) and performance parameters (ratios: range 0.80-1.24), demonstrating that post-exercise recovery interventions do not provide significant beneficial effects over a limited time period. Conversely, subjects perceived water exercises (60%) and electrostimulation (40%) as the most effective interventions, indicating that these recovery strategies might improve the subjective feelings of wellbeing of the individual. PMID:20180177

  12. Comparison of subjective, pharmacokinetic, and physiological effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Recent increases in marijuana smoking among the young adult population have been accompanied by the popularization of smoking marijuana as blunts instead of as joints. Blunts consist of marijuana wrapped in tobacco leaves, whereas joints consist of marijuana wrapped in cigarette paper. To date, the effects of marijuana smoked as joints and blunts have not been systematically compared. The current within-subject, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study sought to directly compare the subjective, physiological, and pharmacokinetic effects of marijuana smoked by these two methods. Marijuana blunt smokers (12 women and 12 men) were recruited and participated in a 6-session outpatient study. Participants were blindfolded and smoked three puffs from either a blunt or a joint containing marijuana with varying Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations (0.0, 1.8, and 3.6%). Subjective, physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, and carbon monoxide levels) and pharmacokinetic effects (plasma THC concentration) were monitored before and at specified time points for 3h after smoking. Joints produced greater increases in plasma THC and subjective ratings of marijuana intoxication, strength, and quality compared to blunts, and these effects were more pronounced in women compared to men. However, blunts produced equivalent increases in heart rate and higher carbon monoxide levels than joints, despite producing lower levels of plasma THC. These findings demonstrate that smoking marijuana in a tobacco leaf may increase the risks of marijuana use by enhancing carbon monoxide exposure and increasing heart rate compared to joints. PMID:19443132

  13. Physiological Effects of Nucleotide Supplementation on Resistance Exercise Stress in Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Sterczala, Adam J; DuPont, William H; Comstock, Brett A; Flanagan, Shawn D; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Kupchak, Brian R; Lee, Elaine C; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2016-02-01

    Nucleotide supplementation can reduce postexercise immunosuppression and hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) axis activation in endurance exercise models. Nucleotide supplementation may aid recovery from other exercise modalities, such as heavy resistance exercise. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to investigate the effects of nucleotide supplementation on the acute cortisol and immune responses to heavy resistance exercise and its effects on recovery. A double-blinded, crossover, mixed methods design with 10 men and 10 women was used. Each performed an acute heavy resistance exercise protocol (AHREP) after a loading period with a nucleotide or placebo supplement. Before and after the AHREP, and at 24, 48, and 72 hours post, blood samples were analyzed for cortisol, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. Creatine kinase (CK) was analyzed before and 24, 48, and 72 hours after the AHREP. Performance measures, including peak back squat isometric force and peak countermovement jump power were also analyzed. Nucleotide supplementation resulted in significant (p ≤ 0.05) decreases in cortisol and MPO immediately after the AHREP, and significantly lower CK values 24 hours later. The AHREP significantly affected leukocyte counts; however, no treatment effects were observed. Greater isometric force was observed immediately after AHREP and at 24 hours and 48 hours with nucleotide supplementation. Nucleotide supplementation seems to attenuate muscle damage, HPA axis and immune system activation, and performance decrements after heavy resistance exercise.

  14. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  15. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an “inverted V” dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  16. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure.

  17. Are antibiotics a safe and effective treatment for acute uncomplicated appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Moraga, Felipe; Ahumada, Vanessa; Crovari, Fernando

    2016-01-26

    Acute appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain and the most frequent cause of emergency abdominal surgery. In the last two decades, growing evidence has been published about the use of antibiotics as the exclusive treatment for acute appendicitis. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified only one systematic review including one pertinent randomized trial. We generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of antibiotics to treat acute uncomplicated appendicitis may be less effective than appendectomy and probably increases major complications compared with appendectomy.

  18. Are antibiotics a safe and effective treatment for acute uncomplicated appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Moraga, Felipe; Ahumada, Vanessa; Crovari, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain and the most frequent cause of emergency abdominal surgery. In the last two decades, growing evidence has been published about the use of antibiotics as the exclusive treatment for acute appendicitis. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified only one systematic review including one pertinent randomized trial. We generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of antibiotics to treat acute uncomplicated appendicitis may be less effective than appendectomy and probably increases major complications compared with appendectomy. PMID:26817927

  19. Invasive insect effects on nitrogen cycling and host physiology are not tightly linked.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Lucy; Charles, Sherley; Sirulnik, Abby G; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2015-02-01

    Invasive insects may dramatically alter resource cycling and productivity in forest ecosystems. Yet, although responses of individual trees should both reflect and affect ecosystem-scale responses, relationships between physiological- and ecosystem-scale responses to invasive insects have not been extensively studied. To address this issue, we examined changes in soil nitrogen (N) cycling, N uptake and allocation, and needle biochemistry and physiology in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L) Carr) saplings, associated with infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) (Adelges tsugae Annand), an invasive insect causing widespread decline of eastern hemlock in the eastern USA. Compared with uninfested saplings, infested saplings had soils that exhibited faster nitrification rates, and more needle (15)N uptake, N and total protein concentrations. However, these variables did not clearly covary. Further, within infested saplings, needle N concentration did not vary with HWA density. Light-saturated net photosynthetic rates (Asat) declined by 42% as HWA density increased from 0 to 3 adelgids per needle, but did not vary with needle N concentration. Rather, Asat varied with stomatal conductance, which was highest at the lowest HWA density and accounted for 79% of the variation in Asat. Photosynthetic light response did not differ among HWA densities. Our results suggest that the effects of HWA infestation on soil N pools and fluxes, (15)N uptake, needle N and protein concentrations, and needle physiology may not be tightly coupled under at least some conditions. This pattern may reflect direct effects of the HWA on N uptake by host trees, as well as effects of other scale-dependent factors, such as tree hydrology, affected by HWA activity.

  20. Virtual Reality Simulation of the Effects of Microgravity in Gastrointestinal Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compadre, Cesar M.

    1998-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research is to create an anatomically accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulation model of the effects of microgravity in gastrointestinal physiology and to explore the role that such changes may have in the pharmacokinetics of drugs given to the space crews for prevention or therapy. To accomplish this goal the specific aims of this research are: 1) To generate a complete 3-D reconstructions of the human GastroIntestinal (GI) tract of the male and female Visible Humans. 2) To develop and implement time-dependent computer algorithms to simulate the GI motility using the above 3-D reconstruction.

  1. Some physiological effects of alternation between zero gravity and one gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1977-01-01

    The anatomy and physiology of the healthy vestibular system and the history of its study, maintenance of muskuloskeletal fitness under low-gravity conditions, tests of motion sickness, and data and techniques on testing subjects in a slow rotation room, are covered. Components of the inner ear labyrinth and their behavior in relation to equilibrium, gravity and inertial forces, motion sickness, and dizziness are discussed. Preventive medicine, the biologically effective force environment, weightlessness per se, activity in a weightless spacecraft, exercizing required to maintain musculoskeletal function, and ataxia problems are dealt with.

  2. [Effect of pentosan polysulphate (SP-54) on the level of prion physiological form in rat tissues].

    PubMed

    Vlizlo, V V; Stadnyk, V V; Maĭor, Kh Ia; Kinakh, M V; Verbytskyĭ, P I; Kozak, M M

    2008-01-01

    It is established that except for already known influence of pentosan polysulphate (SP-54) on the expression of pathological prion, this preparation has an inhibiting effect in respect of physiological prion. Moreover, the reduction of concentration of physiologycal prion is registered in the central and peripheral organs of the prion-replicating system. It was also shown that inhibition of the studied protein leads to the growth in copper and zinc concentration in the proper organs and tissues, but at the same time activity of Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase does not change.

  3. Effects of SO/sub 2/ and ozone on crop physiology and productivity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Laeuchli, A.; Timm, H.

    1985-08-26

    Growth and productivity of several crop cultivars were related to physiological and biochemical parameters. In laboratory studies seed germination was not sensitive to SO/sub 2/ and ozone but root growth was sensitive. SO/sub 2/ inhibited pollen tube growth; ozone had no effect on pollen viability. Differential SO/sub 2/ sensitivity in corn cultivars was related to cellular uptake and detoxification. SO/sub 2/ induced ethylene production in a sensitive corn cultivar without visible injury. In bean cultivars sensitivity to ozone was correlated with stomatal uptake. Ozone decreased plant growth and pod yield, and lowered leaf water potential prior to bloom.

  4. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M.; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C.; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Methods: Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Results: The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001, Friedman test) with a median rating of 8 mm (corresponding to “hardly at all”) at the 0.1 ppm condition and with no influence from EA. No significant exposure-related effects were found for pulmonary function, or nasal swelling, nor for markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood (IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and Clara cell protein) or induced sputum (cell count, differential cell count, IL-6 and IL-8). Blink frequency recorded by electromyography was increased during exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Conclusion: Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein. PMID:26635308

  5. Acute effects of tianeptine on circulating neurotransmitters and cardiovascular parameters.

    PubMed

    Lechin, Fuad; van der Dijs, Bertha; Hernández, Gerardo; Orozco, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Simon; Baez, Scarlet

    2006-03-01

    Tianeptine is a serotonin-uptake enhancer drug whose antidepressant effectiveness is based on its ability to reduce rather than increase serotonin availability at the synaptic cleft. This paradoxical neuropharmacological mechanism has raised doubt among neuropharmacologists and psychiatrists as to the role of tianeptine as a trusty-reliable antidepressant drug. This controversial issue led us to investigate the acute effects of a single, oral dose (12.5 mg) of this drug on circulating neurotransmitters and cardiovascular parameters in 50 healthy subjects. The drug provoked a striking and significant reduction of plasma noradrenaline (NA) and plasma serotonin (f-5-HT) while it increased plasma dopamine (DA) and platelet serotonin (p-5-HT) concentrations within the 4-h study period. No adrenaline (Ad) changes were registered. The NA/Ad ratio and the f-5-HT/p-5-HT ratio showed significant reduction throughout the test. Finally, although diastolic blood pressure (DBP) showed significant decrease, neither systolic blood pressure (SBP) nor heart rate (HR) showed significant change. These findings are consistent with the postulation that tianeptine reduces both neural sympathetic activity and parasympathetic activity without affecting adrenal sympathetic activity, enabling us to discuss the possible mechanisms involved in the antidepressant effects of tianeptine. The well-known fact that major depressed patients always show raised NA plus lower than normal p-5-HT levels, both disorders which are normalized by tianeptine, gives neurochemical support to the clinical improvement triggered by the drug in these patients. Summarizing, the results presented in this study demonstrate that tianeptine triggers significant reduction of circulating noradrenaline and plasma serotonin while increasing circulating dopamine and platelet serotonin. Other possible neuropharmacological effects are also discussed.

  6. Pulmonary surfactant in the airway physiology: a direct relaxing effect on the smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Calkovska, A; Uhliarova, B; Joskova, M; Franova, S; Kolomaznik, M; Calkovsky, V; Smolarova, S

    2015-04-01

    Beside alveoli, surface active material plays an important role in the airway physiology. In the upper airways it primarily serves in local defense. Lower airway surfactant stabilizes peripheral airways, provides the transport and defense, has barrier and anti-edematous functions, and possesses direct relaxant effect on the smooth muscle. We tested in vitro the effect of two surfactant preparations Curosurf® and Alveofact® on the precontracted smooth muscle of intra- and extra-pulmonary airways. Relaxation was more pronounced for lung tissue strip containing bronchial smooth muscle as the primary site of surfactant effect. The study does not confirm the participation of ATP-dependent potassium channels and cAMP-regulated epithelial chloride channels known as CFTR chloride channels, or nitric oxide involvement in contractile response of smooth muscle to surfactant.By controlling wall thickness and airway diameter, pulmonary surfactant is an important component of airway physiology. Thus, surfactant dysfunction may be included in pathophysiology of asthma, COPD, or other diseases with bronchial obstruction.

  7. Pathologic and physiologic effects associated with long-term intracoelomic transmitters in captive Siberian sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, S. Shaun; Divers, Stephen J.; Camus, Alvin C.; Peterson, Douglas C.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Shelton, James L.; Hernandez, Sonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Intracoelomic transmitters are commonly used to evaluate migratory patterns, distribution, and habitat use of many species of fish. Currently, transmitter implantation relies mostly on the assumption that transmitters do not cause any adverse physiological or pathological effects on the animal. To investigate these effects, we surgically implanted 60 Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baeri with transmitters that weighed less than 2% of their body weight. Postoperative assessments were conducted at 1, 2, 8, 12, 26, and 55 weeks to evaluate surgical healing and transmitter retention. Blood samples were collected before and after the 55-week study for serum cortisol analysis. Overall transmitter loss was 32%. Minor to moderate adhesions were noted at necropsy but did not appear to affect organ function. One fish was noted to have an intraintestinal transmitter at necropsy, but the fish was in overall good health. Long-term transmitter presence does not appear to increase serum cortisol levels or affect overall growth more than nontransmitter fish. Although long-term telemetry studies can be undertaken with minimal concern for negative physiological or pathological effects from transmitters, researchers should be aware that transmitter loss rates may be higher than previously thought. Mechanisms for transmitter loss may include expulsion through the surgical incision, expulsion through the mucocutaneous junction between the large intestine and the vent, or intraintestinal capture and expulsion through the vent. Received February 10, 2013; accepted June 10, 2013

  8. The effect of cosmic ray intensity variations and geomagnetic disturbances on the physiological state of aviators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Kudela, K.; Stetiarova, J.; Dimitrova, S.; Giannaropoulou, E.

    2011-09-01

    Over the last few years various researches have reached the conclusion that cosmic ray variations and geomagnetic disturbances are related to the condition of the human physiological state. In this study medical data regarding 4018 Slovak aviators were analyzed in relation to daily variations of cosmic ray and geomagnetic activity. Specifically daily data concerning mean values of heart rate which were registered during the medical examinations of the Slovak aviators, were related to daily variations of cosmic ray intensity, as measured by the Neutron Monitor Station on Lomnicky Stit (http://neutronmonitor.ta3.sk/realtime.php3) and the high resolution neutron monitor database (http://www.nmdb.eu) and daily variations of Dst and Ap geomagnetic indices. All subjects were men in good health of age 18-60 yrs. This particular study refers to the time period from 1 January 1994 till 31 December 2002. Statistical methods were applied to establish a statistical significance of the effect of geomagnetic activity levels and cosmic ray intensity variations on the aforementioned physiological parameters for the whole group. The Pearson r-coefficients were calculated and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method was applied to establish the statistical significance levels (p-values) of the effect of geomagnetic activity and cosmic ray intensity variations on heart rate up to three days before and three days after the respective events. Results show that there is an underlying effect of geomagnetic activity and cosmic ray intensity variations on the cardiovascular functionality.

  9. Behavioral and physiological effects of capsaicin in red-winged blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Mason, J R; Maruniak, J A

    1983-11-01

    We injected red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) subcutaneously with capsaicin, and assessed (a) changes in basal body temperature, (b) ability to discriminate warm from cool drinking water, and (c) sensitivity to oral and topical applications of capsaicin, a trigeminal irritant. As predicted from studies of mammals, the injections seemed to disrupt thermoregulation when the ambient temperature increased, and eliminated discrimination between warm and cool drinking water (Figs. 1 and 2). In contrast to effects on mammals, injections failed to observably diminish oral or topical sensitivity to capsaicin and apparently induced a capsaicin preference in two-bottle drinking tests between capsaicin and its vehicle (Fig. 3). Such preferences were context-dependent, however, since water was reliably preferred to capsaicin or vehicle in three-bottle tests. To our knowledge, the present work is the first to report physiological and behavioral effects of capsaicin on birds, and the first to suggest that the substance may have different behavioral and physiological effects on different classes of animals.

  10. Effects of Essential Oil from Hinoki Cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, on Physiology and Behavior of Flies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin-Hae; Do, Hyung-Seok; Min, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Phytoncides, which are volatile substances emitted from plants for protection against plant pathogens and insects, are known to have insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. In contrast to their negative effects on microorganisms and insects, phytoncides have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Essential oil from Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) is mostly used in commercial products such as air purifiers. However, the physiological/behavioral impact of essential oil from C. obtusa on insects is not established. In this study, we tested the effects of essential oil extracted from C. obtusa on the physiologies and behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. Exposure to essential oil from C. obtusa decreased the lifespan, fecundity, locomotive activity, and developmental success rate of D. melanogaster. In addition, both fruit flies and house flies showed strong repellent behavioral responses to the essential oil, with duration times of about 5 hours at 70 μg/ml. These results suggest that essential oil from C. obtusa can be used as a 'human-friendly' alternative insect repellent. PMID:26624577

  11. Interactive effects of selenium, methionine, and dietary protein on survival, growth, and physiology in mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sanderson, C.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Cromartie, E.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    Concentrations of over 100 ppm (100 mg/kg) selenium (Se) have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater. Both quantity and composition of dietary protein for wild ducklings may vary in selenium-contaminated environments. Day-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings received one of the following diets containing 22% protein: unsupplemented (controls), 15 ppm Se (as selenomethionine), 60 ppm Se, methionine supplemented, 15 ppm Se with methionine supplement, or 60 ppm Se with methionine supplement. In a second concurrent experiment the above sequence was repeated with a protein-restricted (11%) but isocaloric diet. In a third concurrent experiment all ducklings received 44% protein with 0, 15, or 60 ppm Se added. After 4 weeks, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histological examination. With 22% protein and 60 ppm Se in the diet, duckling survival and growth was reduced and histopathological lesions of the liver occurred. Antagonistic interactive effects occurred between supplementary methionine and Se, including complete to partial alleviation of the following Se effects by methionine: mortality, hepatic lesions, and altered glutathione and thiol status. With 11% protein, growth of controls was less than that with 22% protein, Se (60 ppm) caused 100% mortality, and methionine supplementation, although protective afforded less protection than it did with 22% protein. With 44% protein, ducklings experienced physiological stress, and Se was more toxic than with methionine-supplemented 22% protein. These findings suggest the potential for antagonistic effects of Se, methionine, and protein on duckling survival and physiology.

  12. Effects of Essential Oil from Hinoki Cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, on Physiology and Behavior of Flies

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Phytoncides, which are volatile substances emitted from plants for protection against plant pathogens and insects, are known to have insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. In contrast to their negative effects on microorganisms and insects, phytoncides have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Essential oil from Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) is mostly used in commercial products such as air purifiers. However, the physiological/behavioral impact of essential oil from C. obtusa on insects is not established. In this study, we tested the effects of essential oil extracted from C. obtusa on the physiologies and behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. Exposure to essential oil from C. obtusa decreased the lifespan, fecundity, locomotive activity, and developmental success rate of D. melanogaster. In addition, both fruit flies and house flies showed strong repellent behavioral responses to the essential oil, with duration times of about 5 hours at 70 μg/ml. These results suggest that essential oil from C. obtusa can be used as a ‘human-friendly’ alternative insect repellent. PMID:26624577

  13. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  14. Effect of illuminance and color temperature on lowering of physiological activity.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Sakaguchi, T

    1999-07-01

    To investigate how illuminance and color temperature in illumination affect the autonomic nervous system and central nervous system in conditions tending to lower physiological activity, and with an ordinary residential setting in mind, we performed an experiment on 8 healthy male subjects. The experimental conditions consisted of 4 conditions provided by a combination of 2 levels of color temperature (3000 K, 5000 K) and 2 levels of illuminance (30 lx, 150 lx). Physiological measurement was carried out during a process of 22 minutes of light exposure followed by 20 minutes of sleep in darkness. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as an index of the autonomic nervous system, and alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC) and mean frequency of EEG were used as indices of the central nervous system. Subjective evaluation of drowsiness during the experiment was also carried out immediately following the 20 minutes sleep. No effect on HRV from illumination was noted, but significantly (p < 0.05) lower values for AAC were obtained under 3000 K conditions than 5000 K conditions in measurements during the first half of light exposure (Session 1). During alpha attenuation testing, significantly (p < 0.05) lower values for mean frequency in the theta-beta EEG bandwidth were also obtained under 3000 K conditions than 5000 K conditions, but that pattern persisted in measurement during the second half of light exposure (Session 2). Subjective drowsiness was also higher under 3000 K conditions than 5000 K conditions. These results suggest that low color temperature light creates a smooth lowering of central nervous system activity, and that low color temperature illumination can be used effectively in a bedroom or other such environment where it is desirable to facilitate lowered physiological activity.

  15. The effect of matrix metalloproteinase-3 deficiency on pulmonary surfactant in a mouse model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Cory M; Cybulskie, Candice; Milos, Scott; Zuo, Yi Y; McCaig, Lynda A; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2016-06-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by arterial hypoxemia accompanied by severe inflammation and alterations to the pulmonary surfactant system. Published data has demonstrated a protective effect of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (Mmp3) deficiency against the inflammatory response associated with ARDS; however, the effect of Mmp3 on physiologic parameters and alterations to surfactant have not been previously studied. It was hypothesized that Mmp3 deficient (Mmp3(-/-)) mice would be protected against lung dysfunction associated with ARDS and maintain a functional pulmonary surfactant system. Wild type (WT) and Mmp3(-/-) mice were subjected to acid-aspiration followed by mechanical ventilation. Mmp3(-/-) mice maintained higher arterial oxygenation compared with WT mice at the completion of ventilation. Significant increase in functional large aggregate surfactant forms were observed in Mmp3(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. These findings further support a role of Mmp3 as an attractive therapeutic target for drug development in the setting of ARDS.

  16. Effective management of acute deep vein thrombosis: direct oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Roussin, A

    2015-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a manifestation of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and accounts for most venous thromboembolic events. Although DVT is not directly life-threatening, thrombi in the proximal veins of the leg can embolize to the lungs to form a pulmonary embolism, which may prove rapidly fatal. If untreated, DVT can also lead to significant morbidity, including development of post-thrombotic syndrome. Among many risk factors, surgery, hospitalization, older age and active cancer increase the risk of VTE, and a previous event increases the risk of recurrence. Early detection and effective clot resolution are vital in managing DVT. Conventional approaches to acute treatment of VTE involve initial fast-acting parenteral heparin overlapping with and followed by vitamin K antagonist therapy. However, vitamin K antagonists have a narrow therapeutic window, require regular monitoring, and have multiple food and drug interactions. Results from phase III clinical studies involving direct Factor Xa and IIa inhibitors suggest that these agents provide an alternative therapeutic option that overcomes some of the complications associated with conventional treatment with predictable pharmacological properties and convenient dosing schedules. Analysis of data from the rivaroxaban EINSTEIN studies also suggests that these agents have the potential to improve patient-reported treatment satisfaction and reduce the length of hospital stay compared with conventional therapy. This review considers these treatment options, suitable treatment durations to prevent recurrence, and the management of DVT treatment in challenging patient groups. PMID:24927023

  17. Acute respiratory effects of summer smog in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, C E; Swaen, G M; Wesseling, G; Wouters, E F

    1994-06-01

    In 535 primary school children we studied the effects of exposure to summer smog on respiratory health. Baseline measurements were performed during low air pollution levels (max. 24-h concentrations of SO2, O3 and NO2 were 55, 49 and 58 micrograms/m3, respectively) consisting of lung function measurements using spirometry and the forced oscillation technique (FOT) and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, determined by a written questionnaire. During a summer smog episode, 212 randomly chosen children were re-examined, characterised by 8-h ozone levels > 120 micrograms/m3 (max. 163 micrograms/m3) and 1-h ozone levels > 160 micrograms/m3 (max. 215 micrograms/m3). Overall, small decrements were observed in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), (P < 0.05) and the forced expiratory volume between 25 and 75% of the vital capacity (FEF25-75%) (P < 0.01). On the contrary, there was a statistically significant decrease in resistance parameters. No increases were observed in the prevalence of acute respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, in this study we found small inconsistent changes in lung function and no increase of respiratory symptoms after short-time exposure to moderately high ozone levels.

  18. Acute effects of ethanol on left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed Central

    Kupari, M; Koskinen, P; Hynynen, M; Salmenperä, M; Ventilä, M

    1990-01-01

    Transmitral flow velocities were measured by Doppler echocardiography in nine healthy men who ingested 1 g/kg of ethanol within one hour. The measurements were made before the first drink and every hour thereafter for three hours. The peak mean (SE) blood ethanol concentration was 21.4 (1.0) mmol/l. Each man was also studied after drinking fruit juice. Ethanol increased the heart rate but did not change the peak transmitral velocities, the normalised peak filling rate, the deceleration of early flow, or the duration of relaxation as measured from the second heart sound to the peak early diastolic velocity. The ratio of the peak atrial to the peak early diastolic velocity rose from 0.41 (0.03) to 0.44 (0.03) after ethanol but remained unchanged after juice. The difference between juice and ethanol was independent of changes in heart rate. The fluid balance was more negative in the ethanol experiment (-727 (114) ml v -107 (70) ml), suggesting a reduction in preload, and the ethanol-induced net loss of fluid correlated with the concomitant change in the velocity ratio. A moderate dose of ethanol causes a small acute increase of the ratio of the peak atrial to the peak early diastolic velocity of mitral flow in healthy subjects. Although this change indicates altered diastolic function of the left ventricle, most of it may result from the diuretic effect of ethanol. Any major impairment of ventricular relaxation seems unlikely. PMID:2393610

  19. Effects of acute spinalization on neurons of postural networks

    PubMed Central

    Zelenin, Pavel V.; Lyalka, Vladimir F.; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N.; Deliagina, Tatiana G.

    2016-01-01

    Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of postural corrections. Spinalization results in loss of postural functions, including disappearance of PLRs. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute spinalization on two populations of spinal neurons (F and E) mediating PLRs, which we characterized previously. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits spinalized at T12, responses of interneurons from L5 to stimulation causing PLRs before spinalization, were recorded. The results were compared to control data obtained in our previous study. We found that spinalization affected the distribution of F- and E-neurons across the spinal grey matter, caused a significant decrease in their activity, as well as disturbances in processing of posture-related sensory inputs. A two-fold decrease in the proportion of F-neurons in the intermediate grey matter was observed. Location of populations of F- and E-neurons exhibiting significant decrease in their activity was determined. A dramatic decrease of the efficacy of sensory input from the ipsilateral limb to F-neurons, and from the contralateral limb to E-neurons was found. These changes in operation of postural networks underlie the loss of postural control after spinalization, and represent a starting point for the development of spasticity. PMID:27302149

  20. Acute ethanol effects on focal cerebral ischemia in fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y J; Yang, G Y; Ben-Joseph, O; Ross, B D; Chenevert, T L; Domino, E F

    1998-05-01

    The effects of acute ethanol intoxication were investigated in a rat model of unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. Groups of 5 to 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 hr of left middle cerebral artery occlusion. All groups were deprived of food overnight and were pretreated intraperitoneally with 5% dextrose solution (10 ml/kg), 20% ethyl alcohol in 5% dextrose solution (2 g/kg), or 30% ethyl alcohol in a 5% dextrose solution (3 g/kg) 1 hr before middle cerebral artery occlusion. Regional cerebral blood flow during ipsilateral occlusion was approximately 9.1 to 10% of baseline in all groups. The mean % brain water content in control, 2 g/kg ethanol-treated groups, and 3 g/kg ethanol-treated groups were: in the ischemic core--81.6, 81.2, and 82.4; intermediate zone--80.5, 80.6, and 81.7; and outer zone--79.7, 79.7, and 80.8, respectively. Brain Na+ and K+ content in the three groups was related to water content, but much greater with ethanol pretreatment. The water content of the intermediate zones in the 3 g/kg ethanol-treated animals was significantly greater than in the control (p < 0.01 and 0.001) and the 2 g/kg ethanol-treated groups. One-way analysis of variance indicated a significant dose-effect relationship in which the lower dose of ethanol tended to reduce ischemic core water content, and the larger dose increased ischemic core water, compared with the control. None of the overnight fasted groups had any significant hyperglycemia. The group given 3 g/kg i.p. ethanol 1 hr before had exacerbated edema formation with a mean whole blood level of ethanol of approximately 230 mg/dl. The neurotoxic effects of high concentrations of ethanol were unrelated to any change in plasma glucose concentrations.

  1. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao-xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP. PMID:27115738

  2. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  3. The effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on bone metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ivaska, Kaisa K; Heliövaara, Maikki K; Ebeling, Pertti; Bucci, Marco; Huovinen, Ville; Väänänen, H Kalervo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Koistinen, Heikki A

    2015-01-01

    Insulin signaling in bone-forming osteoblasts stimulates bone formation and promotes the release of osteocalcin (OC) in mice. Only a few studies have assessed the direct effect of insulin on bone metabolism in humans. Here, we studied markers of bone metabolism in response to acute hyperinsulinemia in men and women. Thirty-three subjects from three separate cohorts (n=8, n=12 and n=13) participated in a euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of infusions to determine the markers of bone formation (PINP, total OC, uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC)) and resorption (CTX, TRAcP5b). During 4 h insulin infusion (40 mU/m2 per min, low insulin), CTX level decreased by 11% (P<0.05). High insulin infusion rate (72 mU/m2 per min) for 4 h resulted in more pronounced decrease (−32%, P<0.01) whereas shorter insulin exposure (40 mU/m2 per min for 2 h) had no effect (P=0.61). Markers of osteoblast activity remained unchanged during 4 h insulin, but the ratio of uncarboxylated-to-total OC decreased in response to insulin (P<0.05 and P<0.01 for low and high insulin for 4 h respectively). During 2 h low insulin infusion, both total OC and ucOC decreased significantly (P<0.01 for both). In conclusion, insulin decreases bone resorption and circulating levels of total OC and ucOC. Insulin has direct effects on bone metabolism in humans and changes in the circulating levels of bone markers can be seen within a few hours after administration of insulin. PMID:26047829

  4. Physiological effects of major up-regulated Alnus glutinosa peptides on Frankia sp. ACN14a.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Pujic, Petar; Alloisio, Nicole; Fournier, Pascale; Boubakri, Hasna; Poly, Franck; Rey, Marjolaine; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Normand, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Alnus glutinosa has been shown previously to synthesize, in response to nodulation by Frankia sp. ACN14a, an array of peptides called Alnus symbiotic up-regulated peptides (ASUPs). In a previous study one peptide (Ag5) was shown to bind to Frankia nitrogen-fixing vesicles and to modify their porosity. Here we analyse four other ASUPs, alongside Ag5, to determine whether they have different physiological effects on in vitro grown Frankia sp. ACN14a. The five studied peptides were shown to have different effects on nitrogen fixation, respiration, growth, the release of ions and amino acids, as well as on cell clumping and cell lysis. The mRNA abundance for all five peptides was quantified in symbiotic nodules and one (Ag11) was found to be more abundant in the meristem part of the nodule. These findings point to some peptides having complementary effects on Frankia cells. PMID:27082768

  5. A physiological correlate of the Pulfrich effect in cortical neurons of the cat.

    PubMed

    Carney, T; Paradiso, M A; Freeman, R D

    1989-01-01

    When a swinging pendulum is viewed with a light-attenuating filter before one eye, the pendulum bob is perceived to move in an elliptical path in depth. It is believed that the filter causes this illusion, the Pulfrich effect, by delaying processing of the image in the filtered eye relative to that of the unfiltered eye. We sought a physiological correlate of this effect by studying binocular integration in cortical neurons of cats while they viewed moving stimuli. Special attention was focused on single unit disparity tuning because it is widely believed that depth perception is related to the responses of disparity selective neurons in visual cortex. We found that placing a filter before one of the cat's eyes produced a temporal delay in the cortical response. The temporal delay was always associated with a shift in the neuron's spatial disparity tuning. The observed temporal delays and disparity shifts are comparable with the magnitude of the Pulfrich effect in humans.

  6. Change in hepatic function, hemodynamics, and morphology after liver transplant. Physiological effect of therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, W J; Henderson, J M; Stewart, M T; Warren, W D; Marsh, J W; Galloway, J R; Jennings, H; Kawasaki, S; Dodson, T F; Perlino, C A

    1989-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has become standard therapy for patients with acute hepatic necrosis and end-stage liver disease. This study measured change in hepatic function (galactose elimination capacity [GEC]), liver blood flow (low dose galactose clearance: flow), hepatic volume (CT scan; volume) and morphology after OLT. The aim was to measure the physiologic response after OLT and compare this response with that after selective shunt (SS) and sclerotherapy (ES) to determine which patients should receive specific therapy. Between January 1987 and November 1988, 37 patients underwent OLT. Operative mortality was 18%, which was similar to that of SS in Child's C cirrhotics. GEC and volume were less in transplant patients than in cirrhotics treated with SS or ES. GEC, flow, and volume normalized after OLT; GEC was preserved after ES and SS, but volume decreased. Three preoperative patterns were observed that can aid in selection of OLT candidates. Patients with chronic cirrhosis (chronic active hepatitis; cryptogenic) need OLT when GEC is less than or equal to 225 mg/min and volume is less than or equal to 50% normal. Patients with Budd-Chiari Syndrome require OLT if cirrhosis has evolved. Patients with sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis qualify for transplants when complications of the portal hypertensive syndrome develop. The studies can also direct therapy for ES failures. Selective shunt is indicated in those patients with stable disease whose GEC is greater than or equal to 300 mg/min and liver volume is greater than 75% normal; OLT is indicated for cirrhotics with GEC that is less than 225 mg/min and liver volume that is less than 50% predicted normal. PMID:2650642

  7. A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2) inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with physiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In animal experiments, use of molecular hydrogen ( H2) has been regarded as quite safe and effective, showing benefits in multiple pathological conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion injury of the brain, heart, kidney and transplanted tissues, traumatic and surgical injury of the brain and spinal cord, inflammation of intestine and lung , degenerative striatonigral tissue and also in many other situations. However, since cerebral ischemia patients are in old age group, the safety information needs to be confirmed. For the feasibility of H2 treatment in these patients, delivery of H2 by inhalation method needs to be checked for consistency. Methods Hydrogen concentration (HC) in the arterial and venous blood was measured by gas chromatography on 3 patients, before, during and after 4% (case 1) and 3% (case2,3) H2 gas inhalation with simultaneous monitoring of physiological parameters. For a consistency study, HC in the venous blood of 10 patients were obtained on multiple occasions at the end of 30-min H2 inhalation treatment. Results The HC gradually reached a plateau level in 20 min after H2 inhalation in the blood, which was equivalent to the level reported by animal experiments. The HC rapidly decreased to 10% of the plateau level in about 6 min and 18 min in arterial and venous blood, respectively after H2 inhalation was discontinued. Physiological parameters on these 3 patients were essentially unchanged by use of hydrogen. The consistency study of 10 patients showed the HC at the end of 30-min inhalation treatment was quite variable but the inconsistency improved with more attention and encouragement. Conclusion H2 inhalation of at least 3% concentration for 30 min delivered enough HC, equivalent to the animal experiment levels, in the blood without compromising the safety. However, the consistency of H2 delivery by inhalation needs to be improved. PMID:22916706

  8. [Effects of selenite addition on selenium absorption, root morphology and physiological characteristics of rape seedlings].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-wei; Wang, Qiao-lan; Duan, Bi-hui; Lin, Ya-meng; Zhao, Xiao-hu; Hu, Cheng-xiao; Zhao, Zhu-qing

    2015-07-01

    Abstract: The rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Xiangnongyou 571) was chosen as the experimental material to undergo solution cultivation at seedling stage to investigate the effects of selenite addition on the selenium (Se) absorption and distribution, root morphology and physiological characteristics of rape seedlings. The results showed that the bioaccumulation ability of Se decreased significantly with increasing the Se application rate, but the Se distribution coefficient remained around 0.9 with no significant influence. The application of 10 µmol . L-1 selenite stimulated the growth of rape seedlings through improving the root physiological characteristics and root morphology significantly, including significantly increasing the production of superoxide radical (O2∙-) rate and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and fungal catalase (CAT) in the root system, which resulted in a reduction of the lipids peroxidation (MDA) content as much as 26.0%, consequently increasing the root activity as much as 17.4%. The promoting degrees of selenite on root morphological parameters were from strong to weak in such a tendency: root volume > total surface area > number of root forks > total root length > number of root tips > average diameter. However, such positive effects had no significant difference with those in treatment with 1 µmol . L-1 selenite, indicating that small amounts (≤ 10 Lmol . L-1) of selenite were able to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduce the content of MDA in root system, which could increase root activity and improve root morphology, hence increased the biomass of rape seedlings.

  9. Effects of visible implanted elastomer marking on physiological traits of frogs.

    PubMed

    Antwis, Rachael E; Purcell, Rebecca; Walker, Susan L; Fidgett, Andrea L; Preziosi, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Amphibians possess innate immune defences, including antimicrobial peptides and symbiotic bacterial communities, that can protect them from infectious diseases, including chytridiomycosis. On-going research is attempting to use amphibian symbiotic bacteria to develop probiotic treatments that can protect hosts from the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Events that cause disruption of symbiotic bacterial communities or deplete peptide stores could increase the susceptibility of individuals to disease and may have implications for amphibians involved in probiotic trials or time course studies that investigate symbiotic bacterial communities. It has previously been shown that passive integrated transponder tagging of frogs causes a rapid (within 24 h) and major proliferation of micro-organisms on the skin. Here, we show that marking of red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas) with visible elastomer has no effect on adrenal response (represented by faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations) or peptide production, although there was evidence of a slightly greater microbial abundance associated with the skin of marked frogs 2 weeks after tagging. The results indicate that visible elastomer may be a preferable marking technique to passive integrated transponder tagging, particularly in the context of probiotic trials or time course studies that investigate symbiotic bacterial communities. More work is required to determine the effects of different marking techniques on physiological responses of amphibians, whether these physiological responses are consistent across host species and whether such 'non-invasive' marking methods affect the susceptibility of amphibians to infectious pathogens, such as B. dendrobatidis.

  10. The Effect of Small Scale Turbulence on the Physiology of Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Anne; Hondzo, Miki; Guala, Michele

    2014-11-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa is a single-celled blue-green alga, or cyanobacterium, that is responsible for poor water quality and microcystin production, which in high concentrations can be harmful to humans and animals. These harmful effects arise during cyanobacterium blooms. Blooms occur mainly in the summer when the algae grow uncontrollably and bond together to form colonies which accumulate on the surface of freshwater ecosystems. The relationship between fluid motion generated by wind and internal waves in stratified aquatic ecosystems and Microcystis can help explain the mechanisms of such blooms. We investigated the effect of small scale fluid motion on the physiology of Microcystis in a reactor with two underwater speakers. Different turbulent intensities were achieved by systematically changing the input signal frequency (30-50 Hz) and magnitude (0.1-0.2V) to the speakers. The role of turbulence is quantified by relating energy dissipation rates with the cell number, chlorophyll amount, dissolved oxygen production/uptake, and pH. The results suggest that turbulence mediates the physiology of Microcystis. The findings could be instrumental in designing restoration strategies that can minimize Microcystis blooms. This work was supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and University of Minnesota start-up funding.

  11. Acupuncture Anxiolytic Effects on Physiological and Psychological Assessments for a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shayestehfar, Monir; Seif-Barghi, Tohid; Zarei, Sahar; Mehran, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial we examined the effect of acupuncture on anxiety of the adolescent football players prior to the competition using psychological and physiological markers. A total of 45 athletes were equally allocated to either acupuncture group, sham group, or wait-list control group. Thereafter, all participants were asked to complete an anxiety questionnaire before and after the intervention. Their heart rate and skin conductance were also examined before and after the intervention. The results of ANOVA on posttest scores showed that acupuncture had a significant effect on cognitive anxiety (p = 0.001) and somatic anxiety (p < 0.001) but not on self-confidence (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the results showed that acupuncture significantly decreased the skin conductance in acupuncture group compared to sham group (p = 0.006) and wait-list control group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the results suggested that acupuncture has the capacity to decrease cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety prior to competition in adolescent athletes, while this was accompanied by significant physiological changes. This trial is registered with IRCT138904074264N1 (IRCT is a Primary Registry in the WHO Registry Network). PMID:27127679

  12. Effects of warm acclimation on physiology and gonad development in the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Natalí J; Sewell, Mary A

    2016-08-01

    The physiology of the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus was evaluated through feeding, respiration, growth and gonad growth in adult animals acclimated for 90days at 18°C (annual mean temperature) and 24°C (ambient summer temperature (21°C) +3°C). Measured parameters with representative rates of assimilation efficiency were used to calculate scope for growth (SfG) for each treatment. All physiological parameters were negatively affected at 24°C, showing a decrease in feeding rate which coincided with negative growth and gonad development at the end of the acclimation period, and a decrease in respiration rate suggesting metabolic depression. Histology of gonad samples after the acclimation period also showed no gametic material in animals acclimated at 24°C. All animals acclimated at 24°C had negative growth, differing from the calculated SfG which indicated that the animals had sufficient energy for production. The results suggest that calculated SfG in echinoderms should be used together with actual measurements of growth in individuals as, by itself, SfG may underestimate the actual effect of ocean warming when animals are exposed to stressful conditions. Overall, considering the total loss of reproductive output observed in E. chloroticus at higher temperatures, an increase in seawater temperature could dramatically influence the persistence of northern populations of this species, leading to flow-on effects in the subtidal ecosystem. PMID:27043875

  13. Effect of geomagnetic disturbances on physiological parameters: An investigation on aviators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Kudela, K.; Stetiarova, J.; Dimitrova, S.

    2011-11-01

    Over the last years the potential effect that the geomagnetic activity may have on human physiological parameters (such as heart rate, arterial diastolic and systolic pressure) is being widely investigated with irrefutable results. As it is suggested, human health can be affected by solar activity and related geophysical changes. In this study a group of 4018 Slovak aviators was examined from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2002, covering periods with high solar and geomagnetic activity. Specifically, medical data of mean values of arterial diastolic and systolic blood pressure, which were registered during the medical examinations of the Slovak aviators, were related to daily variations of Dst and Ap geomagnetic indices. All subjects were men (from 18 to 60 years old) in good health. Statistical significance levels (p-values) of the effect of geomagnetic activity on the aforementioned parameters up to three days before and three days after the geomagnetic event were established using the statistical method ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA). Statistical analysis of the arterial blood pressure variations for different levels of geomagnetic activity revealed that geomagnetic changes are connected to variations of the human physiological parameters.

  14. Effects of shade on physiological changes, oxidative stress, and total antioxidant power in Thai Brahman cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Kongbuntad, Watee; Boonsorn, Thongchai

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of artificial shade, tree shade, and no shade on physiological changes, oxidative stress, and total antioxidant power in Thai Brahman cattle. Twenty-one cattle were divided into three groups: cattle maintained under artificial shade, under tree shade, and without shade. On days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the experimental period, after the cattle were set in individual stalls for 2 h, physiological changes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total antioxidant power were investigated. The results revealed that the respiratory rate, heart rate, sweat rate and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio of the no-shade cattle were significantly higher than those of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade ( P < 0.05). During the early period of heat exposure, the total antioxidant power of the no-shade cattle was lower than those of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade, but the total antioxidant power of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade were not different ( P > 0.05). However, rectal temperature and packed cell volume of the cattle in all groups did not differ ( P > 0.05). These results showed that artificial shade and tree shade can protect cattle from sunlight compared to no shade, and that the effectiveness of tree shade for sunlight protection is at an intermediate level.

  15. Effect of prolonged ketamine exposure on cardiovascular physiology in pregnant and infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Wang, Cheng; Slikker, William

    2007-11-01

    Physiologic measurements in nonhuman primates usually are collected from animals that are chemically or physically restrained. Both types of restraint may affect the parameters measured, and those effects can vary with age. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, expired CO2, blood pressure, temperature, blood glucose, hematocrit, and venous blood gasses were measured in rhesus monkeys that were either infused intravenously with ketamine for 24 h or were cage-housed and physically restrained for sample collection. The subjects were pregnant monkeys at gestational day 120 to 123, infants 5 to 6 d old, and infants 35 to 37 d old. Heart rate and blood pressure were lower in ketamine-treated monkeys than physically restrained monkeys. Heart rate was higher in infants than adults, whereas blood pressure was lower in infants. Respiratory rate was higher in infants than adults and higher in physically restrained infants than ketamine-sedated infants but was not affected by ketamine in pregnant adults. Hematocrit was decreased in older infants. In summary, both physical restraint and ketamine sedation altered several physiologic parameters in pregnant and infant rhesus macaques. Investigators should consider these effects when designing experiments and evaluating experimental outcomes in monkeys.

  16. Effect of different doses of un-fractionated green and black tea extracts on thyroid physiology.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; De, Neela; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy

    2011-08-01

    Tea is a rich source of polyphenolic flavonoids including catechins, which are thought to contribute to the health benefits of it. Flavonoids have been reported to have antithyroid and goitrogenic effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether high doses of green and black tea have a harmful effect on thyroid physiology. Un-fractionated green and black tea extracts were administered orally to male rats for 30 days at doses of 1.25 g%, 2.5 g% and 5.0 g%. The results showed that green tea extract at 2.5 g% and 5.0 g% doses and black tea extract only at 5.0 g% dose have the potential to alter the thyroid gland physiology and architecture, that is, enlargement of thyroid gland as well as hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles and inhibition of the activity of thyroid peroxidase and 5(')-deiodinase I with elevated thyroidal Na+, K+-ATPase activity along with significant decrease in serum T3 and T4, and a parallel increase in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This study concludes that goitrogenic/antithyroidal potential of un-fractionated green tea extract is much more than black tea extract because of the differences in catechin contents in the tea extracts.

  17. Hatching system and time effects on broiler physiology and posthatch growth.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Debonne, M; Decuypere, E; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2011-06-01

    A multilevel housing system for broilers was developed, named Patio (Vencomatic BV, Eersel, the Netherlands), in which the hatching and brooding phase are combined. In a Patio system, climate conditions differ from those provided in the hatchers currently in use. We compared the physiology of broilers hatched in a hatcher or in a Patio system, and included the effects of hatching time. Eggs from 1 breeder flock were incubated until embryonic d 18 in a setter and subsequently placed in a hatcher or the Patio until the end of incubation. From each hatching system, 154 chicks were collected per hatching time, at 465 h (early), 480 h (midterm), and 493 h (late) of incubation, from which 24 chicks/group were decapitated for analyses of blood plasma and organ weights. The remaining 130 chicks in each group from both systems were individually labeled and placed together in the Patio system. All chicks were given access to feed and water directly after hatch and were housed up to d 45 to monitor growth. From embryonic d 18 until the end of incubation, average ambient temperature and RH were 38.1°C and 50.8% in the hatcher and 35.2°C and 29.7% in the Patio system. Glucose and corticosterone were slightly higher in hatcher chicks, whereas organ weights were not affected by the hatching system. Although hatchling weights were lower in hatchery chicks, growth from d 0 to 45 was not affected by the hatching system. In both systems, glucose increased with hatching time, whereas lactate and triiodothyronine levels decreased. Yolk weights decreased with hatching time, whereas absolute and relative weights of the yolk-free body, intestines, stomach, lungs, and heart increased, indicating more advanced maturation of organs. Growth up to d 21 was depressed in chicks in the late group, which was possibly related to lower thyroid hormone levels at hatching. We conclude that the hatching system had minor effects on hatchling physiology and that posthatch growth and livability were not

  18. Effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongwei; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2014-10-01

    The study assessed the effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in April 2011. Before the surgery, 15 blood samples were extracted randomly from 195 bighead carp samples, and then the rest of the fish were divided into three groups: (1) control group, handing but no tagging, (2) sham group, surgical procedure without implantation of transmitter and (3) surgery group, surgical implantation of transmitters. In 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery, 15 fish were extracted randomly from the three groups, respectively, for sampling. Then the plasma samples were analyzed, and physiological measures of stress response (cortisol, glucose), tissue damage [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] and nutritional status [total protein, globulin, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] were compared. The result showed that there was no significant difference between sham and surgery groups in 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery. When compared to the control group, there were significant increases in concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, ALT, AST, total protein and globulin of sham and surgery groups in 3 h after surgery. After 24 h, the levels of plasma cortisol, ALT, AST, total protein, globulin and ALP were elevated in both sham and surgery groups, whereas the levels of plasma glucose had declined to normal level and plasma albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased in both sham and surgery groups. After 7 days, the levels of plasma glucose, albumin and cholesterol continued to decline, while the level of plasma ALT, globulin and ALP had declined but still remained higher for sham and surgery groups than control group; however, the plasma total protein level had returned to normal. After 14 days, there was no significant difference between the three groups. The above results showed that

  19. Effects of oral montelukast on airway function in acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Cýllý, A; Kara, A; Ozdemir, T; Oğüş, C; Gülkesen, K H

    2003-05-01

    Montelukast, a specific cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, has been shown to improve pulmonary function within 1 h of ingestion. This study was undertaken to compare the effects on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of oral montelukast added to intravenous steroid, intravenous steroid alone and placebo during the 24 h period following administration. Seventy asthmatic patients (FEV1 40-80% predicted and > or = 15% improvement after inhaled beta agonist) were enrolled in a single blind study to receive oral montelukast (10 mg) plus intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg), intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomised fashion. The patients received one ofthe above three groups of medication before any other treatments. This was immediately followed by the aerosol treatments of 100 mcg of terbutaline sulphate divided into three doses during 1 h as described in the consensus statement. Thereafter, patients were observed for 24 h to document the effects on PEFR, Borg dyspnoea score and need for rescue medication. The primary end point was percentage change at different time points. Secondary end points were Borg dyspnoea score and use of rescue medication. Compared with placebo, montelukast added to the prednisolone group and the prednisolone alone group had significant percentage change from baseline in PEFR in the entire 24 h period (P<0.05). The difference in PEFR between montelukast plus prednisolone group and prednisolone group favoured the montelukast plus prednisolone group but did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, montelukast plus prednisolone group required less inhaled short-acting beta agonistthan other two groups. The results of this study indicate that adding montelukast to steroid in acute asthma may have some additive improvement in lung functions. PMID:12735671

  20. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  1. Examining the Effectiveness of Psychological Strategies on Physiologic Markers: Evidence-Based Suggestions for Holistic Care of the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Michelle A.; Hamson-Utley, Jennifer Jordan; Hansen, Rodney; Olpin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Context: Current holistic rehabilitation blends both physical and psychological techniques. However, validation of the usefulness of psychological strategies is limited in the literature. Objective: To quantify the effects of psychological strategies on both physiologic (salivary cortisol) and subjective assessments of stress. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 97 college-aged students (age = 20.65 ± 4.38 years), most with little to no experience with psychological strategies. Intervention(s): A 15-minute script via an iPod led the participant through visual imagery (cognitive relaxation) or deep breathing exercises (somatic relaxation) cues. The control group listened to 15 minutes of ambient nature sounds. Main Outcome Measure(s): Two samples (pretest, posttest) of salivary cortisol were analyzed using an enzyme immunoassay kit; the average was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics and correlations were conducted to examine group differences in time of day, salivary cortisol, sex, Stress-O-Meter values, and Perceived Stress Scale scores. Results: Salivary cortisol levels were lower in the treatment group than the control group (F2,97 = 15.62, P < .001). Females had higher scores on both the pretest Stress-O-Meter (5.15 ± 1.796) and the Perceived Stress Scale (18.31 ± 5.833) than males (4.25 ± 1.741 and 15.272 ± 5.390, respectively). Conclusions: Both cognitive and somatic relaxation strategies reduced cortisol levels. Participants who received verbal guidance achieved a larger cortisol reduction. However, the change in cortisol level was uncorrelated with the change in report of acute stress; females reported higher levels of stress. Clinical implications include attention to sex when assessing stress and providing coping skills during the rehabilitation process. PMID:24490842

  2. Isotopic and Physiological Effects of Disease in a Sea Fan from Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, L. J.

    2009-05-01

    Aspergillosis, a disease caused by the fungus, Aspergillus sydowii, has impacted gorgonian populations throughout much of the Caribbean, including Bermuda. Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes have been shown to be a useful tool for tracking physiological changes in coral species. To assess the relationship between δ13C, δ15N, and physiological effects of disease in corals, healthy and diseased colonies of the purple sea fan (Gorgonia ventalina) were analyzed. Visibly healthy and diseased samples were collected from a near-shore reef location in July 2007. Healthy samples were also collected from an off-shore reef location, where there was no visible incidence of disease on the reef. The proportion of purpled sclerites was measured for each sample and verified the severity of disease for each colony. Diseased sections of G. ventalina had lower lipid concentrations than healthy sections of the same colony, suggesting that lipid stores are selectively utilized within each colony. Interestingly, healthy sections from near-shore colonies where disease was present had more lipid stores than healthy sections from off-shore colonies where disease was absent. Total biomass was greatest in healthy off-shore colonies. Both δ13C and δ15N did not differ between healthy and diseased colonies, but were more enriched in near-shore compared to off-shore locations. These preliminary results suggest that consumption of lipid stores may be a species-wide physiological strategy amongst corals for coping with stressful events and that soft corals may track levels of local land-based pollution.

  3. Effect of a one-semester conditioning class on physiological characteristics of college students.

    PubMed

    Danoff, Jerome V; Raupers, Erin G

    2014-11-01

    Long-term exercise is known to have positive effects on the health of adults. Some college "activity" courses are designed to give participants exposure to, and practice with, safe exercise techniques. Whether these 1-semester courses, usually 12-14 weeks, are sufficient to alter physiological characteristics, such as blood pressure or strength, has not been established. Therefore, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate physiological and performance measures in college students to determine whether changes would result after 14 weeks of a general conditioning activity course. This study involved 79 students from several sections of exercise and conditioning classes at our university. Classes included a variety of fitness- and strength-oriented exercises. Physiological and performance measurements were collected in weeks 2 (pretest) and 14 (posttest), and compared pre with post using paired t-tests subject to Bonferroni correction (significant p < 0.0055). There were significant improvements in resting heart rate (HR) (73 vs. 70 b·min, p < 0.002), hand grip strength (250 vs. 272 N, p < 0.001), push-ups (29 vs 37, p < 0.001), sit-ups (32 vs. 35, p < 0.001), and step test HR recovery (122 vs. 110 b·min, p < 0.001). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, body weight, and percent body fat did not change. These results suggest that 14 weeks of regular exercise in an organized college-based activity class can result in significant improvements in some measures of fitness and strength in college-aged participants.

  4. Intravenous nicotine and caffeine: subjective and physiological effects in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Garrett, B E; Griffiths, R R

    2001-02-01

    The subjective and physiological effects of intravenously administered caffeine and nicotine were compared in nine subjects with histories of using caffeine, tobacco, and cocaine. Subjects abstained from tobacco cigarette smoking for at least 8 h before each session. Dietary caffeine was eliminated throughout the study; however, to maintain consistency with the nicotine intake, subjects were administered caffeine (150 mg/70 kg b.i.d.) in capsules, with the last dose administered 15 to 18 h before each session. Under double-blind conditions, subjects received placebo, caffeine (100, 200, and 400 mg/70 kg), and nicotine (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/70 kg) in mixed order. Physiological and subjective data were collected before and repeatedly after drug or placebo administration. Compared with the highest dose of caffeine, the highest dose of nicotine produced greater subjective ratings on a number of scales. At doses that produced comparable ratings of drug effect (1.5 mg/70 kg of nicotine and 400 mg/70 kg of caffeine), both drugs produced similar increases in ratings of good effect, liking, high, stimulated, and bad effect. Nicotine showed a somewhat faster time to peak subjective effects than caffeine (2 versus 4 min). Subjective ratings that differentiated caffeine and nicotine were ratings of rush, blurry vision, and stimulant identification (elevated by nicotine) and ratings of unusual smell and/or taste (elevated by caffeine). Both caffeine and nicotine decreased skin temperature and increased diastolic blood pressure; however, caffeine decreased whereas nicotine increased heart rate. The study documents both striking similarities and some notable differences between caffeine and nicotine, which are among the most widely used mood-altering drugs. PMID:11160635

  5. Liver X receptors interfere with the deleterious effect of diethylstilbestrol on testicular physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Oumeddour, Abdelkader; Viennois, Emilie; Caira, Françoise; Decourbey, Clélia; Maqdasy, Salwan; and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Part of the neonatal effect of DES on testis needs the presence of Lxrα/β. • Some DES-induced pathways are blocked in Lxr-deficient mice. • Lxr-deficient mice analysis defines DES-target genes protected by Lxr. - Abstract: Liver X receptors LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, activated by specific oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol. These receptors are involved in the regulation of testis physiology. Lxr-deficient mice pointed to the physiological roles of these nuclear receptors in steroid synthesis, lipid homeostasis and germ cell apoptosis and proliferation. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen considered as an endocrine disruptor that affects the functions of the testis. Various lines of evidences have made a clear link between estrogens, their nuclear receptors ERα (NR3A1) and ERβ (NR3A2), and Lxrα/β. As LXR activity could also be regulated by the nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP, NR0A2) and DES could act through SHP, we wondered whether LXR could be targeted by estrogen-like endocrine disruptors such as DES. For that purpose, wild-type and Lxr-deficient mice were daily treated with 0.75 μg DES from days 1 to 5 after birth. The effects of DES were investigated at 10 or 45 days of age. We demonstrated that DES induced a decrease of the body mass at 10 days only in the Lxr-deficient mice suggesting a protective effect of Lxr. We defined three categories of DES-target genes in testis: those whose accumulation is independent of Lxr; those whose accumulation is enhanced by the lack of both Lxrα/β; those whose accumulation is repressed by the absence of Lxrα/β. Lipid accumulation is also modified by neonatal DES injection. Lxr-deficient mice present different lipid profiles, demonstrating that DES could have its effects in part due to Lxrα/β. Altogether, our study shows that both nuclear receptors Lxrα and Lxrβ are not only

  6. The effect of acute and long-term physical activity on extracellular matrix and serglycin in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth, Marit; Norheim, Frode; Meen, Astri J; Pourteymour, Shirin; Lee, Sindre; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, Jørgen; Birkeland, Kåre I; Martinov, Vladimir N; Langleite, Torgrim M; Eckardt, Kristin; Drevon, Christian A; Kolset, Svein O

    2015-01-01

    Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM), including regulation of proteoglycans in skeletal muscle can be important for physiological adaptation to exercise. To investigate the effects of acute and long-term exercise on the expression of ECM-related genes and proteoglycans in particular, 26 middle-aged, sedentary men underwent a 12 weeks supervised endurance and strength training intervention and two acute, 45 min bicycle tests (70% VO2max), one at baseline and one after 12 weeks of training. Total gene expression in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis was measured with deep mRNA sequencing. After 45 min of bicycling approximately 550 gene transcripts were >50% upregulated. Of these, 28 genes (5%) were directly related to ECM. In response to long-term exercise of 12 weeks 289 genes exhibited enhanced expression (>50%) and 20% of them were ECM related. Further analyses of proteoglycan mRNA expression revealed that more than half of the proteoglycans expressed in muscle were significantly enhanced after 12 weeks intervention. The proteoglycan serglycin (SRGN) has not been studied in skeletal muscle and was one of few proteoglycans that showed increased expression after acute (2.2-fold, P < 0.001) as well as long-term exercise (1.4-fold, P < 0.001). Cultured, primary human skeletal muscle cells expressed and secreted SRGN. When the expression of SRGN was knocked down, the expression and secretion of serpin E1 (SERPINE1) increased. In conclusion, acute and especially long-term exercise promotes enhanced expression of several ECM components and proteoglycans. SRGN is a novel exercise-regulated proteoglycan in skeletal muscle with a potential role in exercise adaptation. PMID:26290530

  7. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  8. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress.

  9. Physiological effects of bioceramic material: harvard step, resting metabolic rate and treadmill running assessments.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ting-Kai; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lee, Chi-Ming; Kan, Nai-Wen; Hou, Chien-Wen

    2013-12-31

    Previous biomolecular and animal studies have shown that a room-temperature far-infrared-rayemitting ceramic material (bioceramic) demonstrates physical-biological effects, including the normalization of psychologically induced stress-conditioned elevated heart rate in animals. In this clinical study, the Harvard step test, the resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment and the treadmill running test were conducted to evaluate possible physiological effects of the bioceramic material in human patients. The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) during the Harvard step test indicated that the bioceramic material significantly increased the high-frequency (HF) power spectrum. In addition, the results of RMR analysis suggest that the bioceramic material reduced oxygen consumption (VO2). Our results demonstrate that the bioceramic material has the tendency to stimulate parasympathetic responses, which may reduce resting energy expenditure and improve cardiorespiratory recovery following exercise.

  10. Stress and the city: urbanization and its effects on the stress physiology in European blackbirds.