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Sample records for acute progressive feed

  1. Genome-wide effects of acute progressive feed restriction in liver and white adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Pohjanvirta, Raimo Boutros, Paul C.; Moffat, Ivy D.; Linden, Jere; Wendelin, Dominique; Okey, Allan B.

    2008-07-01

    Acute progressive feed restriction (APFR) represents a specific form of caloric restriction in which feed availability is increasingly curtailed over a period of a few days to a few weeks. It is often used for control animals in toxicological and pharmacological studies on compounds causing body weight loss to equalize weight changes between experimental and control groups and thereby, intuitively, to also set their metabolic states to the same phase. However, scientific justification for this procedure is lacking. In the present study, we analyzed by microarrays the impact on hepatic gene expression in rats of two APFR regimens that caused identical diminution of body weight (19%) but differed slightly in duration (4 vs. 10 days). In addition, white adipose tissue (WAT) was also subjected to the transcriptomic analysis on day-4. The data revealed that the two regimens led to distinct patterns of differentially expressed genes in liver, albeit some major pathways of energy metabolism were similarly affected (particularly fatty acid and amino acid catabolism). The reason for the divergence appeared to be entrainment by the longer APFR protocol of peripheral oscillator genes, which resulted in derailment of circadian rhythms and consequent interaction of altered diurnal fluctuations with metabolic adjustments in gene expression activities. WAT proved to be highly unresponsive to the 4-day APFR as only 17 mRNA levels were influenced by the treatment. This study demonstrates that body weight is a poor proxy of metabolic state and that the customary protocols of feed restriction can lead to rhythm entrainment.

  2. Progress in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kadia, Tapan M; Ravandi, Farhad; O'Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2015-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Steady gains in clinical research and a renaissance of genomics in leukemia have led to improved outcomes. The recognition of tremendous heterogeneity in AML has allowed individualized treatments of specific disease entities within the context of patient age, cytogenetics, and mutational analysis. The following is a comprehensive review of the current state of AML therapy and a roadmap of our approach to these distinct disease entities. PMID:25441110

  3. Progression of alcoholic acute to chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, R W; Muellhaupt, B

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis usually progresses from acute attacks to chronic pancreatitis within one to 19 years. The factors responsible for the appreciable variability in progression are unclear. In this study the relation between progression and the incidence and severity of acute episodes in a large cohort of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis was analysed. All patients with at least one documented episode of acute pancreatitis have been studied prospectively over the past 30 years according to our protocol. Patients were classified according to their long term course into (a) calcific (n = 185), (b) non-calcific (n = 30), and (c) non-progressive (n = 39) chronic pancreatitis groups. The yearly incidence of acute attacks of pancreatitis was significantly higher in groups (a) and (b) than in group (c). Furthermore, the progression rate to advanced chronic pancreatitis (groups (a) and (b)) correlated with the incidence of severe pancreatitis (associated with pseudocysts in more than 55%). Pseudocysts were located primarily in the cephalic pancreas in groups (a) and (b) (58-71%) and in the pancreatic tail in group (c) (61%). In conclusion, these data suggest that the progression of acute to chronic pancreatitis is closely related to the incidence and severity of acute attacks. This finding and the primary location of pseudocysts in the cephalic pancreas (groups (a) plus (b)) are compatible with the 'necrosis-fibrosis' pathogenetic hypothesis. PMID:8174996

  4. Enteral feeding in acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Makola, Diklar; Krenitsky, Joe; Parrish, Carol Rees

    2007-10-01

    Nutrition support is an essential part of the management of acute and chronic pancreatitis. In the past, parenteral nutrition has been used to allow pancreatic rest while providing nutrition support to patients who have acute pancreatitis. Evidence from randomized, controlled trials, however, suggests that enteral nutrition is as effective as and is safer and cheaper than parenteral nutrition. Observational studies also have demonstrated a benefit in patients who have chronic pancreatitis.

  5. Acute phase proteins response to feed deprivation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Najafi, P; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Goh, Y M

    2016-04-01

    Feed deprivation in poultry farming imposes some degree of stress to the birds, and adversely affects their well -being. Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) are potential physiological indicators of stress attributed to feed deprivation. However, it has not been determined how long it takes for a measurable APP response to stressors to occur in avian species. An experiment was designed to delineate the APP and circulating levels of corticosterone responses in commercial broiler chickens to feed deprivation for 30 h. It was hypothesized that feed deprivation would elicit both APP and corticosterone (CORT) reactions within 30 h that is probably associated with stress of hunger. Twenty-one day old birds were subjected to one of 5 feed deprivation periods: 0 (ad libitum, AL), 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h. Upon completion of the deprivation period, blood samples were collected to determine serum CORT, ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations. Results showed that feed deprivation for 24 h or more caused a marked elevation in CORT (P=0.002 and P<0.0001, respectively) when compared to AL. However, increases in AGP (P=0.0005), CP (P=0.0002), and OVT (P=0.0003) were only noted following 30 h of feed deprivation. It is concluded that elicitation of AGP, CP, and OVT response may represent a more chronic stressful condition than CORT response in assessing the well-being of broiler chickens.

  6. Acute Pancreatitis—Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Afghani, Elham; Pandol, Stephen J.; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Sutton, Robert; Wu, Bechien U.; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Gorelick, Fred; Hirota, Morihisa; Windsor, John; Lo, Simon K.; Freeman, Martin L.; Lerch, Markus M.; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Melmed, Gil Y.; Wassef, Wahid; Mayerle, Julia

    2016-01-01

    An international symposium entitled “Acute pancreatitis: progress and challenges” was held on November 5, 2014 at the Hapuna Beach Hotel, Big Island, Hawaii, as part of the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and the Japanese Pancreas Society. The course was organized and directed by Drs. Stephen Pandol, Tooru Shimosegawa, Robert Sutton, Bechien Wu, and Santhi Swaroop Vege. The symposium objectives were to: (1) highlight current issues in management of acute pancreatitis, (2) discuss promising treatments, (3) consider development of quality indicators and improved measures of disease activity, and (4) present a framework for international collaboration for development of new therapies. This article represents a compilation and adaptation of brief summaries prepared by speakers at the symposium with the purpose of broadly disseminating information and initiatives. PMID:26465949

  7. [Feeding infants and young children with acute diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Chouraqui, J-P; Michard-Lenoir, A-P

    2007-10-01

    Acute gastroenteritis remains a common and often severe illness among infants and children throughout the world. The management of a child with acute diarrhea includes rehydration and maintenance fluids with oral rehydration solutions (ORS), combined with continued age-appropriate nutrition. However, although substantial data support the role of continued nutrition in improving gastrointestinal function and anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical outcomes, the practice of continued feeding during diarrheal episodes has been difficult to establish as accepted standard of care. Recommendations for maintenance dietary therapy depend on the age and diet history of the patient. It has been clear for many years that, when affected by gastroenteritis, breastfed infants should be continued on breast milk without any need for interruption and, by that way, will get faster recovery and improved nutrition. Moreover, many well-conducted studies have provided evidence that in formula-fed children not severely dehydrated, a rapid return to full feeding is well tolerated. Lactose intolerance and/or secondary cow's milk allergy are not a clinical concern for the vast majority of patients. In fact early refeeding i.e resumption of normal diet, in amounts sufficient to satisfy energy and nutrient requirements, should be the rule. However, in children younger than 6 months of age, the lack of suitable studies must lead to caution and use of specific lactose-free or extensively hydrolysate formulae, especially in case of severe and/or prolonged diarrhea. Several studies support the use of zinc supplementation or probiotics for acute diarrhea but some doubts persist in infant in developed countries. PMID:17961812

  8. Does breast feeding provide protection against acute appendicitis? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Figueiroa, José Natal; Barros, Isabela

    2008-10-01

    Breast feeding stimulates a more tolerant lymphoid tissue at the base of the appendix and this could provide protection against acute appendicitis. Two studies reported that children and adolescents with appendicitis were less likely to have been breast fed. In a case-control study of 200 children with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis matched by 200 siblings with the same sex and difference age - up to three-year-old - we found breast feeding in at least the first two months of life and for more than four months provides protection against acute appendicitis. These findings suggesting that breast feeding may possibly give protection against the development of appendicitis.

  9. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Progress Through Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun J.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Pieters, Rob; Schrappe, Martin; Biondi, Andrea; Vora, Ajay; Baruchel, André; Silverman, Lewis B.; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Escherich, Gabriele; Horibe, Keizo; Benoit, Yves C.M.; Izraeli, Shai; Yeoh, Allen Eng Juh; Liang, Der-Cherng; Downing, James R.; Evans, William E.; Relling, Mary V.; Mullighan, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. Methods A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was reviewed and revised by the committee chairs of the major ALL study groups. Results With long-term survival rates for ALL approaching 90% and the advent of high-resolution genome-wide analyses, several international study groups or consortia were established to conduct collaborative research to further improve outcome. As a result, treatment strategies have been improved for several subtypes of ALL, such as infant, MLL-rearranged, Philadelphia chromosome–positive, and Philadelphia chromosome–like ALL. Many recurrent genetic abnormalities that respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and multiple genetic determinants of drug resistance and toxicities have been identified to help develop targeted therapy. Several genetic polymorphisms have been recognized that show susceptibility to developing ALL and that help explain the racial/ethnic differences in the incidence of ALL. Conclusion The information gained from collaborative studies has helped decipher the heterogeneity of ALL to help improve personalized treatment, which will further advance the current high cure rate and the quality of life for children and adolescents with ALL. PMID:26304874

  10. Lack of feeding progression in a preterm infant: a case study.

    PubMed

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Shapiro, Nicole; Healy-Baker, Elissa; Menchavez, Lina; Rankin, Kristin; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to present the case of a premature infant who displayed immature feeding progression because of nasal occlusion. Two male preterm infants of 33 weeks' gestational age at birth from a larger randomized trial were observed in a comparative case study. Using a prospective design, feeding assessments were conducted weekly from initiation of oral feeding until hospital discharge. Sucking organization was measured using the Medoff-Cooper Nutritive Sucking Apparatus (M-CNSA), which measured negative sucking pressure generated during oral feedings. Oral and nasogastric (NG) intake and vital signs were recorded. At 35 weeks, infant A demonstrated an immature feeding pattern with the M-CNSA NG feedings prevailing over oral feedings. When attempting to feed orally, infant A exhibited labored breathing and an erratic sucking pattern. During the third weekly feeding evaluation, nasal occlusion was discovered, the NG tube was discontinued, and phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine) and humidified air were administered. Following treatment, infant A's sucking pattern normalized and the infant maintained complete oral feeding. Infant B demonstrated normal feeding progression. Nasal occlusion prevented infant A from achieving successful oral feeding. The M-CNSA has the ability to help clinicians detect inconsistencies in the sucking patterns of infants and objectively measures patterns of nutritive sucking. The M-CNSA has the potential to influence clinical decision making and identify the need for intervention.

  11. [The role of jejunal feeding in the treatment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis and in recurrence of chronic pancreatitis with severe necrosis].

    PubMed

    Hamvas, J; Pap, A

    1998-04-19

    Acute necrotising is the most serious form of pancreatic inflammatory diseases leading to multiorgan failure and high (15-20%) mortality. The poor nutritional and metabolic condition of the patient and secondary bacterial translocation further rise the mortality. A recently introduced method of continuous nasojejunal feeding putting the pancreas into rest with basal pattern of secretion resulted in lower mortality rate by using adequate nutrition into the second loop of jejunum bypassing duodenopancreatic stimulations via an endoscopically placed feeding tube. The better nutritional and immunological states of the patients, the restored absorption and intestinal motility promote the recovery of pancreatitis, prevent bacterial translocation, resulting in time and in financial spares. Although surgery is occasionally inevitable because of progression of pancreatitis, nasojejunal feeding improves the general condition of patients more efficiently than parenteral nutrition and makes the scheduling of the operation optimal. The authors retrospectively analyse the results of treatment in 56 patients suffering from acute necrotising pancreatitis, as well as in 30 patients with chronic pancreatitis accompanied with more than 20% of necrosis in the pancreas and admitted to their gastroenterological medical department during 5 years. The effect of parenteral nutrition were less beneficial than that of jejunal feeding regarding the mortality and the necessity of operative interventions. Chronic pancreatitis with severe necrosis behaved similarly to the acute necrotising pancreatitis. The continuous nasojejunal feeding seems to be a promising new method for acute necrotising pancreatitis preventing complications and severe catabolic state of the disease by a cost--effective manner.

  12. Preemptive mechanical ventilation can block progressive acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Sadowitz, Benjamin; Jain, Sumeet; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader; Gatto, Louis A; Nieman, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unacceptable, approaching 45% in certain high-risk patient populations. Treating fulminant ARDS is currently relegated to supportive care measures only. Thus, the best treatment for ARDS may lie with preventing this syndrome from ever occurring. Clinical studies were examined to determine why ARDS has remained resistant to treatment over the past several decades. In addition, both basic science and clinical studies were examined to determine the impact that early, protective mechanical ventilation may have on preventing the development of ARDS in at-risk patients. Fulminant ARDS is highly resistant to both pharmacologic treatment and methods of mechanical ventilation. However, ARDS is a progressive disease with an early treatment window that can be exploited. In particular, protective mechanical ventilation initiated before the onset of lung injury can prevent the progression to ARDS. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a novel mechanical ventilation strategy for delivering a protective breath that has been shown to block progressive acute lung injury (ALI) and prevent ALI from progressing to ARDS. ARDS mortality currently remains as high as 45% in some studies. As ARDS is a progressive disease, the key to treatment lies with preventing the disease from ever occurring while it remains subclinical. Early protective mechanical ventilation with APRV appears to offer substantial benefit in this regard and may be the prophylactic treatment of choice for preventing ARDS. PMID:26855896

  13. Preemptive mechanical ventilation can block progressive acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sadowitz, Benjamin; Jain, Sumeet; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader; Gatto, Louis A; Nieman, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unacceptable, approaching 45% in certain high-risk patient populations. Treating fulminant ARDS is currently relegated to supportive care measures only. Thus, the best treatment for ARDS may lie with preventing this syndrome from ever occurring. Clinical studies were examined to determine why ARDS has remained resistant to treatment over the past several decades. In addition, both basic science and clinical studies were examined to determine the impact that early, protective mechanical ventilation may have on preventing the development of ARDS in at-risk patients. Fulminant ARDS is highly resistant to both pharmacologic treatment and methods of mechanical ventilation. However, ARDS is a progressive disease with an early treatment window that can be exploited. In particular, protective mechanical ventilation initiated before the onset of lung injury can prevent the progression to ARDS. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a novel mechanical ventilation strategy for delivering a protective breath that has been shown to block progressive acute lung injury (ALI) and prevent ALI from progressing to ARDS. ARDS mortality currently remains as high as 45% in some studies. As ARDS is a progressive disease, the key to treatment lies with preventing the disease from ever occurring while it remains subclinical. Early protective mechanical ventilation with APRV appears to offer substantial benefit in this regard and may be the prophylactic treatment of choice for preventing ARDS. PMID:26855896

  14. [Long-term nasogastric feeding and complications of acute gastric ulcer in two elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Yoshimine, N; Miura, S; Funaki, C; Hayashi, T; Goto, T; Ando, F; Kuzuya, F

    1992-09-01

    Some elderly patients with chronic illness such as stroke, or Parkinsonism cannot take food orally because of dysphagia. In such cases, tube feeding can be used as a supplement to oral intake when malnutrition is present. This route allows for easier nursing care and decreases the frequency of aspiration pneumonia. Complications of tube feeding include nutrient deficiency states, pulmonary aspiration, gastrointestinal and metabolic disorders. We report two cases with complications of acute gastric ulcer which was thought to be induced with long-term tube feeding. Case 1 was a 61-year-old male patient with Parkinson's disease for ten years. L-DOPA had been administered with good control of his condition. However, his ability to swallow has deteriorated gradually. As he often suffered from aspiration pneumonia, nasogastric tube feeding was performed. After three years of tube feeding, he suddenly vomited much bloody material. He died from massive bleeding with acute gastric dilatation. Autopsy showed giant acute gastric ulcer covered with coagulated blood. UL3, 50 mm in maximum diameter, was observed in the middle portion of the greater curvature, where the top of tube probably came in contact with the gastric wall. Case 2 was an 83-year-old female patient with stroke and chronic heart failure. She had been hospitalized for about one year because of the intermittent deterioration of her cardiac condition. Furthermore, her inability to swallow increased during her hospitalization. She also suffered from aspiration pneumonia. Nasogastric tube feeding was performed to prevent aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. She died of acute heart failure after twelve months. Autopsy revealed heart dilatation, old myocardial infarction and stroke. In addition, two acute gastric ulcers (UL3.10 and 30 mm in diameter) were recognized; one was in the upper portion of the greater curvature, the other in the lower portion of the greater curvature. The location of these gastric ulcers

  15. Progress Toward Corrugated Feed Horn Arrays in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, J.; Yoon, K. W.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Cho, H. M.; Hilton, G. C.; Niemack, M. D.; Irwin, K. D.

    2009-12-16

    We are developing monolithic arrays of corrugated feed horns fabricated in silicon for dual-polarization single-mode operation at 90, 145 and 220 GHz. The arrays consist of hundreds of platelet feed horns assembled from gold-coated stacks of micro-machined silicon wafers. As a first step, Au-coated Si waveguides with a circular, corrugated cross section were fabricated; their attenuation was measured to be less than 0.15 dB/cm from 80 to 110 GHz at room temperature. To ease the manufacture of horn arrays, electrolytic deposition of Au on degenerate Si without a metal seed layer was demonstrated. An apparatus for measuring the radiation pattern, optical efficiency, and spectral band-pass of prototype horns is described. Feed horn arrays made of silicon may find use in measurements of the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  16. Markers for predicting severity and progression of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Schütte, Kerstin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Several tools have been developed for severity stratification in acute pancreatitis. They include single biochemical markers, imaging methods, and complex scoring systems, all of which aim at an early detection of severe acute pancreatitis to optimise monitoring and treatment of patients as early as possible. Among single biochemical markers, C-reactive protein (CRP) remains the most useful. Despite its delayed increase, peaking not earlier than 72 h after the onset of symptoms, it is accurate and widely available. Many other markers have been evaluated for their usefulness, and for some of them very promising data could be shown. Among them interleukin 6 seems to be the most promising parameter for use in clinical routine. For the detection of pancreatic infection, procalcitonin is the most sensitive, and can be used as an indicator for the need for fine-needle aspiration of pancreatic necrosis. Regarding imaging, contrast-enhanced computed tomography is still the reference method for the detection of necrotising acute pancreatitis. Pancreatitis-specific scoring systems have been shown to be of value for the prediction of severity and progression of acute pancreatitis, but cannot be applied any earlier than 48 h after admission to hospital. The APACHE-II score has not been developed specifically for acute pancreatitis and is rather complex to assess, but has been proven to be an early and reliable tool. Indication, timing and consequences of the methods applied need to be carefully considered and incorporated into clinical assessments to avoid costs and harm to the patient.

  17. Outbreak of acute colitis on a horse farm associated with tetracycline-contaminated sweet feed.

    PubMed Central

    Keir, A A; Stämpfli, H R; Crawford, J

    1999-01-01

    Exposure of a group of horses to tetracycline-contaminated feed resulted in acute colitis and subsequent death in one horse and milder diarrhea in 3 others. The most severely affected animal demonstrated clinical and pathological findings typical of colitis X. The other herdmates responded well to administration of zinc bacitracin. PMID:10572668

  18. Is Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease a Slow Acute Kidney Injury?

    PubMed

    Cowgill, Larry D; Polzin, David J; Elliott, Jonathan; Nabity, Mary B; Segev, Gilad; Grauer, Gregory F; Brown, Scott; Langston, Cathy; van Dongen, Astrid M

    2016-11-01

    International Renal Interest Society chronic kidney disease Stage 1 and acute kidney injury Grade I categorizations of kidney disease are often confused or ignored because patients are nonazotemic and generally asymptomatic. Recent evidence suggests these seemingly disparate conditions may be mechanistically linked and interrelated. Active kidney injury biomarkers have the potential to establish a new understanding for traditional views of chronic kidney disease, including its early identification and possible mediators of its progression, which, if validated, would establish a new and sophisticated paradigm for the understanding and approach to the diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of urinary disease in dogs and cats.

  19. Is Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease a Slow Acute Kidney Injury?

    PubMed

    Cowgill, Larry D; Polzin, David J; Elliott, Jonathan; Nabity, Mary B; Segev, Gilad; Grauer, Gregory F; Brown, Scott; Langston, Cathy; van Dongen, Astrid M

    2016-11-01

    International Renal Interest Society chronic kidney disease Stage 1 and acute kidney injury Grade I categorizations of kidney disease are often confused or ignored because patients are nonazotemic and generally asymptomatic. Recent evidence suggests these seemingly disparate conditions may be mechanistically linked and interrelated. Active kidney injury biomarkers have the potential to establish a new understanding for traditional views of chronic kidney disease, including its early identification and possible mediators of its progression, which, if validated, would establish a new and sophisticated paradigm for the understanding and approach to the diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of urinary disease in dogs and cats. PMID:27593574

  20. Unstable Angina Pectoris and the Progression to Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Willerson, James T.; Yao, Sheng-Kun; Ferguson, James J.; Anderson, H. Vernon; Golino, Paolo; Buja, L. Maximilian

    1991-01-01

    The conversion from stable to unstable angina and the further progression to myocardial infarction are usually associated with atherosclerotic plaque fissuring or ulceration at sites of coronary artery stenosis and subsequent development of a thrombus. This thrombus formation is initiated by platelet adhesion and aggregation; these, in turn, are promoted by the local release and accumulation of thromboxane A2 and serotonin. This accumulation and the resulting platelet aggregation at sites of endothelial injury cause dynamic vasoconstriction. With time, the platelet-initiated thrombus expands to include white and red blood cells in a fibrin mesh. Thus, a fully occlusive coronary thrombus may develop and cause the progression from unstable angina to acute myocardial infarction, often Q-wave myocardial infarction. We believe that the connection between unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction is a continuum relative to the processes of coronary artery thrombosis and vasoconstriction. When the period of platelet aggregation or dynamic vasoconstriction at sites of endothelial injury and coronary stenosis lasts only a few minutes and is repetitive, unstable angina or non-Q wave myocardial infarction occurs. However, when complete coronary artery occlusion lasts for longer than 4 hours, a transmural or Q-wave myocardial infarction results. Recently, in experimental animal models with mechanically induced coronary artery stenoses and endothelial injury, we have found that other mediators, including adenosine diphosphate and thrombin, also contribute to coronary artery thrombosis. Moreover, in humans with limiting angina, we have identified spontaneous coronary blood flow variations in a pattern similar to the variations caused by alternating platelet attachment and dislodgement in experimental canine modes. In this review, we add information to our previous observations in order to present the possible mechanisms of conversion from chronic to acute coronary heart

  1. Acute and chronic effects of atmospheric oxygen on the feeding behavior of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    PubMed

    Farzin, Manoush; Albert, Todd; Pierce, Nicholas; VandenBrooks, John M; Dodge, Tahnee; Harrison, Jon F

    2014-09-01

    All insects studied to date show reduced growth rates in hypoxia. Drosophila melanogaster reared in moderate hypoxia (10 kPa PO2) grow more slowly and form smaller adults, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear, as metabolic rates are not oxygen-limited. It has been shown that individual fruit flies do not grow larger in hyperoxia (40 kPa PO2), but populations of flies evolve larger size. Here we studied the effect of acute and chronic variation in atmospheric PO2 (10, 21, 40 kPa) on feeding behavior of third instar larvae of D.melanogaster to assess whether oxygen effects on growth rate can be explained by effects on feeding behavior. Hypoxic-reared larvae grew and developed more slowly, and hyperoxic-rearing did not affect growth rate, maximal larval mass or developmental time. The effect of acute exposure to varying PO2 on larval bite rates matched the pattern observed for growth rates, with a 22% reduction in 10 kPa PO2 and no effect of 40 kPa PO2. Chronic rearing in hypoxia had few effects on the responses of feeding rates to oxygen, but chronic rearing in hyperoxia caused feeding rates to be strongly oxygen-dependent. Hypoxia produced similar reductions in bite rate and in the volume of tunnels excavated by larvae, supporting bite rate as an index of feeding behavior. Overall, our data show that reductions in feeding rate can explain reduced growth rates in moderate hypoxia for Drosophila, contributing to reduced body size, and that larvae cannot successfully compensate for this level of hypoxia with developmental plasticity.

  2. Collaborative Efforts Driving Progress in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zwaan, C. Michel; Kolb, Edward A.; Reinhardt, Dirk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Adachi, Souichi; Aplenc, Richard; De Bont, Eveline S.J.M.; De Moerloose, Barbara; Dworzak, Michael; Gibson, Brenda E.S.; Hasle, Henrik; Leverger, Guy; Locatelli, Franco; Ragu, Christine; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Rizzari, Carmelo; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Smith, Owen P.; Sung, Lillian; Tomizawa, Daisuke; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Creutzig, Ursula; Kaspers, Gertjan J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis, treatment, response monitoring, and outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have made enormous progress during the past decades. Because AML is a rare type of childhood cancer, with an incidence of approximately seven occurrences per 1 million children annually, national and international collaborative efforts have evolved. This overview describes these efforts and includes a summary of the history and contributions of each of the main collaborative pediatric AML groups worldwide. The focus is on translational and clinical research, which includes past, current, and future clinical trials. Separate sections concern acute promyelocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome, and relapsed AML. A plethora of novel antileukemic agents that have emerged, including new classes of drugs, are summarized as well. Finally, an important aspect of the treatment of pediatric AML—supportive care—and late effects are discussed. The future is bright, with a wide range of emerging innovative therapies and with more and more international collaboration that ultimately aim to cure all children with AML, with fewer adverse effects and without late effects. PMID:26304895

  3. Collaborative Efforts Driving Progress in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, C Michel; Kolb, Edward A; Reinhardt, Dirk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Adachi, Souichi; Aplenc, Richard; De Bont, Eveline S J M; De Moerloose, Barbara; Dworzak, Michael; Gibson, Brenda E S; Hasle, Henrik; Leverger, Guy; Locatelli, Franco; Ragu, Christine; Ribeiro, Raul C; Rizzari, Carmelo; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Smith, Owen P; Sung, Lillian; Tomizawa, Daisuke; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Creutzig, Ursula; Kaspers, Gertjan J L

    2015-09-20

    Diagnosis, treatment, response monitoring, and outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have made enormous progress during the past decades. Because AML is a rare type of childhood cancer, with an incidence of approximately seven occurrences per 1 million children annually, national and international collaborative efforts have evolved. This overview describes these efforts and includes a summary of the history and contributions of each of the main collaborative pediatric AML groups worldwide. The focus is on translational and clinical research, which includes past, current, and future clinical trials. Separate sections concern acute promyelocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome, and relapsed AML. A plethora of novel antileukemic agents that have emerged, including new classes of drugs, are summarized as well. Finally, an important aspect of the treatment of pediatric AML--supportive care--and late effects are discussed. The future is bright, with a wide range of emerging innovative therapies and with more and more international collaboration that ultimately aim to cure all children with AML, with fewer adverse effects and without late effects.

  4. Acute re-feeding reverses food restriction-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis deficits.

    PubMed

    Temple, J L; Rissman, E F

    2000-12-01

    Undernutrition has well-established effects on female reproduction. Here we describe the effects of food restriction on aspects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the female musk shrew. We determined that acute re-feeding reverses deficits brought on by food restriction. Two days of food restriction led to an increase in proGnRH immunoreactive cells in the preoptic area relative to ad libitum-fed controls (AL). This increase was reversed by 90 min of ad libitum feeding in the re-fed females (RF). In addition, food-restricted (FR) females had significantly greater GnRH content in the median eminence than either the AL or RF females. After GnRH was administered, the majority of females in all food conditions ovulated, yet the FR females had significantly fewer corpora lutea than either the AL or RF animals. These data show that food restriction impairs HPG axis function in female musk shrews, and that some of these impairments can be rapidly reversed by acute re-feeding.

  5. Supplemental nasogastric feeding in cystic fibrosis patients during treatment for acute exacerbation of chest disease.

    PubMed

    Daniels, L; Davidson, G P; Martin, A J; Pouras, T

    1989-06-01

    The use of overnight, nasogastric, nutritional supplementation during hospitalization of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) receiving antibiotic therapy for acute exacerbations of respiratory disease was evaluated in 11 children (mean age = 7.75 years). Supplementary feeding significantly increased inpatient energy intake from 116 +/- 30% to 165 +/- 30% (P less than 0.001) of recommended dietary allowance with minimal effect on oral intake. It also resulted in significantly improved weight gains but neither increased energy intakes nor weights were sustained at short-term (mean = 5.7 weeks) or long-term (mean = 21.6 weeks) follow-up. The notion that short bursts of nasogastric feeding for inpatients with CF improve growth status is not supported. However, the study did show that treatment of chest infections alone does not positively affect spontaneous oral energy intake. PMID:2504140

  6. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende; Pedroso, José Luiz; Souza, Paulo Victor Sgobbi de; Albuquerque, Marcus Vinícius Cristino de; Barsottini, Orlando Graziani Povoas

    2015-10-01

    Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  7. Extending Supplementary Feeding for Children Under Five with Moderate Acute Malnutrition Leads to Lower Relapse Rates

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Indi; Banerjee, Somalee; Murray, Ellen; Ryan, Kelsey N.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have a high rate of relapse and death in the year following recovery. In this pilot study, we evaluate the long-term benefits of an extended course of nutritional therapy for children with MAM. Methods Rural Malawian children 6-59 months old with MAM, defined as a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) between -2 and -3, were provided supplementary feeding for a fixed duration of 12 weeks. The children were then followed for 12 months to assess long-term nutritional status, and compared to children initially treated only until they first reached WHZ > -2. Results Compared to children treated until they reached WHZ > -2, children treated for 12 weeks were more likely to remain well-nourished (71% vs. 63%, P = 0.0015) and maintain more normal anthropometric indices during 12 months of follow-up; there was also a trend towards lower rates of severe acute malnutrition (7% vs. 10%, P = 0.067) and death (2% vs. 4%, P = 0.082). Regression modeling showed that mid-upper arm circumference and WHZ at the end of supplementary feeding were the most important factors in predicting which children remained well-nourished (P < 0.001 for each). Conclusions The duration of supplementary feeding for children with MAM may not be as important as their anthropometry in terms of remaining well-nourished after initial recovery. The currently accepted recovery criteria of WHZ of -2 may be insufficient for ensuring long-term nutritional health; consideration should be given to setting higher recovery criteria. PMID:25419681

  8. Restricted feeding entrains rhythms of inflammation-related factors without promoting an acute-phase response.

    PubMed

    Luna-Moreno, Dalia; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2009-10-01

    A restricted schedule of food access promotes numerous metabolic and physiological adaptations to optimize the biochemical handling of nutrients. The restricted feeding activates responses in hypothalamic and midbrain areas, as well as in peripheral organs involved in energy metabolism. A restricted feeding schedule (RFS) is associated with marked behavioral arousal coincident with the food anticipatory activity (FAA) and extreme hyperphagia during food access. Food restriction is also accompanied by changes in an array of stress-related parameters, such as increase in corticosterone, slower rate in body weight gain, and reduction in retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissue. During RFS, the liver shows a diversity of biochemical and physiologically adaptations that are advantageous for food ingestion and processing, as well as for adequate nutrient distribution to other tissues. Taking into account the probable relationship between stressful conditions and the metabolic adaptations in the liver, we addressed whether an acute-phase response (APR), or a pro-inflammatory state, occurred after three weeks of 2 h food restriction. First, we compared the circulating levels of inflammation markers (interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), and APR proteins (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) in rats under food restriction to those in rats treated with lipopolysacharide, a strong inducer of the APR. Second, the influence of RFS on the daily rhythms of systemic cytokines and APR proteins was characterized. Third, we tested if the feeding condition (22 h fasting and 2 h refeeding) influences these parameters. Finally, we assessed if a local stressed state was established in the liver associated with the restricted feeding by measuring the activation of the transcriptional factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells). The results showed that the following occurred during RFS: no APR was implemented; food

  9. The effect of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus heifers (n = 22; 292 ± 9.0 kg body weight) were paired by body weight and randomly placed on either an endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) diet for 10 days to determine the influence of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the physiological and acute phase responses of beef heifers ...

  10. Acute interstitial pneumonia in feedlot cattle: effects of feeding feather meal or vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A; Ayroud, Mejid; Bray, Tammy M; Yost, Garold S

    2007-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of feeding 1.5% cysteine-rich feather meal or 550 IU of vitamin E for 40 d before slaughter on the rates of death and emergency slaughter due to acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) in commercial feedlots. Blood and lung tissue were collected at slaughter from 83 animals clinically diagnosed with AIP, 40 asymptomatic penmates, and 40 heifers receiving either feather meal (20) or vitamin E (20); the left lung was subsampled for histologic examination. Blood and lung tissue were analyzed for thiol adducts of 3-methyleneindolenine (3ME) and reduced glutathione. Supplementation with feather meal or vitamin E had no effect on the rates of death and emergency slaughter attributable to AIP and did not influence the levels of 3ME or reduced glutathione in blood or lung tissue. Although supplementation with greater amounts of feather meal or vitamin E may have been necessary to significantly affect factors related to feedlot AIP, increased supplementation would be uneconomical for commercial feedlots, given the relatively low incidence of AIP.

  11. INHIBITION OF FATTY ACID DESATURASES IN Drosophila melanogaster LARVAE BLOCKS FEEDING AND DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESSION.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; da Cruz, Tina Correia; Pulfemuller, Alicia; Grégoire, Stéphane; Ferveur, Jean-François; Moussian, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid desaturases are metabolic setscrews. To study their systemic impact on growth in Drosophila melanogaster, we inhibited fatty acid desaturases using the inhibitor CAY10566. As expected, the amount of desaturated lipids is reduced in larvae fed with CAY10566. These animals cease feeding soon after hatching, and their growth is strongly attenuated. A starvation program is not launched, but the expression of distinct metabolic genes is activated, possibly to mobilize storage material. Without attaining the normal size, inhibitor-fed larvae molt to the next stage indicating that the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers molting correctly. Nevertheless, after molting, expression of ecdysone-dependent regulators is not induced. While control larvae molt a second time, these larvae fail to do so and die after few days of straying. These effects are similar to those observed in experiments using larvae deficient for the fatty acid desaturase1 gene. Based on these data, we propose that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids adjusts a sensor system that directs feeding behavior. We also hypothesize that loss of fatty acid desaturase activity leads to a block of the genetic program of development progression indirectly by switching on a metabolic compensation program. PMID:27037621

  12. The acute effects of time-of-day-dependent high fat feeding on whole body metabolic flexibility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Joo, J; Cox, C C; Kindred, E D; Lashinger, L M; Young, M E; Bray, M S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both circadian disruption and timing of feeding have important roles in the development of metabolic disease. Despite growing acceptance that the timing of food consumption has long-term impact on metabolic homeostasis, little is known regarding the immediate influence on whole body metabolism, or the mechanisms involved. We aimed to examine the acute effects of time-of-day-dependent high fat feeding on whole body substrate metabolism and metabolic plasticity, and to determine the potential contribution of the adipocyte circadian clock. Methods: Mice were fed a regimen of 4-h meal at the beginning and end of the dark (waking) cycle, separated by 4 h of fasting. Daily experimental conditions consisted of either an early very high fat or high fat (EVHF or EHF, 60 or 45% kcals from fat, respectively) or late (LVHF or LHF) meal, paired with a low fat (LF, 10% kcals from fat) meal. Metabolic parameters, glucose tolerance, body fat composition and weight were assessed. To determine the role of the adipocyte circadian clock, an aP2-CLOCK mutant (ACM) mouse model was used. Results: Mice in the EVHF or EHF groups showed a 13.2 or 8.84 higher percentage of caloric intake from fat and had a 0.013 or 0.026 lower daily average respiratory exchange ratio, respectively, compared with mice eating the opposite feeding regime. Changes in glucose tolerance, body fat composition and weight were not significant at the end of the 9-day restricted feeding period. ACM mice did not exhibit different metabolic responses to the feeding regimes compared with wild-type littermates. Circadian clock disruption did not influence the short-term response to timed feeding. Conclusions: Both the total fat composition of diet and the timing of fat intake may differentially mediate the effect of timed feeding on substrate metabolism, but may not induce acute changes in metabolic flexibility. PMID:27133618

  13. Evolving Therapies in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Progress at Last?

    PubMed

    DeAngelo, Daniel J; Stein, Eytan M; Ravandi, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an acquired disease characterized by chromosomal translocations and somatic mutations that lead to leukemogenesis. Systemic combination chemotherapy with an anthracycline and cytarabine remains the standard induction regimen for "fit" adults. Patients who achieve complete remission generally receive postinduction therapy with cytarabine-based chemotherapy or an allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Those unfit for induction chemotherapy are treated with hypomethylating agents (HMAs), low-dose cytarabine, or they are offered supportive care alone with transfusions and prophylactic antimicrobials. The revolution in understanding the genetics of AML, facilitated by next-generation sequencing, has led to many new drugs against driver mutations. Better methods of identification of leukemic blasts have provided us with better means to detect the disease left behind after cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. This measurable residual disease has been correlated with poorer relapse-free survival, demonstrating the need for novel strategies to eradicate it to improve the outcome of patients with acute leukemias. In this article, we discuss adapting and improving AML therapy by age and comorbidities, emerging targeted therapies in AML, and minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in AML. PMID:27249736

  14. Acute stimulation of feeding with repeated injections of morphine sulphate to non-obese and fatty Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, J A; Saunders, W S

    1983-01-01

    Food intake studies with genetically obese rodents show that these hyperphagic animals, which have increased central and peripheral levels of endogenous opioid peptides (E.O.P.), have an increased sensitivity to the suppressive feeding effects of narcotic antagonists compared to lean controls. Feeding experiments were conducted to determine if genetically obese rats, with enhanced E.O.P., have a reduced sensitivity toward the narcotic agonist property of stimulated feeding seen in non-obese rats. Food intake was monitored continuously over each experimental day in groups of female Sprague-Dawley (S.D.,), fatty Zucker (fa/fa) and their lean heterozygote littermates (Fa/fa) following subcutaneous a.m. injections of sterile saline, morphine sulphate (5 or 10 mg/kg) or naloxone HCl (10 mg/kg) and during recovery. Acute 4-h post-injection feeding was reduced in all groups with the first 10 mg/kg injection of morphine sulphate. With repeated morphine administration, a phase of stimulated feeding occurred in both obese and non-obese groups. Due to the post-injection phase of vigorous feeding with repeated morphine injections, the circadian pattern of day/night food intake of all groups was altered such that daytime feeding increased from saline control levels. Naloxone HCl abolished the post-injection phase of stimulated feeding seen with chronic morphine injections and reduced 4-h post-injection food intakes. Plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were decreased in non-obese rats from saline controls of blood samples taken 2-h following the 7th daily M.S. injection. These levels increased again by the end of the recovery period. No blood glucose or insulin changes were seen in the obese Zucker rats with morphine administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50`s in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests.

  16. Unbiased Transcriptional Comparisons of Generalist and Specialist Herbivores Feeding on Progressively Defenseless Nicotiana attenuata Plants

    PubMed Central

    Govind, Geetha; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Griebel, Thasso; Allmann, Silke; Böcker, Sebastian; Baldwin, Ian Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background Herbivore feeding elicits dramatic increases in defenses, most of which require jasmonate (JA) signaling, and against which specialist herbivores are thought to be better adapted than generalist herbivores. Unbiased transcriptional analyses of how neonate larvae cope with these induced plant defenses are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We created cDNA microarrays for Manduca sexta and Heliothis virescens separately, by spotting normalized midgut-specific cDNA libraries created from larvae that fed for 24 hours on MeJA-elicited wild-type (WT) Nicotiana attenuata plants. These microarrays were hybridized with labeled probes from neonates that fed for 24 hours on WT and isogenic plants progressively silenced in JA-mediated defenses (N: nicotine; N/PI: N and trypsin protease inhibitors; JA: all JA-mediated defenses). H. virescens neonates regulated 16 times more genes than did M. sexta neonates when they fed on plants silenced in JA-mediated defenses, and for both species, the greater the number of defenses silenced in the host plant (JA > N/PI > N), the greater were the number of transcripts regulated in the larvae. M. sexta larvae tended to down-regulate while H. virescens larvae up- and down-regulated transcripts from the same functional categories of genes. M. sexta larvae regulated transcripts in a diet-specific manner, while H. virescens larvae regulated a similar suite of transcripts across all diet types. Conclusions/Significance The observations are consistent with the expectation that specialists are better adapted than generalist herbivores to the defense responses elicited in their host plants by their feeding. While M. sexta larvae appear to be better adapted to N. attenuata's defenses, some of the elicited responses remain effective defenses against both herbivore species. The regulated genes provide novel insights into larval adaptations to N. attenuata's induced defenses, and represent potential targets for plant-mediated RNAi to

  17. Acute respiratory infections in Pakistan: have we made any progress?

    PubMed

    Khan, Tauseef Ahmad; Madni, Syed Ali; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2004-07-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of death in young children in Pakistan, responsible for 20-30% of all child deaths under age 5 years. This paper summarizes the research and technical development efforts over the last 15 years which have contributed to improving the effectiveness of the case management strategy to reduce mortality from pneumonia in children in Pakistan. Community intervention is viable, effective and practical. Rising antimicrobial resistance among commonly used and low-cost oral agents is of significant concern. Appropriate monitoring and evaluation of the impact of the ARI control programme is lacking. Lack of funding for programmatic activities, lack of coordination with other child survival programs, inadequate training for community health workers and general practitioners in the private sector, lack of public awareness about seeking timely and appropriate care, and insufficient planning and support for ARI programmatic activities at provincial and district levels are major hindrances in decreasing the burden of ARI in the country. The recent introduction of the community-based Lady Health Worker (LHW) Programme and WHO and UNICEF-sponsored integrated management of childhood illness initiative present ideal opportunities for re-emphasizing early case detection and appropriate case management of ARI. Ultimately, focusing on preventive strategies such as improving nutrition, reducing indoor pollution, improving mass vaccination, as well as introduction of new vaccines effective against important respiratory pathogens will likely have the most impact on reducing severe ARI and deaths from severe disease. PMID:15279753

  18. Comparing Acute Bouts of Sagittal Plane Progression Foam Rolling vs. Frontal Plane Progression Foam Rolling.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Corey A; Krein, Darren D; Antonio, Jose; Sanders, Gabriel J; Silver, Tobin A; Colas, Megan

    2015-08-01

    Many strength and conditioning professionals have included the use of foam rolling devices within a warm-up routine prior to both training and competition. Multiple studies have investigated foam rolling in regards to performance, flexibility, and rehabilitation; however, additional research is necessary in supporting the topic. Furthermore, as multiple foam rolling progressions exist, researching differences that may result from each is required. To investigate differences in foam rolling progressions, 16 athletically trained males underwent a 2-condition within-subjects protocol comparing the differences of 2 common foam rolling progressions in regards to performance testing. The 2 conditions included a foam rolling progression targeting the mediolateral axis of the body (FRml) and foam rolling progression targeting the anteroposterior axis (FRap). Each was administered in adjunct with a full-body dynamic warm-up. After each rolling progression, subjects performed National Football League combine drills, flexibility, and subjective scaling measures. The data demonstrated that FRml was effective at improving flexibility (p ≤ 0.05) when compared with FRap. No other differences existed between progressions.

  19. Increased tubuloglomerular feed-back mediated suppression of glomerular filtration during acute volume expansion in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J M; Häberle, D A; Kawata, T; Schmitt, E; Takabatake, T; Wohlfeil, S

    1988-01-01

    1. Volume expansion is currently believed to change the intrinsic properties of the juxtaglomerular apparatus such that the sensitivity of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism is reduced, thus allowing glomerular filtration rate, and hence salt and water excretion, to rise. Recent studies conflict with this view and indeed the older literature reveals that the rise in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) under these conditions is far more modest than would be expected if TGF control were eliminated. 2. To investigate this problem, TGF control of filtration rate was examined by measuring single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) during loop of Henle perfusion at varying rates in rats under control conditions, after acute, moderate (4% of body weight), iso-oncotic volume expansion and in rats treated with antibodies to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) prior to the acute volume expansion. 3. With TGF control of filtration interrupted by filtrate collection from the proximal tubule, SNGFR in the expanded rats was massively increased compared with controls, although SNGFR measured in the distal tubule, and hence with TGF control intact, was only modestly increased, as was whole-kidney filtration rate. Loop perfusion at increasing rates up to 30 nl min-1 progressively decreased SNGFR in controls, and in the expanded rats the range over which control was exerted extended up to 60-80 nl min-1. For changes in loop flow around the spontaneous operating point, the sensitivity of the TGF mechanism, defined as delta SNGFR/delta loop flow, was similar in both groups. Treatment of rats with ANP antibodies prior to volume expansion substantially blunted the changes in renal salt and water excretion and the increase in SNGFR seen in the absence of loop perfusion. 4. These results are not consistent with a diminution of TGF function after volume expansion, rather with an enhancement. The latter is best accounted for by vasodilation of preglomerular resistance vessels on

  20. Hierarchy in Gene Expression is Predictive of Risk, Progression, and Outcome in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shubham; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer progresses with a change in the structure of the gene network in normal cells. We define a measure of organizational hierarchy in gene networks of affected cells in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. With a retrospective cohort analysis based on the gene expression profiles of 116 acute myeloid leukemia patients, we find that the likelihood of future cancer relapse and the level of clinical risk are directly correlated with the level of organization in the cancer related gene network. We also explore the variation of the level of organization in the gene network with cancer progression. We find that this variation is non-monotonic, which implies the fitness landscape in the evolution of AML cancer cells is nontrivial. We further find that the hierarchy in gene expression at the time of diagnosis may be a useful biomarker in AML prognosis. PMID:25685944

  1. Impact of acute water and feed deprivation events on growth performance, intestinal characteristics, and serum stress markers in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Horn, N; Ruch, F; Miller, G; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2014-10-01

    The impact of acute stressors (24-h feed or water deprivation) on growth performance, intestinal characteristics, and serum stress markers in weaned pigs was evaluated. Pigs (6.21 ± 0.29 kg) were allotted in a randomized complete block design to 4 treatments on the basis of BW at the time of weaning. There were 8 mixed-sex pigs in each of 12 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial and consisted of a feed or water stressor that included a 0- or 24-h deprivation period postweaning, and pigs were subsequently allowed access to feed and water. Growth performance was measured 1, 7, 14, and 28 d postweaning. Serum and intestinal samples were taken 1 and 7 d postweaning. Serum was analyzed for cortisol and corticotrophin-releasing factor, and villus height, crypt depth, and mast cell density were measured in the jejunum and the ileum. Expression of mucin (MUC2), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), claudin 1 (CL-1), occludin (OC), and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) genes were measured on d 1 and 7 postweaning in the jejunum and ileum by real-time PCR. There was a decrease (P < 0.05) in ADG with the water stressor 1 d postweaning, although subsequently, there were improvements (P < 0.05) in ADG and feed efficiency. Furthermore, the water stressor reduced ADFI during the last 14 d of the trial and cumulatively (P < 0.05). Seven days postweaning there was an increase (P < 0.05) in jejunal villous height to depth ratio due to the feed stressor and a decrease (P < 0.05) in the ileal villous height to depth ratio due to the water stressor. There was an increase (P < 0.05) in serum cortisol levels due to the water stressor both 1 and 7 d postweaning. Furthermore, there was an increase in serum corticotrophin-releasing factor 1 d but not 7 d postweaning due to the water stressor (P < 0.05). The feed stressor reduced (P < 0.05) TNF-α gene expression, and the water stressor reduced (P < 0.05) OC gene expression in the jejunum 1 d

  2. TGF-β1 expression in wound healing is acutely affected by experimental malnutrition and early enteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Alves, Claudia Cristina; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana; Giorgi, Ricardo; Brentani, Maria Mitzi; Logullo, Angela Flavia; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2014-10-01

    Malnutrition is associated with the delay or failure of healing. We assessed the effect of experimental malnutrition and early enteral feeding with standard diet or diet supplemented with arginine and antioxidants on the levels of mRNA encoding growth factors in acute, open wound healing. Standardised cutaneous dorsal wounds and gastrostomies for enteral feeding were created in malnourished (M, n = 27) and eutrophic control (E, n = 30) Lewis male adult rats. Both M and E rats received isocaloric and isonitrogenous regimens with oral chow and saline (C), standard (S) or supplemented (A) enteral diets. On post-trauma day 7, mRNA levels of growth factor genes were analysed in wound granulation tissue by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). M(C) rats had significantly lower transforming growth factor β(TGF-β1 ) mRNA levels than E(C) rats (2·58 ± 0·83 versus 3·53 ± 0·57, P < 0·01) and in comparison with M(S) and M(A) rats (4·66 ± 2·49 and 4·61 ± 2·11, respectively; P < 0·05). VEGF and KGF-7 mRNA levels were lower in M(A) rats than in E(A) rats (0·74 ± 0·16 versus 1·25 ± 0·66; and 1·07 ± 0·45 versus 1·79 ± 0·89, respectively; P≤ 0·04), but did not differ from levels in E(C) and M(C) animals. In experimental open acute wound healing, previous malnutrition decreased local mRNA levels of TGF-β1 genes, which was minimised by early enteral feeding with standard or supplemented diets.

  3. Effects of oral acute administration and subchronic feeding of several levels of D-psicose in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Hashiguchi, Mineo; Izumori, Ken; Suzuki, Hiroo

    2002-12-01

    The effects of oral acute administration and subchronic (34 d) feeding of several levels of D-psicose, a C3-epimer of D-fructose, were studied in rats. In the acute administration test, five groups of eight male Wistar rats (3 wk old) were orally given D-psicose in doses of 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 g/kg. Three rats receiving 14 g/kg, three rats receiving 17 g/kg and eight rats receiving 20 g/kg of D-psicose died within 2 d after administration. The calculated LD50 values were 16.3 g/kg by the Behrens-Karber method and 15.8 g/kg by the Litchfield-Wilcoxon method. In the subcronic feeding test, eight groups of seven male Wistar rats (3 wk old) were fed diets containing 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% for 34 d. One rat fed 30% D-psicose diet and five rats fed 40% D-psicose diet died during the experimental period. Body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency were more extensively suppressed by the higher D-psicose diets. The weights of heart, spleen and abdominal adipose tissue were smaller in the order of dietary D-psicose concentration. Cecal weight increased with increasing D-psicose concentration in the diets. Cecal hypertrophy was observed in rats fed 10-40% D-psicose diets. These results suggest that D-psicose differs in nutritional characteristics from D-glucose or D-fructose. The feeding of diets extremely high in D-psicose seems to be harmful to the intestinal tract.

  4. Feeding response in marine copepods as a measure of acute toxicity of four anti-sea lice pesticides.

    PubMed

    Van Geest, Jordana L; Burridge, Les E; Fife, Frederick J; Kidd, Karen A

    2014-10-01

    Anti-sea lice pesticides used in salmon aquaculture are released directly into the environment where non-target organisms, including zooplankton, may be exposed. The toxicity of four pesticides to field-collected copepods was examined in 1-h exposures with lethality and feeding endpoints determined 5-h post-exposure using staining techniques. Copepods were immobilized within 1 h, at aquaculture treatment concentrations of deltamethrin (AlphaMax), cypermethrin (Excis), and hydrogen peroxide (InteroxParamove50). All organisms showed vital staining, indicating immobilized organisms were still alive, thus LC50s were not determined. Feeding on carmine particles was inhibited and EC50s ranged from 0.017 to 0.067 μg deltamethrin/L, 0.098-0.36 μg cypermethrin/L, and 2.6-10 mg hydrogen peroxide/L, representing 30- to 117-fold, 13- to 51-fold, and 120- to 460-fold dilutions of the respective aquaculture treatments. No effects were observed in copepods exposed to azamethiphos (Salmosan) at 5-times the aquaculture treatment. Acute exposure to three of the four pesticides affected feeding and mobility of copepods at environmentally-realistic concentrations.

  5. Acute and subchronic effects on immune responses of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) in feed.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Constanze; Katzenback, Barbara A; Garcia-Garcia, Erick; Schulz, Carsten; Belosevic, Miodrag; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) has been shown to regularly occur at relevant concentrations in feed designed for aquaculture use, but little is known about the consequences of its presence on the organisms that consume the DON-contaminated feed. Previous studies indicated a down-regulation of pro-inflammatory responses in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after 4 weeks of feeding DON. The present study examined the time course of innate immune responses of carp to orally administered DON. Changes in mRNA levels of immune genes in different organs (head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, liver, and intestine) were observed indicating immune-modulating properties of DON. The immune-modulatory effects during the acute phase of DON exposure were characterized by the activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes in carp. The subchronic responses to DON were characterized by activation of arginases culminating in increased arginase activity in head kidney leukocytes after 26 days of DON treatment. These results suggest profound effects of this mycotoxin on fish in aquaculture.

  6. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  7. A serial histologic study of the development and progression of acute pancreatitis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, S. S.; Watt, I. A.; Donaldson, L. A.; Crocket, A.; Joffe, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of a serial investigation of the development and progression of the light-microscopic changes of acute pancreatitis and histologic criteria for evaluating pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis, similar to that found in man, was induced in rats with the use of a closed duodenal loop technique (n = 36). Control rats underwent a laparotomy with mobilization of the duodenum (n = 12). Animals were killed every 2 hours for 24 hours, and a detailed and independent histologic evaluation was made of each. Focal acinar necrosis proceeding to a vasculitis appeared within 2--4 hours before the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Thereafter, the extent of acinar necrosis closely reflected the vasculitis with the later development of the acute inflammation. By the sixteenth hour, these changes were graded as moderate pancreatitis, and by 24 hours the process represented severe hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Vascular changes and acinar necrosis preceded the inflammatory cell infiltrate. The pancreatitis has been quantitated into minimal, moderate, or severe by assessing the severity of edema, acute inflammatory infiltrate, and changes in the vessels, ducts, and acini. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7223862

  8. Acute Pancreatitis-Progress and Challenges: A Report on an International Symposium.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Elham; Pandol, Stephen J; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Sutton, Robert; Wu, Bechien U; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Gorelick, Fred; Hirota, Morihisa; Windsor, John; Lo, Simon K; Freeman, Martin L; Lerch, Markus M; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Melmed, Gil Y; Wassef, Wahid; Mayerle, Julia

    2015-11-01

    An international symposium entitled "Acute pancreatitis: progress and challenges" was held on November 5, 2014 at the Hapuna Beach Hotel, Big Island, Hawaii, as part of the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and the Japanese Pancreas Society. The course was organized and directed by Drs. Stephen Pandol, Tooru Shimosegawa, Robert Sutton, Bechien Wu, and Santhi Swaroop Vege. The symposium objectives were to: (1) highlight current issues in management of acute pancreatitis, (2) discuss promising treatments, (3) consider development of quality indicators and improved measures of disease activity, and (4) present a framework for international collaboration for development of new therapies. This article represents a compilation and adaptation of brief summaries prepared by speakers at the symposium with the purpose of broadly disseminating information and initiatives. PMID:26465949

  9. [Acute and chronic progressive abdominal pain: what is the role of radiogical imaging?].

    PubMed

    Antes, G

    2005-06-01

    There are many causes for acute or chronic progressive abdominal pain. Although only about one percent of these patients suffer from acute mesenteric ischemia (MI), an efficient diagnostic work-up is mandatory to reduce the high mortality. An overview about the possibilities of conventional and modern imaging modalities is given. Plain films and ultrasonography are still important in the basic work-up, however, its sensitivity is limited. Angiography has a high sensitivity and specitivity. However, angiography is not always available. Modern spiral-CT is widely available and its sensitivity is already similar to angiography. An other advantage of CT is the possibility to detect the most other frequent causes of abdominal pain. Therefore CT should be performed as fast as possible.

  10. The severity of acute kidney injury predicts progression to chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Lakhmir S; Amdur, Richard L; Amodeo, Susan; Kimmel, Paul L; Palant, Carlos E

    2011-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with progression to advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). We tested whether patients who survive AKI and are at higher risk for CKD progression can be identified during their hospital admission, thus providing opportunities to intervene. This was assessed in patients in the Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System hospitalized with a primary diagnosis indicating AKI (ICD9 codes 584.xx). In the exploratory phase, three multivariate prediction models for progression to stage 4 CKD were developed. In the confirmatory phase, the models were validated in 11,589 patients admitted for myocardial infarction or pneumonia during the same time frame that had RIFLE codes R, I, or F and complete data for all predictor variables. Of the 5351 patients in the AKI group, 728 entered stage 4 CKD after hospitalization. Models 1, 2, and 3 were all significant with ‘c' statistics of 0.82, 0.81, and 0.77, respectively. In model validation, all three were highly significant when tested in the confirmatory patients, with moderate to large effect sizes and good predictive accuracy (‘c' 0.81–0.82). Patients with AKI who required dialysis and then recovered were at especially high risk for progression to CKD. Hence, the severity of AKI is a robust predictor of progression to CKD. PMID:21430640

  11. Hierarchy in gene expression is predictive of risk, progression, and outcome in adult acute myeloid leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Shubham; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-02-01

    Cancer progresses with a change in the structure of the gene network in normal cells. We define a measure of organizational hierarchy in gene networks of affected cells in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. With a retrospective cohort analysis based on the gene expression profiles of 116 AML patients, we find that the likelihood of future cancer relapse and the level of clinical risk are directly correlated with the level of organization in the cancer related gene network. We also explore the variation of the level of organization in the gene network with cancer progression. We find that this variation is non-monotonic, which implies the fitness landscape in the evolution of AML cancer cells is non-trivial. We further find that the hierarchy in gene expression at the time of diagnosis may be a useful biomarker in AML prognosis.

  12. Hierarchy in gene expression is predictive of risk, progression, and outcome in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Shubham; Deem, Michael W

    2015-02-01

    Cancer progresses with a change in the structure of the gene network in normal cells. We define a measure of organizational hierarchy in gene networks of affected cells in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. With a retrospective cohort analysis based on the gene expression profiles of 116 AML patients, we find that the likelihood of future cancer relapse and the level of clinical risk are directly correlated with the level of organization in the cancer related gene network. We also explore the variation of the level of organization in the gene network with cancer progression. We find that this variation is non-monotonic, which implies the fitness landscape in the evolution of AML cancer cells is non-trivial. We further find that the hierarchy in gene expression at the time of diagnosis may be a useful biomarker in AML prognosis. PMID:25685944

  13. Moderate (2%, v/v) Ethanol Feeding Alters Hepatic Wound Healing after Acute Carbon Tetrachloride Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Krutika T.; Liu, Shinlan; McCracken, Jennifer M.; Jiang, Lu; Gaw, Ta Ehpaw; Kaydo, Lindsey N.; Richard, Zachary C.; O’Neil, Maura F.; Pritchard, Michele T.

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing consists of three overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and matrix synthesis and remodeling. Prolonged alcohol abuse can cause liver fibrosis due to deregulated matrix remodeling. Previous studies demonstrated that moderate ethanol feeding enhances liver fibrogenic markers and frank fibrosis independent of differences in CCl4-induced liver injury. Our objective was to determine whether or not other phases of the hepatic wound healing response were affected by moderate ethanol after CCl4 exposure. Mice were fed moderate ethanol (2% v/v) for two days and then were exposed to CCl4 and euthanized 24–96 h later. Liver injury was not different between pair- and ethanol-fed mice; however, removal of necrotic tissue was delayed after CCl4-induced liver injury in ethanol-fed mice. Inflammation, measured by TNFα mRNA and protein and hepatic Ly6c transcript accumulation, was reduced and associated with enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis after ethanol feeding. Hepatocytes entered the cell cycle equivalently in pair- and ethanol-fed mice after CCl4 exposure, but hepatocyte proliferation was prolonged in livers from ethanol-fed mice. CCl4-induced hepatic stellate cell activation was increased and matrix remodeling was prolonged in ethanol-fed mice compared to controls. Taken together, moderate ethanol affected each phase of the wound healing response to CCl4. These data highlight previously unknown effects of moderate ethanol exposure on hepatic wound healing after acute hepatotoxicant exposure. PMID:26751492

  14. Moderate (2%, v/v) Ethanol Feeding Alters Hepatic Wound Healing after Acute Carbon Tetrachloride Exposure in Mice.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Krutika T; Liu, Shinlan; McCracken, Jennifer M; Jiang, Lu; Gaw, Ta Ehpaw; Kaydo, Lindsey N; Richard, Zachary C; O'Neil, Maura F; Pritchard, Michele T

    2016-01-06

    Wound healing consists of three overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and matrix synthesis and remodeling. Prolonged alcohol abuse can cause liver fibrosis due to deregulated matrix remodeling. Previous studies demonstrated that moderate ethanol feeding enhances liver fibrogenic markers and frank fibrosis independent of differences in CCl₄-induced liver injury. Our objective was to determine whether or not other phases of the hepatic wound healing response were affected by moderate ethanol after CCl₄ exposure. Mice were fed moderate ethanol (2% v/v) for two days and then were exposed to CCl₄ and euthanized 24-96 h later. Liver injury was not different between pair- and ethanol-fed mice; however, removal of necrotic tissue was delayed after CCl₄-induced liver injury in ethanol-fed mice. Inflammation, measured by TNFα mRNA and protein and hepatic Ly6c transcript accumulation, was reduced and associated with enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis after ethanol feeding. Hepatocytes entered the cell cycle equivalently in pair- and ethanol-fed mice after CCl₄ exposure, but hepatocyte proliferation was prolonged in livers from ethanol-fed mice. CCl₄-induced hepatic stellate cell activation was increased and matrix remodeling was prolonged in ethanol-fed mice compared to controls. Taken together, moderate ethanol affected each phase of the wound healing response to CCl₄. These data highlight previously unknown effects of moderate ethanol exposure on hepatic wound healing after acute hepatotoxicant exposure.

  15. The Nature of Naming Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia Versus Acute Post-Stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Maggi A.; Kortte, Kathleen; Cloutman, Lauren; Newhart, Melissa; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Seay, Margaret W.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the distribution of error types across subgroups of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia in different vascular locations. Method We analyzed naming errors in 49 individuals with acute left hemisphere ischemic stroke and 55 individuals with three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Location of atrophy or ischemic stroke was characterized using MRI. Results We found that distribution of error types was very similar across all subgroups, irrespective of the site or etiology of the lesion. The only significant difference across groups was the percentage of circumlocutions (F(7, 96) = 3.02, p = .005). Circumlocution errors were highest among logopenic variant PPA (24%) and semantic variant PPA (24%). Semantic coordinate errors were common in all groups, probably because they can arise from disruption of different cognitive processes underlying naming and, therefore, from different locations of brain damage. Conclusions Semantic errors are common among all types of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia, and the type of error depends in part on the location of damage. PMID:20804246

  16. Acute Versus Progressive Onset of Diabetes in NOD Mice: Potential Implications for Therapeutic Interventions in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Clayton E; Xue, Song; Posgai, Amanda; Lightfoot, Yaima L; Li, Xia; Lin, Andrea; Wasserfall, Clive; Haller, Michael J; Schatz, Desmond; Atkinson, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    Most natural history models for type 1 diabetes (T1D) propose that overt hyperglycemia results after a progressive loss of insulin-secreting β-cell mass and/or function. To experimentally address this concept, we prospectively determined morning blood glucose measurements every other day in multiple cohorts (total n = 660) of female NOD/ShiLtJ mice starting at 8 weeks of age until diabetes onset or 26 weeks of age. Consistent with this notion, a majority of mice that developed diabetes (354 of 489 [72%]) displayed a progressive increase in blood glucose with transient excursions >200 mg/dL, followed by acute and persistent hyperglycemia at diabetes onset. However, 135 of the 489 (28%) diabetic animals demonstrated normal glucose values followed by acute (i.e., sudden) hyperglycemia. Interestingly, diabetes onset occurred earlier in mice with acute versus progressive disease onset (15.37 ± 0.3207 vs. 17.44 ± 0.2073 weeks of age, P < 0.0001). Moreover, the pattern of onset (i.e., progressive vs. acute) dramatically influenced the ability to achieve reversal of T1D by immunotherapeutic intervention, with increased effectiveness observed in situations of a progressive deterioration in euglycemia. These studies highlight a novel natural history aspect in this animal model, one that may provide important guidance for the selection of subjects participating in human trials seeking disease reversal. PMID:26216853

  17. Effects of acute intermittent hypoxia on energy balance and hypothalamic feeding pathways.

    PubMed

    Moreau, J M; Ciriello, J

    2013-12-01

    This study was done to investigate the effects of acute intermittent hypoxia (IH) on metabolic factors associated with energy balance and body weight, and on hypothalamic satiety-inducing pathways. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 8h IH or normoxic control conditions. Food intake, locomotion and body weights were examined after IH. Additionally, plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin corticosterone, insulin and blood glucose were measured following exposure to IH. Furthermore, adipose tissue was removed and analyzed for leptin and adiponectin content. Finally, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) was assessed for alterations in protein signaling associated with satiety. IH reduced body weight, food intake and active cycle locomotion without altering adipose tissue mass. Leptin protein content was reduced while adiponectin content was elevated in adipose tissue after IH. Plasma concentration of leptin was significantly increased while adiponectin decreased after IH. No changes were found in plasma corticosterone, insulin and blood glucose. In ARC, phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression were elevated. In addition, POMC-expressing neurons were activated as determined by immediate early gene FRA-1/2 expression. Finally, ERK1/2 and its phosphorylation were reduced in response to IH. These data suggest that IH induces significant alterations to body energy balance through changes in the secretion of leptin which exert effects on satiety-inducing pathways within the hypothalamus.

  18. Study progress on mechanism of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-ping; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jie

    2007-04-01

    Study on the action mechanism of inflammatory mediators generated by the severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in multiple organ injury is a hotspot in the surgical field. In clinical practice, the main complicated organ dysfunctions are shock, respiratory failure, renal failure, encephalopathy, with the rate of hepatic diseases being closely next to them. The hepatic injury caused by SAP cannot only aggravate the state of pancreatitis, but also develop into hepatic failure and cause patient death. Its complicated pathogenic mechanism is an obstacle in clinical treatment. Among many pathogenic factors, the changes of vasoactive substances, participation of inflammatory mediators as well as OFR (oxygen free radical), endotoxin, etc. may play important roles in its progression.

  19. Effects of acute and chronic STZ-induced diabetes on clock gene expression and feeding in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Jonathon; Nguyen, Diane; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Hoogerwerf, Willemijntje A

    2010-05-01

    Diabetes may shift clock gene expression within peripheral organs. However, little is known about the effect of diabetes on the gastrointestinal molecular clock. We therefore investigated the effect of diabetes on gastrointestinal clock gene expression. As peripheral clock gene expression is strongly driven by food intake, we also determined the effect of STZ-induced diabetes on patterns of food intake. The effects of acute (1 week) and chronic (12 weeks) STZ-induced diabetes on period (per) genes in the stomach body, proximal and distal colon, liver, kidney, and lung of C57BL/6J mice were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Food intake studies were completed using automated feeding equipment. Rhythmicity in expression of per2 and per3 persisted in all organs. However, per2 and per3 expression of STZ-injected mice was generally phase delayed within the gastrointestinal tract but not within the kidney or lung as compared with vehicle-injected mice. The phase delay was most pronounced for per2 in the proximal colon at 12 weeks. Food intake was rhythmic with larger circadian amplitude for diabetic mice than for control mice. Thus, STZ-induced diabetes differentially alters peripheral per expression. STZ-induced diabetes does not alter the circadian phase of food intake. Alterations in clock gene expression in a mouse model of diabetes are most pronounced in those organs that are intimately associated with food processing and metabolism. PMID:20091094

  20. Characteristics and progression of children with acute viral bronchiolitis subjected to mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Ferlini, Roberta; Pinheiro, Flávia Ohlweiler; Andreolio, Cinara; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci; Piva, Jefferson Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characteristics of children with acute viral bronchiolitis subjected to mechanical ventilation for three consecutive years and to correlate their progression with mechanical ventilation parameters and fluid balance. Methods Longitudinal study of a series of infants (< one year old) subjected to mechanical ventilation for acute viral bronchitis from January 2012 to September 2014 in the pediatric intensive care unit. The children's clinical records were reviewed, and their anthropometric data, mechanical ventilation parameters, fluid balance, clinical progression, and major complications were recorded. Results Sixty-six infants (3.0 ± 2.0 months old and with an average weight of 4.7 ± 1.4kg) were included, of whom 62% were boys; a virus was identified in 86%. The average duration of mechanical ventilation was 6.5 ± 2.9 days, and the average length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit was 9.1 ± 3.5 days; the mortality rate was 1.5% (1/66). The peak inspiratory pressure remained at 30cmH2O during the first four days of mechanical ventilation and then decreased before extubation (25 cmH2O; p < 0.05). Pneumothorax occurred in 10% of the sample and extubation failure in 9%, which was due to upper airway obstruction in half of the cases. The cumulative fluid balance on mechanical ventilation day four was 402 ± 254mL, which corresponds to an increase of 9.0 ± 5.9% in body weight. Thirty-seven patients (56%) exhibited a weight gain of 10% or more, which was not significantly associated with the ventilation parameters on mechanical ventilation day four, extubation failure, duration of mechanical ventilation or length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. Conclusion The rate of mechanical ventilation for acute viral bronchiolitis remains constant, being associated with low mortality, few adverse effects, and positive cumulative fluid balance during the first days. Better fluid control might reduce the duration of mechanical

  1. Feeding characteristics of an amoeba (Lobosea: Naegleria) grazing upon cyanobacteria: food selection, ingestion and digestion progress.

    PubMed

    Xinyao, Liu; Miao, Shi; Yonghong, Liao; Yin, Gao; Zhongkai, Zhang; Donghui, Wen; Weizhong, Wu; Chencai, An

    2006-04-01

    Bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates has been widely studied in aquatic environments, but data on the grazing of amoebae, are still scarce. From the water samples of Dianchi Lake (Kunming, Yunnan Province, China), we isolated an amoeba, designated as Naegleria sp. strain W2, which had potent grazing effects on some kind of cyanobacteria. The food selection mechanism and the digestion process of the amoeba were investigated in batch experiments. Predation experiments showed that filamentous cyanobacteria (e.g., Anabaena, Cylindrospermum, Gloeotrichia, and Phormidium) were readily consumed, with clearance rates ranging from 0.332 to 0.513 nL amoeba(-1) h(-1). The tight threads (Oscilltoria) and aggregates (Aphanizomenon) could not be ingested; however, their sonicated fragments were observed inside food vacuoles, suggesting that their morphologies prevent them from being ingested. Live video microscopy noted that unicellular Chroococcaceae (e.g., Synechococcus, Aphanocapsa, and Microcystis) were excreted after ingestion, indicating that food selection takes place inside food vacuoles. To determine whether the tastes or the toxins prevented them from being digested, heat-killed cells were retested for predation. Digestion rates and ingestion rates of the amoebae for filamentous cyanobacteria were estimated from food vacuole content volume. Through a "cold-chase" method, we found that the food vacuole contents declined exponentially in diluted amoebae cells, and digestion rates were relatively constant, averaging about 1.5% food vacuole content min(-1) at 28 degrees Celsius. Ingestion strongly depended on the satiation status of the amoebae, starved amoebae fed at higher rates compared with satiated amoebae. Our results suggest that the food selection and food processing mechanisms of the amoeba are similar to those of interception feeding flagellates; however, filamentous cyanobacteria cannot obtain a refuge under the grazing pressure of

  2. Progress in Treatment of Viral Infections in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Moschovi, Maria; Adamaki, Maria; Vlahopoulos, Spiros A.

    2016-01-01

    In children, the most commonly encountered type of leukemia is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). An important source of morbidity and mortality in ALL are viral infections. Even though allogeneic transplantations, which are often applied also in ALL, carry a recognized risk for viral infections, there are multiple factors that make ALL patients susceptible to viral infections. The presence of those factors has an influence in the type and severity of infections. Currently available treatment options do not guarantee a positive outcome for every case of viral infection in ALL, without significant side effects. Side effects can have very serious consequences for the ALL patients, which include nephrotoxicity. For this reason a number of strategies for personalized intervention have been already clinically tested, and experimental approaches are being developed. Adoptive immunotherapy, which entails administration of ex vivo grown immune cells to a patient, is a promising approach in general, and for transplant recipients in particular. The ex vivo grown cells are aimed to strengthen the immune response to the virus that has been identified in the patients’ blood and tissue samples. Even though many patients with weakened immune system can benefit from progress in novel approaches, a viral infection still poses a very significant risk for many patients. Therefore, preventive measures and supportive care are very important for ALL patients. PMID:27471584

  3. Cost effectiveness of community-based and in-patient therapeutic feeding programs to treat severe acute malnutrition in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC) for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Sidama Zone, Ethiopia compared to facility based therapeutic feeding center (TFC). Methods A cost effectiveness analysis comparing costs and outcomes of two treatment programmes was conducted. The societal perspective, which considers costs to all sectors of the society, was employed. Outcomes and health service costs of CTC and TFC were obtained from Save the Children USA (SC/USA) CTC and TFC programme, government health services and UNICEF(in kind supplies) cost estimates of unit costs. Parental costs were estimated through interviewing 306 caretakers. Cost categories were compared and a single cost effectiveness ratio of costs to treat a child with SAM in each program (regardless of outcome) was computed and compared. Results A total of 328 patient cards/records of children treated in the programs were reviewed; out of which 306 (157 CTC and 149 TFC) were traced back to their households to interview their caretakers. The cure rate in TFC was 95.36% compared to 94.30% in CTC. The death rate in TFC was 0% and in CTC 1.2%. The mean cost per child treated was $284.56 in TFC and $134.88 in CTC. The institutional cost per child treated was $262.62 in TFC and $128.58 in CTC. Out of these institutional costs in TFC 46.6% was personnel cost. In contrast, majority (43.2%) of the institutional costs in CTC went to ready to use therapeutic food (RUTF). The opportunity cost per caretaker in the TFC was $21.01 whereas it was $5.87 in CTC. The result of this study shows that community based CTC was two times more cost effective than TFC. Conclusion CTC was found to be relatively more cost effective than TFC in this setting. This indicates that CTC is a viable approach on just economic grounds in addition to other benefits such improved access, sustainability and appropriateness documented elsewhere. If costs of RUTF can be

  4. Acute cardio-renal syndrome: progression from congestive heart failure to congestive kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Wencker, Detlef

    2007-09-01

    Over the past few years, acute worsening of renal function has emerged as a powerful and independent predictor of adverse cardiac outcomes among patients hospitalized with acute heart failure exacerbation. This phenomenon has been recently termed acute cardio-renal syndrome. Acute cardio-renal syndrome is not uncommon, affecting roughly one third of acute decompensated heart failure patients. The mechanism of acute cardio-renal syndrome is poorly understood and difficult to elucidate in light of the complex and multifactorial comorbidities associated with acute heart failure syndrome. Acute cardio-renal syndrome is commonly explained by hypoperfusion of the kidney with intravascular volume depletion, hypotension and low flow state ("pre-renal syndrome"). This perception, however, is challenged by the actual hemodynamics present during acute cardio-renal syndrome characterized by hypervolemia, normal cardiac output, and elevated filling pressures of the systemic and venous circulation. This review discusses the long-standing and unnoticed evidence in support of the notion that right-sided failure with raised filling pressure of the renal vein by itself can indeed lead to acute worsening renal function with oliguria, azotemia, and reduced glomerular filtration rate.

  5. Evolution of acute myelogenous leukemia stem cell properties after treatment and progression.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tzu-Chieh; LaMere, Mark; Stevens, Brett M; Ashton, John M; Myers, Jason R; O'Dwyer, Kristen M; Liesveld, Jane L; Mendler, Jason H; Guzman, Monica; Morrissette, Jennifer D; Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir; Jordan, Craig T; Becker, Michael W

    2016-09-29

    Most cancers evolve over time as patients initially responsive to therapy acquire resistance to the same drugs at relapse. Cancer stem cells have been postulated to represent a therapy-refractory reservoir for relapse, but formal proof of this model is lacking. We prospectively characterized leukemia stem cell populations (LSCs) from a well-defined cohort of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) at diagnosis and relapse to assess the effect of the disease course on these critical populations. Leukemic samples were collected from patients with newly diagnosed AML before therapy and after relapse, and LSC frequency was assessed by limiting dilution analyses. LSC populations were identified using fluorescent-labeled cell sorting and transplantation into immunodeficient NOD/SCID/interleukin 2 receptor γ chain null mice. The surface antigen expression profiles of pretherapy and postrelapse LSCs were determined for published LSC markers. We demonstrate a 9- to 90-fold increase in LSC frequency between diagnosis and relapse. LSC activity at relapse was identified in populations of leukemic blasts that did not demonstrate this activity before treatment and relapse. In addition, we describe genetic instability and exceptional phenotypic changes that accompany the evolution of these new LSC populations. This study is the first to characterize the evolution of LSCs in vivo after chemotherapy, identifying a dramatic change in the physiology of primitive AML cells when the disease progresses. Taken together, these findings provide a new frame of reference by which to evaluate candidate AML therapies in which both disease control and the induction of more advanced forms of disease should be considered. PMID:27421961

  6. Evolution of acute myelogenous leukemia stem cell properties after treatment and progression.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tzu-Chieh; LaMere, Mark; Stevens, Brett M; Ashton, John M; Myers, Jason R; O'Dwyer, Kristen M; Liesveld, Jane L; Mendler, Jason H; Guzman, Monica; Morrissette, Jennifer D; Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir; Jordan, Craig T; Becker, Michael W

    2016-09-29

    Most cancers evolve over time as patients initially responsive to therapy acquire resistance to the same drugs at relapse. Cancer stem cells have been postulated to represent a therapy-refractory reservoir for relapse, but formal proof of this model is lacking. We prospectively characterized leukemia stem cell populations (LSCs) from a well-defined cohort of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) at diagnosis and relapse to assess the effect of the disease course on these critical populations. Leukemic samples were collected from patients with newly diagnosed AML before therapy and after relapse, and LSC frequency was assessed by limiting dilution analyses. LSC populations were identified using fluorescent-labeled cell sorting and transplantation into immunodeficient NOD/SCID/interleukin 2 receptor γ chain null mice. The surface antigen expression profiles of pretherapy and postrelapse LSCs were determined for published LSC markers. We demonstrate a 9- to 90-fold increase in LSC frequency between diagnosis and relapse. LSC activity at relapse was identified in populations of leukemic blasts that did not demonstrate this activity before treatment and relapse. In addition, we describe genetic instability and exceptional phenotypic changes that accompany the evolution of these new LSC populations. This study is the first to characterize the evolution of LSCs in vivo after chemotherapy, identifying a dramatic change in the physiology of primitive AML cells when the disease progresses. Taken together, these findings provide a new frame of reference by which to evaluate candidate AML therapies in which both disease control and the induction of more advanced forms of disease should be considered.

  7. The Sox4/Tcf7l1 axis promotes progression of BCR-ABL-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haiqing; Mallampati, Saradhi; Lu, Yue; Sun, Baohua; Wang, Enze; Leng, Xiaohong; Gong, Yun; Shen, Haifa; Yin, C Cameron; Jones, Dan; Amin, Hesham M; You, M James; Zweidler-McKay, Patrick; Ma, Yupo; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Arlinghaus, Ralph B; Glassman, Armand; Sun, Xiaoping

    2014-10-01

    The transcription factor Sox4 plays an indispensable role in the development of early progenitor B cells from hematopoietic stem cells. However, its role in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a malignant counterpart of normal progenitor B cells, is not fully understood. Here we show that SOX4 is highly expressed in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. To systematically study the function of Sox4 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, we established a genetically defined mouse leukemia model by transforming progenitor B cells carrying a floxed Sox4 allele and inducing deletion of the allele by the self-excising Cre recombinase. This model allowed us to work with two groups of leukemic cells that had either one copy or both copies of Sox4 deleted. We found that depletion of Sox4 in transformed cells in vitro reduced cell growth in vitro and the progression of leukemia in vivo. Moreover, depletion of Sox4 in leukemic cells in vivo prolonged the survival of the mice, suggesting that it could be a potential target in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. Our microarray and bioChIP studies revealed that Tcf7l1 was the key gene directly regulated by Sox4. Knockdown of Tcf7l1 reduced cell proliferation, just as did knockout of Sox4, and ectopic expression of Tcf7l1 could reverse the effect of Sox4 knockout on cell proliferation. These data suggest that Sox4 and Tcf7l1 form a functional axis that promotes the progression of BCR-ABL-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  8. Th-17 cell activation in response to high salt following acute kidney injury is associated with progressive fibrosis and attenuated by AT-1R antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Purvi; Patel, Jaymin Brakul; Ivancic, Carlie Marie; Collet, Jason Andrieu; Basile, David Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of rats to elevated dietary salt following recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI) accelerates the transition to chronic kidney disease (CKD), and is dependent on lymphocyte activity. Here we tested whether high salt diet triggers lymphocyte activation in post-ischemic kidneys to worsen renal inflammation and fibrosis. Male Sprague- Dawley rats on a 0.4% salt diet were subjected to left unilateral ischemia-reperfusion and allowed to recover for 5 weeks. This resulted in a mild elevation of CD4+ T-cells relative to sham animals. Contralateral unilateral nephrectomy and elevated dietary salt (4%) for 4 extra weeks hastened CKD and interstitial fibrosis. Activated T cells were increased in the kidney 3-fold after 4 weeks of elevated dietary salt exposure relative to post AKI rats prior to salt feeding. The T-cell subset was largely positive for IL-17, indicative of Th-17 cells. Because angiotensin II activity may influence lymphocyte activation, injured rats were given the AT1R antagonist, Losartan, along with high salt diet. This significantly reduced the number of renal Th-17 cells to levels of sham rats, and significantly reduced the salt-induced increase in fibrosis about half. In vitro studies in AKI-primed CD4+ T cells indicated angiotensin II and extracellular sodium enhanced, and Losartan inhibited IL-17 expression. Thus, dietary salt modulates immune cell activity in post ischemic recovering kidneys due to the activity of local RAS suggesting participation of these cells in CKD progression post AKI. PMID:26200947

  9. Th-17 cell activation in response to high salt following acute kidney injury is associated with progressive fibrosis and attenuated by AT-1R antagonism.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Purvi; Patel, Jaymin B; Ivancic, Carlie M; Collett, Jason A; Basile, David P

    2015-10-01

    Exposure of rats to elevated dietary salt following recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI) accelerates the transition to chronic kidney disease (CKD), and is dependent on lymphocyte activity. Here we tested whether high salt diet triggers lymphocyte activation in postischemic kidneys to worsen renal inflammation and fibrosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats on a 0.4% salt diet were subjected to left unilateral ischemia-reperfusion and allowed to recover for 5 weeks. This resulted in a mild elevation of CD4(+) T cells relative to sham animals. Contralateral unilateral nephrectomy and elevated dietary salt (4%) for 4 extra weeks hastened CKD and interstitial fibrosis. Activated T cells were increased in the kidney threefold after 4 weeks of elevated dietary salt exposure relative to post-AKI rats before salt feeding. The T cell subset was largely positive for IL-17, indicative of Th-17 cells. Because angiotensin II activity may influence lymphocyte activation, injured rats were given the AT1R antagonist, losartan, along with high salt diet. This significantly reduced the number of renal Th-17 cells to levels of sham rats, and significantly reduced the salt-induced increase in fibrosis to about half. In vitro studies in AKI-primed CD4(+) T cells indicated that angiotensin II and extracellular sodium enhanced, and losartan inhibited, IL-17 expression. Thus, dietary salt modulates immune cell activity in postischemic recovering kidneys because of the activity of local RAS, suggesting the participation of these cells in CKD progression post-AKI.

  10. Early treatment of hypertension in acute ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke: progress achieved, challenges, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    2014-03-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic subtypes of stroke. Additionally, high blood pressure (BP) in the acute cerebrovascular event is associated with poor outcome, and a high percentage of stroke survivors have inadequate control of hypertension. The present is a systematic review of prospective, randomized, and controlled trials carried out on safety and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of both subtypes of acute stroke. Six trials involving 7512 patients were included, which revealed controversies on the speed and the goals of treatment. These controversies could be due at least in part, from the fact that some studies analyzed the results of antihypertensive treatment in ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic subtypes of acute stroke together, and from a different prevalence of past-stroke in the randomized groups. Further research is necessary to establish whether standard antihypertensive treatment provides greater benefit than simple observation in patients with ischemic acute stroke and Stage 2 hypertension of JNC 7, albeit they were not candidates for acute reperfusion. In that case, the target reduction in BP could be 10% to 15% within 24 hours. The recently published INTERACT 2 has provided evidence that patients with hemorrhagic stroke may receive intensive antihypertensive treatment safely with the goal of reducing systolic BP to levels no lower than 130 mm Hg. It is important to take into account that marked BP lowering in acute stroke increases the risk of poor outcome by worsening cerebral ischemia from deterioration of cerebral blood flow autoregulation. PMID:24220549

  11. Effects of a Dissostichus mawsoni-CaM recombinant proteins feed additive on the juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) under the acute low temperature challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Dissostichus mawsoni-Calmodulin (Dm-CaM) on growth performance, enzyme activities, respiratory burst, MDA level and immune-related gene expressions of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to the acute low temperature stress were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with Dm-CaM protein was fed to the groupers for 6 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the specific growth rates, weight gains and survivals. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to acute low temperature challenge. The groupers fed with Dm-CaM additive diet showed a significant decrease in the respiratory burst activity, while the blood cell number increased significantly at 25 °C by comparing with the control and additive control group. The enzymatic activity of SOD, ACP and ALP increased significantly in Dm-CaM additive group, while MDA level maintained stable with the lowest value. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the up-regulated transcript expressions of CaM, C3, SOD2, LysC and HSPA4 were observed in Dm-CaM additive group. These results indicated that Dm-CaM additive diet may regulate the grouper immune response to the acute low temperature challenge. PMID:26122279

  12. Effects of a Dissostichus mawsoni-CaM recombinant proteins feed additive on the juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) under the acute low temperature challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Dissostichus mawsoni-Calmodulin (Dm-CaM) on growth performance, enzyme activities, respiratory burst, MDA level and immune-related gene expressions of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to the acute low temperature stress were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with Dm-CaM protein was fed to the groupers for 6 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the specific growth rates, weight gains and survivals. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to acute low temperature challenge. The groupers fed with Dm-CaM additive diet showed a significant decrease in the respiratory burst activity, while the blood cell number increased significantly at 25 °C by comparing with the control and additive control group. The enzymatic activity of SOD, ACP and ALP increased significantly in Dm-CaM additive group, while MDA level maintained stable with the lowest value. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the up-regulated transcript expressions of CaM, C3, SOD2, LysC and HSPA4 were observed in Dm-CaM additive group. These results indicated that Dm-CaM additive diet may regulate the grouper immune response to the acute low temperature challenge.

  13. Successful long-term jejunostomy feedings in relapsing pancreatitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Fermin, Patricia; Ukleja, Andrew; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    Relapsing pancreatitis is characterized by repeated episodes of acute inflammation of the pancreas, with either a localized or a systemic organic response that may progress to chronic pancreatitis. Enteral jejunal feedings have been shown to be effective in the management of acute pancreatitis, but long-term use of jejunal feedings as treatment of relapsing pancreatitis has not been reported. We describe the case of a young patient treated with long-term jejunal feedings to induce remission and prevent recurrence of acute relapsing pancreatitis. An 18-year-old Hispanic man had well-documented recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis. Multiple studies were performed as part of the diagnostic workup of the patient's relapsing pancreatitis, including endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with biliary sphincterotomy, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Despite medical therapy, endoscopic and surgical procedures, the patient continued having episodes of pancreatitis on a monthly basis, with over 13 distinct documented episodes of pancreatitis during a 15-month period. A jejunostomy tube was inserted surgically, and long-term jejunal feedings were instituted, with excellent control of the patient's symptoms. There was only 1 episode of pancreatitis in the ensuing 24 months associated with the resumption of oral feedings and a weight gain of 20 pounds during this time period. Chronic jejunal feedings seem to be an effective alternative for treatment and prevention of acute relapsing pancreatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of long-term enteral feedings in acute relapsing pancreatitis.

  14. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a model to study the response of energy homeostasis-related genes to acute changes in feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Caimari, Antoni; Oliver, Paula; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu

    2010-04-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are readily accessible biological material and a potential tissue source to discover novel biomarkers of response to environmental exposures including nutrition. We analyzed whether PBMCs could reflect molecular changes that take place in response to different feeding conditions in key organs/tissues involved in energy homeostasis. We studied energy balance-related genes whose expression was altered in normoweight (control) rats and in diet-induced (cafeteria) obese rats in response to ad libitum feeding, 14-h fasting, and 6-h refeeding after fasting, using whole-genome microarray analysis. In PBMCs, the expression of the genes central to energy metabolism was altered by the feeding conditions. The number of affected genes was 75 in the control rats, but only 23 in the cafeteria obese rats. Most of these genes play a role in metabolic pathways regulated by nutritional changes, such as lipid metabolism (the metabolic pathway mainly reflected in blood cells), carbohydrate metabolism, central energy metabolism, respiratory chain/mitochondrial ATPase system, and food intake regulation. Importantly, our results showed a similar behavior to that of the mesenteric white adipose tissue. In conclusion, metabolic adaptations to acute changes in feeding conditions are reflected in the expression of genes central to energy homeostasis in PBMCs of normoweight rats, while response is impaired in cafeteria obese animals. The lower number of genes affected in obese animals indicates impaired nutritional regulation. PBMCs appear as a suitable potential model to characterize metabolic adaptations to food intake and body weight maintenance in experimental animals. These findings may also inform the development of future peripheral tissue models in the emerging field of clinical nutrigenomics.

  15. Extending supplementary feeding for children younger than 5 years with moderate acute malnutrition leads to lower relapse rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have a high rate of relapse and death in the year following recovery. In this pilot study, we evaluate the long-term benefits of an extended course of nutritional therapy for children with MAM. Rural Malawian children 6 to 59 months old with MAM, defin...

  16. MicroRNA-101 regulates T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression and chemotherapeutic sensitivity by targeting Notch1

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Lu; Zhang, Wanggang; Lei, Bo; He, Aili; Ye, Lianhong; Li, Xingzhou; Dong, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-101 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression and chemoresistance. Furthermore, a novel target gene of miR-101 was identified. Here, we confirmed that miR-101 was significantly downregulated in the blood samples of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) compared with the healthy controls, as determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) analysis. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that miR-101 significantly repressed the proliferation and invasion, and induced potent apoptosis in Jurkat cells, as determined by CCK-8, flow cytometer and cell invasion assays. Luciferase assay confirmed that Notch1 was a target gene of miR-101, and western blotting showed that miR-101 suppressed the expression of Notch1 at the protein level. Moreover, functional restoration assays revealed that Notch1 mediates the effects of miR-101 on Jurkat cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion. miR-101 enhanced the sensitivity of Jurkat cells to the chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin. Taken together, our results show for the first time that miR-101 acts as a tumor suppressor in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and it could enhance chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Furthermore, Notch1 was identified to be a novel target of miR-101. This study indicates that miR-101 may represent a potential therapeutic target for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia intervention. PMID:27666896

  17. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  18. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J.; Rooke, John A.; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  19. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  20. [Research Progress on the Role of Chromatin Remodeling Factor BRG1 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuo; Xu, Xue-Jing; Zhang, Kui

    2016-06-01

    BRG1 (Brahma-related gene 1, BRG1) is the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and tumor development. Unlike the evidence as tumor suppressor genes in the past reports, latest researches show that BRG1 plays an important role in sustaining the growth of leukemia cells in acute myeloid leukemia, and these effects on normal hematopoietic stem cells are dispensable. Further studies of the role and mechanism of BRG1 in acute myeloid leukemia will contribute to the development of a new and promising targeted therapy strategy. This article reviews the role of BRG1 on leukemia cells and leukemia stem cells in AML and discusses the related mechanism, which providing some reference for the targeted treatment strategy of AML. PMID:27342536

  1. Safety assessment of the fermented Phylloporia ribis (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) mycelia by oral acute toxicity study in mice and 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lianhua; Fan, Yiou; Yao, Wenhuan; Xie, Wei; Guo, Jie; Yan, Yan; Yang, Fei; Xu, Lingchuan

    2014-07-01

    Phylloporia ribis is an edible fungus in China. Its fermented mycelia have been approved by the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of PR China for use as a novel food material, but little information on its safety is available. The present research was the first to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity in experimental animals of fermented Phylloporia ribis mycelia (FPM) following standard procedures. In acute toxicity study, FPM was orally administered to male and female mice twice a day at single dose of 10 g/kg bw. The Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) of FPM for mice of both sexes was over 10 g/kg bw. No death and abnormal behaviors occurred during 14 days study except for an increased locomotor activity in three animals. In 90-day feeding study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 10.0%, 5.0%, 2.5%, 1.25% and 0% (control) FPM for 90 days. The treatment caused no effects on mortality, gross pathology, histology, hematology, and blood chemistry, no dose-dependent changes in food consumption, but caused effect on body weight gain compared with control group. The No Observed Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) of FPM was greater than 8.7 g/kg bw/day in both sexes of rats.

  2. Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R.; Nunez, L.; Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Ritter, J.A.; Landsberger, S.

    1997-01-01

    'Vitrification has been selected as a final waste form technology in the US for long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). However, a foreseeable problem during vitrification in some waste feed streams lies in the presence of elements (e.g., transition metals) in the HLW that may cause instabilities in the final glass product. The formation of spinel compounds, such as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeCrO{sub 4}, results in glass phase separation and reduces vitrifier lifetime, and durability of the final waste form. A superconducting open gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) system maybe suitable for the removal of the deleterious transition elements (e.g. Fe, Co, and Ni) and other elements (lanthanides) from vitrification feed streams due to their ferromagnetic or paramagnetic nature. The OGMS systems are designed to deflect and collect paramagnetic minerals as they interact with a magnetic field gradient. This system has the potential to reduce the volume of HLW for vitrification and ensure a stable product. In order to design efficient OGMS and High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the waste feed streams is required. Using HLW simulant and radioactive fly ash and sludge samples from the Savannah River Technology Center, Rocky Flats site, and the Hanford reservation, several techniques were used to characterize and predict the separation capability for a superconducting OGMS system.'

  3. Clinical characteristics and long-term progression of young patients with acute coronary syndrome in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Fernandes, Felipe Lourenço; Soeiro, Maria Carolina Feres de Almeida; Serrano, Carlos Vicente; de Oliveira, Múcio Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Objective In Brazil, there are few descriptions in the literature on the angiographic pattern and clinical characteristics of young patients with acute coronary syndrome, despite the evident number of cases in the population. The objective of this study was to evaluate which clinical characteristics are most closely related to the acute coronary syndrome in young patients, and what long-term outcomes are in this population. Methods This is a prospective observational study with 268 patients aged under 55 years with acute coronary syndrome, carried out between May 2010 and May 2013. Data were obtained on demographics, laboratory test and angiography results, and the coronary treatment adopted. Statistical analysis was presented as percentages and absolute values. Results Approximately 57% were men and the median age was 50 years (30 to 55). The main risk factors were arterial hypertension (68%), smoking (67%), and dyslipidemia (43%). Typical pain was present in 90% of patients. In young individuals, 25.7% showed ST segment elevation. Approximately 56.5% of patients presented with a single-vessel angiographic pattern. About 7.1% were submitted to coronary bypass surgery, and 42.1% to percutaneous coronary angioplasty. Intrahospital mortality was 1.5%, and the combined event rate (cerebrovascular accident/stroke, cardiogenic shock, reinfarction, and arrhythmias) was 13.8%. After a mean follow-up of 10 months, mortality was 9.8%, while 25.4% of the patients had new ischemic events, and 37.3% required readmission to hospital. Conclusion In the short-term, young patients presented with mortality rates below what was expected when compared to the rates noted in other studies. However, there was a significant increase in the number of events in the 10-month follow-up. PMID:26466059

  4. Leptospirosis Presenting with Rapidly Progressing Acute Renal Failure and Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pothuri, Pallavi; Ahuja, Keerat; Kumar, Viki; Lal, Sham; Tumarinson, Taisiya; Mahmood, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unexplained renal insufficiency combined with hepatic failure is a common problem encountered by clinicians. As with many disease processes involving multi-organ systems, reversible causes are usually not readily identifiable, and for many patients their health deteriorates rapidly. We present a rare cause of acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia occurring simultaneously, with leptospirosis presenting as Weil's disease. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old male presented to our clinic with complaints of anuria over the past two days. His symptoms started with dark urine, severe cramps in the thighs, and chills. The patient was a visitor to the United States from Guyana. Positive physical examination findings included mild tachycardia and hypotension, scleral icterus, and tenderness over abdomen, costovertebral angles, and thighs. The patient had a high white blood cell count, thrombocytopenia, renal/hepatic insufficiency, and an urinary tract infection (UTI). The patient was initially treated under the suspicion of acute kidney injury secondary to rhabdomyolysis and pyelonephritis. The patient continued to deteriorate with decreasing platelet counts, worsening renal function, hyperbilirubinemia, and respiratory distress, with no improvement with hemodialysis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered, including doxycycline, due to a high suspicion of leptospirosis. The patient's condition drastically improved after initiation of doxycycline. On subsequent days, the patient's Leptospira antibody results were available, showing titers of more than 1:3200. Hemodialysis was discontinued as the patient started producing urine with improved kidney function. CONCLUSIONS As world travel becomes more economically feasible, we will continue to encounter foreign endemic diseases. Leptospirosis presenting as Weil's disease is a common cause of renal and hyperbilirubinemia in endemic areas. Often, as was the case for our patient where the time from presentation to acute

  5. Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease After Acute Kidney Injury: Role of Self-Perpetuating Versus Hemodynamic-Induced Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Picken, Maria; Long, Jianrui; Williamson, Geoffrey A; Polichnowski, Aaron J

    2016-10-01

    The relative contribution of self-perpetuating versus hemodynamic-induced fibrosis to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) after acute kidney injury (AKI) is unclear. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right uninephrectomy and were instrumented with a blood pressure radiotelemeter. Two weeks later, separate groups of rats were subjected to 40 minutes renal ischemia-reperfusion or sham surgery and followed up for 4 or 16 weeks to determine the extent to which glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis as a result of the AKI-CKD transition (ie, at 4 weeks post AKI) change over time during the progression of CKD (ie, at 16 weeks post AKI). On average, tubulointerstitial fibrosis was ≈3-fold lower (P<0.05), whereas glomerulosclerosis was ≈6-fold higher (P<0.05) at 16 versus 4 weeks post AKI. At 16 weeks post AKI, marked tubulointerstitial fibrosis was only observed in rats exhibiting marked glomerulosclerosis, proteinuria, and kidney hypertrophy consistent with a hemodynamic pathogenesis of renal injury. Moreover, quantitative analysis between blood pressure and renal injury revealed a clear and modest blood pressure threshold (average 16-week systolic blood pressure of ≈127 mm Hg) for the development of glomerulosclerosis. In summary, modest levels of blood pressure may be playing a substantial role in the progression of renal disease after AKI in settings of preexisting CKD associated with 50% loss of renal mass. In contrast, these data do not support a major role of self-perpetuating tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the progression CKD after AKI in such settings. PMID:27550923

  6. Open biopsy in patients with acute progressive neurologic decline and absence of mass lesion(Podcast)(CME)

    PubMed Central

    Schuette, Albert J.; Taub, Jason S.; Hadjipanayis, Costas G.; Olson, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Patients with acute to subacute neurologic decline undergo a battery of imaging and laboratory tests to determine a diagnosis and treatment plan. Often, after an extensive evaluation, a brain biopsy is recommended as yet another tool to assist in determining the diagnosis. The goal of this retrospective cohort analysis is to measure the sensitivity of open brain biopsy in this patient population, compare these results with the preoperative presumed diagnosis, and evaluate if the biopsy result significantly alters treatment. Methods: The authors reviewed the medical records of 135 consecutive patients who underwent open brain biopsies for acute to subacute progressive neurologic decline between January 1999 and September 2008 at a single institution. All patients with mass lesions, with HIV/AIDS, and who were younger than 20 years of age were excluded from the study. Fifty-one patients met these criteria and all preoperative tests, imaging, and treatment plans were examined and compared with postbiopsy interventions to determine the impact of the biopsy on patient outcome. Results: The sensitivity of open brain biopsy at our institution was 35%. The most common preoperative presumed diagnosis was vasculitis and the most common postoperative finding was Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, followed by amyloid angiopathy. Postbiopsy hemorrhage was a complication in 4% of patients. Treatment plans changed as a direct result of the biopsy in 8% of patients, and in only 4% did the biopsy findings make a difference in disease course. Conclusion: In patients with progressive neurologic decline without a radiographic mass lesion or immunodeficiency, open brain biopsy often fails to provide a diagnosis and even more rarely does it significantly alter treatment. GLOSSARY CJD = Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; PCNSL = primary CNS lymphoma. PMID:20679635

  7. Leptospirosis Presenting with Rapidly Progressing Acute Renal Failure and Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pothuri, Pallavi; Ahuja, Keerat; Kumar, Viki; Lal, Sham; Tumarinson, Taisiya; Mahmood, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 53 Final Diagnosis: Leptospirosis Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Unexplained renal insufficiency combined with hepatic failure is a common problem encountered by clinicians. As with many disease processes involving multi-organ systems, reversible causes are usually not readily identifiable, and for many patients their health deteriorates rapidly. We present a rare cause of acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia occurring simultaneously, with leptospirosis presenting as Weil’s disease. Case Report: A 53-year-old male presented to our clinic with complaints of anuria over the past two days. His symptoms started with dark urine, severe cramps in the thighs, and chills. The patient was a visitor to the United States from Guyana. Positive physical examination findings included mild tachycardia and hypotension, scleral icterus, and tenderness over abdomen, costovertebral angles, and thighs. The patient had a high white blood cell count, thrombocytopenia, renal/hepatic insufficiency, and an urinary tract infection (UTI). The patient was initially treated under the suspicion of acute kidney injury secondary to rhabdomyolysis and pyelonephritis. The patient continued to deteriorate with decreasing platelet counts, worsening renal function, hyperbilirubinemia, and respiratory distress, with no improvement with hemodialysis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered, including doxycycline, due to a high suspicion of leptospirosis. The patient’s condition drastically improved after initiation of doxycycline. On subsequent days, the patient’s Leptospira antibody results were available, showing titers of more than 1:3200. Hemodialysis was discontinued as the patient started producing urine with improved kidney function. Conclusions: As world travel becomes more economically feasible, we will continue to encounter foreign endemic diseases. Leptospirosis

  8. Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Braden, Christopher R.; Dowell, Scott F.; Jernigan, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    Ten years have elapsed since the World Health Organization issued its first global alert for an unexplained illness named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The anniversary provides an opportunity to reflect on the international response to this new global microbial threat. While global surveillance and response capacity for public health threats have been strengthened, critical gaps remain. Of 194 World Health Organization member states that signed on to the International Health Regulations (2005), <20% had achieved compliance with the core capacities required by the deadline in June 2012. Lessons learned from the global SARS outbreak highlight the need to avoid complacency, strengthen efforts to improve global capacity to address the next pandemic using all available 21st century tools, and support research to develop new treatment options, countermeasures, and insights while striving to address the global inequities that are the root cause of many of these challenges. PMID:23731871

  9. Progress in global surveillance and response capacity 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braden, Christopher R; Dowell, Scott F; Jernigan, Daniel B; Hughes, James M

    2013-06-01

    Ten years have elapsed since the World Health Organization issued its first global alert for an unexplained illness named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The anniversary provides an opportunity to reflect on the international response to this new global microbial threat. While global surveillance and response capacity for public health threats have been strengthened, critical gaps remain. Of 194 World Health Organization member states that signed on to the International Health Regulations (2005), <20% had achieved compliance with the core capacities required by the deadline in June 2012. Lessons learned from the global SARS outbreak highlight the need to avoid complacency, strengthen efforts to improve global capacity to address the next pandemic using all available 21st century tools, and support research to develop new treatment options, countermeasures, and insights while striving to address the global inequities that are the root cause of many of these challenges. PMID:23731871

  10. Cgnz1 allele confers kidney resistance to damage preventing progression of immune complex-mediated acute lupus glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yan; Jiang, Chao; Sung, Sun-Sang J; Bagavant, Harini; Dai, Chao; Wang, Hongyang; Kannapell, Carol C; Cathro, Helen P; Gaskin, Felicia; Fu, Shu Man

    2013-10-21

    Cgnz1 and Agnz1 on the distal region of mouse chromosome 1 are associated with chronic glomerulonephritis (cGN) and acute GN (aGN). NZM2328.Lc1R27 (R27) was generated by introgressing a C57L/J region where Cgnz1 is located to NZM2328. R27 female mice developed aGN mediated by immune complex (IC) deposition and complement activation without progression to cGN with severe proteinuria. End stage renal disease (ESRD) was not seen in R27 mice as old as 15 mo. Thus, aGN and cGN are under separate genetic control, and IC-mediated proliferative GN need not progress to cGN and ESRD. NZM2328 and R27 female mice have comparable immune and inflammatory parameters. In contrast to NZM2328, R27 mice were resistant to sheep anti-mouse GBM serum-induced nephritis, supporting the hypothesis that aGN is mediated by autoimmunity and resistance to the development of cGN is mediated by end organ resistance to damage. Thus, autoimmunity should be considered distinct from end organ damage. The Cgnz1 region has been mapped to a 1.34 MB region with 45 genes. Nine candidate genes were identified. Clinical relevance of these observations is supported by case studies. Clinical implications and the significance to human lupus and other diseases are presented.

  11. Purple grape juice as a protector against acute x-irradiation induced alterations on mobility, anxiety, and feeding behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Soares, Félix A A; Dalla Corte, Cristiane L; Andrade, Edson R; Marina, Raquel; González, Paquita; Barrio, Juan P

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that a moderate intake of organic purple grape juice shows a positive radiomodifier effect over early behavioural damage following acute X-irradiation in mice. Anxiety-, locomotion-, and feeding-related responses to 6 Gy total body X-irradiation (TBI) were studied via open field, Rotarod, and feeding/drinking recording. Thirty-two male mice weighing 25-30 g were grouped according grape juice (J) or water (W) ad libitum drinking and either non-irradiated (N) or irradiated (R). 24 h post-TBI the access frequency to the center and corners of the open field was decreased, and the total stay in the corners increased, in RW vs. NW mice. Anxiety-related parameters decreased in RJ vs. RW mice. Rotarod latency times increased 72 h post-TBI in RJ vs RW mice. No overall changes in food and drink intake were observed along the experimental period. On the irradiation day, bout number was increased and bout duration was decreased in RW mice. The changes were reversed by purple grape juice intake. Grape juice intake before and after TBI can overcome several radiation-induced changes in behaviour within 24-72 hours after sub-lethal X-irradiation. This beneficial effect on short-term anxiety and mobilityrelated activities could probably be included in the list of flavonoid bio-effects. The present findings could be relevant in designing preventive interventions aimed to enhance body defense mechanisms against short-term irradiation damage.

  12. The use of hypnotic age progressions as interventions with acute psychosomatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Frederick, C; Phillips, M

    1992-10-01

    Patients with the physical manifestations and physiological disturbances engendered by serious psychosomatic conditions often present with special needs in therapy. On a conscious level, these patients may have pessimistic views of the future, including the specter of imminent death, which, for some, is a real possibility. In this paper we review four clinical cases in which hypnotic age progressions reveal the patients' deepest positive hopes for survival and serve as ego-strengthening, integrating, and prognostic tools in the face of ominous symptoms of physical distress.

  13. Gene expression profiling of the short-term adaptive response to acute caloric restriction in liver and adipose tissues of pigs differing in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, where low RFI denotes high feed efficiency. Caloric restriction (CR) is associated with feed efficiency in livestock species and relevant to human health benefits such as longevity and cancer prevention. We generated transcript profiles of ...

  14. Dopaminergic modulation of effort-related choice behavior as assessed by a progressive ratio chow feeding choice task: pharmacological studies and the role of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Randall, Patrick A; Pardo, Marta; Nunes, Eric J; López Cruz, Laura; Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, Alex; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2012-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. In the present study, the effects of several drug treatments were assessed using a progressive ratio (PROG)/chow feeding concurrent choice task. With this task, rats can lever press on a PROG schedule reinforced by a preferred high-carbohydrate food pellet, or alternatively approach and consume the less-preferred but concurrently available laboratory chow. Rats pass through each ratio level 15 times, after which the ratio requirement is incremented by one additional response. The DA D(2) antagonist haloperidol (0.025-0.1 mg/kg) reduced number of lever presses and highest ratio achieved but did not reduce chow intake. In contrast, the adenosine A(2A) antagonist MSX-3 increased lever presses and highest ratio achieved, but decreased chow consumption. The cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonist and putative appetite suppressant AM251 decreased lever presses, highest ratio achieved, and chow intake; this effect was similar to that produced by pre-feeding. Furthermore, DA-related signal transduction activity (pDARPP-32(Thr34) expression) was greater in nucleus accumbens core of high responders (rats with high lever pressing output) compared to low responders. Thus, the effects of DA antagonism differed greatly from those produced by pre-feeding or reduced CB1 transmission, and it appears unlikely that haloperidol reduces PROG responding because of a general reduction in primary food motivation or the unconditioned reinforcing properties of food. Furthermore, accumbens core signal transduction activity is related to individual differences in work output.

  15. Rapidly progressing fatal reperfusion syndrome caused by acute critical ischemia of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Szijártó, Attila; Turóczi, Zsolt; Szabó, József; Kaliszky, Péter; Gyurkovics, Endre; Arányi, Péter; Regáli, László; Harsányi, László; Lotz, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    The most severe complication of ischemia-reperfusion injury following lower limb arterial surgery is reperfusion syndrome. Therefore, our aim was to describe the extent of muscle damage and the reperfusion syndrome-related remote organ lesions in detail, through a well-documented case of long-lasting infrarenal aorta thrombosis. After urgent revascularization, several clinical signs of multiple organ dysfunction were detectable, including the circulatory, urinary, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic systems. Upon histological examination, intraoperative muscle biopsy showed severe muscle damage. Muscle fiber viability was assessed with a special nitroblue tetrazolium staining-based viability test developed by our team; the obtained results indicated significant degree of muscle damage before this was confirmed by conventional histological methods. Thorough postmortem examination confirmed the presence of remote organ damage. The pathological findings included acute tubular necrosis, myocardial and jejunal infarctions, ischemic pancreatitis, and diffuse alveolar damage with hyaline membrane formation in the lungs and focal centrilobular liver necrosis. By using special staining techniques, the presence of myoglobin and lipofuscin deposits was confirmed in the kidney samples. In this paper, we present a patient who developed all major complications following long-lasting arterial occlusion. We also introduce a novel method to assess the degree of ischemic injury, which may be suitable in the near future for the rapid detection of irreversible muscle injury. Therefore, the mortality of the disease might be reduced.

  16. Bupropion Increases Selection of High Effort Activity in Rats Tested on a Progressive Ratio/Chow Feeding Choice Procedure: Implications for Treatment of Effort-Related Motivational Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Patrick A.; Lee, Christie A.; Podurgiel, Samantha J.; Hart, Evan; Yohn, Samantha E.; Jones, Myles; Rowland, Margaret; López-Cruz, Laura; Correa, Mercè

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression and related disorders are characterized by deficits in behavioral activation, exertion of effort, and other psychomotor/motivational dysfunctions. Depressed patients show alterations in effort-related decision making and a bias towards selection of low effort activities. It has been suggested that animal tests of effort-related decision making could be useful as models of motivational dysfunctions seen in psychopathology. Methods: Because clinical studies have suggested that inhibition of catecholamine uptake may be a useful strategy for treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms, the present research assessed the ability of bupropion to increase work output in rats responding on a test of effort-related decision-making (ie, a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task). With this task, rats can choose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive ratio schedule vs obtaining a less preferred laboratory chow that is freely available in the chamber. Results: Bupropion (10.0–40.0 mg/kg intraperitoneal) significantly increased all measures of progressive ratio lever pressing, but decreased chow intake. These effects were greatest in animals with low baseline levels of work output on the progressive ratio schedule. Because accumbens dopamine is implicated in effort-related processes, the effects of bupropion on markers of accumbens dopamine transmission were examined. Bupropion elevated extracellular dopamine levels in accumbens core as measured by microdialysis and increased phosphorylated dopamine and cyclic-AMP related phosphoprotein 32 kDaltons (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity in a manner consistent with D1 and D2 receptor stimulation. Conclusion: The ability of bupropion to increase exertion of effort in instrumental behavior may have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms in humans. PMID:25575584

  17. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. • Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. • No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. • We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of {sup 14}C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  18. Progress of enteral feeding practice over time: moving from energy supply to patient- and disease-adapted formulations.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Sibylle

    2010-01-01

    Enteral nutrition comprises the delivery of a liquid formula beyond the esophagus via a feeding tube in a patient with insufficient oral intake, as well as the provision of specialized nutritional formula irrespective of the route of delivery. Pediatric formulae have been designed for different age groups, and for children with certain diseases; examples are special formulations for regurgitating infants, metabolic diseases, cow's milk or multiple food allergies, intestinal, pancreatic, renal, and hepatic insufficiency. Exclusive enteral nutrition is a therapeutic concept to induce remission in children and adolescents with active Crohn's disease. A new area of nutritional research in pediatrics is potential immunonutrition in critically ill children. Formulae are enriched with single components or a combination of key substrates that might play a crucial role during intermediary metabolism in sepsis, inflammation, tissue healing, and growth. For pharmaconutrition, single components are investigated in a scientific stepwise procedure in order to identify effective disease-dedicated nutrition therapy. Any new formula needs to be evaluated, if possible in comparison to a normal diet or the reference formulation to demonstrate its safety and efficacy (equal or superior to standard formula). PMID:20664215

  19. Plasma Hsp90 Level as a Marker of Early Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Engraftment and Progression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Milani, Mateus; Laranjeira, Angelo Brunelli Albertoni; de Vasconcellos, Jaíra Ferreira; Brandalise, Silvia Regina; Nowill, Alexandre Eduardo; Yunes, José Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Current monitoring of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in living mice is based on FACS analysis of blood hCD45+ cells. In this work, we evaluated the use of human IGFBP2, B2M or Hsp90 as soluble markers of leukemia. ELISA for B2M and IGFBP2 resulted in high background levels in healthy animals, precluding its use. Conversely, plasma levels of Hsp90 showed low background and linear correlation to FACS results. In another experiment, we compared Hsp90 levels with percentage of hCD45+ cells in blood, bone marrow, liver and spleen of animals weekly sacrificed. Hsp90 levels proved to be a superior method for the earlier detection of ALL engraftment and correlated linearly to ALL burden and progression in all compartments, even at minimal residual disease levels. Importantly, the Hsp90/hCD45+ ratio was not altered when animals were treated with dexamethasone or a PI3K inhibitor, indicating that chemotherapy does not directly interfere with leukemia production of Hsp90. In conclusion, plasma Hsp90 was validated as a soluble biomarker of ALL, useful for earlier detection of leukemia engraftment, monitoring leukemia kinetics at residual disease levels, and pre-clinical or mouse avatar evaluations of anti-leukemic drugs. PMID:26068922

  20. MiR-146b negatively regulates migration and delays progression of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Nádia C.; Fragoso, Rita; Carvalho, Tânia; Enguita, Francisco J.; Barata, João T.

    2016-01-01

    Previous results indicated that miR-146b-5p is downregulated by TAL1, a transcription factor critical for early hematopoiesis that is frequently overexpressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) where it has an oncogenic role. Here, we confirmed that miR-146b-5p expression is lower in TAL1-positive patient samples than in other T-ALL cases. Furthermore, leukemia T-cells display decreased levels of miR-146b-5p as compared to normal T-cells, thymocytes and other hematopoietic progenitors. MiR-146b-5p silencing enhances the in vitro migration and invasion of T-ALL cells, associated with increased levels of filamentous actin and chemokinesis. In vivo, miR-146b overexpression in a TAL1-positive cell line extends mouse survival in a xenotransplant model of human T-ALL. In contrast, knockdown of miR-146b-5p results in leukemia acceleration and decreased mouse overall survival, paralleled by faster tumor infiltration of the central nervous system. Our results suggest that miR-146b-5p is a functionally relevant microRNA gene in the context of T-ALL, whose negative regulation by TAL1 and possibly other oncogenes contributes to disease progression by modulating leukemia cell motility and disease aggressiveness. PMID:27550837

  1. Plasma Hsp90 Level as a Marker of Early Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Engraftment and Progression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Milani, Mateus; Laranjeira, Angelo Brunelli Albertoni; de Vasconcellos, Jaíra Ferreira; Brandalise, Silvia Regina; Nowill, Alexandre Eduardo; Yunes, José Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Current monitoring of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in living mice is based on FACS analysis of blood hCD45+ cells. In this work, we evaluated the use of human IGFBP2, B2M or Hsp90 as soluble markers of leukemia. ELISA for B2M and IGFBP2 resulted in high background levels in healthy animals, precluding its use. Conversely, plasma levels of Hsp90 showed low background and linear correlation to FACS results. In another experiment, we compared Hsp90 levels with percentage of hCD45+ cells in blood, bone marrow, liver and spleen of animals weekly sacrificed. Hsp90 levels proved to be a superior method for the earlier detection of ALL engraftment and correlated linearly to ALL burden and progression in all compartments, even at minimal residual disease levels. Importantly, the Hsp90/hCD45+ ratio was not altered when animals were treated with dexamethasone or a PI3K inhibitor, indicating that chemotherapy does not directly interfere with leukemia production of Hsp90. In conclusion, plasma Hsp90 was validated as a soluble biomarker of ALL, useful for earlier detection of leukemia engraftment, monitoring leukemia kinetics at residual disease levels, and pre-clinical or mouse avatar evaluations of anti-leukemic drugs.

  2. Hemodynamic variables and progression of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients with severe sepsis: data from the prospective observational FINNAKI study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge of the association of hemodynamics with progression of septic acute kidney injury (AKI) is limited. However, some recent data suggest that mean arterial pressure (MAP) exceeding current guidelines (60–65 mmHg) may be needed to prevent AKI. We hypothesized that higher MAP during the first 24 hours in the intensive care unit (ICU), would be associated with a lower risk of progression of AKI in patients with severe sepsis. Methods We identified 423 patients with severe sepsis and electronically recorded continuous hemodynamic data in the prospective observational FINNAKI study. The primary endpoint was progression of AKI within the first 5 days of ICU admission defined as new onset or worsening of AKI by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We evaluated the association of hemodynamic variables with this endpoint. We included 53724 10-minute medians of MAP in the analysis. We analysed the ability of time-adjusted MAP to predict progression of AKI by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Of 423 patients, 153 (36.2%) had progression of AKI. Patients with progression of AKI had significantly lower time-adjusted MAP, 74.4 mmHg [68.3-80.8], than those without progression, 78.6 mmHg [72.9-85.4], P < 0.001. A cut-off value of 73 mmHg for time-adjusted MAP best predicted the progression of AKI. Chronic kidney disease, higher lactate, higher dose of furosemide, use of dobutamine and time-adjusted MAP below 73 mmHg were independent predictors of progression of AKI. Conclusions The findings of this large prospective multicenter observational study suggest that hypotensive episodes (MAP under 73 mmHg) are associated with progression of AKI in critically ill patients with severe sepsis. PMID:24330815

  3. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  4. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine affects effort-related decision making in a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task: reversal with antidepressant drugs.

    PubMed

    Randall, Patrick A; Lee, Christie A; Nunes, Eric J; Yohn, Samantha E; Nowak, Victoria; Khan, Bilal; Shah, Priya; Pandit, Saagar; Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, Alex; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Correa, Merce; Salamone, John D

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral activation is a fundamental feature of motivation, and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon evaluations of reinforcement value and response costs. Furthermore, people with major depression and other disorders often show anergia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and alterations in effort-related decision making. Tasks measuring effort-based decision making can be used as animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2) inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine induces depressive symptoms in humans, and also preferentially depletes dopamine (DA). Rats were assessed using a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG)/chow feeding task, in which they can either lever press on a PROG schedule for preferred high-carbohydrate food, or approach and consume a less-preferred lab chow that is freely available in the chamber. Previous work has shown that the DA antagonist haloperidol reduced PROG work output on this task, but did not reduce chow intake, effects that differed substantially from those of reinforcer devaluation or appetite suppressant drugs. The present work demonstrated that tetrabenazine produced an effort-related shift in responding on the PROG/chow procedure, reducing lever presses, highest ratio achieved and time spent responding, but not reducing chow intake. Similar effects were produced by administration of the subtype selective DA antagonists ecopipam (D1) and eticlopride (D2), but not by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor neutral antagonist and putative appetite suppressant AM 4413, which suppressed both lever pressing and chow intake. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3, the antidepressant and catecholamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl, all reversed the impairments induced by tetrabenazine. This work demonstrates the potential utility of the PROG/chow procedure as a rodent model of

  5. POEMS syndrome with Guillan-Barre syndrome-like acute onset: a case report and review of neurological progression in 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Isose, S; Misawa, S; Kanai, K; Shibuya, K; Sekiguchi, Y; Nasu, S; Fujimaki, Y; Noto, Y; Nakaseko, C; Kuwabara, S

    2011-06-01

    POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein and skin changes) syndrome is a rare cause of demyelinating neuropathy with monoclonal plasma cell proliferation, and POEMS neuropathy is usually chronically progressive. Herein, the authors report a 34-year-old woman with POEMS syndrome presenting as acute polyneuropathy. Within 2 weeks of disease onset, she became unable to walk with electrodiagnostic features of demyelination and was initially diagnosed as having Guillan-Barré syndrome. Other systemic features (oedema and skin changes) developed later, and an elevated serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor led to the diagnosis of POEMS syndrome. She received high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, resulting in good recovery. The authors also reviewed patterns and speed of progression of neuropathy in the 30 patients with POEMS syndrome; 22 (73%) of them were unable to walk independently with the median period of 9.5 months from POEMS onset (range 0.5-51 months). Whereas the speed of neuropathy progression varies considerably among patients, some POEMS patients can show acute or subacute polyneuropathy. The early diagnosis and treatment could result in rapid improvement as shown in the present patient.

  6. Hypothalamic agouti-related protein expression is affected by both acute and chronic experience of food restriction and re-feeding in chickens.

    PubMed

    Dunn, I C; Wilson, P W; Smulders, T V; Sandilands, V; D'Eath, R B; Boswell, T

    2013-10-01

    The central melanocortin system is conserved across vertebrates. However, in birds, little is known about how energy balance influences orexigenic agouti-related protein (AGRP) and anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression, despite the fact that commercial food restriction is critical to the efficient production of poultry meat. To enable contrasts to be made, in broiler-breeder chickens, between levels of food restriction, between birds with the same body weight but different feeding experience, and between birds moved from restricted feeding to ad lib. feeding for different periods, five groups of hens were established between 6 and 12 weeks of age with different combinations of food restriction and release from restriction. AGRP and neuropeptide Y expression in the basal hypothalamus was significantly increased by chronic restriction but only AGRP mRNA levels reflected recent feeding experience: hens at the same body weight that had recently been on ad lib. feeding showed lower expression than restricted birds. AGRP expression also distinguished between hens released from restriction to ad lib. feeding for different periods. By contrast, POMC and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript mRNA levels were not different. These results showed that AGRP mRNA not only reflected differences between a bird's weight and its potential weight or set point, but also discriminated between differing feeding histories of birds at the same body weight. Therefore, AGRP expression potentially provides an integrated measure of food intake experience and an objective tool to assess a bird's perception of satiety in feeding regimes for improved poultry welfare.

  7. Comparing serum responses to acute feedings of an extensively hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate versus a native whey protein concentrate in rats: a metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Lockwood, Christopher M; Pappan, Kirk; Childs, Thomas E; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Booth, Frank W

    2014-02-01

    We examined how gavage feeding extensively hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH) versus a native whey protein concentrate (WPC) transiently affected serum biochemical profiles in rodents. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were 8 h fasted and subsequently fed isonitrogenous amounts of WPH or WPC, or remained unfed (control). Animals were sacrificed 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min post-gavage for serum extraction, and serum was analyzed using untargeted global metabolic profiling via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography/MS/MS platforms. We detected 333 serum metabolites amongst the experimental and control groups. Both WPH and WPC generally increased amino acids (1.2-2.8-fold), branched-chain amino acids (1.2-1.7-fold), and serum di- and oligo-peptides (1.1-2.7-fold) over the 60 min time course compared with control (q < 0.05). However, WPH increased lysine (false discovery rate using a q-value <0.05) and tended to increase isoleucine and valine 15 min post-feeding (q < 0.10) as well as aspartylleucine 30 min post-feeding compared with WPC (q < 0.05). While both protein sources led to a dramatic increase in free fatty acids compared with control (up to 6-fold increases, q < 0.05), WPH also uniquely resulted in a 30 min post-feeding elevation in free fatty acids compared with WPC (q < 0.05), an effect which may be due to the robust 30 min postprandial increase in epinephrine in the WPH cohort. These data provide a unique postprandial time-course perspective on how WPH versus WPC feedings affect circulating biochemicals and will guide future research comparing these 2 protein sources.

  8. Quantitative analysis of performance on a progressive-ratio schedule: effects of reinforcer type, food deprivation and acute treatment with Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    PubMed

    Olarte-Sánchez, C M; Valencia-Torres, L; Cassaday, H J; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E

    2015-04-01

    Rats' performance on a progressive-ratio schedule maintained by sucrose (0.6M, 50 μl) and corn oil (100%, 25 μl) reinforcers was assessed using a model derived from Killeen's (1994) theory of schedule-controlled behaviour, 'Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement'. When the rats were maintained at 80% of their free-feeding body weights, the parameter expressing incentive value, a, was greater for the corn oil than for the sucrose reinforcer; the response-time parameter, δ, did not differ between the reinforcer types, but a parameter derived from the linear waiting principle (T0), indicated that the minimum post-reinforcement pause was longer for corn oil than for sucrose. When the rats were maintained under free-feeding conditions, a was reduced, indicating a reduction of incentive value, but δ was unaltered. Under the food-deprived condition, the CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: 0.3, 1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) increased the value of a for sucrose but not for corn oil, suggesting a selective enhancement of the incentive value of sucrose; none of the other parameters was affected by THC. The results provide new information about the sensitivity of the model's parameters to deprivation and reinforcer quality, and suggest that THC selectively enhances the incentive value of sucrose. PMID:25637881

  9. Quantitative analysis of performance on a progressive-ratio schedule: effects of reinforcer type, food deprivation and acute treatment with Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    PubMed

    Olarte-Sánchez, C M; Valencia-Torres, L; Cassaday, H J; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E

    2015-04-01

    Rats' performance on a progressive-ratio schedule maintained by sucrose (0.6M, 50 μl) and corn oil (100%, 25 μl) reinforcers was assessed using a model derived from Killeen's (1994) theory of schedule-controlled behaviour, 'Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement'. When the rats were maintained at 80% of their free-feeding body weights, the parameter expressing incentive value, a, was greater for the corn oil than for the sucrose reinforcer; the response-time parameter, δ, did not differ between the reinforcer types, but a parameter derived from the linear waiting principle (T0), indicated that the minimum post-reinforcement pause was longer for corn oil than for sucrose. When the rats were maintained under free-feeding conditions, a was reduced, indicating a reduction of incentive value, but δ was unaltered. Under the food-deprived condition, the CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: 0.3, 1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) increased the value of a for sucrose but not for corn oil, suggesting a selective enhancement of the incentive value of sucrose; none of the other parameters was affected by THC. The results provide new information about the sensitivity of the model's parameters to deprivation and reinforcer quality, and suggest that THC selectively enhances the incentive value of sucrose.

  10. ‘Biologic memory’ in response to acute kidney injury: cytoresistance, toll-like receptor hyper-responsiveness and the onset of progressive renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Zager, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Following the induction of ischemic or toxin-mediated acute kidney injury (AKI), cellular adaptations occur that ‘re-program’ how the kidney responds to future superimposed insults. This re-programming is not simply a short-lived phenomenon; rather it can persist for many weeks, implying that a state of ‘biologic memory’ has emerged. These changes can be both adaptive and maladaptive in nature and they can co-exist in time. A beneficial adaptation is the emergence of acquired cytoresistance, whereby a number of physiologic responses develop that serve to protect the kidney against further ischemic or nephrotoxic attack. Conversely, some changes are maladaptive, such as a predisposition to Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteremia due to a renal tubular up-regulation of toll-like receptor responses. This latter change culminates in exaggerated cytokine production, and with efflux into the systemic circulation, extra-renal tissue injury can result (so-called ‘organ cross talk’). Another maladaptive response is a persistent up-regulation of pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic and vasoconstrictive genes, culminating in progressive renal injury and ultimately end-stage renal failure. The mechanisms by which this biologic re-programming, or biologic memory, is imparted remain subjects for considerable debate. However, injury-induced, and stable, epigenetic remodeling at pro-inflammatory/pro-fibrotic genes seems likely to be involved. The goal of this editorial is to highlight that the so-called ‘maintenance phase’ of acute renal failure is not a static one, somewhere between injury induction and the onset of repair. Rather, this period is one in which the induction of ‘biologic memory’ can ultimately impact renal functional recovery, extra-renal injury and the possible transition of AKI into chronic, progressive renal disease. PMID:23761460

  11. Readmission for Acute Exacerbation within 30 Days of Discharge Is Associated with a Subsequent Progressive Increase in Mortality Risk in COPD Patients: A Long-Term Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Mónica; Crisafulli, Ernesto; Liapikou, Adamantia; Huerta, Arturo; Gabarrús, Albert; Chetta, Alfredo; Soler, Nestor; Torres, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Twenty per cent of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are readmitted for acute exacerbation (AECOPD) within 30 days of discharge. The prognostic significance of early readmission is not fully understood. The objective of our study was to estimate the mortality risk associated with readmission for acute exacerbation within 30 days of discharge in COPD patients. Methods The cohort (n = 378) was divided into patients readmitted (n = 68) and not readmitted (n = 310) within 30 days of discharge. Clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and severity data were evaluated at admission and during hospital stay, and mortality data were recorded at four time points during follow-up: 30 days, 6 months, 1 year and 3 years. Results Patients readmitted within 30 days had poorer lung function, worse dyspnea perception and higher clinical severity. Two or more prior AECOPD (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.51–4.05) was the only variable independently associated with 30-day readmission. The mortality risk during the follow-up period showed a progressive increase in patients readmitted within 30 days in comparison to patients not readmitted; moreover, 30-day readmission was an independent risk factor for mortality at 1 year (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.10–5.59). In patients readmitted within 30 days, the estimated absolute increase in the mortality risk was 4% at 30 days (number needed to harm NNH, 25), 17% at 6-months (NNH, 6), 19% at 1-year (NNH, 6) and 24% at 3 years (NNH, 5). Conclusion In conclusion a readmission for AECOPD within 30 days is associated with a progressive increased long-term risk of death. PMID:26943928

  12. Calpastatin overexpression prevents progression of S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC)-initiated acute renal injury and renal failure (ARF) in diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Dnyanmote, Ankur V.; Sawant, Sharmilee P.; Lock, Edward A.; Latendresse, John R.; Warbritton, Alan A.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-09-01

    Previously we have shown that 90% of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1 diabetic (DB) mice survive from acute renal failure (ARF) and death induced by a normally LD{sub 9} dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.) of the nephrotoxicant S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC). This remarkable protection is due to a combination of slower progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury and increased compensatory nephrogenic tissue repair in the DB kidneys. BRDU immunohistochemistry revealed that the DB condition led to 4-fold higher number of proximal tubular cells (PTC) entering S-phase of cell cycle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that DB-induced augmentation of PTC into S-phase is accompanied by overexpression of the calpain-inhibitor calpastatin, which endogenously prevents the progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury mediated by the calpain escaping out of damaged PTCs. Immunohistochemical detection of renal calpain and its activity in the urine, over a time course after treatment with the LD{sub 9} dose of DCVC, indicated progressive increase in leakage of calpain into the extracellular spaces of the injured PTCs of the non-diabetic (NDB) kidneys as compared to the DB kidneys. Calpastatin expression was minimally detected in the NDB kidneys, using immunohistochemistry, over the time course. On the other hand, consistently higher number of tubules in the DB kidney showed calpastatin expression over the time course. The lower leakage of calpain in the DB kidneys was commensurate with constitutively higher expression of calpastatin in the S-phase-laden PTCs of these mice. To test the protective role of newly divided/dividing PTCs, DB mice were given the anti-mitotic agent colchicine (CLC) (2 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg, i.p., on days 8 and 10 after STZ injection) prior to challenge with a LD{sub 9} dose of DCVC, which led to 100% mortality by 48 h. Mortality was due to rapid progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury, suggesting that newly divided/dividing cells are instrumental

  13. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Massa, Christopher B.; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L.; Gow, Andrew J.

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl{sub 2} exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl{sub 2} inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl{sub 2} dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO{sub 3}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl{sub 2} inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl{sub 2} gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor.

  14. Quality improvement for neonatal nurses, part II: using a PDSA quality improvement cycle approach to implement an oral feeding progression guideline for premature infants.

    PubMed

    Marcellus, Lenora; Harrison, Adele; Mackinnon, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The development of clinical practice guidelines involving multiple health care providers presents a challenge in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Implementation and evaluation of the guideline is as important as the development of the guideline itself. We explored the use of a quality improvement approach in the implementation of a feeding framework. A Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) quality improvement cycle model was used to implement and evaluate a stepwise oral infant feeding guideline with emphasis on parent and care provider satisfaction. Three PDSA cycles were conducted, with each cycle resulting in modifications to use of the framework and development of knowledge translation and parent education techniques and tools. A PDSA cycle approach can be used effectively in guideline implementation and evaluation involving multidisciplinary health care professionals. This is Part II of a two-part series. Part I introduced the concept of quality improvement and tools for advancing practice changes.

  15. Effects of acute feed restriction combined with targeted use of increasing luteinizing hormone content of follicle-stimulating hormone preparations on ovarian superstimulation, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Hackbart, K S; Dresch, A R; Carvalho, P D; Vieira, L M; Crump, P M; Guenther, J N; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Combs, D K; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-02-01

    Multiple metabolic and hormonal factors can affect the success of protocols for ovarian superstimulation. In this study, the effect of acute feed restriction and increased LH content in the superstimulatory FSH preparation on numbers of ovulations, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Two experiments were performed using a Latin square design with treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial: feed restriction (FR; 25% reduction in dry matter intake) compared with ad libitum (AL) feeding, combined with high (H) versus low (L) LH in the last 4 injections of the superstimulatory protocol. As expected, FR decreased circulating insulin concentrations (26.7 vs. 46.0 μU/mL). Two analyses were performed: one that evaluated the complete Latin square in experiment 2 and a second that evaluated only the first periods of experiments 1 and 2. For both analyses, follicle numbers, ovulation rates, and corpora lutea on d 7 were not different. In the first period analysis of experiments 1 and 2, we observed an interaction between feed allowance and amount of LH on fertilization rates, percentage of embryos or oocytes that were quality 1 and 2 embryos, and number of embryos or oocytes that were degenerate. Fertilization rates were greater for the AL-L (89.4%) and FR-H (80.1%) treatments compared with the AL-H (47.9%) and FR-L (59.9%) treatments. Similarly, the proportion of total embryos or oocytes designated as quality 1 and 2 embryos was greater for AL-L (76.7%) and FR-H (73.4%) treatments compared with AL-H (35.6%) and FR-L (47.3%) treatments. In addition, the number of degenerate embryos was decreased for AL-L (1.3) and FR-H (0.4) treatments compared with the AL-H (2.6) and FR-L (2.3) treatments. Thus, cows with either too low (FR-L) or too high (AL-H) insulin and LH stimulation had lesser embryo production after superstimulation because of reduced fertilization rate and increased percentage of degenerate embryos. Therefore, interaction of the

  16. Oral feeding readiness assessment in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Gennattasio, Annmarie; Perri, Elizabeth A; Baranek, Donna; Rohan, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Oral feeding readiness is a complex concept. More evidence is needed on how to approach beginning oral feedings in premature hospitalized infants. This article provides a review of literature related to oral feeding readiness in the premature infant and strategies for promoting safe and efficient progression to full oral intake. Oral feeding readiness assessment tools, clinical pathways, and feeding advancement protocols have been developed to assist with oral feeding initiation and progression. Recognition and support of oral feeding readiness may decrease length of hospital stay and have a positive impact on reducing healthcare costs. Supporting effective cue-based oral feeding through use of rigorous assessment or evidence-based care guidelines can also optimize the hospital experience for infants and caregivers, which, in turn, can promote attachment and parent satisfaction.

  17. Increased BK viremia and progression to BK-virus nephropathy following high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin for acute cellular rejection.

    PubMed

    Boonyapredee, Maytee; Knight, Kendral; Little, Dustin

    2014-06-01

    BK virus nephropathy and cellular rejection are common causes of allograft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. The two can be difficult to distinguish on allograft biopsy and can be present simultaneously. Management of the patient with coexistent BK infection and rejection is complicated by the conflicting ideals of decreasing immunosuppression to treat the former and increasing immunosuppression to treat the latter. The authors present the case of a 57-year-old renal transplant recipient who underwent allograft biopsy 8 weeks post-transplant for evaluation of increased serum creatinine in the setting of BK viremia (BKV). Biopsy revealed Banff classification 1b acute cellular rejection, with insufficient evidence to diagnose BK virus-associated nephropathy. The patient was administered intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), with no other changes in immunosuppressive therapy. Plasma and urine BK increased exponentially following IVIG administration, and allograft function further deteriorated. Repeat biopsy showed overt BK viral nephropathy, and BKV and creatinine decreased only after reduction in immunosuppression and initiation of leflunomide. Although case series have suggested a potential role for IVIG in the setting of BK infection, further study is needed to define the safety and efficacy of this approach.

  18. Interleukin-18 produced by bone marrow-derived stromal cells supports T-cell acute leukaemia progression

    PubMed Central

    Uzan, Benjamin; Poglio, Sandrine; Gerby, Bastien; Wu, Ching-Lien; Gross, Julia; Armstrong, Florence; Calvo, Julien; Cahu, Xavier; Deswarte, Caroline; Dumont, Florent; Passaro, Diana; Besnard-Guérin, Corinne; Leblanc, Thierry; Baruchel, André; Landman-Parker, Judith; Ballerini, Paola; Baud, Véronique; Ghysdael, Jacques; Baleydier, Frédéric; Porteu, Francoise; Pflumio, Francoise

    2014-01-01

    Development of novel therapies is critical for T-cell acute leukaemia (T-ALL). Here, we investigated the effect of inhibiting the MAPK/MEK/ERK pathway on T-ALL cell growth. Unexpectedly, MEK inhibitors (MEKi) enhanced growth of 70% of human T-ALL cell samples cultured on stromal cells independently of NOTCH activation and maintained their ability to propagate in vivo. Similar results were obtained when T-ALL cells were cultured with ERK1/2-knockdown stromal cells or with conditioned medium from MEKi-treated stromal cells. Microarray analysis identified interleukin 18 (IL-18) as transcriptionally up-regulated in MEKi-treated MS5 cells. Recombinant IL-18 promoted T-ALL growth in vitro, whereas the loss of function of IL-18 receptor in T-ALL blast cells decreased blast proliferation in vitro and in NSG mice. The NFKB pathway that is downstream to IL-18R was activated by IL-18 in blast cells. IL-18 circulating levels were increased in T-ALL-xenografted mice and also in T-ALL patients in comparison with controls. This study uncovers a novel role of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 and outlines the microenvironment involvement in human T-ALL development. PMID:24778454

  19. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  20. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    PubMed

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics. PMID:27514147

  1. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    PubMed

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics.

  2. Grade III ischemia on presentation with acute myocardial infarction predicts rapid progression of necrosis and less myocardial salvage with thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Yochai; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Criger, Douglas A; Gates, Kathy B; Barbash, Gabriel I; Barbagelata, Alejandro; Clemmensen, Peter; Sgarbossa, Elena B; Gibbons, Raymond J; Rahman, M Atiar; Califf, Robert M; Granger, Chistopher B; Wagner, Galen S

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the relation between baseline electrocardiographic ischemia grades and initial myocardial area at risk (AR) and final infarct size (IS) in 49 patients who had undergone (99m)Tc sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography before and 6 +/- 1 days after thrombolysis. Patients were classed as having grade III ischemia (ST segment elevation with terminal QRS distortion, n = 19) or grade II ischemia (ST elevation but no terminal QRS distortion, n = 30). We compared AR and IS by baseline ischemia grade and treatment (adenosine vs. placebo) and assessed relations of infarction index (IS/AR ratio x100) to time to thrombolysis, baseline ischemia grade, and adenosine therapy. Time to thrombolysis was similar for grade II and grade III. For placebo- treated patients, the median AR did not differ significantly between grade II (38%) and grade III patients (46%, p = 0.47), nor did median IS (16 vs. 40%, p = 0.096), but the median infarction index was 66 vs. 90% (p = 0.006). For adenosine-treated patients, median AR (21 vs. 26%, p = 0.44), median IS (5 vs. 17%, p = 0.15), and their ratio (31 vs. 67%, p = 0.23) did not differ significantly between grade II and grade III patients. The infarction index independently related to grade III ischemia (p = 0.0121) and adenosine therapy (p = 0.045). Infarct size related to baseline ischemia grade and was reduced by adenosine treatment. Necrosis progressed slowlier with baseline grade II versus III ischemia, which could offer more time for myocardial salvage with reperfusion. PMID:12077570

  3. Cancer-selective cytotoxic Ca2+ overload in acute myeloid leukemia cells and attenuation of disease progression in mice by synergistically acting polyphenols curcumin and carnosic acid

    PubMed Central

    Pesakhov, Stella; Nachliely, Matan; Barvish, Zeev; Aqaqe, Nasma; Schwartzman, Bar; Voronov, Elena; Sharoni, Yoav; Studzinski, George P.; Fishman, Daniel; Danilenko, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy characterized by extremely heterogeneous molecular and biologic abnormalities that hamper the development of effective targeted treatment modalities. While AML cells are highly sensitive to cytotoxic Ca2+ overload, the feasibility of Ca2+- targeted therapy of this disease remains unclear. Here, we show that apoptotic response of AML cells to the synergistically acting polyphenols curcumin (CUR) and carnosic acid (CA), combined at low, non-cytotoxic doses of each compound was mediated solely by disruption of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Specifically, activation of caspase cascade in CUR+CA-treated AML cells resulted from sustained elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ (Ca2+cyt) and was not preceded by endoplasmic reticulum stress or mitochondrial damage. The CUR+CA-induced Ca2+cyt rise did not involve excessive influx of extracellular Ca2+ but, rather, occurred due to massive Ca2+ release from intracellular stores concomitant with inhibition of Ca2+cyt extrusion through the plasma membrane. Notably, the CUR+CA combination did not alter Ca2+ homeostasis and viability in non-neoplastic hematopoietic cells, suggesting its cancer-selective action. Most importantly, co-administration of CUR and CA to AML-bearing mice markedly attenuated disease progression in two animal models. Collectively, our results provide the mechanistic and translational basis for further characterization of this combination as a prototype of novel Ca2+-targeted pharmacological tools for the treatment of AML. PMID:26870993

  4. Replicative fitness of transmitted HIV-1 drives acute immune activation, proviral load in memory CD4+ T cells, and disease progression.

    PubMed

    Claiborne, Daniel T; Prince, Jessica L; Scully, Eileen; Macharia, Gladys; Micci, Luca; Lawson, Benton; Kopycinski, Jakub; Deymier, Martin J; Vanderford, Thomas H; Nganou-Makamdop, Krystelle; Ende, Zachary; Brooks, Kelsie; Tang, Jianming; Yu, Tianwei; Lakhi, Shabir; Kilembe, William; Silvestri, Guido; Douek, Daniel; Goepfert, Paul A; Price, Matthew A; Allen, Susan A; Paiardini, Mirko; Altfeld, Marcus; Gilmour, Jill; Hunter, Eric

    2015-03-24

    HIV-1 infection is characterized by varying degrees of chronic immune activation and disruption of T-cell homeostasis, which impact the rate of disease progression. A deeper understanding of the factors that influence HIV-1-induced immunopathology and subsequent CD4(+) T-cell decline is critical to strategies aimed at controlling or eliminating the virus. In an analysis of 127 acutely infected Zambians, we demonstrate a dramatic and early impact of viral replicative capacity (vRC) on HIV-1 immunopathogenesis that is independent of viral load (VL). Individuals infected with high-RC viruses exhibit a distinct inflammatory cytokine profile as well as significantly elevated T-cell activation, proliferation, and CD8(+) T-cell exhaustion, during the earliest months of infection. Moreover, the vRC of the transmitted virus is positively correlated with the magnitude of viral burden in naive and central memory CD4(+) T-cell populations, raising the possibility that transmitted viral phenotypes may influence the size of the initial latent viral reservoir. Taken together, these findings support an unprecedented role for the replicative fitness of the founder virus, independent of host protective genes and VL, in influencing multiple facets of HIV-1-related immunopathology, and that a greater focus on this parameter could provide novel approaches to clinical interventions.

  5. Effects of preoperative feeding with a whey protein plus carbohydrate drink on the acute phase response and insulin resistance. A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prolonged preoperative fasting increases insulin resistance and current evidence recommends carbohydrate (CHO) drinks 2 hours before surgery. Our hypothesis is that the addition of whey protein to a CHO-based drink not only reduces the inflammatory response but also diminish insulin resistance. Methods Seventeen patients scheduled to cholecystectomy or inguinal herniorraphy were randomized and given 474 ml and 237 ml of water (CO group) or a drink containing CHO and milk whey protein (CHO-P group) respectively, 6 and 3 hours before operation. Blood samples were collected before surgery and 24 hours afterwards for biochemical assays. The endpoints of the study were the insulin resistance (IR), the prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index (PINI) and the C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio. A 5% level for significance was established. Results There were no anesthetic or postoperative complications. The post-operative IR was lower in the CHO-P group when compared with the CO group (2.75 ± 0.72 vs 5.74 ± 1.16; p = 0.03). There was no difference between the two groups in relation to the PINI. The CHO-P group showed a decrease in the both CRP elevation and CRP/albumin ratio (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients who showed CRP/albumin ratio considered normal was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the CHO-P group (87.5%) than in the CO group (33.3%). Conclusions Shortening the pre-operative fasting using CHO and whey protein is safe and reduces insulin resistance and postoperative acute phase response in elective moderate operations. Trial registration ClinicalTrail.gov NCT01354249 PMID:21668975

  6. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  7. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  8. Effects of valproic acid and pioglitazone on cell cycle progression and proliferation of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells

    PubMed Central

    Jazi, Marie Saghaeian; Mohammadi, Saeed; Yazdani, Yaghoub; Sedighi, Sima; Memarian, Ali; Aghaei, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematologic malignant tumor. Administration of chemical compounds influencing apoptosis and T cell development has been discussed as promising novel therapeutic strategies. Valproic acid (VPA) as a recently emerged anti-neoplastic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and pioglitazone (PGZ) as a high-affinity peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist have been shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in different studies. Here, we aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in anti-proliferative effects of these compounds on human Jurkat cells. Materials and Methods: Treated cells were evaluated for cell cycle progression and apoptosis using flowcytometry and MTT viability assay. Real-time RT-PCR was carried out to measure the alterations in key genes associated with cell death and cell cycle arrest. Results: Our findings illustrated that both VPA and PGZ can inhibit Jurkat E6.1 cells in vitro after 24 hr; however, PGZ 400 μM presents the most anti-proliferative effect. Interestingly, treated cells have been arrested in G2/M with deregulated cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A) phosphatase and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B or p27) expression. Expression of cyclin D1 gene was inhibited when DNA synthesis entry was declined. Cell cycle deregulation in PGZ and VPA-exposed cells generated an increase in the proportion of aneuploid cell population, which has not reported before. Conclusion: These findings define that anti-proliferative effects of PGZ and VPA on Jurkat cell line are mediated by cell cycle deregulation. Thus, we suggest PGZ and VPA may relieve potential therapeutic application against apoptosis-resistant malignancies.

  9. Effects of valproic acid and pioglitazone on cell cycle progression and proliferation of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells

    PubMed Central

    Jazi, Marie Saghaeian; Mohammadi, Saeed; Yazdani, Yaghoub; Sedighi, Sima; Memarian, Ali; Aghaei, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematologic malignant tumor. Administration of chemical compounds influencing apoptosis and T cell development has been discussed as promising novel therapeutic strategies. Valproic acid (VPA) as a recently emerged anti-neoplastic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and pioglitazone (PGZ) as a high-affinity peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist have been shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in different studies. Here, we aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in anti-proliferative effects of these compounds on human Jurkat cells. Materials and Methods: Treated cells were evaluated for cell cycle progression and apoptosis using flowcytometry and MTT viability assay. Real-time RT-PCR was carried out to measure the alterations in key genes associated with cell death and cell cycle arrest. Results: Our findings illustrated that both VPA and PGZ can inhibit Jurkat E6.1 cells in vitro after 24 hr; however, PGZ 400 μM presents the most anti-proliferative effect. Interestingly, treated cells have been arrested in G2/M with deregulated cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A) phosphatase and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B or p27) expression. Expression of cyclin D1 gene was inhibited when DNA synthesis entry was declined. Cell cycle deregulation in PGZ and VPA-exposed cells generated an increase in the proportion of aneuploid cell population, which has not reported before. Conclusion: These findings define that anti-proliferative effects of PGZ and VPA on Jurkat cell line are mediated by cell cycle deregulation. Thus, we suggest PGZ and VPA may relieve potential therapeutic application against apoptosis-resistant malignancies. PMID:27635203

  10. Children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition with No Access to Supplementary Feeding Programmes Experience High Rates of Deterioration and No Improvement: Results from a Prospective Cohort Study in Rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    James, Philip; Sadler, Kate; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Argaw, Alemayehu; Luo, Hanqi; Geleta, Benti; Kedir, Kiya; Getnet, Yilak; Belachew, Tefera; Bahwere, Paluku

    2016-01-01

    Background Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have an increased risk of mortality, infections and impaired physical and cognitive development compared to well-nourished children. In parts of Ethiopia not considered chronically food insecure there are no supplementary feeding programmes (SFPs) for treating MAM. The short-term outcomes of children who have MAM in such areas are not currently described, and there remains an urgent need for evidence-based policy recommendations. Methods We defined MAM as mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of ≥11.0cm and <12.5cm with no bilateral pitting oedema to include Ethiopian government and World Health Organisation cut-offs. We prospectively surveyed 884 children aged 6–59 months living with MAM in a rural area of Ethiopia not eligible for a supplementary feeding programme. Weekly home visits were made for seven months (28 weeks), covering the end of peak malnutrition through to the post-harvest period (the most food secure window), collecting anthropometric, socio-demographic and food security data. Results By the end of the study follow up, 32.5% (287/884) remained with MAM, 9.3% (82/884) experienced at least one episode of SAM (MUAC <11cm and/or bilateral pitting oedema), and 0.9% (8/884) died. Only 54.2% of the children recovered with no episode of SAM by the end of the study. Of those who developed SAM half still had MAM at the end of the follow up period. The median (interquartile range) time to recovery was 9 (4–15) weeks. Children with the lowest MUAC at enrolment had a significantly higher risk of remaining with MAM and a lower chance of recovering. Conclusions Children with MAM during the post-harvest season in an area not eligible for SFP experience an extremely high incidence of SAM and a low recovery rate. Not having a targeted nutrition-specific intervention to address MAM in this context places children with MAM at excessive risk of adverse outcomes. Further preventive and curative approaches

  11. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  12. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  13. Immediate Postsession Feeding Reduces Operant Responding in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smethells, John R.; Fox, Andrew T.; Andrews, Jennifer J.; Reilly, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of immediate and delayed postsession feeding on progressive-ratio and variable-interval schedule performance in rats. During Experiments 1 and 2, immediate postsession feeding decreased the breakpoint, or largest completed ratio, under progressive-ratio schedules. Experiment 3 was conducted to extend the…

  14. Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding

    PubMed Central

    López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered. PMID:24050257

  15. Chagas disease and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Norman, Francesca F; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-10-01

    Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered.

  16. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  17. Progress Towards the Development of a Fathead Minnow Embryo Test and Comparison to the Zebrafish Embryo Test for Assessing Acute Fish Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Zebrafish Embryo Test (ZFET) for acute fish toxicity is a well developed method nearing adoption as an OECD Test Guideline. Early drafts of the test guideline (TG) envisioned a suite of potential test species to be covered including zebrafish, fathead minnow, Japanese Medaka...

  18. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  19. [Nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis: when the past is present].

    PubMed

    García Almansa, A; García Peris, P

    2008-05-01

    Patients with acute pancreatitis usually present nutritional status impairment. In alcoholic pancreatitis this impairment is usually presented before hospital admission. In patients with long-term complicated pancreatitis, malnutrition develops during the course of the disease. Besides, these patients present an increased stress and protein hypercatabolism. Treatment of acute pancreatitis usually maintains patients in a short period of starvation. In mild pancreatitis, starvation is needed for a few days, beginning progressively oral feeding. These patients don't need special nutritional support, unless they were previously malnourished. Patients with severe acute pancreatitis should always receive artificial nutritional support in order to preserve the nutritional status as starvation will be maintained for more than one week. In this paper, we review the nutritional treatment in these situations, trying to answer some different questions: type of nutritional support, when it should be started and when it is indicated to withdraw.

  20. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  1. Nutrition support in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    McClave, Stephen A

    2007-03-01

    The benefit of early enteral nutrition (EN) for the disease process and for patient outcome in severe acute pancreatitis is dramatic. A narrow window of opportunity exists during which there is potential for EN to decrease disease severity and reduce overall complications. Most patients with severe pancreatitis tolerate enteral feeds. Any signs of symptom exacerbation or increasing inflammation in response to EN may be ameliorated by subtle adjustments in the feeding strategy. In this manner, provision of EN represents primary therapy in the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis and is emerging as the gold standard of therapy in nutrition support for this disease process.

  2. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  3. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  4. [Management of acute tendinitis].

    PubMed

    Rapp, H J; Heisse, K; Becker, M; Stechele, M

    1992-12-01

    Ultrasonography must be used in combination with physical examination for the appropriate diagnosis of acute tendon injuries. Therapy should be designed to return the tendon to its normal function and appearance. Local and systemic anti-inflammatory agents, cold hydrotherapy and massage minimize excessive scar formation and progressively increasing tensile forces directs scar tissue to replace the tendon function.

  5. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  6. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  7. Acute interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bouros, D; Nicholson, A C; Polychronopoulos, V; du Bois, R M

    2000-02-01

    The term "acute interstitial pneumonia" (AIP) describes an idiopathic clinicopathological condition, characterized clinically by an interstitial lung disease causing rapid onset of respiratory failure, which is distinguishable from the other more chronic forms of interstitial pneumonia. It is synonymous with Hamman-Rich syndrome, occurring in patients without pre-existing lung disease. The histopathological findings are those of diffuse alveolar damage. AIP radiologically and physiologically resembles acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is considered to represent the small subset of patients with idiopathic ARDS. It is frequently confused with other clinical entities characterized by rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia, especially secondary acute interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbations and accelerated forms of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis . Furthermore, many authors use the above terms, both erroneously and interchangeably. It has a grave prognosis with >70% mortality in 3 months, despite mechanical ventilation. This review aims to clarify the relative clinical and pathological issues and terminology.

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of ginger, Arabic gum, and Boswellia in acute and chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mona Fouad; Diaai, Abdalla Ahmed; Ahmed, Fahmy

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger), Arabic gum (AG), and Boswellia on both acute and chronic renal failure (CRF) and the mechanisms underlying their effects. Acute renal failure was induced by 30 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion, while CRF was induced by adenine feeding for 8 weeks. Prophylactic oral administration of ginger, AG, Boswellia, or vehicle (in control groups) was started 3 days before and along with adenine feeding in different groups or 7 days before ischemia-reperfusion. Ginger and AG showed renoprotective effects in both models of renal failure. These protective effects may be attributed at least in part to their anti-inflammatory properties as evident by attenuating serum C-reactive protein levels and antioxidant effects as evident by attenuating lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde levels, and increasing renal superoxide dismutase activity. Ginger was more potent than AG in both models of renal failure. However, Boswellia showed only partial protective effect against both acute renal failure and CRF and it had no antioxidant effects. Finally, we can say that ginger and AG could be beneficial adjuvant therapy in patients with acute renal failure and CRF to prevent disease progression and delay the need for renal replacement therapy. PMID:22017619

  9. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parks EP, Shaikhkhalil A, Groleau V, Wendel D, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: ... 2016:chap. Stettler N, Bhatia J, Parish A, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: ...

  10. [Pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Masashi

    2011-03-01

    Many aspects of the pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy have been clarified in this decade, although many unknown mechanisms remain to be elucidated. According to progress of MRI and neuroimmunological analysis and the observation of clinical findings, many new syndromes were found, which enhanced our understanding of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy. The pathogenesis of encephalitis is divided into infection and immune mediated mechanisms. The antibodies to neuronal surface antigens(NSA) such as NMDA receptors, leucin-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and aquaporin 4 were demonstrated in specific encephalitis, limbic encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica. Anti-NSA antibody encephalitis should be treated by immunotherapy such as corticosteroid and plasmapheresis. Acute encephalitis with refractory repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) is a devastating postinfectious disease in children and adults, although the pathogenesis of AERRPS is poorly understood. Influenza associated encephalopathy(IAE) is characterized by it's high incidence in Japanese children between 1 year and 5 years of age, its onset in the first or the second day of illness and its high mortality (15-30%) and morbidity (25-40%). We proposed the classification of IAE with poor prognosis from the neuroradiological findings. Four types of encephalopathy seem to be differentiated from each other, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) type, hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) type, acute brain swelling (ABS) type, febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) type. The notable radiological features are thalamic lesions in ANE, diffuse cerebral cortical cytotoxic edema in HSES, reversible cerebral swelling in ABS which sometimes reaches lethal brain herniation, and in FCSE type, dendritic high signal in subcortical white matter by DWI ("bright tree appearance") appears simultaneously with the later onset of repetitive focal seizure. These four types are

  11. Breast feeding and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Cutting, W A

    1992-10-01

    There are considerable data suggesting that breast milk and colostrum transmit HIV. The European Collaborative Study shows the risk of transmission of HIV from breast milk to infant to be about 28%. A study in Rwanda indicates that transmission is more likely to take place during viremia which occurs during primary HIV infection and later with progression to AIDS. Postnatal transmission in this study stood at about 60%. Breast feeding protects against diarrhea and respiratory infections. A study in Brazil demonstrates that infants who were not breast fed were at 14.2 and 3.6 higher risk of death from diarrhea and respiratory infections, respectively, than breast-fed infants. These risks are especially great where poverty, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene predominate. A study in Malaysia shows that infants living in a household with no piped water and no toilet and were not breast-fed faced a 5-fold risk of death after 1 week of age than breast-fed infants living under the same conditions. This risk continued to be high (2.5) for non-breast-fed infants living in a household with piped water and a toilet. In developed countries, affordable formula, clean water, and adequate facilities for sterilizing bottles allows HIV positive mothers to bottle feed their infants which should reduce the vertical transmission rate. In developing countries, however, bottle feeding is expensive and hazardous. Governments often cannot provide potable water and sanitation services. In addition, mathematical models demonstrate that for HIV positive mothers, the risk of infant death is lower in infants who breast feed than in those who do not. Thus, in those areas of the world where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the leading causes of infant death, health workers should promote breast feeding regardless of HIV status of the mothers. PMID:1422355

  12. A longitudinal analysis of the effect of mass drug administration on acute inflammatory episodes and disease progression in lymphedema patients in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Brittany A; Blackstock, Anna J; Williamson, John M; Addiss, David G; Streit, Thomas G; Beau de Rochars, Valery M; Fox, Leanne M

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal analysis of 117 lymphedema patients in a filariasis-endemic area of Haiti during 1995-2008. No difference in lymphedema progression between those who received or did not receive mass drug administration (MDA) was found on measures of foot (P = 0.24), ankle (P = 0.87), or leg (P = 0.46) circumference; leg volume displacement (P = 0.09), lymphedema stage (P = 0.93), or frequency of adenolymphangitis (ADL) episodes (P = 0.57). Rates of ADL per year were greater after initiation of MDA among both groups (P < 0.01). Nevertheless, patients who received MDA reported improvement in four areas of lymphedema-related quality of life (P ≤ 0.01). Decreases in foot and ankle circumference and ADL episodes were observed during the 1995-1998 lymphedema management study (P ≤ 0.01). This study represents the first longitudinal, quantitative, leg-specific analysis examining the clinical effect of diethylcarbamazine on lymphedema progression and ADL episodes. PMID:24218408

  13. Potential Harmful Effects of PM2.5 on Occurrence and Progression of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Prevention Measures.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xu; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Kun-Qi; Yang, Yan-Kun; Zhou, Xian-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and its association with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has gained increased attention in recent years. Significant associations between PM2.5 and ACS have been found in most studies, although sometimes only observed in specific subgroups. PM2.5-induced detrimental effects and ACS arise through multiple mechanisms, including endothelial injury, an enhanced inflammatory response, oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction, and mitochondria damage as well as genotoxic effects. These effects can lead to a series of physiopathological changes including coronary artery atherosclerosis, hypertension, an imbalance between energy supply and demand to heart tissue, and a systemic hypercoagulable state. Effective strategies to prevent the harmful effects of PM2.5 include reducing pollution sources of PM2.5 and population exposure to PM2.5, and governments and organizations publicizing the harmful effects of PM2.5 and establishing air quality standards for PM2.5. PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for ACS, and effective strategies with which to prevent both susceptible and healthy populations from an increased risk for ACS have important clinical significance in the prevention and treatment of ACS. PMID:27463723

  14. Potential Harmful Effects of PM2.5 on Occurrence and Progression of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Prevention Measures

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xu; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Kun-Qi; Yang, Yan-Kun; Zhou, Xian-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and its association with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has gained increased attention in recent years. Significant associations between PM2.5 and ACS have been found in most studies, although sometimes only observed in specific subgroups. PM2.5-induced detrimental effects and ACS arise through multiple mechanisms, including endothelial injury, an enhanced inflammatory response, oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction, and mitochondria damage as well as genotoxic effects. These effects can lead to a series of physiopathological changes including coronary artery atherosclerosis, hypertension, an imbalance between energy supply and demand to heart tissue, and a systemic hypercoagulable state. Effective strategies to prevent the harmful effects of PM2.5 include reducing pollution sources of PM2.5 and population exposure to PM2.5, and governments and organizations publicizing the harmful effects of PM2.5 and establishing air quality standards for PM2.5. PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for ACS, and effective strategies with which to prevent both susceptible and healthy populations from an increased risk for ACS have important clinical significance in the prevention and treatment of ACS. PMID:27463723

  15. Identifying risk factors for progression to critical care admission and death among individuals with acute pancreatitis: a record linkage analysis of Scottish healthcare databases

    PubMed Central

    Mole, Damian J; Gungabissoon, Usha; Johnston, Philip; Cochrane, Lynda; Hopkins, Leanne; Wyper, Grant M A; Skouras, Christos; Dibben, Chris; Sullivan, Frank; Morris, Andrew; Ward, Hester J T; Lawton, Andrew M; Donnan, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Acute pancreatitis (AP) can initiate systemic complications that require support in critical care (CC). Our objective was to use the unified national health record to define the epidemiology of AP in Scotland, with a specific focus on deterministic and prognostic factors for CC admission in AP. Setting Health boards in Scotland (n=4). Participants We included all individuals in a retrospective observational cohort with at least one episode of AP (ICD10 code K85) occurring in Scotland from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2012. 3340 individuals were coded as AP. Methods Data from 16 sources, spanning general practice, community prescribing, Accident and Emergency attendances, hospital in-patient, CC and mortality registries, were linked by a unique patient identifier in a national safe haven. Logistic regression and gamma models were used to define independent predictive factors for severe AP (sAP) requiring CC admission or leading to death. Results 2053 individuals (61.5% (95% CI 59.8% to 63.2%)) met the definition for true AP (tAP). 368 patients (17.9% of tAP (95% CI 16.2% to 19.6%)) were admitted to CC. Predictors of sAP were pre-existing angina or hypertension, hypocalcaemia and age 30–39 years, if type 2 diabetes mellitus was present. The risk of sAP was lower in patients with multiple previous episodes of AP. In-hospital mortality in tAP was 5.0% (95% CI 4.1% to 5.9%) overall and 21.7% (95% CI 19.9% to 23.5%) in those with tAP necessitating CC admission. Conclusions National record-linkage analysis of routinely collected data constitutes a powerful resource to model CC admission and prognosticate death during AP. Mortality in patients with AP who require CC admission remains high. PMID:27311912

  16. Blood kidney injury molecule-1 is a biomarker of acute and chronic kidney injury and predicts progression to ESRD in type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sabbisetti, Venkata S; Waikar, Sushrut S; Antoine, Daniel J; Smiles, Adam; Wang, Chang; Ravisankar, Abinaya; Ito, Kazumi; Sharma, Sahil; Ramadesikan, Swetha; Lee, Michelle; Briskin, Rebeccah; De Jager, Philip L; Ngo, Thanh Thu; Radlinski, Mark; Dear, James W; Park, Kevin B; Betensky, Rebecca; Krolewski, Andrzej S; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2014-10-01

    Currently, no blood biomarker that specifically indicates injury to the proximal tubule of the kidney has been identified. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is highly upregulated in proximal tubular cells following kidney injury. The ectodomain of KIM-1 is shed into the lumen, and serves as a urinary biomarker of kidney injury. We report that shed KIM-1 also serves as a blood biomarker of kidney injury. Sensitive assays to measure plasma and serum KIM-1 in mice, rats, and humans were developed and validated in the current study. Plasma KIM-1 levels increased with increasing periods of ischemia (10, 20, or 30 minutes) in mice, as early as 3 hours after reperfusion; after unilateral ureteral obstruction (day 7) in mice; and after gentamicin treatment (50 or 200 mg/kg for 10 days) in rats. In humans, plasma KIM-1 levels were higher in patients with AKI than in healthy controls or post-cardiac surgery patients without AKI (area under the curve, 0.96). In patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, plasma KIM-1 levels increased within 2 days after surgery only in patients who developed AKI (P<0.01). Blood KIM-1 levels were also elevated in patients with CKD of varous etiologies. In a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes and proteinuria, serum KIM-1 level at baseline strongly predicted rate of eGFR loss and risk of ESRD during 5-15 years of follow-up, after adjustment for baseline urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, eGFR, and Hb1Ac. These results identify KIM-1 as a blood biomarker that specifically reflects acute and chronic kidney injury.

  17. [Alternative Splicing Detection as a Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis: A Novel Progressive Mechanism of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Alternative Splicing as a Biomarker Candidate].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kouichi; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Souhei; Ishige, Takayuki; Semba, Toshihisa; Kimura, Asako; Kazami, Takahiro; Ohyama, Masayuki; Itoga, Sakae; Beppu, Minako; Nishimura, Motoi; Satoh, Mamoru; Nomura, Fumio

    2015-09-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism that links to transcription and contributes to protein diversity. Disturbed alternative splicing is frequently observed in cancers, but its precise mechanism remains largely unknown. FUSE-binding protein (FBP) -interacting repressor (FIR) is a transcriptional repressor of the c-myc gene. Previous studies indicated that a splice variant of FIR, FIRΔexon2, that lacks exon2 in the transcriptional repressor domain, was increased in colorectal cancers, hepatocellular carcinomas, and leukemia cells. Furthermore, FIRΔexon2 activated c-myc transcription by disabling wild-type FIR as a dominant-negative form of FIR. Recently, somatic mutations of the SF3B1 (SAP155) gene, a subunit of the SF3B spliceosome complex, were found in myelodysplastic leukemia. In this study, FIR heterozygous knockout (FIR(+/-)) was established as a dominant-negative model of FIR in the C57BL/6 mouse. FIR(+/-) mice showed an increased c-myc mRNA expression level, particularly in peripheral blood, although FIR(+/-) mice had no apparent pathogenic phenotype. Therefore, an increased c-myc mRNA expression level alone is not enough for leukemogenesis. Nevertheless, FIR(+/-)TP53(-/-) mice generated acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with increased organ and/or bone marrow invasion. In conclusion, alternative splicing of FIR, generating FIRΔexon2, contributes to not only colorectal carcinogenesis but also leukemogenesis independent of the c-Myc activation pathway. Finally, we will discuss our hypothesis that FIRΔexon2 interferes with FBW7, that FIRΔexon2 inhibits PP1 in the EGFR pathway, and that FIR haploinsufficiency is potentially associated with protein expression through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:26731899

  18. Viral Dose and Immunosuppression Modulate the Progression of Acute BVDV-1 Infection in Calves: Evidence of Long Term Persistence after Intra-Nasal Infection.

    PubMed

    Strong, Rebecca; La Rocca, Severina Anna; Paton, David; Bensaude, Emmanuelle; Sandvik, Torstein; Davis, Leanne; Turner, Jane; Drew, Trevor; Raue, Rudiger; Vangeel, Ilse; Steinbach, Falko

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection of cattle causes a diverse range of clinical outcomes from being asymptomatic, or a transient mild disease, to producing severe cases of acute disease leading to death. Four groups of calves were challenged with a type 1 BVDV strain, originating from a severe outbreak of BVDV in England, to study the effect of viral dose and immunosuppression on the viral replication and transmission of BVDV. Three groups received increasing amounts of virus: Group A received 10(2.55)TCID50/ml, group B 10(5.25)TCID50/ml and group C 10(6.7)TCID 50/ml. A fourth group (D) was inoculated with a medium dose (10(5.25)TCID50/ml) and concomitantly treated with dexamethasone (DMS) to assess the effects of chemically induced immunosuppression. Naïve calves were added as sentinel animals to assess virus transmission. The outcome of infection was dose dependent with animals given a higher dose developing severe disease and more pronounced viral replication. Despite virus being shed by the low-dose infection group, BVD was not transmitted to sentinel calves. Administration of dexamethasone (DMS) resulted in more severe clinical signs, prolonged viraemia and virus shedding. Using PCR techniques, viral RNA was detected in blood, several weeks after the limit of infectious virus recovery. Finally, a recently developed strand-specific RT-PCR detected negative strand viral RNA, indicative of actively replicating virus, in blood samples from convalescent animals, as late as 85 days post inoculation. This detection of long term replicating virus may indicate the way in which the virus persists and/or is reintroduced within herds. PMID:25955849

  19. Acute Cocaine Induces Fast Activation of D1 Receptor and Progressive Deactivation of D2 Receptor Strial Neurons: In Vivo Optical Microprobe [Ca(superscript)2+]subscript)i Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Du, C.; Luo, Z.; Volkow, N.D.; Heintz, N.; Pan, Y.; Du, C.

    2011-09-14

    Cocaine induces fast dopamine increases in brain striatal regions, which are recognized to underlie its rewarding effects. Both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are involved in cocaine's reward but the dynamic downstream consequences of cocaine effects in striatum are not fully understood. Here we used transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of either the D1 receptor (D1R) or the D2 receptor (D2R) gene and microprobe optical imaging to assess the dynamic changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} ) responses (used as marker of neuronal activation) to acute cocaine in vivo separately for D1R- versus D2R-expressing neurons in striatum. Acute cocaine (8 mg/kg, i.p.) rapidly increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in D1R-expressing neurons (10.6 {+-} 3.2%) in striatum within 8.3 {+-} 2.3 min after cocaine administration after which the increases plateaued; these fast [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases were blocked by pretreatment with a D1R antagonist (SCH23390). In contrast, cocaine induced progressive decreases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in D2R-expressing neurons (10.4 {+-} 5.8%) continuously throughout the 30 min that followed cocaine administration; these slower [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} decreases were blocked by pretreatment with a D2R antagonist (raclopride). Since activation of striatal D1R-expressing neurons (direct-pathway) enhances cocaine reward, whereas activation of D2R expressing neurons suppresses it (indirect-pathway) (Lobo et al., 2010), this suggests that cocaine's rewarding effects entail both its fast stimulation ofD1R (resulting in abrupt activation of direct-pathway neurons) and a slower stimulation of D2R (resulting in longer-lasting deactivation of indirect-pathway neurons). We also provide direct in vivo evidence of D2R and D1R interactions in the striatal responses to acute cocaine administration.

  20. Is gastric sham feeding really sham feeding?

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-03-01

    Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits the digestion of sucrose, to the 32% sucrose solution blocked the blood glucose rise, as did closing the pylorus with an inflatable pyloric cuff. Neither the drug nor the cuff, however, reduced the amount of sucrose solution consumed. These findings indicate that gastric sham feeding does not necessarily prevent the digestion and absorption of food, although absorption is not essential for the appearance of a vigorous sham-feeding response. Nevertheless the possibility that neural or hormonal feedback from the stomach contributes to the sham-feeding response cannot be excluded, and until this issue is resolved the results of gastric sham-feeding studies should be interpreted with caution.

  1. Meta-Analysis of Early Nutrition: The Benefits of Enteral Feeding Compared to a Nil Per Os Diet Not Only in Severe, but Also in Mild and Moderate Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Márta, Katalin; Farkas, Nelli; Szabó, Imre; Illés, Anita; Vincze, Áron; Pár, Gabriella; Sarlós, Patrícia; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Mosztbacher, Dóra; Párniczky, Andrea; Szemes, Kata; Pécsi, Dániel; Hegyi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    The recently published guidelines for acute pancreatitis (AP) suggest that enteral nutrition (EN) should be the primary therapy in patients suffering from severe acute pancreatitis (SAP); however, none of the guidelines have recommendations on mild and moderate AP (MAP). A meta-analysis was performed using the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P). The following PICO (problem, intervention, comparison, outcome) was applied: P: nutrition in AP; I: enteral nutrition (EN); C: nil per os diet (NPO); and O: outcome. There were 717 articles found in Embase, 831 in PubMed, and 10 in the Cochrane database. Altogether, seven SAP and six MAP articles were suitable for analyses. In SAP, forest plots were used to illustrate three primary endpoints (mortality, multiorgan failure, and intervention). In MAP, 14 additional secondary endpoints were analyzed (such as CRP (C-reactive protein), WCC (white cell count), complications, etc.). After pooling the data, the Mann–Whitney U test was used to detect significant differences. Funnel plots were created for testing heterogeneity. All of the primary endpoints investigated showed that EN is beneficial vs. NPO in SAP. In MAP, all of the six articles found merit in EN. Analyses of the primary endpoints did not show significant differences between the groups; however, analyzing the 17 endpoints together showed a significant difference in favor of EN vs. NPO. EN is beneficial compared to a nil per os diet not only in severe, but also in mild and moderate AP. PMID:27775609

  2. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    PubMed

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  3. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  4. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  5. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  6. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP.

  7. 17{alpha}-Estradiol arrests cell cycle progression at G{sub 2}/M and induces apoptotic cell death in human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Do Youn; Park, Hae Sun; Kim, Jun Seok; Kim, Jong Sik; Park, Wan; Song, Bang Ho; Kim, Hee-Sook; Taub, Dennis; Kim, Young Ho

    2008-09-15

    A pharmacological dose (2.5-10 {mu}M) of 17{alpha}-estradiol (17{alpha}-E{sub 2}) exerted a cytotoxic effect on human leukemias Jurkat T and U937 cells, which was not suppressed by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780. Along with cytotoxicity in Jurkat T cells, several apoptotic events including mitochondrial cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9, -3, and -8, PARP degradation, and DNA fragmentation were induced. The cytotoxicity of 17{alpha}-E{sub 2} was not blocked by the anti-Fas neutralizing antibody ZB-4. While undergoing apoptosis, there was a remarkable accumulation of G{sub 2}/M cells with the upregulatoin of cdc2 kinase activity, which was reflected in the Thr56 phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Dephosphorylation at Tyr15 and phosphorylation at Thr161 of cdc2, and significant increase in the cyclin B1 level were underlying factors for the cdc2 kinase activation. Whereas the 17{alpha}-E{sub 2}-induced apoptosis was completely abrogated by overexpression of Bcl-2 or by pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, the accumulation of G{sub 2}/M cells significantly increased. The caspase-8 inhibitor z-IETD-fmk failed to influence 17{alpha}-E{sub 2}-mediated caspase-9 activation, but it markedly reduced caspase-3 activation and PARP degradation with the suppression of apoptosis, indicating the contribution of caspase-8; not as an upstream event of the mitochondrial cytochrome c release, but to caspase-3 activation. In the presence of hydroxyurea, which blocked the cell cycle progression at the G{sub 1}/S boundary, 17{alpha}-E{sub 2} failed to induce the G{sub 2}/M arrest as well as apoptosis. These results demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of 17{alpha}-E{sub 2} toward Jurkat T cells is attributable to apoptosis mainly induced in G{sub 2}/M-arrested cells, in an ER-independent manner, via a mitochondria-dependent caspase pathway regulated by Bcl-2.

  8. IMMUNOTHERAPY IN ACUTE LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in immunotherapy of cancer may represent a successful example in translational research, in which progress in knowledge and technology in immunology has lead to new strategies of immunotherapy, and even past failure in many clinical trials have led to a better understanding of basic cancer immunobiology. This article reviews the latest concepts in antitumor immunology and its application in the treatment of cancer, with particular focus on acute leukemia. PMID:19100371

  9. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples’ relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  10. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    PubMed

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  11. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  12. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  13. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  14. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  15. Suthi feeding: an experience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Jain, P; Mandowara, S L

    1995-06-01

    In cases in which expressed breast milk is given or breast feeding cannot be done at all, a suitable alternative to breast feeding is still in question. Bottle feeding poses many hazards. Spoon and bowl have been proposed as a reasonable alternative since users can achieve better cleanliness. Yet it is impractical for staff in health facility nurseries to feed every newborn with the spoon and bowl method since it requires so much time. On average, they need to provide oral feeds to at least 10 babies a day. In India, maternal grandparents present the family of a newborn with the traditional Sindhi silver or stainless steel utensil to provide the infant drinking water. It is called Suthi. It holds either 10 or 20 cc, making it easier to quantify the amount of milk/feed. It has a long semicircular beak and curved rounded margins. Advantages of the Suthi over other alternative feeding methods include: it is a shallow container with a broad upper surface, allowing the user to clean it thoroughly and easily; its narrow beak can go directly into the mouth of the newborn, particularly premature infants and low birth weight infants, with relative ease, reducing the likelihood of spilling milk, and the Suthi feeding procedure is less messy and faster (7-10 vs. 15-20 minutes for spoon) than other procedures. The Suthi method allows nursery staff to spend less time per feed for 8-10 babies (minimum time needed, 1 vs. 3 hours). It can also be used at home. Its use will reduce the likelihood of aspiration since it cannot be used lying down. Since it is a traditional container, the community will accept Suthi. When breast feeding is not possible, the Suthi should be used. PMID:8613348

  16. Breast-feeding multiples.

    PubMed

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2002-06-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for singletons. Despite the advantages, multiples receive less breast-feeding than singletons. Common reasons for not breast-feeding multiples include the fear of not fulfilling the infants' needs and the difficulty of coping with the demands on the mother's time. In addition, many multiples are delivered prematurely and by Caesarean section. Maternal pain and discomfort together with anxiety over the infants' condition are not conducive to successful breast-feeding. During lactation, the mother needs to add calories to her daily diet. It has been recommended to add approximately 500-600 kcal/day for each infant. Thus, between eating, nursing and sleeping, life is very busy for the mother of multiples. However, there is evidence that, with appropriate nutrition, one mother can nourish more than one infant. Also, simultaneous breast-feeding can save much time. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast-feeding of multiples possible. However, when breast-feeding is not possible, health care workers need to carefully avoid judgmental approaches that may induce feelings of guilt.

  17. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length. PMID:2494372

  18. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  19. State-dependent modulation of feeding behavior by proopiomelanocortin-derived beta-endorphin.

    PubMed

    Low, Malcolm J; Hayward, Michael D; Appleyard, Suzanne M; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2003-06-01

    Feeding behavior can be divided into appetitive and consummatory phases, differing in neural substrates and effects of deprivation. Opioids play an important role in the appetitive aspects of feeding, but they also have acute stimulatory effects on food consumption. Because the opioid peptide beta-endorphin is co-synthesized and released with melanocortins from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neuronal terminals, we examined the physiological role of beta-endorphin in feeding and energy homeostasis using a strain of mutant mice with a selective deficiency of beta-endorphin. Male beta-endorphin-deficient mice unexpectedly became obese with ad libitum access to rodent chow. Total body weight increased by 15% with a 50-100% increase in the mass of white fat. The mice were hyperphagic with a normal metabolic rate. Despite the absence of endogenous beta-endorphin, the mutant mice did not differ from wild-type mice in their acute feeding responses to beta-endorphin or neuropeptide Y administered intracerebroventricularly or naloxone administered intraperitoneally. Additional mice were studied using an operant behavioral paradigm to examine their acquisition of food reinforcers under increasing work demands. Food-deprived, beta-endorphin-deficient male mice emitted the same number of lever presses under a progressive ratio schedule compared to wild-type mice. However, the mutant mice worked significantly less than did the wild-type mice for food reinforcers under nondeprived conditions. Controls for nonspecific effects on acquisition of conditioned learning, activity, satiety, and resistance to extinction revealed no genotype differences, supporting our interpretation that beta-endorphin selectively affects a motivational component of reward behavior under nondeprived conditions. Therefore, we propose that beta-endorphin may function in at least two primary modes to modulate feeding. In the appetitive phase, beta-endorphin release increases the incentive value of food as a

  20. State-dependent modulation of feeding behavior by proopiomelanocortin-derived beta-endorphin.

    PubMed

    Low, Malcolm J; Hayward, Michael D; Appleyard, Suzanne M; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2003-06-01

    Feeding behavior can be divided into appetitive and consummatory phases, differing in neural substrates and effects of deprivation. Opioids play an important role in the appetitive aspects of feeding, but they also have acute stimulatory effects on food consumption. Because the opioid peptide beta-endorphin is co-synthesized and released with melanocortins from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neuronal terminals, we examined the physiological role of beta-endorphin in feeding and energy homeostasis using a strain of mutant mice with a selective deficiency of beta-endorphin. Male beta-endorphin-deficient mice unexpectedly became obese with ad libitum access to rodent chow. Total body weight increased by 15% with a 50-100% increase in the mass of white fat. The mice were hyperphagic with a normal metabolic rate. Despite the absence of endogenous beta-endorphin, the mutant mice did not differ from wild-type mice in their acute feeding responses to beta-endorphin or neuropeptide Y administered intracerebroventricularly or naloxone administered intraperitoneally. Additional mice were studied using an operant behavioral paradigm to examine their acquisition of food reinforcers under increasing work demands. Food-deprived, beta-endorphin-deficient male mice emitted the same number of lever presses under a progressive ratio schedule compared to wild-type mice. However, the mutant mice worked significantly less than did the wild-type mice for food reinforcers under nondeprived conditions. Controls for nonspecific effects on acquisition of conditioned learning, activity, satiety, and resistance to extinction revealed no genotype differences, supporting our interpretation that beta-endorphin selectively affects a motivational component of reward behavior under nondeprived conditions. Therefore, we propose that beta-endorphin may function in at least two primary modes to modulate feeding. In the appetitive phase, beta-endorphin release increases the incentive value of food as a

  1. Inflammation in Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Habtezion, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Summary Immune cell contribution to the pathogenesis of acute and chronic pancreatitis is gaining more appreciation and further understanding in immune signaling presents potential therapeutic targets that can alter disease progression. PMID:26107390

  2. Ecological study of effect of breast feeding on infant mortality in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Ana P; de Onís, Mercedes; Lauer, Jeremy A; Villar, José

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of exclusive breast feeding and partial breast feeding on infant mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America. Design Attributable fraction analysis of national data on infant mortality and breast feeding. Setting Latin America and the Caribbean. Main outcome measures Mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections and nationally representative breastfeeding rates. Results 55% of infant deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America are preventable by exclusive breast feeding among infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy. Among infants aged 0-3 months, 66% of deaths from these causes are preventable by exclusive breast feeding; among infants aged 4-11 months, 32% of such deaths are preventable by partial breast feeding. 13.9% of infant deaths from all causes are preventable by these breastfeeding patterns. The annual number of preventable deaths is about 52 000 for the region. Conclusions Exclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy could substantially reduce infant mortality in Latin America. Interventions to promote breast feeding should target younger infants. What is already known on this topicInfant mortality is lower among breast fed than non-breast fed infantsThe reductions are greatest for deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infectionsWhat this study addsExclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding for the remainder of the first year would prevent about 52 000 infant deaths a year in Latin AmericaThis corresponds to 13.9% of infant deaths from all causesPromotion of breast feeding has an important role in increasing survival of infants PMID:11498485

  3. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  4. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  5. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  6. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  7. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  8. Feeding tube - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube is misplaced and not in the proper position, the baby may have problems with: An abnormally slow heart rate (bradycardia) Breathing Spitting up Rarely, the feeding tube can puncture the stomach.

  9. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  10. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  11. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  12. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  13. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  14. Acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Graves, Nancy S

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease syndrome, causing a combination of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. There are more than 350 million cases of acute gastroenteritis in the United States annually and 48 million of these cases are caused by foodborne bacteria. Traveler's diarrhea affects more than half of people traveling from developed countries to developing countries. In adult and pediatric patients, the prevalence of Clostridium difficile is increasing. Contact precautions, public health education, and prudent use of antibiotics are necessary goals in decreasing the prevalence of Clostridium difficle. Preventing dehydration or providing appropriate rehydration is the primary supportive treatment of acute gastroenteritis.

  15. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  16. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  17. Pancreatic necrosis in progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, A A; Joos, A

    1980-01-01

    Fatal pancreatic necrosis, secondary to extensive acute arteritic changes, is reported in a case of progressive systemic sclerosis. The patient presented first with hypertension and renal involvement, with active vascular lesions demonstrated by biopsy. The renal lesion at necropsy was inactive, showing the characteristic concentric fibrosis only, while the pancreatic vascular lesions were both chronic proliferative and acute in type. Images PMID:7436566

  18. [Enteral tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Haller, Alois

    2014-03-01

    Tube feeding is an integral part of medical therapies, and can be easily managed also in the outpatient setting. Tube feeding by the stomach or small intestine with nasogastral or nasojejunal tubes is common in clinical practice. Long-term nutrition is usually provided through a permanent tube, i. e. a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Modern portable nutrition pumps are used to cover the patient's nutritional needs. Enteral nutrition is always indicated if patients can not or should not eat or if nutritional requirements cannot be covered within 3 days after an intervention, e. g. after abdominal surgery. Industrially produced tube feedings with defined substrate concentrations are being used; different compositions of nutrients, such as glutamine fish oil etc., are used dependent on the the condition of the patient. Enteral nutrition may be associated with complications of the tube, e. g. dislocation, malposition or obstruction, as well as the feeding itself, e. g.hyperglycaemia, electrolyte disturbances, refeeding syndrome diarrhea or aspiration). However, the benefit of tube feeding usually exceeds the potential harm substantially.

  19. Complementary feeding practices in South Asia: analyses of recent national survey data by the South Asia Infant Feeding Research Network.

    PubMed

    Senarath, Upul; Dibley, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    South Asian region has the highest global burden of child undernutrition, with almost 41% of children stunted, 16% wasted and 33% underweight. Improved feeding of children less than 2 years of age is particularly important because they experience rapid growth and development, and are vulnerable to illnesses such as acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases. The present supplement aimed to describe complementary feeding practices in five South Asian countries - Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka - using the new and updated global complementary feeding indicators and to identify determinants of inappropriate complementary feeding practices. The South Asia Infant Feeding Research Network held a series of workshops to study and discuss the operational guidelines for the new complementary feeding indicators in consultation with regional and international experts. The latest Demographic and Health Surveys for Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and the National Family Health Survey of India were used as data sources. Four key indicators were calculated: introduction of solid, semisolid or soft foods in 6-8 months aged, minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet in 6-23-month-aged children. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of poor complementary feeding practices. The papers in this supplement present results of these analyses for each individual country and a comparison between countries. The results have important implications for policies, programmes and research on infant and young child feeding in the region, especially for targeting groups at high risk for suboptimal practices.

  20. [Acute pancreatitis: an overview of the management].

    PubMed

    Rebours, V

    2014-10-01

    Over the past decades, the incidence and the number of hospital admissions for acute pancreatitis have increased in the Western countries. The two most common etiological factors of acute pancreatitis are gallstones (including small gallstones or microlithiasis) and alcohol abuse. Acute pancreatitis is associated with a significant mortality (4-10%) and 25% in case of pancreatic necrosis, especially. Edematous pancreatitis is benign and oral feeding can be restarted once abdominal pain is decreasing and inflammatory markers are improving. Enteral tube feeding should be the primary therapy in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis who require nutritional support. Enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis can be administered via either the nasojejunal or nasogastric route. In case of necrosis, preventive antibiotics are not recommended. The single indication is infected necrosis confirmed by fine needle aspiration. The incidence trends of acute pancreatitis possibly reflect a change in the prevalence of main etiological factors (e.g. gallstones and alcohol consumption) and cofactors such as tobacco, obesity and genetic susceptibility. Priority is to search for associated causes, especially in cases with atypical symptoms. In case of first acute pancreatitis in patients older than 50 years, the presence of a tumor (benign or malignant) has to be specifically ruled out, using CT-scan, MRI and endoscopic ultrasound.

  1. A C-terminal mutant of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα-Cm) downregulates Csf1r, a potent accelerator in the progression of acute myeloid leukemia with C/EBPα-Cm.

    PubMed

    Togami, Katsuhiro; Kitaura, Jiro; Uchida, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Daichi; Nishimura, Koutarou; Kawabata, Kimihito C; Nagase, Reina; Horikawa, Sayuri; Izawa, Kumi; Fukuyama, Tomofusa; Nakahara, Fumio; Oki, Toshihiko; Harada, Yuka; Harada, Hironori; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    Two types of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) mutants are found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients: N-terminal frame-shift mutants (C/EBPα-N(m)) generating p30 as a dominant form and C-terminal basic leucine zipper domain mutants (C/EBPα-C(m)). We have previously shown that C/EBPα-K304_R323dup belonging to C/EBPα-C(m), but not C/EBPα-T60fsX159 belonging to C/EBPα-N(m), alone induced AML in mouse bone marrow transplantation (BMT) models. Here we show that various C/EBPα-C(m) mutations have a similar, but not identical, potential in myeloid leukemogenesis. Notably, like C/EBPα-K304_R323dup, any type of C/EBPα-C(m) tested (C/EBPα-S299_K304dup, K313dup, or N321D) by itself induced AML, albeit with different latencies after BMT; C/EBPα-N321D induced AML with the shortest latency. By analyzing the gene expression profiles of C/EBPα-N321D- and mock-transduced c-kit(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-) cells, we identified Csf1r as a gene downregulated by C/EBPα-N321D. In addition, leukemic cells expressing C/EBPα-C(m) exhibited low levels of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor in mice. On the other hand, transduction with C/EBPα-N(m) did not influence Csf1r expression in c-kit(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-) cells, implying a unique role for C/EBPα-C(m) in downregulating Csf1r. Importantly, Csf1r overexpression collaborated with C/EBPα-N321D to induce fulminant AML with leukocytosis in mouse BMT models to a greater extent than did C/EBPα-N321D alone. Collectively, these results suggest that C/EBPα-C(m)-mediated downregulation of Csf1r has a negative, rather than a positive, impact on the progression of AML involving C/EBPα-C(m), which might possibly be accelerated by additional genetic and/or epigenetic alterations inducing Csf1r upregulation.

  2. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  3. High efficiency multifrequency feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajioka, J. S.; Tsuda, G. I.; Leeper, W. A. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Antenna systems and particularly compact and simple antenna feeds which can transmit and receive simultaneously in at least three frequency bands, each with high efficiency and polarization diversity are described. The feed system is applicable for frequency bands having nominal frequency bands with the ratio 1:4:6. By way of example, satellite communications telemetry bands operate in frequency bands 0.8 - 1.0 GHz, 3.7 - 4.2 GHz and 5.9 - 6.4 GHz. In addition, the antenna system of the invention has monopulse capability for reception with circular or diverse polarization at frequency band 1.

  4. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  5. Histopathology and gene expression changes in rat liver during feeding of fumonisin B1, a carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, E R; de la Motte Hall, P; Omori, N; Omori, M; Shephard, E G; Gelderblom, W C; Cruse, J P; Barnard, R A; Marasas, W F; Kirsch, R E; Thorgeirsson, S S

    1999-05-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the fungus Fusarium moniliforme in corn. Feeding of FB1 to rats causes acute liver injury, chronic liver injury progressing to cirrhosis, and sometimes terminates in hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. This study describes the histolopathology and changes in gene expression in the rat liver during short-term feeding of FB1. Male Fischer rats were fed either FB1 250 mg/kg or control diet, and were killed weekly for 5 weeks. FB1 caused a predominantly zone 3 'toxic' liver injury, with hepatocyte death due to necrosis and apoptosis. Hepatocyte injury and death were mirrored by hepatic stellate cell proliferation and marked fibrosis, with progressive disturbance of architecture and formation of regenerative nodules. Despite ongoing hepatocyte mitotic activity, oval cell proliferation was noted from week 2, glutathione S-transferase pi-positive hepatic foci and nodules developed and, at later time points, oval cells were noted inside some of the 'atypical' nodules. Northern blot (mRNA) analysis of liver specimens from weeks 3 to 5 showed a progressive increase in gene expression for alpha-fetoprotein, hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and especially TGF-beta1 and c-myc. Immunostaining with LC(1-30) antibody demonstrated a progressive increase in expression of mature TGF-beta1 protein by hepatocytes over the 5 week feeding period. The overexpression of TGF-beta1 may be causally related to the prominent apoptosis and fibrosis seen with FB1-induced liver injury. Increased expression of c-myc may be involved in the cancer promoting effects of FB1.

  6. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  7. Nutritional management in acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    McClave, S A; Spain, D A; Snider, H L

    1998-06-01

    Patients with severe pancreatitis, characterized by multiple organ failure and pancreatic necrosis on CT scan (identified by an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of > or = 10 with > or = 3 Ranson criteria), most likely require aggressive nutritional support. Use of the enteral route of feeding may help contain the hypermetabolic stress response, reduce morphologic change and atrophy of the gut, and theoretically decrease late complications of nosocomial infection and organ failure. Evidence that decreasing degrees of stimulation of the pancreas occur as the site of feeding descends in the gastrointestinal tract and evidence from perspective, randomized trials suggest that jejunal feeding appears at least as safe and well tolerated as total parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis.

  8. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  9. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  10. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  11. ASDC RSS Feeds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-08

    ... having to visit each one of them to see what's new. When you sign up, you receive breaking news on your computer as soon as it is released. How can I sign up? Select the link(s) above to view our "raw" RSS feed. In ...

  12. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... Your child's gastrostomy tube (G-tube) is a special tube in your child's stomach that will help deliver food and medicines until your ...

  13. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  14. Endoscopic Treatment of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis and Smoldering Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Das, Rohit; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2015-10-01

    Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) is a challenging condition that can lead to chronic pancreatitis and long-term morbidity. Etiology-based treatment can potentially have an impact on the natural history of RAP and its progression to chronic pancreatitis. In cases of divisum-associated RAP and idiopathic RAP, several studies have been performed to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic therapy in alleviation of symptoms and frequency of AP events. This review discusses the literature available on these topic as well as touching on the role of endoscopic therapy in smoldering acute pancreatitis.

  15. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lodewijkx, Piet J; Besselink, Marc G; Witteman, Ben J; Schepers, Nicolien J; Gooszen, Hein G; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J

    2016-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis poses unique nutritional challenges. The optimal nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis has been a subject of debate for decades. This review provides a critical review of the available literature. According to current literature, enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition, although several limitations should be taken into account. The optimal route of enteral nutrition remains unclear, but normal or nasogastric tube feeding seems safe when tolerated. In patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis an on-demand feeding strategy is advised and when patients do not tolerate an oral diet after 72 hours, enteral nutrition can be started. The use of supplements, both parenteral as enteral, are not recommended. Optimal nutritional support in severe cases often requires a tailor-made approach with day-to-day evaluation of its effectiveness. PMID:26823272

  16. Breast feeding: religious influences.

    PubMed

    Levin, S

    1979-01-01

    In Orthodox Jewish communities, mothers are expected to breast-feed their infants and this expectation is to some extent based on religious beliefs. The degree to which this expectation promotes breast-feeding success was assessed by comparing a group of 50 Orthodox Jewish mothers with a group of 50 secular Jewish mothers in regard to infant feeding practices. All of the women lived in the Yeoville suburb of Jahannesburg, South Africa. An effort was made to interview all Orthodox mothers with at least 1 child under the age of 5 living in the area and it was assumed that the 50 mothers in the study constituted all or most of that population. A group of 50 secular mothers, comparable in age, education, and general living conditions, was also interviewed. The 50 Orthodox mothers had a total of 155 children and the secular mothers had a total of 119 children. Despite the quasi-religious motivation of the Orthodox mothers to breast-feed, there were few differences in the infant feeding practices of the 2 groups. At the age of 1 month the ratio of breast-fed to bottle-fed infants was 2.5:1 for the infants of Orthodox mothers and 2.3:1 for the infants of secular mothers. At age 6 months the ratio was 1:3 for both groups. At age 9 months the ratio was 1:6.4 for Orthodox mothers and 1:6 for secular mothers. The children of Orthodox mothers were breast-fed for an average of 5 months while the children of mothers of secular children were breast-fed for 4-1/2 months.

  17. Hypothalamic POMC neurons promote cannabinoid-induced feeding.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Varela, Luis; Kim, Jae Geun; Kim, Jung Dae; Hernández-Nuño, Francisco; Simonds, Stephanie E; Castorena, Carlos M; Vianna, Claudia R; Elmquist, Joel K; Morozov, Yury M; Rakic, Pasko; Bechmann, Ingo; Cowley, Michael A; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Diano, Sabrina; Horvath, Tamas L

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons promote satiety. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is critical for the central regulation of food intake. Here we test whether CB1R-controlled feeding in sated mice is paralleled by decreased activity of POMC neurons. We show that chemical promotion of CB1R activity increases feeding, and notably, CB1R activation also promotes neuronal activity of POMC cells. This paradoxical increase in POMC activity was crucial for CB1R-induced feeding, because designer-receptors-exclusively-activated-by-designer-drugs (DREADD)-mediated inhibition of POMC neurons diminishes, whereas DREADD-mediated activation of POMC neurons enhances CB1R-driven feeding. The Pomc gene encodes both the anorexigenic peptide α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and the opioid peptide β-endorphin. CB1R activation selectively increases β-endorphin but not α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone release in the hypothalamus, and systemic or hypothalamic administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks acute CB1R-induced feeding. These processes involve mitochondrial adaptations that, when blocked, abolish CB1R-induced cellular responses and feeding. Together, these results uncover a previously unsuspected role of POMC neurons in the promotion of feeding by cannabinoids. PMID:25707796

  18. Hypothalamic POMC neurons promote cannabinoid-induced feeding

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Marco; Varela, Luis; Kim, Jae Geun; Kim, Jung Dae; Hernandez, Francisco; Simonds, Stephanie E; Castorena, Carlos M; Vianna, Claudia R; Elmquist, Joel K; Morozov, Yury M; Rakic, Pasko; Bechmann, Ingo; Cowley, Michael A; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Diano, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons promote satiety. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is critical for central regulation of food intake. We interrogated whether CB1R-controlled feeding is paralleled by decreased activity of POMC neurons. Chemical promotion of CB1R activity increased feeding, and strikingly, CB1R activation also promoted neuronal activity of POMC cells. This paradoxical increase in POMC activity was crucial for CB1R-induced feeding, because Designer-Receptors-Exclusively-Activated-by-Designer-Drugs (DREADD)-mediated inhibition of POMC neurons diminished, while DREADD-mediated activation of POMC neurons enhanced CB1R-driven feeding. The Pomc gene encodes both the anorexigenic peptide, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and the peptide, β-endorphin. CB1R activation selectively increased β-endorphin but not α-MSH release in the hypothalamus, and, systemic or hypothalamic administration of the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, blocked acute CB1R-induced feeding. These processes involved mitochondrial adaptations, which, when blocked, abolished CB1R-induced cellular responses and feeding. Together, these results unmasked a previously unsuspected role of POMC neurons in promotion of feeding by cannabinoids. PMID:25707796

  19. Acute liver failure in children.

    PubMed

    Devictor, Denis; Tissieres, Pierre; Afanetti, Mickael; Debray, Dominique

    2011-06-01

    The management of children with acute liver failure mandates a multidisciplinary approach and intense monitoring. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in developing specific and supportive medical measures, but clinical studies have mainly concerned adult patients. There are no specific medical therapies, except for a few metabolic diseases presenting with acute liver failure. Liver transplantation still remains the only definitive therapy in most instances. Recent clinical studies suggest that hepatocyte transplantation may be useful for bridging patients to liver transplantation, for providing metabolic support during liver failure and for replacing liver transplantation in certain metabolic liver diseases.

  20. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-12-15

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  1. Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Anna; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global public health concern associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Other than dialysis, no therapeutic interventions reliably improve survival, limit injury, or speed recovery. Despite recognized shortcomings of in vivo animal models, the underlying pathophysiology of AKI and its consequence, chronic kidney disease (CKD), is rich with biological targets. We review recent findings relating to the renal vasculature and cellular stress responses, primarily the intersection of the unfolded protein response, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy, and the innate immune response. Maladaptive repair mechanisms that persist following the acute phase promote inflammation and fibrosis in the chronic phase. Here macrophages, growth-arrested tubular epithelial cells, the endothelium, and surrounding pericytes are key players in the progression to chronic disease. Better understanding of these complex interacting pathophysiological mechanisms, their relative importance in humans, and the utility of biomarkers will lead to therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat AKI or impede progression to CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

  2. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  3. Complementary Feeding: Critical Considerations to Optimize Growth, Nutrition, and Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Young, Bridget E.; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on complementary feeding (CF) in westernized settings where primary health concerns are risk of obesity and micronutrient inadequacy. The current evidence is reviewed for: (1) when CF should be introduced, (2) what foods (nutrients and food types) should be prioritized and avoided, and (3) how the infant should be fed. Special attention is paid to the underlying physiological differences between breast- and formula-fed infants that often result in distinctly different nutritional and health risks. This difference is particularly acute in the case of micronutrient inadequacy, specifically iron and zinc, but is also relevant to optimal energy and macronutrient intakes. Emphasis is placed on the complex interplay among infants’ early dietary exposures; relatively high energy and nutrient requirements; rapid physical, social and emotional development; and the feeding environment—all of which interact to impact health outcomes. This complexity needs to be considered at both individual and population levels and in both clinical and research settings. PMID:25105082

  4. Feeding gastrostomy. Assistant or assassin?

    PubMed

    Burtch, G D; Shatney, C H

    1985-04-01

    Following several deaths from pulmonary aspiration in severely ill or chronically debilitated patients receiving nasogastric tube feedings, a study was undertaken to determine the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis in patients with feeding gastrostomies. During a 15-month interval, 22 feeding gastrostomies and nine feeding jejunostomies were performed. In the former group, eight patients experienced aspiration pneumonitis, with two deaths. Six patients with Stamm gastrostomies and two patients with permanent mucosal-lined gastrostomies experienced pulmonary aspiration. In contrast, aspiration pneumonia did not occur in our small series of patients with feeding jejunostomies. The high incidence of pulmonary aspiration in patients with feeding gastrostomies strongly suggests that, for chronic enteral nutrition in patients who are unable to protect their airway, a feeding jejunostomy is preferable to a feeding gastrostomy. PMID:3920939

  5. Hydrodynamics of Choanoflagellate Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Anders; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiorboe, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Choanoflagellate filter feeding is a poorly understood process. Studies indicate that the pressure differences created by the beating of the flagellum are insufficient to produce an adequate water flow through the collar filter, the mechanism believed to ultimately transport food particles to the cell. The collar is composed of numerous microvilli arranged as a palisade, and the low porosity of the filter provides high resistance to the water flow. Additionally, ultrastructural studies often show signs of mucus-like substances in and around the collar, potentially further hampering water flow. We present high-speed video of live material showing the particle retention and the beating of the flagellum in the choanoflagellate species Diaphanoeca grandis. We use the observations as input to model the low Reynolds number fluid dynamics of the fluid force produced by the flagellum and the resulting feeding flow.

  6. Composite antenna feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakstys, V. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A composite antenna feed subsystem concentrated in a small area at the prime focus of the parabola of a satellite parabolic reflector accomodates a plurality of frequency bands. The arrays comprising the subsystem are mounted on the top cover of a communication module. A multimode horn is arranged at the center of the subsystem axis which functions at X- And C-band frequencies, and a cross array consisting of individual elements form the S-band feed, with one arm of the S-band array containing an element mutually shared with the L-band array. Provision is also made for UHF frequencies, and a dipole arrangement for VHF frequencies is arranged around the S-band arms.

  7. Corrugated waveguide monopulse feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, R. D.; Clarricoats, P. J. B.

    1980-04-01

    The excitation coefficients of modes in a circular corrugated waveguide that arise when dominant modes are incident from a cluster of four square waveguides are calculated. Monopulse-like radiation patterns arise when modes in the input guides are appropriately phased. Factors influencing the crosspolar performance of the feed are discussed, and the dependence of the excitation coefficients on waveguide and junction parameters is predicted.

  8. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    PubMed

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  9. Overview of FEED, the Feeding Experiments End-user Database

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Christine E.; Vinyard, Christopher J.; Williams, Susan H.; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z.

    2011-01-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy. PMID:21700574

  10. Adaptive feed-forward loop connection based on error signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Koichi

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate effect of changing the connection of feed-forward loop based on error signal. Our motivation of this work is solution to progress of human skill. For the skill model, we study a human simple action such as arm motion. Many models that describe the human arm dynamics have been proposed in recent year. While one type does not need an inverse model of human dynamics, the system based on the model does not include feed-forward loop. On the other hand, another type model has a feed-forward loop and feedback loop systems. This type assumes feed-forward element includes an internal model by repeating action or training and this loop progress our skill. Then we usually have to exercise to get a good performance. This says that we design the internal motion model by training and we move on prediction for motion. Under the assumption, Kawato model is well known. The model proposed that learning of feed-forward element is promoted in brain so that the error of feedback loop decreases. Furthermore, we assume the connections in feedback loop and feed-forward loop are changed. We show numerical simulations and consider that the position error given by our vision changes the skill element and we confirm that the position error is the one of the estimate function for the improvement in our skill.

  11. Breast-feeding: A commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Braegger, Christian; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    This medical position article by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition summarises the current status of breast-feeding practice, the present knowledge on the composition of human milk, advisable duration of exclusive and partial breast-feeding, growth of the breast-fed infant, health benefits associated with breast-feeding, nutritional supplementation for breast-fed infants, and contraindications to breast-feeding. This article emphasises the important role of paediatricians in the implementation of health policies devised to promote breast-feeding.The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recognises breast-feeding as the natural and advisable way of supporting the healthy growth and development of young children. This article delineates the health benefits of breast-feeding, reduced risk of infectious diarrhoea and acute otitis media being the best documented. Exclusive breast-feeding for around 6 months is a desirable goal, but partial breast-feeding as well as breast-feeding for shorter periods of time are also valuable. Continuation of breast-feeding after the introduction of complementary feeding is encouraged as long as mutually desired by mother and child.The role of health care workers, including paediatricians, is to protect, promote, and support breast-feeding. Health care workers should be trained in breast-feeding issues and counselling, and they should encourage practices that do not undermine breast-feeding. Societal standards and legal regulations that facilitate breast-feeding should be promoted, such as providing maternity leave for at least 6 months and protecting working mothers. PMID:19502997

  12. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal) nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the endocrine arm of the body's response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and/or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC) regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors. PMID:23785312

  13. Acute interstitial pneumonia and acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Swigris, Jeffrey J; Brown, Kevin K

    2006-12-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AEIPF) are similar respiratory disorders characterized by the rapid development of progressive dyspnea and cough. Both frequently lead to respiratory failure and death. Pathologically, each is characterized by the presence of a diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) pattern; in AIP, DAD is the sole pattern, whereas in AEIPF DAD is superimposed upon a background usual interstitial pneumonia. They differ in that patients with AEIPF have preexisting idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, whereas patients with AIP have no predisposing disorders to account for their disease. Because both presentations overlap with multiple other causes of acute lung injury, a comprehensive evaluation is necessary to rule out disorders such as overwhelming infection or congestive heart failure. Although a confident diagnosis can be achieved without it, a surgical lung biopsy is necessary to provide a definitive diagnosis. Despite minimal evidence, glucocorticoids are frequently begun once microbiological evaluation confirms the absence of infection. Despite therapy, the case fatality rate ranges up to 70% for both, with most patients dying in the first 2 weeks. Survivors of the acute event can recover to their previous baseline; however, most AIP survivors will stabilize with some functional impairment, whereas in those with AEIPF, progressive fibrosis with functional deterioration is the rule.

  14. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  15. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance. PMID:21214019

  16. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  17. [Acute diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Burgmann, Konstantin; Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Diarrhea, defined as three or more loose or watery stools per day, represents a frequent problem in outpatients as well as inpatients. As most of the patients with acute diarrhea show a self-limiting disease course, the main challenge for the physician is to discriminate patients for whom symptomatic therapy is sufficient from those with severe disease course and threatening complications. This review aims to provide a practical guidance for such decisions.

  18. Liver transplantation in acute-on-chronic liver failure: lessons learnt from acute liver failure setting.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mettu Srinivas; Rajalingam, Rajesh; Rela, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a clinical entity with high risk of mortality. These patients can have severe liver dysfunction complicated with multiple organ failure. Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for these patients. Literature regarding management of acute liver failure with special emphasis on liver transplantation was reviewed. Lessons learnt from the management of patients with acute liver failure which could be extrapolated to the management of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure are discussed. Significant improvement in outcomes of acute liver failure has been reported across the world. Several aspects in transplantation for acute liver failure were found to be relevant to the management of acute-on-chronic liver failure. These include defining criteria to identify patients needing early liver transplantation, prioritizing patients with acute liver failure on the waiting list, defining when to abandon transplantation in acute liver failure, emphasis on graft quality and the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to manage multiple organ dysfunction. Useful lessons can be learnt from the progress made in the management of acute liver failure and these can be extrapolated to the management of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. PMID:25788191

  19. Analysis of self-feeding in children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Kristi M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Roane, Henry S; Volkert, Valerie M; Stewart, Victoria; Kadey, Heather J; Groff, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated a method for increasing self-feeding with 3 children with a history of food refusal. The children never (2 children) or rarely (1 child) self-fed bites of food when the choice was between self-feeding and escape from eating. When the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed an identical bite of food, self-feeding was low (2 children) or variable (1 child). Levels of self-feeding increased for 2 children when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of the same food. For the 3rd child, self-feeding increased when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of a less preferred food. The results showed that altering the contingencies associated with being fed increased the probability of self-feeding, but the specific manipulations that produced self-feeding were unique to each child. PMID:25311615

  20. Ontogenetic differences in the feeding biomechanics of oviparous and viviparous caecilians (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Caecilians have a unique dual jaw-closing system in that jaw closure is driven by the ancestral jaw-closing muscles (mm. levatores mandibulae) plus a secondarily recruited hyobranchial muscle (m. interhyoideus posterior). There is a variety of feeding habits (suction feeding, skin feeding, intrauterine scraping, and biting) during ontogeny that relate to reproductive modes in different caecilian species. This study examines the cranial biomechanics of caecilians in the suction-feeding larva of Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, in the embryo and juvenile of the skin-feeding Boulengerula taitana, and in a newborn of the intrauterine feeder Typhlonectes natans. A lever arm model was applied to calculate effective mechanical advantages of jaw-closing muscles over gape angles and to predict total bite force in developing caecilians. In I. cf. kohtaoensis, Notable differences were found in the larval jaw-closing system compared to that of the adult. The suction-feeding larva of I. cf. kohtaoensis has comparatively large mm. levatores mandibulae that insert with an acute muscle fiber angle to the lower jaw and a m. interhyoideus posterior that has its optimal leverage at small gape angles. Conversely, the skin-feeding juvenile of B. taitana and the neonate T. natans are very similar in the feeding parameters considered herein compared to adult caecilians. Some ontogenetic variation in the feeding system of B. taitana before the onset of feeding was present. This study contributes to our understanding of the functional demands that feeding habits put on the development of cranial structures.

  1. Ontogenetic differences in the feeding biomechanics of oviparous and viviparous caecilians (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Caecilians have a unique dual jaw-closing system in that jaw closure is driven by the ancestral jaw-closing muscles (mm. levatores mandibulae) plus a secondarily recruited hyobranchial muscle (m. interhyoideus posterior). There is a variety of feeding habits (suction feeding, skin feeding, intrauterine scraping, and biting) during ontogeny that relate to reproductive modes in different caecilian species. This study examines the cranial biomechanics of caecilians in the suction-feeding larva of Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, in the embryo and juvenile of the skin-feeding Boulengerula taitana, and in a newborn of the intrauterine feeder Typhlonectes natans. A lever arm model was applied to calculate effective mechanical advantages of jaw-closing muscles over gape angles and to predict total bite force in developing caecilians. In I. cf. kohtaoensis, Notable differences were found in the larval jaw-closing system compared to that of the adult. The suction-feeding larva of I. cf. kohtaoensis has comparatively large mm. levatores mandibulae that insert with an acute muscle fiber angle to the lower jaw and a m. interhyoideus posterior that has its optimal leverage at small gape angles. Conversely, the skin-feeding juvenile of B. taitana and the neonate T. natans are very similar in the feeding parameters considered herein compared to adult caecilians. Some ontogenetic variation in the feeding system of B. taitana before the onset of feeding was present. This study contributes to our understanding of the functional demands that feeding habits put on the development of cranial structures. PMID:20952171

  2. Feeding Children with Disabilities: An Overview of Strategies and Specialized Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    During the first years of life, children progress through a number of developmental stages related to feeding. By the age of five, a child typically has the skills, behaviors and habits that will be used throughout their lives. However, data indicates that 60 to 70% of children with disabilities have one or more feeding difficulties. Importantly,…

  3. Safety of the breast-feeding infant after maternal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Priti G; Bosak, Jodi; Berlin, Cheston

    2014-04-01

    There has been an increase in breast-feeding supported by the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the World Health Organization. An anesthesiologist may be presented with a well-motivated breast-feeding mother who wishes to breast-feed her infant in the perioperative period. Administration of anesthesia entails acute administration of drugs with potential for sedation and respiratory effects on the nursing infant. The short-term use of these drugs minimizes the possibility of these effects. The aim should be to minimize the use of narcotics and benzodiazepines, use shorter acting agents, use regional anesthesia where possible and avoid agents with active metabolites. Frequent clinical assessments of the nursing infant are important. Available literature does suggest that although the currently available anesthetic and analgesic drugs are transferred in the breast milk, the amounts transferred are almost always clinically insignificant and pose little or no risk to the nursing infant.

  4. Four GABAergic interneurons impose feeding restraint in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Allan-Hermann; Kvello, Pal; Mann, Kevin; Cheung, Samantha K.; Gordon, Michael D.; Wang, Liming; Scott, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Feeding is dynamically regulated by the palatability of the food source and the physiological needs of the animal. How consumption is controlled by external sensory cues and internal metabolic state remains under intense investigation. Here, we identify four GABAergic interneurons in the Drosophila brain that establish a central feeding threshold which is required to inhibit consumption. Inactivation of these cells results in indiscriminate and excessive intake of all compounds, independent of taste quality or nutritional state. Conversely, acute activation of these neurons suppresses consumption of water and nutrients. The output from these neurons is required to gate activity in motor neurons that control meal initiation and consumption. Thus, our study reveals a new layer of inhibitory control in feeding circuits that is required to suppress a latent state of unrestricted and non-selective consumption. PMID:24991960

  5. [Lineage switch - conversion of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to acute myeloid leukaemia in 4 years old girl].

    PubMed

    Szpecht, Dawid; Derwich, Katarzyna; Wachowiak, Jacek; Konatkowska, Benigna; Dworacki, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a 4-year-old girl with diagnosed proB acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with co-expression CD33 antigen, treated according to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Intercontinental - Berlin Frankfurt Münster 2002 (ALL-IC BFM 2002) protocol for standard risk group. Haematological remission was obtained on day 33 of induction treatment (on time). During induction and consolidation therapy there were no early serious adverse effects. The late isolated bone marrow relapse of acute myeloid leukaemia, type 7 was noted in our patient. We recognized this case as a lineage switch acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to acute myeloid leukaemia. In spite of Ida Flag regimen and following Acute Myeloid Leukaemia - Berlin Frankfurt Münster 2004 (AML-BFM 2004) protocol were administered, the clinical and haematological remission was not achieved and the patient died because of disease progression (circulatory and respiratory insufficiency).

  6. Feeding and circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Lissia; Kaeffer, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian genome encodes at least a dozen of genes directly involved in the regulation of the feedback loops constituting the circadian clock. The circadian system is built up on a multitude of oscillators organized according to a hierarchical model in which neurons of the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus may drive the central circadian clock and all the other somatic cells may possess the molecular components allowing tissues and organs to constitute peripheral clocks. Suprachiasmatic neurons are driving the central circadian clock which is reset by lighting cues captured and integrated by the melanopsin cells of the retina and define the daily rhythms of locomotor activity and associated physiological regulatory pathways like feeding and metabolism. This central clock entrains peripheral clocks which can be synchronized by non-photic environmental cues and uncoupled from the central one depending on the nature and the strength of the circadian signal. The human circadian clock and its functioning in central or peripheral tissues are currently being explored to increase the therapeutic efficacy of timed administration of drugs or radiation, and to offer better advice on lighting and meal timing useful for frequent travelers suffering from jet lag and for night workers' comfort. However, the molecular mechanism driving and coordinating the central and peripheral clocks through a wide range of synchronizers (lighting, feeding, physical or social activities) remains a mystery.

  7. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  8. Inflammation: a trigger for acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sager, Hendrik B; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and a major cause of death worldwide. One of atherosclerosis' most dreadful complications are acute coronary syndromes that comprise ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. We now understand that inflammation substantially contributes to the initiation, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will focus on the role of inflammatory leukocytes, which are the cellular protagonists of vascular inflammation, in triggering disease progression and, ultimately, the destabilization that causes acute coronary syndromes. PMID:27273431

  9. Beneficial uses program. Progress report ending December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Progress is reported in research on uses of irradiated sewage sludge, particularly as a cattle feed supplement and commercial fertilizer additive, on potential sites for irradiator demonstration plants, and on the inactivation of enteric bacteria by radiation treatment. (LCL)

  10. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  11. Multiple feed powder splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  12. Multiple feed powder splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  13. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  14. Misaligned feeding impairs memories.

    PubMed

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O'Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. PMID:26652002

  15. Feeding a future world.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of future prospects for feeding the world's growing population. The discussion focuses on obstacles such as limited agricultural land, degraded soil and water, and water shortages. The evidence suggests that sustainability is declining, especially in poor, food-deficit countries with growing populations. The world is segregated into the haves, the poor have-nots, and the rich have-nots. North America, Europe, and Australia have enough cropland to feed their populations. The poor have-nots are located mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, 7 countries each in the Middle East and Latin America, 6 in Oceania, and the rest in Central and South Asia. The poor have-nots amount to 3 billion out of 6 billion total population. The rich have-nots include countries such as Japan and Singapore, plus China, Indonesia, Peru, Chile, and Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. The rich have-nots must import food. The world grain harvest is no longer tripling. Per person yields have declined. Increasing food productivity must rely on existing lands. The size of family farms has declined. Almost 2 billion hectares of crop and grazing land is degraded. Yields from irrigated land that are 33% of world food supply have declined. In 1990, 28 countries with 335 million people faced chronic water shortages or scarcity. Water is being polluted. Fish stocks are being depleted. Genetic diversity is being lost. In 182 food deficit countries, population growth must be slowed, and agriculture must be sustainable. Food is neither produced nor consumed equitably. Malnutrition is caused by poverty. Food security cannot be achieved if land and water become increasingly degraded or lost.

  16. Lung xenotransplantation: recent progress and current status.

    PubMed

    Harris, Donald G; Quinn, Kevin J; Dahi, Siamak; Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Pierson, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Xenotransplantation has undergone important progress in controlling initial hyperacute rejection in many preclinical models, with some cell, tissue, and organ xenografts advancing toward clinical trials. However, acute injury, driven primarily by innate immune and inflammatory responses, continues to limit results in lung xenograft models. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of lung xenotransplantation--including the seemingly unique challenges posed by this organ-and summarize proven and emerging means of overcoming acute lung xenograft injury.

  17. Infant feeding. 5. Managing baby related feeding challenges.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Joyce

    2013-02-01

    'Infant feeding' is the 12th series of 'Midwifery basics' targeted at practising midwives. The aim of these articles is to inform and encourage readers to seek further information through a series of activities relating to the topic. In this fifth article Joyce Marshall considers a range of baby related issues that pose challenges for both mothers and midwives in relation to infant feeding.

  18. HIV and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    1992-07-01

    Participants at a 1992 WHO/UNICEF consultation meeting on HIV transmission and breast feeding weigh the risk of death from AIDS with the risk of death from other causes. Breast feeding reduces the risk of death from diarrhea, pneumonia, and other infections. Artificial or inappropriate feeding contributes the most to the more than 3 million annual childhood deaths from diarrhea. The rising prevalence of HIV infection among women worldwide results in more and more cases of HIV-infected newborns. About 33% of infants born to HIV-infected. Some HIV transmission occurs through breast feeding, but breast feeding does not transmit HIV to most infants HIV-infected mothers. Participants recommend that, in areas where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the leading causes of death and infant mortality is high, health workers should advise all pregnant women, regardless of their HIV status, to breast feed. The infant's risk of HIV infection via breast milk tends to be lower than its risk of death from other causes and from not being breast fed. HIV-infected women who do have access to alternative feeding should talk to their health care providers to learn how to feed their infants safely. In areas where the leading cause of death is not infectious disease and infant mortality is low, participants recommend that health workers advise HIV-infected pregnant women to use a safe feeding alternative, e.g., bottle feeding. Yet, the women and their providers should not be influenced by commercial pressures to choose an alternative feeding method. Health care services in these areas should provide voluntary and confidential HIV testing and counseling. Participants stress the need to prevent women from becoming HIV-infected by providing them information about AIDS and how to protect themselves, increasing their participation in decision-making in sexual relationships, and improving their status in society. PMID:1477885

  19. Acute sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Brent; Dion, Gregory R; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Sinusitis is a common patient complaint that carries with it a large economic burden. It is one of the most common reasons patients visit their primary care physician. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) can be distinguished from other forms of rhinosinusitis based on symptom duration of <4 weeks in a patient with purulent rhinorrhea associated with facial pain or pressure. Native upper aerodigestive tract bacteria are the most common etiologic agents. Treatment of ABRS is targeted primarily at symptom improvement. Amoxicillin can be used based on the clinical scenario and patient comorbidities. Computed tomographic scans are reserved for complicated presentations or when there is concern for intracranial extension or other complications. A systematic approach to ABRS will allow for improved patient quality of life and a decreased overall economic burden of this common entity.

  20. Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

    Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

  1. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  2. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  3. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  4. Rapidly Progressing Osteomyelitis of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ken; Okada, Shino; Takeuchi, Noritami; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Acute osteomyelitis exists as a refractory disease even now, which usually exhibits systemic symptoms such as fever or malaise and local redness or swelling. The present paper describes a case of acute osteomyelitis of the mandible that was rapidly progressing without typical symptoms. The patient had liver cirrhosis, which should be one of the systemic factors that affect immune surveillance and metabolism. Actinomycotic druses and filaments were detected from the sequestrum. These were considered to play a role in the rapid progression of osteomyelitis without typical symptoms. There has been no evidence of local recurrence 24 months after surgery. PMID:24349802

  5. A History of Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  6. Breast-feeding after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Serban; Pai, Akshta; Coscia, Lisa A; Davison, John M; Moritz, Michael J; Armenti, Vincent T

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation affords recipients the potential for a full life and, for some, parenthood. Female transplant recipients must continue to take immunosuppression during pregnancy and breast-feeding. This article reviews case and series reports regarding breast-feeding in those taking transplant medications. Avoidance of breast-feeding has been the customary advice because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive exposure on the infant. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that not all medication exposure translates to risk for the infant, that the exposure in utero is greater than via breast milk and that no lingering effects due to breast-feeding have been found to date in infants who were breast-fed while their mothers were taking prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and/or tacrolimus. Thus, except for those medications where clinical information is inadequate (mycophenolic acid products, sirolimus, everolimus, and belatacept), the recommendation for transplant recipients regarding breast-feeding has evolved into one that is cautiously optimistic.

  7. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  8. Feed Structure For Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A novel feed structure, for an antenna having a resonant electric field structure, comprising a patch element, an integrated circuit attached to the patch element, at least one inner conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the integrated circuit on a first end of the at least one inner conductor, wherein the at least one inner conductor extends through and is not electrically connected to the patch element, and wherein the at least one inner conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the at least one inner conductor, and an outer conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the patch element on a first end of the outer conductor, wherein the outer conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the outer conductor, and wherein the outer conductor concentrically surrounds the at least one inner conductor from the second end of the at least one inner conductor available for electrical connectivity to the first end of the outer conductor terminating at the patch element.

  9. Feeding At-Risk Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Mata B.

    1989-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists working with infants or toddlers with feeding problems should obtain a feeding history, conduct an assessment of feeding practices, set appropriate preliminary and long-range goals, and investigate treatment options and appropriate feeding techniques. Feeding techniques for premature, neurologically impaired, Down…

  10. [Analysis of mortality in acute diffuse peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Bondarev, V I; Tatarenko, L D; Golovnia, P F; Sviridov, N V

    1990-01-01

    The causes were studied and the analysis was performed of the lethality in 329 patients with acute diffuse peritonitis (ADP). The incidence of lethal outcome of ADP directly depended on the time of hospitalization, age of the patients, source of peritonitis, and as well on the technique of operative intervention. Progressive peritonitis caused death in 71 (92.2%) of 77 patients.

  11. Characterization of tapered slot antenna feeds and feed arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young-Sik; Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid

    1990-01-01

    A class of feed antennas and feed antenna arrays used in the focal plane of paraboloid reflectors and exhibiting higher than normal levels of cross-polarized radiation in the diagonal planes is addressed. A model which allows prediction of element gain and aperture efficiency of the feed/reflector system is presented. The predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. Tapered slot antenna (TSA) elements are used an example of an element of this type. It is shown that TSA arrays used in multibeam systems with small beam spacings are competitive in terms of aperture efficiency with other, more standard types of arrays incorporating waveguide type elements.

  12. How can we observe the underwater feeding behavior of endotherms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Yasuhiko

    Marine mammals and marine birds perform diving to forage underwater. Recent technological advances have led to rapid progress in our understanding of diving behavior, but additional research is required into feeding behavior to determine the timing of prey ingestion, prey mass, and prey type. To achieve a comprehensive understanding of the foraging and diving behavior of these endotherms, it is essential to integrate information on feeding behavior with other data. The challenges involved in developing an appropriate research method have been addressed, and several methods have been tested and used in the field, including the stomach temperature method, the esophagus method for marine birds, the stomach temperature telemeter method for seals, and the beak magnet sensor method. In the present study, I review these methods, suggest the necessity of their further development in field studies, and propose a new practical method that involves the measurement of jaw movements underwater as an indicator of the feeding behavior of seals.

  13. [Differential diagnosis of acute arthritis].

    PubMed

    Eviltis, Egidijus

    2003-01-01

    Acute arthritis can first present as a symptom of dangerous and rapidly progressing disease. It is quite easy to differentiate between arthritis and periarthritis. More problematical is correct early differential diagnosis of the acute arthritis. Determining whether one, several or many joints are affected can narrow the diagnostic possibilities. Arthrocentesis and synovial fluid testing provide much information and should be done at initial evaluation if possible. The presence or absence of fever, rash, family history of joint disease and exposure to infective organisms can further direct diagnostic studies and treatment. In general, to avoid masking clues, drug therapy should be delayed for mild symptoms until diagnosis is complete. This article is designed mostly for primary care physicians, residents and includes author's original data and review of recommended reading. PMID:12794379

  14. Managing acute enigmatic chest pain.

    PubMed

    Wielgosz, A T

    1996-09-01

    The author comments on the report by Dr. Akbar Panju and associates (see pages 541 to 547 of this issue) on patient outcomes associated with a discharge diagnosis of "chest pain not yet diagnosed." Acute chest pain without evidence of cardiac involvement presents a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, particularly in the present climate of cost containment. Esophageal disorders and psychiatric conditions appear to be the most prevalent causes of noncardiac chest pain. Although screening by means of electrocardiography and cardiac enzyme testing may rule out acute ischemia, and other tests may clearly point to a gastrointestinal cause, it is possible for cardiac and gastrointestinal problems to present simultaneously. Understanding and managing persistent chest pain even after a diagnosis has been made continues to challenge clinicians and researchers, and further progress in this area will depend on multidisciplinary collaboration.

  15. Managing acute enigmatic chest pain.

    PubMed Central

    Wielgosz, A T

    1996-01-01

    The author comments on the report by Dr. Akbar Panju and associates (see pages 541 to 547 of this issue) on patient outcomes associated with a discharge diagnosis of "chest pain not yet diagnosed." Acute chest pain without evidence of cardiac involvement presents a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, particularly in the present climate of cost containment. Esophageal disorders and psychiatric conditions appear to be the most prevalent causes of noncardiac chest pain. Although screening by means of electrocardiography and cardiac enzyme testing may rule out acute ischemia, and other tests may clearly point to a gastrointestinal cause, it is possible for cardiac and gastrointestinal problems to present simultaneously. Understanding and managing persistent chest pain even after a diagnosis has been made continues to challenge clinicians and researchers, and further progress in this area will depend on multidisciplinary collaboration. PMID:8804262

  16. Acute onset of postoperative syringohydromyelia

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Santosh Mohan; Balasubramaniam, Chidambaram; Subramaniam, K.

    2015-01-01

    Syringohydromyelia is a frequent finding in cases of tethered cord syndrome. The classical teaching is that the development and progression of a syrinx is a chronic process. We present a case report of an acute onset syringomyelia in an infant, who underwent an excision of a lumbosacral transitional lipoma and detethering of the cord. Immediately after recovery, the infant was found to have flaccid paraplegia. An emergency magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large acute onset syringomyelia for which he underwent an emergency midline myelotomy and release of fluid from the syrinx. Though the eventual recovery was good, this made us re-visit our understanding of the concept of syringohydromyelia. The case details and a plausible hypothesis for the rapid development of the syrinx are presented. PMID:26557165

  17. Infant feeding practices and obesity.

    PubMed

    Himes, J H

    1979-08-01

    Selected assumptions regarding associations between artificial feeding and infantile obesity are examined. Although some artificial baby foods (desserts, meats, egg yolks) have considerably greater caloric density than breast milk, a large class of baby foods and most milks and formulas are comparable to breast milk in caloric density. The intake of infant foods seems to be related more to caloric density than volume. Modern day artificial feeding in developed countries tends to produce larger weight gains than breast feeding, although no good data exist to evaluate the composition of these weight gains. Many more data from well planned studies are needed to fully elucidate possible mechanisms of infantile obesity. PMID:458075

  18. Feed analyses and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs for use in ration formulation. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance and analytical variability of the assays, and whether an analysis is suitable to be applied to a particular feedstuff. Commercial analyses presently available for carbohydrates, protein, and fats have improved nutritionally pertinent description of feed fractions. Factors affecting interpretation of feed analyses and the nutritional relevance and application of currently available analyses are discussed.

  19. HIV and infant feeding. Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be passed to the infant during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast feeding. Most infants born to HIV positive mothers do not become infected with HIV. The virus is found in breast milk; available research suggests 1 out of 7 breast fed infants of HIV positive mothers will be infected from breast milk. Mothers with recent or advanced HIV infections have more virus in their body fluids, including breast milk; therefore, a baby is more likely to be infected if the mother becomes infected during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast feeding, or if she is ill with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related illnesses. If a baby is already infected, breast feeding will help the infant stay healthier longer. Health workers should discuss the benefits of breast feeding with all pregnant women. Information about the spread of HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) should be given; safe sex (condom use or abstinence) is important during pregnancy and breast feeding. If a woman's status is unknown, she should be encouraged to breast feed. In most communities, counselling and testing are unavailable. Where these services are available, the risk of infection through breast feeding should never be used to put pressure on a woman to take a test. Counselling prepares her for the possibility of being positive and allows her to make an informed choice about breast feeding. In some situations (especially if she herself is ill), a woman who knows she is HIV positive should not breast feed. However, alternatives may be unavailable, and the benefits may outweigh the risks. Health workers should assist the woman in making an informed choice. Issues to be considered include: 1) access to clean water and ability to pay for fuel or electricity to sterilize feeding utensils; 2) support from family or friends; 3) access to animal milk or shops that carry formula milk; and 4) ability to pay for formula or animal milk. To feed an infant for 6 months

  20. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  1. The Potential for Engineering Enhanced Functional-Feed Soybeans for Sustainable Aquaculture Feed.

    PubMed

    Herman, Eliot M; Schmidt, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvested fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange of soybean meal for fishmeal in aquafeed has resulted in reduced growth rates due in part to soybean's anti-nutritional proteins. To produce soybeans for use in aquaculture feeds a new conventional line has been bred termed Triple Null by stacking null alleles for the feed-relevant proteins Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor, lectin, and P34 allergen. Triple Null is now being further enhanced as a platform to build additional transgene traits for vaccines, altered protein composition, and to produce high levels of β-carotene an intrinsic orange-colored aquafeed marker to distinguish the seeds from commodity beans and as the metabolic feedstock precursor of highly valued astaxanthin.

  2. The Potential for Engineering Enhanced Functional-Feed Soybeans for Sustainable Aquaculture Feed

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Eliot M.; Schmidt, Monica A.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvested fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange of soybean meal for fishmeal in aquafeed has resulted in reduced growth rates due in part to soybean’s anti-nutritional proteins. To produce soybeans for use in aquaculture feeds a new conventional line has been bred termed Triple Null by stacking null alleles for the feed-relevant proteins Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor, lectin, and P34 allergen. Triple Null is now being further enhanced as a platform to build additional transgene traits for vaccines, altered protein composition, and to produce high levels of β-carotene an intrinsic orange-colored aquafeed marker to distinguish the seeds from commodity beans and as the metabolic feedstock precursor of highly valued astaxanthin. PMID:27092158

  3. The Potential for Engineering Enhanced Functional-Feed Soybeans for Sustainable Aquaculture Feed.

    PubMed

    Herman, Eliot M; Schmidt, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvested fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange of soybean meal for fishmeal in aquafeed has resulted in reduced growth rates due in part to soybean's anti-nutritional proteins. To produce soybeans for use in aquaculture feeds a new conventional line has been bred termed Triple Null by stacking null alleles for the feed-relevant proteins Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor, lectin, and P34 allergen. Triple Null is now being further enhanced as a platform to build additional transgene traits for vaccines, altered protein composition, and to produce high levels of β-carotene an intrinsic orange-colored aquafeed marker to distinguish the seeds from commodity beans and as the metabolic feedstock precursor of highly valued astaxanthin. PMID:27092158

  4. Dying for milk: A neonate with severe hypernatremia associated with inadequate breast feeding

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate breastfeeding may result in malnutrition, hypernatremic dehydration and catastrophic outcomes. We describe a case of severe breast feeding associated hypernatremia which was complicated by acute seizures and severe hyperglycemia. The baby’s condition was initially confused with neonatal diabetes mellitus. PMID:27493437

  5. Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Veronica L.; Arteel, Gavin E.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation, and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, which also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic. PMID:22701432

  6. THE PANC 3 SCORE PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; MELLO, André Luiz Parizi; VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli

    2016-01-01

    Background : About 20% of cases of acute pancreatitis progress to a severe form, leading to high mortality rates. Several studies suggested methods to identify patients that will progress more severely. However, most studies present problems when used on daily practice. Objective : To assess the efficacy of the PANC 3 score to predict acute pancreatitis severity and its relation to clinical outcome. Methods : Acute pancreatitis patients were assessed as to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), etiology of pancreatitis, intensive care need, length of stay, length of stay in intensive care unit and mortality. The PANC 3 score was determined within the first 24 hours after diagnosis and compared to acute pancreatitis grade of the Revised Atlanta classification. Results : Out of 64 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, 58 met the inclusion criteria. The PANC 3 score was positive in five cases (8.6%), pancreatitis progressed to a severe form in 10 cases (17.2%) and five patients (8.6%) died. Patients with a positive score and severe pancreatitis required intensive care more often, and stayed for a longer period in intensive care units. The PANC 3 score showed sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 91.4%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90.6% in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. Conclusion : The PANC 3 score is useful to assess acute pancreatitis because it is easy and quick to use, has high specificity, high accuracy and high predictive value in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27120730

  7. THE FEEDING MECHANISM OF AVIAN MALARIAL PARASITES

    PubMed Central

    Aikawa, Masamichi; Hepler, Peter K.; Huff, Clay G.; Sprinz, Helmuth

    1966-01-01

    Electron microscope studies of the erythrocytic forms, including gametocytes and asexual schizonts, of the protozoa Plasmodium fallax, P. lophurae, and P. cathemerium, have revealed a "cytostome," a specialized organelle of the pellicular membrane which is active in the ingestion of host cell cytoplasm. In material fixed in glutaraldehyde and postfixed in OsO4, the cytostome appears in face view as a pore limited by two dense circular membranes and having an inside diameter of approximately 190 mµ. In cross-section, the cytostome is a cavity bounded on each side by two dense segments corresponding to the two dense circles observed in face view; its base consists of a single unit membrane. In the process of feeding, the cytostome cavity enlarges by expansion of its membrane, permitting a large quantity of red cell cytoplasm to come into contact with the cytostome wall. Subsequent digestion of erythrocyte cytoplasm occurs exclusively in food vacuoles which emanate from the cytostome invagination. As digestion progresses, the food vacuoles initially stain more densely and there is a marked build-up of hemozoin granules. In the final stage of digestion, a single membrane surrounds a cluster of residual pigment particles and very little of the original host cell cytoplasm remains. The cytostome in exoerythrocytic stages of P. fallax has been observed only in merozoites and does not seem to play the same role in the feeding mechanism. PMID:5914696

  8. THE ROLE OF SALIVA IN TICK FEEDING

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M.B; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Mans, Ben J.; Santos, Isabel M.; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2009-01-01

    When attempting to feed on their hosts, ticks face the problem of host hemostasis (the vertebrate mechanisms that prevent blood loss), inflammation (that can produce itching or pain and thus initiate defensive behavior on their hosts) and immunity (by way of both cellular and humoral responses). Against these barriers, ticks evolved a complex and sophisticated pharmacological armamentarium, consisting of bioactive lipids and proteins, to assist blood feeding. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered that hard ticks have hundreds of different proteins expressed in their salivary glands, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families (e.g., their primary structure is unique to ticks). This review will address the vertebrate mechanisms of these barriers as a guide to identify the possible targets of these large numbers of known salivary proteins with unknown function. We additionally provide a supplemental table that catalogues over 3,500 putative salivary proteins from various tick species, which might assist the scientific community in the process of functional identification of these unique proteins. This supplemental file is accessble from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/tick_review/Sup-Table-1.xls.gz. PMID:19273185

  9. LFCM vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, July-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R.A.; Allen, C.R.; Powell, J.A.; Bates, S.O.; Bray, L.A.; Budden, M.J.; Dierks, R.D.; Elliott, M.L.; Elmore, M.R.; Faletti, D.W.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Holton, L.K. Jr.; Kuhn, W.L.; Mellinger, G.B.; Nakaoka, R.K.; Peterson, M.E.; Piepel, G.F.; Powell, J.A.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Surma, J.E.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes the progress in developing, testing, applying and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the fourth quarter of FY 1987 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling and control.

  10. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  11. Modeling Treated LAW Feed Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    DANIEL, WE

    2004-07-08

    This task examines the potential of the treated waste feed blends to form sodium-aluminum silicate precipitates when evaporated using the zeolite database. To investigate the behavior of the blended pretreated waste feed, an OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI ESP) model of the treated low activity waste (LAW) evaporator was built. A range of waste feed compositions representative of Envelope A, B, and C were then fed into the OLI model to predict various physical and chemical properties of the evaporator concentrates. Additional runs with treated LAW evaporator were performed to compare chemical and physical property model predictions and experimental results for small-scale radioactive tests of the treated feed evaporation process.

  12. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  13. Social theory and infant feeding

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  14. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  15. Storage and feeding of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenike, A. W.; Carson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reliable feeding of coal from storage bins to process requires the knowledge of the behavior of coal during flow. The study of the flow of bulk solids was undertaken in the 1950's and led to the development of flow ability testing equipment and of the Mass Flow concept of design for reliable flow. The theory has since been expanded to two-phase, solids-gas system, and has found world wide application in the design of storage and feeding systems.

  16. Feeding the Monster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  17. The nutrient sensor OGT in PVN neurons regulates feeding

    PubMed Central

    Lagerlöf, Olof; Slocomb, Julia E.; Hong, Ingie; Aponte, Yeka; Blackshaw, Seth; Hart, Gerald W.; Huganir, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining energy homeostasis is crucial for the survival and health of organisms. The brain regulates feeding by responding to dietary factors and metabolic signals from peripheral organs. It is unclear how the brain interprets these signals. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the posttranslational modification of proteins by O-GlcNAc and is regulated by nutrient access. Here, we show that acute deletion of OGT from αCaMKII-positive neurons in adult mice caused obesity from overeating. The hyperphagia derived from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, where loss of OGT was associated with impaired satiety. These results identify O-GlcNAcylation in αCaMKII neurons of the PVN as an important molecular mechanism that regulates feeding behavior. PMID:26989246

  18. The role of acute pancreatitis in pediatric burn patients.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Haidy G; Lee, Jong O; Herndon, David N; Mecott, Gabriel A; Kulp, Gabriela A; Kraft, Robert; Brooks, Natasha C; Diblidox-Gonzales, Manuel; Hawkins, Hal K; Jeschke, Marc G

    2011-02-01

    Few publications recognize acute pancreatitis as a complication after large burns, consequently the incidence and outcome acute pancreatitis after burn in children is not well defined. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, morbidity, and mortality relating to acute pancreatitis in a pediatric burn population and to correlate clinical diagnosis with autopsy findings to determine the incidence of unrecognized pancreatitis. Records of 2699 patients with acute burns were reviewed. Acute pancreatitis was defined as abdominal pain and/or feeding intolerance in addition to a three-fold elevation of amylase and/or lipase. One-hundred twenty-seven burned children served as the control cohort. To assess the presence of autopsy confirmed AP in pediatric burn patients, we evaluated autopsy reports of 78 children who died from burns, looking for reported evidence of pancreatic inflammation, and fat/parenchymal necrosis. Our data show that acute pancreatitis in children has a low incidence after burn. The study included 2699 patients of which 13 were suffering acute pancreatitis (13/2699 = 0.05%). Mortality is significantly higher for the acute pancreatitis group vs. the control group, p < 0.05. Autopsy reports established 11 of 78 patients with evidence of pancreatitis, resulting in an incidence of 0.17% for pancreatitis at autopsy. Although it has low incidence, acute pancreatitis is associated with increased mortality in severely burned pediatric patients, which underlines the importance of increased vigilance in the evaluation and treatment of pancreatitis in burned children.

  19. Lateral hypothalamic signaling mechanisms underlying feeding stimulation: differential contributions of Src family tyrosine kinases to feeding triggered either by NMDA injection or by food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arshad M; Cheung, Herman H; Gillard, Elizabeth R; Palarca, Jennifer A; Welsbie, Derek S; Gurd, James W; Stanley, B Glenn

    2004-11-24

    In rats, feeding can be triggered experimentally using many approaches. Included among these are (1) food deprivation and (2) acute microinjection of the neurotransmitter l-glutamate (Glu) or its receptor agonist NMDA into the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Under both paradigms, the NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) within the LHA appears critically involved in transferring signals encoded by Glu to stimulate feeding. However, the intracellular mechanisms underlying this signal transfer are unknown. Because protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) participate in NMDA-R signaling mechanisms, we determined PTK involvement in LHA mechanisms underlying both types of feeding stimulation through food intake and biochemical measurements. LHA injections of PTK inhibitors significantly suppressed feeding elicited by LHA NMDA injection (up to 69%) but only mildly suppressed deprivation feeding (24%), suggesting that PTKs may be less critical for signals underlying this feeding behavior. Conversely, food deprivation but not NMDA injection produced marked increases in apparent activity for Src PTKs and in the expression of Pyk2, an Src-activating PTK. When considered together, the behavioral and biochemical results demonstrate that, although it is easier to suppress NMDA-elicited feeding by PTK inhibitors, food deprivation readily drives PTK activity in vivo. The latter result may reflect greater PTK recruitment by neurotransmitter receptors, distinct from the NMDA-R, that are activated during deprivation-elicited but not NMDA-elicited feeding. These results also demonstrate how the use of only one feeding stimulation paradigm may fail to reveal the true contributions of signaling molecules to pathways underlying feeding behavior in vivo.

  20. Medical Progress

    PubMed Central

    Starzl, Thomas E.; Demetris, Anthony J.; Van Thiel, David

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the management of both chronic and acute hepatic disease have been made possible and even mandated by the development of liver transplantation. The clinical use of transplantation has proceeded at a rapid pace since a Consensus Development Conference of the National Institutes of Health concluded in June 1983 that liver transplantation had become a service and not simply an experimental procedure.1 The liver can be transplanted as an extra (auxiliary) organ at an ectopic site, or in the orthotopic location after the removal of the host liver (Fig. 1). This article will focus primarily on the orthotopic procedure. However, there has been renewed interest in the auxiliary operation, which will be discussed separately. PMID:2674716

  1. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  2. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  3. Feed Your Head: Neurodevelopmental Control of Feeding and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel A.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  4. A Young Man With Progressive Vision and Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Kung, Nathan H; Bucelli, Robert C; Van Stavern, Renee B; Goebel, Joel A; Van Stavern, Gregory P

    2016-07-01

    A 37-year-old man with a history of progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss presented to a neuro-ophthalmology clinic with an acute left homonymous hemianopsia. In this article, we discuss the clinical approach and differential diagnosis of progressive combined vision and hearing loss and guide the reader to discover the patient's ultimate diagnosis. PMID:27213952

  5. Acute intermittent porphyria with SIADH and fluctuating dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Nabin, A; Thapa, L J; Paudel, R; Rana, P V S

    2012-01-01

    Three cases of acute intermittent porphyria are reported. While in first case severe pain in abdomen with intermittent exacerbation was the only presentation, the second patient presented as accelerated hypertension and acute abdominal crises in whom the clinical course was characterized by development of deep coma due to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone before she made complete recovery. The third patient, initially manifested as acute encephalitic syndrome. After initial improvement, she developed features of acute intermittent porphyria i.e. acute abdomen, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and rapidly progressing acute motor neuropathy leading to respiratory and bulbar paralysis. In addition, she developed severe and fluctuating dysautonomia leading to cardiac arrest and fatal termination. The importance of early diagnosis, recognition of autonomic disturbances, prompt treatment and counseling for avoidance of precipitating factors is stressed.

  6. Acute Pancreatitis, Hepatitis and Bone Erosion in Acute Yellow Phosphorous Compound Poisoning – A Rare Complication

    PubMed Central

    Kamarthi, Prabhakar; Gopu, Arun Vardharaju; Prasad, Reddy; Srinivasa, Chandrakala

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis and hepatitis following ingestion of yellow phosphorous. The condition of the patient progressed to encephalopathy and bony erosion of the nasal septum. Fungal mass was observed in both the nasal cavities by endoscopy. Microbiological investigation revealed the identity of the fungus as Aspergillus flavus and Candida tropicalis. Patient improved with fluconazole treatment. PMID:27504287

  7. Acute Pancreatitis, Hepatitis and Bone Erosion in Acute Yellow Phosphorous Compound Poisoning - A Rare Complication.

    PubMed

    Kamarthi, Prabhakar; Subramani, Parimala; Gopu, Arun Vardharaju; Prasad, Reddy; Srinivasa, Chandrakala

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis and hepatitis following ingestion of yellow phosphorous. The condition of the patient progressed to encephalopathy and bony erosion of the nasal septum. Fungal mass was observed in both the nasal cavities by endoscopy. Microbiological investigation revealed the identity of the fungus as Aspergillus flavus and Candida tropicalis. Patient improved with fluconazole treatment. PMID:27504287

  8. Changes of soluble CD40 ligand in the progression of acute myocardial infarction associate to endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms and vascular endothelial growth factor but not to platelet CD62P expression.

    PubMed

    Napoleão, Patrícia; Monteiro, Maria do Céu; Cabral, Luís B P; Criado, Maria Begoña; Ramos, Catarina; Selas, Mafalda; Viegas-Crespo, Ana Maria; Saldanha, Carlota; Carmo, Miguel Mota; Ferreira, Rui Cruz; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Reported in vitro data implicated soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis. However, whether sCD40L could exert that influence in endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis after injury in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the association of sCD40L with markers of platelet activation, endothelial, and vascular function during a recovery period early after AMI. To achieve this goal, the time changes of soluble, platelet-bound, and microparticle-bound CD40L levels over 1 month were assessed in AMI patients and correlated with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations, and platelet expression of P-selectin (CD62P). The association of soluble form, platelet-bound, and microparticle-bound CD40L with CD62P expression on platelets, a marker of platelet activation, was also assessed to evaluate the role of CD40L in the thrombosis, whereas the association with eNOS and VEGF was to evaluate the role of CD40L in vascular dysfunction. This work shows for the first time that time changes of sCD40L over 1 month after myocardial infarct onset were associated with G894T eNOS polymorphism and with the VEGF concentrations, but not to the platelet CD62P expression. These results indicate that, in terms of AMI pathophysiology, the sCD40L cannot be consider just as being involved in thrombosis and inflammation but also as having a relevant role in vascular and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26279254

  9. Contrast-associated Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Weisbord, Steven D; Palevsky, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CAAKI) is a common iatrogenic condition. The principal risk factors for CAAKI are underlying renal impairment; diabetes in the setting of kidney disease; and intravascular volume depletion, effective or absolute. CAAKI is associated with serious adverse short-term and long-term outcomes, including mortality and more rapidly progressive chronic kidney disease, although the causal nature of these associations remains unproved. Patients with chronic kidney disease and other risk factors for CAAKI who present with acute coronary syndrome should undergo indicated angiographic procedures.

  10. Acute kidney injury due to decompression illness

    PubMed Central

    Viecelli, Andrea; Jamboti, Jagadish; Waring, Andrew; Banham, Neil; Ferrari, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Decompression illness is a rare but serious complication of diving caused by intravascular or extravascular gas bubble formation. We report the first case of acute kidney injury in a 27-year-old diver following three rapid ascents. He presented with transient neurological symptoms and abdominal pain followed by rapidly progressive acute kidney injury (creatinine peak 1210 µmol/L) due to arterial air emboli. He received supportive care and 100% oxygen followed by hyperbaric therapy and recovered fully. Arterial air emboli caused by rapid decompression can affect multiple organs including the kidneys. Early transfer to a hyperbaric unit is important as complications may present delayed. PMID:25852912

  11. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  12. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  13. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery ...

  14. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... virus. Viral infections that may cause this include chickenpox , Coxsackie disease, Epstein-Barr, and echovirus . Other causes ...

  15. Twenty-five years of breast-feeding research in Midwifery.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Fiona

    2011-02-01

    This paper explores some of the significant changes that have taken place with regard to the protection, promotion and support of breast feeding during the past three decades. The period covered since the first issue of Midwifery in 1985, has been marked by some dramatic reversals of harmful discourses and detrimental practices with regard to infant and young child feeding and more specifically breast feeding. Midwifery has spanned this period with the publication of 80 papers on breast feeding. This collection of papers has both influenced and reflected upon changes in international and national breast-feeding strategies and practices. Six papers have been selected for a special virtual edition of Midwifery to reflect the diversity of breast-feeding research in terms of issues explored, methodology and country of origin (www.midwiferyjournal.com). Considerable progress is reflected in these papers. However, there are still enormous challenges ahead in working towards the optimisation of infant and young child feeding. In addition to continuing to conduct and collate robust scientific and epidemiological research we need further studies that explore the political, economic, socio-cultural and psychological factors influencing women's infant feeding practices. Our professional practice needs to continue to improve in order to provide women and families with appropriate support, encouragement and resources to enable them to breastfeed effectively. Finally, we need to continue to challenge the systems and approaches at organisational and community levels that impede women in their endeavours to feed their infants in optimum ways. PMID:21276483

  16. Twenty-five years of breast-feeding research in Midwifery.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Fiona

    2011-02-01

    This paper explores some of the significant changes that have taken place with regard to the protection, promotion and support of breast feeding during the past three decades. The period covered since the first issue of Midwifery in 1985, has been marked by some dramatic reversals of harmful discourses and detrimental practices with regard to infant and young child feeding and more specifically breast feeding. Midwifery has spanned this period with the publication of 80 papers on breast feeding. This collection of papers has both influenced and reflected upon changes in international and national breast-feeding strategies and practices. Six papers have been selected for a special virtual edition of Midwifery to reflect the diversity of breast-feeding research in terms of issues explored, methodology and country of origin (www.midwiferyjournal.com). Considerable progress is reflected in these papers. However, there are still enormous challenges ahead in working towards the optimisation of infant and young child feeding. In addition to continuing to conduct and collate robust scientific and epidemiological research we need further studies that explore the political, economic, socio-cultural and psychological factors influencing women's infant feeding practices. Our professional practice needs to continue to improve in order to provide women and families with appropriate support, encouragement and resources to enable them to breastfeed effectively. Finally, we need to continue to challenge the systems and approaches at organisational and community levels that impede women in their endeavours to feed their infants in optimum ways.

  17. Acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yewen; Yin, Xing; Wijaya, Cori; Huang, Ming-He; McConnell, Bradley K

    2011-01-01

    With heart failure leading the cause of death in the USA (Hunt), biomedical research is fundamental to advance medical treatments for cardiovascular diseases. Animal models that mimic human cardiac disease, such as myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia-reperfusion (IR) that induces heart failure as well as pressure-overload (transverse aortic constriction) that induces cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (Goldman and Tarnavski), are useful models to study cardiovascular disease. In particular, myocardial ischemia (MI) is a leading cause for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality despite controlling certain risk factors such as arteriosclerosis and treatments via surgical intervention (Thygesen). Furthermore, an acute loss of the myocardium following myocardial ischemia (MI) results in increased loading conditions that induces ventricular remodeling of the infarcted border zone and the remote non-infarcted myocardium. Myocyte apoptosis, necrosis and the resultant increased hemodynamic load activate multiple biochemical intracellular signaling that initiates LV dilatation, hypertrophy, ventricular shape distortion, and collagen scar formation. This pathological remodeling and failure to normalize the increased wall stresses results in progressive dilatation, recruitment of the border zone myocardium into the scar, and eventually deterioration in myocardial contractile function (i.e. heart failure). The progression of LV dysfunction and heart failure in rats is similar to that observed in patients who sustain a large myocardial infarction, survive and subsequently develops heart failure (Goldman). The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model in rats has been used to mimic human cardiovascular disease; specifically used to study cardiac signaling mechanisms associated with heart failure as well as to assess the contribution of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of heart failure. The method described in this report is the rat model of acute myocardial

  18. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following Coplanar Waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/Microstrip Line feed; (2) CPW/Balanced Stripline feed; (3) CPW/Slotline feed; (4) Grounded CPW/Balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/Slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  19. Apparatus for continuous feed material melting

    DOEpatents

    Surma, Jeffrey E.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a melter housing having a pretreat chamber heated with a feed material heater that is partially isolated from a melter chamber. The method of the present invention has the steps of introducing feed material into a pretreat chamber and heating the feed material to a softening temperature of the feed material, and passing the pretreated feed material to a melter chamber.

  20. Beer, Breast Feeding, and Folklore

    PubMed Central

    MENNELLA, JULIE A.; BEAUCHAMP, GARY K.

    2009-01-01

    Beer consumption by nursing women altered the sensory qualities of their milk and the behavior of their infants during breast-feeding in the short term. The infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4-hr testing sessions in which their mothers drank alcoholic beer compared to when the mothers drank nonalcoholic beer; this decrease in milk intake was not due to a decrease in the number of times the babies fed. Although the infants consumed less of the alcohol-flavored milk, the mothers believed their infants had ingested enough milk, reported that they experienced a letdown during nursing, and felt they had milk remaining in their breasts at the end of the majority of feedings. Moreover, the mothers terminated the feeds the same percentage of time on both testing days. The mechanism by which the consumption of alcoholic beer by lactating women decreases milk intake by their nurslings remains to be determined. PMID:8293892

  1. Differential effects of acute and chronic fructose administration on pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and lipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.

    1988-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to distinguish between the acute and chronic effects of fructose administration. In vivo, liver lipogenesis, as measured by {sup 3}H{sub 2}O incorporation, was greater in rats fed 60% fructose than in their glucose fed controls. Both fructose feeding, and fructose feeding plus intraperitoneal fructose injection increased the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. Liver PDH activity was increased by fructose feeding, and was increased even more by fructose feeding and injection of fructose, but this was not associated with any changes in hepatic ATP concentrations.

  2. Haploinsufficiency of the c-myc transcriptional repressor FIR, as a dominant negative-alternative splicing model, promoted p53-dependent T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression by activating Notch1.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Kouichi; Rahmutulla, Bahityar; Tanaka, Nobuko; Ishige, Takayuki; Satoh, Mamoru; Hoshino, Tyuji; Miyagi, Satoru; Mori, Takeshi; Itoga, Sakae; Shimada, Hideaki; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Kito, Minoru; Nakajima-Takagi, Yaeko; Kubo, Shuji; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Hatano, Masahiko; Miki, Takashi; Matsuo, Masafumi; Fukuyo, Masaki; Kaneda, Atsushi; Iwama, Atsushi; Nomura, Fumio

    2015-03-10

    FUSE-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor (FIR) is a c-myc transcriptional suppressor. A splice variant of FIR that lacks exon 2 in the transcriptional repressor domain (FIRΔexon2) upregulates c-myc transcription by inactivating wild-type FIR. The ratio of FIRΔexon2/FIR mRNA was increased in human colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Because FIRΔexon2 is considered to be a dominant negative regulator of FIR, FIR heterozygous knockout (FIR⁺/⁻) C57BL6 mice were generated. FIR complete knockout (FIR⁻/⁻) was embryonic lethal before E9.5; therefore, it is essential for embryogenesis. This strongly suggests that insufficiency of FIR is crucial for carcinogenesis. FIR⁺/⁻ mice exhibited prominent c-myc mRNA upregulation, particularly in the peripheral blood (PB), without any significant pathogenic phenotype. Furthermore, elevated FIRΔexon2/FIR mRNA expression was detected in human leukemia samples and cell lines. Because the single knockout of TP53 generates thymic lymphoma, FIR⁺/⁻TP53⁻/⁻ generated T-cell type acute lymphocytic/lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with increased organ or bone marrow invasion with poor prognosis. RNA-sequencing analysis of sorted thymic lymphoma cells revealed that the Notch signaling pathway was activated significantly in FIR⁺/⁻TP53⁻/⁻ compared with that in FIR⁺/⁺TP53⁻/⁻ mice. Notch1 mRNA expression in sorted thymic lymphoma cells was confirmed using qRT-PCR. In addition, flow cytometry revealed that c-myc mRNA was negatively correlated with FIR but positively correlated with Notch1 in sorted T-ALL/thymic lymphoma cells. Moreover, the knockdown of TP53 or c-myc using siRNA decreased Notch1 expression in cancer cells. In addition, an adenovirus vector encoding FIRΔexon2 cDNA increased bleomycin-induced DNA damage. Taken together, these data suggest that the altered expression of FIRΔexon2 increased Notch1 at least partially by activating c-Myc via a TP53-independent pathway. In

  3. Haploinsufficiency of the c-myc transcriptional repressor FIR, as a dominant negative-alternative splicing model, promoted p53-dependent T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression by activating Notch1

    PubMed Central

    Rahmutulla, Bahityar; Tanaka, Nobuko; Ishige, Takayuki; Satoh, Mamoru; Hoshino, Tyuji; Miyagi, Satoru; Mori, Takeshi; Itoga, Sakae; Shimada, Hideaki; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Kito, Minoru; Nakajima-Takagi, Yaeko; Kubo, Shuji; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Hatano, Masahiko; Miki, Takashi; Matsuo, Masafumi; Fukuyo, Masaki; Kaneda, Atsushi; Iwama, Atsushi; Nomura, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    FUSE-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor (FIR) is a c-myc transcriptional suppressor. A splice variant of FIR that lacks exon 2 in the transcriptional repressor domain (FIRΔexon2) upregulates c-myc transcription by inactivating wild-type FIR. The ratio of FIRΔexon2/FIR mRNA was increased in human colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Because FIRΔexon2 is considered to be a dominant negative regulator of FIR, FIR heterozygous knockout (FIR+/−) C57BL6 mice were generated. FIR complete knockout (FIR−/−) was embryonic lethal before E9.5; therefore, it is essential for embryogenesis. This strongly suggests that insufficiency of FIR is crucial for carcinogenesis. FIR+/− mice exhibited prominent c-myc mRNA upregulation, particularly in the peripheral blood (PB), without any significant pathogenic phenotype. Furthermore, elevated FIRΔexon2/FIR mRNA expression was detected in human leukemia samples and cell lines. Because the single knockout of TP53 generates thymic lymphoma, FIR+/−TP53−/− generated T-cell type acute lymphocytic/lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with increased organ or bone marrow invasion with poor prognosis. RNA-sequencing analysis of sorted thymic lymphoma cells revealed that the Notch signaling pathway was activated significantly in FIR+/−TP53−/− compared with that in FIR+/+TP53−/− mice. Notch1 mRNA expression in sorted thymic lymphoma cells was confirmed using qRT-PCR. In addition, flow cytometry revealed that c-myc mRNA was negatively correlated with FIR but positively correlated with Notch1 in sorted T-ALL/thymic lymphoma cells. Moreover, the knockdown of TP53 or c-myc using siRNA decreased Notch1 expression in cancer cells. In addition, an adenovirus vector encoding FIRΔexon2 cDNA increased bleomycin-induced DNA damage. Taken together, these data suggest that the altered expression of FIRΔexon2 increased Notch1 at least partially by activating c-Myc via a TP53-independent pathway. In conclusion

  4. Static feed water electrolysis module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with tumor lysis syndrome in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Alessandra; Genova, Selene; Maringhini, Silvio; Coffaro, Giancarlo; Ziino, Ottavio; D'Angelo, Paolo

    2015-02-24

    Tumor lysis syndrome is a serious and dangerous complication usually associated with antiblastic treatment in some malignancies characterized by high cell turn-over. Mild or severe electrolyte abnormalities including high serum levels of uric acid, potassium, phosphorus, creatinine, bun and reduction of calcium can be responsible for multi-organ failure, involving mostly kidneys, heart and central nervous system. Renal damage can be followed by acute renal failure, weight gain, progressive liver impairment, overproduction of cytokines, and subsequent maintenance of multi-organ damage. Life-threatening acute respiratory failure associated with tumor lysis syndrome is rare. We describe a child with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed an unusually dramatic tumor lysis syndrome, after administration of the first low doses of steroid, that was rapidly associated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Subsequent clinical course and treatment modalities that resulted in the gradual and full recovery of the child are also described. PMID:25918625

  6. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Associated with Tumor Lysis Syndrome in a Child with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Alessandra; Genova, Selene; Maringhini, Silvio; Coffaro, Giancarlo; Ziino, Ottavio; D’Angelo, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is a serious and dangerous complication usually associated with antiblastic treatment in some malignancies characterized by high cell turn-over. Mild or severe electrolyte abnormalities including high serum levels of uric acid, potassium, phosphorus, creatinine, bun and reduction of calcium can be responsible for multi-organ failure, involving mostly kidneys, heart and central nervous system. Renal damage can be followed by acute renal failure, weight gain, progressive liver impairment, overproduction of cytokines, and subsequent maintenance of multi-organ damage. Life-threatening acute respiratory failure associated with tumor lysis syndrome is rare. We describe a child with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed an unusually dramatic tumor lysis syndrome, after administration of the first low doses of steroid, that was rapidly associated with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Subsequent clinical course and treatment modalities that resulted in the gradual and full recovery of the child are also described. PMID:25918625

  7. Project Progress

    SciTech Connect

    William F. Morgan, Ph.D., D.Sc.

    2006-09-11

    The proposed study investigates the effect of low dose and low dose rate radiation exposure (X-rays) on induced genomic instability and the adaptive response, including the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena. The proposed studies will utilize human cell lines containing a stably integrated plasmid that can be caused by certain kinds of mutational insults to recombine to express the green fluorescent proteins, GFP. The study will use this cell line with the fluorescent plasmid recombination reporter system in a direct study of the effects of 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 100 and 500 rads acute X-irradiation and the same doses delivered by protraction at 1 rad or 0.01 rad per minute. This system will be used to provide a quantitative measure of the kinetics of genomic instability in colonies of cells exposed to low dose/dose rate, as well as to examine the adaptive response. The study will also apply micro array technology to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying induced instability and adaptive effects.

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding acute respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, S K; Reddaiah, V P; Murthy, G V

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and six mothers in a rural area were interviewed to determine as to how they recognise pneumonia in children, what therapies they practice with mild acute respiratory illnesses and pneumonias and the feeding practices they adopt. Most mothers recognised pneumonia by noticing fast respiratory rate and difficulty in breathing. More severe cases were recognised by these signs among a higher percentage of mothers. As regards management of mild ARI episodes, more than half the mothers preferred not to give any treatment or use only home remedies. In pneumonias, a majority of them preferred to consult a qualified doctor. Nearly a third of them were of the opinion that they would take the child to hospital if the disease was severe. Regarding feeding practices, most of them stated that they would continue feeding, fluids and breast feeds. Only 10% desired to stop and another 15% would decrease the amounts.

  9. Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Waste Feed Qualification Program Development Approach - 13114

    SciTech Connect

    Markillie, Jeffrey R.; Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Halverson, Thomas G.; Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, Connie C.; Peeler, David K.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is a nuclear waste treatment facility being designed and constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (under contract DE-AC27-01RV14136 [1]) to process and vitrify radioactive waste that is currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. A wide range of planning is in progress to prepare for safe start-up, commissioning, and operation. The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the WTP design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring acceptance requirements can be met before the transfer of waste. The WTP Project has partnered with Savannah River National Laboratory to develop the waste feed qualification program. The results of waste feed qualification activities will be implemented using a batch processing methodology, and will establish an acceptable range of operator controllable parameters needed to treat the staged waste. Waste feed qualification program development is being implemented in three separate phases. Phase 1 required identification of analytical methods and gaps. This activity has been completed, and provides the foundation for a technically defensible approach for waste feed qualification. Phase 2 of the program development is in progress. The activities in this phase include the closure of analytical methodology gaps identified during Phase 1, design and fabrication of laboratory-scale test apparatus, and determination of the waste feed qualification sample volume. Phase 3 will demonstrate waste feed qualification testing in support of Cold Commissioning. (authors)

  10. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist.

  11. Feeding device for glossectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Fleming, S M; Weaver, A W

    1983-04-01

    Instructions are provided for making a feeding spoon from a plastic syringe for use by patients who have had a glossectomy. This adaptation may be accomplished using only a hacksaw blade and sandpaper. Such a device may be indicated for patients who have had at least 60% of their tongue resected, but who are not at significant risk of aspiration. PMID:6838348

  12. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  13. Complete feeds-intensive systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most commercially cultivated fish are raised in high-density culture systems where the assumption is that the contribution of natural foods to the nutrition of the fish is insignificant. Thus, intensively cultured fish must be fed a nutritionally complete feed. A short section on the concept and im...

  14. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Your child has a gastrostomy tube (G-tube). This is a soft, plastic tube placed into your child's stomach. It delivers nutrition (food) and medicines until your ...

  15. Applying Rank Sum Ratio (RSR) to the Evaluation of Feeding Practices Behaviors, and Its Associations with Infant Health Risk in Rural Lhasa, Tibet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjie; Dang, Shaonong; Xing, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Yan, Hong

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the status of feeding practices and analyze the association between feeding practice and health status among Tibetan infants, a cross-sectional survey of 386 women with children aged under 24 months was conducted in rural areas surrounding Lhasa, Tibet. All participants were selected using simple random sampling and were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers. Mothers were interviewed to collect information on their feeding practices. A feeding practices index was created using the rank sum ratio method. Most of the infants had been or were being breastfed at the time of the interview. The feeding practices index was significantly and inversely associated with the prevalence of acute upper respiratory infection, and the odds ratio for the qualified feeding practices index vs. the non-qualified feeding practices index was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.94). There were no measurable associations observed between acute upper respiratory infection, diarrhea, and the feeding practices index after controlling for selected factors. The method of rank sum ratio provides a flexible way to evaluate feeding practices and is easy to understand. Furthermore, appropriate infant feeding practices might play a protective role in Tibetan infants' health.

  16. Inflammatory markers in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Seropian, Ignacio M; Sonnino, Chiara; Van Tassell, Benjamin W; Biasucci, Luigi M; Abbate, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    After acute myocardial infarction, ventricular remodeling is characterized by changes at the molecular, structural, geometrical and functional level that determine progression to heart failure. Inflammation plays a key role in wound healing and scar formation, affecting ventricular remodeling. Several, rather different, components of the inflammatory response were studied as biomarkers in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. Widely available and inexpensive tests, such as leukocyte count at admission, as well as more sophisticated immunoassays provide powerful predictors of adverse outcome in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. We review the value of inflammatory markers in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction and their association with ventricular remodeling, heart failure and sudden death. In conclusion, the use of these biomarkers may identify subjects at greater risk of adverse events and perhaps provide an insight into the mechanisms of disease progression.

  17. Lung Xenotransplantation: Recent Progress and Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Donald G.; Quinn, Kevin J.; Dahi, Siamak; Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M.; Pierson, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Xenotransplantation has undergone important progress in controlling initial hyperacute rejection in many pre-clinical models, with some cell, tissue, and organ xenografts advancing toward clinical trials. However, acute injury, driven primarily by innate immune and inflammatory responses, continues to limit results in lung xenograft models. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of lung xenotransplantation – including the seemingly unique challenges posed by this organ – and summarize proven and emerging means of overcoming acute lung xenograft injury. PMID:25040467

  18. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G; Michaelsen, Kim F; Onyango, Adelheid W

    2013-09-01

    An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lifelong, possibly irrevocable consequences. Interventions to improve complementary feeding practices or the nutritional quality of complementary foods must take into consideration the contextual as well as proximal determinants of stunting. This review presents a conceptual framework that highlights the role of complementary feeding within the layers of contextual and causal factors that lead to stunted growth and development and the resulting short- and long-term consequences. Contextual factors are organized into the following groups: political economy; health and health care systems; education; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation and environment. We argue that these community and societal conditions underlie infant and young child feeding practices, which are a central pillar to healthy growth and development, and can serve to either impede or enable progress. Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels.

  19. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  20. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2012-11-06

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  1. Chlorpromazine specifically prevents the wheel-induced feeding suppression in rats.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kerry L; Parfeniuk, Graham G; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2009-10-01

    In rats, limited daytime wheel access suppresses feeding over the subsequent night [Lattanzio SB, Eikelboom R. Wheel access duration in rats: I. effects on feeding and running. Behav Neurosci 2003; 117:496-504.]. This phenomenon is known as the wheel-induced feeding suppression (WIFS). The classic antipsychotic, chlorpromazine, can minimize the severity of the related activity anorexia procedure, but is thought to act through a suppression of running [Routtenberg A. "Self-starvation" of rats living in activity wheels: adaptation effects. J Comp Physiol Psychol 1968; 66:234-8.]. We tested the effects of chlorpromazine (2mg/kg IP) on the acute WIFS in 40 adult male rats by administering the drug before or after 3h of daytime wheel access and measuring food consumption over the subsequent 24h. Control groups received saline injections or were exposed to locked wheels. While chlorpromazine did not attenuate feeding or change wheel running alone, it blocked their interaction, the acute WIFS. This procedure might be useful in screening drugs for anorexia nervosa where exercise is often elevated and feeding is suppressed.

  2. Acute appendicitis: What is the gold standard of treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Ruffolo, Cesare; Fiorot, Alain; Pagura, Giulia; Antoniutti, Michele; Massani, Marco; Caratozzolo, Ezio; Bonariol, Luca; Calia di Pinto, Francesco; Bassi, Nicolò

    2013-01-01

    McBurney’s procedure represented the gold-standard for acute appendicitis until 1981, but nowadays the number of laparoscopic appendectomies has progressively increased since it has been demonstrated to be a safe procedure, with excellent cosmetic results and it also allows a shorter hospitalization, a quicker and less painful postoperative recovery. The aim of this editorial was to perform a review of the literature in order to address controversial issues in the treatment of acute appendicitis. PMID:24379603

  3. Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Christopher; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2007-09-01

    A juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) died with rapidly progressive pyrexia, tachypnea, abdominal effusion, and hepatomegaly. Postmortem examination revealed lesions consistent with acute disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of this organism was confirmed in multiple organs by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, we propose this to be the first reported case of primary acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a cheetah.

  4. Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Wald, Ellen R

    2011-05-01

    Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.

  5. Acute mastoiditis--revisited.

    PubMed

    Luntz, M; Keren, G; Nusem, S; Kronenberg, J

    1994-09-01

    The clinical course and causative organisms were studied in 18 patients with acute mastoiditis, 13 of whom (72%) had no previous history of middle ear disease. Their age ranged from 5 months to 21 years, and duration of middle ear symptoms immediately prior to admission ranged from 1 to 45 days (average 9.7 days). None had undergone a myringotomy prior to admission, while 13 (72%) had been receiving antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media. Three were admitted with intracranial complications. Bacteria were isolated in 10 of the 16 patients in whom samples were available for bacterial culture, and included Streptococcus pneumonia (2), Streptococcus pyogenes (2), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Staphlococcus coagulase negative (2), Klebsiella pneumonia (1), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). Of the 17 patients treated by us, 11 received surgery. Acute otitis media, secretory otitis media, acute mastoiditis, subacute mastoiditis and masked mastoiditis create a continuum. Antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media cannot be considered as an absolute safeguard against acute mastoiditis. When antibiotics are prescribed for acute mastoiditis before culture result is available, an anti-staphylococcal agent should be included. At least some patients with acute mastoiditis develop a primary infection of the bony framework of the middle ear cleft. The prevalence of the intracranial complications in acute mastoiditis is still high and may appear soon after or concomitant with the first sign of acute mastioditis.

  6. Bidirectional electromagnetic control of the hypothalamus regulates feeding and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Sarah A; Kelly, Leah; Latcha, Kaamashri N; Schmidt, Sarah F; Yu, Xiaofei; Nectow, Alexander R; Sauer, Jeremy; Dyke, Jonathan P; Dordick, Jonathan S; Friedman, Jeffrey M

    2016-03-31

    Targeted, temporally regulated neural modulation is invaluable in determining the physiological roles of specific neural populations or circuits. Here we describe a system for non-invasive, temporal activation or inhibition of neuronal activity in vivo and its use to study central nervous system control of glucose homeostasis and feeding in mice. We are able to induce neuronal activation remotely using radio waves or magnetic fields via Cre-dependent expression of a GFP-tagged ferritin fusion protein tethered to the cation-conducting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by a camelid anti-GFP antibody (anti-GFP-TRPV1). Neuronal inhibition via the same stimuli is achieved by mutating the TRPV1 pore, rendering the channel chloride-permeable. These constructs were targeted to glucose-sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus in glucokinase-Cre mice, which express Cre in glucose-sensing neurons. Acute activation of glucose-sensing neurons in this region increases plasma glucose and glucagon, lowers insulin levels and stimulates feeding, while inhibition reduces blood glucose, raises insulin levels and suppresses feeding. These results suggest that pancreatic hormones function as an effector mechanism of central nervous system circuits controlling blood glucose and behaviour. The method we employ obviates the need for permanent implants and could potentially be applied to study other neural processes or used to regulate other, even dispersed, cell types. PMID:27007848

  7. Bidirectional electromagnetic control of the hypothalamus regulates feeding and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Sarah A.; Kelly, Leah; Latcha, Kaamashri N.; Schmidt, Sarah F.; Yu, Xiaofei; Nectow, Alexander R.; Sauer, Jeremy; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Friedman, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted, temporally regulated neural modulation is invaluable in determining the physiological roles of specific neural populations or circuits. Here we describe a system for non-invasive, temporal activation or inhibition of neuronal activity in vivo and its use to study central nervous system control of glucose homeostasis and feeding in mice. We are able to induce neuronal activation remotely using radio waves or magnetic fields via Cre-dependent expression of a GFP-tagged ferritin fusion protein tethered to the cation-conducting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by a camelid anti-GFP antibody (anti-GFP–TRPV1)1. Neuronal inhibition via the same stimuli is achieved by mutating the TRPV1 pore, rendering the channel chloride-permeable. These constructs were targeted to glucose-sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus in glucokinase–Cre mice, which express Cre in glucose-sensing neurons2. Acute activation of glucose-sensing neurons in this region increases plasma glucose and glucagon, lowers insulin levels and stimulates feeding, while inhibition reduces blood glucose, raises insulin levels and suppresses feeding. These results suggest that pancreatic hormones function as an effector mechanism of central nervous system circuits controlling blood glucose and behaviour. The method we employ obviates the need for permanent implants and could potentially be applied to study other neural processes or used to regulate other, even dispersed, cell types. PMID:27007848

  8. Accelerating improvements in nutritional and health status of young children in the Sahel region of Sub-Saharan Africa: review of international guidelines on infant and young child feeding and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Hess, Sonja Y; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-04-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child holds governments responsible to ensure children's right to the highest attainable standard of health by providing breastfeeding support, and access to nutritious foods, appropriate health care, and clean drinking water. International experts have identified key child care practices and programmatic activities that are proven to be effective at reducing infant and young child undernutrition, morbidity, and mortality. Nevertheless, progress towards reducing the prevalence of undernutrition has been sporadic across countries of the Sahel sub-region of Sub-Saharan Africa. In view of this uneven progress, a working group of international agencies was convened to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel.' The first step towards this goal was to organize a situational analysis of the legislative, research, and programmatic activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) in six countries of the sub-region: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal. The purposes of this introductory paper are to review current information concerning the nutritional and health status of infants and young children in the Sahel and to summarize international guidelines on optimal IYCN practices. These guidelines were used in completing the above-mentioned situational analyses and encompass specific recommendations on: (i) breastfeeding (introduction within the first hour after birth, exclusivity to 6 months, continuation to at least 24 months); (ii) complementary feeding (introduction at 6 months, use of nutrient dense foods, adequate frequency and consistency, and responsive feeding); (iii) prevention and/or treatment of micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin A, zinc, iron and anaemia, and iodine); (iv) prevention and/or treatment of acute malnutrition; (v) feeding practices adapted to the maternal situation to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV; (vi) activities to ensure food

  9. Accelerating improvements in nutritional and health status of young children in the Sahel region of Sub-Saharan Africa: review of international guidelines on infant and young child feeding and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Hess, Sonja Y; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-04-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child holds governments responsible to ensure children's right to the highest attainable standard of health by providing breastfeeding support, and access to nutritious foods, appropriate health care, and clean drinking water. International experts have identified key child care practices and programmatic activities that are proven to be effective at reducing infant and young child undernutrition, morbidity, and mortality. Nevertheless, progress towards reducing the prevalence of undernutrition has been sporadic across countries of the Sahel sub-region of Sub-Saharan Africa. In view of this uneven progress, a working group of international agencies was convened to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel.' The first step towards this goal was to organize a situational analysis of the legislative, research, and programmatic activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) in six countries of the sub-region: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal. The purposes of this introductory paper are to review current information concerning the nutritional and health status of infants and young children in the Sahel and to summarize international guidelines on optimal IYCN practices. These guidelines were used in completing the above-mentioned situational analyses and encompass specific recommendations on: (i) breastfeeding (introduction within the first hour after birth, exclusivity to 6 months, continuation to at least 24 months); (ii) complementary feeding (introduction at 6 months, use of nutrient dense foods, adequate frequency and consistency, and responsive feeding); (iii) prevention and/or treatment of micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin A, zinc, iron and anaemia, and iodine); (iv) prevention and/or treatment of acute malnutrition; (v) feeding practices adapted to the maternal situation to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV; (vi) activities to ensure food

  10. Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... a day). Feed your baby when they seems hungry. Signs include smacking lips, making suckling movements, and ... to feed her. This means she is very hungry. Your baby should not sleep more than 4 ...

  11. Parasite transmission through suspension feeding.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Bidegain, Gorka; Huey, Lauren; Narvaez, Diego A; Bushek, David

    2015-10-01

    Suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs are confronted with a wide range of materials in the benthic marine environment. These materials include various sized plankton and the organic material derived from it, macroalgae, detritus and a diversity of microbial parasites that have adapted life stages to survive in the water column. For bivalve parasites to infect hosts though, they must first survive and remain infectious in the water column to make initial contact with hosts, and once in contact, enter and overcome elaborate pathways for particle sorting and selection. Even past these defenses, bivalve parasites are challenged with efficient systems of mechanical and chemical digestion and highly evolved systems of innate immunity. Here we review how bivalve parasites evade these hurdles to complete their life cycles and establish within bivalve hosts. We broadly cover significant viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasites of marine bivalve molluscs, and illustrate the emergent properties of these host-parasite systems where parasite transmission occurs through suspension feeding. PMID:26210495

  12. Feeding and swimming of flagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doelger, Julia; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiorboe, Thomas; Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Hydrodynamics plays a dominant role for small planktonic flagellates and shapes their survival strategies. The high diversity of beat patterns and arrangements of appendages indicates different strategies balancing the trade-offs between the general goals, i.e., energy-efficient swimming, feeding, and predator avoidance. One type of flagellated algae that we observe, are haptophytes, which possess two flagella for flow creation and one so-called haptonema, a long, rigid structure fixed on the cell body, which is used for prey capture. We present videos and flow fields obtained using velocimetry methods around freely swimming haptophytes and other flagellates, which we compare to analytical results obtained from point force models. The observed and modelled flows are used to analyse how different morphologies and beat patterns relate to different feeding or swimming strategies, such as the capture mechanism in haptophytes. The Centre for Ocean Life is a VKR center of excellence supported by the Villum foundation.

  13. [Nutritional support to establish refeeding in a patient with acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease - a case report].

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Mio; Iijima, Shohei

    2014-12-01

    A patient with acute myeloid leukemia having acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease(aGVHD)was provided nutritional support. Oral intake was not permitted owing to the gastrointestinal injury induced by aGVHD. Our goal was to achieve oral feeding by the time of discharge. The initial aim in reinitiating eating was to stimulate intestinal adaptation to the mucosal injury. Via total parenteral nutrition(TPN), the patient was provided food in the form of a semisolid jelly, which passed through the intestinal tract slowly. After interviewing the patient and ascertaining that no complications had arisen owing to eating, a regular diet was initiated. Considering the unstable nature of the gastrointestinal condition and the associated long-term hospitalization, it is important to ensure that the meal contents comply with the patient's taste, while considering the patients'uneasiness and fear of progress to oral intake. It is difficult to predict improvement of aGVHD. Therefore, it is essential that patients are offered meals via TPN, suitable to their intestinal condition and mental status.

  14. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy causing maternal death.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hae Rin; Kim, Suk Young; Cho, Yoon Jin; Chon, Seung Joo

    2016-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is rare and occurs in approximately 3 in 10,000 pregnancies. It rarely complicates pregnancy, and can occur during any trimester, however over half (52%) of cases occur during the third trimester and during the post-partum period. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, acute pancreatitis caused by hypertriglyceridemia due to increase of estrogen during the gestational period is very unusual, but complication carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality for both the mother and the fetus. We experienced a case of pregnant woman who died of acute exacerbation of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis at 23 weeks of gestation. We report on progress and management of this case along with literature reviews.

  15. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy causing maternal death

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hae Rin; Cho, Yoon Jin; Chon, Seung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is rare and occurs in approximately 3 in 10,000 pregnancies. It rarely complicates pregnancy, and can occur during any trimester, however over half (52%) of cases occur during the third trimester and during the post-partum period. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, acute pancreatitis caused by hypertriglyceridemia due to increase of estrogen during the gestational period is very unusual, but complication carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality for both the mother and the fetus. We experienced a case of pregnant woman who died of acute exacerbation of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis at 23 weeks of gestation. We report on progress and management of this case along with literature reviews. PMID:27004207

  16. Lead toxicity, locomotion and feeding in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.).

    PubMed

    Pyatt, A J; Pyatt, F B; Pentreath, V W

    2002-04-01

    The effects of lead (5 or 10 ppm) on the survival of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) collected from lead contaminated or uncontaminated environments were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. The animals from the contaminated environment had significantly greater survivability than those from the unpolluted environment to subsequent acute (up to 24 days) exposure to lead. Acute (72 h) exposure to lead inhibited several behavioural activities including locomotion, feeding, tentacle extension and emergence from the shell. Lead bioaccumulated in the snail tissues, especially the buccal mass and stomach. The freshwater snail provides a valuable system for studying the bioaccumulation and development of tolerance to environmental lead.

  17. Families and Pediatric Feeding Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, Pamela; Bove, Kelly; Scarcelli, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    When a child is born with a feeding and/or swallowing problem, it affects the entire family. Parents, mothers specifically, internalize the problem and come to believe it is due to something they've done. Families are put on an emotional rollercoaster with the ups and downs being dependant on how much the child has eaten that day. In this article,…

  18. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  19. The Progressive BSSG Rat Model of Parkinson's: Recapitulating Multiple Key Features of the Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Van Kampen, Jackalina M.; Baranowski, David C.; Robertson, Harold A.; Shaw, Christopher A.; Kay, Denis G.

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective neuroprotective therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been severely hindered by the notable lack of an appropriate animal model for preclinical screening. Indeed, most models currently available are either acute in nature or fail to recapitulate all characteristic features of the disease. Here, we present a novel progressive model of PD, with behavioural and cellular features that closely approximate those observed in patients. Chronic exposure to dietary phytosterol glucosides has been found to be neurotoxic. When fed to rats, β-sitosterol β-d-glucoside (BSSG) triggers the progressive development of parkinsonism, with clinical signs and histopathology beginning to appear following cessation of exposure to the neurotoxic insult and continuing to develop over several months. Here, we characterize the progressive nature of this model, its non-motor features, the anatomical spread of synucleinopathy, and response to levodopa administration. In Sprague Dawley rats, chronic BSSG feeding for 4 months triggered the progressive development of a parkinsonian phenotype and pathological events that evolved slowly over time, with neuronal loss beginning only after toxin exposure was terminated. At approximately 3 months following initiation of BSSG exposure, animals displayed the early emergence of an olfactory deficit, in the absence of significant dopaminergic nigral cell loss or locomotor deficits. Locomotor deficits developed gradually over time, initially appearing as locomotor asymmetry and developing into akinesia/bradykinesia, which was reversed by levodopa treatment. Late-stage cognitive impairment was observed in the form of spatial working memory deficits, as assessed by the radial arm maze. In addition to the progressive loss of TH+ cells in the substantia nigra, the appearance of proteinase K-resistant intracellular α-synuclein aggregates was also observed to develop progressively, appearing first in the olfactory bulb, then

  20. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients.

  1. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients. PMID:26319342

  2. A malfunctioning nasogastric feeding tube.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Emanuele; Costa, Antonio; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Pedrolli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A critical point of nasogastric feeding tube placement, potentially resulting in an unsafe and/or non-effective operation of the device, is the monitoring of its proper placement into the stomach. A properly obtained and interpreted radiograph is currently recommended to confirm placement. We reported the case of a 68-year-old demented woman referred for complicated dysphagia. A nasogastric tube was blindly inserted and its placement was confirmed by the radiologist. Enteral nutrition was initiated but the patient began to vomit immediately. After reviewing the radiograph it was understood that a gastric loop in the tube and its tip pointing upwards did not allow a safe infusion of the feeding formula. It is not enough having the radiologist reporting that a nasogastric feeding tube is placed in the stomach; the inclusion in the report of specific warnings on any potential cause of malfunctioning of the device should be considered. The presence of a gastric loop should be taken into account as a cause of potential malfunctioning.

  3. Feeding and Swallowing Dysfunction in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Brown, Linda; Copeland, Sara; Dailey, Scott; Downey, Debora; Petersen, Mario Cesar; Stimson, Cheryl; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Children with genetic syndromes frequently have feeding problems and swallowing dysfunction as a result of the complex interactions between anatomical, medical, physiological, and behavioral factors. Feeding problems associated with genetic disorders may also cause feeding to be unpleasant, negative, or even painful because of choking, coughing,…

  4. Caregivers feeding styles questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting l...

  5. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... pens are located. (b) Care should be taken to protect livestock unloaded en route at a point...

  6. Supplementary feeding restructures urban bird communities

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Josie A.; Jones, Darryl N.; Stanley, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Food availability is a primary driver of avian population regulation. However, few studies have considered the effects of what is essentially a massive supplementary feeding experiment: the practice of wild bird feeding. Bird feeding has been posited as an important factor influencing the structure of bird communities, especially in urban areas, although experimental evidence to support this is almost entirely lacking. We carried out an 18-mo experimental feeding study at 23 residential properties to investigate the effects of bird feeding on local urban avian assemblages. Our feeding regime was based on predominant urban feeding practices in our region. We used monthly bird surveys to compare avian community composition, species richness, and the densities of local species at feeding and nonfeeding properties. Avian community structure diverged at feeding properties and five of the commonest garden bird species were affected by the experimental feeding regime. Introduced birds particularly benefitted, with dramatic increases observed in the abundances of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) in particular. We also found evidence of a negative effect on the abundance of a native insectivore, the grey warbler (Gerygone igata). Almost all of the observed changes did not persist once feeding had ceased. Our study directly demonstrates that the human pastime of bird feeding substantially contributes to the structure of avian community in urban areas, potentially altering the balance between native and introduced species. PMID:25941361

  7. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  8. Supplementary feeding restructures urban bird communities.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Josie A; Beggs, Jacqueline R; Jones, Darryl N; Stanley, Margaret C

    2015-05-19

    Food availability is a primary driver of avian population regulation. However, few studies have considered the effects of what is essentially a massive supplementary feeding experiment: the practice of wild bird feeding. Bird feeding has been posited as an important factor influencing the structure of bird communities, especially in urban areas, although experimental evidence to support this is almost entirely lacking. We carried out an 18-mo experimental feeding study at 23 residential properties to investigate the effects of bird feeding on local urban avian assemblages. Our feeding regime was based on predominant urban feeding practices in our region. We used monthly bird surveys to compare avian community composition, species richness, and the densities of local species at feeding and nonfeeding properties. Avian community structure diverged at feeding properties and five of the commonest garden bird species were affected by the experimental feeding regime. Introduced birds particularly benefitted, with dramatic increases observed in the abundances of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) in particular. We also found evidence of a negative effect on the abundance of a native insectivore, the grey warbler (Gerygone igata). Almost all of the observed changes did not persist once feeding had ceased. Our study directly demonstrates that the human pastime of bird feeding substantially contributes to the structure of avian community in urban areas, potentially altering the balance between native and introduced species.

  9. [Acute mastoiditis in children].

    PubMed

    Kajosaari, Lauri; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Jero, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Acute mastoiditis in children develops when acute otitis media (AOM) spreads into the mastoid air cells inside the temporal bone. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings of AOM with simultaneous signs of infection in the mastoid area. The most common pathogen causing acute mastoiditis in children is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intravenous antimicrobial medication, tympanostomy and microbial sample are the cornerstones of the treatment. If a complication of mastoiditis is suspected, imaging studies are needed, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging. The most common complication of acute mastoiditis is a subperiosteal abscess. PMID:24660384

  10. Do we really need to panic in all acute vision loss in ICU? Acute angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Akal, Ali; Kucuk, Ahmet; Yalcin, Funda; Yalcin, Saban

    2014-08-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is a sight-threatening situation characterized by a sudden and marked rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) due to obstruction of aqueous humour outflow. Many local (ocular drops, nasal and nebulized agents) and systemic drugs (e.g. atropine, adrenaline, ephedrine, some psychoactive and antiepileptic drugs) that are widely used in intensive care units have the potential to precipitate such an acute attack. In this case report, we describe progressive visual loss due to acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) in a 59 year old female patient followed in the ICU due to a massive pulmonary embolism.

  11. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  12. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  13. Feeding Students in School: Providing Guidelines and Information on Safe Feeding Practices for Special Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sandra; And Others

    This manual provides guidelines for safe feeding practices for students with disabilities in Oregon schools. Stressed is the importance of distinguishing between feeding for the maintenance of health and feeding for the acquisition of skills. Individual sections cover: definitions of feeding programs; the school district responsibility; risks;…

  14. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for...

  15. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for...

  16. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for...

  17. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for...

  18. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for...

  19. Parent-Reported Feeding and Feeding Problems in a Sample of Dutch Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with their parents. Results show that three meals a day…

  20. [Immediate complications of feeding percutaneous gastrostomy: a 10-year experience].

    PubMed

    Chicharro, L; Puiggrós, C; Cots, I; Pérez-Portabella, C; Planas, M

    2009-01-01

    Percutaneous gastrostomy feeding tube (PG) may be beneficial in some patients, in others such as advanced dementia or rapidly progressive diseases its value is being questioned. Patient selection is important to identify those who will benefit from PG. This study aims to identify patients factors that may help in patient selection for PG. To analyse the characteristics of this patient's cohort and to describe the immediate complications of the procedure that we have defined as the ones happened in the first 30 days. To compare the two patient's group -with and without- immediate complications, non-parametric tests were used.

  1. Worster-Drought Syndrome: Poorly Recognized despite Severe and Persistent Difficulties with Feeding and Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Maria; Harris, Rebecca; Jolleff, Nicola; Price, Katie; Neville, Brian G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Worster-Drought syndrome (WDS), or congenital suprabulbar paresis, is a permanent movement disorder of the bulbar muscles causing persistent difficulties with swallowing, feeding, speech, and saliva control owing to a non-progressive disturbance in early brain development. As such, it falls within the cerebral palsies. The aim of this study…

  2. Breast-feeding and the Working Mother

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Verity H.; Grams, Garry D.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the resurgent popularity and known benefits of breast-feeding, most Canadian women do not consider the possibility of continuing breast-feeding when they return to work. This paper examines the reasons why many women make this choice, and what factors are involved in continuing to breast-feed. The long-range goal of our society should be to increase the percentage of mothers who continue to breast-feed their babies until at least six months of age, and to increase the percentage of places of employment where it is possible for an employee to continue to breast-feed after returning to work. PMID:21274179

  3. Is nasogastric suction necessary in acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Naeije, R; Salingret, E; Clumeck, N; De Troyer, A; Devis, G

    1978-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with mild to moderately severe acute pancreatitis were randomly allocated to treatment with or without nasogastric suction (27 and 31 patients respectively). Intravenous fluids and pethidine hydrochloride were also given. The two groups were comparable clinically at the start of the study. There were no differences between the two groups in the mean duration of the following features: abdominal pain or tenderness; absence of bowel movements; raised serum amylase concentration; time to resumption of oral feeding; and days in hospital. Prolonged hyperamylasaemia (serum amylase greater than 0.33 mU/l) occurred in one patient in the suction group and in three patients in the non-suction group. A mild recurrence of abdominal pain after resumption of oral feeding occurred in three patients in the suction group and in two patients in the non-suction group. Two patients in the suction group developed overt consumption coagulopathy and two others pulmonary complications. No patient in the non-suction group had complications. The findings suggest that most patients with mild to moderately severe acute pancreatitis do not benefit from nasogastric suction. The procedure should be elective rather than mandatory in treating this condition. PMID:698650

  4. Optimal feed locations and number of trays for distillation columns with multiple feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, J.; Grossmann, I.E. . Engineering Design Research Center)

    1993-11-01

    MINLP models for finding the optimal locations for the feeds and the number of trays required for a specified separation for a distillation column with multiple feeds are presented. Systems with ideal, Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models are considered. This rigorous procedure requires no assumptions concerning the order of the feeds-i.e., the disposition of any feed with respect to other feeds. The optimization step automatically determines the order and the locations.

  5. Complementary feeding patterns in Europe with a special focus on Italy.

    PubMed

    Caroli, M; Mele, R M; Tomaselli, M A; Cammisa, M; Longo, F; Attolini, E

    2012-10-01

    Early nutrition is considered to be crucial for development of persistent obesity in later life. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of complementary feeding patterns across European countries. Most European infants introduce solid foods earlier than 6 completed months of age as recommended by WHO. The commonest risk factors for early introduction of solid foods have been shown to be smoking mothers of young age, low SES and no breastfeeding. The foods most frequently introduced as first solids are fruit and cereals followed by other foods that vary depending on the country of residence and the infants' type of feeding. Insufficient updated information has been made available in Europe in terms of infants' nutrient intake during complementary feeding, as well as on the potential acute metabolic effects of complementary feeding. Websites, e-forums and blogs on complementary feeding are widely spread in the web. The recipes and daily menus published in food industry websites are often nutritionally incorrect. Baby led-weaning (BLW) is based on the principle that babies, upon being started on complementary foods, should be allowed to eat whatever food they want (regular family foods included) in its normal shape. No nutrient intake and metabolic data are nevertheless available about BLW. The current scenario in terms of our understanding of complementary feeding in Europe opens several new research avenues. Not using and not improving our current knowledge of nutrition to improve children's health represents an infringement of children's rights.

  6. Reasons for failure of breast-feeding counselling: mothers' perspectives in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haider, R; Kabir, I; Hamadani, J D; Habte, D

    1997-01-01

    During the hospitalization in the Dhaka hospital of the international Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, of a group of partially breast-fed infants aged 1-12 weeks who had been admitted with acute diarrhoea, their mothers were individually counselled by breast-feeding counsellors to start exclusive breast-feeding. The counselling was repeated 1 week later at home, and the women's infant-feeding practices were evaluated 2 weeks after their infants had been discharged from hospital. A total of 25% of the mothers failed to breast-feed exclusively despite having been counselled. The case studies of these mothers illustrate that although they generally complained about having "insufficient breast milk" various factors such as domineering grandmothers, lack of financial support by their husbands, too much housework, or disinterest contributed to their failure to breast-feed exclusively. While family support is essential for all lactating mothers, women with familial or financial problems require special attention and extra counselling sessions so that they can be helped to identify how to achieve and sustain exclusive breast-feeding. PMID:9277005

  7. LFCM vitrification technology. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, H.C.; Jarrett, J.H.; Minor, J.E.

    1986-09-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to document progress on liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1986 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, off-gas systems, process/product modeling and control, and supporting studies.

  8. Salmonella occurrence and Enterobacteriaceae counts in pig feed ingredients and compound feed from feed mills in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Burns, Anne Marie; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gardiner, Gillian E; McCabe, Evonne M; Walsh, Des; Mohammed, Manal; Grant, Jim; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of non-typhoidal Salmonellae and Enterobacteriaceae counts in raw ingredients and compound feeds sampled from feed mills manufacturing pig diets. Between November 2012 and September 2013, feed ingredients (n=340) and compound pig feed (n=313) samples were collected from five commercial feed mills and one home compounder at various locations throughout Ireland. Feed ingredients included cereals, vegetable protein sources and by-products of oil extraction and ethanol production. The compound feeds included meal and pelleted feed for all stages of pig production. Samples were analysed for Salmonella using standard enrichment procedures. Recovered isolates were serotyped, characterised for antibiotic resistance and subtyped by multi locus variance analysis (MLVA). Total Enterobacteriaceae counts were also performed. Salmonella was recovered from 2/338 (0.6%) ingredients (wheat and soybean meal), at two of the six mills. Salmonella was also detected in 3/317 (0.95%) compound feeds including pelleted feed which undergoes heat treatment. All isolates recovered from feed ingredient and compound feed samples were verified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype (4,[5],12:i:-) that lack the expression of flagellar Phase 2 antigens representing monophasic variants of Salmonella Typhimurium (4,[5],12:i:-). Isolates exhibited resistance to between two and seven antimicrobials. Two distinct MLVA profiles were observed, with the same profile recovered from both feed and ingredients, although these did not originate at the same mill. There was no relationship between the occurrence of Salmonella and a high Enterobacteriaceae counts but it was shown that Enterobacteriaceae counts were significantly lower in pelleted feed (heat treated) than in meal (no heat treatment) and that Enterobacteriaceae counts would be very useful indicator in HACPP programme. Overall, although the prevalence of Salmonella in pig feed and feed

  9. Learning numerical progressions.

    PubMed

    Vitz, P C; Hazan, D N

    1974-01-01

    Learning of simple numerical progressions and compound progressions formed by combining two or three simple progressions is investigated. In two experiments, time to solution was greater for compound vs simple progressions; greater the higher the progression's solution level; and greater if the progression consisted of large vs small numbers. A set of strategies is proposed to account for progression learning based on the assumption S computes differences between integers, differences between differences, etc., in a hierarchical fashion. Two measures of progression difficulty, each a summary of the strategies, are proposed; C1 is a count of the number of differences needed to solve a progression; C2 is the same count with higher level differences given more weight. The measures accurately predict in both experiments the mean time to solve 16 different progressions with C2 being somewhat superior. The measures also predict the learning difficulty of 10 other progressions reported by Bjork (1968).

  10. Rapidly Progressive Acute Pustular Secondary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mordorski, Breanne; Friedman, Adam; Han, George

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an uncommon diagnosis that may either present as a primary cutaneous process or develop secondary to systemic disease. It is imperative to distinguish between these two entities due to differences in treatment recommendations and prognosis. Here, their salient features will be reviewed. It is also important that clinicians recognize atypical clinical morphologies of cutaneous ALCL, including pustular lesions, which may masquerade as infectious or other inflammatory conditions, thereby delaying the onset of treatment. In this report, we present a case of secondary cutaneous ALCL associated with an atypical pustular morphology and an aggressive, fatal course.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1132-1135. PMID:27602978

  11. Feeding families and children--1776 to 1976. A bicentennial study.

    PubMed

    Lowenberg, M E; Lucas, B L

    1976-03-01

    The food heritage which Americans enjoy today owes its great diversity to the influences of many ethnic groups--the native Indians, Franciscan friars in California, Mexican-Americans, the British, the French, the Creoles, and later, northern Europeans and those of Mediterranean stock. Geography and climate in different parts of our large country and religious beliefs have also played a part in the development of our present-day, varied cuisine. In our colonial and pioneer days, most people raised their own food, but as our nation has become industrialized and urbanized, we find that now only 7 per cent of our population produces the food for our entire nation, and our consumers generally buy their food in stores. Even as late as the beginning of the twentieth century, infant feeding practices could be considered unscientific and primitive. Only in recent years have knowledge of metabolism and the rapid increase in nutritional science permitted progress in infant feeding. Problems of feeding families remain, nevertheless--different than in the early days of our nation--and their solution challenges American ingenuity. PMID:765385

  12. Feeding families and children--1776 to 1976. A bicentennial study.

    PubMed

    Lowenberg, M E; Lucas, B L

    1976-03-01

    The food heritage which Americans enjoy today owes its great diversity to the influences of many ethnic groups--the native Indians, Franciscan friars in California, Mexican-Americans, the British, the French, the Creoles, and later, northern Europeans and those of Mediterranean stock. Geography and climate in different parts of our large country and religious beliefs have also played a part in the development of our present-day, varied cuisine. In our colonial and pioneer days, most people raised their own food, but as our nation has become industrialized and urbanized, we find that now only 7 per cent of our population produces the food for our entire nation, and our consumers generally buy their food in stores. Even as late as the beginning of the twentieth century, infant feeding practices could be considered unscientific and primitive. Only in recent years have knowledge of metabolism and the rapid increase in nutritional science permitted progress in infant feeding. Problems of feeding families remain, nevertheless--different than in the early days of our nation--and their solution challenges American ingenuity.

  13. Pazopanib-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Hata, Hiroo; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Kawahata, Shuhei; Kubo, Kimitoshi; Imafuku, Keisuke; Kitamura, Shinya; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    Pazopanib is an oral angiogenesis inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, platelet-derived growth factor receptors, and c-Kit approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma. Nonselective kinase inhibitors, such as sunitinib and sorafenib, are known to be associated with acute pancreatitis. There are few case reports of severe acute pancreatitis induced by pazopanib treatment. We present a case of severe acute pancreatitis caused by pazopanib treatment for cutaneous angiosarcoma. The patient was an 82-year-old female diagnosed with cutaneous angiosarcoma. She had been refractory to docetaxel treatment and began pazopanib therapy. Three months after pazopanib treatment, CT imaging of the abdomen showed the swelling of the pancreas and surrounding soft tissue inflammation without abdominal pain. After she continued pazopanib treatment for 2 months, she presented with nausea and appetite loss. Abdominal CT showed the worsening of the surrounding soft tissue inflammation of the pancreas. Serum amylase and lipase levels were 296 and 177 IU/l, respectively. She was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis induced by pazopanib treatment and was managed conservatively with discontinuation of pazopanib, but the symptoms did not improve. Subsequently, an abdominal CT scan demonstrated the appearance of a pancreatic pseudocyst. She underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided pseudocyst drainage using a flared-end fully covered self-expandable metallic stent. Then, the symptoms resolved without recurrence. Due to the remarkable progress of molecular targeted therapy, the oncologist should know that acute pancreatitis was recognized as a potential adverse event of pazopanib treatment and could proceed to severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:26464570

  14. Hypernatraemic dehydration and acute gastro-enteritis in children.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ekteish, F; Zahraa, J

    2002-09-01

    A prospective study was conducted over a 2-year period to detect the effect of feeding practice, in particular the role of artificial milk formulae, in children admitted with hypernatraemic dehydration (serum sodium > or = 150 mmol/L) caused by acute gastro-enteritis, and to record morbidity and mortality in these patients. A control group was selected from infants and children admitted with gastro-enteritis but normal sodium levels. Sixty-seven children aged 18 days to 18 months (mean 6.9 months) were studied and represented 4.6% of all children admitted during the study with acute gastro-enteritis. Their mean serum sodium level was 161 mmol/L, the highest being 194 mmol/L. Twenty-four infants (36%) with hypernatraemic dehydration were on evaporated cow's milk powder compared with ten (15%) in the control group (p < 0.01). Five hypernatraemic infants (7.5%) were breastfed compared with 40 (60%) isonatraemic controls (p < 0.00001). Six children from the hypernatraemic group developed convulsions and two died. Hypernatraemic dehydration remains an important and serious complication in infants with gastro-enteritis in our area. Artificial milk feeding, particularly the use of evaporated cow's milk powder, is a predisposing factor for hypernatraemia in infantile gastro-enteritis. This study emphasises the importance of breast-feeding and the need to educate mothers to avoid giving evaporated cow's milk formulae to babies under 1 year of age if breast-feeding is not possible.

  15. Clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis☆

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Lisiane De Rosa; Gomes, Erissandra; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of clinical signs of dysphagia in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis, to compare the respiratory parameters during deglutition, and to ensure the intra- and inter- examiners agreement, as well as to accomplish intra and interexaminators concordance of the clinical evaluation of the deglutition. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 42 infants aged 0-12 months. The clinical evaluation was accompanied by measurements of respiratory rate and pulse oximetry. A score of swallowing disorders was designed to establish associations with other studied variables and to ensure the intra- and interrater agreement of clinical feeding assessments. Caregivers also completed a questionnaire about feeding difficulties. Significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Changes in the oral phase (prolonged pauses) and pharyngeal phase (wheezing, coughing and gagging) of swallowing were found. A significant increase in respiratory rate between pre- and post-feeding times was found, and it was determined that almost half of the infants had tachypnea. An association was observed between the swallowing disorder scores and a decrease in oxygen saturation. Infants whose caregivers reported feeding difficulties during hospitalization stated a significantly greater number of changes in the swallowing evaluation. The intra-rater agreement was considered to be very good. Conclusions: Infants with acute viral bronchiolitis displayed swallowing disorders in addition to changes in respiratory rate and measures of oxygen saturation. It is suggested, therefore, that infants displaying these risk factors have a higher probability of dysphagia. PMID:25479843

  16. Chronic Loss of Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Affects Motivational Aspects of Feeding in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Toonen, Pim W.; Afrasiab-Middelman, Anthonieke; Binnekade, Rob; Schetters, Dustin; Verheij, Michel M. M.; Sears, Robert M.; Homberg, Judith R.; Schoffelmeer, Anton N. M.; Adan, Roger A. H.; DiLeone, Ralph J.; De Vries, Taco J.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH). MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R) in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding. Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI), both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch+/+ or pmch−/− rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch−/− rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch−/− rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system. Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption. PMID

  17. Uncomplicated acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, R; Sande, M A

    2000-12-19

    Acute bronchitis is an acute cough illness in otherwise healthy adults that usually lasts 1 to 3 weeks. This review describes the pathophysiology of the condition and provides a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis. Practical points to be made are:1. Respiratory viruses appear to cause the large majority of cases of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.2. Pertussis infection is present in up to 10% to 20% of adults with cough illness of more than 2 to 3 weeks' duration. No clinical features distinguish pertussis from nonpertussis infection in adults who were immunized against pertussis as children.3. Transient bronchial hyperresponsiveness appears to be the predominant mechanism of the bothersome cough of acute bronchitis.4. Ruling out pneumonia is the primary objective in evaluating adults with acute cough illness in whom comorbid conditions and occult asthma are absent or unlikely. In the absence of abnormalities in vital signs (heart rate > 100 beats/min, respiratory rate > 24 breaths/min, and oral body temperature > 38 degrees C), the likelihood of pneumonia is very low.5. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials do not support routine antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.6. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have shown that inhaled albuterol decreases the duration of cough in adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis.7. Intervention studies suggest that antibiotic treatment of acute bronchitis can be reduced by using a combination of patient and physician education. Decreased rates of antibiotic treatment are not associated with increased utilization, return visits, or dissatisfaction with care.

  18. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Haller, Liran Y; Verhille, Christine E; Fangue, Nann A; Hung, Silas S O

    2015-10-01

    A multistressor study was conducted to investigate interactive effects of nutritional status and salinity on osmoregulation of juvenile white sturgeon. Our hypothesis was that lower nutritional status would decrease the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. A four-week feed restriction (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% of optimum feeding rate: OFR defined as the rate (% body weight per day) at which growth is maximal) trial was performed, and relevant indices of nutritional status were measured. Following the trial, sturgeon were acutely exposed to various salinities (0, 8, 16, 24 ppt) for 120 h, and relevant osmoregulatory measurements were made at 12, 72, and 120 h post-salinity exposures. The feed-restriction trial resulted in a graded nutritional response with the most feed-restricted group (12.5% OFR) showing the lowest nutritional status. The salinity exposure trial showed clear evidence that lower nutritional status decreased the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. Increasing salinities resulted in significant alterations in osmoregulatory indices of all feeding groups; however, a significantly slower acclimatory response to 24 ppt was detected in the most feed-restricted group compared to the non-feed-restricted group (100% OFR). Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of nutritional status on the relationship between osmoregulatory measurements and body size showed that there was a significant negative relationship between osmoregulatory performance and body size within the most feed-restricted group. This suggests that there is a certain body size range (200-300 g based on our finding) where juvenile white sturgeon can maximize osmoregulatory capacity at a salinity of 24 ppt. PMID:26123778

  19. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Haller, Liran Y; Verhille, Christine E; Fangue, Nann A; Hung, Silas S O

    2015-10-01

    A multistressor study was conducted to investigate interactive effects of nutritional status and salinity on osmoregulation of juvenile white sturgeon. Our hypothesis was that lower nutritional status would decrease the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. A four-week feed restriction (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% of optimum feeding rate: OFR defined as the rate (% body weight per day) at which growth is maximal) trial was performed, and relevant indices of nutritional status were measured. Following the trial, sturgeon were acutely exposed to various salinities (0, 8, 16, 24 ppt) for 120 h, and relevant osmoregulatory measurements were made at 12, 72, and 120 h post-salinity exposures. The feed-restriction trial resulted in a graded nutritional response with the most feed-restricted group (12.5% OFR) showing the lowest nutritional status. The salinity exposure trial showed clear evidence that lower nutritional status decreased the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. Increasing salinities resulted in significant alterations in osmoregulatory indices of all feeding groups; however, a significantly slower acclimatory response to 24 ppt was detected in the most feed-restricted group compared to the non-feed-restricted group (100% OFR). Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of nutritional status on the relationship between osmoregulatory measurements and body size showed that there was a significant negative relationship between osmoregulatory performance and body size within the most feed-restricted group. This suggests that there is a certain body size range (200-300 g based on our finding) where juvenile white sturgeon can maximize osmoregulatory capacity at a salinity of 24 ppt.

  20. Rehabilitation of the Ankle after Acute Sprain or Chronic Instability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattacola, Carl G.; Dwyer, Maureen K.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines rehabilitation concepts applicable to acute and chronic ankle injury, providing evidence for current techniques used in ankle rehabilitation and describing a functional rehabilitation program that progresses from basic to advanced, while taking into account empirical data from the literature and clinical practice. The article notes that…

  1. Optimizing the Treatment of Acute Duct-Destructive Pancreatitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhakiev, Bazylbek S.; Karsakbayev, Uteugali G.; Kelimberdiev, Mersaid S.; ?uhamedgalieva, Bodagoz M.; K?nonenko, Aleksander F.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new methods for treating duct-destructive pancreatitis is a relevant problem. Endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress that accompany acute pancreatitis often progress even after surgery, which forces one to search for additional possibilities of preventing these severe consequences. This research studied the effect of small…

  2. Acute mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sise, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is uncommon and always occurs in the setting of preexisting comorbidities. Mortality rates remain high. The 4 major types of acute mesenteric ischemia are acute superior mesenteric artery thromboembolic occlusion, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, including ischemic colitis. Delays in diagnosis are common and associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis requires attention to history and physical examination, a high index of suspicion, and early contract CT scanning. Selective use of nonoperative therapy has an important role in nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia of the small bowel and colon.

  3. Beneficial uses program. Progress report, period ending March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Progress is reported on dried sewage sludge irradiation, on irradiated sludge use as cattle feed, the inactivation of enteric organisms, the use of irradiation for citrus fruit disinfestation, and the effects of sludge addition on herbicide behavior in soils under laboratory conditions. (LCL)

  4. [Acute interstitial pneumonia: diagnostic approach and management].

    PubMed

    Feuillet, S; Tazi, A

    2011-06-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) encompasses a spectrum of pulmonary disorders characterized by involvement of the lung interstitium and distal airways (bronchioles and alveoli). The onset of respiratory symptoms is acute, most often within two weeks. Most AIP take place de novo, but sometimes represent an acute exacerbation of chronic lung disease. The clinical presentation of AIP comprises rapidly progressive dyspnoea, associated sometimes with cough, fever, myalgia and asthenia. Chest radiography shows diffuse pulmonary opacities. The associated hypoxemia may be severe enough to cause acute respiratory failure. Underlying aetiologies are numerous and variable, particularly in relation to the underlying immune status of the host. Various histopathological entities may be responsible for AIP although diffuse alveolar damage is the predominant pattern. The diagnostic approach to a patient presenting with AIP is to try to determine the most likely underlying histopathological pattern and to search for a precise aetiology. It relies mainly on a meticulous clinical evaluation and accurate biological investigation, essentially guided by the results of bronchoalveolar lavage performed in an area identified by abnormalities on high resolution computed tomography of the lungs. Initial therapeutic management includes symptomatic measures, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment adapted to the clinical context, frequently combined with systemic corticosteroid therapy.

  5. A case of acute pancreatitis secondary to spinal cord injury. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lijun; Sun, Yun; Lu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Pinjie; Yin, Lu; Li, Hui; Hua, Tianfeng; Zheng, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent and potentially life-threatening disease with high morbidity and mortality. The overall mortality of AP is approximately 5%. Alcohol consumption and gallstones are the main etiology of AP. Hypertriglyceridemia, idiosyncratic reactions to drugs, anatomic alterations and ascaris lumbricoides can also give rise to AP. Although spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause AP, however, the case of induced by cervical spine surgery has not been reported. A 61-year-old man with quadriplegic and respiratory distress received cervical spine surgery for spinal cervical spondylosis and multi-stage longitudinal ligament. He was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) after tracheotomy for progressive dyspnea, one day after the cervical spine surgery. The patient was diagnosed with AP, in the absence of any identifiable causes of pancreatitis. He was treated with intravenous fluids, no oral feeding, enteral and parenteral nutrition, antibiotic and mechanical ventilation. The patient's condition gradually improved after the treatment. This case describes a case of postoperative cervical spondylosis that led to AP. In this report, we highlight the importance of early diagnosis and subsequent appropriate treatment. We conclude that the outcome can be favorable, if the treatment is appropriate. PMID:26707037

  6. Acute necrotizing colitis with pneumatosis intestinalis in an Amazonian manatee calf.

    PubMed

    Guerra Neto, Guilherme; Galvão Bueno, Marina; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otavio; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos; Plácido Guimarães, Juliana; Bossart, Gregory D; Marmontel, Miriam

    2016-08-01

    On 25 January 2014, a 1 mo old female Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis calf weighing 12 kg was rescued by air transport in Guajará, Brazil, and transferred to Mamirauá Institute's Community-based Amazonian Manatee Rehabilitation Center. The calf presented piercing/cutting lesions on the back, neck, and head, in addition to dehydration and intermittent involuntary buoyancy. X-ray analysis revealed a large amount of gases in the gastrointestinal tract. Daily procedures included wound cleaning and dressing, clinical and laboratory monitoring, treatment for intestinal tympanism, and artificial feeding. Adaptation to the nursing formula included 2 kinds of whole milk. Up to 20 d post-rescue the calf presented appetite, was active, and gained weight progressively. Past this period the calf started losing weight and presented constant involuntary buoyancy and died after 41 d in rehabilitation. The major findings at necropsy were pneumatosis intestinalis in cecum and colon, pulmonary edema, and hepatomegaly. The microscopic examination revealed pyogranulomatous and necrohemohrragic colitis with multinucleated giant cells, acute multifocal lymphadenitis with lymphoid depletion in cortical and paramedullary regions of mesenteric lymph nodes, and diffuse severe acinar atrophy of the pancreas. Anaerobic cultures of fragments of cecum and colon revealed colonies genotyped as Clostridium perfringens type A. We speculate that compromised immunity, thermoregulatory failure, and intolerance to artificial diet may have been contributing factors to the infection, leading to enterotoxemia and death. PMID:27503914

  7. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  8. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  9. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  10. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  11. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  12. Antecedent interventions for pediatric feeding problems.

    PubMed

    Seubert, Christine; Fryling, Mitch J; Wallace, Michele D; Jiminez, Agustin R; Meier, Aimee E

    2014-01-01

    Behavior analysts have implemented and evaluated several antecedent strategies for treating pediatric feeding problems. The extent to which antecedent interventions are beneficial, however, is not yet clear. This review examines recent research in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (2000-2012) that evaluated antecedent interventions. We found that the feeding diagnosis (food refusal vs. food selectivity) and presence of feeding-related medical conditions were related to the differential implementation of antecedent interventions.

  13. Two-feed distillation: Same-composition feeds with different enthalpies

    SciTech Connect

    Wankat, P.C.; Kessler, D.P.

    1993-12-01

    Additional separation can be achieved in flash distillation by separating the liquid feed into two parts, vaporizing only one part, and feeding these (now) two feeds to the top and bottom of a column. The driving force for the additional separation is the difference in chemical potential between liquid and vapor feeds with the same composition. This idea of using two feeds with the same composition but different enthalpies (herein called two-enthalpy feed) is applied to stripping and enriching columns and fractional distillation. Two-enthalpy-feed distillation, a new method for using waste heat effectively, should be useful in heat-integrated plants. When an ordinary distillation column has a two-phase feed, the use of two-enthalpy feed increases separation (same N and L/D), or decreases the number of stages (same L/D, x{sub D}, and x{sub B}), or decreases the reflux ratio (same N, x{sub D}, and x{sub B}). The two-enthalpy-feed system has a lower minimum reflux ratio than ordinary distillation with a two-phase feed. For other types of feed, two-enthalpy-feed distillation requires either less energy or energy at a less extreme temperature (i.e., lower temperature for reboilers or higher temperature for condensers) than ordinary distillation. Examples are presented for constant relative volatilities, hydrocarbon systems, and ethanol-water.

  14. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. PMID:27197978

  15. Restricted feeding facilitates time-place learning in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lukoyanov, Nikolai V; Pereira, Pedro A; Mesquita, Rui M; Andrade, José P

    2002-08-21

    Many species can acquire time-of-day discrimination when tested in food reinforced place learning tasks. It is believed that this type of learning is dependent upon the ability of animals to consult their internal circadian pacemakers entrained by various environmental zeitgebers, such as light-dark cycles and scheduled restricted feeding. In the present study, we examined, (1) whether rats can acquire time-of-day discrimination in an aversively motivated water maze task wherein an escape platform is located in one position in the morning and in another position in the afternoon; (2) whether time-of-day cues provided by the light- and feeding-entrainable pacemakers may have divergent impacts upon the ability of rats to learn this task. Two groups of rats, both maintained on 12-h light:12-h dark cycle, were used; in one group, animals had free access to food, whereas in the other, they were subjected to a restricted feeding protocol (60% of food consumed by rats fed ad libitum, once daily). Despite the heightened difficulty of the task, food-restricted rats were apparently able to acquire associations between two different platform positions and two different times of day, as indicated by the fact that the percentage of discrimination errors in this group declined progressively, as a function of training, and stabilized at the level of 22+/-9%. In contrast, rats that were fed ad libitum, even after extensive training, failed to perform the task above level of chance. These data indicate that time-place learning is a universal, reward-nonspecific, cognitive phenomenon. They furthermore suggest that the ability of animals to integrate spatial and temporal information can be dependent on the access to timing stimuli provided by the feeding-entrainable circadian system.

  16. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported.

  17. Successful breast feeding: the mother's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M J; Morse, J M; Prowse, M

    1985-05-01

    A content analysis of 141 articles on breast feeding by discipline revealed differences in the factors considered necessary for breast feeding success and in the criteria used to determine success. Whereas medical articles focused on maternal factors prenatally and infant health post-natally, or the length of time breast feeding was maintained, lay articles focused on the relationship of the mother with her infant (the nursing couple) and the mother's ability to manage breast feeding within the family context. The implications of this discrepancy for nursing practice and research are discussed.

  18. Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, W.O.; Ternes, R.L.

    1984-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO/sub 2/ or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW feed. This initially had exhibited nearly worst-case flow and clogging properties, but was transformed into a flowable, resuspendable (nonclogging) feed. While each has advantages and disadvantages, the following three specific alternatives proved successful: addition of a polyelectrolyte in 2000 ppM concentration to feed slurry; substitution of a 49 wt % SiO/sub 2/ colloidal suspension (approx. 10-micron particle size) for the -325 mesh (less than or equal to 44-micron particle size) raw-chemical SiO/sub 2/; and increase of nitric acid content from the reference 1.06 M to optimum 1.35 M. The first method, polymer-induced bridging flocculation, results in a high sediment volume, nonclogging CAW feed. The second method, involving the use of colloidal silica particles results in a nonsedimenting feed that when left unagitated forms a gel. The third method, increase in feed acidity, results in a highly resuspendable (nonclogging) melter feed. Further research is therefore required to determine which of the three alternatives is the preferred method of achieving rheological control of CAW melter feeds.

  19. Feeding corn milling byproducts to feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Bremer, Virgil R

    2007-07-01

    Corn milling byproducts are expected to increase dramatically in supply as the ethanol industry expands. Distillers grains, corn gluten feed, or a combination of both byproducts offer many feeding options when included in feedlot rations. These byproduct feeds may effectively improve cattle performance and operation profitability. When these byproducts are fed in feedlot diets, adjustments to grain processing method and roughage level may improve cattle performance. Innovative storage methods for wet byproducts and the use of dried byproducts offer small operations flexibility when using byproducts. As new byproducts are developed by ethanol plants, they should be evaluated with performance data to determine their product-specific feeding values. PMID:17606148

  20. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS.

  1. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS. PMID:7852023

  2. High voltage feed through bushing

    DOEpatents

    Brucker, J.P.

    1993-04-06

    A feed through bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  3. Brain histamine and feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yamatodani, A

    2001-10-15

    Food intake is regulated by many endogenous substances, such as peptides and neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Based on the clinical observation that some antidepressants and antipsychotics with antihistaminic activity stimulate food intake and increase body weight, histamine has been thought to be an anorectic agent. Several lines of evidence suggest that histamine decreases food intake via H(1)-receptors (H1R) at least in the ventromedial hypothalamus or the paraventricular nucleus. Recently, mutant mice lacking H1R were generated and the interaction between the histaminergic system and leptin-induced suppression of food intake was evidenced by using these mice. In regulating food intake, histamine is indicated to functionally associate with neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, and bombesin. However, the question remained as to why the circadian variation in the level of histamine is inversely correlated to the pattern of feeding.

  4. Optimal concentrations in nectar feeding

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonjung; Gilet, Tristan; Bush, John W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Nectar drinkers must feed quickly and efficiently due to the threat of predation. While the sweetest nectar offers the greatest energetic rewards, the sharp increase of viscosity with sugar concentration makes it the most difficult to transport. We here demonstrate that the sugar concentration that optimizes energy transport depends exclusively on the drinking technique employed. We identify three nectar drinking techniques: active suction, capillary suction, and viscous dipping. For each, we deduce the dependence of the volume intake rate on the nectar viscosity and thus infer an optimal sugar concentration consistent with laboratory measurements. Our results provide the first rationale for why suction feeders typically pollinate flowers with lower sugar concentration nectar than their counterparts that use viscous dipping. PMID:21949358

  5. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  6. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested clinically by abdominal pain, nausea and dehydration that is usually self-limiting ... room for evaluation should they develop any abnormal abdominal pain symptoms. Conclusions While a rare event, acute pancreatitis ...

  7. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  8. Treatment of acute gout.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the treatment of acute gout. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments, monotherapy versus combination therapy, suggested recommendations, guidelines for treatment, and drugs under development are discussed.

  9. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  10. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  11. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  12. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  13. Hepatitis C: progress and problems.

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, J A

    1994-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV), a single-stranded RNA virus, is the major cause of posttransfusion hepatitis. HCV isolates differ in nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Nucleotide changes are concentrated in hypervariable regions and may be related to immune selection. In most immunocompetent persons, HCV infection is diagnosed serologically, using antigens from conserved regions. Amplification of RNA may be necessary to detect infection in immunosuppressed patients. Transmission by known parenteral routes is frequent; other means of spread are less common and may represent inapparent, percutaneous dissemination. Infection can lead to classical acute hepatitis, but most infected persons have no history of acute disease. Once infected, most individuals apparently remain carriers of the virus, with varying degrees of hepatocyte damage and fibrosis ensuing. Chronic hepatitis may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, disease progression varies widely, from less than 2 years to cirrhosis in some patients to more than 30 years with only chronic hepatitis in others. Determinants important in deciding outcome are unknown. Alpha interferon, which results in sustained remission in selected patients, is the only available therapy. Long-term benefits from such therapy have not been demonstrated. Prevention of HCV infection by vaccination is likely to be challenging if ongoing viral mutation results in escape from neutralization and clearance. PMID:7834603

  14. Progression of sugar cataract in the dog.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Takahashi, Y; Wyman, M; Kador, P F

    1991-05-01

    Young beagle dogs were fed a 30% galactose diet, with or without the aldose reductase inhibitors sorbinil or M79175. Cataract formation was monitored by indirect ophthalmoscope and hand-held slit-lamp microscopy and documented by retroillumination photography. In these dogs, the first sign of cataract development was an accentuation of the anterior and posterior lens sutures (1 month after feeding), then the appearance of cortical vacuoles (3 months after feeding), and finally, the formation of predominantly equatorial cortical opacities toward the posterior cortices (4-6 months after feeding). After long-term galactose feeding, a progressive, irregular, clear zone formed at the cortical equatorial regions. Light microscopic examination of these lenses shows that the cataracts are osmotic, many of the lens fibers appear to be swollen or ruptured, and vacuoles are seen near the bow region. Moreover, these histologic changes were reduced in a dose-dependent manner in galactose-fed dogs concomitantly treated with the aldose reductase inhibitors sorbinil or M79175. The osmotic nature of these cataracts and the observation that their formation can be reduced in a dose-dependent manner by aldose reductase inhibitors are consistent with the concept that the aldose-reductase catalyzed formation of polar sugar alcohols (polyols) initiates sugar cataract formation in the dog.

  15. Acute respiratory failure following severe arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, C; Davies, S; McGowan, T; Schorer, A; Drage, C

    1979-11-01

    A 47-year-old man had an episode of severe respiratory failure after acute intoxication with arsenic. Features of the initial clinical presentation included nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, acute psychosis, diffuse skin rash, and marked pancytopenia. A peripheral neuropathy then developed which resulted in severe weakness of all muscles of the limbs, the shoulder and pelvis girdles, and the trunk. The neuropathy continued to progress despite treatment with dimercaprol (BAL in oil). Five weeks after the initial exposure, the patient was no longer able to maintain adquate ventilation and required mechanical ventilatory support. Improvement in the patient's neuromuscular status permitted successful weaning from the ventilator after one month of mechanical ventilation. Long-term follow-up revealed no further respiratory difficulty and slow improvement in the strength of the peripheral muscles.

  16. Management of acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Sheeba

    2007-01-01

    Heart failure, a debilitating complex clinical syndrome, affects nearly 5 million people in the United States and presents a heavy socioeconomic burden. Neurohormonal abnormalities contribute to the pathophysiology of heart failure. Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) has emerged as a major health problem associated with poor prognosis, increased costs related to care, reduced quality of life, and frequent readmissions. Symptoms of ADHF are primarily related to congestion and/or low perfusion states. The use of biomakers such as B-natriuretic peptides is useful in distinguishing between cardiac and noncardiac causes of symptoms. Treatment for ADHF begins with identification and treatment of precipitating factors for acute decompensation. Initial goal of therapy is focused on symptom management followed by interventions that delay disease progression, reduce readmission, and prolong survival. PMID:17356351

  17. Deja vu: the evolution of feeding morphologies in the Carnivora.

    PubMed

    Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2007-07-01

    The fossil record of the order Carnivora extends back at least 60 million years and documents a remarkable history of adaptive radiation characterized by the repeated, independent evolution of similar feeding morphologies in distinct clades. Within the order, convergence is apparent in the iterative appearance of a variety of ecomorphs, including cat-like, hyena-like, and wolf-like hypercarnivores, as well as a variety of less carnivorous forms, such as foxes, raccoons, and ursids. The iteration of similar forms has multiple causes. First, there are a limited number of ways to ecologically partition the carnivore niche, and second, the material properties of animal tissues (muscle, skin, bone) have not changed over the Cenozoic. Consequently, similar craniodental adaptations for feeding on different proportions of animal versus plant tissues evolve repeatedly. The extent of convergence in craniodental form can be striking, affecting skull proportions and overall shape, as well as dental morphology. The tendency to evolve highly convergent ecomorphs is most apparent among feeding extremes, such as sabertooths and bone-crackers where performance requirements tend to be more acute. A survey of the fossil record indicates that large hypercarnivores evolve frequently, often in response to ecological opportunity afforded by the decline or extinction of previously dominant hypercarnivorous taxa. While the evolution of large size and carnivory may be favored at the individual level, it can lead to a macroevolutionary ratchet, wherein dietary specialization and reduced population densities result in a greater vulnerability to extinction. As a result of these opposing forces, the fossil record of Carnivora is dominated by successive clades of hypercarnivores that diversify and decline, only to be replaced by new hypercarnivorous clades. This has produced a marvelous set of natural experiments in the evolution of similar ecomorphs, each of which start from phylogenetically

  18. Ischaemic Markers in Acute Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Sushanta Kumar; Nanda, Rachita; Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nayak, Parsuram

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatic injury of varied aetiology may progress to Acute Liver Failure (ALF). Compromised microcirculation is thought to be a deciding factor of hepatic hypoxia may be involved in disease progression that needs early detection. Ischaemia markers like serum Ischaemia- modified albumin (IMA), ALT-LDH ratio and ALT-LDH index have been suggested for its detection at early stage. Aim To find out the association of Ischaemia markers like serum IMA, ALT-LDH ratio and ALT-LDH index in acute hepatic injury cases. Materials and Methods Forty one diagnosed acute liver injury cases of varied aetiology admitted in Department of Medicine, and Gastroenterology of SCB Medical College, Cuttack were enrolled in the study along with 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. Blood collected at time of admission and at time of discharge (1st day and 7th day) were evaluated for FPG, RFT, LFT, Serum Albumin along with serum LDH, IMA, PT-INR and platelet count. Result Serum bilirubin, hepatic enzymes, IMA, PT-INR was more markedly raised in cases than controls on the 1st day of admission. ALT-LDH ratio and index were significantly low in complicated cases. However, on responding to treatment the ALT-LDH index on 7th day registered a rise in comparison to the 1st day, while serum IMA revealed an insignificant decline showing improvement in hepatic hypoxia. ALT-LDH ratio remains more or less same on response to treatment. Conclusion Serum IMA and ALT-LDH Index reveals association with disease process in Acute Hepatic Injury cases both clinically and biochemically and can be used as supportive parameters for the diagnosis of disease process. PMID:27190791

  19. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, July-September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, H.C.; Allen, C.R.; Andersen, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Dierks, R.D.; Faletti, D.W.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Goles, R.W.; Kuhn, W.L.; Nakaoka, R.K.: Perez, J.M Jr.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Reimus, P.W.

    1987-06-01

    Individual papers are processed separately for the data bases. This report documents progress on liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, off-gas systems, and process/product modeling and control is discussed.

  20. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, October-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R.A.; Allen, C.R.; Powell, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the progress in developing, testing, applying, and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1987 is discussed. Topics include melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, off-gas systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling.

  1. Waveguide feed network for a monopulse feed with independent optimization of the sum and difference channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrypnik, L. V.; Tatarkin, V. T.

    1993-06-01

    A feed network is proposed that makes it possible to form the difference pattern of a monopulse feed of circular polarization independently of the sum or minimum number (eight) of the single-mode radiators. An analysis is made of a compact waveguide feed network for an eight-horn monopulse feed based on eight-arm bridges with sector and coaxial-sector waveguides.

  2. Suitability of feeding and chewing time for estimation of feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pahl, C; Hartung, E; Grothmann, A; Mahlkow-Nerge, K; Haeussermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of feeding and rumination behaviour can provide useful information for dairy herd management. The feeding behaviour of dairy cows can be recorded by different techniques, such as video cameras, weighing troughs or chewing sensors. Among feeding characteristics, individual feed intake of cows is of utmost interest, but as weighing troughs have high space and cost requirements they are used primarily in research studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether records on feeding time or chewing activity or a combination of both contain enough information to estimate feed intake with sufficient accuracy. Feed intake and feeding time per cow were recorded by means of weighing troughs. Concurrently, chewing activity of seven cows was recorded by MSR-ART pressure sensors during five to eight measuring days per cow. Feeding and chewing behaviour were evaluated in time slots (1 min) and additionally assigned to feeding bouts for further analysis. The 1 min time slots were classified into feeding/no feeding or chewing/no chewing by the two systems, and agreement was found in 92.2% of the records. On average, cows spent 270±39 min/day at the feeding troughs and chewed 262±48 min/day. The average fresh matter intake (FMI) was 49.6±5.1 kg/day. Feed intake was divided into 9.7 bouts/day during which cows fed in average 27.8±21.7 min/bout and chewed 27.0±23.1 min/bout. The correlation between FMI and feeding time was r=0.891 and between FMI and chewing time r=0.780 overall cows. Hence, both systems delivered suitable information for estimating feed intake.

  3. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children. PMID:27613655

  4. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.

  5. Acute bilateral isolated foot drop: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kertmen, H.; Gürer, B.; Yimaz, E. R.; Sekerci, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Foot drop is defined as the weakness of the foot and ankle dorsiflexion. Acute unilateral foot drop is a well-documented entity, whereas bilateral foot drop is rarely documented. Slowly progressing bilateral foot drop may occur with various metabolic causes, parasagittal intracranial pathologies, and cauda equina syndrome. Acute onset of bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation is extremely rare. Here we present two cases of acute bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation. The first patient was a 45-year-old man presented with acute bilateral foot drop, without any sign of the cauda equina syndrome. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging of the patient revealed L4-5 disc herniation. To our knowledge, this is the first presented case of acute bilateral foot drop without any signs of cauda equina syndrome caused by L4-5 disc herniation. The second patient was a 50-year-old man who was also presented with acute bilateral foot drop, and had T12-L1 disc herniation with intradural extension. Also this is the first presented case of T12-L1 disc herniation with intradural extension causing acute bilateral foot drop. We performed emergent decompressive laminectomy to both of the patients and extrude disc materials were excised. Both of the patients were recovered with favorable outcome. PMID:25972945

  6. Acute Pancreatitis: The Role of Imaging and Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, Michael M.; Lucey, Brian C.; Gervais, Debra A.; Mueller, Peter R.

    2004-09-15

    Acute pancreatitis can manifest as a benign condition with minimal abdominal pain and hyperamylasemia or can have a fulminant course, which can be life-threatening usually due to the development of infected pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Fortunately, 70-80% of patients with acute pancreatitis have a benign self-limiting course. The initial 24-48 hours after the initial diagnosis is usually the period that determines the subsequent course, and for many of the 20-30% of patients who subsequently have a fulminant course, this becomes apparent within this time frame. With reference to long-term outcome following acute pancreatitis, most cases recover without long-term sequelae with only a minority of cases progressing to chronic pancreatitis. In the initial management of acute pancreatitis, assessment of metabolic disturbances and systemic organ dysfunction is critical. However, the advent and continued refinement of cross-sectional imaging modalities over the past two decades has led to a prominent role for diagnostic imaging in assessing acute pancreatitis. Furthermore, these cross-sectional imaging modalities have enabled the development of diagnostic and therapeutic interventional techniques in the hands of radiologists. In this article we review the diagnostic features of acute pancreatitis, the clinical staging systems, complications and the role of imaging. The role of interventional radiology techniques in the management of acute pancreatitis will be discussed as well as potential complications associated with these treatments.

  7. Leptin mediates discriminate response to feed restriction in feed efficient pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mechanisms that control feed efficiency (FE) and feed intake are not well understood. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of FE, in which low RFI designates high FE. Transcriptional profiling coupled with serum metabolite analyses were used to identify genes and pathways that respond to ...

  8. Invited review: improving feed efficiency in dairy production: challenges and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E

    2015-03-01

    Despite substantial advances in milk production efficiency of dairy cattle over the last 50 years, rising feed costs remain a significant threat to producer profitability. There also is a greater emphasis being placed on reducing the negative impacts of dairy production on the environment; thus means to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and nutrient losses to the environment associated with cattle production are being sought. Improving feed efficiency among dairy cattle herds offers an opportunity to address both of these issues for the dairy industry. However, the best means to assess feed efficiency and make genetic progress in efficiency-related traits among lactating cows without negatively impacting other economically important traits is not entirely obvious. In this review, multiple measurements of feed efficiency for lactating cows are described, as well as the heritability of the traits and their genetic and phenotypic correlations with other production traits. The measure of feed efficiency, residual feed intake is discussed in detail in terms of the benefits for its selection, how it could be assessed in large commercial populations, as well as biological mechanisms contributing to its variation among cows, as it has become a commonly used method to estimate efficiency in the recent scientific literature.

  9. Invited review: improving feed efficiency in dairy production: challenges and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E

    2015-03-01

    Despite substantial advances in milk production efficiency of dairy cattle over the last 50 years, rising feed costs remain a significant threat to producer profitability. There also is a greater emphasis being placed on reducing the negative impacts of dairy production on the environment; thus means to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and nutrient losses to the environment associated with cattle production are being sought. Improving feed efficiency among dairy cattle herds offers an opportunity to address both of these issues for the dairy industry. However, the best means to assess feed efficiency and make genetic progress in efficiency-related traits among lactating cows without negatively impacting other economically important traits is not entirely obvious. In this review, multiple measurements of feed efficiency for lactating cows are described, as well as the heritability of the traits and their genetic and phenotypic correlations with other production traits. The measure of feed efficiency, residual feed intake is discussed in detail in terms of the benefits for its selection, how it could be assessed in large commercial populations, as well as biological mechanisms contributing to its variation among cows, as it has become a commonly used method to estimate efficiency in the recent scientific literature. PMID:25482927

  10. For the Classroom: Filter Feeding in Barnacles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Lois

    1983-01-01

    Provided is a high school activity in which students observe the filter feeding of barnacles and the effects of a variety of changing parameters upon their feeding process. Includes list of materials needed and procedures necessary to accomplish the activity. (JN)

  11. Coplanar waveguide feed for microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. L.; Williams, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW) loop is shown to be an effective low VSWR feed for microstrip antennas. The low VSWR transition between the CPW and the antenna is obtained without the use of a matching circuit, and it is relatively insensitive to the position of the antenna and the feed.

  12. Breast feeding twins and high multiples.

    PubMed

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2006-09-01

    Breast feeding offers major health advantages for all infants, whether born singleton or from multiple pregnancy. Adequate quantity and quality of milk production has been documented even for high multiples. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends, and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast feeding of multiples possible.

  13. Radioimmunoassay for hygromycin B in feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Foglesong, M.A.; LeFeber, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay developed for the determination of hygromycin B in feed gave a coefficient of variation of 3%. Results showed 97-103% recovery of the antibiotic from various feed mixtures. Specificity studies with rabbit-anti-hygromycin B antibody showed insignificant cross reactivity with other antibiotics commonly used in combination with hygromycin B.

  14. Risk analysis of poultry feed costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction and Aims. Poultry feed continues to be a significant expense in poultry production as the cost of corn and soybean meals remain elevated. Alternative meals are under investigation to reduce production costs while maintaining high feed conversion rates and body weight gain. Two promising...

  15. Feeding activities of black skimmers in Guyana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Discrepancies appear in the literature concerning the influence of time of day and tide on feeding activities of Black Skimmers (Rhynchops niger). Observations from Guyana, South America, suggest that skimmers do feed during the day, but are strongly cued to receding tides.

  16. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must...

  17. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must...

  18. 9 CFR 3.29 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feeding. 3.29 Section 3.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.29 Feeding. (a) Guinea pigs and hamsters shall be...

  19. 9 CFR 3.29 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feeding. 3.29 Section 3.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.29 Feeding. (a) Guinea pigs and hamsters shall be...

  20. 9 CFR 3.29 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feeding. 3.29 Section 3.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.29 Feeding. (a) Guinea pigs and hamsters shall be...

  1. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must...

  2. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must...

  3. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must...

  4. WHAT DOES IT TAKE TO SELL FEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALBRACHT, JAMES J.

    TO DETERMINE THE VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES NECESSARY FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF NINE ESSENTIAL SALES ACTIVITIES IN THE FEED INDUSTRY, A JURY OF 24 FEED DEALERS, SALES TRAINING DIRECTORS, AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION RESEARCHERS, AND BUSINESS EDUCATION RESEARCHERS MADE "YES" AND "NO" DETERMINATIONS FOR 40 COMPETENCIES. THE NUMBER OF COMPETENCIES CONSIDERED…

  5. Observing the Mother-Infant Feeding Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Laws, Rachel; Moretto, Nicole; Daniels, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Early parenting is critical to effective attachment and a range of positive developmental outcomes for children. Feeding is a key task of early parenting and increasing evidence indicates that early feeding practices are important for the development of self-regulation of intake and food preferences which in turn are predictors of later obesity…

  6. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  7. [BACTERIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF AN ACUTE APPENDICITIS].

    PubMed

    Zhuchenko, O P

    2016-03-01

    Peculiarities of microflora in the appendix mucosa and abdominal exudate in different morphological forms of an acute appendicitis (AA) were studied up. In accordance to the bacteriological investigations data, anaerobic, and aerobic microorganisms in AA were revealed in a monoculture and in association, more frequently--obligate anaer- obes (bacteroids) with E. coli--in 82 (80.39%) observations, staphylococcus--in 52 (50.98%), fecal streptococcus--in 19 (18.63%). With progression of inflammatory process and destructive changes in the appendix wall the quantity of bacteroids and enterobacteria have had enhanced, while the quantity of lacto- and bifidumflora-- reduced. PMID:27514082

  8. Acute Toxic Neuropathy Mimicking Guillain Barre Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Muhammed Jasim Abdul; Fernandez, Shirley Joan; Menon, Murali Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Case: A 30 year old male presented with numbness of palms and soles followed by weakness of upper limbs and lower limbs of 5 days duration, which was ascending and progressive. Three months back he was treated for oral and genital ulcers with oral steroids. His ulcers improved and shifted to indigenous medication. His clinical examination showed polyneuropathy. CSF study did not show albuminocytological dissociation. Nerve conduction study showed demyelinating polyneuropathy. His blood samples and the ayurvedic drug samples were sent for toxicological analysis. Inference: Acute toxic neuropathy - Arsenic PMID:25811007

  9. [BACTERIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF AN ACUTE APPENDICITIS].

    PubMed

    Zhuchenko, O P

    2016-03-01

    Peculiarities of microflora in the appendix mucosa and abdominal exudate in different morphological forms of an acute appendicitis (AA) were studied up. In accordance to the bacteriological investigations data, anaerobic, and aerobic microorganisms in AA were revealed in a monoculture and in association, more frequently--obligate anaer- obes (bacteroids) with E. coli--in 82 (80.39%) observations, staphylococcus--in 52 (50.98%), fecal streptococcus--in 19 (18.63%). With progression of inflammatory process and destructive changes in the appendix wall the quantity of bacteroids and enterobacteria have had enhanced, while the quantity of lacto- and bifidumflora-- reduced.

  10. Acute quadriplegia due to bilateral cerebral metastases.

    PubMed

    Levine, D N; Black, P M; Kleinman, G M; Ojemann, R

    1981-03-01

    A 51-year-old man developed severe quadriparesis without sensory loss after a fall on the occiput. When he was treated with corticosteroids, the weakness worsened slightly for 2 days, but he then progressively improved and ultimately walked unassisted. Two months later, postmortem examination disclosed metastatic tumors in the superior portion of each precentral gyrus. The subjacent white matter was edematous. No spinal cord abnormalities were found. The clinical, radiologic, and neuropathologic findings suggest that the quadriplegia resulted from these bilateral cerebral lesions and not from spinal cord dysfunction. The rapid development of cerebral edema, perhaps precipitated by trauma, seemed to account for the acute onset of symptoms in this case.

  11. A descriptive study of nasogastric tube feeding among geriatric inpatients in Malaysia: utilization, complications, and caregiver opinions.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Nordiana; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chin, Ai-Vyrn; Poi, Philip J H; Tan, Maw Pin

    2015-01-01

    The strong emphasis on feeding in Asian cultures may influence decisions for nasogastric (NG) tube feeding in geriatric inpatients. We evaluated the utility, complications, and opinions of caregivers toward NG tube feeding in an acute geriatric ward in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Consecutive patients aged 65 years and older receiving NG tube feeding were included. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory indices were recorded. Opinion on NG tube feeding were evaluated through face-to-face interviews with caregivers, recruited through convenience sampling. Of 432 patients admitted, 96 (22%), age ± standard deviation = 80.8 ± 7.4 years, received NG tube feeding. The complication and mortality rates were 69% and 38%, respectively. Diabetes (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.34 [1.07, 10.44], aspiration pneumonia (8.15 [2.43, 27.24]), impaired consciousness (3.13 [1.05, 9.36]), and albumin ≤26 g/dl (4.43 [1.46, 13.44]) were independent predictors of mortality. Other relatives were more likely than spouses (23.5 [3.59, 154.2]) and caregivers with tertiary education more likely than those with no formal education ( 18 [1.23, 262.7]) to agree to NG feeding. Sixty-four percent of caregivers felt NG tube feeding was appropriate at the end of life, mostly due to the fear of starvation. NG tube feeding is widely used in our setting, despite high complication and mortality rates, with likely influences from cultural emphasis on feeding.

  12. A descriptive study of nasogastric tube feeding among geriatric inpatients in Malaysia: utilization, complications, and caregiver opinions.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Nordiana; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chin, Ai-Vyrn; Poi, Philip J H; Tan, Maw Pin

    2015-01-01

    The strong emphasis on feeding in Asian cultures may influence decisions for nasogastric (NG) tube feeding in geriatric inpatients. We evaluated the utility, complications, and opinions of caregivers toward NG tube feeding in an acute geriatric ward in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Consecutive patients aged 65 years and older receiving NG tube feeding were included. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory indices were recorded. Opinion on NG tube feeding were evaluated through face-to-face interviews with caregivers, recruited through convenience sampling. Of 432 patients admitted, 96 (22%), age ± standard deviation = 80.8 ± 7.4 years, received NG tube feeding. The complication and mortality rates were 69% and 38%, respectively. Diabetes (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.34 [1.07, 10.44], aspiration pneumonia (8.15 [2.43, 27.24]), impaired consciousness (3.13 [1.05, 9.36]), and albumin ≤26 g/dl (4.43 [1.46, 13.44]) were independent predictors of mortality. Other relatives were more likely than spouses (23.5 [3.59, 154.2]) and caregivers with tertiary education more likely than those with no formal education ( 18 [1.23, 262.7]) to agree to NG feeding. Sixty-four percent of caregivers felt NG tube feeding was appropriate at the end of life, mostly due to the fear of starvation. NG tube feeding is widely used in our setting, despite high complication and mortality rates, with likely influences from cultural emphasis on feeding. PMID:25803603

  13. Pneumatosis intestinalis associated with enteral tube feeding

    PubMed Central

    Zorgdrager, Marcel; Pol, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A 49-year-old man presented with a Hinchey II perforated diverticulitis and underwent laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. During the postoperative course the patient received enteral tube feeding which was followed by a bowel obstruction accompanied with pneumatosis intestinalis (PI). Explorative laparotomy showed an omental band adhesion without signs of ischaemia. After a short period of total parenteral nutrition PI resolved almost completely and enteral tube feeding could be continued once again. In the weeks that followed the patient developed atypical bowel symptoms and recurrent PI which resolved each time the drip feeding was discontinued. Despite the mild clinical course, a CT scan showed massive PI on day 21 after the laparotomy. After excluding life-threatening conditions conservative management was instituted and the patient recovered completely after discontinuing the drip feeding. We present one of the few cases of subclinical PI associated with enteral tube feeding that could be managed conservatively. PMID:24302661

  14. Orthogonal feeding techniques for tapered slot antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Simons, Rainee N.

    1998-01-01

    For array of "brick" configuration there are electrical and mechanical advantages to feed the antenna with a feed on a substrate perpendicular to the antenna substrate. Different techniques have been proposed for exciting patch antennas using such a feed structure.Rncently, an aperture-coupled dielectric resonator antenna using a perpendicular feed substrate has been demonstrated to have very good power coupling efficiency. For a two-dimensional rectangular array with tapered slot antenna elements, a power combining network on perpendicular substrate is generally required to couple power to or from the array. In this paper, we will describe two aperture-coupled techniques for coupling microwave power from a linearly tapered slot antenna (LTSA) to a microstrip feed on a perpendicular substrate. In addition, we will present measured results for return losses and radiation patterns.

  15. Feed rate measuring method and system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1995-12-05

    A system and method are provided for establishing the feed rate of a workpiece along a feed path with respect to a machine device. First and second sensors each having first and second sensing electrodes which are electrically isolated from the workpiece are positioned above, and in proximity to the desired surfaces of the workpiece along a feed path. An electric field is developed between the first and second sensing electrodes of each sensor and capacitance signals are developed which are indicative of the contour of the workpiece. First and second image signals representative of the contour of the workpiece along the feed path are developed by an image processor. The time delay between corresponding portions of the first and second image signals are then used to determine the feed rate based upon the separation of the first and second sensors and the amount of time between corresponding portions of the first and second image signals. 18 figs.

  16. Feed rate measuring method and system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Wiczer, James J.

    1995-01-01

    A system and method are provided for establishing the feed rate of a workpiece along a feed path with respect to a machine device. First and second sensors each having first and second sensing electrodes which are electrically isolated from the workpiece are positioned above, and in proximity to the desired surfaces of the workpiece along a feed path. An electric field is developed between the first and second sensing electrodes of each sensor and capacitance signals are developed which are indicative of the contour of the workpiece. First and second image signals representative of the contour of the workpiece along the feed path are developed by an image processor. The time delay between corresponding portions of the first and second image signals are then used to determine the feed rate based upon the separation of the first and second sensors and the amount of time between corresponding portions of the first and second image signals.

  17. The Mother-Infant Feeding Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa F.; Thoyre, Suzanne; Pridham, Karen; Schubert, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and evaluation of an observation system to assess the process of mother-infant feeding interaction relevant to infant neuro-behavioral regulation: the Mother-Infant Feeding Tool. Design Secondary analysis. Setting Special care nursery just before discharge and in the home at 1 and 4 months postterm age. Participants Forty-three mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotaped feeding interactions were examined to assess regulatory processes of mother-infant interaction. Data were collected at three times over the infant’s first 4 postterm months: before the infant’s discharge from the special care nursery and at 1 and 4 months postterm age in the home. Results Across all three data points mothers rarely talked to their infants. Conclusion Further testing is needed, but the Mother-Infant Feeding Tool shows promise in assessing very early mother-infant feeding interactions. PMID:19614885

  18. Estimation of costs for control of Salmonella in high-risk feed materials and compound feed

    PubMed Central

    Wierup, Martin; Widell, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Feed is a potential and major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal-derived food chain. This is given special attention in the European Union (EU) efforts to minimize human food-borne Salmonella infections from animal-derived food. The objective of this study was to estimate the total extra cost for preventing Salmonella contamination of feed above those measures required to produce commercial feed according to EU regulation (EC) No 183/2005. The study was carried out in Sweden, a country where Salmonella infections in food-producing animals from feed have largely been eliminated. Methods On the initiative and leadership of the competent authority, the different steps of feed production associated with control of Salmonella contamination were identified. Representatives for the major feed producers operating in the Swedish market then independently estimated the annual mean costs during the years 2009 and 2010. The feed producers had no known incentives to underestimate the costs. Results and discussion The total cost for achieving a Salmonella-safe compound feed, when such a control is established, was estimated at 1.8–2.3 € per tonne of feed. Of that cost, 25% relates to the prevention of Salmonella contaminated high-risk vegetable feed materials (mainly soybean meal and rapeseed meal) from entering feed mills, and 75% for measures within the feed mills. Based on the feed formulations applied, those costs in relation to the farmers’ 2012 price for compound feed were almost equal for broilers and dairy cows (0.7%). Due to less use of protein concentrate to fatten pigs, the costs were lower (0.6%). These limited costs suggest that previous recommendations to enforce a Salmonella-negative policy for animal feed are realistic and economically feasible to prevent a dissemination of the pathogen to animal herds, their environment, and potentially to human food products. PMID:24959328

  19. A data-driven acute inflammation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acute inflammation is a severe medical condition defined as an inflammatory response of the body to an infection. Its rapid progression requires quick and accurate decisions from clinicians. Inadequate and delayed decisions makes acute inflammation the 10th leading cause of death overall in United States with the estimated cost of treatment about $17 billion annually. However, despite the need, there are limited number of methods that could assist clinicians to determine optimal therapies for acute inflammation. We developed a data-driven method for suggesting optimal therapy by using machine learning model that is learned on historical patients' behaviors. To reduce both the risk of failure and the expense for clinical trials, our method is evaluated on a virtual patients generated by a mathematical model that emulates inflammatory response. In conducted experiments, acute inflammation was handled with two complimentary pro- and anti-inflammatory medications which adequate timing and doses are crucial for the successful outcome. Our experiments show that the dosage regimen assigned with our data-driven method significantly improves the percentage of healthy patients when compared to results by other methods used in clinical practice and found in literature. Our method saved 88% of patients that would otherwise die within a week, while the best method found in literature saved only 73% of patients. At the same time, our method used lower doses of medications than alternatives. In addition, our method achieved better results than alternatives when only incomplete or noisy measurements were available over time as well as it was less affected by therapy delay. The presented results provide strong evidence that models from the artificial intelligence community have a potential for development of personalized treatment strategies for acute inflammation. PMID:24565439

  20. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  1. Progressive Pigmentary Purpura

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Progressive Pigmentary Purpura Share | Progressive pigmentary purpura (we will call it PPP) is a group ... conditions ( Schamberg's disease , Lichenoid dermatitis of Gourgerot-Blum, purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi and Lichen aureus). Schamberg's ...

  2. The Benefits of Breast Feeding.

    PubMed

    Shamir, Raanan

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is considered as the gold standard for infant feeding. Breastfeeding advantages extend beyond the properties of human milk itself. A complex of nutritional, environmental, socioeconomic, psychological as well as genetic interactions establish a massive list of benefits of breastfeeding to the health outcomes of the breastfed infant and to the breastfeeding mother. For this reason, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for about 6 months and should be continued as long as mutually desired by mother and child. The evidence in the literature on the effect of breastfeeding on health outcomes is based on observational studies due to the fact that it is unethical and practically impossible to randomize children to be breastfed or not. As such, multiple confounders cloud the evidence and one must base conclusions on the accumulating evidence when not contradictory and on the only intervention study, PROBIT (Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial). This review highlights some of the health outcomes related to breastfeeding such as the prevention of infections, the effect of breastfeeding on neurodevelopmental outcome, obesity, allergy and celiac disease. Available evidence as well as some of the contradictory results is discussed. PMID:27336781

  3. [Modern technics of tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Troidl, H; Vestweber, K H; Sommer, H; Tepner, S

    1984-03-01

    A prospective study was done in 101 patients and clinical usefulness of a fine needle-catheter-jejunostomy was investigated; this procedure was modified according to the procedure devised by Delany (2). The instruments used were two split canules and a polyurethane catheter (inner diameter 2.1 mm); these instruments are simple, safe and can be applied quickly. Formation of fistulae, peritonitis, ileus or deaths caused by the procedure could not be observed. The catheter needs to have certain mechanical qualities as e.g. sufficient rigidity. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is an alternative to corresponding surgery procedure. The stomach is punctured under sight and a Foley catheter is applied immediately. We performed this procedure without major complications in seven cases, and found it to be very useful. The techniques described here are essentially important if the advantages of the enteral as compared to the parenteral nutrition are to be made use of. As soon as the problems of diarrhea and belching are solved, tube feeding will offer in the near future a real alternative to parenteral nutrition, especially in patients who need long time artificial nutrition.

  4. Feeding repellence in Antarctic bryozoans.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Blanca; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Moles, Juan; Avila, Conxita

    2013-11-01

    The Antarctic sea star Odontaster validus and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus are important predators in benthic communities. Some bryozoans are part of the diet of the asteroid and represent both potential host biosubstrata and prey for this omnivorous lysianassid amphipod. In response to such ecological pressure, bryozoans are expected to develop strategies to deter potential predators, ranging from physical to chemical mechanisms. However, the chemical ecology of Antarctic bryozoans has been scarcely studied. In this study we evaluated the presence of defenses against predation in selected species of Antarctic bryozoans. The sympatric omnivorous consumers O. validus and C. femoratus were selected to perform feeding assays with 16 ether extracts (EE) and 16 butanol extracts (BE) obtained from 16 samples that belonged to 13 different bryozoan species. Most species (9) were active (12 EE and 1 BE) in sea star bioassays. Only 1 BE displayed repellence, indicating that repellents against the sea star are mainly lipophilic. Repellence toward C. femoratus was found in all species in different extracts (10 EE and 12 BE), suggesting that defenses against the amphipod might be both lipophilic and hydrophilic. Interspecific and intraspecific variability of bioactivity was occasionally detected, suggesting possible environmental inductive responses, symbiotic associations, and/or genetic variability. Multivariate analysis revealed similarities among species in relation to bioactivities of EE and/or BE. These findings support the hypothesis that, while in some cases alternative chemical or physical mechanisms may also provide protection, repellent compounds play an important role in Antarctic bryozoans as defenses against predators.

  5. Feeding repellence in Antarctic bryozoans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figuerola, Blanca; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Moles, Juan; Avila, Conxita

    2013-11-01

    The Antarctic sea star Odontaster validus and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus are important predators in benthic communities. Some bryozoans are part of the diet of the asteroid and represent both potential host biosubstrata and prey for this omnivorous lysianassid amphipod. In response to such ecological pressure, bryozoans are expected to develop strategies to deter potential predators, ranging from physical to chemical mechanisms. However, the chemical ecology of Antarctic bryozoans has been scarcely studied. In this study we evaluated the presence of defenses against predation in selected species of Antarctic bryozoans. The sympatric omnivorous consumers O. validus and C. femoratus were selected to perform feeding assays with 16 ether extracts (EE) and 16 butanol extracts (BE) obtained from 16 samples that belonged to 13 different bryozoan species. Most species (9) were active (12 EE and 1 BE) in sea star bioassays. Only 1 BE displayed repellence, indicating that repellents against the sea star are mainly lipophilic. Repellence toward C. femoratus was found in all species in different extracts (10 EE and 12 BE), suggesting that defenses against the amphipod might be both lipophilic and hydrophilic. Interspecific and intraspecific variability of bioactivity was occasionally detected, suggesting possible environmental inductive responses, symbiotic associations, and/or genetic variability. Multivariate analysis revealed similarities among species in relation to bioactivities of EE and/or BE. These findings support the hypothesis that, while in some cases alternative chemical or physical mechanisms may also provide protection, repellent compounds play an important role in Antarctic bryozoans as defenses against predators.

  6. Feeding repellence in Antarctic bryozoans.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Blanca; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Moles, Juan; Avila, Conxita

    2013-11-01

    The Antarctic sea star Odontaster validus and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus are important predators in benthic communities. Some bryozoans are part of the diet of the asteroid and represent both potential host biosubstrata and prey for this omnivorous lysianassid amphipod. In response to such ecological pressure, bryozoans are expected to develop strategies to deter potential predators, ranging from physical to chemical mechanisms. However, the chemical ecology of Antarctic bryozoans has been scarcely studied. In this study we evaluated the presence of defenses against predation in selected species of Antarctic bryozoans. The sympatric omnivorous consumers O. validus and C. femoratus were selected to perform feeding assays with 16 ether extracts (EE) and 16 butanol extracts (BE) obtained from 16 samples that belonged to 13 different bryozoan species. Most species (9) were active (12 EE and 1 BE) in sea star bioassays. Only 1 BE displayed repellence, indicating that repellents against the sea star are mainly lipophilic. Repellence toward C. femoratus was found in all species in different extracts (10 EE and 12 BE), suggesting that defenses against the amphipod might be both lipophilic and hydrophilic. Interspecific and intraspecific variability of bioactivity was occasionally detected, suggesting possible environmental inductive responses, symbiotic associations, and/or genetic variability. Multivariate analysis revealed similarities among species in relation to bioactivities of EE and/or BE. These findings support the hypothesis that, while in some cases alternative chemical or physical mechanisms may also provide protection, repellent compounds play an important role in Antarctic bryozoans as defenses against predators. PMID:24221581

  7. Infant feeding and phonologic development.

    PubMed

    Smith, V L; Gerber, S E

    1993-12-01

    The relationship between breastfeeding and speech development was examined to determine what duration (if any) of breastfeeding is associated with better performance on a measure of phonologic development. Twenty-nine children aged 36-48 months and their parents were recruited from preschools to serve as subjects. The children's durations of exclusive breastfeeding ranged from 0 (always bottle fed) to 6 months. Phonologic development was assessed using an instrument known as the Percentage of Consonants Correct (PCC) [12]. Feeding histories were obtained by retrospective interviews with parents. Parents and teachers also made ratings of children's speech and total communication on a 5-point scale. This study fails to replicate earlier researchers' findings of an association between breastfeeding and phonologic development. No evidence was found of an association between any duration of either exclusive or partial breastfeeding and PCC scores. Pearson r correlations between parents' and teachers' ratings and PCC scores were weak. Results are discussed in comparison with previous reports of a correlation between breastfeeding and phonologic development.

  8. Acute bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  9. Thrombosis and acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Solís, Erick

    2012-04-01

    Thrombosis is a common complication in patients with acute leukemia. While the presence of central venous lines, concomitant steroids, the use of Escherichia coli asparaginase and hereditary thrombophilic abnormalities are known risk factors for thrombosis in children, information on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and clinical outcome of thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still scarce. Expert consensus and guidelines regarding leukemia-specific risk factors, thrombosis prevention, and treatment strategies, as well as optimal type of central venous catheter in acute leukemia patients are required. It is likely that each subtype of acute leukemia represents a different setting for the development of thrombosis and the risk of bleeding. This is perhaps due to a combination of different disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis, including the type of chemotherapy protocol chosen, the underlying patients health, associated risk factors, as well as the biology of the disease itself. The risk of thrombosis may also vary according to ethnicity and prevalence of hereditary risk factors for thrombosis; thus, it is advisable for Latin American, Asian, and African countries to report on their specific patient population. PMID:22507812

  10. Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention

  11. Critical Components of Effective School-Based Feeding Improvement Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2004-01-01

    This article identifies critical components of effective school-based feeding improvement programs for students with feeding problems. A distinction is made between typical school-based feeding management and feeding improvement programs, where feeding, independent functioning, and mealtime behaviors are the focus of therapeutic strategies.…

  12. The benefits of authoritative feeding style: caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Heather; Nicklas, Theresa A; Hughes, Sheryl O; Morales, Miriam

    2005-04-01

    This research tested the associations between caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns among African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) caregivers and their preschool children. Participants were 231 caregivers (101 AA; 130 H) with children enrolled in Head Start. Caregivers completed questionnaires on authoritarian and authoritative feeding styles (Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire; CFSQ) and various aspects of children's food consumption patterns (availability of, feeding attempts for, and child's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses tested the unique contribution of feeding styles in predicting food consumption patterns. Authoritative feeding was positively associated whereas authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with the availability of fruit and vegetables. Authoritative feeding was also positively associated with attempts to get the child to eat dairy, fruit, and vegetables, and reported child consumption of dairy and vegetables. Authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with child's vegetable consumption. All results remained significant after controlling for child's gender and body mass index (BMI), and caregiver's ethnicity, BMI, and level of education. Overall, results provide evidence for the benefits of authoritative feeding and suggest that interventions to increase children's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables should be targeted toward increasing caregivers' authoritative feeding behaviors. PMID:15808898

  13. The benefits of authoritative feeding style: caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Heather; Nicklas, Theresa A; Hughes, Sheryl O; Morales, Miriam

    2005-04-01

    This research tested the associations between caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns among African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) caregivers and their preschool children. Participants were 231 caregivers (101 AA; 130 H) with children enrolled in Head Start. Caregivers completed questionnaires on authoritarian and authoritative feeding styles (Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire; CFSQ) and various aspects of children's food consumption patterns (availability of, feeding attempts for, and child's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses tested the unique contribution of feeding styles in predicting food consumption patterns. Authoritative feeding was positively associated whereas authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with the availability of fruit and vegetables. Authoritative feeding was also positively associated with attempts to get the child to eat dairy, fruit, and vegetables, and reported child consumption of dairy and vegetables. Authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with child's vegetable consumption. All results remained significant after controlling for child's gender and body mass index (BMI), and caregiver's ethnicity, BMI, and level of education. Overall, results provide evidence for the benefits of authoritative feeding and suggest that interventions to increase children's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables should be targeted toward increasing caregivers' authoritative feeding behaviors.

  14. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants’ oral feeding skills

    PubMed Central

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, RJ

    2014-01-01

    Aim Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a ‘self-paced’ feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants’ oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). Methods ‘Feeders and growers’ born between 26–29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1–2 and 6–8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants’ RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Results Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). Conclusion The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants’ true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance. PMID:25999776

  15. [Acute pancreatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M

    1998-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE GLOMERULITIS

    PubMed Central

    Lukens, Francis D. W.; Longcope, Warfield T.

    1931-01-01

    1. Both focal and diffuse glomerulitis has been produced in rabbits by the injection directly into the left renal artery of suspensions of heat killed hemolytic streptococci. 2. Similar lesions in the glomeruli could not be obtained by the injection of suspensions of bismuth oxychloride into the left renal artery of normal rabbits. 3. The acute glomerulitis occurred in only about one-half of the rabbits employed for the experiments. 4. Glomerulitis was observed much more frequently in rabbits in which an acute localized streptococcus infection had been produced by the intracutaneous injection of living hemolytic streptococci, than in normal rabbits. The occurrence of acute glomerulitis was usually associated with a well marked skin reaction to the filtrates of hemolytic streptococci. PMID:19869861

  17. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Susan M.; Cedars, Ari M.; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer with cardiovascular disease. The main treatment goals in the hospitalized patient with heart failure are to restore euvolemia and to minimize adverse events. Common in-hospital treatments include intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Novel pharmaceutical agents have shown promise in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and may simplify the treatment and reduce the morbidity associated with the disease. This review summarizes the contemporary management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:20069075

  18. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  19. Acute asthma during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Stenius-Aarniala, B. S.; Hedman, J.; Teramo, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute asthma during pregnancy is potentially dangerous to the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute attack of asthma during pregnancy on the course of pregnancy or delivery, or the health of the newborn infant, and to identify undertreatment as a possible cause of the exacerbations. METHODS: Five hundred and four pregnant asthmatic subjects were prospectively followed and treated. The data on 47 patients with an attack of asthma during pregnancy were compared with those of 457 asthmatics with no recorded acute exacerbation and with 237 healthy parturients. RESULTS: Of 504 asthmatics, 177 patients were not initially treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Of these, 17% had an acute attack compared with only 4% of the 257 patients who had been on inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment from the start of pregnancy. There were no differences between the groups as to length of gestation, length of the third stage of labour, or amount of haemorrhage after delivery. No differences were observed between pregnancies with and without an exacerbation with regard to relative birth weight, incidence of malformations, hypoglycaemia, or need for phototherapy for jaundice during the neonatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with inadequate inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment during pregnancy run a higher risk of suffering an acute attack of asthma than those treated with an anti-inflammatory agent. However, if the acute attack of asthma is relatively mild and promptly treated, it does not have a serious effect on the pregnancy, delivery, or the health of the newborn infant. PMID:8733495

  20. Serotonin depresses feeding behaviour in ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Rössler, Wolfgang; Josens, Roxana

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behaviour is a complex functional system that relies on external signals and the physiological state of the animal. This is also the case in ants as they vary their feeding behaviour according to food characteristics, environmental conditions and - as they are social insects - to the colony's requirements. The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) was shown to be involved in the control and modulation of many actions and processes related to feeding in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we investigated whether 5-HT affects nectar feeding in ants by analysing its effect on the sucking-pump activity. Furthermore, we studied 5-HT association with tissues and neuronal ganglia involved in feeding regulation. Our results show that 5-HT promotes a dose-dependent depression of sucrose feeding in Camponotus mus ants. Orally administered 5-HT diminished the intake rate by mainly decreasing the volume of solution taken per pump contraction, without modifying the sucrose acceptance threshold. Immunohistochemical studies all along the alimentary canal revealed 5-HT-like immunoreactive processes on the foregut (oesophagus, crop and proventriculus), while the midgut and hindgut lacked 5-HT innervation. Although the frontal and suboesophageal ganglia contained 5-HT immunoreactive cell bodies, serotonergic innervation in the sucking-pump muscles was absent. The results are discussed in the frame of a role of 5-HT in feeding control in ants.