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Sample records for acute psychiatric services

  1. The implementation of community-based crisis services for people with acute psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Finch, S J; Burgess, P M; Herrman, H E

    1991-06-01

    This article describes three recently established community-based crisis services for people with acute psychiatric illness. Data were obtained from local information systems developed in the early phase of service operation. Patterns of service were found to vary among the teams in terms of the frequency of contact with the client, the period of contact with the client and the overall numbers of contacts. Such diversification of services reflects, at least in part, the differences in the service networks within which the new services were Such diversification of services is inevitable and creative, and the evaluation of these services must consider not only the short-term impact of crisis services, but also the impact of the network of care services on longer term outcomes for the client.

  2. An evaluation of the use of interactive television in an acute psychiatric service.

    PubMed

    McLaren, P; Ball, C J; Summerfield, A B; Watson, J P; Lipsedge, M

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the results of the use of a low-cost videoconferencing system (LCVC) for communication in an acute psychiatric service. Qualitative research methodology was used to examine the use of the LCVC in interactions between psychiatrists, patients and nursing staff, including information on refusals. One hundred and five clinical interactions were studied over four months. The LCVC proved technically reliable and compatible with the performance of a wide range of clinical tasks. However, the results suggest the need for better understanding of the nature and origins of the attitudes that users bring to the use of such communications technology. A framework is presented for the classification of user responses in terms of preexisting attitudes of the users, technological limitations of the system and the mental state of the users. The study demonstrated the potential for interactive television to support many of the communication tasks necessary in a dispersed psychiatric service and for telepsychiatry to become a major method of service provision.

  3. Tracing patients from acute psychiatric wards.

    PubMed Central

    Double, D; MacPherson, R; Wong, T

    1993-01-01

    A random sample of those admitted to acute psychiatric wards in Sheffield in 1985 was traced to establish whether or not the patients were homeless 5 years later. Contrary to expectations none were found to be homeless. Although the proportion of mentally ill amongst the homeless may be significantly high, the number discharged from psychiatric hospital, at least in Sheffield, living consistently 'on the streets' or staying regularly in night shelters seems small as a proportion of all discharges. PMID:8410893

  4. [Social psychiatric service as a cornerstone of psychiatric community care].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, P; Tiggemann, H G

    1991-12-01

    Psychiatric care has gradually been shifting in Germany from its original inpatient basis to outpatient and complementary treatment. This shift of emphasis resulted in a transfer of psychiatry-political responsibility to communal bodies and hence also to communal public health services. Sociopsychiatric service ranks high in communal psychiatric care setups, since it promotes cooperation and helps to coordinate efforts in individual cases in respect of focal points on which such care is centered. For the future, an expert commission has suggested that the various institutions actively engaged in community psychiatric care should team up in each region. This applies in particular to mobile services visiting the patients in their homes, and to the offices providing contracts to sociopsychiatric services of public health offices. Despite positive outlooks there are also quite a few negative aspects of present-day practice. One of them is poor definition of tasks and functions of communal sociopsychiatric services, whereas another one are the unsatisfactory quantitative and qualitative means at their disposal. It is also too often overlooked that psychiatric patients and disabled persons are entitled to compensation insurance payments to promote their rehabilitation, as provided for by individual legislation in the various German laender. To tap these sources sufficiently well, sociopsychiatric services must be better equipped in every respect. The professional competence of social workers and physicians, as well as of the relevant staff, must be safeguarded by continuing education and specialist training measures.

  5. Acute Interventions and Referral of Patients With Bipolar Disorder by the Psychiatric Consultation Liaison Service in a General Hospital in Germany: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the population of bipolar patients in a general hospital in Germany who required treatment by a consultant psychiatrist. Method: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the clinical records of 47 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were treated by a consultant psychiatrist between 2009 and 2012 in one of the general hospitals of Charité Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany. We investigated the sections of the hospital that requested psychiatric consultations for bipolar patients, the status of these patients, and their primary cause of treatment, as well as the intervention (including pharmacotherapy) recommended by the consultant psychiatrist. Results: For more than half of the patients, their psychiatric illness was either directly or indirectly the reason they presented to the hospital. The remaining bipolar patients were treated for various somatic illnesses unrelated to their bipolar disorder throughout the hospital, with a relative overrepresentation of patients in the neurology department. More than half of the patients were referred to a psychiatric hospital by the consultant psychiatrist. Benzodiazepines were the most commonly administered drugs for acute pharmacologic intervention. Conclusions: Psychiatric consultations are not frequently requested for bipolar patients compared to those with other psychiatric disorders. However, more than half of the bipolar patients needed further psychiatric treatment in a psychiatric hospital. This finding emphasizes the importance of psychiatric consultations in a general hospital for bipolar patients. The administration of benzodiazepines as an acute treatment seems to be the standard pharmacologic procedure, not a specific pharmacotherapy like mood stabilizers. PMID:25133062

  6. Service dogs, psychiatric hospitalization, and the ADA.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A service dog is defined as "any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability." Some psychiatric patients may depend on a service dog for day-to-day functioning. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established certain rights and responsibilities for individuals with disabilities and health care providers. Psychiatric hospitalization of a patient with a service dog may pose a problem and involves balancing the requirement to provide safe and appropriate psychiatric care with the rights of individuals with disabilities. This Open Forum examines issues that arise in such circumstances, reviews the literature, and provides a foundation for the development of policies and procedures.

  7. Incorporating the Views of Service Users in the Development of an Integrated Psychiatric Service for People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Charles; Samuels, Sarah; Hassiotis, Angela; Lynggaard, Henrik; Hall, Ian

    2007-01-01

    During the 1990s, a decision was made within the Learning Disabilities services of Camden & Islington to develop a local integrated service for people requiring an acute psychiatric admission. There had been little research at the time on the experiences of people with learning disabilities within the type of inner London acute mental health…

  8. An acute in-patient psychiatric service for 16- to 17-year-old adolescents in the UK: a descriptive evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Duddu, Venu; Rhouma, Abdulhakim; Qureshi, Masood; Chaudhry, Imran Bashir; Drake, Terry; Sumra, Altaf; Husain, Nusrat

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method The need for an age-appropriate in-patient service for 16- to 17-year-olds led to the development of a 6-bed acute admissions unit in a non-metropolitan county in the UK. We provide a descriptive evaluation of the first 2 years of its operation. All admissions from April 2010 to March 2012 were reviewed, clinical details systematically recorded and descriptively analysed. Results Ninety-seven young people were admitted during this period (a third were compulsorily detained under the Mental Health Act 1983). The average length of stay was 3–4 weeks. The most common presenting complaints were self-harm and low mood, usually in the context of life events and childhood adversity. Nearly half had substance misuse and other risk-taking behaviours. A third presented with psychotic symptoms. Adjustment and anxiety disorders were most common, followed by alcohol/substance use disorders, depressive illnesses and psychotic illnesses. Comorbidity was the rule rather than the exception. Most patients improved by the time of discharge. Clinical implications The unit provides an accessible and effective age-appropriate service and is likely to constitute an important component of the comprehensive child and adolescent mental health service strategy in the county. PMID:27752345

  9. Examining Outcomes of Acute Psychiatric Hospitalization among Children

    PubMed Central

    Tharayil, Priya R.; Sigrid, James; Morgan, Ronald; Freeman, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Within the past two decades, few studies have examined outcomes of acute psychiatric hospitalization among children, demonstrating change in emotional and behavioral functioning. A secondary analysis of pre-test/post-test data collected on 36 children was conducted, using the Target Symptom Rating (TSR). The TSR is a 13-item measure with two subscales – Emotional Problems and Behavioral Problems and was designed for evaluation of outcome among children and adolescents in acute inpatient psychiatric settings. Results of this study, its limitations, and the barriers encountered in the implementation of the TSR scale as part of routine clinical practice are discussed. PMID:23946699

  10. Neuropsychological and psychiatric profiles in acute encephalitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Pewter, Stephen M; Williams, W Huw; Haslam, Catherine; Kay, Janice M

    2007-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is an inflammation of brain tissue that can result from activity in the central nervous system (CNS) of a number of viruses. Although the neurological and psychiatric effects of encephalitis in the acute phase of the illness are well-known (Caroff, Mann, Gliatto, Sullivan, & Campbell, 2001), larger scale studies of the pattern of neuropsychological and psychiatric impairment following recovery from the acute inflammatory phase are less apparent. This paper reports the results of neuropsychological testing with a range of standardised cognitive measures in a case series of long-term post-acute participants. Psychiatric abnormality is examined using the SCL-90-R self-report scale of distress (Derogatis, 1983). We also examined the role of emerging insight in the aetiology of depression in this population. Two clusters of cognitive dysfunction were observed, one group of primarily herpes simplex cases showing a severe generalised deficit across a number of cognitive domains and a second cluster showing a variety of more isolated disorders of executive function. Abnormally high levels of distress were reported by participants, with depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobic anxiety most significantly increased. Depression was found to be least severe in those with most accurate insight into their problems. Examining the correlations between cognitive and psychiatric test results demonstrates a relationship between depression and interpersonal anxiety and specific cognitive measures. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour and phobic anxiety, however, appear to exist independently of the assessed cognitive deficits.

  11. 75 FR 71441 - Universal Health Services, Inc. and Psychiatric Solutions, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... contract management business accounted for the remaining 7%. Acute Inpatient Psychiatric Services UHS's... largest hospital management companies, with 2009 revenues totaling approximately $5.2 billion. In 2009... business, and includes all of the assets necessary for a Commission-approved buyer to independently...

  12. Women in acute psychiatric units, their characteristics and needs: a review

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Michaela; Lau, Yasmine; Sethi, Faisil

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Recent policy guidelines published by the Department of Health highlight the need to develop gender-sensitive psychiatric services. However, very little is currently known about the specific characteristics and needs of female patients entering acute psychiatric wards, particularly psychiatric intensive care units. This article aims to review the current literature on what is known about this group of patients. PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO were systematically searched using a number of key terms. Results A total of 27 articles were obtained. The findings were divided into four categories: admission characteristics, treatment needs, risk management and outcomes after discharge. Gender differences were found in diagnosis and presentation. Clinical implications The differences observed in the reviewed studies suggest that women may have different assessment and treatment needs, and ultimately, different philosophies of care. A dearth of studies in this area indicates that if services are to develop in line with government policies, more research is needed. PMID:27752346

  13. Improving services for parents with psychiatric disabilities: three new opportunities in the field of psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cook, Judith A; Mueser, Kim T

    2014-03-01

    Despite many challenges, recent developments in the field of psychiatric rehabilitation offer opportunities for an increased focus on serving parents with psychiatric disabilities and their children. One such trend is the growth of psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) programs that serve children and youth. The new Certificate in Children's Psychiatric Rehabilitation program offers practitioners education and training to meet the needs of children and families. Another opportunity can be found in the recent growth of family services in PSR programs for veterans with serious mental health problems. The Veterans Administration's new Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Recovery Services model explicitly includes family members in supporting veterans and acknowledges the need to deliver direct services to their spouses, children, and parents. A third relevant trend is the emergence of a new generation of recovery-oriented PSR services for mothers and fathers. Opportunities for enhanced services are provided in particular by self-help, peer support programs for parents with lived experience.

  14. Adolescents and Dual Diagnosis in a Psychiatric Emergency Service.

    PubMed

    Matali, José Luis; Andión, Oscar; Pardo, Marta; Iniesta, Raquel; Serrano, Eduard; San, Luis

    2016-03-02

    In recent years, both the prevalence of drug use and related child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies have risen sharply. There are few studies about the impact on child and adolescent emergency services. This study has a twofold aim. The first is to describe the prevalence of substance use disorders, mental disorders and dual diagnosis (substance use problems plus mental disorder) in adolescents in psychiatric emergency service. The second is to analyze clinical and healthcare differences between patients with dual diagnosis and patients with a mental disorder without substance use disorder.We retrospectively reviewed 4012 discharge forms for emergencies treated at the psychiatric emergency department during the period 2007-2009. We obtained a sample of 1795 visits. This sample was divided into two groups: the dual diagnosis group (n = 477) and the psychiatric disorder group (n = 1318).The dual diagnosis group accounted for 26.5% of psychiatric emergencies analyzed. Compared to the psychiatric disorder group,the dual diagnosis group had significantly more conduct disorders, social problems, involuntariness in the visit, less hospital admissions and less connection with the healthcare network.Adolescents with a dual diagnosis account for a high percentage of visits at child and adolescent psychiatric emergency services. This patient group requires specialized care both at emergency services and in specific units. Accordingly, these units should play a triple role when handling dual diagnosis: detection, brief treatment and referral to a specialised unit.

  15. Interactive television for an urban adult mental health service: the Guy's Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit Telepsychiatry Project.

    PubMed

    Haslam, R; McLaren, P

    2000-01-01

    We carried out a feasibility study of an interactive television (IATV) system to enhance the provision of psychiatric intensive care services to a remote adult acute psychiatric ward in the same National Health Service mental health trust. The system used videoconferencing equipment connected by ISDN at 128 kbit/s. The system was used for patient referral, assessment and monitoring by staff at the remote site 8 km away.

  16. Medicare Program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system changes and FY2011 rates; provider agreements and supplier approvals; and hospital conditions of participation for rehabilitation and respiratory care services; Medicaid program: accreditation for providers of inpatient psychiatric services. Final rules and interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2010-08-16

    : We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems and to implement certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act and other legislation. In addition, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the rates for Medicare acute care hospital inpatient services for operating costs and capital-related costs. We also are setting forth the update to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. We are updating the payment policy and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and setting forth the changes to the payment rates, factors, and other payment rate policies under the LTCH PPS. In addition, we are finalizing the provisions of the August 27, 2009 interim final rule that implemented statutory provisions relating to payments to LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities and increases in beds in existing LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities under the LTCH PPS. We are making changes affecting the: Medicare conditions of participation for hospitals relating to the types of practitioners who may provide rehabilitation services and respiratory care services; and determination of the effective date of provider agreements and supplier approvals under Medicare. We are also setting forth provisions that offer psychiatric hospitals and hospitals with inpatient psychiatric programs increased flexibility in obtaining accreditation to participate in the Medicaid program. Psychiatric hospitals and hospitals with inpatient psychiatric programs will have the choice of undergoing a State survey or of obtaining accreditation from a national accrediting organization whose hospital accreditation

  17. Psychiatric Services in Dubai (A Short Descriptive Report)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Mualla, Saoud

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives an account of psychiatric services in Dubai (U.A.E). It describes the unique demographic constitution of Dubai and its complex health system. It also discusses the reasons behind the primitiveness of psychiatry in comparison to other medical specialties and services, especially considering the wealth of Dubai. The paper then goes…

  18. Patterns of antipsychotics' prescription in Portuguese acute psychiatric wards: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Campos Mendes, João; Azeredo-Lopes, Sofia; Cardoso, Graça

    2016-12-30

    This study aimed to establish the prescribing patterns of antipsychotics in acute psychiatric wards across Portugal, to determine the prevalence of polypharmacy and "high-doses" treatment, and to identify possible predictors. Twelve acute psychiatric inpatient units and 272 patients were included. The majority (87.5%) was treated with antipsychotics regardless of diagnosis, and 41.6% had at least two antipsychotics prescribed in combination. Age, use of depot antipsychotics, and antipsychotic "high-doses" were significant predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy. Excluding 'as required' prescriptions, 13.8% of the patients were prescribed "high-doses" of antipsychotics. When antipsychotics 'as required' prescriptions were considered, 49.2% of the patients were on antipsychotic "high-doses". Age, use of depot antipsychotics, previous psychiatric hospitalization and involuntary admission were significant predictors of antipsychotic "high-doses". These results show that in Portugal the antipsychotics prescribing practices in psychiatric inpatient units diverge from those that are universally recommended, entailing important clinical and economic implications. It seems advisable to optimize the prescription of these drugs, in order to prevent adverse effects and improve the quality of the services provided.

  19. 42 CFR 424.14 - Requirements for inpatient services of inpatient psychiatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... psychiatric facilities. 424.14 Section 424.14 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... psychiatric facilities. (a) Requirements for certification and recertification: General considerations... other hospitals because the care furnished in inpatient psychiatric facilities is often purely...

  20. 42 CFR 424.14 - Requirements for inpatient services of inpatient psychiatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... psychiatric facilities. 424.14 Section 424.14 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... psychiatric facilities. (a) Requirements for certification and recertification: General considerations... other hospitals because the care furnished in inpatient psychiatric facilities is often purely...

  1. [Acute psychiatric symptoms during methylphenidate intravenous injections: A case report].

    PubMed

    Vérité, Fabrice; Micallef, Joëlle

    2016-11-24

    We report the case of a 32-year-old man who developed acute psychiatric disorders after repeated intravenous injections of methylphenidate. The behavioural disorders with extreme psychomotor restlessness and delirious syndrome have resolved within 24hours. The available data highlight the fact that the prescriptions of methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like substance, are constantly increasing in Europe and Northern America. The potential of abuse and addiction to this drug, which is growingly misused, is now clearly established. The medical professionals should be cautious and attentive to the risk of misuse of this drug.

  2. Dissociative disorders in acute psychiatric inpatients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chui-De; Meg Tseng, Mei-Chih; Chien, Yi-Ling; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Chih-Min; Yeh, Yei-Yu; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Ross, Colin A

    2017-04-01

    Dissociative disorders have been documented to be common psychiatric disorders which can be detected reliably with standardized diagnostic instruments in North American and European psychiatric inpatients and outpatients (20.6% and 18.4%, respectively). However, there are concerns about their cross-cultural manifestations as an apparently low prevalence rate has been reported in East Asian inpatients and outpatients (1.7% and 4.9%, respectively). It is unknown whether the clinical profile of dissociative disorders in terms of their core symptomatic clusters, associated comorbid disorders, and environmental risk factors that has emerged in western clinical populations can also be found in non-western clinical populations. A standardized structured interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and a history of interpersonal victimization was administered in a sample of Taiwanese acute psychiatric inpatients. Our results showed that 19.5% of our participants met criteria for a DSM-IV dissociative disorder, mostly dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. More importantly, the western clinical profile of dissociative disorders also characterized our patients, including a poly-symptomatic presentation and a history of interpersonal trauma in both childhood and adulthood. Our results lend support to the conclusion that cross-cultural manifestations of dissociative pathology in East Asia are similar to those in North America and Europe.

  3. 42 CFR 415.184 - Psychiatric services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings..., including documentation, except that the requirement for the presence of the teaching physician during...

  4. 42 CFR 415.184 - Psychiatric services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings..., including documentation, except that the requirement for the presence of the teaching physician during...

  5. 42 CFR 415.184 - Psychiatric services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PHYSICIANS IN TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings..., including documentation, except that the requirement for the presence of the teaching physician during...

  6. Managing Bipolar Youths in a Psychiatric Inpatient Emergency Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Gabriele; Mucci, Maria; Pias, Paola; Muratori, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Among the youths referred to our Psychiatric Inpatient Emergency Service, we focused on bipolar disorder (BD), to explore predictive elements for the outcome. Fifty-one patients (30 males, 21 females, age range 8-18 years, mean age 14.2 plus or minus 3.1 years) received a diagnosis of BD, according to historical information, prolonged…

  7. Emergency Psychiatric Services for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: Caregivers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona; Gracey, Carolyn; Canrinus, Maaike; Morris, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Strains on the mental health system and inaccessible services for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often force caregivers to bring individuals with ID to the emergency department (ED) when in psychiatric crisis. The purpose of this study was to understand the experience of caregivers and adults with ID and mental health…

  8. Perceived Dangerousness as Related to Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychiatric Service Use – a Vignette Based Representative Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sowislo, Julia F.; Gonet-Wirz, Franca; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E.; Huber, Christian G.

    2017-01-01

    Perceptions of dangerousness are an influential component of mental health stigma and can be driven by the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. Yet, no previous study compared symptoms and service use associated perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, we conducted a representative survey (N = 2,207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to answer the perceived dangerousness scale with respect to a vignette that either depicted psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution the fictitious character had been admitted to. Between the vignettes, type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied. Perceived dangerousness was significantly lower as related to psychiatric service use than related to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and male gender of the fictitious character tend to increase perceived dangerousness. Furthermore, being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital or the rater being familiar with psychiatric services tends to decrease perceived dangerousness. Effective anti-stigma initiatives should integrate education about dangerousness as well as methods to increase familiarity with psychiatry. Additionally, an integration of modern psychiatry in somato-medical care institutions might decrease stigmatization. PMID:28367993

  9. Survey of stakeholders' opinions of community psychiatric nursing services.

    PubMed

    Shanley, E; Watson, G; Cole, A

    2001-06-01

    The paper describes a telephone survey of the views of representatives of users, purchasers and providers of community psychiatric nursing services on services in Scotland. The telephone interview protocol was based on seven themes derived from interviewing 63 users, purchasers and providers throughout the UK. Descriptive statistics were used to present the responses in the survey to the forced choice questions. Responses to the open ended questions were coded, categorized and computed. The paper describes the responses by the major stakeholders to each of the themes. Overall, the quality of the existing services was placed in the 'good' category. However, criticism was directed at the insufficient numbers of Community Psychiatric Nurses in the service, the inadequate amount of time spent with clients and their poorly organized method of working. Other findings and stakeholders' recommendations are discussed.

  10. Implementing routine outcome measurement in psychiatric rehabilitation services in Israel.

    PubMed

    Roe, David; Gelkopf, Marc; Gornemann, Miriam Isolde; Baloush-Kleinman, Vered; Shadmi, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present the design, development and implementation of the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Routine Outcome Measurement (PR-ROM) project, the first systematic effort to implement mental health routine outcome measures in Israel. The goal of the PR-ROM is to provide updated information about the process and impact of psychiatric rehabilitation services in Israel and to establish a sustainable infrastructure and foundation for routine outcome monitoring of rehabilitation services to improve care, inform policy, generate incentives for service improvement, increase informed decision-making and provide data for research purposes. The rehabilitation services evaluated and the characteristics of the population being served are described and the methods and nature of the collected data as well as some preliminary findings are presented. We discuss the major barriers encountered, our efforts to deal with them and lessons learned during the process. We conclude with a description of the current state of the initiative and plans for the future.

  11. 42 CFR 415.184 - Psychiatric services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.184..., including documentation, except that the requirement for the presence of the teaching physician during...

  12. 42 CFR 415.184 - Psychiatric services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TEACHING SETTINGS, AND RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.184..., including documentation, except that the requirement for the presence of the teaching physician during...

  13. 42 CFR 440.160 - Inpatient psychiatric services for individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Definitions § 440.160 Inpatient psychiatric services for individuals under age 21. “Inpatient psychiatric... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inpatient psychiatric services for individuals under age 21. 440.160 Section 440.160 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES,...

  14. Fiscally challenged. Psychiatric industry's hope is in consolidation, focusing services.

    PubMed

    Saphir, A

    2000-03-27

    Psychiatric hospitals are closing in droves. Last year alone, at least 75 were shuttered, up sharply from the previous year. And psych hospitals collectively lost $254 million in 1998. To reverse the sector's fortunes, providers are focusing on consolidation and specialty services. "Mental health isn't glamorous," says David Moulthrop (left), CEO of a Wisconsin psych hospital. "But there is a future, though the pie has shrunk."

  15. What happens when 55% of acute psychiatric beds are closed in six days: an unexpected naturalistic observational study

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Matt; Mitchell, Anji; Parkin, Lindsay; Confue, Phil; Shankar, Rohit; Wilson-James, Diane; Marshall, Mike; Edgecombe, Maria; Keaney, Bernie; Gill, Kiran; Harrison, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    Objective The sudden closure of 30 out of 54 acute psychiatric beds in Cornwall presented a stressful challenge to staff but also a natural experiment on how a service dealt with this situation. We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients needing to leave the closed ward, how bed occupancy rates were affected and the impact on admission rates. Design A service evaluation of the impact of the ward closure. Setting A comprehensive secondary NHS mental health service in Cornwall serving 550,000 population. Main outcome measures The destination of the patients needing to leave the acute unit, the effect of the closure on bed occupancy, admission rates and serious untoward incidents. Results Of 26 patients needing to be moved from the acute ward, only 10 needed an acute psychiatric bed. None of the seven patients who had been on the ward longer than nine weeks needed an acute unit. Admission rates fell over the subsequent three months. There was no increase in serious incidents due to the closure. Conclusions This naturalistic event suggests that many patients on acute units could be cared for elsewhere, especially recovery/rehabilitation care environments, if political and financial urgency is present. Admission rates are responsive to the pressure on beds. PMID:27757241

  16. 42 CFR 412.405 - Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.405 Section 412.405 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.405 Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. The prospective payment...

  17. 42 CFR 412.405 - Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.405 Section 412.405 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.405 Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. The prospective payment...

  18. 42 CFR 412.405 - Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.405 Section 412.405 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.405 Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. The prospective payment...

  19. 42 CFR 424.14 - Requirements for inpatient services of inpatient psychiatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... psychiatric facilities. 424.14 Section 424.14 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Certification and Plan Requirements § 424.14 Requirements for inpatient services of inpatient psychiatric... requirements differ from those for other hospitals because the care furnished in psychiatric hospitals is...

  20. 42 CFR 424.14 - Requirements for inpatient services of inpatient psychiatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... psychiatric facilities. 424.14 Section 424.14 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Certification and Plan Requirements § 424.14 Requirements for inpatient services of inpatient psychiatric... requirements differ from those for other hospitals because the care furnished in psychiatric hospitals is...

  1. 42 CFR 412.405 - Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.405 Section 412.405 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.405 Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. The prospective payment...

  2. 42 CFR 412.405 - Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.405 Section 412.405 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.405 Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. The prospective payment...

  3. The Evaluation of Elderly Patients by a Psychiatric Emergency Service

    PubMed Central

    Baker, F. M.; Scholhamer, Nanne

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective descriptive study of older patients evaluated by the psychiatric emergency service (PES) of a general hospital was implemented. The medical records of all patients aged 65 years and older evaluated by the PES during the 1980 calendar year were reviewed. Seventy-four patients were identified, 38 male and 36 female. Forty-three percent of the sample had no medical problems, 59 percent had a prior psychiatric history, and 38 percent had a diagnosis of organic brain syndrome. After their evaluation, 43 percent of these older patients were discharged home with a referral for outpatient treatment. In contrast to prior studies, only 35 percent of the sample were taking two or more psychoactive medications. Only two patients were referred for evaluation from skilled nursing homes. PMID:3404560

  4. Switch Function and Pathological Dissociation in Acute Psychiatric Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chui-De; Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chien, Yi-Ling; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Chih-Min; Yeh, Yei-Yu; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2016-01-01

    Swift switching, along with atypical ability on updating and inhibition, has been found in non-clinical dissociators. However, whether swift switching is a cognitive endophenotype that intertwines with traumatisation and pathological dissociation remains unknown. Unspecified acute psychiatric patients were recruited to verify a hypothesis that pathological dissociation is associated with swift switching and traumatisation may explain this relationship. Behavioural measures of intellectual function and three executive functions including updating, switching and inhibition were administered, together with standardised scales to evaluate pathological dissociation and traumatisation. Our results showed superior control ability on switching and updating in inpatients who displayed more symptoms of pathological dissociation. When all three executive functions were entered as predictors, in addition to intellectual quotient and demographic variables to regress upon pathological dissociation, switching rather than updating remained the significant predictor. Importantly, the relationship between pathological dissociation and switching became non-significant when the effect of childhood trauma were controlled. The results support a trauma-related switching hypothesis which postulates swift switching as a cognitive endophenotype of pathological dissociation; traumatisation in childhood may explain the importance of swift switching. PMID:27123578

  5. Psychiatric Worker and Family Members: Pathways Towards Co-Operation Networks within Psychiatric Assistance Services.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Silvia

    2014-03-04

    The family's role in patient care was greatly altered by Law 180. This law, introduced in Italy in 1978, led to a gradual phasing out of custodial treatment for psychiatric patients. This different mindset, which views the family as an alternative to institutionalization, leads to it being seen as an essential entity in the setting up of community service dynamics. We interviewed health professionals in order to understand obstacles of collaboration between family members and mental health care workers. The goal was to uncover actions that promote collaboration and help build alliances between families and psychiatric workers. Results showed that health professionals view the family as a therapeutic resource. Despite this view, family members were rarely included in patient treatment. The reasons is: the structures have a theoretical orientation of collaboration with the family but, for nurses not are organized a few meeting spaces with family members. Services should create moments, such as multi-family groups or groups of information, managed by nurses and not only by doctors. These occasions it might facilitate the knowledge between professionals and family members.

  6. [Emergency Psychiatric Service in general hospitals: a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Fernando Sérgio Pereira; da Silva, Cezar Augusto Ferreira; Oliveira, Eliany Nazaré

    2010-09-01

    The Emergency Psychiatric Service in General Hospitals (SEPHG, acronym in Portuguese) is a service included in the psychiatric reform movement. The purpose of the present study was to characterize patients with psychological distress treated at the Dr. Estevam SEPHG, located in Sobral, Cear state. This exploratory study was performed using documental analyses with a quantitative approach, and involved 191 clients treated at the referred SEPHG from January to December 2007. Data collection was performed using a client register book, which contained information obtained from the patients' medical record. There was a predominance of male patients (70.15%), aged 30-49 years (48.71%) and single (74.86%). Most patients were from the city of Sobral (69.64%). In 42.40% of cases, the diagnosis was of alcohol use/abuse. Most clients (66.50%) sought the service voluntarily. After being evaluated at the SEPHG, 43.45% of patients were referred to the local Center for Psychosocial Care-Alcohol and other Drugs. The results emphasize the importance of mental health.

  7. Remote Psychiatric and Psychological Services via the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covvey, H. Dominic; And Others

    To provide remote psychiatric services to a population in Moose Factory, Ontario, via satellite, digital data links will be used to provide 24-hour access to the psychiatric medical file system and the psychiatric patient register at University Hospital, London, Ontario, and to permit scoring and interpretation of standard psychological tests. The…

  8. 42 CFR 424.14 - Requirements for inpatient services of inpatient psychiatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... psychiatric facilities. 424.14 Section 424.14 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... psychiatric facilities. (a) Content of certification and recertification: General considerations. The content requirements differ from those for other hospitals because the care furnished in psychiatric hospitals is...

  9. Unlocking an acute psychiatric ward: the impact on unauthorised absences, assaults and seclusions.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, Ben; Beveridge, John; Campbell-Trotter, Warren; Frampton, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Aims and method The acute psychiatric in-patient service in Christchurch, New Zealand, recently changed from two locked and two unlocked wards to four open wards. This provided the opportunity to evaluate whether shifting to an unlocked environment was associated with higher rates of adverse events, including unauthorised absences, violent incidents and seclusion. We compared long-term adverse event data before and after ward configuration change. Results Rates of unauthorised absences increased by 58% after the change in ward configuration (P = 0.005), but seclusion hours dropped by 53% (P = 0.001). A small increase in violent incidents was recorded but this was not statistically significant. Clinical implications Although unauthorised absences increased, the absence of statistically significant changes for violent incidents and a reduction in seclusion hours suggest that the change to a less restrictive environment may have some positive effects.

  10. Unlocking an acute psychiatric ward: the impact on unauthorised absences, assaults and seclusions

    PubMed Central

    Beaglehole, Ben; Beveridge, John; Campbell-Trotter, Warren; Frampton, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Aims and method The acute psychiatric in-patient service in Christchurch, New Zealand, recently changed from two locked and two unlocked wards to four open wards. This provided the opportunity to evaluate whether shifting to an unlocked environment was associated with higher rates of adverse events, including unauthorised absences, violent incidents and seclusion. We compared long-term adverse event data before and after ward configuration change. Results Rates of unauthorised absences increased by 58% after the change in ward configuration (P = 0.005), but seclusion hours dropped by 53% (P = 0.001). A small increase in violent incidents was recorded but this was not statistically significant. Clinical implications Although unauthorised absences increased, the absence of statistically significant changes for violent incidents and a reduction in seclusion hours suggest that the change to a less restrictive environment may have some positive effects.

  11. Implementing psychiatric advance directives: service provider issues and answers.

    PubMed

    Srebnik, Debra; Brodoff, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are an emerging method for adults with serious and persistent mental illness to document treatment preferences in advance of periods of incapacity. This article presents and responds to issues most frequently raised by service providers when planning for implementation of PADs. Issues discussed include access to PADs; competency to execute PADs; the relationship of PADs to standards of care, resource availability, and involuntary treatment; roles of service providers and others in execution of PADs; timeliness and redundancy of PAD information; consumer expectations of PADs; complexity of PADs; revocation and "activation"; legal enforceability of PADs; the role and powers of agents; liability for honoring and not honoring PADs; and use of PADs to consent for release of health care information. Recommendations are made for training staff and consumers, consideration of statute development, and methods to reduce logistical, attitudinal, and system barriers to effective use of PADs.

  12. 42 CFR 440.160 - Inpatient psychiatric services for individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... psychiatric facility which is accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, the Council on Accreditation of Services for Families and Children, the Commission on Accreditation...

  13. 42 CFR 440.160 - Inpatient psychiatric services for individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... psychiatric facility which is accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, the Council on Accreditation of Services for Families and Children, the Commission on Accreditation...

  14. 42 CFR 440.160 - Inpatient psychiatric services for individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... psychiatric facility which is accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, the Council on Accreditation of Services for Families and Children, the Commission on Accreditation...

  15. 42 CFR 440.160 - Inpatient psychiatric services for individuals under age 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... psychiatric facility which is accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, the Council on Accreditation of Services for Families and Children, the Commission on Accreditation...

  16. Ethnic Disparities in School-Based Behavioral Health Service Use for Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Pellecchia, Melanie; Marcus, Steven; Hadley, Trevor; Mandell, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined racial/ethnic disparities in school-based behavioral health service use for children with psychiatric disorders. Methods: Medicaid claims data were used to compare the behavioral healthcare service use of 23,601 children aged 5-17 years by psychiatric disorder (autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD],…

  17. Emergency Presentations to an Inner-City Psychiatric Service for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dil, L. M.; Vuijk, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric emergency services for children and adolescents vary in process, structure and outcome. There are few systematic studies on the type and prevalence of psychiatric problems encountered, related circumstances or resulting interventions. Evidence in these areas is important in evaluation of the function of mental health services in the…

  18. [Service expectations facing Saxony's newly established social psychiatric services. Attitudes of established neurologists, physicians in psychiatric clinics and social psychiatry service staff].

    PubMed

    Kallert, T W; Leisse, M; Kreiner, B; Bach, O

    1998-11-01

    In the wake of the disintegration of the policlinical system which had prevailed in the former German Democratic Republic, far-reaching restructuring has become necessary in the "new" German laender in the field of complementary psychiatric care. Establishment throughout the state of Saxony of a uniform outreach-based ambulatory service ranks as a first component towards building regionalized community psychiatric networks. In light of some twenty years of experience in the old laender, this function is considered a task of the Social Psychiatric Services ("Sozialpsychiatrische Dienste", SPDIs). The present study had been directed at a state-wide investigation of the expectations community-practice psychiatrists (n = 165), physicians in psychiatric clinics (n = 95) and staff working in SPDIs (n = 138) in Saxony hold regarding service programmes and operating methods of these newly established service delivery structures. Given the high return rates in this anonymous postal questionnaire study, the findings presented are considered near-representative. A concurrent finding for all of the groups interviewed, expectations concerning the client population to be serviced by the SPDIs focus on the group of persons with chronic mental illness. Also, the expectations expressed concerning major care/therapeutic services to be rendered by the SPDIs concur in their emphasis on a core area of immediately client-oriented SPDI activities. Between the two medical groups, a major difference found is that community-practice psychiatrists more frequently expect high SPDI commitment regarding sociotherapeutic programmes at an institutional level, whereas clinical physicians expect them to focus on taking over medical therapies in the narrower sense. The expectations SPDI staff hold relative to the therapeutic services to be rendered by themselves go beyond the scope of what has so far been implemented in their current activity, and qualitative content analyses are presented in the

  19. Nurse-police coalition: improves safety in acute psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Allen, Diane E; Harris, Frank N; de Nesnera, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Although police officers protect and secure the safety of citizens everywhere, nurses are the primary guardians of patient safety within the treatment milieu. At New Hampshire Hospital, both nurses and police officers share ownership of this responsibility, depending on the needs that arise specific to each profession. Psychiatric nurses take pride in their ability to de-escalate agitated and potentially aggressive patients; however, times arise when the best efforts of nurses fail, or when a situation requires intervention from police officers. Nurses and police officers at New Hampshire Hospital have worked together for many years to develop a trusting, respectful alliance. This coalition has resulted in a safe, clear, orderly process for transfer of authority from nurses to police during violent, clinically unmanageable psychiatric emergencies. Nurses and police officers work collaboratively toward the common goal of ensuring safety for patients and staff, while also acknowledging the unique strengths of each profession.

  20. Investigation into the acceptability of door locking to staff, patients, and visitors on acute psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; van der Merwe, Marie; Nijman, Henk; Haglund, Kristina; Simpson, Alan; Bowers, Len

    2012-02-01

    There is disagreement among psychiatric professionals about whether the doors of acute psychiatric wards should be kept locked to prevent patients from leaving and harming themselves or others. This study explored patient, staff, and visitor perceptions about the acceptability of locking the ward door on acute psychiatric inpatient wards. Interviews were conducted with 14 registered nurses, 15 patients, and six visitors from three different acute wards. Findings revealed commonalities across all groups, with general agreement that locking the door reduced absconding. Staff expressed feelings of guilt, embarrassment, and fear of being blamed when a patient absconded. Staff also reported that open wards created anxious vigilance to prevent an abscond and increased workload in allocating staff to watch the door, whereas staff on partially-locked doors also perceived an increased workload in letting people in and out of the ward. Patients had mixed feelings about the status of the door, expressing depression, a sense of stigma, and low self-esteem when the door was locked. The issue of balancing safety and security on acute psychiatric wards against the autonomy of patients is not easily resolved, and requires focused research to develop innovative nursing practices.

  1. Which skills boost service provider confidence when managing people presenting with psychiatric emergencies?

    PubMed

    Poremski, Daniel; Lim, Xin Ya; Kunjithapatham, Ganesh; Koh, Doris; Alexander, Mark; Cheng, Lee

    2016-12-01

    The way service seekers interact with the staff at emergency services has been shown to influence the standard of care, especially in the case of certain psychiatric manifestations. Staff reactions to psychiatric complaints have been linked to their comfort dealing with these types of service users as well as their competencies understanding the illness. It is therefore vital to understand which skills increase confidence in treating psychiatric emergencies. Twenty-six open-ended convergent interviews were conducted with staff working in a psychiatric emergency department. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Participants reported several non-technical skills which developed from exclusively serving people with psychiatric emergencies: 1) Vigilance allowed staff to be sensitive to minor changes in behavior which precede psychiatric emergencies. 2) The ability to negotiate and find tangible solutions was particularly important when dealing with psychiatric complaints which may not have tangible resolutions. 3) The ability to appraise social support networks allowed staff to plan follow-up actions and ensure continuity of care when support was available. 4) The ability to self-reflect allowed participants to learn from their experience and avoid burnout, frustration, and fatigue. Participants also reported several other clinical skills which they gained during training, including teamwork, de-escalating techniques and risk assessment. Tentatively speaking, these skills improve staff's confidence when treating psychiatric emergencies. Certain skills may be generalized to staff working in medical emergency departments who frequently encounter psychiatric complaints.

  2. Students with Psychiatric Disabilities on Campus: Examining Predictors of Enrollment with Disability Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Elizabeth; Mowbray, Carol T.

    2008-01-01

    Because of advances in psychotropic medications, psychiatric rehabilitation methods, the implementation of civil rights legislation, and empowerment movement of consumers with psychiatric disabilities, students with mental illnesses are increasingly able to access and complete higher education. Disability services offices on college campuses can…

  3. Substance Abusers in an Acute Psychiatric Facility: A Diagnostic and Logistic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Berg, John E.; Restan, Asbjørn

    2013-01-01

    Acute resident psychiatric facilities in Norway usually get their patients after referral from a medical doctor. Acute psychiatric wards are the only places accepting persons in need of emergency hospitalisation when emergency units in somatic hospitals do not accept the patient. Resident patients at one random chosen day were scrutinized in an acute psychiatric facility with 36 beds serving a catchment area of 165 000. Twenty-five patients were resident in the facility at that particular day. Eight of 25 resident patients (32.0%) in the acute wards were referred for a substance-induced psychosis (SIP). Another patient may also have had a SIP, but the differential diagnostic work was not finished. A main primary diagnosis of substance use was given in the medical reports in only 12.9% of patients during the last year. Given that the chosen day was representative of the year, a majority of patients with substance abuse problems were given other diagnoses. There seems to be a reluctance to declare the primary reason for an acute stay in a third of resident stays. Lack of specialized emergency detoxification facilities may have contributed to the results. PMID:23738222

  4. A Comparative Study of Pituitary Volume Variations in MRI in Acute Onset of Psychiatric Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Joish, Upendra Kumar; Sahni, Hirdesh; George, Raju A; Sivasankar, Rajeev; Aggarwal, Rohit

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The growing belief that endocrine abnormalities may underlie many mental conditions has led to increased use of imaging and hormonal assays in patients attending to psychiatric OPDs. People who are in an acute phase of a psychiatric disorder show Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, but the precise underlying central mechanisms are unclear. Aim To assess the pituitary gland volume variations in patients presenting with new onset acute psychiatric illness in comparison with age and gender matched controls by using MRI. Materials and Methods The study included 50 patients, with symptoms of acute psychiatric illness presenting within one month of onset of illness and 50 age and gender matched healthy controls. Both patients and controls were made to undergo MRI of the Brain. A 0.9 mm slices of entire brain were obtained by 3 dimensional T1 weighted sequence. Pituitary gland was traced in all sagittal slices. Anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary bright spot were measured separately in each slice. Volume of the pituitary (in cubic centimetre- cm3) was calculated by summing areas. Significance of variations in pituitary gland volumes was compared between the cases and controls using Analysis of Covariance (ANOVA). Results There were significantly larger pituitary gland volumes in the cases than the controls, irrespective of psychiatric diagnosis (ANOVA, f=15.56; p=0.0002). Pituitary volumes in cases were 15.36% (0.73 cm3) higher than in controls. Conclusion There is a strong likelihood of HPA axis overactivity during initial phase of all mental disorders along with increased pituitary gland volumes. Further studies including hormonal assays and correlation with imaging are likely to provide further insight into neuroanatomical and pathological basis of psychiatric disorders. PMID:28384955

  5. Receipt of employment services among Veterans Health Administration users with psychiatric diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Kristen M; Ganoczy, Dara; Yosef, Matheos; Resnick, Sandra G; Zivin, Kara

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the population-based reach of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employment services to VHA patients with psychiatric diagnoses. Reach of services includes the percentage and characteristics of people who accessed services compared with those who did not. Using clinical administrative data, we identified patients with a psychiatric diagnosis among a random sample of all patients who received VHA services in 1 yr. Among VHA patients with psychiatric diagnoses, we examined their likelihood of receiving any VHA employment services and specific types of employment services, including supported employment, transitional work, incentive therapy, and vocational assistance. We identified clinical and demographic characteristics associated with receiving employment services. Results indicated that 4.2% of VHA patients with a psychiatric diagnosis received employment services. After adjusting for clinical and demographic characteristics, VHA patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were more likely to receive any employment services and to receive supported employment than were patients with depression, PTSD, or other anxiety disorders. VHA patients with depression and PTSD were more likely to receive transitional work and vocational assistance than patients with schizophrenia. Future studies should examine system-level barriers to receiving employment services and identify types of employment services most appropriate for Veterans with different psychiatric diagnoses.

  6. Influence of drugs of abuse and alcohol upon patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards: physician's assessment compared to blood drug concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mordal, Jon; Medhus, Sigrid; Holm, Bjørn; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2013-06-01

    In acute psychiatric services, rapid and accurate detection of psychoactive substance intake may be required for appropriate diagnosis and intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between (a) drug influence as assessed by physicians and (b) blood drug concentrations among patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards. We also explored the possible effects of age, sex, and psychotic symptoms on physician's assessment of drug influence. In a cross-sectional study, the sample comprised 271 consecutive admissions from 2 acute psychiatric wards. At admission, the physician on call performed an overall judgment of drug influence. Psychotic symptoms were assessed with the positive subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Blood samples were screened for a wide range of psychoactive substances, and quantitative results were used to calculate blood drug concentration scores. Patients were judged as being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol in 28% of the 271 admissions. Psychoactive substances were detected in 56% of the blood samples. Altogether, 15 different substances were found; up to 8 substances were found in samples from 1 patient. Markedly elevated blood drug concentration scores were estimated for 15% of the patients. Physician's assessment was positively related to the blood drug concentration scores (r = 0.52; P < 0.001), to symptoms of excitement, and to the detection of alcohol, cannabis, and amphetamines. The study demonstrates the major impact of alcohol and drugs in acute psychiatric settings and illustrates the challenging nature of the initial clinical assessment.

  7. Predictors of suicide in the patient population admitted to a locked-door psychiatric acute ward

    PubMed Central

    Fosse, Roar; Ryberg, Wenche; Carlsson, Merete Kvalsvik; Hammer, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective No prior study appears to have focused on predictors of suicide in the general patient population admitted to psychiatric acute wards. We used a case-control design to investigate the association between suicide risk factors assessed systematically at admission to a locked-door psychiatric acute ward in Norway and subsequent death by suicide. Method From 2008 to 2013, patients were routinely assessed for suicide risk upon admission to the acute ward with a 17-item check list based on recommendations from the Norwegian Directorate of Health and Social Affairs. Among 1976 patients admitted to the ward, 40 patients, 22 men and 18 women, completed suicide within December 2014. Results Compared to a matched control group (n = 120), after correction for multiple tests, suicide completers scored significantly higher on two items on the check list: presence of suicidal thoughts and wishing to be dead. An additional four items were significant in non-corrected tests: previous suicide attempts, continuity of suicidal thoughts, having a suicide plan, and feelings of hopelessness, indifference, and/or aggression. A brief scale based on these six items was the only variable associated with suicide in multivariate regression analysis, but its predictive value was poor. Conclusion Suicide specific ideations may be the most central risk markers for suicide in the general patient population admitted to psychiatric acute wards. However, a low predictive value may question the utility of assessing suicide risk. PMID:28301590

  8. The relationship between executive functions and capacity to consent to treatment in acute psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Mandarelli, Gabriele; Parmigiani, Giovanna; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Frati, Paola; Biondi, Massimo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2012-12-01

    Despite the acknowledged influence of cognition on patients' capacity to consent to treatment, the specific neuropsychological domains involved remain elusive, as does the role of executive functions. We investigated possible associations between executive functions and decisional capacity in a sample of acute psychiatric inpatients. Patients were recruited and evaluated through the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T), the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Patients with poor executive functioning performed worse in MacCAT understanding, appreciation, and expression of a choice, compared with good performers. These findings point to the importance of cognition in decisional capacity processes. In addition, the strong association found between learning abilities and informed consent decision-making provide empirical evidence indicating possible cognitive enhancement strategies that may improve psychiatric patients' competency.

  9. State of Acute Agitation at Psychiatric Emergencies in Europe: The STAGE Study

    PubMed Central

    San, Luis; Marksteiner, Josef; Zwanzger, Peter; Figuero, María Aragüés; Romero, Francisco Toledo; Kyropoulos, Grigorios; Peixoto, Alberto Bessa; Chirita, Roxana; Boldeanu, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Agitation is an array of syndromes and types of behaviors that are common in patients with psychiatric disorders. In Europe, the estimation of prevalence of agitation has been difficult due to the lack of standard studies or systematic data collection done on this syndrome. Objective: An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study aimed to assess the prevalence of agitation episodes in psychiatric emergencies in different European countries. Method: For 1 week, all episodes of acute agitation that were attended to at the psychiatric emergency room (ER) or Acute Inpatient Unit (AIU) in the 27 participating centers were registered. The clinical characteristics and management of the agitation episode were also described. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: A total of 334 agitation episodes out of 7295 psychiatric emergencies were recorded, giving a prevalence rate of 4.6% (95% CI: 4.12-5.08). Of them, 172 [9.4% (95% CI: 8.2-10.9)] were attended at the ER and 162 [2.8% (95% CI: 2.4-3.3)] at AIU. Only data from 165 episodes of agitation (those with a signed informed consent form) was registered and described in this report. The most common psychiatric conditions associated with agitation were schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and personality disorder. The management of agitation included from non-invasive to more coercive measures (mechanical, physical restraint or seclusion) that were unavoidable in more than half of the agitation episodes (59.5%). Conclusion: The results show that agitation is a common symptom in the clinical practice, both in emergency and inpatient psychiatric departments. Further studies are warranted to better recognize (using a standardized definition) and characterize agitation episodes. PMID:27857778

  10. Behavioural antecedents to pro re nata psychotropic medication administration on acute psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Duncan; Robson, Deborah; Chaplin, Robert; Quirk, Alan; Bowers, Len

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the antecedents to administration of pro re nata (PRN) psychotropic medication on acute psychiatric wards, with a particular focus on its use in response to patient aggression and other conflict behaviours. A sample of 522 adult in-patients was recruited from 84 acute psychiatric wards in England. Data were collected from nursing and medical records for the first 2  weeks of admission. Two-thirds of patients received PRN medication during this period, but only 30% of administrations were preceded by patient conflict (usually aggression). Instead, it was typically administered to prevent escalation of patient behaviour and to help patients sleep. Overall, no conflict behaviours or further staff intervention occurred after 61% of PRN administrations. However, a successful outcome was less likely when medication was administered in response to patient aggression. The study concludes that improved monitoring, review procedures, training for nursing staff, and guidelines for the administration of PRN medications are needed.

  11. Security rules and banned items in psychiatric acute admission wards in Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Koukia, Evmorfia; Giannouli, Eleni; Gonis, Nikolaos; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2010-12-01

    Mental health nurses play a key role in maintaining the safety of patients, themselves, and others during hospitalization. The aim of the research was to evaluate the safety measures that are taken by mental health nurses to identify the security policies that exist in acute mental health wards. The Ward Safety and Security Rules Survey was used as a method of data collection. Descriptive analysis and content analysis were carried out in order to identify nurses' practices. The total sample consisted of 172 mental health nurses and nurses' assistants who worked in 14 acute inpatient psychiatric wards in three psychiatric hospitals in the greater area of Athens, Greece. The results show a minimum number of security features existing in the wards. Only one of the 14 wards had an intercom system. In only nine wards, there was a panic alarm in the office, and in eight, an emergency response telephone extension. A wide range of practices were noted concerning banned items and patient searches upon admission and return from leave. The results indicate the significant lack of protocols and specific safety rules to guide nurses' actions across psychiatric acute admission wards in Athens.

  12. Design in mind: eliciting service user and frontline staff perspectives on psychiatric ward design through participatory methods

    PubMed Central

    Csipke, Emese; Papoulias, Constantina; Vitoratou, Silia; Williams, Paul; Rose, Diana; Wykes, Til

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Psychiatric ward design may make an important contribution to patient outcomes and well-being. However, research is hampered by an inability to assess its effects robustly. This paper reports on a study which deployed innovative methods to capture service user and staff perceptions of ward design. Method: User generated measures of the impact of ward design were developed and tested on four acute adult wards using participatory methodology. Additionally, inpatients took photographs to illustrate their experience of the space in two wards. Data were compared across wards. Results: Satisfactory reliability indices emerged based on both service user and staff responses. Black and minority ethnic (BME) service users and those with a psychosis spectrum diagnosis have more positive views of the ward layout and fixtures. Staff members have more positive views than service users, while priorities of staff and service users differ. Inpatient photographs prioritise hygiene, privacy and control and address symbolic aspects of the ward environment. Conclusions: Participatory and visual methodologies can provide robust tools for an evaluation of the impact of psychiatric ward design on users. PMID:26886239

  13. Symptom, Family, and Service Predictors of Children's Psychiatric Rehospitalization within One Year of Discharge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blader, Joseph C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate predictors of readmission to inpatient psychiatric treatment for children aged 5 to 12 discharged from acute-care hospitalization. Method: One hundred nine children were followed for 1 year after discharge from inpatient care. Time to rehospitalization was the outcome of interest. Predictors of readmission, examined via…

  14. The Use of Psychiatric Service Dogs in the Treatment of Veterans with PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    W81XWH-08-2-0572 TITLE: The Use of psychiatric Service Dogs in the Treatment of Veterans with PTSD PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Craig Love...The Use of Psychiatric Service Dogs in the Treatment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Of Veterans With PTSD 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-2-0572 5c. PROGRAM...concept of using service dogs to reduce the symptoms of PTSD among returning soldiers with severe cases of the disability. At this point the study is

  15. [A university department as a psychiatric service centre for children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, Helmut; Walter, Reinhard; Theisen, Frank; Ulbrich, Rainer; Martin, Matthias

    2006-11-01

    The article reports on a system of care for psychiatrically ill children and adolescents that has been designed, established and expanded since 1980 by a university department in a rural region. The department is responsible for the mental health care of three counties with altogether 807 000 inhabitants. The development of this system of care was due in great part to the model program of the German Federal Government for the reform of mental health care that comprised 14 model regions, out of which the region of Marburg and its surrounding counties was the only one with a focus on the situation of psychiatrically ill children and adolescents. With the aid of this model program, a comprehensive evaluation of existing psychiatric services was carried out and at the same time, new services for this clientele were established such as a mobile child and adolescent psychiatric service and a day hospital. A particular focus was laid on the development of a complete network of psychiatric services with manifold, and over the years well proven, cooperation measures. Finally, the quality of mental health care was significantly increased by a continuous evaluation of services and the implementation of two institutes for psychotherapeutic training. Several research initiatives in the field of social psychiatry have contributed to this amelioration and at the same time, to a successful integration of mental health care and research.

  16. Emergency Psychiatric Services for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: Perspectives of Hospital Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Gracey, Carolyn; Gelfand, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Strains on the mainstream mental health system can result in inaccessible services that force individuals with intellectual disabilities into the emergency room (ER) when in psychiatric crisis. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and systemic issues surrounding emergency psychiatry services for people with intellectual disabilities,…

  17. Non-Psychiatric Services Provided in a Mental Health Unit in a County Jail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Diane S.

    2002-01-01

    Examines mental health service provision by social workers in a county jail through a retrospective review of 359 mentally ill jail inmates' health and mental health records. Of the non-psychiatric, mental health services provided beyond initial assessment, housing placement evaluations and follow-up sessions were the most frequent. Suggestions…

  18. A Systematic Review of Music Therapy Practice and Outcomes with Acute Adult Psychiatric In-Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Catherine; Odell-Miller, Helen; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives There is an emerging evidence base for the use of music therapy in the treatment of severe mental illness. Whilst different models of music therapy have been developed in mental health care, none have specifically accounted for the features and context of acute in-patient settings. This review aimed to identify how music therapy is provided for acute adult psychiatric in-patients and what outcomes have been reported. Review Methods A systematic review using medical, psychological and music therapy databases. Papers describing music therapy with acute adult psychiatric in-patients were included. Analysis utilised narrative synthesis. Results 98 papers were identified, of which 35 reported research findings. Open group work and active music making for nonverbal expression alongside verbal reflection was emphasised. Aims were engagement, communication and interpersonal relationships focusing upon immediate areas of need rather than longer term insight. The short stay, patient diversity and institutional structure influenced delivery and resulted in a focus on single sessions, high session frequency, more therapist direction, flexible use of musical activities, predictable musical structures, and clear realistic goals. Outcome studies suggested effectiveness in addressing a range of symptoms, but were limited by methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Studies with significant positive effects all used active musical participation with a degree of structure and were delivered in four or more sessions. Conclusions No single clearly defined model exists for music therapy with adults in acute psychiatric in-patient settings, and described models are not conclusive. Greater frequency of therapy, active structured music making with verbal discussion, consistency of contact and boundaries, an emphasis on building a therapeutic relationship and building patient resources may be of particular importance. Further research is required to

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Violence by Psychiatric Acute Inpatients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Iozzino, Laura; Ferrari, Clarissa; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence in acute psychiatric wards affects the safety of other patients and the effectiveness of treatment. However, there is a wide variation in reported rates of violence in acute psychiatric wards. Objectives To use meta-analysis to estimate the pooled rate of violence in published studies, and examine the characteristics of the participants, and aspects of the studies themselves that might explain the variation in the reported rates of violence (moderators). Method Systematic meta-analysis of studies published between January 1995 and December 2014, which reported rates of violence in acute psychiatric wards of general or psychiatric hospitals in high-income countries. Results Of the 23,972 inpatients described in 35 studies, the pooled proportion of patients who committed at least one act of violence was 17% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14–20%). Studies with higher proportions of male patients, involuntary patients, patients with schizophrenia and patients with alcohol use disorder reported higher rates of inpatient violence. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that almost 1 in 5 patients admitted to acute psychiatric units may commit an act of violence. Factors associated with levels of violence in psychiatric units are similar to factors that are associated with violence among individual patients (male gender, diagnosis of schizophrenia, substance use and lifetime history of violence). PMID:26061796

  20. Risk Factors of Acute Behavioral Regression in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Périsse, Didier; Amiet, Claire; Consoli, Angèle; Thorel, Marie-Vincente; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guinchat, Vincent; Barthélémy, Catherine; Cohen, David

    2010-01-01

    Aim: During adolescence, some individuals with autism engage in severe disruptive behaviors, such as violence, agitation, tantrums, or self-injurious behaviors. We aimed to assess risk factors associated with very acute states and regression in adolescents with autism in an inpatient population. Method: Between 2001 and 2005, we reviewed the charts of all adolescents with autism (N=29, mean age=14.8 years, 79% male) hospitalized for severe disruptive behaviors in a psychiatric intensive care unit. We systematically collected data describing socio-demographic characteristics, clinical variables (severity, presence of language, cognitive level), associated organic conditions, etiologic diagnosis of the episode, and treatments. Results: All patients exhibited severe autistic symptoms and intellectual disability, and two-thirds had no functional verbal language. Fifteen subjects exhibited epilepsy, including three cases in which epilepsy was unknown before the acute episode. For six (21%) of the subjects, uncontrolled seizures were considered the main cause of the disruptive behaviors. Other suspected risk factors associated with disruptive behavior disorders included adjustment disorder (N=7), lack of adequate therapeutic or educational management (N=6), depression (N=2), catatonia (N=2), and painful comorbid organic conditions (N=3). Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors among adolescents with autism may stem from diverse risk factors, including environmental problems, comorbid acute psychiatric conditions, or somatic diseases such as epilepsy. The management of these behavioral changes requires a multidisciplinary functional approach. PMID:20467546

  1. Multimodal examination of distress tolerance and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in acute-care psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Anka A; Dutcher, Christina D; Berenz, Erin C

    2016-09-01

    Distress tolerance (DT), the actual or perceived capacity to withstand negative internal states, has received increasing scholarly attention due to its theoretical and clinical relevance to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Past studies have indicated that lower self-reported - but not behaviorally observed - DT is associated with greater PTSD symptoms; however, studies in racially and socioeconomically diverse clinical samples are lacking. The current study evaluated associations between multiple measures of DT (self-report and behavioral) and PTSD symptoms in an urban, racially and socioeconomically diverse, acute-care psychiatric inpatient sample. It was hypothesized that lower self-reported DT (Distress Tolerance Scale [DTS]), but not behavioral DT (breath-holding task [BH]; mirror-tracing persistence task [MT]), would be associated with greater PTSD symptoms, above and beyond the variance contributed by trauma load, substance use, gender, race/ethnicity, and subjective social status. Participants were 103 (41.7% women, Mage=33.5) acute-care psychiatric inpatients who endorsed exposure to potentially traumatic events consistent with DSM-5 PTSD Criterion A. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that DTS was negatively associated with PTSD symptom severity (PCL-5 Total) as well as with each of the four DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters (p's<0.001), contributing between 5.0%-11.1% of unique variance in PTSD symptoms across models. BH duration was positively associated with PTSD arousal symptom severity (p<0.05). Covariates contributed between 21.3%-40.0% of significant variance to the models. Associations between DT and PTSD in this sample of acute-care psychiatric inpatients are largely consistent with those observed in community samples.

  2. Explaining lifetime criminal arrests among clients of a psychiatric probation and parole service.

    PubMed

    Solomon, P; Draine, J

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, substance abuse problems, and the array of lifetime criminal behavior may explain lifetime arrests among offenders supervised by the psychiatric probation and parole service. Three hundred twenty-five clients with new cases at a psychiatric probation and parole service in a large urban center were screened for major psychiatric disorders. They were also interviewed for socio-demographic characteristics, mental health treatment history, criminal behavior, and arrest history. Hierarchical block multiple regression analysis tested a model explaining lifetime arrests. After controlling for age and other demographic variables, the number of lifetime psychiatric hospitalizations and lifetime occurrences of mania diagnosis significantly explained lifetime arrests. The total model explained about 10 percent of the variance in lifetime arrests after controlling for opportunity variables, which explained 45 percent. The explanatory power of lifetime hospitalizations and mania support the contention that symptoms, rather than diagnosis, may be the most important clinical factor in explaining criminal arrest among persons with mental illness. Implications for psychiatric services include the development of effective jail diversion programs.

  3. Setting up an acute pain management service.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Eric S; Baratta, Jaime L; Gandhi, Kishor; Viscusi, Eugene R

    2014-12-01

    Successful implementation of an acute pain management service involves a team approach in which team members have clearly defined roles. Clinical protocols are designed to help address common problems and prevent errors. As the complexity of surgery and patients' diseases continues to increase, current knowledge of new analgesic medications, acute pain literature, and skills in regional anesthesia techniques is imperative. Emphasizing a multimodal approach can improve analgesia and decrease opioid-related side effects.

  4. New Research into General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…

  5. Psychiatric Diagnoses and Clinical Characteristics of Asian American Youth in Children's Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Ly; Arganza, Girlyn F.; Huang, Larke N.; Liao, Qinghong; Nguyen, Hoang T.; Santiago, Rolando

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the psychiatric diagnoses and clinical characteristics of the 981 Asian American children enrolled in the first phase of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program. Asian Americans were less likely than non-Asian Americans to receive diagnoses of depression and ADHD and more…

  6. Team climate and attitudes toward information and communication technology among nurses on acute psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Koivunen, Marita; Anttila, Minna; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Katajisto, Jouko; Välimäki, Maritta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the association of team climate with attitudes toward information and communication technology among nursing staff working on acute psychiatric wards. Background: Implementation of ICT applications in nursing practice brings new operating models to work environments, which may affect experienced team climate on hospital wards. Method: Descriptive survey was used as a study design. Team climate was measured by the Finnish modification of the Team Climate Inventory, and attitudes toward ICT by Burkes' questionnaire. The nursing staff (N = 181, n = 146) on nine acute psychiatric wards participated in the study. Results: It is not self-evident that experienced team climate associates with attitudes toward ICT, but there are some positive relationships between perceived team climate and ICT attitudes. The study showed that nurses' motivation to use ICT had statistically significant connections with experienced team climate, participative safety (p = 0.021), support for innovation (p = 0.042) and task orientation (p = 0.042). Conclusion: The results suggest that asserting team climate and supporting innovative operations may lead to more positive attitudes toward ICT. It is, in particular, possible to influence nurses' motivation to use ICT. More attention should be paid to psychosocial factors such as group education and co-operation at work when ICT applications are implemented in nursing.

  7. The bulldozer and the ballet dancer: aspects of nurses' caring approaches in acute psychiatric intensive care.

    PubMed

    Björkdahl, A; Palmstierna, T; Hansebo, G

    2010-08-01

    Demanding conditions in acute psychiatric wards inhibit provision of safe, therapeutic care and leave nurses torn between humanistic ideals and the harsh reality of their daily work. The aim of this study was to describe nurses' caring approaches within this context. Data were collected from interviews with nurses working in acute psychiatric intensive care. Data were analysed using qualitative analysis, based on interpretive description. Results revealed a caring-approach continuum on which two approaches formed the main themes: the bulldozer and the ballet dancer. The bulldozer approach functioned as a shield of power that protected the ward from chaos. The ballet dancer approach functioned as a means of initiating relationships with patients. When examining the data from a theoretical perspective of caring and uncaring encounters in nursing, the ballet dancer approach was consistent with a caring approach, while the bulldozer approach was more complex and somewhat aligned with uncaring approaches. Conclusions drawn from the study are that although the bulldozer approach involves a risk for uncaring and harming actions, it also brings a potential for caring. This potential needs to be further explored and nurses should be encouraged to reflect on how they integrate paternalistic nursing styles with person-centred care.

  8. A brief intervention is sufficient for many adolescents seeking help from low threshold adolescent psychiatric services

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a considerable increase in the need for psychiatric services for adolescents. Primary health care practitioners have a major role in detecting, screening and helping these adolescents. An intervention entitled SCREEN is described in this article. The SCREEN intervention was developed to help practitioners to detect and screen adolescent needs, to care for adolescents at the primary health care level and to facilitate the referral of adolescents to secondary care services in collaboration between primary and secondary health care. Secondly, the article presents the background and clinical characteristics of youths seeking help from the SCREEN services, and compares the background factors and clinical characteristics of those patients referred and not referred to secondary care services. Methods The SCREEN intervention consisted of 1 to 5 sessions, including assessment by a semi-structured anamnesis interview, the structured Global Assessment Scale, and by a structured priority rating scale, as well as a brief intervention for each adolescent's chosen problem. Parents took part in the assessment in 39% of cases involving girls and 50% involving boys. During 34 months, 2071 adolescents (69% females) entered the intervention and 70% completed it. The mean age was 17.1 years for boys and 17.3 years for girls. Results For 69% of adolescents, this was the first contact with psychiatric services. The most common reasons for seeking services were depressive symptoms (31%). Self-harming behaviour had occurred in 25% of girls and 16% of boys. The intervention was sufficient for 37% of those who completed it. Psychosocial functioning improved during the intervention. Factors associated with referral for further treatment were female gender, anxiety as the main complaint, previous psychiatric treatment, self-harming behaviour, a previous need for child welfare services, poor psychosocial functioning and a high score in the priority rating scale

  9. A preliminary study of Patient Dignity Inventory validation among patients hospitalized in an acute psychiatric ward

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Cabri, Giulio; Carretti, Eleonora; Galli, Giacomo; Giambalvo, Nina; Rioli, Giulia; Saraceni, Serena; Spiga, Giulia; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Ferri, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the perception of dignity among patients hospitalized in a psychiatric setting using the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI), which had been first validated in oncologic field among terminally ill patients. Patients and methods After having modified two items, we administered the Italian version of PDI to all patients hospitalized in a public psychiatric ward (Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment of a northern Italian town), who provided their consent and completed it at discharge, from October 21, 2015 to May 31, 2016. We excluded minors and patients with moderate/severe dementia, with poor knowledge of Italian language, who completed PDI in previous hospitalizations and/or were hospitalized for <72 hours. We collected the demographic and clinical variables of our sample (n=135). We statistically analyzed PDI scores, performing Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and principal factor analysis, followed by orthogonal and oblique rotation. We concomitantly administered to our sample other scales (Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, Global Assessment of Functioning and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales) to analyze the PDI concurrent validity. Results With a response rate of 93%, we obtained a mean PDI score of 48.27 (±19.59 SD) with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient =0.93). The factorial analysis showed the following three factors with eigenvalue >1 (Kaiser’s criterion), which explained >80% of total variance with good internal consistency: 1) “Loss of self-identity and social role”, 2) “Anxiety and uncertainty for future” and 3) “Loss of personal autonomy”. The PDI and the three-factor scores were statistically significantly positively correlated with the Hamilton Scales for Depression and Anxiety but not with other scale scores. Conclusion Our preliminary research suggests that PDI can be a reliable tool to assess patients’ dignity perception in a psychiatric setting, until now

  10. Understanding readmission to psychiatric hospital in Australia from the service users' perspective: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Duhig, Michael; Gunasekara, Imani; Patterson, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Inpatient care is integral to balanced mental health systems, contributing to containment of risk associated with psychiatric crises and affording opportunities for treatment. However, psychiatric wards are not always safe and service users are often dissatisfied with the experience. Hence, and because inpatient care is the most costly component of mental health systems, minimising duration of admission and reducing risk of readmission are clinical and strategic priorities internationally. With (primarily quantitative) research to date focused on explaining readmission in terms of characteristics of individuals and services, understanding of the 'revolving door phenomenon' remains limited. Considering verstehen critical to addressing this messy problem, we examined readmission from the service users' perspective. Using grounded theory techniques, we inductively analysed data from interviews with 13 people readmitted to inpatient care within 28 days of discharge. Participants, including eight men, were recruited in 2013 from three psychiatric wards at a metropolitan hospital in Australia. Analysis supported description of readmission as a process, fundamentally related to insufficiency of internal, interpersonal and/or environmental resources to maintain community tenure. For the people in this study, admission to hospital was either the default coping mechanism or the culmination of counter-productive attempts to manage stressful circumstances. Readmission can appropriately be understood as one representation of a fundamental social malaise and the struggle of some people to survive in an apparently inhospitable world. The findings indicate that neither locating the 'problem of readmission' within an individual and promoting self-governance/self-control/self-regulation, nor identifying failures of specific services or sectors are likely to support the economic and ethical imperative of reducing psychiatric admissions. The findings of the study and limitations

  11. 'Shared-rhythm cooperation' in cooperative team meetings in acute psychiatric inpatient care.

    PubMed

    Vuokila-Oikkonen, P; Janhonen, S; Vaisanen, L

    2004-04-01

    The cooperative team meeting is one of the most important interventions in psychiatric care. The purpose of this study was to describe the participation of patients and significant others in cooperative team meetings in terms of unspoken stories. The narrative approach focused on storytelling. The data consisted of videotaped cooperative team meetings (n = 11) in two acute closed psychiatric wards. The QRS NVivo computer program and the Holistic Content Reading method were used. During the process of analysis, the spoken and unspoken stories were analysed at the same time. According to the results, while there was some evident shared-rhythm cooperation (the topics of discussion were shared and the participants had eye contact), there were many instances where the interaction was controlled and defined by health care professionals. This lack of shared rhythm in cooperation, as defined in terms of storytelling, was manifested as monologue and the following practices: the health care professionals controlled the storytelling by sticking to their opinions, by giving the floor or by pointing with a finger and visually scanning the participants, by interrupting the speaker or by allowing the other experts to sit passively. Implications for mental health nursing practice are discussed.

  12. Door locking and exit security measures on acute psychiatric admission wards.

    PubMed

    Nijman, H; Bowers, L; Haglund, K; Muir-Cochrane, E; Simpson, A; Van Der Merwe, M

    2011-09-01

    Locking the exit doors of psychiatric wards is believed to reduce the risk of patients absconding. The aims of the study were to investigate both the prevalence of door locking and other exit security measures on UK admission wards, as well as whether door locking appears to be effective in keeping inpatients in. A cross-sectional survey on 136 acute psychiatric wards in the UK was conducted, in which a range of data on patients, staff, and conflict and containment events, including door locking and absconding, were collected from shift to shift during a period of 6 months. About one-third of the participating wards (30%) operated with their ward exit door permanently locked, whereas another third (34%) never locked the ward door. Univariate analyses suggested little association between exit security measures and absconding. A more robust multilevel statistical analysis, however, did indicate a reduction of about 30% of absconding rates when the ward door was locked the entire shift. Although locking the ward door does seem to reduce absconding to a certain extent, it far from completely prevents it. As it may be unrealistic to strive for a 100% absconding-proof ward, alternative measures for door locking to prevent absconding are discussed.

  13. 'She's manipulative and he's right off': a critical analysis of psychiatric nurses' oral and written language in the acute inpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Bridget; Manias, Elizabeth

    2006-06-01

    Remarks such as 'she's manipulative' and 'he's right off' are familiar to psychiatric nurses. This paper critiques the language nurses use in acute inpatient psychiatry services, highlighting the diverse discourses implicated in nurses' writing and speaking about patients. Based on a review of the literature, this paper examines ethnographic studies and discourse analyses of psychiatric nurses' oral and written language. A prominent debate in the literature surrounds nurses' use of standardized language, which is the use of set terms for symptoms and nursing activities. This review of spoken descriptions of patients highlights nurses' use of informal and local descriptions, incorporating elements of moral judgement, common sense language and empathy. Research into written accounts in patient files and records show nurses' use of objectifying language, the dominance of medicine and the emergence of the language of bureaucracy in health services. Challenges to the language of psychiatry and psychiatric nursing arise from fields as diverse as bioscience, humanism and social theory. Authors who focus on the relationship between language, power and the discipline of nursing disagree in regard to their analysis of particular language as a constructive exercise of power by nurses. Thus, particular language is in some instances endorsed and in other instances censured, by nurses in research and practice. In this paper, a Foucauldian analysis provides further critique of taken-for-granted practices of speech and writing. Rather than censoring language, we recommend that nurses, researchers and educators attend to nurses' everyday language and explore what it produces for nurses, patients and society.

  14. Is locating acute wards in the general hospital an essential element in psychiatric reform? The U.K. experience.

    PubMed

    Totman, Jonathan; Mann, Farhana; Johnson, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Locating psychiatric wards in general hospitals has long been seen in many countries as a key element in the reform of services to promote community integration of the mentally ill. In the U.K., however, this is no longer a policy priority, and the recent trend has been towards small freestanding inpatient units, located either within the communities they serve, or on general hospital sites, but separate from the main building. Whether locating the psychiatric wards in the general hospital is essential to psychiatric reform has been little discussed, and we can find no relevant evidence. Perceived strengths of general hospital psychiatric wards are in normalisation of mental health problems, accessibility to local communities, better availability of physical health care resources, and integration of psychiatry with the rest of the medical profession, which may faclilitate recruitment. However, difficulties seem to have been encountered in establishing well-designed psychiatric wards with access to open space in general hospitals. Also, physical proximity may not be enough to achieve the desired reduction in stigma, and complaints from the general hospital may sometimes result in undue restrictions on psychiatric ward patients. There are strong arguments both for and against locating psychiatric wards in general hospitals: an empirical evidence base would be helpful to inform important decisions about the best setting for wards.

  15. Mechanical and pharmacological restraints in acute psychiatric wards--why and how are they used?

    PubMed

    Knutzen, Maria; Bjørkly, Stål; Eidhammer, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Steinar; Helen Mjøsund, Nina; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Sandvik, Leiv; Friis, Svein

    2013-08-30

    Restraint use has been reported to be common in acute psychiatry, but empirical research is scarce concerning why and how restraints are used. This study analysed data from patients' first episodes of restraint in three acute psychiatric wards during a 2-year study period. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors for type and duration of restraint. The distribution of restraint categories for the 371 restrained patients was as follows: mechanical restraint, 47.2%; mechanical and pharmacological restraint together, 35.3%; and pharmacological restraint, 17.5%. The most commonly reported reason for restraint was assault (occurred or imminent). It increased the likelihood of resulting in concomitant pharmacological restraint. Female patients had shorter duration of mechanical restraint than men. Age above 49 and female gender increased the likelihood of pharmacological versus mechanical restraint, whereas being restrained due to assault weakened this association. Episodes with mechanical restraint and coinciding pharmacological restraint lasted longer than mechanical restraint used separately, and were less common among patients with a personality disorder. Diagnoses, age and reason for restraint independently increased the likelihood for being subjected to specific types of restraint. Female gender predicted type of restraint and duration of episodes.

  16. EXPERIENCES OF PSYCHIATRIC CONSULTATION SERVICE IN TWO COALFIELD HOSPITALS OF BIHAR

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, L.N.; Khanna, R.; Chatterjee, S.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY The Central Institute of Psychiatry provides extension consultation services at two coalfield hospitals of Bihar, representing the intermediate and central level of health care delivery system. Analysis of data covering a period of one year, from September 1988 to August 1989, revealed significant differences in the utilization pattern of the two centres. The differences relate to the proportion of population observed, their demographic characteristics, diagnostic break-up, and follow-up pattern. The provision of psychiatric extension services at the intermediate level is recommended. PMID:21927441

  17. Symptom, Family, and Service Predictors of Children’s Psychiatric Rehospitalization Within One Year of Discharge

    PubMed Central

    BLADER, JOSEPH C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate predictors of readmission to inpatient psychiatric treatment for children aged 5 to 12 discharged from acute-care hospitalization. Method One hundred nine children were followed for 1 year after discharge from inpatient care. Time to rehospitalization was the outcome of interest. Predictors of readmission, examined via the Cox proportional hazards model, were symptom and family factors assessed at admission, aspects of psychiatric treatment, and demographic variables. Results The Kaplan-Meier rehospitalization risk within 1 year of discharge, taking into account known readmissions and censored observations, was 0.37. Most readmissions (81%) occurred within 90 days of discharge. Four variables contributed simultaneously to predicting readmission risk. More severe conduct problems, harsh parental discipline, and disengaged parent–child relations conferred a higher risk for rehospitalization; these risks were attenuated when parents disclosed higher stress in their parenting roles. Conclusions Findings showed that psychiatric rehospitalization of children is common, most likely in the trimester after discharge, and highly related to both child symptoms and family factors measurable at admission. Results suggest that efforts to improve postdischarge outcomes of children should target the initial period following inpatient care, address vigorously the complex treatment needs of those with severe conduct problems, and aim to improve parent–child relations. PMID:15187804

  18. Use of Inpatient Psychiatric Services by Children and Youth under Age 18, United States, 1980. Mental Health Statistical Note No. 175.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milazzo-Sayre, Laura J.; And Others

    The report examines data from three sample surveys of admissions during 1980 to the inpatient psychiatric services of state and mental hospitals and private psychiatric hospitals and the separate inpatient psychiatric services of non-federal general hospitals. Findings revealed that an estimated 81,532 persons under 18 years were admitted to…

  19. An analysis of paramilitary referrals to psychiatric services at a tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rohit; Mina, Shaily; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of specialized mental health services for Indian paramilitary service personnel. Those requiring psychiatric evaluation are referred to government psychiatric services often with minimal information. Hence, major diagnostic and decision making relies on the psychiatrist's clinical evaluation and judgment. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate the paramilitary referrals to psychiatric services at a tertiary care referral center. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of all consecutive referrals by various Indian paramilitary services to a tertiary care hospital (2008-2010) was carried out. Results: Among the sample of 18 referrals, all were males (mean age: 37 years ± standard deviation (SD) =7.79). Various reasons for referral included: Evaluation of fitness for duty (83.3%), fitness to handle firearms (16.7%), and for disability certification (5.6%). There were no informants at all in 22.2%, and family members were available in only 11.1%. Hence, most referrals were admitted to the psychiatry ward for observation for various lengths of time. The mean duration of assessment (outpatient and inpatient) was 17.89 days (SD = 20.74) and final reported diagnoses were schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder in 16.7, 11.1, and 11.1%, respectively. There was concurrent history of alcohol and nicotine dependence (40%). A large group (40%) was diagnosed not to suffer from a major mental illness, while a firm and final diagnosis could not be arrived at in 16.7% subjects. Only one subject was given the fitness to handle firearms, fitness for duty was refused in three (16.7%) subjects, and one subject was referred to neurology after being diagnosed as a case of seizure disorder. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for intensive training both to paramilitary physicians as well as to general hospital psychiatrists regarding proper assessment of paramilitary personnel, as there are frequent chances of the

  20. Psychiatric nurse practitioners' experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ngako, Kgalabi J; Van Rensburg, Elsie S J; Mataboge, Sanah M L

    2012-05-30

    Psychiatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms work in a complex environment. This environment is characterised by mental health care users who may present with a history of violence, sexual assault and substance misuse. The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of PNPs working with mental health care users (MHCUs) presenting with acute symptoms; and secondly, to make recommendations for the advanced PNPs to facilitate promotion of the mental health of PNPs with reference to nursing practice, research and education. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. The target population was PNPs working with MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms in a public mental health care institution in Gauteng. Data were collected by means of four focus group interviews involving 21 PNPs. The researcher made use of drawings, naïve sketches and field notes for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed in accordance with Tesch's method of open coding. The three themes that emerged were: PNPs experienced working with these MHCUs as entering an unsafe world where care became a burden; they experienced negative emotional reactions and attitudes towards these MHCUs that compromised quality nursing care; and they made a plea for a nurturing environment that would enhance quality nursing care. The PNPs suggest skills and competency development, organisational support, and a need for external resources. Creation of a positive environment and mobilisation of resources as well as the identification and bridging of obstacles are essential in the promotion of the overall wellbeing and mental health of PNPs.

  1. Correlation between levels of conflict and containment on acute psychiatric wards: the city-128 study.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Len; Stewart, Duncan; Papadopoulos, Chris; Iennaco, Joanne DeSanto

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Attainment of safe, calm inpatient psychiatric wards that are conducive to positive therapeutic care is crucial. On such wards, rates of coerced medication, seclusion, manual restraint and other types of containment are comparatively low, and, usually, rates of conflict-for example, aggression, substance use, and absconding-are also low. Sometimes, however, wards maintain low rates of containment even when conflict rates are high. This study investigated wards with the counterintuitive combination of low containment and high conflict or high containment and low conflict. METHODS The authors conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data collected from 136 acute psychiatric wards across England in 2004-2005. The wards were categorized into four groups on the basis of median splits of containment and conflict rates: high conflict and high containment, high conflict and low containment, low conflict and low containment, and low conflict and high containment. Features significantly associated with these ward types were identified. RESULTS Among the variables significantly associated with the various typologies, some-for example, environmental quality-were changeable, and others-such as social deprivation of the area served-were fixed. High-conflict, low-containment wards had higher rates of male staff and lower-quality environments than other wards. Low-conflict, high-containment wards had higher numbers of beds. High-conflict, high-containment wards utilized more temporary staff as well as more unqualified staff. No overall differences were associated with low-conflict, low-containment wards. CONCLUSIONS Wards can make positive changes to achieve a low-containment, nonpunitive culture, even when rates of patient conflict are high.

  2. Satisfaction and associated factors of outpatient psychiatric service consumers in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yimer, Solomon; Yohannis, Zegeye; Getinet, Wondale; Mekonen, Tesfa; Fekadu, Wubalem; Belete, Habte; Menberu, Melak; Getnet, Asmamaw; Belete, Amsalu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the level of patient satisfaction and associated factors with psychiatric outpatient services in Ethiopia. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study was performed from May 2015 to June 2015. A total of 454 participants selected by systematic random sampling were included in this study. Pretested and interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Patient satisfaction was measured using Charleston Psychiatric Outpatient Satisfaction Scale, and other validated tools were used to assess the associated variables. Multivariate logistic regressions with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength, and P-value <0.05 was used to indicate significance of association. Results A total of 441 respondents were enrolled, with a response rate of 97.1% and magnitude of satisfaction of 61.2%. Being male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.612, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.94), being widowed (AOR =0.13, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.36), urban residence (AOR =0.49, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.78), diagnosed with schizophrenia (AOR =0.48, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.81), unfavorable attitude (AOR =0.49, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.86), and poor social functioning (AOR =0.52, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.80) were significantly associated with satisfaction. Conclusion More than one-third of psychiatric service consumers were dissatisfied with the service they received. Integrating patients to their own treatment plan and regular service evaluation are important to improve satisfaction. PMID:27703333

  3. [Foreign patients in inpatient treatment in a psychiatric university clinic with community service].

    PubMed

    Holzmann, T H; Volk, S; Georgi, K; Pflug, B

    1994-05-01

    About one third (29.5%) of the population living within the area of Frankfurt, for which the psychiatric university clinic provides psychiatric service, are foreigners. For the better understanding of our foreign psychiatric inpatients treated in our clinic in in 1992, the diagnostic spectrum and the nationalities of these patients were analysed. More than half of them (58%) were raised up in former Yugoslavia, Turkey, Italy, Poland and Marocco. The other foreign patients came from 36 different countries. The diagnostic spectrum comparing german and foreign patients showed marked differences. Paranoid schizophrenia was more common in foreigners (31.5%) compared with german patients (16.8%), as well as female foreigners were admitted to the clinic because of psychoreactive disorders (65.2% of all turkish females) more often. The language barrier limited the treatment in many patients. In addition treatment was also hampered by family induced pressure on our patients. This was mainly due to differences and misunderstanding concerning the nature and treatment strategies. In spite of these difficulties, engagement of the therapeutic teams and treatment outcome did not differ between german and foreign patients. In order to improve treatment modalities, we quote for an increasing number of psychiatrists, who are capable of serbocroatic, turkish, italian, polish or arab language and culture, to work in clinical psychiatry.

  4. Mental health recovery for psychiatric inpatient services: perceived importance of the elements of recovery.

    PubMed

    Siu, B W M; Ng, B F L; Li, V C K; Yeung, Y M; Lee, M K L; Leung, A Y H

    2012-06-01

    OBJECTIVES. To develop a questionnaire for measuring the perceived importance of the elements of mental health recovery in psychiatric inpatients in Hong Kong and to test the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. METHODS. Thematic content analysis of identified literature on mental health recovery was performed to identify the elements related to mental health recovery. A questionnaire was developed to assess the perceived importance of the identified elements. An expert panel was set up to evaluate the content validity and patient focus group's face validity of the questionnaire. Participants were recruited from medium-stay and rehabilitation wards of Castle Peak Hospital. RESULTS. A total of 101 psychiatric inpatients completed the questionnaire, the majority of whom suffered from schizophrenia (75%). Having meaning in life was rated by 91% of the participants as an important element of recovery, followed by hope (86%) and general health and wellness (85%). Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was 0.91. Explorative factor analysis yielded 7 factors and intraclass correlation coefficients revealed a fair-to-good test-retest reliability. CONCLUSIONS. The results supported the psychometric properties of the questionnaire for measurement of mental health recovery and serve as a basis for the future development of recovery-oriented services in the psychiatric inpatient settings in this locality.

  5. Acute effects of electroconvulsive therapy on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in psychiatric disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Prohovnik, I.; Alderson, P.O.; Sackheim, H.A.; Decina, P.; Kahn, D.

    1984-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is frequently used in the treatment of major depression and other psychiatric disorders; its mechanism of action is not established, but previous evidence suggests that it is associated with postictal metabolic suppression. The authors have used measurements of rCBF as an index of cortical metabolic activity to study the acute effects of ECT. Measurements of rCBF were made in 32 cortical regions in 10 patients (pts) following one minute breathing of Xe-133 (5mCi/L); the measurements were performed 30min before and 50min after ECT. Bilateral ECT was administered to six pts (five diagnosed as major depressives and one schizophrenic) and unilateral ECT to four (all diagnosed as unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). The total rCBF material consists of 52 measurements in these pts, made before and after 16 bilateral and 10 unilateral treatments. ECT was found to cause significant reduction of rCBF. Mean hemispheric flows (using the Initial Slope Index to measure grey-matter flow) were reduced by about 5% in both hemispheres following bilateral treatment. Unilateral treatment caused a 9% reduction of flow in the treated hemisphere, but only 2% contralaterally. Regional patterns of flow decreases also differed between the two treatment modes: bilateral frontal reductions were found after bilateral treatment, whereas unilateral ECT caused a widespread flow reduction in the treated hemisphere, and almost no effect contralaterally. These results suggest that rCBF studies are useful for assessing ECT, and indicate that the acute cerebral effects of ECT vary with the mode of treatment.

  6. The use of psychiatric services before imprisonment: a survey and case register linkage of sentenced prisoners in Melbourne.

    PubMed

    Herrman, H; Mills, J; Doidge, G; McGorry, P; Singh, B

    1994-02-01

    Information about contact with psychiatric services before imprisonment was obtained for a stratified random sample of sentenced prisoners, who were not receiving prison psychiatric care, in Melbourne's three metropolitan prisons. The sample of 158 men and 31 women was matched with the longitudinal person-linked records of state psychiatric service use in the Victorian Psychiatric Case Register (VPCR). Records of contact with the state services were found for 54 men (34%) and 19 women (61%), including records of in-patient treatment for 25 men (16%) and 15 women (48%). For 64% of individuals with a positive match, the case-note diagnoses were substance use disorders only. Diagnoses of psychotic disorders were recorded for four prisoners, and mood disorders for another six. In addition, clinicians conducted standardized diagnostic interviews and enquired about treatment and personal history. A further 24 prisoners reported specialist psychiatric treatment outside the state treatment sector. This study links the findings from an interview survey of psychiatric morbidity in prisoners with the records available in the VPCR, and emphasizes a number of matters important to the public health. The high rates of previous treatment for substance abuse disorders, the apparent pool of prisoners with largely untreated major depression, and the service needs of those with chronic psychotic disorders are discussed.

  7. Integrating interactive television-based psychiatric consultation into an urban community mental health service.

    PubMed

    McLaren, P; Mohammedali, A; Riley, A; Gaughran, F

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a pilot study of urban telepsychiatry employing interactive television (IATV) over ISDN links for psychiatric consultation to support a primary-care mental health team. During the six months of the pilot phase, 30 consultations were arranged by the general practitioners for 14 different patients. Of these, 24 were completed by IATV and one by telephone when the IATV link failed. The system was used to manage patients with complex problems, many of whom were difficult to engage in standard services. The results showed high levels of user acceptance. Various problems for the further implementation of such systems were also identified.

  8. Behavior Therapy for Tics in Children: Acute and Long-Term Effects on Psychiatric and Psychosocial Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John C.; Scahill, Lawrence; Peterson, Alan L.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Chang, Susanna; Deckersbach, Thilo; McGuire, Joseph; Specht, Matt; Conelea, Christine A.; Rozenman, Michelle; Dzuria, James; Liu, Haibei; Levi-Pearl, Sue; Walkup, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Children (n = 126) ages 9 to 17 years with chronic tic or Tourette disorder were randomly assigned to receive either behavior therapy or a control treatment over 10 weeks. This study examined acute effects of behavior therapy on secondary psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning and long-term effects on these measures for behavior therapy responders only. Baseline and end point assessments conducted by a masked independent evaluator assessed several secondary psychiatric symptoms and measures of psychosocial functioning. Responders to behavior therapy at the end of the acute phase were reassessed at 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Children in the behavior therapy and control conditions did not differentially improve on secondary psychiatric or psychosocial outcome measures at the end of the acute phase. At 6-month posttreatment, positive response to behavior therapy was associated with decreased anxiety, disruptive behavior, and family strain and improved social functioning. Behavior therapy is a tic-specific treatment for children with tic disorders. PMID:21555779

  9. Service user and clinical perspectives of psychiatric advance directives in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Thom, Katey; O'Brien, Anthony John; Tellez, Juan Jose

    2015-12-01

    Advance care planning is becoming an increasingly important feature of health service provision. Although the New Zealand Mental Health Commission has advocated strongly for the provision of advance directives in mental health services, little is known about clinician or service user views on advance directives. The aim of the study was to survey the perspectives of service users and clinicians on the use of psychiatric advance directives. The study used an anonymous online survey to collect data from 110 mental health service users and 175 clinicians. Survey items included existing knowledge, preferred content and potential benefits of advance directives. Descriptive statistics and intergroup comparisons were conducted. Over 90% of service users and clinicians agreed that they support advance directives in mental health. There were similarities in the preferred content of an advance directive across the two groups, particularly regarding the notification of support persons, cultural support and preferred methods of de-escalation. Significant differences in opinion were found regarding the use of coercive measures and the ability of mental health legislation to override advance directives. The results indicate strong support for the use of advance directives within New Zealand mental health services, as well as for further research in the area.

  10. Language disorders and attention deficit disorders in young children referred for psychiatric services: analysis of prevalence and a conceptual synthesis.

    PubMed

    Love, A J; Thompson, M G

    1988-01-01

    Nearly two-thirds of a group of preschool children referred for psychiatric outpatient services were found to have language disorders when assessed by standardized procedures, a higher number than reported in previous studies. Significant interrelationships between language disorders and attention deficit disorders were found. Analyses of prevalence rates, gender ratios, and selected psychosocial factors led to reformulation of approaches to assessment and treatment of young children with severe psychiatric problems.

  11. Acute exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms during influenza treatment with oseltamivir in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lan, Chen-Chia; Liu, Chia-Chien; Chen, Ying-Sheue

    2015-06-01

    Influenza treatment and prophylaxis with oseltamivir are critically important in reducing the morbidity and mortality of patients in chronic psychiatric facilities. Abnormal behavior, delusions, perceptual disturbances, mania, and depression have all been reported as oseltamivir-related psychiatric side effects. We hereby report two chronic schizophrenia patients in Taiwan manifesting psychiatric instability who were being treated with oseltamivir for suspected influenza infection, and further discuss other potential contributing factors. The possibility that oseltamivir can cause psychotic or affective symptoms suggests that additional caution is necessary for its use in patients with an established psychiatric diagnosis.

  12. The culture of care within psychiatric services: tackling inequalities and improving clinical and organisational capabilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cultural Consultation is a clinical process that emerged from anthropological critiques of mental healthcare. It includes attention to therapeutic communication, research observations and research methods that capture cultural practices and narratives in mental healthcare. This essay describes the work of a Cultural Consultation Service (ToCCS) that improves service user outcomes by offering cultural consultation to mental health practitioners. The setting is a psychiatric service with complex and challenging work located in an ethnically diverse inner city urban area. Following a period of 18 months of cultural consultation, we gather the dominant narratives that emerged during our evaluation of our service. Results These narratives highlight how culture is conceptualized and acted upon in the day-to-day practices of individual health and social care professionals, specialist psychiatric teams and in care systems. The findings reveal common narratives and themes about culture, ethnicity, race and their perceived place and meaningfulness in clinical care. These narratives express underlying assumptions and covert rules for managing, and sometimes negating, dilemmas and difficulties when considering “culture” in the presentation and expression of mental distress. The narratives reveal an overall “culture of understanding cultural issues” and specific “cultures of care”. These emerged as necessary foci of intervention to improve service user outcomes. Conclusion Understanding the cultures of care showed that clinical and managerial over-structuring of care prioritises organisational proficiency, but it leads to inflexibility. Consequently, the care provided is less personalised and less accommodating of cultural issues, therefore, professionals are unable to see or consider cultural influences in recovery. PMID:23020856

  13. Recovery-Oriented Vocational Rehabilitation Services for Individuals with Co-Occurring Psychiatric Disabilities and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Stephanie L.; Koch, Lynn C.; Paul, Teresia M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we examined how individuals with co-occurring psychiatric disabilities and substance use disorders encounter numerous challenges when it comes to the vocational rehabilitation (VR) process. Method: A comprehensive review of the literature demonstrated barriers to service delivery (e.g., access to services, exclusionary…

  14. Community Reintegration for People with Psychiatric Disabilities: Challenging Systemic Barriers to Service Provision and Public Policy through Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Mansha; Gossett, Andrea; Chan, Nathan Kai-Cheong; Burford, Larry; Hammel, Joy

    2008-01-01

    People with psychiatric disabilities represent a growing group within the population of nursing home residents in the USA. Despite a preference for living in community-based settings, the availability of supportive services for community living is hindered by barriers at both the service provision and public policy levels. Therefore, understanding…

  15. Economic Impact of Childhood Psychiatric Disorder on Public Sector Services in Britain: Estimates from National Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Tom; Knapp, Martin; Healey, Andrew; Guglani, Sacha; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Fernandez, Jose-Luis; Meltzer, Howard; Ford, Tamsin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Approximately one in ten children aged 5-15 in Britain has a conduct, hyperactivity or emotional disorder. Methods: The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys (BCAMHS) identified children aged 5-15 with a psychiatric disorder, and their use of health, education and social care services. Service costs were estimated for each…

  16. Risk Factors for Psychiatric Hospital Admission for Participants in California's Full-Service Partnership Program.

    PubMed

    Penkunas, Michael J; Hahn-Smith, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the demographic and clinical predictors of psychiatric hospitalization during the first 2 years of treatment for adults participating in the full-service partnership (FSP) program, based on Assertive Community Treatment, in a large county in northern California. Clinical and demographic characteristics, data on prior hospitalizations, length of enrollment, and living situation for 328 FSP participants were collected from the county's internal billing system and the California Department of Health Care Services. In univariate models, the probability of hospitalization varied by diagnosis, age, and hospitalization history. In the multivariate model, younger age and frequent hospitalization prior to enrollment predicted hospitalization during enrollment. Findings support prior research on hospital recidivism and may be beneficial in refining future strategies for meeting the needs of adults with serious mental illness.

  17. Inpatient forensic-psychiatric care: Legal frameworks and service provision in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Edworthy, Rachel; Sampson, Stephanie; Völlm, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Laws governing the detention and treatment of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) vary widely across Europe, yet little information is available about the features of these laws and their comparative advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to compare the legal framework governing detention in forensic psychiatric care in three European countries with long-established services for MDOs, England, Germany and the Netherlands. A literature review was conducted alongside consultation with experts from each country. We found that the three countries differ in several areas, including criteria for admission, review of detention, discharge process, the concept of criminal responsibility, service provision and treatment philosophy. Our findings suggest a profound difference in how each country relates to MDOs, with each approach contributing to different pathways and potentially different outcomes for the individual. Hopefully making these comparisons will stimulate debate and knowledge exchange on an international level to aid future research and the development of best practice in managing this population.

  18. Shrinking inpatient psychiatric capacity: cause for celebration or concern?

    PubMed

    Salinsky, Eileen; Loftis, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    This issue brief examines reported capacity constraints in inpatient psychiatric services and describes how these services fit within the continuum of care for mental health treatment. The paper summarizes the type and range of acute care services used to intervene in mental health crises, including both traditional hospital-based services and alternative crisis interventions, such as mobile response teams. It reviews historical trends in the supply of inpatient psychiatric beds and explores the anticipated influence of prospective payment for inpatient psychiatric services under Medicare. The paper also considers other forces that may affect the need for and supply of acute mental health services, including key factors that could improve the quality and efficiency of inpatient psychiatric care.

  19. Effects of eliminating psychiatric rehabilitation from the secure levels of a mental-health service system.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, Melissa; Sullivan, Mary; Ritchie, A Jocelyn; Spaulding, William D

    2013-11-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation (PR) is widely recognized as a treatment approach and an array of evidence-based practices effective for promoting the recovery of people with serious mental illness (SMI). However, its use in institutional settings is not widespread for unclear reasons. Policymakers may sometimes believe the superiority of PR in controlled research does not apply in the real world, for various reasons. This study exploits an unusual set of real-world circumstances surrounding the closure of a well-developed PR program in a state hospital. The program was closed after a period of mental-health services reform that significantly augmented the surrounding community-service system. The PR program was converted to conventional medical-institutional model-treatment units with no reduction in beds or funding within the state hospital. A database composed of public documents was used to analyze the consequences of the closing. Within the institution, the consequences included a persistent presence of long-term difficult-to-discharge patients, a slowed discharge rate, a net increase in the hospital's per capita treatment costs, and higher use of restraint/seclusion. Effects were also detectable in the surrounding mental-health service system, including degraded outcome of community-based step-down services and increased pressure on emergency/crisis services. The consequences of closing the program are consistent with expectations based on research, and demonstrate danger in assuming that real world exigencies obviate research findings.

  20. Use of specialty mental health services by Asian Americans with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Le Meyer, Oanh; Zane, Nolan; Cho, Young Il; Takeuchi, David T

    2009-10-01

    Research suggests that Asian Americans underutilize mental health services but an understanding of the multiple factors involved in utilization has not been examined in a nationally representative sample. The current study analyzed data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and examined 368 individuals with disorders to understand utilization and what factors were related to the utilization of specialty mental health services. Significant underutilization was found for Asian Americans; moreover, underutilization was especially acute among Asian American immigrants. For U.S.-born Asian Americans, use of primary care services was significantly associated with use of mental health services, but for foreign-born Asian Americans, use of primary care services was unrelated to mental health services use. For both U.S.-born and foreign-born Asian Americans, use of alternative services appeared to significantly affect whether Asian Americans with disorders utilize mental health services, but the nature of the influence varied depending on the individual's level of English-language proficiency. These findings revealed that a major mental health disparity, the underutilization of mental health services by Asian Americans, was nuanced by use of other health-related services and immigration-related factors.

  1. The development of a psychiatric rehabilitation service: a two year pilot project.

    PubMed

    Moss, E; Davidson, S

    1980-01-01

    In the history of psychiatry, one can discern conflicting trends with regard to hospitalization of people suffering from severe mental disturbances. From the beginning of the 19th century, the standard method for dealing with such people has been to take them away from their homes and work and put them in hospitals. However, since the discovery of antipsychotic drugs in the 1950's, there has developed a new movement to treat mentally disturbed people in their communities, either avoiding hospitalization altogether, or at least greatly shortening it. In many hospitals there has been a synthesis of these two trends, reflected in an upgrading of the importance of the rehabilitation function. In Shalvata Psychiatric Center, a medium-sized psychiatric hospital in Hod Hasharon, Israel, a two-year pilot project to introduce a centralized Rehabilitation Service was recently completed. The present Rehabilitation Service is based on the rehabilitation/activity therapy model in which the hospital is conceptualized as a setting in which patients may develop or recover social and vocational skills needed to function adequately in the community. It has drawn on existing, motivated staff from all mental health professions represented at the hospital, and works closely with all in-hospital wards and the day hospital. The authors discuss six areas of vocational and social rehabilitation with which the Rehabilitation Service has attempted to deal: 1. activity therapy/rehabilitation groups, 2. vocational guidance unit, 3. after-care therapeutic social club, 4. in-hospital rehabilitation consultation, 5. liaison activities with community-based facilities, 6. job placement.

  2. EXTENSION OF MENTAL HEALTH SERVICE THROUGH PSYCHIATRIC CAMPS : A NEW APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, R.L.; Chandrashekar, C.R.; Shamasundar, C.; Isaac, Mohan K.; Parthasarathy, R.; Shetty, Shalini

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY Psychiatric camps in the manner they are usually conducted serve no useful purpose in the long run, except to identify cases and to increase people's awareness about mental illnesses. The main drawback is poor follow up of the cases detected. To overcome these drawbacks and to make these camps more useful in delivering mental health services to the community, a new approach is being worked out. Screening and selection of the patients for the camp by the local doctors with the help of symptom check-list, a good propaganda well in advance incorporating the cardinal symptoms through mass media, training of the local doctors to gain basic skills and knowledge to manage cases during follow up, periodic visits by the psychiatrists to help these doctors in this job for some time, mental health exhibition during the camp were some of the strategies adopted in Kollegal Neuropsychiatric camp by community psychiatry unit of NIMHANS. It was a three days' camp. 312 cases were registered after screening. Only 6.7% cases were non-psychiatric. 30% epileptics, 30% neurotics, 12% Headache, 9% MR, 9% neurological cases, 5% psychoses. 25 doctors participated in training programme and camp patients were allotted to them for follow up. Monthly follow up is in progress. Findings and experiences are discussed. PMID:21965918

  3. Frequency of contact with community-based psychiatric services and the lunar cycle: a 10-year case-register study.

    PubMed

    Amaddeo, F; Bisoffi, G; Micciolo, R; Piccinelli, M; Tansella, M

    1997-08-01

    The relationship between the lunar cycle and the frequency of contact with community-based psychiatric services was assessed using the South Verona Psychiatric Case Register data. For each day of the study period (January 1982-December 1991) we recorded the number of contacts made by South Verona residents with psychiatric services and the corresponding day of the lunar cycle. First, the synodic month was divided into four interval phases (usually called new moon, first quarter, full moon and third quarter), and interphase differences in the mean number of contacts were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Second. the null hypothesis of no relationship between the lunar cycle and the frequency of contact with psychiatric services was tested against the alternative hypothesis of a sinusoidal distribution according to the lunar phase. The average number of contacts with psychiatric services on each day of the lunar cycle over the 10-year period was obtained and a sine-wave curve was fitted to the data. Both for total and drop-in contacts, no significant differences in mean number of contacts were found between the four interval phases of the synodic month (new moon, first quarter, full moon and third quarter). Similarly, no significant results were found by setting the expected surge in consultations at 1-3 days after the full moon and the period of the sine-wave curve equal to 30 days. When the period of the sine-wave curve was allowed to vary in order to fit the data best, none of the statistical tests reached the level of significance required to dismiss the possibility of false-positive results. These findings did not support the theory that a relationship exists between the lunar cycle and the frequency of contact with community-based psychiatric services.

  4. Self-harm and attempted suicide within inpatient psychiatric services: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    James, Karen; Stewart, Duncan; Bowers, Len

    2012-08-01

    Self harm is a major public health concern, yet there are considerable challenges in providing support for those who self harm within psychiatric inpatient services. This paper presents the first review of research into self harm within inpatient settings. Searches of the main electronic databases were conducted using key words for self harm and inpatient care. There was substantial variation in the rates of self-harm and attempted suicide between studies, but rates were highest on forensic wards. There was no evidence of differences in prevalence of self-harm between men and women; women, however, were at increased risk of attempting suicide. People were more likely to self-harm in private areas of the ward and in the evening hours, and often self-harmed in response to psychological distress, or elements of nursing care that restricted their freedom. Wards used a variety of strategies to prevent self-harm; however, there is little research into their effectiveness.

  5. An audit of urgent referrals by the Procurator Fiscal to the Tayside Forensic Psychiatric Service.

    PubMed

    White, T; Rutherford, H

    2005-10-01

    This study describes the demographic, offence and diagnostic characteristics of subjects referred by the Procurators Fiscal operating from three courts in Tayside, Scotland. A comparison is made of referrals made between 1988 to 1995 and 1997 to 1998. There was an increased rate of referral on an urgent basis over time, primarily involving patients already in contact with the psychiatric services, 37% of whom were detained and admitted to hospital. This urgent assessment ensured that mentally-disordered offenders were not remanded in custody simply for the preparation of a report, and it allowed an early assessment to be made regarding the suitability for diversion from prosecution. This outcome is compatible with guidelines issued by the Home Office in 1990 (Home Office, 1990).

  6. Substance Use Disorders in Elderly Admissions to an Academic Psychiatric Inpatient Service over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, Dennis; Norrell, Nelly

    2016-01-01

    Objective. There is a paucity of research on substance use disorders (SUDs) in the elderly psychiatric population. This study examines SUDs in a geriatric psychiatry inpatient service over a 10-year period. Methods. Data from 1788 elderly psychiatric inpatients from a ten-year period was collected. Variables collected included psychiatric diagnoses, SUD, number of psychiatric admissions, and length of stay. Those with and without a SUD were compared using Chi-Square or Student's t-test as appropriate using SPSS. Results. 11.7% (N = 210) of patients had a SUD, and the most common substance was alcohol at 73.3% (N = 154) or 8.6% of all admissions. Other SUDs were sedative-hypnotics (11%), opiate (2.9%), cannabis (1%), tobacco (1.4%), and unspecified SUD (38.6%). SUD patients were significantly younger, divorced, male, and less frequently readmitted and had shorter lengths of stay. The most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression (26.1%), bipolar disorder (10.5%), and dementia (17.1%). Conclusions. Over 10% of psychogeriatric admissions were associated with a SUD, with alcohol being the most common. Considering the difficulties in diagnosing SUD in this population and the retrospective study design, the true prevalence in elderly psychiatric inpatients is likely higher. This study adds to sparse literature on SUD in elderly psychiatric patients. PMID:27840765

  7. Reasons for Referral, Intervention Approaches and Demographic Characteristics of Clients with Intellectual Disability Attending Adult Psychiatric Outpatient Services in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, I.; Al-Saihati, B. A.; Al-Haddad, M.; McClean, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Relatively little information is available regarding the use of psychiatric services by individuals with intellectual disability (ID) in Arab countries. The current study aimed to identify (1) the reasons for referral; (2) demographic characteristics of individuals referred; (3) previous contact with child psychiatric services; (4)…

  8. The Role of Psychiatric Emergency Services in Aiding Community Alternatives to Hospitalization in an Inner-City Population

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.

    1978-01-01

    In the proper political/economic environment, Crisis Intervention Programs can reduce the recidivism rate of patients who suffer from recurrent intermittent acute psychotic episodes. The author seeks to outline such a program and demonstrate its effectiveness in providing an alternative to brief hospitalization. It is believed that this form of management of the psychiatric emergency aids the practice of community psychiatry and supports the use of day treatment facilities, outpatient clinics, emergency housing, family therapy, and other community support systems. PMID:731721

  9. Short-Term Diagnostic Stability of Acute Psychosis: Data from a Tertiary Care Psychiatric Center in South India

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C.; Shanmugam, Virupaksha Harave; Raveendranathan, Dhanya; Viswanath, Biju; Muralidharan, Kesavan

    2012-01-01

    Context: Studies on acute psychosis in patients from India report good outcome. A small proportion of these patients may suffer relapses or other develop major psychiatric disorders later. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic stability of acute psychosis in patients from India. Materials and Methods: The records of patients who presented with the first episode of acute and transient psychotic disorder (n=57) over 1 year (2004) were analyzed, and the follow-up data at the end of 1 and 2 years were recorded. Results: The mean age of the sample was 30.72 years. The mean duration of illness episode was 18.15±17.10 days. The follow-up data were available for 77.2% (n=44) and 75.4% (n=43) of the sample at the end of first and second years. Relapse was recorded in 47.4 and 54.4% at the end of first and second years, respectively. Conclusion: The diagnosis changed into other disorders such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and unspecified psychosis, while a majority retained the initial diagnosis of acute psychosis. The findings suggest that acute psychosis is a relatively stable condition. A small percentage of these patients may go on to develop schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. PMID:23162196

  10. Clinical profile of patients seeking services at urban community psychiatric services in Chandigarh

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Suravi; Chavan, Bir Singh; Gupta, Nitin; Sidana, Ajeet

    2016-01-01

    Context: About two-third of patients with mental, neurological, and substance use disorder in India do not get adequate treatment due to insufficient clinical facilities. In a country with diverse population such as India, no single model can be effective and each region needs to develop local system of service delivery unique to population needs. Community outreach clinics (COCs) being run by the department of psychiatry provide mental health services in the primary health-care setting. The study reports on the pattern of service utilization across different COCs in Chandigarh. Aims: The aim of this study was to describe the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients seeking mental health-care services from COCs and to compare this with patients seeking care at tertiary care center. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional case record review. Subjects and Methods: Community services are provided in the areas adjoining Chandigarh, through four COCs: Civil Dispensary, Dhanas; Khuda Ali Sher; Rural Health Training Center, Palsaura; and Police Dispensary Sector 26 by Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. The current study reports on sociodemographic and clinical profile of 728 patients seen in these clinics from July 2010 to June 2011. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS version 16.0. Chi-square test was used to compare two groups, ANOVA for comparing more than two groups. Results: Out of the 728 patients, majority were males in productive age group with diagnosis of substance use disorder. Majority were reaching the clinics on their own and only a few were referred by various community referral agencies. Only twelve patients needed referral to the Department of Psychiatry in the above mentioned period. Conclusions: Patients of substance use disorder prefer to be seen in the outreach clinics and it is possible to manage them in these clinics with very little need to refer

  11. [Definition of the core area of medical services in the psychiatric-psychotherapeutic field--the prerequisite for any delegation].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Wolfgang; Bleich, Stefan; Cohrs, Stefan; von Einsiedel, Regina; Falkai, Peter; Grosskopf, Volker; Hauth, Iris; Steiner, Johann; Adler, Lothar

    2011-11-01

    Based on legal jurisdiction, knowledge of the psychiatric-psychotherapeutic field and insight into the necessity of a new allocation of responsibilities in the overall therapeutic service of a clinic, the core areas of medical activities are defined for the first time, innovative organisational approaches to the reorganisation of therapeutic service are presented and discussed against the background of qualified staff deficit, introduction of an OPS coding for inpatient psychiatry and economic constraints.

  12. [Comparison of Aggressive Behavior, Compulsory Medication and Absconding Behavior Between Open and Closed door Policy in an Acute Psychiatric Ward].

    PubMed

    Cibis, Mara-Lena; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Müller, Sabine; Lang, Undine E; Schmidt, Yvonne; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Objective According to legal requirements coercive treatment must be limited to acts necessary for the protection of patients and cannot be used for institutional interests. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that opening psychiatric wards can reduce the number of aggressive assaults and of coercive treatment without increasing absconding rates. Methods Numbers of absconding, coercive medication, fixation and special security actions were collected retrospectively and compared between phases of closed (N total = 409; N legally committed = 64) and 90 % of daytime opened (N total = 571; N legally committed = 99) doors in an acute psychiatric ward. Results During the phase of opened doors we observed significantly reduced aggressive assaults (p < 0,001) and coercive medication (p = 0,006) compared to the closed setting, while the absconding rate did not change (p = 0,20). Limitation Given the retrospective non-experimental design, no causal interpretations can be drawn. Conclusion The results suggest that open door is associated with reduction of aggressive assaults and coercive medication without increasing absconding rates. This speaks for a stronger implementation of open door policies in acute wards in order to preserve human rights in psychiatry. To collect more robust evidence for this thesis, longer phases should be monitored and moderating variables such as atmosphere and social cohesion should be assessed.

  13. Outsourcing mental health care services? The practice and potential of community-based farms in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Sorana C; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Veltman, Dick J; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Bunders, Joske F G

    2015-02-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation supports individuals with mental disorders to acquire the skills needed for independent lives in communities. This article assesses the potential of outsourcing psychiatric rehabilitation by analysing care farm services in the Netherlands. Service characteristics were analysed across 214 care farms retrieved from a national database. Qualitative insights were provided by five case descriptions, selected from 34 interviews. Institutional care farms were significantly larger and older than private care farms (comprising 88.8% of all care farms). Private, independent care farms provide real-life work conditions to users who are relatively less impaired. Private, contracted care farms tailor the work activities to their capacities and employ professional supervisors. Institutional care farms accommodate for the most vulnerable users. We conclude that collaborations with independent, contracted and institutional care farms would provide mental health care organizations with a diversity in services, enhanced community integration and a better match with users' rehabilitation needs.

  14. Psychiatric nurses' satisfaction: the effects of closure of a hospital.

    PubMed

    Sammut, R G

    1997-07-01

    A survey by questionnaire was carried out to examine the level of nursing staff satisfaction with the acute psychiatric services. Comparisons were made between views of older psychiatric hospitals and newer district general hospital units, and before and after the closure of Friern Barnet Hospital, London, England when the service was reorganized to include fewer beds. The importance of nurses having their say is emphasized, and areas in which improvements can be made are suggested.

  15. [Drug addicts with severe mental disorders can be helped by programs using moderate means. Good results when psychiatric, social and drug abuse services cooperate].

    PubMed

    Palmstierna, T; Gadd, K; Norman, C; Svensson, J

    2000-05-03

    Dependency disorders are more common than expected in psychiatric populations. Untreated, dual diagnosis leads to severe social and psychiatric deterioration. Nine treatment resistant, homeless, drug addicts suffering from chronic psychotic disorders were selected to take part in a case management program, integrating social services with regular psychiatric treatment. All but one were greatly improved in general terms as well as regarding their ability to maintain an ordered life style. The need for institutional care decreased dramatically.

  16. Mental Health In-Service Training; Some Practical Guidelines for the Psychiatric Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Beulah

    Based on the author's personal observations and opinions as a former public health psychiatric consultant, this book offers a theoretical orientation and practical guidelines for psychiatrists, analysts, clinical psychologists, psychiatric social workers, and others who hope to participate in community psychiatry as mental health consultants to…

  17. Indian health care professionals' attitude towards spiritual healing and its role in alleviating stigma of psychiatric services.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, P; Rane, A; Dias, A; Bhat, J; Shukla, A; Lakshmi, S; Ansari, B K; Ramaswamy, R S; Reddy, R A; Tribulato, A; Agarwal, A K; SatyaPrasad, N; Mushtaq, A; Rao, P H; Murthy, P; Koenig, H G

    2014-12-01

    Persons with mental illnesses in India and rest of developing world continue to consult religious/spiritual (R/S) healers or traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) professionals prior to seeking psychiatric services that are devoid of spiritual components of care. We aim to understand TCAM and allopathic professionals' perspectives on patients' R/S needs within mental health services, cross-sectional study was conducted at five TCAM and two allopathic tertiary care hospitals in three different Indian states; 393 participants completed RSMPP, a self-administered, semi-structured survey questionnaire. Perspectives of TCAM and allopathic health professionals on role of spirituality in mental health care were compared. Substantial percentage, 43.7 % TCAM and 41.3 % allopathic, of participants believe that their patients approach R/S or TCAM practitioners for severe mental illness; 91.2 % of TCAM and 69.7 % of allopaths were satisfied with R/S healers (p = 0.0019). Furthermore, 91.1 % TCAM and 73.1 % allopaths (p = 0.000) believe that mental health stigma can be minimized by integrating with spiritual care services. Overall, 87 % of TCAM and 73 % of allopaths agreed to primary criterion variable: 'spiritual healing is beneficial and complementary to psychiatric care.' A quarter of allopaths (24.4 %) and 38 % of TCAM physicians reportedly cross-refer their grieving patients to religious/TCAM healer and psychiatrist/psychologist, respectively; on logistic regression, significant (p < 0.05) predictors were clinical interactions/references to r/s healers. Providing spiritual care within the setup of psychiatric institution will not only complement psychiatric care but also alleviate stigma against mental health services. Implications on developing spiritual care services like clinical chaplaincy are discussed.

  18. Influence of mental illness on marriage, reproduction, and parenting in a society without psychiatric services.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J

    1980-10-01

    This survey was undertaken in a peasant society without modern psychiatric services in order to assess marriage, reproduction, and parenting functions among 35 mentally ill persons. Among the mentally ill, single persons had earlier onset of mental illness as compared to those who had ever been married. Those who had married and produced children had a high rate of divorce from their spouses and separation from their children following onset of mental illness. Among 12 parents whose onset of mental illness began when their children were still young, five were not living with their children and the other seven exercised little or no parental supervision. In two families, the psychotic parent had beaten her children severely. One infant died of neglect when a psychotic mother refused to surrender child care to others. Mentally ill subjects 18 years or older were less apt to be married than opium addicts in the same population. Infant mortality was greater among the children of mentally ill than in the general population.

  19. Enabling healthy living: Experiences of people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, Marjut; Sandgren, Anna; Carlsson, Ing-Marie; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2017-02-03

    It is well known that people with severe mental illness have a reduced life expectancy and a greater risk of being affected by preventable physical illnesses such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There are still, however, only a few published studies focusing on what enables healthy living for this group. This study thus aimed to describe what enables healthy living among people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services. The data were collected in qualitative interviews (n = 16) and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The interviews resulted in an overall theme "Being regarded as a whole human being by self and others", which showed the multidimensional nature of health and the issues that enable healthy living among people with severe mental illness. Three categories emerged: (i) everyday structure (ii), motivating life events and (iii) support from significant others. The results indicate that a person with severe mental illness needs to be encountered as a whole person if healthy living is to be enabled. Attaining healthy living requires collaboration between the providers of care, help and support. Health care organizations need to work together to develop and provide interventions to enable healthy living and to reduce poor physical health among people with severe mental illness.

  20. [An acute psychiatric ward moves into the community. An empirical test of the satellite model].

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, R P; Schmidt-Michel, P O

    2002-11-01

    A satellite ward is a psychiatric ward at a general hospital settled within a catchment area that is administered by a distant psychiatric hospital. The objective of the satellite model is to close the gap between patients and their community on the one hand and between psychiatry and general medicine on the other. The essential size of the satellite ward that enables it to take care for the patients in its catchment area is discussed controversially. This study investigated admission rates and number of beds needed in two catchment areas distant to the psychiatric hospital from 6 months before opening until 12 months after the opening of a satellite ward with 21 beds in one of the two catchment areas. We registered an 81% increase of admission rates in this catchment area (from 130 admissions in the half-year before the opening of the satellite ward to 235 admissions in the 2nd half-year after it) and a 41% increase in beds needed (from 28.8 beds in the half-year before opening to 40.7 beds in the 2nd half-year following). This increase was significant in comparison to the increase in the controlled catchment area. Thus, only 168 (71%) patients of the catchment area (but 82% of the patients with schizophrenia) were treated in the satellite ward. The remaining patients were treated in the parent house. A selective admission of severely ill patients into the parent house was not observed.

  1. Predictors of aggression on the psychiatric inpatient service: self-esteem, narcissism, and theory of mind deficits.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Brett R; Serper, Mark R; Sheets, Michelle; Beech, Danielle; Dill, Charles; Duffy, Kristine G

    2007-05-01

    Aggressive behavior committed by inpatients has significant negative effects on patients, clinical staff, the therapeutic milieu, and inpatient community as whole. Past research examining nonpsychiatric patient groups has suggested that elevated self-esteem and narcissism levels as well as self-serving theory of mind (ToM) biases may be robust predictors of aggressive behavior. In the present study, we examined whether these constructs were useful in predicting aggressive acts committed by psychiatric inpatients. Severity of psychiatric symptoms, demographic variables and patients' anger, and hostility severity were also examined. We found patients who committed acts of aggression were differentiated from their nonaggressive counterparts by exhibiting significantly higher levels of self-esteem and narcissistic superiority. In addition, aggressors demonstrated self-serving ToM biases, attributing more positive attributes to themselves, relative to their perceptions of how others viewed them. Aggressors also showed increased psychosis, fewer depressive symptoms, and had significantly fewer years of formal education than their nonaggressive peers. These results support and extend the view that in addition to clinical variables, specific personality traits and self-serving attributions are linked to aggressive behavior in acutely ill psychiatric patients.

  2. Medicare's bundling pilot: including post-acute care services.

    PubMed

    Dummit, Laura A

    2011-03-28

    Fee-for-service Medicare, in which a separate payment is made for each service, rewards health care providers for delivering more services, but not necessarily coordinating those services over time or across settings. To help address these concerns, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 requires Medicare to experiment with making a bundled payment for a hospitalization plus post-acute care, that is, the recuperative or rehabilitative care following a hospital discharge. This bundled payment approach is intended to promote more efficient care across the acute/post-acute episode because the entity that receives the payment has financial incentives to keep episode costs below the payment. Although the entity is expected to control costs through improved care coordination and efficiency, it could stint on care or avoid expensive patients instead. This issue brief focuses on the unique challenges posed by the inclusion of post-acute care services in a payment bundle and special considerations in implementing and evaluating the episode payment approach.

  3. Psychiatrists and psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Torrey, William C; Green, Ronald L; Drake, Robert E

    2005-05-01

    Interventions that focus directly on functional impairments related to mental illnesses are termed psychiatric rehabilitation. Research demonstrates that rehabilitation services are increasingly able to help adults with psychiatric disabilities achieve the functional outcomes they desire, particularly in the areas of housing and employment. To support the community lives of adults with severe mental illnesses, psychiatrists must stay current with advances in this field and know how to integrate psychiatric rehabilitation with other interventions. This article reviews the concept of psychiatric rehabilitation, current approaches in the field, the psychiatrist's role in these services, and implications for psychiatric training and continuing education.

  4. [Use of Mental Health Service Among Young Adults on Unemployment Benefit Before and after Receiving Counseling at a Psychiatric Liaison Department].

    PubMed

    Hagen, C; Bänfer, S; Werkstetter, L; Hebebrand, J; Reissner, V

    2016-12-14

    Objective: To determine mental health service utilization before and after consultation of a psychiatric liaison service ("Support 25") among youths aged 16-24 years suffering from mental disorders and receiving unemployment benefits. Methods: Longitudinal registration of mental health service use over a 9-month period (N=148); measurement of possible moderators with questionnaires and rating scales. Results: Mental health service utilization increased from initially 22% to 40% and 47.5% 3 and 6 months after receiving individual treatment recommendation. Low-threshold psychosocial counseling was frequented more often than specific psychiatric or psychotherapeutic treatment. Subjects who contacted mental health services showed a trend towards a lower level of psychosocial functioning than subjects who did not seek treatment. Stigma-related factors did not hinder mental health service use. Conclusions: Despite a high degree of psychiatric morbidity, the surveyed sample of unemployed youths had problems to successfully enter mental health services. Although a substantial increase in service use was observed after receiving psychoeducational information at a psychiatric liaison service, the use of low-threshold counseling predominated. This finding suggests that the mental health system should adapt better to the specific needs of young unemployed, for example, by expanding low-threshold psychiatric pre-treatment offers at vocational centers.

  5. Interventions to improve therapeutic communications between Black and minority ethnic patients and professionals in psychiatric services: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep S.; Aslam, Rabeea'h W.; Palinski, Andrea; McCabe, Rose; Johnson, Mark R. D.; Weich, Scott; Singh, Swaran P.; Knapp, Martin; Ardino, Vittoria; Szczepura, Ala

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication may be an influential determinant of inequality of access to, engagement with and benefit from psychiatric services. Aims To review the evidence on interventions designed to improve therapeutic communications between Black and minority ethnic patients and clinicians who provide care in psychiatric services. Method Systematic review and evidence synthesis (PROSPERO registration: CRD42011001661). Data sources included the published and the ‘grey’ literature. A survey of experts and a consultation with patients and carers all contributed to the evidence synthesis, interpretation and recommendations. Results Twenty-one studies were included in our analysis. The trials showed benefits mainly for depressive symptoms, experiences of care, knowledge, stigma, adherence to prescribed medication, insight and alliance. The effect sizes were smaller for better-quality trials (range of d 0.18–0.75) than for moderate- or lower-quality studies (range of d 0.18–4.3). The review found only two studies offering weak economic evidence. Conclusions Culturally adapted psychotherapies, and ethnographic and motivational assessment leading to psychotherapies were effective and favoured by patients and carers. Further trials are needed from outside of the UK and USA, as are economic evaluations and studies of routine psychiatric care practices. PMID:26243761

  6. Behaviour management problems as predictors of psychotropic medication and use of psychiatric services in adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Costello, Helen; Holt, Geraldine; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick

    2007-07-01

    We examined behaviour management problems as predictors of psychotropic medication, use of psychiatric consultation and in-patient admission in a group of 66 adults with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and intellectual disability (ID) and 99 controls matched in age, gender and level of ID. Overall, people with PDD had higher rates of most DAS behaviour problems and more frequent use of anti-psychotics than matched controls. Logistic regression analyses showed that physical aggression and problems such as pestering staff independently predicted use of anti-psychotics. Physical aggression and overactivity predicted further involvement of psychiatric services. PDD diagnosis predicted admission to an in-patient unit. The results suggest that externalizing problem behaviours in adults with autism can predict type of treatment intervention.

  7. Clinical Application of the "Scribble Technique" with Adults in an Acute Inpatient Psychiatric Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    The "scribble technique," described by Florence Cane's book, "The Artist in Each of Us" (1983), has historically been employed by art therapists as a technique to reduce inhibitions and liberate spontaneous imagery from the unconscious. Reviews the technique and presents examples produced by adult patients in an acute inpatient…

  8. The Role of Inhaled Loxapine in the Treatment of Acute Agitation in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    de Berardis, Domenico; Fornaro, Michele; Orsolini, Laura; Iasevoli, Felice; Tomasetti, Carmine; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Serroni, Nicola; Valchera, Alessandro; Carano, Alessandro; Vellante, Federica; Marini, Stefano; Piersanti, Monica; Perna, Giampaolo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Loxapine is a first generation antipsychotic, belonging to the dibenzoxazepine class. Recently, loxapine has been reformulated at a lower dose, producing an inhaled powder that can be directly administered to the lungs to treat the agitation associated with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Thus, the aim of this narrative and clinical mini-review was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of inhaled loxapine in the treatment of acute agitation in patients with psychiatric disorders. The efficacy of inhaled loxapine has been evaluated in one Phase II trial on patients with schizophrenia, and in two Phase III trials in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Moreover, there are two published case series on patients with borderline personality disorder and dual diagnosis patients. Inhaled loxapine has proven to be effective and generally well tolerated when administered to agitated patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Two case series have suggested that inhaled loxapine may also be useful to treat agitation in patients with borderline personality disorder and with dual diagnosis, but further studies are needed to clarify this point. However, the administration of inhaled loxapine requires at least some kind of patient collaboration, and is not recommended in the treatment of severe agitation in totally uncooperative patients. Moreover, the drug-related risk of bronchospasm must always be kept in mind when planning to use inhaled loxapine, leading to a careful patient assessment prior to, and after, administration. Also, the higher costs of inhaled loxapine, when compared to oral and intramuscular medications, should be taken into account when selecting it for the treatment of agitation. PMID:28208695

  9. Optimizing medication use with a pharmacist-provided comprehensive medication management service for patients with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Carla D

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a pharmacist-delivered comprehensive medication management (CMM) service provided to patients with psychiatric disorders. We conducted a retrospective review and analysis of medication-related data, and a return on investment cost analysis. The project consisted of 154 patients with psychiatric disorders who were referred to the CMM service by physicians, therapists, case managers, friends, or family, and were seen by the service between April 2011 and July 2013. CMM evaluates a patient's medications to ensure that they are appropriate, effective, safe, and convenient. Patients were seen by pharmacists trained in CMM and the treatment of mental illnesses, including one board-certified psychiatric pharmacist. All medications were reviewed including prescriptions, over-the-counter medications, and nutritional supplements. The patients' medication-related concerns, goals of treatment, vital signs, and laboratory studies were reviewed. Drug therapy problems such as adverse reactions, unnecessary medications, excessive doses, and poor medication adherence were identified, and written recommendations were mailed to patients and physicians within 1 week. Patients were offered follow-up in 4-6 weeks and were seen as many times as needed to resolve drug therapy problems. The 154 patients completed 256 CMM visits. A mean of 10.1 medical and psychiatric conditions and 13.7 medications/person were assessed. A mean of 5.6 drug therapy problems/patient were identified. A total net cost savings was estimated to be $90,484.00, with a mean savings of $586.55/patient. The cost of providing the service was estimated at $32,185.93. The return on investment was estimated to be 2.8; thus for every dollar spent on providing the service, $2.80 was estimated to be saved. Patients with mental illnesses may benefit from pharmacist-delivered CMM to help resolve drug therapy problems. Medication management may improve clinical outcomes and reduce costs. In

  10. Emergency Psychiatric Service Use by Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Living with Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Tint, Ami; Robinson, Suzanne; Khodaverdian, Alin; Jaskulski, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their families in the emergency department (ED). Hospital chart audits were conducted on a sample of 20 individuals with ID living with family who had visited the ED for a psychiatric crisis. Individuals had a combined total of 44 ED…

  11. Mental health care in Italy: organisational structure, routine clinical activity and costs of a community psychiatric service in Lombardy region.

    PubMed

    Fattore, G; Percudani, M; Pugnoli, C; Contini, A; Beecham, J

    2000-01-01

    The Magenta Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC) is the public agency responsible for providing adult psychiatric care to about 85,000 adult residents. In 1995, it had 1,145 clients and incurred costs of Euro 1.9 millions. Average cost per patient and per adult resident were Euro 1,661 and Euro 22.2, respectively. These values mask large variation across diagnosis: while patients with schizophrenia and related disorders had an average cost of Euro 3,771, those with neurotic and related disorders had an average cost of Euro 439. Patients with schizophrenia and related disorders (28% of the patients) absorbed about 60% of total costs and made extensive use of several types of services (hospital, outpatient, domiciliary, social and rehabilitative care). Since integrating different types of services is the key element of Italian psychiatric care, the new fee-for-service system adopted by the NHS to fund providers does not appear appropriate, particularly for schizophrenic patients.

  12. Decline in the diagnosis of schizophrenia among first contacts with psychiatric services in north-east Scotland, 1969-1984.

    PubMed

    Eagles, J M; Hunter, D; McCance, C

    1988-06-01

    Annual age-standardised rates for first contacts with psychiatric services in the Aberdeen area from 1969 to 1984 were calculated for schizophrenia, paranoid states, reactive psychoses, all affective psychoses, mania, and depressive neuroses. Highly significant declines occurred in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and of depressive neuroses. No concomitant increase occurred. It is concluded that these results probably indicate that there has been a fall in the incidence of schizophrenia in North-East Scotland. This may have arisen due to changes in the mode of expression and/or the severity of all functional psychoses.

  13. Using clinical and criminal involvement factors to explain homelessness among clients of a psychiatric probation and parole service.

    PubMed

    Solomon, P; Draine, J

    1999-01-01

    This study sought to examine the rate of homelessness and the extent to which lifetime homelessness was associated with clinical factors, such as diagnosis and treatment history; or criminal factors, such as criminal behavior and arrest history, among psychiatric probationers and parolees. Nearly half of the clients screened had experienced homelessness in their lifetime. In a logistic regression model to explain lifetime homelessness, significant factors were younger age, less education, a greater number of lifetime arrests, a schizophrenia diagnosis, and reporting both an alcohol and drug problem. Implications for service delivery with this population are discussed.

  14. Talking therapy groups on acute psychiatric wards: patients' experience of two structured group formats.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, Jonathan; Bird, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Aims and method We report the results of a clinical audit of patients' reactions to two types of talking therapy groups facilitated by assistant psychologists and psychology graduates on three acute wards. Patients' experiences of problem-solving and interpersonal group formats were explored via focus groups and structured interviews with 29 group participants. Results Both group formats generated high satisfaction ratings, with benefits related mostly to generic factors. Clinical implications Adequately trained and supported assistant psychologists and psychology graduates can provide supportive talking groups that patients find helpful.

  15. Limited English proficiency as a barrier to mental health service use: a study of Latino and Asian immigrants with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Aguado Loi, Claudia X; Chiriboga, David A; Jang, Yuri; Parmelee, Patricia; Allen, Rebecca S

    2011-01-01

    Language barriers pose problems in mental health care for foreign-born individuals in the United States. Immigrants with psychiatric disorders may be at particular risk but are currently understudied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of limited English proficiency (LEP) on mental health service use among immigrant adults with psychiatric disorders. Drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), Latino and Asian immigrant adults aged 18-86 with any instrument-determined mood, anxiety, and substance use disorder (n = 372) were included in the present analysis. Results from hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that having health insurance, poor self-rated mental health, and more psychiatric disorders were independently associated with higher probability of mental health service use in the Latino group. After controlling for all background characteristics and mental health need factors, LEP significantly decreased odds of mental health service use among Latino immigrants. None of the factors including LEP predicted mental health service use among Asian immigrants, who were also the least likely to access such services. LEP was a barrier to mental health service use among Latino immigrants with psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that future approaches to interventions might be well advised to include not only enhancing the availability of bilingual service providers and interpretation services but also increasing awareness of such options for at least Latino immigrants. In addition, further investigation is needed to identify factors that can enhance access to mental health care services among Asians.

  16. Characteristics of patients frequently subjected to pharmacological and mechanical restraint--a register study in three Norwegian acute psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Knutzen, Maria; Bjørkly, Stål; Eidhammer, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Steinar; Mjøsund, Nina Helen; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Sandvik, Leiv; Friis, Svein

    2014-01-30

    This retrospective study from three catchment-area-based acute psychiatric wards showed that of all the pharmacologically and mechanically restrained patients (n=373) 34 (9.1%) had been frequently restrained (6 or more times). These patients accounted for 39.2% of all restraint episodes during the two-year study period. Adjusted binary logistic regression analyses showed that the odds for being frequently restrained were 91% lower among patients above 50 years compared to those aged 18-29 years; a threefold increase (OR=3.1) for those admitted 3 times or more compared to patients with only one stay; and, finally, a threefold increase (OR=3.1) if the length of stay was 16 days or more compared to those admitted for 0-4 days. Among frequently restrained patients, males (n=15) had significantly longer stays than women (n=19), and 8 of the females had a diagnosis of personality disorder, compared to none among males. Our study showed that being frequently restrained was associated with long inpatient stay, many admissions and young age. Teasing out patient characteristics associated with the risk of being frequently restraint may contribute to reduce use of restraint by developing alternative interventions for these patients.

  17. Quality of life in mental health services with a focus on psychiatric rehabilitation practice.

    PubMed

    Gigantesco, Antonella; Giuliani, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Only recently the interest in the quality of life (QoL) has gained prominence in mental health practice with respect to other medical disciplines, such as oncology or cardiology, perhaps because the QoL measures were considered as tautological and largely overlapping with measures of psychopathology. Moreover, most of the recognized components of QoL represent the main areas of psychiatric intervention. For example, psychological functioning impairment represents the main area of psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions, social functioning impairment the main area of rehabilitation intervention. In addition, measures of QoL in psychiatric patients may be biased by some aspects of the disease, including impaired evaluation capacity or decreased expectations. Nowadays, QoL issues in relation to mental health care are especially relevant with regard to part of evaluation of treatment outcomes. Suggestions for the choice of the most appropriate QoL instruments for research and routine evaluation in mental health care are given.

  18. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc) with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services) and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15) followed up in early adulthood (age 19). At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc.) and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts) and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use). In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.). Results Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84) to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. Conclusions While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications) on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than expected contact with

  19. Stigma, Social Structure, and the Biomedical Framework: Exploring the Stigma Experiences of Inpatient Service Users in Two Belgian Psychiatric Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sercu, Charlotte; Bracke, Piet

    2016-05-31

    The study discusses the stigma experiences of service users in mental health care, within the debate on the role of the biomedical framework for mental health care and power relations in society. Interview data of inpatient users (n = 42) and care providers (n = 43) from two Belgian psychiatric hospitals were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach: Findings offer insight into how stigma experiences are affected by social structure. Stigma seemed to be related to the relation between care providers and service users their social position. The concept "mental health literacy" is used to frame this finding. In paying attention to the specific cultural and normative context, which influences the relationship between mental health literacy and stigma, it is further possible to cast some light on the meaning of the biomedical model for the construction and maintenance of power relations in mental health care and broader society.

  20. Five-year review of absconding in three acute psychiatric inpatient wards in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gerace, Adam; Oster, Candice; Mosel, Krista; O'Kane, Deb; Ash, David; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear

    2015-02-01

    Absconding, where patients under an involuntary mental health order leave hospital without permission, can result in patient harm and emotional and professional implications for nursing staff. However, Australian data to drive nursing interventions remain sparse. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate absconding in three acute care wards from January 2006 to June 2010, in order to determine absconding rates, compare patients who did and did not abscond, and to examine incidents. The absconding rate was 17.22 incidents per 100 involuntary admissions (12.09% of patients), with no significant change over time. Being male, young, diagnosed with a schizophrenia or substance-use disorder, and having a longer hospital stay were predictive of absconding. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients had higher odds of absconding than Caucasian Australians. Over 25% of absconding patients did so multiple times. Patients absconded early in admission. More incidents occurred earlier in the year, during summer and autumn, and later in the week, and few incidents occurred early in the morning. Almost 60% of incidents lasted ≤24 hours. Formulation of prospective interventions considering population demographic factors and person-specific concerns are required for evidence-based nursing management of the risks of absconding and effective incident handling when they do occur.

  1. Psychiatric morbidity in a Nigerian paediatric primary care service: a comparison of two screening instruments.

    PubMed

    Omigbodun, O; Gureje, O; Gater, R; Ikuesan, B; Adebayo, E

    1996-06-01

    We evaluated the screening properties of the Children's Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ) and the Reporting Questionnaire for Children (RQC) in an urban primary care setting in Nigeria. Using various validity indices and the results of Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis, we showed that the two instruments had identical abilities at differentiating children with specific psychiatric disorders from those without. The cut-off threshold for the CBQ in this setting was different from what is commonly reported elsewhere. While the CBQ was able to differentiate between conduct and emotional disorders, the RQC had the advantage of relative brevity.

  2. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  3. Effects of music therapy on self- and experienced stigma in patients on an acute care psychiatric unit: a randomized three group effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    Stigma is a major social barrier that can restrict access to and willingness to seek psychiatric care. Psychiatric consumers may use secrecy and withdrawal in an attempt to cope with stigma. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy on self- and experienced stigma in acute care psychiatric inpatients using a randomized design with wait-list control. Participants (N=83) were randomly assigned by cluster to one of three single-session group-based conditions: music therapy, education, or wait-list control. Participants in the music therapy and education conditions completed only posttests while participants in the wait-list control condition completed only pretests. The music therapy condition was a group songwriting intervention wherein participants composed lyrics for "the stigma blues." Results indicated significant differences in measures of discrimination (experienced stigma), disclosure (self-stigma), and total stigma between participants in the music therapy condition and participants in the wait-list control condition. From the results of this randomized controlled investigation, music therapy may be an engaging and effective psychosocial technique to treat stigma. Limitations, suggestions for future research, and implications for clinical practice and psychiatric music therapy research are provided.

  4. The Role of Race in Diagnostic and Disposition Decision-making in a Pediatric Psychiatric Emergency Service (PES)

    PubMed Central

    Muroff, Jordana; Edelsohn, Gail A.; Joe, Sean; Ford, Briggett C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We investigated the influence of race/ethnicity in diagnostic and disposition decision-making for children and adolescents presenting to an urban psychiatric emergency service (PES). Method Medical records were reviewed for 2991 child and adolescent African American, Hispanic/Latino, and White patients, treated in an urban PES between October 2001 and September 2002. A series of bivariate and binomial logistic regression analyses were employed to delineate the role of race in the patterns and correlates of psychiatric diagnostic and treatment disposition decisions. Results Binomial logistic regression analyses reveal that African American (OR=2.28, p<.001), and Hispanic/Latino (OR=2.35, p<.05) patients are more likely to receive a psychotic disorder and behavioral disorders diagnoses (African American:OR=1.66, p<.001; Hispanic/Latino:OR=1.36, p<.05) than White children/adolescents presenting to PES. African American youth compared to White youth are also less likely to receive depressive disorder (OR=0.78, p<.05), bipolar disorder (OR=.44, p<.001), and alcohol/substance abuse disorder (OR=.18, p<.01) diagnoses. African American pediatric PES patients are also more likely to be hospitalized (OR=1.50, p<.05), controlling for other socio-demographic and clinical factors (e.g., GAF). Conclusions The results highlight that non-clinical factors such as race/ethnicity are associated with clinical diagnostic decisions as early as childhood suggesting the pervasiveness of such disparities. PMID:18433660

  5. Factors associated with seclusion in a statewide forensic psychiatric service in Australia over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stuart D M; Daffern, Michael; Martin, Trish; Ogloff, James R P; Thomson, Lindsay D G; Ferguson, Murray

    2009-02-01

    Despite seclusion being described as one of the most ethically- and legally-controversial management options available, it remains a widely-used clinical strategy for managing disruptive, aggressive, and violent behaviour. This study sought to determine how frequently seclusion was used, the common characteristics of those secluded and not secluded, and the degree to which the Level of Service Inventory - Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV) could predict seclusion. The study was retrospective, covering the first 2 years of operation of a statewide forensic psychiatry hospital in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected from individual case files, electronic databases, and paper copies of records pertaining to violent incidents and episodes of seclusion. Eighty five (44%) of the 193 patients admitted during this period were secluded. Those secluded were significantly younger and had a more established psychiatric history. LSI-R: SV scores were significantly and positively associated with being secluded. A statistical model containing three LSI-R: SV items, along with age on admission and psychiatric history, achieved an area under the curve of 0.74. Seclusion is used on a regular basis in response to a range of different forms of aggressive behaviour of different severity. The LSI-R: SV demonstrated moderate-to-good accuracy in predicting seclusion and warrants further research using detailed prospective methodologies.

  6. A Comparison of Outpatients with Intellectual Disability Receiving Specialised and General Services in Ontario's Psychiatric Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Y.; Gracey, C.; Bradley, E.; Koegl, C.; Durbin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study compares outpatients with intellectual disability (ID) receiving specialised services to outpatients with ID receiving general services in Ontario's tertiary mental healthcare system in terms of demographics, symptom profile, strengths and resources, and clinical service needs. Methods: A secondary analysis of Colorado…

  7. Evolving systems of care: Individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder in custody of civil and forensic psychiatric services.

    PubMed

    Crocker, A G; Côté, G

    2009-09-01

    Following psychiatric deinstitutionalization and changes in involuntary civil commitment laws, many individuals with severe mental disorders have been receiving mental health services through the back door, that is, the criminal justice system. Significant changes to the section of Criminal Code of Canada dealing with individuals with mental disorders have led to significant annual increases in the number of individuals declared Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD), many of whom are directed to civil psychiatric settings. The goal of the present study was to describe the psychosociocriminological and risk characteristics of individuals found NCRMD remanded to civil psychiatric hospitals (CPH) compared to a forensic psychiatric hospital (FPH). This study was conducted between October 2004 and August 2006 in the sole FPH of the province of Québec and two large CPH in the Montréal metropolitan area. The final sample for the current study consisted of 96 men: 60 from the FPH and 36 from the two CPH. Results indicate that individuals in both settings have similar psychosociocriminal profiles, including PCL-R scores, but that individuals in CPH have higher scores in the Risk subscale of the HCR-20 than do their counterparts in the FPH. This difference is due to a higher score on two items: exposure to destabilizing factors and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Results are discussed in terms of the need for civil psychiatric settings to implement risk assessment and management programs into their services, and the need for further research into forensic mental health services.

  8. Eradicating Barriers to Mental Health Care Through Integrated Service Models: Contemporary Perspectives for Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Horace; Alexander, Vinette

    2016-06-01

    There has been renewed, global interest in developing new and transformative models of facilitating access to high-quality, cost-effective, and individually-centered health care for severe mentally-ill (SMI) persons of diverse racial/ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. However, in our present-day health-service delivery systems, scholars have identified layers of barriers to widespread dispersal of well-needed mental health care both nationally and internationally. It is crucial that contemporary models directed at eradicating barriers to mental health services are interdisciplinary in context, design, scope, sequence, and best-practice standards. Contextually, nurses are well-positioned to influence the incorporation and integration of new concepts into operationally interdisciplinary, evidence-based care models with measurable outcomes. The aim of this concept paper is to use the available evidence to contextually explicate how the blended roles of psychiatric mental health (PMH) nursing can be influential in eradicating barriers to care and services for SMI persons through the integrated principles of collaboration, integration and service expansion across health, socioeconomic, and community systems. A large body of literature proposes that any best-practice standards aimed at eliminating barriers to the health care needs of SMI persons require systematic, well-coordinated interdisciplinary partnerships through evidence-based, high-quality, person-centered, and outcome-driven processes. Transforming the conceptual models of collaboration, integration and service expansion could be revolutionary in how care and services are coordinated and dispersed to populations across disadvantaged communities. Building on their longstanding commitment to individual and community care approaches, and their pivotal roles in research, education, leadership, practice, and legislative processes; PMH nurses are well-positioned to be both influential and instrumental in

  9. Service referral for juvenile justice youths: associations with psychiatric disorder and recidivism.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Machteld; McReynolds, Larkin S; Wasserman, Gail A

    2014-05-01

    Secondary multiple regression analyses related disorder profile, probation officers' mental health/substance use service referrals, and recidivism in 361 juvenile justice youths. Those with externalizing (disruptive behavior or substance use) disorder or substance offenses were most likely to receive service referrals. Substance disordered youths with service referrals had lower recidivism risk compared to counterparts without referrals; referral lowered the recidivism odds to approximately that for youths without a substance use disorder. Providing juvenile justice youths with systematic mental health assessment and linking those with substance use disorder to mental health and substance use services likely reduces recidivism risk.

  10. The impact of psychiatric comorbidity on Medicare reimbursement for inpatient medical care.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, R J; Daly, J; Golinger, R C

    1994-01-01

    Funding for psychiatric consultation-liaison (C-L) services has been a difficult problem. It has been suggested that the identification of psychiatric co-morbidities in Medicare patients on medical services could generate incremental hospital revenue by moving patients from a lower to a higher paying Diagnostic Related Group (DRG). This increased revenue could be used as a means of supporting the psychiatric C-L service. This study documents the financial impact of screening for and documenting psychiatric co-morbidities on a general acute medical service. We clinically assessed 100 consecutive Medicare admissions and found 25 psychiatric co-morbidities in 20 patients. In only one case did the psychiatric diagnosis result in moving the case to a higher DRG. However, the need for psychiatric consultation remains evident as there was significant lack of recognition and documentation of the psychiatric diagnoses by the medical team. The authors discuss both the financial and clinical implications of screening medical inpatients for psychiatric co-morbidities and propose directions for further studies in this area.

  11. Regional Correlates of Psychiatric Inpatient Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ala-Nikkola, Taina; Pirkola, Sami; Kaila, Minna; Saarni, Samuli I.; Joffe, Grigori; Kontio, Raija; Oranta, Olli; Sadeniemi, Minna; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Current reforms of mental health and substance abuse services (MHS) emphasize community-based care and the downsizing of psychiatric hospitals. Reductions in acute and semi-acute hospital beds are achieved through shortened stays or by avoiding hospitalization. Understanding the factors that drive the current inpatient treatment provision is essential. We investigated how the MHS service structure (diversity of services and balance of personnel resources) and indicators of service need (mental health index, education, single household, and alcohol sales) correlated with acute and semi-acute inpatient treatment provision. The European Service Mapping Schedule-Revised (ESMS-R) tool was used to classify the adult MHS structure in southern Finland (population 1.8 million, 18+ years). The diversity of MHS in terms of range of outpatient and day care services or the overall personnel resourcing in inpatient or outpatient services was not associated with the inpatient treatment provision. In the univariate analyses, sold alcohol was associated with the inpatient treatment provision, while in the multivariate modeling, only a general index for mental health needs was associated with greater hospitalization. In the dehospitalization process, direct resource re-allocation and substituting of inpatient treatment with outpatient care per se is likely insufficient, since inpatient treatment is linked to contextual factors in the population and the health care system. Mental health services reforms require both strategic planning of service system as a whole and detailed understanding of effects of societal components. PMID:27929403

  12. Challenges to Improve Inter-Professional Care and Service Collaboration for People Living With Psychiatric Disabilities in Ordinary Housing

    PubMed Central

    Ainalem, Ingrid; Berg, Agneta; Janlöv, Ann-Christin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe health care- and social service professionals' experiences of a quality-improvement program implemented in the south of Sweden. The focus of the program was to develop inter-professional collaboration to improve care and service to people with psychiatric disabilities in ordinary housing. Focus group interviews and a thematic analysis were used. The result was captured as themes along steps in process. (I) Entering the quality-improvement program: Lack of information about the program, The challenge of getting started, and Approaching the resources reluctantly. (II) Doing the practice-based improvement work: Facing unprepared workplaces, and Doing twice the work. (III) Looking back—evaluation over 1 year: Balancing theoretical knowledge with practical training, and Considering profound knowledge as an integral part of work. The improvement process in clinical practice was found to be both time and energy consuming, yet worth the effort. The findings also indicate that collaboration across organizational boundaries was broadened, and the care and service delivery were improved. PMID:26783867

  13. A PROJECT DEMONSTRATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES IN A TOTAL PSYCHIATRIC CARE PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Board of Health, Atlanta.

    A COOPERATIVE PROGRAM OFFERED A COMPLETE RANGE OF INTEGRATED MEDICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, AND VOCATIONAL SERVICES TO REINTEGRATE MENTAL PATIENTS INTO THE LIFE OF THE COMMUNITY. THE PROGRAM PROPOSED TO DEMONSTRATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CERTAIN REHABILITATION PROCEDURES TO EXTEND AND IMPROVE REHABILITATION SERVICES, AND TO ESTABLISH EFFECTIVE…

  14. A Comparison of Patients with Intellectual Disability Receiving Specialised and General Services in Ontario's Psychiatric Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Y.; Bradley, E.; Durbin, J.; Koegl, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Over the years, the closure of institutions has meant that individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) must access mainstream (i.e. general) mental health services. However, concern that general services may not adequately meet the needs of patients with ID and mental illness has led to the development and implementation of more…

  15. Integration of a Psychiatric Service in a Long-Term Charitable Facility for People with Intellectual Disabilities: A 5-Year Medication Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggerini, Ciro; Guaraldi, Gian Paolo; Russo, Angela; Neviani, Vittoria; Castagnini, Augusto

    2004-01-01

    Since the implementation of a psychiatric service in a long-term facility for people with intellectual disability, the usage of psychotropic and anti-convulsant drugs has been surveyed over the 5-year period 1994-1999. At that time, although the overall prevalence rate of residents on medication was not declining significantly, a decrease in…

  16. American Psychiatric Association: Position Statement on Firearm Access, Acts of Violence and the Relationship to Mental Illness and Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Debra A; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard; Fisher, Carl E; Gold, Liza H; Lee, Li-Wen

    2015-06-01

    The American Psychiatric Association, ("APA"), with more than 36,000 members at present, is the Nation's leading organization of physicians who specialize in psychiatry. APA provides for education and advocacy and develops policy through Position Statements. It promotes enhanced knowledge of particular topics relevant to psychiatric practice and patient care through Resource Documents. Since 1993, the APA has developed various positions and resource materials related to firearms and mental illness, incorporating evolving themes as new issues emerge. This paper reflects the APA's 2014 Position Statement on Firearm Access, Acts of Violence and the Relationship to Mental Illness and Mental Health Services.

  17. Medication Adherence, Work Performance and Self-Esteem among Psychiatric Patients Attending Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services at Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Pavalur, Rajitha; Thanapal, Sivakumar; Parathasarathy, Nirmala B.; Desai, Geetha; Bhola, Poornima; Philip, Mariamma; Chaturvedi, Santosh K.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Work benefits mental health in innumerable ways. Vocational rehabilitation can enhance self-esteem. Medication adherence can improve work performance and thereby the individuals’ self-esteem. Aim: To test the hypothesis that there would be a significant correlation between medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem. Setting and Design: A quantitative, descriptive correlational research design was adopted to invite patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation services to participate in the research. Material and Methods: Data was collected from a convenience sample of 60 subjects using the ‘Medication Adherence Rating scale’, ‘Griffiths work behaviour scale’ and the ‘Rosenberg's Self-esteem scale’. Statistical analysis used: Analysis was done using spss18 with descriptive statistics, Pearsons correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results: There were 36 males and 24 females who participated in this study. The subjects had good mean medication adherence of 8.4 ± 1.5 with median of 9.00, high mean self-esteem of 17.65 ± 2.97 with median of 18.0 and good mean work performance of 88.62 ± 22.56 with median of 93.0. Although weak and not significant, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.22, P = 0.103) between medication adherence and work performance; positive correlation between (r = 0.25, P = 0.067) medication adherence and self–esteem; positive correlation between (r = 0.136, P = 0.299) work performance and self-esteem. Multiple regression analysis showed no significant predictors for medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem among patients with psychiatric illness. Conclusions: Medication monitoring and strengthening of work habit can improve self-esteem thereby, strengthening hope of recovery from illness. PMID:25336771

  18. The ecological relationship between deprivation, social isolation and rates of hospital admission for acute psychiatric care: a comparison of London and New York City.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Sarah; Copeland, Alison; Fagg, James; Congdon, Peter; Almog, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Justine

    2006-03-01

    We report on comparative analyses of small area variation in rates of acute hospital admissions for psychiatric conditions in Greater London around the year 1998 and in New York City (NYC) in 2000. Based on a theoretical model of the factors likely to influence psychiatric admission rates, and using data from the most recent population censuses and other sources, we examine the association with area indicators designed to measure access to hospital beds, socio-economic deprivation, social fragmentation and ethnic/racial composition. We report results on admissions for men and women aged 15-64 for all psychiatric conditions (excluding self-harm), drug-related substance abuse/addiction, schizophrenia and affective disorders. The units of analysis in NYC were 165 five-digit Zip Code Areas and, in London, 760 electoral wards as defined in 1998. The analysis controls for age and sex composition and, as a proxy for access to care, spatial proximity to hospitals with psychiatric beds. Poisson regression modeling incorporating random effects was used to control for both overdispersion in the counts of admissions and for the effects of spatial autocorrelation. The results for NYC and London showed that local admission rates for all types of condition were positively and significantly associated with deprivation and the association is independent of demographic composition or 'access' to beds. In NYC, social fragmentation showed a significant association with admissions due to affective disorders and schizophrenia, and for drug dependency among females. Racial minority concentration was significantly and positively associated with admissions for schizophrenia. In London, social fragmentation was associated positively with admissions for men and women due to schizophrenia and affective disorders. The variable measuring racial/ethnic minority concentration for London wards showed a negative association with admission rates for drug dependency and for affective disorders. We

  19. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than inpatient psychiatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) The reasons for either— (i) Hospitalization of the patient for inpatient medical treatment or medically required inpatient diagnostic study; or (ii) Special or unusual services for cost outlier cases... treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in a participating SNF. (2) If this is the basis for...

  20. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... patient for medical treatment or medically required inpatient diagnostic study; or (ii) Special or unusual services for cost outlier cases (under the prospective payment system set forth in subpart F of part 412 of... physician finds that the patient could receive proper treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in...

  1. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the patient for medical treatment or medically required inpatient diagnostic study; or (ii) Special or unusual services for cost outlier cases (under the prospective payment system set forth in... hospitalization if the physician finds that the patient could receive proper treatment in a SNF but no bed...

  2. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... patient for medical treatment or medically required inpatient diagnostic study; or (ii) Special or unusual services for cost outlier cases (under the prospective payment system set forth in subpart F of part 412 of... physician finds that the patient could receive proper treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in...

  3. 42 CFR 424.13 - Requirements for inpatient services of hospitals other than inpatient psychiatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) The reasons for either— (i) Hospitalization of the patient for inpatient medical treatment or medically required inpatient diagnostic study; or (ii) Special or unusual services for cost outlier cases... treatment in a SNF but no bed is available in a participating SNF. (2) If this is the basis for...

  4. The Amsterdam Studies of Acute Psychiatry - II (ASAP-II): a comparative study of psychiatric intensive care units in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Koppelmans, Vincent; Schoevers, Robert; van Wijk, Cecile Gijsbers; Mulder, Wijnand; Hornbach, Annett; Barkhof, Emile; Klaassen, André; van Egmond, Marieke; van Venrooij, Janine; Bijpost, Yan; Nusselder, Hans; van Herrewaarden, Marjan; Maksimovic, Igor; Achilles, Alexander; Dekker, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Background The number of patients in whom mental illness progresses to stages in which acute, and often forced treatment is warranted, is on the increase across Europe. As a consequence, more patients are involuntarily admitted to Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). From several studies and reports it has become evident that important dissimilarities exist between PICU's. The current study seeks to describe organisational as well as clinical and patient related factors across ten PICU's in and outside the Amsterdam region, adjusted for or stratified by level of urbanization. Method/Design This paper describes the design of the Amsterdam Studies of Acute Psychiatry II (ASAP-II). This study is a prospective observational cohort study comparing PICU's in and outside the Amsterdam region on various patient characteristics, treatment aspects and recovery related variables. Dissimilarities were measured by means of collecting standardized forms which were filled out in the framework of care as usual, by means of questionnaires filled out by mental health care professionals and by means of extracting data from patient files for every consecutive patient admitted at participating PICU's during a specific time period. Urbanization levels for every PICU were calculated conform procedures as proposed by the Dutch Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS). Discussion The current study may provide a deeper understanding of the differences between psychiatric intensive care units that can be used to promote best practice and benchmarking procedures, and thus improve the standard of care. PMID:19725981

  5. Observed-predicted length of stay for an acute psychiatric department, as an indicator of inpatient care inefficiencies. Retrospective case-series study.

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Rosa E; Lam, Rosa M; Marot, Milagros; Delgado, Ariel

    2004-01-01

    Background Length of stay (LOS) is an important indicator of efficiency for inpatient care but it does not achieve an adequate performance if it is not adjusted for the case mix of the patients hospitalized during the period considered. After two similar studies for Internal Medicine and Surgery respectively, the aims of the present study were to search for Length of Stay (LOS) predictors in an acute psychiatric department and to assess the performance of the difference: observed-predicted length of stay, as an indicator of inpatient care inefficiencies. Methods Retrospective case-series of patients discharged during 1999 from the Psychiatric Department from General Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras" in Havana, Cuba. The 374 eligible medical records were randomly split into two groups of 187 each. We derived the function for estimating the predicted LOS within the first group. Possible predictors were: age; sex; place of residence; diagnosis, use of electroconvulsive therapy; co morbidities; symptoms at admission, medications, marital status, and response to treatment. LOS was the dependent variable. A thorough exam of the patients' records was the basis to assess the capacity of the function for detecting inefficiency problems, within the second group. Results The function explained 37% of LOS variation. The strongest influence on LOS came from: age (p = 0.002), response to treatment (p < 0.0001), the dummy for personality disorders (p = 0.01), ECT therapy (p = 0.003), factor for sexual and/or eating symptoms (p = 0.003) and factor for psychotic symptoms (p = 0.025). Mean observed LOS is 2 days higher than predicted for the group of records with inefficient care, whereas for the group with acceptable efficiency, observed mean LOS was 4 days lower than predicted. The area under the ROC curve for detecting inefficiencies was 69% Conclusions This study demonstrates the importance of possible predictors of LOS, in an acute care Psychiatric department. The proposed

  6. ICD-10 mental and behavioural disorders due to use of crack and powder cocaine as treated at a public psychiatric emergency service: an analysis of visit predictors.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Thalita Alves; da Cunha, Gustavo Nunes; de Moraes, Vinicius Papa Milani; Massarini, Renata; Yoshida, Camila Mie Kawata; Tenguam, Patrícia Tomiatto; Garcia, Marcelo Valeiro; Varoto, Daniela Arruda; de Oliveira, Murilo Barutti; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; de Azevedo-Marques Périco, Cíntia; do Nascimento, Vania Barbosa; Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated the predictors of an increased number of visits from individuals with some of the diagnoses noted in chapter F14 of ICD-10, from calls to the emergency psychiatric unit of a general hospital in São Paulo state, Brazil, in the period 2011-2012. Poisson regression models were carried out for the outcome variable, accounting for number of subsequent visits to the psychiatric emergency unit. For the analysis of this outcome we took into account the exposure time of each individual in the study. Our findings point to a population at risk for frequent psychiatric emergency service visits: individuals over 25 years. This population should be targeted for interventions on entry into public healthcare due to increased psychiatric morbidity and greater clinical morbidity already confirmed by previous studies. We discussed the need of these individuals for special attention during the clinical or psychiatric emergency consultation which, unfortunately, may be the access point for the public health system. None of the other variables were related to the outcome of interest, such as those related to the level of individual entry into the care network before and after treatment, and other variables related to medical acts during the visit.

  7. The psychiatric hospital and its place in a mental health service

    PubMed Central

    Tooth, Geoffrey

    1958-01-01

    Modern methods of treatment of mental disease enable the average length of stay in hospital to be drastically reduced. The former overcrowding is therefore disappearing; in fact, it should be possible to contemplate a reduction in the size of the hospitals, particularly if new admissions are kept to a minimum by the provision of efficient out-patient clinics and of adequate geriatric and domiciliary nursing services. Taking recent trends in England and Wales as his starting point, the author outlines ways in which a modern mental health service might be built up around existing facilities under a variety of conditions. He advocates that, as far as possible, the treatment of mental disease should be integrated into general medicine, and emphasises the need for close co-operation between psychiatrists, family doctors, and the staff of general hospitals. PMID:13585081

  8. Improving access to competitive employment for service users in forensic psychiatric units.

    PubMed

    Beck, Charlotte; Wernham, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Employment has been proven to be an effective recovery tool and therapeutic intervention for those with severe and enduring mental health conditions. Aside from monetary reward, employment is a means of structuring time and provides a sense of worth and achievement, which enhances self-esteem and confidence. A social identity is developed through employment, encouraging social support and increasing social networks. Securing employment can bring about improved quality of life and positive change in one's social circumstances; therefore it can reduce symptoms associated with mental illness and potentially prevent re-offending, as the individual develops a sense of independence, self-efficacy, and value. Barriers to employment exist for forensic mental health service users and therefore it is imperative that employment needs are addressed at the earliest possible stage in recovery. An evaluation of employment activities across two forensic mental health units revealed a lack of appropriate employment opportunities for service users, and those roles available were not implemented in line with recommended best practice. In response to this issue several enterprises were established to offer opportunities for service users to engage in meaningful employment and develop skills that a future employer would value. Each enterprise responds to a business need within the units to ensure sustainability of services. The enterprises are essentially micro-businesses with social objectives whose surpluses are reinvested for the purpose of increasing opportunities for service users. The enterprises are underpinned by the philosophy of the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model; empirical evidence suggests that the IPS model is the most effective intervention, based on the 'place then train' philosophy. The model recommends a focus upon rapid job search to achieve competitive employment for those who want to work; opportunities sourced should be consistent with individual

  9. Improving access to competitive employment for service users in forensic psychiatric units

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Charlotte; Wernham, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Employment has been proven to be an effective recovery tool and therapeutic intervention for those with severe and enduring mental health conditions. Aside from monetary reward, employment is a means of structuring time and provides a sense of worth and achievement, which enhances self-esteem and confidence. A social identity is developed through employment, encouraging social support and increasing social networks. Securing employment can bring about improved quality of life and positive change in one's social circumstances; therefore it can reduce symptoms associated with mental illness and potentially prevent re-offending, as the individual develops a sense of independence, self-efficacy, and value. Barriers to employment exist for forensic mental health service users and therefore it is imperative that employment needs are addressed at the earliest possible stage in recovery. An evaluation of employment activities across two forensic mental health units revealed a lack of appropriate employment opportunities for service users, and those roles available were not implemented in line with recommended best practice. In response to this issue several enterprises were established to offer opportunities for service users to engage in meaningful employment and develop skills that a future employer would value. Each enterprise responds to a business need within the units to ensure sustainability of services. The enterprises are essentially micro-businesses with social objectives whose surpluses are reinvested for the purpose of increasing opportunities for service users. The enterprises are underpinned by the philosophy of the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model; empirical evidence suggests that the IPS model is the most effective intervention, based on the ‘place then train’ philosophy. The model recommends a focus upon rapid job search to achieve competitive employment for those who want to work; opportunities sourced should be consistent with individual

  10. The periodicities in and biometeorological relationships with bed occupancy of an acute psychiatric ward in Antwerp, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, M.; de Meyer, F.; Peeters, D.; Meltzer, H.; Schotte, C.; Scharpe, S.; Cosyns, P.

    1993-06-01

    Recently, some investigators have established a seasonal pattern in normal human psychology, physiology and behaviour, and in the incidence of psychiatric psychopathology. In an attempt to elucidate the chronopsy and meteotropism in the latter, we have examined the chronograms of, and the biometeorological relationships to bed occupancy of the psychiatric ward of the Antwerp University Hospital during three consecutive calendar years (1987 1989). Weather data for the vicinity were provided by a local meteorological station and comprise mean atmospheric pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and minutes of sunlight and precipitation/day. The number of psychiatric beds occupied during the study period exhibited a significant seasonal variation. Peaks in bed occupancy were observed in March and November, with lows in August. An important part of the variability in the number of beds occupied could be explained by the composite effects of weather variables of the preceding weeks. Our results suggest that short-term fluctuations in atmospheric activity may dictate some of the periodicities in psychiatric psychopathology.

  11. Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES): A Framework for Developing Performance Measures for Behavioral Health Crisis and Psychiatric Emergency Programs.

    PubMed

    Balfour, Margaret E; Tanner, Kathleen; Jurica, Paul J; Rhoads, Richard; Carson, Chris A

    2016-01-01

    Crisis and emergency psychiatric services are an integral part of the healthcare system, yet there are no standardized measures for programs providing these services. We developed the Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES) framework to create measures that inform internal performance improvement initiatives and allow comparison across programs. The framework consists of two components-the CRISES domains (timely, safe, accessible, least-restrictive, effective, consumer/family centered, and partnership) and the measures supporting each domain. The CRISES framework provides a foundation for development of standardized measures for the crisis field. This will become increasingly important as pay-for-performance initiatives expand with healthcare reform.

  12. Quality of life of caregivers with relatives suffering from mental illness in Hong Kong: roles of caregiver characteristics, caregiving burdens, and satisfaction with psychiatric services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study attempted to explore the quality of life (QoL) of Chinese caregivers with mentally ill relatives. It also aimed to examine the differential roles of caregiving burdens, caregiver characteristics, and satisfaction with psychiatric services in caregivers' QoL. Methods 276 caregivers with relatives attending community psychiatric facilities in Hong Kong were invited to fill out a questionnaire. One sample t-tests were conducted to compare the results of this study with that of other Chinese populations in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and mainland China. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed to examine the relative influence of different factors on caregivers' QoL. Results Our sample of caregivers had significantly lower QoL scores than other Chinese populations. Results also suggest that Chinese caregivers who had chronic illness, younger in age, a lower education level, experienced more difficulties in handling negative symptoms, and were more dissatisfied with mental health services had poorer quality of life. Indeed, caregiver characteristics displayed a much stronger association with caregivers' QoL than did caregiving burdens and satisfaction with psychiatric services. Conclusions This study supports the strong association of caregiver characteristics and the QoL of caregivers and establishes the nature of the relationship between satisfaction with mental health services and caregiver QoL. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:22289443

  13. Predictors of valued everyday occupations, empowerment and satisfaction in day centres: implications for services for persons with psychiatric disabilities.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Mona; Sandlund, Mikael

    2014-09-01

    This study addresses predictors of occupational value, empowerment and satisfaction with the rehabilitation received in day centres for people with psychiatric disabilities. These outcomes represent varying aspects of relevance for the day centre context and together create a manifold outcome picture. This was a longitudinal study with approval from the regional research vetting board. Self-report instruments were used, and the investigated predictors motivation for going to the day centre, occupational engagement, socio-demographic factors and self-reported diagnosis. Attendees (N = 108) at 8 day centres participated and filled in self-report questionnaires regarding the predictor and outcome variables. A baseline measurement and a 14-month follow-up composed the data. Occupational engagement at baseline could predict all three outcomes at the follow-up. Motivation for the day centre activities and not preferring work before attending the day centre were positive for satisfaction with the day centre. A low participation rate, although comparable with previous studies on the target group, was a limitation of this study. To conclude, both occupational engagement and motivation are factors that can be stimulated by the staff in day centres. Actions for how to accomplish that, and thereby also more positive outcomes of the day centre services, are proposed, such as a system of freedom of choice among day centres, and between day centres and supported employment.

  14. An Audit of Changes in Outcomes of Acute Pain Service

    PubMed Central

    Low, Sheng Jia; Wong, Stanley Sau Ching; Qiu, Qiu; Lee, Yvonne; Chan, Timmy Chi Wing; Irwin, Michael G.; Cheung, Chi Wai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute pain services (APS) have evolved over time. Strategies nowadays emphasize multimodal analgesic regimes using a combination of nonopioid adjuvant analgesic drugs, peripheral nerve blocks, and local anaesthetic wound infiltration where appropriate. APS should be assessed over time to evaluate changes in outcomes which form the basis for future development. In this audit, data of patients under APS care in Queen Mary hospital, Hong Kong, between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed and compared with data from a previous audit between 1992 and 1995. The use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was increased (from 69.3% to 86.5%, P < 0.001), while the use of epidural analgesia reduced (from 25.3% to 8.3%, P < 0.001) significantly. Although postoperative pain scores did not improve, PCA opioid consumption and the incidence of analgesia-related side effects were significantly less (all P < 0.001). More patients graded their postoperative analgesic techniques used as good when the results from these 2 audit periods were compared (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001 for PCA and epidural analgesia, respectively). In conclusion, there has been a change in analgesic management techniques, but there has been no improvement in overall pain relief. While changes over time have led to improvement in important parameters such as the incidence of side effects and patient satisfaction, further and continuous efforts and improvements are warrant to reduce acute pain relief and suffering of the patients after the surgery. PMID:26448012

  15. Violent psychiatric patients: a study.

    PubMed

    Kermani, E J

    1981-04-01

    In a study of fifty-three violent psychiatric patients in a psychiatric hospital setting, it was found that there are two distinct major groups of violent patients--one of patients with a long history of antisocial behavior who are often chronically homicidal and suicidal, and another of patients who neither have a history of destructive behavior nor exhibit homicidal or suicidal tendencies. The latter become acutely assaultive only during the course of psychiatric illness. The personality traits and background associated with these two groups offer additional contrasts. Each group presents different problems and, of major importance to the psychiatric practioner, each group requires different management.

  16. 42 CFR 441.152 - Certification of need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs...) Proper treatment of the beneficiary's psychiatric condition requires services on an inpatient basis...

  17. 42 CFR 441.152 - Certification of need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs...) Proper treatment of the beneficiary's psychiatric condition requires services on an inpatient basis...

  18. 42 CFR 441.152 - Certification of need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs...) Proper treatment of the beneficiary's psychiatric condition requires services on an inpatient basis...

  19. 42 CFR 441.152 - Certification of need for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 in Psychiatric Facilities or Programs...) Proper treatment of the recipient's psychiatric condition requires services on an inpatient basis...

  20. Development of an electronic database for Acute Pain Service outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Love, Brandy L; Jensen, Louise A; Schopflocher, Donald; Tsui, Ban CH

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality assurance is increasingly important in the current health care climate. An electronic database can be used for tracking patient information and as a research tool to provide quality assurance for patient care. OBJECTIVE: An electronic database was developed for the Acute Pain Service, University of Alberta Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta) to record patient characteristics, identify at-risk populations, compare treatment efficacies and guide practice decisions. METHOD: Steps in the database development involved identifying the goals for use, relevant variables to include, and a plan for data collection, entry and analysis. Protocols were also created for data cleaning quality control. The database was evaluated with a pilot test using existing data to assess data collection burden, accuracy and functionality of the database. RESULTS: A literature review resulted in an evidence-based list of demographic, clinical and pain management outcome variables to include. Time to assess patients and collect the data was 20 min to 30 min per patient. Limitations were primarily software related, although initial data collection completion was only 65% and accuracy of data entry was 96%. CONCLUSIONS: The electronic database was found to be relevant and functional for the identified goals of data storage and research. PMID:22518364

  1. A cross-sectional prospective study of seclusion, restraint and involuntary medication in acute psychiatric wards: patient, staff and ward characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research on mental health care has shown considerable differences in use of seclusion, restraint and involuntary medication among different wards and geographical areas. This study investigates to what extent use of seclusion, restraint and involuntary medication for involuntary admitted patients in Norwegian acute psychiatric wards is associated with patient, staff and ward characteristics. The study includes data from 32 acute psychiatric wards. Methods Multilevel logistic regression using Stata was applied with data from 1016 involuntary admitted patients that were linked to data about wards. The sample comprised two hierarchical levels (patients and wards) and the dependent variables had two values (0 = no use and 1 = use). Coercive measures were defined as use of seclusion, restraint and involuntary depot medication during hospitalization. Results The total number of involuntary admitted patients was 1214 (35% of total sample). The percentage of patients who were exposed to coercive measures ranged from 0-88% across wards. Of the involuntary admitted patients, 424 (35%) had been secluded, 117 (10%) had been restrained and 113 (9%) had received involuntary depot medication at discharge. Data from 1016 patients could be linked in the multilevel analysis. There was a substantial between-ward variance in the use of coercive measures; however, this was influenced to some extent by compositional differences across wards, especially for the use of restraint. Conclusions The substantial between-ward variance, even when adjusting for patients' individual psychopathology, indicates that ward factors influence the use of seclusion, restraint and involuntary medication and that some wards have the potential for quality improvement. Hence, interventions to reduce the use of seclusion, restraint and involuntary medication should take into account organizational and environmental factors. PMID:20370928

  2. Italian psychiatric reform 1978: milestones for Italy and Europe in 2010?

    PubMed

    Pycha, Roger; Giupponi, Giancarlo; Schwitzer, Josef; Duffy, Dearbhla; Conca, Andreas

    2011-11-01

    The Italian psychiatric reform of 1978 was one of the most radical attempts in history to abolish the practise of custodial psychiatry using legislation. The work of the charismatic reformer Franco Basaglia had four main objectives, which have taken more than 30 years to achieve. Although the creation of outpatient mental health centres and a reduction in involuntary commitments occurred rapidly, the expensive development of small acute psychiatric departments in general hospitals as an alternative to psychiatric hospitals was implemented very slowly. According to a national survey by the Italian Ministry of Health, in 2001, there were a total of 9,300 acute beds for all of Italy, of which as many as 4,000 were in private facilities. With 1.72 acute beds per 10,000 inhabitants, Italy has one of the lowest figures in Europe of psychiatric beds. However, Italy's apparent and often praised low bed requirement places a large burden on families. The implementation of the reform process was most delayed and occurred at its worst in South Tyrol, in North Italy. In an effort to achieve a modern and progressive community-based psychiatric service, in particular one with more specialised services, mental health providers in this region have examined German, Austrian and Swiss models of psychiatric practice.

  3. Acute service delivery in a police-mental health program for children exposed to violence and trauma.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert A; Rosenheck, Robert A; Berkowitz, Steven J; Marans, Steven R

    2005-01-01

    The Child Development Community Policing Program represents a national model of community-based collaboration between police and mental health professionals for violence-exposed and traumatized children. Administrative data from clinical records of a 24-hour consultation service were examined through stepwise multivariate logistic regression to identify child and event characteristics associated with a direct, in-person response at the time of police contact. Of 2361 children, 809 (34.3%) received a direct, in-person response. Relative to Caucasian children, Hispanic youth were more likely to receive this form of response (OR = 1.36). An acute clinical response was more likely for incidents of gang involvement (OR = 8.12), accidents (OR = 5.21), felony assaults (OR = 2.97), property crimes (OR = 2.30), family violence (OR = 1.53) and psychiatric crises (OR = 1.29). Acute response was less likely when juvenile conduct problems (OR = 0.61), fires (OR = 0.59), child maltreatment (OR = 0.57), and domestic violence (OR = 0.44) were involved. Incidents that were more severe or involved a primary mental health component were related to utilization of intensive CDCP resources.

  4. Integration of a psychiatric service in a long-term charitable facility for people with intellectual disabilities: a 5-year medication survey.

    PubMed

    Ruggerini, Ciro; Guaraldi, Gian Paolo; Russo, Angela; Neviani, Vittoria; Castagnini, Augusto

    2004-01-01

    Since the implementation of a psychiatric service in a long-term facility for people with intellectual disability, the usage of psychotropic and anti-convulsant drugs has been surveyed over the 5-year period 1994-1999. At that time, although the overall prevalence rate of residents on medication was not declining significantly, a decrease in number, dosage and polypharmacy of those receiving neuroleptic drugs occurred than 1994. A reduction also resulted among the in-patients prescribed anxiolytic preparations, despite a relative increase in their mean daily intake. Anti-convulsant drugs climbed slightly during the same interval with a parallel increase in the mean daily dosage. A retrospective comparison of current findings to prevalence, dosage and type of psychoactive medications dispensed 10 years previously in 1989 revealed no trend towards drug rationalisation. Until interdisciplinary training programmes as well as effective community services combining disability and mental health needs are forthcoming, a therapeutic approach involving early psychiatric inputs may contribute to ensure a more rational prescribing practice for long-stay adults with intellectual disability who are referred for neuro-psychiatric consultation.

  5. Psychiatric diagnosis, psychiatric power and psychiatric abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    1994-01-01

    Psychiatric abuse, such as we usually associate with practices in the former Soviet Union, is related not to the misuse of psychiatric diagnoses, but to the political power intrinsic to the social role of the psychiatrist in totalitarian and democratic societies alike. Some reflections are offered on the modern, therapeutic state's proclivity to treat adults as patients rather than citizens, disjoin rights from responsibilities, and thus corrupt the language of political-philosophical discourse. PMID:7996558

  6. Effects of reduction of acute hospital services on district nursing services: implications for quality assurance.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, L D; Addington-Hall, J M; Hennessy, D A; Gould, T R

    1991-01-01

    Two questions of importance to those concerned with maintaining standards and increasing the efficiency of Community Nursing are: (1) does reducing hospital provision alter the number of patients referred for Community Nursing or the type of care provided; (2) are Community Nursing Services directed towards those who most require them? A base-line study was carried out in the first quarter of 1988, before the closure of one of two general hospitals in an inner London Health Authority and was replicated in the same quarter of 1989, after all acute inpatient services had been transferred to the other hospital. Comparison of patients discharged before and after closure showed no significant differences in patients' age, sex, proportion living alone, length of stay in hospital, readmissions or deaths within one month of discharge. There was some decline in general nursing care. Total discharges declined by 20% while the number of referrals remained the same, indicating that proportionately more patients were discharged with a referral. Comparing referred and unreferred patients showed that Community Nursing Services were already being directed towards those most in need both before and after hospital closure. Results suggest that Community Nursing helps to maintain patients in the community.

  7. 28 CFR 549.42 - Use of psychiatric medications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of psychiatric medications. 549.42... MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.42 Use of psychiatric medications. Psychiatric..., for which such medication is accepted treatment. Psychiatric medication will be administered...

  8. 28 CFR 549.42 - Use of psychiatric medications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of psychiatric medications. 549.42... MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.42 Use of psychiatric medications. Psychiatric..., for which such medication is accepted treatment. Psychiatric medication will be administered...

  9. 28 CFR 549.42 - Use of psychiatric medications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of psychiatric medications. 549.42... MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.42 Use of psychiatric medications. Psychiatric..., for which such medication is accepted treatment. Psychiatric medication will be administered...

  10. Psychiatric Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Bayrakal, Sadi

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Bayrakal believes that the time has come for the family physician to deal with minor psychiatric disturbances in his office as well as psychiatric emergencies in the emergency department. The newly emerging medico-social philosophy of both the federal and provincial governments, he says, is giving greater responsibility and authority to the family physician in every area of medicine, including psychiatry. The author discusses major psychiatric emergencies (suicide, suicidal attempt, homicide, social scandal, as well as other psychiatric emergencies) on the ward including adolescent psychiatry. (The descriptions and treatment procedures are given on a concrete clinical level without theoretical overload.) In the family physician's work, psychological understanding is of profound importance. Giving him the added scope of psychiatric consideration to see the patient in bio-psycho-social totality will enable him to practice a more humanized form of medicine. PMID:20468779

  11. A Process Analysis of Supported Employment Services for Persons with Serious Psychiatric Disability: Implications for Program Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, E. Sally; MacDonald-Wilson, Kim; Danley, Karen; Martin, Rose; Anthony, William A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on a process analysis of a three-year research and demonstration project evaluating a supported-employment program serving 20 adults with psychiatric disabilities. Staff were found to have frequent, brief contact with participants at varied times of day and through varied means of contact, with much of this contact spent…

  12. Behaviour Management Problems as Predictors of Psychotropic Medication and Use of Psychiatric Services in Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Costello, Helen; Holt, Geraldine; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick

    2007-01-01

    We examined behaviour management problems as predictors of psychotropic medication, use of psychiatric consultation and in-patient admission in a group of 66 adults with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and intellectual disability (ID) and 99 controls matched in age, gender and level of ID. Overall, people with PDD had higher rates of most…

  13. New Frontiers in Psychiatric Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuzessery, Zoltan, Ed.

    The second annual educational workshop concerned utilization of psychiatric technicians for technical service to allied professions. Manuscripts are included for the following presentations: (1) "Brief History of Colorado Psychiatric Technicians Association" by Francis L. Hedges, (2) "Hominology--The Approach to the Whole Man"…

  14. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Inpatient Psychiatric..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a...

  15. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Inpatient Psychiatric..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a...

  16. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Inpatient Psychiatric..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a...

  17. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Inpatient Psychiatric..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a...

  18. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Inpatient Psychiatric..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a...

  19. A study of the workload and effectiveness of a comprehensive acute stroke service

    PubMed Central

    Weir, N; Buchan, A

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Prospective record of all acute referrals, diagnoses, and management decisions over a 4 month period. Results: The CSP received 572 referrals (median: 32 per week), 88% of which were made between 7 am and midnight. Of the 427 patients seen in person, 29% had not had an acute stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Fifty percent of patients with suspected acute stroke were referred within 3 h of symptom onset and 11% with acute ischaemic stroke (equating to 35% of those referred within 3 h of onset and seen in person) were treated with thrombolysis. Conclusion: Centralisation of services facilitates the rapid referral of, and use of acute interventions in, patients with acute stroke and TIA. Centralised services are likely to be busy (although less so at night), to attract large numbers of patients with disorders that mimic stroke and TIA, and yet still likely to treat only the minority of acute strokes using thrombolysis. These observations may help those planning similar services and underline the need to develop more widely applicable treatments for acute stroke. PMID:15897513

  20. Psychiatric rehabilitation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rössler, W; Drake, R E

    2017-01-19

    To describe the core elements of modern psychiatric rehabilitation. Based on selected examples we describe the discussion about values in mental health care with focus on Europe. We present outcome data from studies, which have tried to implement care structures based on this value discussion. In the second half of the 20th century, mental health care in all European and other high-income countries changed conceptually and structurally. Deinstitutionalisation reduced the number of psychiatric beds and transferred priority to outpatient care and community-based services, but community mental health programs developed differently across and within these countries. High-income countries in Europe continued to invest in costly traditional services that were neither evidence-based nor person-centered by emphasising inpatient services, sheltered group homes and sheltered workshops. We argue that evidence-based, person-centred, recovery-oriented psychiatric rehabilitation offers a parsimonious solution to developing a consensus plan for community-based care in Europe. The challenges to scaling up effective psychiatric rehabilitation services in high-income countries are not primarily a lack of resources, but rather a lack of political will and inefficient use and dysfunctional allocation of resources.

  1. Experiences of the Implementation of a Learning Disability Nursing Liaison Service within an Acute Hospital Setting: A Service Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Amy; Bailey, Carol; Gates, Bob; Sooben, Roja

    2014-01-01

    It has been well documented that people with learning disabilities receive poor care in acute settings. Over the last few years, a number of learning disability liaison nurse services have developed in the United Kingdom as a response to this, but there has been a failure to systematically gather evidence as to their effectiveness. This article…

  2. [Relationship between the 1st experience with the use of an information bank to optimize management of a territorial psychiatric service and the task of rehabilitating mental patients].

    PubMed

    Mazur, M A

    1981-01-01

    The paper concerns results of the use of an information bank for purposes of optimizing, from the standpoint of a total systems approach, the structure and activity of psychiatric services in the region and enhancing the effectivity of the rehabilitative programmes. The main principles of forming the bank of information, including computer analogues of case histories, the system of managing the bases and models of optimizing the activities of facilities and their subunits, are described. A systemic coordination of such models provided a complete continuity in the activities of hospitals, dispensaries and intermediate subunits. This circumstance allowed an implementation of successful outpatient treatment in a large group of patients with a protracted development of diseases and consequently to enhance the efficacy of the activities of mental health services in the region.

  3. Acute Pain Management Services: What Does the Air Force Have to Offer?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-29

    Unrelieved pain due to this nociception , after surgery or trauma is often unhealthy, but it is preventable or controllable in a majority of cases...DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leaveblank) 2. REPORT DATE 26-Sep-97 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ACUTE PAIN MANAGEMENT...Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Designed using Perform Pro, WHS/DIOR. Oct 94 ACUTE PAIN MANAGEMENT SERVICES: WHAT DOES THE AIR FORCE HAVE TO OFFER

  4. Community Psychiatric Rehabilitation in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Amihay; Neumann, Micha

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the development of community-based rehabilitation services for persons with mental illness in Israel. It focuses on occupational, social, and residential community psychiatric rehabilitation services. The paper argues that service development has been slow and out of step with the philosophy and objectives of community…

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  6. Psychiatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, S V

    1986-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common in medical inpatient and outpatient populations. As a result, internists commonly are the first to see psychiatric emergencies. As with all medical problems, a good history, including a collateral history from relatives and friends, physical and mental status examination, and appropriate laboratory tests help establish a preliminary diagnosis and treatment plan. Patients with suicidal ideation usually have multiple stressors in the environment and/or a psychiatric disorder (i.e., a major affective disorder, dysthymic disorder, anxiety or panic disorder, psychotic disorder, alcohol or drug abuse, a personality disorder, and/or an adjustment disorder). Of all patients who commit suicide, 70% have a major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, psychotic organic mental disorder, alcoholism, drug abuse, and borderline personality disorder. Patients who are at great risk have minimal supports, a history of previous suicide attempts, a plan with high lethality, hopelessness, psychosis, paranoia, and/or command self-destructive hallucinations. Treatment is directed toward placing the patient in a protected environment and providing psychotropic medication and/or psychotherapy for the underlying psychiatric problem. Other psychiatric emergencies include psychotic and violent patients. Psychotic disorders fall into two categories etiologically: those that have an identifiable organic factor causing the psychosis and those that have an underlying psychiatric disorder. Initially, it is essential to rule out organic pathology that is life-threatening or could cause irreversible brain damage. After such organic causes are ruled out, neuroleptic medication is indicated. If the patient is not agitated or combative, he or she may be placed on oral divided doses of neuroleptics in the antipsychotic range. Patients who are agitated or psychotic need rapid tranquilization with an intramuscular neuroleptic every half hour to 1 hour until the agitation and

  7. Perceived humiliation during admission to a psychiatric emergency service and its relation to socio-demography and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of empirical studies of patients’ level of humiliation during the hospital admission process and its implications for the clinical setting. We wanted to explore associations between self-rated humiliation and socio-demography and psychopathology in relation to admission to a psychiatric emergency unit. Methods Consecutively admitted patients (N = 186) were interviewed with several validated instruments. The patients self-rated humiliation by The Cantril Ladder, and 35% of the sample was defined as the high humiliation group. Results Final multivariate analysis found significant associations between compulsory admission, not being in paid work, high scores on hostility, and on entitlement, and high levels of humiliation. No significant interactions were observed between these variables, and the narcissism score was not a confounder concerning humiliation. Conclusions High level of humiliation during the admission process was mainly related to patient factors, but also to compulsory admission which should be avoided as much as possible protecting the self-esteem of the patients. PMID:23988222

  8. Psychiatric emergencies (part I): psychiatric disorders causing organic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Daini, S

    2013-02-01

    Psychiatric emergencies are conditions that mostly destabilize the already frenetic activity of the Emergency Department. Sometimes the emergency is clearly referable to primitive psychiatric illness. Other times, psychiatric and organic symptoms can independently coexist (comorbidity), or develop together in different conditions of substance abuse, including alcohol and prescription drugs. Differentiating between substance induced and pre-existing psychiatric disorder (dual diagnosis) may be difficult, other than controversial issue. Finally, an organic disease can hide behind a psychiatric disorder (pseudopsychiatric emergency). In this review (part I), psychiatric disorders that occur with organic symptoms are discussed. They include: (1) anxiety, conversion and psychosomatic disorders, and (2) simulated diseases. The physiologic mechanisms of the stress reaction, divided into a dual neuro-hormonal response, are reviewed in this section: (1) activation of the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medulla with catecholamine production (rapid response), and (2) activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis with cortisol production (slow response). The concept of the fight-or-flight response, its adaptive significance and the potential evolution in paralyzing response, well showing by Yerkes-Dodson curve, is explained. Abnormal short- and long-term reactions to stress evolving toward well codified cluster of trauma and stressor-related disorders, including acute stress disorder, adjustment disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, are examined. A brief review of major psychiatric disorder and related behaviour abnormalities, vegetative symptoms and cognitive impairment, according to DMS IV-TR classification, are described. Finally, the reactive psychic symptoms and behavioral responses to acute or chronic organic disease, so called "somatopsychic disorders", commonly occurring in elderly and pediatric patients, are presented. The specific conditions of

  9. Cost accounting methodologies in price setting of acute inpatient services in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Gaal, Peter; Stefka, Nóra; Nagy, Júlia

    2006-08-01

    On the basis of documentary analysis and interviews with decision makers, this paper discusses the cost accounting methodologies used for price setting of inpatient services in the Hungarian health care system focusing on sector of acute inpatient care, which is financed through the Hungarian adaptation of Diagnosis Related Groups since 1993. Hungary has a quite sophisticated DRG system, which had a deep impact on the efficiency of the acute inpatient care sector. Nevertheless, the system requires continuous maintenance, where the cooperation of hospitals, as well as the minimisation of political influence are critical success factors.

  10. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder. Part 5: How Essential Are Gender-Specific Forensic Psychiatric Services?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Tonia L; Crocker, Anne G; Seto, Michael C; Wilson, Catherine M; Charette, Yanick; Côté, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To state the sociodemographic characteristics, mental health histories, index offence characteristics, and criminal histories of male and female forensic psychiatric patients. Clinicians and researchers advocate that mental health and criminal justice organizations implement gender-specific services; however, few studies have sampled forensic patients to evaluate the extent to which men’s and women’s treatment and management needs are different. Method: Data were collected from Review Board files from May 2000 to April 2005 in the 3 largest Canadian provinces. Using official criminal records, participants were followed for 3 to 8 years, until December 2008. The final sample comprised 1800 individuals: 15.6% were women and 84.4% were men. Results: There were few demographic differences, but women had higher psychosocial functioning than men. Both men and women had extensive mental health histories; women were more likely diagnosed with mood disorders and PDs and men were more likely diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and SUDs. The nature of the index offence did not differ by gender, except women were more likely to have perpetrated murders and attempted murders. For offences against a person, women were more likely to offend against offspring and partners and less likely to offend against strangers, compared with men. Women had significantly less extensive criminal histories than men. Conclusions: Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder–accused women have a distinct psychosocial, clinical, and criminological profile from their male counterparts, which may suggest gender-specific assessment, risk management, and treatment in forensic services could benefit patients. The findings are also consistent with traditional models (Risk-Need-Responsivity) and ultimately demonstrate the importance of individual assessment and client-centred services. PMID:25886689

  11. Eight-year incidence of psychiatric disorders and service use from adolescence to early adulthood: longitudinal follow-up of the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Méndez, Enrique; Albor, Yesica; Casanova, Leticia; Orozco, Ricardo; Curiel, Teresa; Fleiz, Clara; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2016-02-01

    Half of mental disorders have their first onset before adulthood when the presence of a disorder may be particularly disruptive to developmental milestones. Retrospective prevalence estimates have been shown to underestimate the burden of mental illness and scarce data are available on the incidence of disorders throughout the adolescent period, especially in developing countries. Thus, the objective was to determine the incidence of mental disorders in an 8-year period from adolescence to young adulthood, onset of service use and their predictors in a Mexican cohort. 1071 respondents from a representative two-wave panel sample participated in the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey in 2005 and in the follow-up survey in 2013. Disorders were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. 37.9% experienced the onset of a psychiatric disorder and 28.4% sought services for the first time. Substance use disorders had the greatest incidence, followed by mood and behavior disorders, anxiety disorders and lastly eating disorders. Sex, age, school dropout, childhood adversities and prior mental disorders predicted the onset of new disorders. Being female, having more educated parents and most classes of disorder predicted first time service use. These findings contribute to a paradigm shift in conceptions of mental disorder similar to how we think of common physical afflictions as near universal experiences across the life course, but less frequent at any given moment. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable. Therefore, public health policy should focus on early universal promotion of positive mental health and structural determinants of mental health.

  12. A qualitative study of patient experiences of decentralized acute healthcare services

    PubMed Central

    Linqvist Leonardsen, Ann-Chatrin; Del Busso, Lilliana; Abrahamsen Grøndahl, Vigdis; Ghanima, Waleed; Barach, Paul; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Municipality acute wards (MAWs) have recently been launched in Norway as an alternative to hospitalizations, and are aimed at providing treatment for patients who otherwise would have been hospitalized. The objective of this study was to explore how patients normally admitted to hospitals perceived the quality and safety of treatment in MAWs. Design The study had a qualitative design. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Setting The study was conducted in a county in south-eastern Norway and included five different MAWs. Patients Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 participants who had required acute health care and who had been discharged from the five MAWs. Results Three subthemes were identified that related to the overarching theme of hospital-like standards (“almost a hospital, but…”), namely (a) treatment and competence, (b) location and physical environment, and (c) adequate time for care. Participants reported the treatment to be comparable to hospital care, but they also experienced limitations. Participants spoke positively about MAW personnel and the advantages of having a single patient room, a calm environment, and proximity to home. Conclusions Participants felt safe when treated at MAWs, even though they realized that the diagnostic services were not similar to that in hospitals. Geographical proximity, treatment facilities and time for care positively distinguished MAWs from hospitals, while the lack of diagnostic resources was stressed as a limitation. Key Points Municipality acute wards (MAWs) have been implemented across Norway. Research on patient perspectives on the decentralization of acute healthcare in MAWs is lacking.  • Patients perceive decentralized acute healthcare and treatment as being comparable to the quality they would have expected in hospitals.  • Geographical proximity, a home-like atmosphere and time for care were aspects stressed as positive features of the decentralized

  13. The TAPS Project 41: homes for life? Residential stability five years after hospital discharge. Team for the Assessment of Psychiatric Services.

    PubMed

    Trieman, N; Smith, H E; Kendal, R; Leff, J

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes pathways followed by 567 long-stay patients who were resettled into the community, as part of a program to close two psychiatric hospitals in London and replace them with community-based services. Sixty-one percent of the former patients remained in their original placement--mostly group homes--over the five-year follow-up. Transition from one house to another mostly took a direct course, with only 27 patients changing houses by way of long intermediate hospitalisation. Change of residence was at the same level of support, with only a slight trend towards less supervised facilities. Ten patients could not be traced and have possibly become homeless. Only 3 patients were in prison during the five-year follow-up. More than a third of the sample were readmitted at least once during that period. It is concluded that community residences established under the resettlement program served as relatively stable homes for the majority of patients.

  14. Implementing a Music Therapy Program at a New 72-Hour Acute Psychiatric Admissions Unit: A Case Study of a Patient Who Was Malingering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Because of the relatively poor treatment available, the high financial costs of hospitalization, multiple and complex issues of persons with severe mental illnesses, and advancements in pharmacotherapy, psychiatric patients are often only hospitalized for a few days before they are discharged. Thus, brief psychosocial interventions for persons who…

  15. Improving smoking cessation policy by assessing user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service in adult psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kathy; Creamer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among people with mental health conditions compared to the general population. Smoking reduces physical, mental and financial well-being, and interacts with psychotropic drugs. An inpatient admission provides an opportunity to engage and support smokers in smoking cessation. Compliance with Trust/NICE smoking cessation guidelines was assessed in two inpatient wards, and a questionnaire evaluated user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service. A need for improved documentation of smoking status to identify and treat smokers routinely was revealed. A new electronic health form was designed and introduced, and a clear pathway for onward referrals was developed. This intervention preceded the introduction of the Trust-wide smoke free policy from October 2014. The intervention doubled rates of documentation of smoking status, cessation advice and offer of NRT/referral. There were large differences between the two wards, highlighting the need for a tailored approach.

  16. Clinical outcome and predictors of adverse events of an enhanced older adult psychiatric liaison service: Rapid Assessment Interface and Discharge (Newport)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Inderpal; Fernando, Priya; Griffin, Jane; Edwards, Chris; Williamson, Kathryn; Chance, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background Hospitals are currently admitting an increasing number of older people, and more than one-third could have an underlying mental health problem. The existing Older Adult Mental Health (OAMH) liaison service was increasingly unable to meet the escalating needs of older and frail patients. Therefore, the service was modernized and enhanced on an “invest-to-save” principle to provide a prompt holistic assessment for older adults with mental health problems. The objective of this study was a service evaluation to appraise clinical outcome, minimize the length of stay, and measure the predictors of adverse outcomes to streamline this enhanced service. Materials and methods Patient demographics, social care needs, comorbidity burden (Charlson comorbidity index, CCI), and functional status (Barthel index, BI) were recorded from November 2014 to February 2015. Frailty status (frailty index, FI) was measured by an index (Rockwood index) of accumulated deficits. The outcomes were compared with the previous OAMH liaison service data over the same period a year earlier. Results The new Rapid Assessment Interface and Discharge service assessed 339 patients compared to 179 by the previous liaison team over the 4-month period. Mean age was 82.18±8.04 years, with 60% women; preadmission BI was 14.96±4.35, and admission BI was 11.38±5.73 (P<0.001, paired t-test); mean CCI was 1.66±1.53, and mean FI was 0.34±0.99, and 80% were on polypharmacy. The direct discharges from front door were increased by 7%. The mean hospital stay reduced from 35 to 20 days in acute site and from 108 to 47 days in long-stay wards. The cost benefits were based on the mean reduction in hospital stay (41.8 days) and admission reduction (2.2 days), leading to a total annualized bed savings of 44 days. FI was the most highly significant factor between patient groups with a good and poor outcome (P=0.00003, independent groups t-test, t=−4.38, df 98). Conclusion Prompt mental health

  17. Psychiatric symptoms, social disablement and illness behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hurry, J; Bebbington, P E; Tennant, C

    1987-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between social performance and the use of medical services, and to what extent this is independent of clinical disorder. In a sample of adults living in Camberwell, South London, social disability and clinical disorder were both predictive of service use. Those subjects who were admitted to psychiatric day-patient or inpatient facilities were found to show the highest levels of both types of impairment, followed by psychiatric outpatients. People who had seen their general practitioner because of their 'nerves' were less impaired than those in touch with the specialist psychiatric services but had significantly poorer social performance and a higher level of clinical disorder than people not in contact with medical services at all. When the severity of clinical disorder was controlled, however, levels of social performance no longer discriminated between the different groups of service users, except that psychiatric outpatients remained significantly more socially disabled than the general practice group.

  18. Characteristics of acute care hospitals with diversity plans and translation services.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Charles B; Shen, Jay J; Ginn, Gregory O

    2011-01-01

    Hospitals provide diversity activities for a number of reasons. The authors examined community demand, resource availability, managed care, institutional pressure, and external orientation related variables that were associated with acute care hospital diversity plans and translation services. The authors used multiple logistic regression to analyze the data for 478 hospitals in the 2006 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) dataset that had available data on the racial and ethnic status of their discharges. We also used 2004 and 2006 American Hospital Association (AHA) data to measure the two dependent diversity variables and the other independent variables. We found that resource, managed care, and external orientation variables were associated with having a diversity plan and that resource, managed care, institutional, and external orientation variables were associated with providing translation services. The authors concluded that more evidence for diversity's impact, additional resources, and more institutional pressure may be needed to motivate more hospitals to provide diversity planning and translation services.

  19. Substance use and response to psychiatric treatment in methadone-treated outpatients with comorbid psychiatric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kidorf, Michael; King, Van L.; Peirce, Jessica; Gandotra, Neeraj; Ghazarian, Sharon; Brooner, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    The psychiatric care of opioid users receiving agonist therapies is often complicated by high rates of illicit drug use (Brooner et al., 2013). The present study evaluates if illicit drug use (i.e., opioids, cocaine, sedatives) detected at the start of psychiatric care affects treatment response. Methadone maintenance patients (n = 125) with at least one current psychiatric disorder completed a 3-month randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of financial incentives on attendance to on-site integrated substance abuse and psychiatric services (Kidorf et al., 2013). The present study re-analyzes the data set by grouping participants into one of two conditions based on the 4-week baseline observation: 1) no illicit drug use (Baseline Negative; n = 50), or 2) any illicit drug use (Baseline Positive; n = 75). All participants received a similar schedule of psychiatric services, and had good access to prescribed psychiatric medications. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-Revised was administered monthly to evaluate changes in psychiatric distress. Results showed that while both conditions evidenced similar utilization of on-site psychiatric services, Baseline Negative participants remained in treatment somewhat longer (80.7 vs. 74.8 days, p = .04) and demonstrated greater reductions in GSI scores than Baseline Positive participants at Month 3 (p = .004). These results have implications for interpreting previous studies that have shown inconsistent efficacy of pharmacotherapy and other psychiatric treatments, and for providing clinical care for patients with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25468006

  20. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  1. Contextual factors associated with health care service utilization for children with acute childhood illnesses in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lilford, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the independent contribution of individual, community and state-level factors to health care service utilization for children with acute childhood illnesses in Nigeria. Materials and methods The study was based on secondary analyses of cross-sectional population-based data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to the data on 6,427 under-five children who used or did not use health care service when they were sick (level 1), nested within 896 communities (level 2) from 37 states (level 3). Results About one-quarter of the mothers were between 15 and 24 years old and almost half of them did not have formal education (47%). While only 30% of the children utilized health service when they were sick, close to 67% lived in the rural area. In the fully adjusted model, mothers with higher education attainment (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.63; 95% credible interval [CrI] = 1.31–2.03), from rich households (aOR = 1.76; 95% CrI = 1.35–2.25), with access to media (radio, television or magazine) (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.08–1.29), and engaging in employment (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.02–1.37) were significantly more likely to have used healthcare services for acute childhood illnesses. On the other hand, women who experienced difficulty getting to health facilities (aOR = 0.87; 95% CrI = 0.75–0.99) were less likely to have used health service for their children. Conclusions Our findings highlight that utilization of healthcare service for acute childhood illnesses was influenced by not only maternal factors but also community-level factors, suggesting that public health strategies should recognise this complex web of individual composition and contextual composition factors to guide provision of healthcare services. Such interventions could include: increase in female school enrolment, provision of interest-free loans for small and medium scale enterprises, introduction of

  2. Psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, M

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy

  3. Acute pain management services: a comparison between Air Force and U.S. hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rayos, C L; McDonough, J P

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the prevalence of acute pain management services (APMS) in Air Force medical facilities. There are no published reports on the current status of Air Force pain programs. This study used a telephone survey to all facilities worldwide that house an anesthesia department. Anesthesia providers in charge of pain services or department chiefs were interviewed from December 1996 to May 1997. Respondents were asked questions related to the initiation of a formal APMS, components, and familiarity with the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guidelines on pain management. Data analysis described current practices and used chi 2 analysis to compare results with a national study of U.S. hospitals. Air Force anesthesia departments (45%) had established as many acute pain services as U.S. hospitals (42%). Formal pain programs are becoming more prevalent in Air Force hospitals. These findings suggest an increased awareness of the need for pain management and future establishment of pain programs.

  4. Acute care clinical pharmacy practice: unit- versus service-based models.

    PubMed

    Haas, Curtis E; Eckel, Stephen; Arif, Sally; Beringer, Paul M; Blake, Elizabeth W; Lardieri, Allison B; Lobo, Bob L; Mercer, Jessica M; Moye, Pamela; Orlando, Patricia L; Wargo, Kurt

    2012-02-01

    This commentary from the 2010 Task Force on Acute Care Practice Model of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy was developed to compare and contrast the "unit-based" and "service-based" orientation of the clinical pharmacist within an acute care pharmacy practice model and to offer an informed opinion concerning which should be preferred. The clinical pharmacy practice model must facilitate patient-centered care and therefore must position the pharmacist to be an active member of the interprofessional team focused on providing high-quality pharmaceutical care to the patient. Although both models may have advantages and disadvantages, the most important distinction pertains to the patient care role of the clinical pharmacist. The unit-based pharmacist is often in a position of reacting to an established order or decision and frequently is focused on task-oriented clinical services. By definition, the service-based clinical pharmacist functions as a member of the interprofessional team. As a team member, the pharmacist proactively contributes to the decision-making process and the development of patient-centered care plans. The service-based orientation of the pharmacist is consistent with both the practice vision embraced by ACCP and its definition of clinical pharmacy. The task force strongly recommends that institutions pursue a service-based pharmacy practice model to optimally deploy their clinical pharmacists. Those who elect to adopt this recommendation will face challenges in overcoming several resource, technologic, regulatory, and accreditation barriers. However, such challenges must be confronted if clinical pharmacists are to contribute fully to achieving optimal patient outcomes.

  5. [Psychiatric disorders of the contemporary battlefield].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-06-01

    This article presents the factors exerted an influence on psychiatric health status of participants of military missions and psychiatric disorders forming on the contemporary battlefield. The main stressors are threats being a result of duty in warfare, also hard climatic conditions, long-lasting separation from family, foreign language of local population, other customs, religion, caused alienation of mission personnel. Significant factors seem also dependences on duty and unofficial relationships prevailing in military environment. The consequence of survived psychiatric trauma being a result of short-lived incident or prolonged event are often acute stress disorder (ASD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  6. The importance of the patients deemed not guilty by reason of insanity for the psychiatric reform.

    PubMed

    Douzenis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    will decide that this certain individual has "ceased to be dangerous". These problems are accentuated by the difficulties that the Greek justice system is facing. On the other side, from the psychiatric point of view, the "NGRI" patient who is an inpatient is not receiving the holistic, (bio psycho social) treatment and assessment of needs he/she requires. The psychiatric team looking after him, once the acute symptomatology is controlled is just getting used to a patient who will not be discharged in the immediate future. These patients form the "new chronic asylum psychiatric inpatients" for whom the treating psychiatrists are not allowed to discharge back into the community whilst it is unclear whether they can be transferred to supported rehabilitation units. It is a medical but also legal paradox to assign to contemporary psychiatric units aiming mainly to treat patients in the community to "keep and guard" inpatients whilst these psychiatric units should focus on care and rehabilitation of the patients (including the "NGRIs").3 Keeping patients like these in psychiatric units creates problems in the functioning of the units. These patients are "kept" in acute beds for long periods of time (5 to 6 years minimum) with patients treated voluntarily or against their will and cannot be discharged without a court's decision. The problems are obvious if one realises that the average time of hospitalisation is not exceeding 2 months for the vast majority of psychiatric patients. With the prolonged stay patients of the "article 69" (NGRIs) they not only burden the already limited resources (there is an established lack of psychiatric beds nationwide) but also this prolonged hospitalisation increases their stigmatisation and marginalisation. Thus the prolonged hospitalisation for "safety" reasons according to the court decision leads to the absence of a therapeutic aim other than maintaining the patient on the ward. Greece has agreed that there is an urgent need in

  7. Moral learning in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Sitvast, J E; Widdershoven, G A M; Abma, T A

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and additional interviews with eight of them. Photo groups were organized within three settings of psychiatric services: ambulatory as well as clinical, all situated in the Netherlands. Data were analysed according to hermeneutic and semiotic principles. Two cases are presented. Findings show that voice and face are concepts that help to identify elements of moral learning in the rehabilitation process of persons with a psychiatric disability. During the process patients become more aware of their responsibilities towards themselves and others.

  8. 28 CFR 549.44 - Voluntary hospitalization in a suitable facility for psychiatric care or treatment, and voluntary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facility for psychiatric care or treatment, and voluntary administration of psychiatric medication. 549.44... MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.44 Voluntary hospitalization in a suitable facility for psychiatric care or treatment, and voluntary administration of psychiatric medication....

  9. 28 CFR 549.44 - Voluntary hospitalization in a suitable facility for psychiatric care or treatment, and voluntary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facility for psychiatric care or treatment, and voluntary administration of psychiatric medication. 549.44... MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.44 Voluntary hospitalization in a suitable facility for psychiatric care or treatment, and voluntary administration of psychiatric medication....

  10. 28 CFR 549.44 - Voluntary hospitalization in a suitable facility for psychiatric care or treatment, and voluntary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facility for psychiatric care or treatment, and voluntary administration of psychiatric medication. 549.44... MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.44 Voluntary hospitalization in a suitable facility for psychiatric care or treatment, and voluntary administration of psychiatric medication....

  11. Relationship between aggression, interpersonal style, and therapeutic alliance during short-term psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Amy; Daffern, Michael; Foley, Fiona

    2012-02-01

    Aggression during psychiatric hospitalization is frequent, problematic, and a major challenge for nurses and mental health services more generally. The strength of the therapeutic alliance between nursing staff and patients has been posited as an important protective factor that can limit the likelihood of aggression. This study examined the relationship between interpersonal style, perceived coercion, and psychiatric symptoms on the therapeutic alliance between patients and staff, and how each, in turn, is related to aggression. Participants in this study were 79 patients admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Each participant was interviewed to determine perceived coercion, symptoms of psychiatric illness, interpersonal style, and therapeutic alliance. Incidents of aggression were recorded at discharge through a review of incident forms, file review, and interviews with unit nursing staff. The results showed that a hostile-dominant interpersonal style and symptoms of paranoia predicted poor therapeutic alliance, contributing 14% of the variance in therapeutic alliance scores. A dominant interpersonal style predicted aggression towards staff. Therapeutic alliance, perceived coercion, and symptoms of psychiatric illness did not predict aggression. Implications for engagement in treatment and the prevention of aggression are discussed.

  12. Job satisfaction in psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Ward, M; Cowman, S

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, mental health services across Europe have undergone major organizational change with a move from institutional to community care. In such a context, the impact of change on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses has received little attention in the literature. This paper reports on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses and data were collected in 2003. The population of qualified psychiatric nurses (n = 800) working in a defined geographical health board area was surveyed. Methodological triangulation with a between-methods approach was used in the study. Data were collected on job satisfaction using a questionnaire adopted from the Occupational Stress Indicator. A response rate of 346 (43%) was obtained. Focus groups were used to collect qualitative data. Factors influencing levels of job satisfaction predominantly related to the nurses work location. Other factors influencing job satisfaction included choice of work location, work routine, off duty/staff allocation arrangements, teamwork and working environment. The results of the study highlight to employers of psychiatric nurses the importance of work location, including the value of facilitating staff with choices in their working environment, which may influence the recruitment and retention of nurses in mental health services.

  13. 42 CFR 412.434 - Reconsideration and appeals procedures of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting (IPFQR) Program decisions. 412.434 Section 412.434 Public Health... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.434 Reconsideration and appeals procedures of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting (IPFQR) Program decisions. (a) An inpatient psychiatric facility...

  14. 42 CFR 483.354 - General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General requirements for psychiatric residential... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.354 General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities. A...

  15. 42 CFR 483.354 - General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements for psychiatric residential... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.354 General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities. A...

  16. 42 CFR 412.434 - Reconsideration and appeals procedures of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting (IPFQR) Program decisions. 412.434 Section 412.434 Public Health... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.434 Reconsideration and appeals procedures of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting (IPFQR) Program decisions. (a) An inpatient psychiatric facility...

  17. 42 CFR 483.354 - General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General requirements for psychiatric residential... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.354 General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities. A...

  18. 42 CFR 483.354 - General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for psychiatric residential... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.354 General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities. A...

  19. 42 CFR 412.434 - Reconsideration and appeals procedures of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting (IPFQR) Program decisions. 412.434 Section 412.434 Public Health... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.434 Reconsideration and appeals procedures of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Quality Reporting (IPFQR) Program decisions. (a) An inpatient psychiatric facility...

  20. 42 CFR 483.354 - General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General requirements for psychiatric residential... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.354 General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities. A...

  1. Elements of Successful School Reentry after Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Welfare, Laura E.; Williams, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitalization is an intensive intervention designed to stabilize adolescents who are experiencing an acute mental health crisis. Reintegrating to school after discharge from psychiatric hospitalization can be overwhelming for many adolescents (E. V. Clemens, L. E. Welfare, & A. M. Williams, 2010). The authors used a consensual…

  2. Genetic Counselling for Psychiatric Disorders: Accounts of Psychiatric Health Professionals in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sian; Arribas-Ayllon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Genetic counselling is not routinely offered for psychiatric disorders in the United Kingdom through NHS regional clinical genetics departments. However, recent genomic advances, confirming a genetic contribution to mental illness, are anticipated to increase demand for psychiatric genetic counselling. This is the first study of its kind to employ qualitative methods of research to explore accounts of psychiatric health professionals regarding the prospects for genetic counselling services within clinical psychiatry in the UK. Data were collected from 32 questionnaire participants, and 9 subsequent interviewees. Data analysis revealed that although participants had not encountered patients explicitly demanding psychiatric genetic counselling, psychiatric health professionals believe that such a service would be useful and desirable. Genomic advances may have significant implications for genetic counselling in clinical psychiatry even if these discoveries do not lead to genetic testing. Psychiatric health professionals describe clinical genetics as a skilled profession capable of combining complex risk communication with much needed psychosocial support. However, participants noted barriers to the implementation of psychiatric genetic counselling services including, but not limited to, the complexities of uncertainty in psychiatric diagnoses, patient engagement and ethical concerns regarding limited capacity.

  3. Competency of Psychiatric Residents in the Treatment of People with Severe Mental Illness before and after a Community Psychiatry Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Melinda; Romero-Gonzalez, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Klee, Anne; Kirwin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation is an evidence-based service with the goal of recovery for people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric residents should understand the services and learn the principles of psychiatric rehabilitation. This study assessed whether a 3-month rotation in a psychiatric rehabilitation center changes the competency…

  4. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): A Canadian blood services research and development symposium.

    PubMed

    Saidenberg, Elianna; Petraszko, Tanya; Semple, Elisabeth; Branch, Donald R

    2010-10-01

    Since the first description of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) more than 2 decades ago, we have only recently begun to learn how this disorder may occur and how to prevent it. Scientists from around the world have made great strides in identifying the possible causes of this condition. Blood banks and transfusion services have risen to the challenges of prevention. Recent introduction of restricting most plasma products to those obtained from male donors only has greatly reduced the incidence of TRALI worldwide. Scientists have recently identified the gene and protein for the human neutrophil antigen-3a associated with most mortality due to TRALI, and this presents an opportunity for a screening assay to prevent future TRALI-associated deaths. Finally, animal models of TRALI have provided insight into the possible mechanisms of this disorder and can be used to explore potential treatment modalities.

  5. The Role of Emergency Medical Services in Geriatrics: Bridging the Gap between Primary and Acute Care.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Judah; McVey, Jennifer; Ackroyd-Stolarz, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Caring for older adults is a major function of emergency medical services (EMS). Traditional EMS systems were designed to treat single acute conditions; this approach contrasts with best practices for the care of frail older adults. Care might be improved by the early identification of those who are frail and at highest risk for adverse outcomes. Paramedics are well positioned to play an important role via a more thorough evaluation of frailty (or vulnerability). These findings may inform both pre-hospital and subsequent emergency department (ED) based decisions. Innovative programs involving EMS, the ED, and primary care could reduce the workload on EDs while improving patient access to care, and ultimately patient outcomes. Some frail older adults will benefit from the resources and specialized knowledge provided by the ED, while others may be better helped in alternative ways, usually in coordination with primary care. Discerning between these groups is a challenge worthy of further inquiry. In either case, care should be timely, with a focus on identifying emergent or acute care needs, frailty evaluation, mobility assessments, identifying appropriate goals for treatment, promoting functional independence, and striving to have the patient return to their usual place of residence if this can be done safely. Paramedics are uniquely positioned to play a larger role in the care of our aging population. Improving paramedic education as it pertains to geriatrics is a critical next step.

  6. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation’s largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges. PMID:26071640

  7. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation's largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges.

  8. Availability of Diagnostic and Treatment Services for Acute Stroke in Frontier Counties in Montana and Northern Wyoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okon, Nicholas J.; Rodriguez, Daniel V.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Oser, Carrie S.; Blades, Lynda L.; Burnett, Anne M.; Russell, Joseph A.; Allen, Martha J.; Chasson, Linda; Helgerson, Steven D.; Gohdes, Dorothy; Harwell, Todd S.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Rapid diagnosis and treatment of ischemic stroke can lead to improved patient outcomes. Hospitals in rural and frontier counties, however, face unique challenges in providing diagnostic and treatment services for acute stroke. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the availability of key diagnostic technology and programs for acute…

  9. [Recurrent psychiatric manifestations during malaria prevention with mefloquine. A case report].

    PubMed

    Rodor, F; Bianchi, G; Grignon, S; Samuelian, J C; Jouglard, J

    1990-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 22 years old woman without psychiatric antecedent who started a prophylaxis with mefloquine for a journey in a chloroquino resistant area. The first tablet induced an acute psychiatric syndrome which lasted five days; the second tablet induced the recidive of the psychiatric data and a suicide attempt by drowning.

  10. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    PubMed Central

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  11. The Development of Psychiatric Services Providing an Alternative to Full-Time Hospitalization Is Associated with Shorter Length of Stay in French Public Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Gandré, Coralie; Gervaix, Jeanne; Thillard, Julien; Macé, Jean-Marc; Roelandt, Jean-Luc; Chevreul, Karine

    2017-01-01

    International recommendations for mental health care have advocated for a reduction in the length of stay (LOS) in full-time hospitalization and the development of alternatives to full-time hospitalizations (AFTH) could facilitate alignment with those recommendations. Our objective was therefore to assess whether the development of AFTH in French psychiatric sectors was associated with a reduction in the LOS in full-time hospitalization. Using data from the French national discharge database of psychiatric care, we computed the LOS of patients admitted for full-time hospitalization. The level of development of AFTH was estimated by the share of human resources allocated to those alternatives in the hospital enrolling the staff of each sector. Multi-level modelling was carried out to adjust the analysis on other factors potentially associated with the LOS (patients’, psychiatric sectors’ and environmental characteristics). We observed considerable variations in the LOS between sectors. Although the majority of these variations resulted from patients’ characteristics, a significant negative association was found between the LOS and the development of AFTH, after adjusting for other factors. Our results provide first evidence of the impact of the development of AFTH on mental health care and will provide a lever for policy makers to further develop these alternatives. PMID:28335580

  12. Are inspectors’ assessments reliable? Ratings of NHS acute hospital trust services in England

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, Rachael; Robertson, Ruth; Ross, Shilpa; Walshe, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    The credibility of a regulator could be threatened if stakeholders perceive that assessments of performance made by its inspectors are unreliable. Yet there is little published research on the reliability of inspectors’ assessments of health care organizations’ services. Objectives We investigated the inter-rater reliability of assessments made by inspectors inspecting acute hospitals in England during the piloting of a new regulatory model implemented by the Care Quality Commission (CQC) during 2013 and 2014. Multi-professional teams of inspectors rated service provision on a four-point scale for each of five domains: safety; effectiveness; caring; responsiveness; and leadership. Methods In an online survey, we asked individual inspectors to assign a domain and a rating to each of 10 vignettes of service information extracted from CQC inspection reports. We used these data to simulate the ratings that might be produced by teams of inspectors. We also observed inspection teams in action, and interviewed inspectors and staff from hospitals that had been inspected. Results Levels of agreement varied substantially from vignette to vignette. Characteristics such as professional background explained only a very small part of the variation. Overall, agreement was higher on ratings than on domains, and for groups of inspectors compared with individual inspectors. A number of potential causes of disagreement were identified, such as differences regarding the weight that should be given to contextual factors and general uncertainty about interpreting the rating and domain categories. Conclusion Groups of inspectors produced more reliable assessments than individual inspectors, and there is evidence to support the utility of appropriate discussions between inspectors in improving reliability. The reliability of domain allocations was lower than for ratings. It is important to define categories and rating levels clearly, and to train inspectors in their use. Further

  13. A 5-year retrospective study of demographic, anamnestic, and clinical factors related to psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescent patients

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Cimino, Nina; Di Pietro, Elena; Pollutri, Gabriella; Neviani, Vittoria; Ferri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychiatric emergencies of children and adolescents have greatly increased during the last years, but this phenomenon has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between acute psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescents and selected variables to highlight risk factors for psychiatric emergencies. Methods This retrospective research was conducted in the acute psychiatric public ward, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment (SPDT), and in the residential facility for adolescents, “The Medlar”, located in Modena. The sample was constituted by all adolescent patients (n=101, age range 14–18) who had acute hospitalizations (n=140) in SPDT and had been successively transferred to “The Medlar” (n=83), from February 2, 2010 to January 31, 2015. From clinical charts, we extracted demographic and anamnestic characteristics of patients and clinical variables related to hospitalizations. Data were statistically analyzed. Results Sixty-one percent of our patients lived with one divorced parent, with adoptive or immigrant family, or in institutions; 51% had experienced stressful events during childhood; 81% had a normal intellective level, but only 6% presented regular school performance. Parental psychiatric illness was negatively related, in a statistically significantly way, with onset age of adolescent mental disorders (coefficient −2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −3.53 to 1.01, P<0.001, single linear regression; odds ratio: 4.39, 95% CI: 1.43–13.47, P<0.010, single logistic regression). The most frequent reasons for admission were aggressive behavior in males and suicide risk in females (P=0.002). The most frequent psychiatric diagnosis at SPDT discharge was “conduct disorder”, more frequent in males, followed by “adjustment disorder”, more frequent in females (P=0.001). In SPDT, the adolescent hospitalizations progressively increased fivefold at the end of the observation period

  14. Patient-Centered Homes and Integrated Behavioral Health Care: Reclaiming the Role of "Consultant" for Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner.

    PubMed

    Soltis-Jarrett, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    The notion of patient-centered care has long been linked with nursing practice since Florence Nightingale. The discipline of nursing is focused on the holistic care of individuals, families, and communities in times of sickness and/or health. However, in psychiatric-mental health nursing, the concepts of mental health and psychiatric illness still remain marginalized in our health care delivery systems, as well as in nursing education, knowledge development, and practice. Even with the concept of patient-centered homes, acute and primary care providers are reluctant to embrace care of those with psychiatric illness in their respective settings. Psychiatric illness was and continues to be in the shadows, hidden and often ignored by the larger community as well as by health care providers. This paper describes a Health Resources Services Administration (HRSA) Advanced Nursing Education (ANE) training grant's objective of reintegrating psychiatric-mental health practice into ALL health care delivery systems using the concept of patient-centered nursing care as a foundation for, and promotion of, the Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMH-NP) as the "navigator" for not only the patients and their families, but also for their acute and primary care colleagues using an Interprofessional Education Model. The major barriers and lessons learned from this project as well as the need for psychiatric-mental health nurses to reclaim their role as a consultant/liaison in acute, primary, and long-term care settings will be discussed. The PMHNP as a consultant/liaison is being revitalized as an innovative advanced practice nursing health care model in North Carolina.

  15. Occupational stress in psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P J

    1993-04-01

    Psychiatric nursing is invariably assumed to be a stressful area of nursing practice. Empirical evidence to support this proposition is limited, however, due to the lack of research in this field. The purpose of this project was to examine occupational stress in a specified area of psychiatric nursing. The research was exploratory and therefore the concern was discovery and description rather than the testing of clear hypotheses and the development of causal relationships. The study has four main objectives. First, to describe the various stressors present in the work of the psychiatric nurse in the acute admission wards of two district health authorities. Secondly, to measure the effects of stress using a recognized and well-validated instrument for recording levels of burnout. Thirdly, through the use of a particular theoretical framework to identify the types of coping strategy used by the participants in the study. Fourthly, to note any clear associations between the stressors, the effects of stress and the ways of coping identified in the study. The conceptual basis for the project was Lazarus's cognitive theory of stress and coping and Maslach's model of burnout.

  16. 42 CFR 485.647 - Condition of participation: psychiatric and rehabilitation distinct part units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: psychiatric and... Condition of participation: psychiatric and rehabilitation distinct part units. (a) Conditions. (1) If a CAH provides inpatient psychiatric services in a distinct part unit, the services furnished by the...

  17. 42 CFR 485.647 - Condition of participation: psychiatric and rehabilitation distinct part units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: psychiatric and... Condition of participation: psychiatric and rehabilitation distinct part units. (a) Conditions. (1) If a CAH provides inpatient psychiatric services in a distinct part unit, the services furnished by the...

  18. 42 CFR 485.647 - Condition of participation: psychiatric and rehabilitation distinct part units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: psychiatric and... Condition of participation: psychiatric and rehabilitation distinct part units. (a) Conditions. (1) If a CAH provides inpatient psychiatric services in a distinct part unit, the services furnished by the...

  19. 42 CFR 485.647 - Condition of participation: psychiatric and rehabilitation distinct part units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: psychiatric and... Condition of participation: psychiatric and rehabilitation distinct part units. (a) Conditions. (1) If a CAH provides inpatient psychiatric services in a distinct part unit, the services furnished by the...

  20. 42 CFR 485.647 - Condition of participation: psychiatric and rehabilitation distinct part units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: psychiatric and... Condition of participation: psychiatric and rehabilitation distinct part units. (a) Conditions. (1) If a CAH provides inpatient psychiatric services in a distinct part unit, the services furnished by the...

  1. The education and training needs of qualified mental health nurses working in acute adult mental health services.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julia; Lowe, Trevor

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents findings from a research study that investigated the education and training needs of qualified mental health nurses who work in acute adult mental health services in the UK. The study aimed to address a key knowledge 'gap' highlighted by recent Department of Health reports () that suggest that little is known regarding the education and training expectations, priorities and needs of mental health nurses who work in acute adult mental health services. This study aimed to identify (i) what type of post-registration education and training mental health nurses working in acute settings need; (ii) how the nurses want education and training to be delivered; and (iii) what qualifications and accreditation the nurses want to receive? The research consisted of two methods: focus groups and a questionnaire survey. This paper reports on the findings from the questionnaire survey. The results of the survey demonstrate that there is a real need for post-registration education and training for this group of nurses; to equip them with the relevant knowledge and skills to nurse people in the acute phase of their mental illness in acute inpatient settings.

  2. Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sandeep Kumar; Singh, Paramjit; Gargi, Parshotam D.; Goyal, Samta; Garg, Aseem

    2011-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of psychiatric illness in correctional settings is significantly elevated, with higher than community rates reported for most mental disorders. Aims: (1) To examine the socio-demographic profile of convicted prisoners. (2) To evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in convicted prisoners. Materials and Methods: 500 convicts were assessed for psychiatric morbidity with the help of (a) Socio-demographic proforma, (b) Pareek Udai and Trivedi G's socio-economic status scale (rural) (household schedule), (c) Kuppuswamy's economic status scale (urban) and (d) Present State Examination (PSE). Results: 23.8% of the convicted prisoners were suffering from psychiatric illness excluding substance abuse. 56.4% of the prisoners had history of substance abuse / dependence prior to incarceration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a substantial burden of psychiatric morbidity exists in the prison population of India and the burden of psychiatric illness in this vulnerable and marginalized population poses a serious challenge to psychiatrists. PMID:22135446

  3. [The matter: No psychiatrization].

    PubMed

    Pisa, Hugo

    2015-09-01

    Anxiety, sadness, worries, fears, irritability, fatigue, tedium, are situations that life confront us with. They don't qualify as psychiatric disorders, but nevertheless they are treated as though. We refer to the psychiatrization of daily life. The aim of this article is to prevent such psychiatrization. To support this assertion, we are going to develop different aspects tending to explain the origins of the patient's demands and the answers given by the psychiatrist. A critical reflection of our practice is proposed.

  4. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    PubMed

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  5. Developing a market orientation in the Health Service: a survey of acute NHS Trusts in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Laing, A W; Galbraith, A

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the introduction of the quasi market mechanism into the Health Service has required that managers within NHS trusts acquire new managerial skills relating to market operations and, more importantly, reorientate their organizations towards the marketplace. Examines the pattern of development which has occurred within acute trusts across Scotland in the past three years, and argues that managers in the majority of trusts have developed a remarkably robust and relevant conceptualization of the nature and application of marketing within the NHS, reflecting the difficulties managers have faced in selling the concept of marketing to a generally sceptical body of clinicians. Notes, in part owing to such professional scepticism, that the development of marketing as an implementable approach to operations has lagged significantly behind the managerial conceptualization, although this cannot be attributed solely to resistance from clinicians and other health care professionals. Rather, suggests that such limited progress in implementing a market orientation reflects a range of "structural" barriers, both within individual trusts and the specific market environment faced by trusts.

  6. Ethnic and clinical characteristics of a Portuguese psychiatric inpatient population.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Joana; Ribeiro, Raquel; Cardoso, Graça

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the association between ethnicity and clinical characteristics of patients admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit in Portugal. The only ethnicity-related terms routinely recorded in the medical records were "Black" (mainly from the African Portuguese-speaking countries of Cape Verde, Angola, Guinea, Sao Tome and Mozambique) and "White." Black immigrants appeared to be over-represented, comprising 19.6% of inpatients; and were younger and more frequently male when compared with White inpatients. They were more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia and acute or transient psychosis, and less frequently diagnosed with delusional and personality disorders than White inpatients. These results are consistent with previous studies in the US and UK, and highlight the need for more culturally sensitive care in mental health services.

  7. [Authority in the psychiatric clinic].

    PubMed

    Laemmel, K

    1983-01-01

    patient. Attempts of intrusion into the independence and authority of the psychiatric hospital can also occur from the families of the patients, the admitting physicians or the mass media who developed a last a somewhat unsavory interest into the psychiatric institution. To deal with these challenges authoritative authority is mandatory as much as the understanding of the dynamics of human behavior. Special problems exist for the psychiatric service within a general hospital. As the most recent arrival from the banishment in the outskirts into the fold of medicine, it has to prove itself first.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  8. Implementation of an Acute Care Surgery Service in a Community Hospital: Impact on Hospital Efficiency and Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A service led by acute care surgeons managing trauma, critically ill surgical, and emergency general surgery patients via an acute care surgery model of patient care improves hospital efficiency and patient outcomes at university-affiliated hospitals and American College of Surgeons-verified trauma centers. Our goal was to determine whether an acute care surgeon led service, entitled the Surgical Trauma and Acute Resuscitative Service (STARS) that implemented an acute care surgery model of patient care, could improve hospital efficiency and patient outcomes at a community hospital. A total of 492 patient charts were reviewed, which included 230 before the implementation of the STARS [pre-STARS (control)] and 262 after the implementation of the STARS [post-STARS (study)]. Demographics included age, gender, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation 2 score, and medical comorbidities. Efficiency data included length of stay in emergency department (ED-LOS), length of stay in surgical intensive care unit (SICU-LOS), and length of stay in hospital (H-LOS), and total in hospital charges. Average age was 64.1 + 16.4 years, 255 males (51.83%) and 237 females (48.17%). Average Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation 2 score was 11.9 + 5.8. No significant differences in demographics were observed. Average decreases in ED-LOS (9.7 + 9.6 hours, pre-STARS versus 6.6 + 4.5 hours, post-STARS), SICU-LOS (5.3 + 9.6 days, pre-STARS versus 3.5 + 4.8 days, post-STARS), H-LOS (12.4 + 12.7 days, pre-STARS versus 11.4 + 11.3 days, post-STARS), and total in hospital charges ($419,602.6 + $519,523.0 pre-STARS to $374,816.7 + $411,935.8 post-STARS) post-STARS. Regression analysis revealed decreased ED-LOS-2.9 hours [P = 0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): -7.0, 1.2], SICU-LOS-6.3 days (P < 0.001; 95% CI: -9.3, -3.2), H-LOS-7.6 days (P = 0.001; 95% CI: -12.1, -3.1), and 3.4 times greater odds of survival (P = 0.04; 95% CI: 1.1, 10.7) post-STARS. In conclusion, implementation of

  9. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    MedlinePlus

    ... More... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  10. The College Student Psychiatric Emergency: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Richard A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Computerized records of a psychiatric emergency department were used to observe the nature of psychiatric emergencies among college students. Student visits were described using demographic variables, times of visits, and accompaniment. Implications of the findings for campus administration and mental health service personnel are discussed.…

  11. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... psychiatric nursing services must be a registered nurse who has a master's degree in psychiatric or mental...) The staffing pattern must ensure the availability of a registered nurse 24 hours each day. There must be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers...

  12. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... psychiatric nursing services must be a registered nurse who has a master's degree in psychiatric or mental...) The staffing pattern must ensure the availability of a registered nurse 24 hours each day. There must be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers...

  13. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... psychiatric nursing services must be a registered nurse who has a master's degree in psychiatric or mental...) The staffing pattern must ensure the availability of a registered nurse 24 hours each day. There must be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers...

  14. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... psychiatric nursing services must be a registered nurse who has a master's degree in psychiatric or mental...) The staffing pattern must ensure the availability of a registered nurse 24 hours each day. There must be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers...

  15. 28 CFR 549.43 - Involuntary psychiatric treatment and medication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... medication. 549.43 Section 549.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.43 Involuntary psychiatric treatment and medication. Title 18 U.S.C. 4241-4247 and federal...

  16. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers to provide nursing care necessary under each... be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers to... psychiatric nursing services must be a registered nurse who has a master's degree in psychiatric or...

  17. Predictors of psychiatric disorders in combat veterans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most previous research that has examined mental health among Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combatants has relied on self-report measures to assess mental health outcomes; few studies have examined predictors of actual mental health diagnoses. The objective of this longitudinal investigation was to identify predictors of psychiatric disorders among Marines who deployed to combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. Methods The study sample consisted of 1113 Marines who had deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Demographic and psychosocial predictor variables from a survey that all Marines in the sample had completed were studied in relation to subsequent psychiatric diagnoses. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the influence of the predictors on the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. Results In a sample of Marines with no previous psychiatric disorder diagnoses, 18% were diagnosed with a new-onset psychiatric disorder. Adjusting for other variables, the strongest predictors of overall psychiatric disorders were female gender, mild traumatic brain injury symptoms, and satisfaction with leadership. Service members who expressed greater satisfaction with leadership were about half as likely to develop a mental disorder as those who were not satisfied. Unique predictors of specific types of mental disorders were also identified. Conclusions Overall, the study’s most relevant result was that two potentially modifiable factors, low satisfaction with leadership and low organizational commitment, predicted mental disorder diagnoses in a military sample. Additional research should aim to clarify the nature and impact of these factors on combatant mental health. PMID:23651663

  18. Role of cannabis in psychiatric disturbance.

    PubMed

    Knight, F

    1976-01-01

    Clinical observation suggests that cannabis is implicated in some types of psychiatric disturbance. A record of admissions to two urban and four rural hospitals in Jamaica is examined along with details of individual cases. One-third of male admissions to the psychiatric hospital have used cannabis. Of 74 males admitted to another psychiatric service over a 12-month period, 29 had used cannabis. Ten of these patients were diagnosed as "ganja psychosis," and four others were classified as "marijuana-modified mania." At another psychiatric service, 54 of 223 admissions (24.2%) for functional psychosis presented with cannabis usage as a comtributory factor. These 54 patients included 14 and seven cases of hypomanic and depressive reactions, respectively. At three other rural general hospitals, psychiatric admissions for psychosis showed 11 of 51, seven of 18, and 39 of 75 patients, respectively, in whom cannabis was considered directly responsible. These findings lend support to the idea of causation of illness or modification of existing illness. The negative findings of controlled studies in the same country are not inconsistent. A suggested classification for adverse reactions to cannabis offered by one author is recommended, because it is in accord with common local clinical experience.

  19. Adults with Psychiatric Disabilities on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Karen V.

    Individuals with mental illness and resulting psychiatric disabilities are entitled to the same rights as all other Americans, but services needed to integrate these people fully into the community are not yet in place, especially in the field of higher education. Postsecondary education is an opportunity for qualified students with psychiatric…

  20. Aggression and recent substance abuse: absence of association in psychiatric emergency room patients.

    PubMed

    Dhossche, D M

    1999-01-01

    Substance abuse has been linked to aggression in community and psychiatric samples. A retrospective chart review in 311 consecutive psychiatric emergency room patients was conducted to assess the association of substance abuse and aggression in an acute psychiatric setting. Various indices of substance abuse, including positive urine toxicology for alcohol, cocaine, and/or cannabis, were not associated with aggressive behavior. Patients with positive toxicology for cocaine were less frequently aggressive than cocaine-negative patients. Among aggressive patients, the presence of psychotic symptoms was the most important factor associated with admission. These findings suggest that aggression is not a common acute manifestation of recent substance abuse in psychiatric emergency room patients. Selection factors in this population and the specifics of an acute psychiatric setting may obscure the association, if any. Acute psychosis seems to have a more important role in this setting. Future studies should focus on the prevention and early treatment of aggression in psychotic emergency room patients.

  1. 28 CFR 549.43 - Transfer for psychiatric or psychological examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transfer for psychiatric or psychological... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.43 Transfer for psychiatric or psychological examination. The Bureau may transfer an inmate to a suitable facility...

  2. 28 CFR 549.43 - Transfer for psychiatric or psychological examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transfer for psychiatric or psychological... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.43 Transfer for psychiatric or psychological examination. The Bureau may transfer an inmate to a suitable facility...

  3. 28 CFR 549.43 - Transfer for psychiatric or psychological examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transfer for psychiatric or psychological... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.43 Transfer for psychiatric or psychological examination. The Bureau may transfer an inmate to a suitable facility...

  4. 42 CFR 409.62 - Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. 409....62 Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. There is a lifetime maximum of 190 days on inpatient psychiatric hospital services available to any beneficiary. Therefore, once an individual...

  5. 42 CFR 409.62 - Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. 409....62 Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. There is a lifetime maximum of 190 days on inpatient psychiatric hospital services available to any beneficiary. Therefore, once an individual...

  6. 42 CFR 409.62 - Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. 409....62 Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. There is a lifetime maximum of 190 days on inpatient psychiatric hospital services available to any beneficiary. Therefore, once an individual...

  7. 28 CFR 549.45 - Involuntary hospitalization in a suitable facility for psychiatric care or treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facility for psychiatric care or treatment. 549.45 Section 549.45 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.45 Involuntary hospitalization in a suitable facility for psychiatric care or treatment. (a) Hospitalization...

  8. 42 CFR 409.62 - Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. 409....62 Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. There is a lifetime maximum of 190 days on inpatient psychiatric hospital services available to any beneficiary. Therefore, once an individual...

  9. 42 CFR 409.62 - Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. 409....62 Lifetime maximum on inpatient psychiatric care. There is a lifetime maximum of 190 days on inpatient psychiatric hospital services available to any beneficiary. Therefore, once an individual...

  10. 28 CFR 549.45 - Involuntary hospitalization in a suitable facility for psychiatric care or treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facility for psychiatric care or treatment. 549.45 Section 549.45 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Psychiatric Evaluation and Treatment § 549.45 Involuntary hospitalization in a suitable facility for psychiatric care or treatment. (a) Hospitalization...

  11. American Psychiatric Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency Awards & Leadership Opportunities Advocacy & APAPAC Meetings ...

  12. Psychiatric liability: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-07-01

    Psychiatric health care providers' liability extends from clinical cases--medication errors, misdiagnosis, etc.--to particular issues unique to the mental health setting. Part 1 discusses lawsuits common to this setting.

  13. Psychiatric liability: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-08-01

    Psychiatric health care providers' liability extends from clinical cases--medication errors, misdiagnosis, etc.--to particular issues unique to the mental health care setting. Part 2 continues discussion begun in the July issue of lawsuits common to this setting.

  14. Neuroinflammation and psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence support the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric illness. While systemic autoimmune diseases are well-documented causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, synaptic autoimmune encephalitides with psychotic symptoms often go under-recognized. Parallel to the link between psychiatric symptoms and autoimmunity in autoimmune diseases, neuroimmunological abnormalities occur in classical psychiatric disorders (for example, major depressive, bipolar, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorders). Investigations into the pathophysiology of these conditions traditionally stressed dysregulation of the glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems, but the mechanisms causing these neurotransmitter abnormalities remained elusive. We review the link between autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disorders, and the human and experimental evidence supporting the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in selected classical psychiatric disorders. Understanding how psychosocial, genetic, immunological and neurotransmitter systems interact can reveal pathogenic clues and help target new preventive and symptomatic therapies. PMID:23547920

  15. Psychiatric nursing case management: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Charlotte A; Bartlett, Robin

    2004-09-01

    This literature review examines the evolution of psychiatric nursing case management in the United States. Various models, both inpatient and outpatient, are described, along with the roles of the case manager in each setting. The development of clinical pathways to monitor and document outcomes in acute settings is examined, along with the difficulties in adapting them specifically to psychiatric nursing case management. The types of data collected and the use of outcomes to support programs for the mentally ill are reviewed. Finally, recommendations for psychiatric nursing case management are made to provide guidelines for the future.

  16. [THE MATTER: NO PSYCHIATRIZATION].

    PubMed

    Pisa, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety, sadness, worries, fears, irritability, fatigue, tedium, are situations that life confront us with. They don't qualify as psy- chiatric disorders, but nevertheless they are treated as though. We refer to the psychiatrization of daily life. The aim of this article is to prevent such psychiatrization. To support this assertion, we are going to develop different aspects tending to explain the origins of the patient's demands and the answers given by the psychiatrist. A critical reflection of our practice is proposed.

  17. Symptoms, functioning and quality of life after treatment in a residential sub-acute mental health service in Australia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kerry A; Rickwood, Debra J; Brown, Patricia M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clients' and service providers' perspectives on changes in mental health after an admission to a residential recovery-focused, sub-acute service, in Australia. Clients were either step-up clients, entering the service directly from the community, or step-down clients who were transitioning from an inpatient unit to home. During the 30-month period of data collection (August 2011 to January 2014) all clients (N = 102) were invited to participate in the longitudinal study and 41 clients consented to be involved (38% response rate). At admission and exit, participants completed the Behaviour and Symptom Identification Scale (Basis-32) and service providers completed the Life Skills Profile-16 and Health of the Nations Outcome Scales. Follow-up data 3 months after exit were available for 12 clients, including the Basis-32 and a self-report measure of quality of life (Assessment of Quality of Life 8-dimension). Both client groups reported positive improvements between admission and exit in the areas of relation to self and others, psychosis, daily living and presence of depression or anxiety symptoms. Service providers reported gains for clients in the areas of self-care, level of symptoms and presence of social problems. At 3 months, clients generally reported positive quality of life, although there was no significant change in symptoms and functioning. This study demonstrates that after an admission to a sub-acute service, step-up clients experience an improvement in their symptoms and functioning, have avoided a hospital admission and are well enough to return home. Step-down clients also experience further improvements in their symptoms and functioning, indicating that the service has assisted them in their transition to independent living after a hospital admission. Sub-acute residential units provide a continuation of care for inpatients preparing to return home, and people with a mental health problem living in the

  18. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety.

  19. Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Daria, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prisoners are having high percentage of psychiatric disorders. Majority of studies done so far on prisoners are from Western countries and very limited studies from India. Aim: Study socio-demographic profile of prisoners of a central jail and to find out current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in them. Materials and Methods: 118 prisoners were selected by random sampling and interviewed to obtain socio-demographic data and assessed on Indian Psychiatric Interview Schedule (IPIS) with additional required questions to diagnose psychiatric disorders in prisoners. Results: Mean age of prisoners was 33.7 years with 97.5% males, 57.6% from rural areas and 65.3% were married. Average education in studied years was 6.6 years and 50.8% were unskilled workers. 47.4% were murderers while 20.3% of drugs related crimes. 47.5% were convicted and history of criminal behavior in family was in 32.2% prisoners. Current prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 33%. Psychotic, depressive, and anxiety disorders were seen in 6.7%, 16.1%, and 8.5% prisoners respectively. 58.8% had history of drug abuse/dependence prior to imprisonment. Conclusion: One prison of Hadoti region of Rajasthan is full of people with mental-health problems who collectively generate significant levels of unmet psychiatric treatment need. Prisons are detrimental to mental-health. Beginning of reforms is the immediate need. PMID:24459308

  20. Psychiatric rehabilitation education for physicians.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Abraham; Eastwood, Diane

    2013-06-01

    As part of a rapidly spreading reform toward recovery-oriented services, mental health care systems are adopting Psychiatric/Psychosocial Rehabilitation (PSR). Accordingly, PSR education and training programs are now available and accessible. Although psychiatrists and sometimes other physicians (such as family physicians) provide important services to people with serious mental illnesses and may, therefore, need knowledge and skill in PSR, it seems that the medical profession has been slow to participate in PSR education. Based on our experience working in Canada as academic psychiatrists who are also Certified Psychiatric Rehabilitation Practitioners (CPRPs), we offer descriptions of several Canadian initiatives that involve physicians in PSR education. Multiple frameworks guide PSR education for physicians. First, guidance is provided by published PSR principles, such as the importance of self-determination (www.psrrpscanada.ca). Second, guidance is provided by adult education (andragogy) principles, emphasizing the importance of addressing attitudes in addition to knowledge and skills (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2011). Third, guidance in Canada is provided by Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) principles, which delineate the multiple roles of physicians beyond that of medical expert (Frank, 2005) and have recently been adopted in Australia (Boyce, Spratt, Davies, & McEvoy, 2011).

  1. Reducing Emergency Department Visits for Acute Gastrointestinal Illnesses in North Carolina (USA) by Extending Community Water Service

    PubMed Central

    DeFelice, Nicholas B.; Johnston, Jill E.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous analyses have suggested that unregulated private drinking water wells carry a higher risk of exposure to microbial contamination than regulated community water systems. In North Carolina, ~35% of the state’s population relies on private wells, but the health impact associated with widespread reliance on such unregulated drinking water sources is unknown. Objectives: We estimated the total number of emergency department visits for acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) attributable to microbial contamination in private wells in North Carolina per year, the costs of those visits, and the potential health benefits of extending regulated water service to households currently relying on private wells for their drinking water. Methods: We developed a population intervention model using 2007–2013 data from all 122 North Carolina emergency departments along with microbial contamination data for all 2,120 community water systems and for 16,138 private well water samples collected since 2008. Results: An estimated 29,400 (95% CI: 26,600, 32,200) emergency department visits per year for acute gastrointestinal illness were attributable to microbial contamination in drinking water, constituting approximately 7.3% (95% CI: 6.6, 7.9%) of all AGI-related visits. Of these attributable cases, 99% (29,200; 95% CI: 26,500, 31,900) were associated with private well contamination. The estimated statewide annual cost of emergency department visits attributable to microbiological contamination of drinking water is 40.2 million USD (95% CI: 2.58 million USD, 193 million USD), of which 39.9 million USD (95% CI: 2.56 million USD, 192 million USD) is estimated to arise from private well contamination. An estimated 2,920 (95% CI: 2,650, 3,190) annual emergency department visits could be prevented by extending community water service to 10% of the population currently relying on private wells. Conclusions: This research provides new evidence that extending regulated

  2. Psychiatric rehabilitation: an emerging academic discipline.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kenneth J; Barrett, Nora M

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation is an emerging profession and academic discipline. This paper provides an overview of the need for psychiatric rehabilitation education, the workforce challenges this field faces and an introduction to the various efforts that institutions of higher education are making to meet this need. This paper also introduces some empirical findings in this area, reviewing three previously published evaluations of academic programs, and providing preliminary results of an unpublished evaluation from an American university with a career ladder in this field. The results of these evaluations suggest positive impact on the careers of the students, who appear to be knowledgeable and competent in psychiatric rehabilitation. More detailed evaluations of this education on the service outcomes of persons with serious mental illness are warranted as are studies of the methods of instruction used to develop the needed skills and attitudes. Replication of these existing academic programs should be considered.

  3. Abortion and psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Stotland, Nada L

    2003-03-01

    The subject of abortion is fraught with politics, emotions, and misinformation. A widespread practice reaching far back in history, abortion is again in the news. Psychiatry sits at the intersection of the religious, ethical, psychological, sociological, medical, and legal facets of the abortion issue. Although the religions that forbid abortion are more prominent in the media, many religions have more liberal approaches. While the basic right to abortion has been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, several limitations have been permitted, including parental notification or consent (with the possibility of judicial bypass) for minors, waiting periods, and mandatory provision of certain, sometimes biased, information. Before the Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion in 1973, many women were maimed or killed by illegal abortions, and psychiatrists were sometimes asked to certify that abortions were justified on psychiatric grounds. Currently, there are active attempts to convince the public and women considering abortion that abortion frequently has negative psychiatric consequences. This assertion is not borne out by the literature: the vast majority of women tolerate abortion without psychiatric sequelae. The psychiatric outcome of abortion is best when patients are able to make autonomous, supported decisions. Psychiatrists need to know the medical and psychiatric facts about abortion. Psychiatrists can then help patients prevent unwanted pregnancies, make informed decisions consonant with their own values and circumstances when they become pregnant, and find appropriate social and medical resources whatever their decisions may be.

  4. Nutraceuticals in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Chiappedi, Matteo; de Vincenzi, Silvia; Bejor, Maurizio

    2012-08-01

    Nutraceuticals can be defined as food components or active principles present in aliments which have positive effects for health and quality of life, including preventing or treating disorders. Herbal and "natural" food supplements are increasingly used to treat different psychiatric disorders, often as "self-prescribed" therapies. With factors such as chronic illness, poor health, emotional distress, and quality of life influencing the desire for complementary medicine, patients with comorbid medical and psychiatric problems seem likely to turn to this approach. We reviewed the most commonly used herbal and dietary supplements for which a certain efficacy on psychiatric symptoms or disorders has been claimed, checking current Pubmed-indexed literature (the most important being St. John's wort, Omega-3 fatty acids, valerian, Kava, Ginkgo, folate, B vitamins, S-Adenosylmethionine, inositol, alfa-lactoalbumin and passionflower). There is evidence of efficacy for some of these herbs an supplements, proved also by Cochrane's meta-analysis. However many different areas (including efficacy, tolerability, optimal dosing, adequate shelf life, drug and non-pharmacological interactions) need to be thoroughly studied; moreover political decisions need to be scientifically guided in order to best serve psychiatric patients' interests and to prevent using of expensive and sometimes un-useful therapies. This implies that a scientific strategy is needed to rule out any third-part economical interest which could in any way influence therapeutic choices. The article presents some promising patents on nutraceuticals in psychiatric practice.

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder and use of psychiatric and alcohol related services: the effect of the 2004-2005 Florida hurricane seasons on veterans.

    PubMed

    Frahm, Kathryn A; Barnett, Scott D; Brown, Lisa M; Hickling, Edward J; Olney, Ron; Campbell, Robert R; Lapcevic, William A

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document preliminary findings of the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mental health service use, and alcohol related health visits among veterans following 2004-2005 Florida hurricane seasons. A retrospective review of the Veterans Health Administration Medical SAS Outpatient Dataset was conducted to identify veterans residing in Florida during the 2004-2005 hurricane seasons with a history of PTSD and/or PTSD and a substance use disorder. It was found that veterans with PTSD residing in counties affected by hurricanes demonstrated an immediate 28 % increase in use of mental health services following hurricane landfall versus veterans residing in non-hurricane affected counties (+28.0 vs. -6.5 %, p = 0.001). Additionally, veterans residing in affected counties were found to use more group psychotherapy treatment sessions overall (30.3 vs. 27.2 %, p = 0.001). Of note, veterans with PTSD experienced a -0.16 per month (p = 0.114) decrease in alcohol related visits following the 2004 hurricane season. These findings provide insight into the mental health needs of veterans with PTSD following a disaster and can inform delivery of services to veterans with PTSD and alcohol related issues in disaster prone areas.

  6. Psychiatric liaison consultations of patients without psychiatric illness in a general hospital in Germany: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Fißler, Maria; Quante, Arnim

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the utilization of consultation-liaison psychiatric (CLP) service among nonpsychiatric patients in a general hospital. A retrospective analysis was conducted on all patients seen by the CLP in 2013. In 66 (5.9 %) of these 1112 consultations, no psychiatric diagnosis could be identified. These cases were analyzed by department of referral, assumed psychiatric symptoms, consensus with the symptoms found by the CLP, and recommended procedures. Assumed depressive symptoms, suicidal ideations and "difficult" behavior were the predominant reasons for CLP referrals. As the results suggest, CLP service was mostly "overprovided" because of uncertainty about the working areas of psychiatrists or overestimation of the severity of symptoms. These findings emphasize the importance to develop more precise guidelines for CLP services and that it could be worth striving for a more profound psychiatric training for nonpsychiatric physicians to achieve an optimal treatment for patients.

  7. Starting early: integration of self-management support into an acute stroke service.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Petra; Gawned, Sara; Jones, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Self-management support following stroke is rare, despite emerging evidence for impact on patient outcomes. The promotion of a common approach to self-management support across a stroke pathway requires collaboration between professionals. To date, the feasibility of self-management support in acute stroke settings has not been evaluated. The Bridges stroke self-management package (SMP) is based on self-efficacy principles. It is delivered by professionals and supported by a patient-held workbook. The aim of this project was to introduce the Bridges stroke SMP to the multidisciplinary staff of a London hyperacute and acute stroke unit. The 'Plan Do Study Act' (PDSA) cycle guided iterative stages of project development, with normalisation process theory helping to embed the intervention into existing ways of working. Questionnaires explored attitudes, beliefs and experiences of the staff who were integrating self-management support into ways of working in the acute stroke setting. Self-management support training was delivered to a total of 46 multidisciplinary stroke staff. Of the staff who attended the follow-up training, 66% had implemented Bridges self-management support with patients since initial training, and 100% felt their practice had changed. Questionnaire findings demonstrated that staff attitudes and beliefs had changed following training, particularly regarding ownership and type of rehabilitation goals set, and prioritisation of self-management support within acute stroke care. Staff initiated an audit of washing and dressing practices pre- and post-training. This was designed to evaluate the number of occasions when techniques were used by staff to facilitate patients' independence and self-management. They found that the number of occasions featuring optimum practice went from 54% at baseline to 63% at three months post-training. This project demonstrated the feasibility of integrating self-management support into an acute stroke setting. Further

  8. Prospective Analysis of Psychiatric Risk Factors in Marines Sent to War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-13

    total) Panic disorder Generalized anxiety disorder Obsessive - compulsive disorder Phobias Acute stress Posttraumatic stress disorder Anxiety, not...subsequent mental health outcomes. During the observation period, 6.8% of the sample were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder . The strongest predictors of...postdeployment psychiatric disorders were, in order of importance, low paygrade, hospitalization during deployment, low education, preservice smoking

  9. Cannabis and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Loga, Slobodan; Loga-Zec, Svjetlana; Spremo, Mira

    2010-06-01

    There are connection between use of cannabis and many psychiatric disturbances in adolescents, especially "cannabis psychosis", depression, panic attacks and suicide. Negative effects could occur either as a result of a specific pharmacological effect of cannabis, or as the result of stressful experiences during the intoxication of cannabis in young people. Potentially is very dangerous high frequency suicidal ideation among cannabis users.

  10. Are inspectors' assessments reliable? Ratings of NHS acute hospital trust services in England.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alan; Addicott, Rachael; Robertson, Ruth; Ross, Shilpa; Walshe, Kieran

    2016-10-05

    The credibility of a regulator could be threatened if stakeholders perceive that assessments of performance made by its inspectors are unreliable. Yet there is little published research on the reliability of inspectors' assessments of health care organizations' services.

  11. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reighley, Joan

    A description is provided of a course, "Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing," designed to teach students at Level 3 of a two-year college nursing program about the role of the nurse in a psychiatric setting and about concepts of mental health and psychiatric disorders, using both classroom and clinical instruction. The first section of the course…

  12. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Telemedicine Service for the Treatment of Acute Stroke Patients: TeleStroke

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health care service based on telemedicine can reduce both physical and time barriers in stroke treatments. Moreover, this service connects centers specializing in stroke treatment with other centers and practitioners, thereby increasing accessibility to neurological specialist care and fibrinolytic treatment. Objective Development, implementation, and evaluation of a care service for the treatment of acute stroke patients based on telemedicine (TeleStroke) at Virgen del Rocío University Hospital. Methods The evaluation phase, conducted from October 2008 to January 2011, involved patients who presented acute stroke symptoms confirmed by the emergency physician; they were examined using TeleStroke in two hospitals, at a distance of 16 and 110 kilometers from Virgen del Rocío University Hospital. We analyzed the number of interconsultation sheets, the percentage of patients treated with fibrinolysis, and the number of times they were treated. To evaluate medical professionals’ acceptance of the TeleStroke system, we developed a web-based questionnaire using a Technology Acceptance Model. Results A total of 28 patients were evaluated through the interconsultation sheet. Out of 28 patients, 19 (68%) received fibrinolytic treatment. The most common reasons for not treating with fibrinolysis included: clinical criteria in six out of nine patients (66%) and beyond the time window in three out of nine patients (33%). The mean “onset-to-hospital” time was 69 minutes, the mean time from admission to CT image was 33 minutes, the mean “door-to-needle” time was 82 minutes, and the mean “onset-to-needle” time was 150 minutes. Out of 61 medical professionals, 34 (56%) completed a questionnaire to evaluate the acceptability of the TeleStroke system. The mean values for each item were over 6.50, indicating that respondents positively evaluated each item. This survey was assessed using the Cronbach alpha test to determine the reliability of the

  13. Requirements for multidisciplinary teamwork in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Liberman, R P; Hilty, D M; Drake, R E; Tsang, H W

    2001-10-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation by its very nature is multidisciplinary because of the many competencies required for its implementation. In promoting optimal levels of recovery from schizophrenia and other disabling mental disorders, teams must combine the expert contributions of professionals and paraprofessionals who can individualize a comprehensive array of evidence-based services with competency, consistency, continuity, coordination, collaboration, and fidelity. The authors describe the properties and functions of the multidisciplinary team and key attributes of effective teams. The importance of teams' involving clients, their relatives, and other supporters in setting personally relevant life goals is emphasized. The authors provide examples of the challenges posed by the need to individualize services and of the ways in which barriers to communication and coordination can be overcome. The roles of the various team members are described, including leadership roles and the unique role of the psychiatrist, in the context of newly emerging, evidence-based treatments for psychiatric rehabilitation.

  14. Crisis intervention program: an alternative to inpatient psychiatric treatment for children.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Samuel H

    2002-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a Crisis Intervention program as an alternative to use of psychiatric treatment beds for young children. A multidisciplinary community-based intervention was utilized, including family therapy, psychiatric intervention, and school consultations. The impact of the service was evaluated in relation to the use of psychiatric treatment beds by the population of children eligible for Medicaid or uninsured. In comparison to an historical control group, the program resulted in a 23% reduction in the use of psychiatric treatment beds. A cost-minimization analysis indicated that in addition to the program reducing the use of psychiatric treatment beds, the cost of treatment was also slightly reduced.

  15. [Psychiatric occupational therapy practice in Shinshu University Hospital--collaboration with psychiatrist].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fukushmima, Sachie; Kawano, Koujiro; Ohnishi, Ayumi; Ogiwara, Tomomi; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Toru; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Amano, Naoji

    2011-01-01

    This report describes psychiatric occupational therapy practice and collaboration between occupational therapists and psychiatrists at Shinshu University Hospital. Collaboration with psychiatrists enables us to provide the following occupational therapy programs. (1) Individual occupational therapy approaches for patients at the early recovery stage in the psychiatric ward. (2) Psychoeducational interventions by a multi-disciplinary team (MDs, nurses, OTRs, PSWs, CPs). (3) Occupational therapy approaches used in combination with m-ECT for severe psychiatric disorders. (4) Recovery support programs for psychiatric outpatients. It is suggested that occupational therapists should collaborate with psychiatrists in order to facilitate rehabilitation services for people with psychiatric disorders.

  16. Proactive and Reactive Aggression in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations between proactive and reactive aggression and indicators of antisocial behavior (callous/unemotional traits and behavioral consequences) and negative affect (depression and suicidal behavior) in a sample of 105 children admitted to an acute child psychiatric inpatient unit. The majority of the children were male (69%)…

  17. Built environment and wellbeing in Italian psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Plantamura, Francesca; Capolongo, Stefano; Oberti, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare built environment has effects on patient's wellbeing. These effects are even heavier on sensitive patient such as psychiatric ones. Therefore the environment design can be a key factor in promoting the patients' well-being and the care process. This paper investigates how this vision is influencing the design of psychiatric facilities in the Italian context, known for its radical innovation of mental health services due to Law 180 (1978). The article identifies the current built environment issues of the psychiatric ward, the design indications available and the possible future actions to meet the needs of users and to improve wellbeing and care process.

  18. Barriers to the use of the library service amongst clinical staff in an acute hospital setting: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gaynor; Preston, Hugh

    2016-06-01

    This article reports on research into the reasons why clinical staff in an acute hospital may be reluctant to use library services. The research was conducted by Gaynor Thomas at the Prince Philip Hospital in Llanelli in Wales as part of the dissertation she completed for an MSc in Economics. She graduated in July 2014 from Aberystwyth University and has co-written the article with Hugh Preston, her dissertation supervisor. The article summarises the key findings from the interviews undertaken as part of the research process and lists the resulting recommendations. Gaynor also highlights the initiatives which have been put in place with the express aim of removing barriers to use and encouraging clinical staff to make the most of the library which is, she argues, a time-saving resource. AM.

  19. A Computerized Resource Retrieval System for a Comprehensive Psychiatric Facility

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Joy A.; Evanczuk, Karen J.; Coffman, Gerald A.

    1984-01-01

    The need to systematize the disposition process for psychiatric patients referred from the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic after an initial evaluation or treatment episode resulted in the development of a Computerized Resource Retrieval System. The system is designed to provide, through on-line displays, a listing of all outpatient treatment programs within WPIC and outside agencies providing social and mental health care services as well as information necessary to complete the referral with a minimum of confusion and red tape.

  20. The impact of PPS on hospital-sponsored post-acute services: a case study of Delaware Medicare providers.

    PubMed

    Kulesher, Robert R; Wilder, Margaret G

    2008-01-01

    Hospitals were the first providers to experience the change in Medicare reimbursement from a cost basis to the prospective payment system (PPS). In the 1980s, this switch was accomplished through the development of diagnosis-related groups, a unique formula for Medicare reimbursement of inpatient hospital services. During that time, the concern was that, with the anticipated reduced payments to hospitals, adverse impacts on Medicare beneficiaries were likely, including premature release of patients from hospital care resulting in medical complications, increased readmissions, prolonged episodes of recuperation, and preventable mortality. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) mandated the implementation of the PPS for Medicare providers of skilled nursing home care and home health care. This change from cost-based reimbursement to PPS raised concerns that these providers would react as hospitals had done-that is, skilled nursing homes might limit their admission of Medicare patients and home health agencies might cut back on visits. As a result of that, hospitals might be faced with providing care for these post-acute patients without receiving additional reimbursement, and these changes in utilization patterns would be of critical importance to both providers and Medicare beneficiaries. This article examines the decisions that providers made in response to the perceived impact of the BBA. Qualitative data were derived from provider interviews. The article concludes with a discussion of how changes in Medicare reimbursement policy have influenced providers of post-acute care services to alter their level of participation in Medicare and the impact this may have on the general public as well as on Medicare beneficiaries.

  1. Psychiatric Aspects of Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Pant, V.L.N.

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY This report pertains to the psychiatric problems in renal transplant recipients and its socio-demographic correlations. 50 male recipient subjects with a post-transplant period ranging from six months to six years were evaluated through tape recorded interviews to study their pre and post-operative emotional reactions. A psychiatric examination was performed by two psychiatrists and a diagnosis given wherever necessary. On examination 46% of cases had identifiable psychiatric problems, mainly Anxiety Neurosis (18%), Depressive Neurosis (18%), Adjustment Reactions (10%). Non-organic (Psychogenic) pain, excessive somatic concern and personality changes were also noticed in some. The psychiatric illness was significantly more amongst unmarried (P < .05) and higher education group (P < .02). Other variables had no significant correlation with the psychiatric illness. None had psychoses or a major depressive disorder. Thus, psychiatric problems are present in particular groups of transplant recipients and are usually neurotic in nature and would require psychiatric help regarding these. PMID:21927072

  2. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning.

  3. School-Based Mental Health Program Evaluation: Children's School Outcomes and Acute Mental Health Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Mandell, David S.; Hadley, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of school-based mental health programs on children's school outcomes and the utilization of acute mental health services. Methods: The study sample included 468 Medicaid-enrolled children aged 6 to 17 years who were enrolled 1 of 2 school-based mental health programs (SBMHs) in a metropolitan area…

  4. The Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) score to predict clinical outcomes and health service costs in older people discharged from UK acute medical units

    PubMed Central

    Edmans, Judi; Bradshaw, Lucy; Gladman, John R. F.; Franklin, Matthew; Berdunov, Vladislav; Elliott, Rachel; Conroy, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: tools are required to identify high-risk older people in acute emergency settings so that appropriate services can be directed towards them. Objective: to evaluate whether the Identification of Seniors At Risk (ISAR) predicts the clinical outcomes and health and social services costs of older people discharged from acute medical units. Design: an observational cohort study using receiver–operator curve analysis to compare baseline ISAR to an adverse clinical outcome at 90 days (where an adverse outcome was any of death, institutionalisation, hospital readmission, increased dependency in activities of daily living (decrease of 2 or more points on the Barthel ADL Index), reduced mental well-being (increase of 2 or more points on the 12-point General Health Questionnaire) or reduced quality of life (reduction in the EuroQol-5D) and high health and social services costs over 90 days estimated from routine electronic service records. Setting: two acute medical units in the East Midlands, UK. Participants: a total of 667 patients aged ≥70 discharged from acute medical units. Results: an adverse outcome at 90 days was observed in 76% of participants. The ISAR was poor at predicting adverse outcomes (AUC: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.54–0.65) and fair for health and social care costs (AUC: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59–0.81). Conclusions: adverse outcomes are common in older people discharged from acute medical units in the UK; the poor predictive ability of the ISAR in older people discharged from acute medical units makes it unsuitable as a sole tool in clinical decision-making. PMID:23666405

  5. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): knowledge, attitudes, practices and sources of information among physicians answering a SARS fever hotline service.

    PubMed

    Deng, J-F; Olowokure, B; Kaydos-Daniels, S C; Chang, H-J; Barwick, R S; Lee, M-L; Deng, C-Y; Factor, S H; Chiang, C-E; Maloney, S A

    2006-01-01

    In June 2003, Taiwan introduced a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) telephone hotline service to provide concerned callers with rapid access to information, advice and appropriate referral where necessary. This paper reports an evaluation of the knowledge, attitude, practices and sources of information relating to SARS among physicians who staffed the SARS fever hotline service. A retrospective survey was conducted using a self-administered postal questionnaire. Participants were physicians who staffed a SARS hotline during the SARS epidemic in Taipei, Taiwan from June 1 to 10, 2003. A response rate of 83% was obtained. All respondents knew the causative agent of SARS, and knowledge regarding SARS features and preventive practices was good. However, only 54% of respondents knew the incubation period of SARS. Hospital guidelines and news media were the major information sources. In responding to two case scenarios most physicians were likely to triage callers at high risk of SARS appropriately, but not callers at low risk. Less than half of all respondents answered both scenarios correctly. The results obtained suggest that knowledge of SARS was generally good although obtained from both medical and non-medical sources. Specific knowledge was however lacking in certain areas and this affected the ability to appropriately triage callers. Standardized education and assessment of prior knowledge of SARS could improve the ability of physicians to triage callers in future outbreaks.

  6. Psychiatric Patients Experiences with Mechanical Restraints: An Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Lanthén, Klas; Rask, Mikael; Sunnqvist, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine psychiatric patients' experience of mechanical restraints and to describe the care the patients received. Background. All around the world, threats and violence perpetrated by patients in psychiatric emergency inpatient units are quite common and are a prevalent factor concerning the application of mechanical restraints, although psychiatric patients' experiences of mechanical restraints are still moderately unknown. Method. A qualitative design with an inductive approach were used, based on interviews with patients who once been in restraints. Results. This study resulted in an overbridging theme: Physical Presence, Instruction and Composed Behaviour Can Reduce Discontent and Trauma, including five categories. These findings implicated the following: information must be given in a calm and sensitive way, staff must be physically present during the whole procedure, and debriefing after the incident must be conducted. Conclusions. When mechanical restraints were unavoidable, the presence of committed staff during mechanical restraint was important, demonstrating the significance of training acute psychiatric nurses correctly so that their presence is meaningful. Nurses in acute psychiatric settings should be required to be genuinely committed, aware of their actions, and fully present in coercive situations where patients are vulnerable. PMID:26199931

  7. Clinical outcomes and mortality associated with weekend admission to psychiatric hospital

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rashmi; Chesney, Edward; Cullen, Alexis E.; Tulloch, Alex D.; Broadbent, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; McGuire, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies indicate that risk of mortality is higher for patients admitted to acute hospitals at the weekend. However, less is known about clinical outcomes among patients admitted to psychiatric hospitals. Aims To investigate whether weekend admission to a psychiatric hospital is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Method Data were obtained from 45 264 consecutive psychiatric hospital admissions. The association of weekend admission with in-patient mortality, duration of hospital admission and risk of readmission was investigated using multivariable regression analyses. Secondary analyses were performed to investigate the distribution of admissions, discharges, in-patient mortality, episodes of seclusion and violent incidents on different days of the week. Results There were 7303 weekend admissions (16.1%). Patients who were aged between 26 and 35 years, female or from a minority ethnic group were more likely to be admitted at the weekend. Patients admitted at the weekend were more likely to present via acute hospital services, other psychiatric hospitals and the criminal justice system than to be admitted directly from their own home. Weekend admission was associated with a shorter duration of admission (B coefficient −21.1 days, 95% CI −24.6 to −17.6, P<0.001) and an increased risk of readmission in the 12 months following index admission (incidence rate ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.18, P<0.001), but in-patient mortality (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.23, P = 0.30) was not greater than for weekday admission. Fewer episodes of seclusion occurred at the weekend but there was no significant variation in deaths during hospital admission or violent incidents on different days of the week. Conclusions Being admitted at the weekend was not associated with an increased risk of in-patient mortality. However, patients admitted at the weekend had shorter admissions and were more likely to be readmitted, suggesting that they may represent a

  8. Regional differences in psychiatric disorders in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Navarrette, Gonzalo; Veloso, Paula; Torres, Silverio

    2006-01-01

    Background Psychiatric epidemiological surveys in developing countries are rare and are frequently conducted in regions that are not necessarily representative of the entire country. In addition, in large countries with dispersed populations national rates may have low value for estimating the need for mental health services and programs. Methods The Chile Psychiatric Prevalence Study using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was conducted in four distinct regions of the country on a stratified random sample of 2,978 people. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and service utilization rates were estimated. Results Significant differences in the rates of major depressive disorder, substance abuse disorders, non-affective psychosis, and service utilization were found across the regions. The differential prevalence rates could not be accounted by socio-demographic differences between sites. Conclusions Regional differences across countries may exist that have both implications for prevalence rates and service utilization. Planning mental health services for population centers that span wide geographical areas based on studies conducted in a single region may be misleading, and may result in areas with high need being underserved. PMID:17036264

  9. Liver Illness and Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Paul; Debette-Gratien, Marilyne; Girard, Murielle; Jacques, Jérémie; Nubukpo, Philippe; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Patients with psychiatric disorders are usually more exposed to multiple somatic illnesses, including liver diseases. Specific links are established between psychiatric disorders and alcohol hepatitis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in the population as a whole, and specifically in drug abusers. Metabolic syndrome criteria, and associated steatosis or non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) are frequent in patients with chronic psychiatric disorders under psychotropic drugs, and should be screened. Some psychiatric medications, such as neuroleptics, mood stabilizers, and a few antidepressants, are often associated with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In patients with advanced chronic liver diseases, the prescription of some specific psychiatric treatments should be avoided. Psychiatric disorders can be a limiting factor in the decision-making and following up for liver transplantation. PMID:28123443

  10. Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation for Military Absenteeism in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chen, Chih-Kang; Wang, Tzong-Shi; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between military absenteeism and mental health problems has been noted; however, factors affecting military absenteeism by enlisted personnel have not been studied systematically. In a medical center in Taiwan, we performed a chart review of 26 forensic psychiatric evaluations of enlisted personnel who were absent without leave (AWOL) or deserted their service from 1994 to 2014. The findings showed that many of these recruits had a lower level of education (50.00% had just nine years of education), intellectual disability (46.15%), depressive disorders (30.76%), and suicidal ideation (53.85%). Depressive disorder was overrepresented in comparison with findings in a previous study. Further study is needed to confirm whether psychiatric screening before service enlistment and early psychiatric intervention for service members with mental illness or emotional disturbance could help in the prevention of desertion or going AWOL.

  11. Munchausen syndrome mimicking psychiatric disease with concomitant genuine physical illness

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Jaime; da Silva, Joaquim Alves; Xavier, Miguel; Gusmão, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome is a disorder in which patients intentionally produce symptoms mimicking physical or psychiatric illnesses with the aim to assume the sick role and to gain medical attention. Once a patient receives a Munchausen syndrome diagnosis every complaint made thence tends to be regarded with scepticism by clinical staff. However, it is possible that a bona fide illness, which might be disregarded, may coexist in these patients. We report a case of MS mimicking psychiatric disease with concomitant genuine acute physical illness. Despite the initial doubts about the veracity of the latter, due to its prompt recognition, treatment was successful. PMID:22798096

  12. Joint geriatric and psychiatric wards: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    George, Jim; Adamson, John; Woodford, Henry

    2011-09-01

    Joint geriatric/psychiatric wards are a potential solution to improving care of older patients with both psychiatric and medical illnesses in acute hospitals. A literature search using Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and CINAHL between 1980 and 2010 was carried out for information about joint wards for older people. Thirteen relevant papers were identified. These wards share common characteristics and there is evidence that they may reduce length of stay and be cost-effective, but there are no high-quality randomised controlled trials. Further research is needed, particularly regarding cost-effectiveness.

  13. Police and pastoral power: governmentality and correctional forensic psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Dave

    2002-06-01

    Police and pastoral power: governmentality and correctional forensic psychiatric nursing Since 1978, the federal inmates of Canada have had access to a full range of psychiatric care within the penitentiary system. Several psychiatric units are now integrated into the correctional services of Canada. This paper presents the results of a grounded theory doctoral study undertaken in a multilevel secured psychiatric ward within the Canadian federal penitentiary system. The author describes and discusses the results of qualitative data that emerged from his fieldwork. The concept of governmentality, as defined by the late French philosopher Michel Foucault, constitutes one of the major theoretical tools that were helpful in analyzing these data. Police and pastoral power, two dimensions of the security apparatus of governmentality, were found to be useful in understanding and characterizing nursing practice caught between the penal and the psychiatric dispositifs. A Foucauldian perspective allows one to understand the manner in which forensic psychiatric nursing is involved in the governance of mentally ill inmates through three forms of power - sovereign, disciplinary and pastoral - which have posited nursing practice as a strategic tool of the correctional services. This research consists of a study of nursing practice in an extreme setting that deserves a radical analysis.

  14. Psychiatric rehabilitation interventions: a review.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Marianne; Anthony, William A

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation has become accepted by the mental health field as a legitimate field of study and practice. Over the last several decades various psychiatric rehabilitation programme models and procedures have been developed, evaluated and disseminated. At the same time the process of psychiatric rehabilitation has been specified and its underlying values and practitioner technology articulated. This review describes the psychiatric rehabilitation process and in so doing differentiates psychosocial interventions that can be classified as psychiatric rehabilitation interventions from other psychosocial interventions. Furthermore, the major psychiatric rehabilitation interventions are examined within a framework of the psychiatric rehabilitation process with a review of their evidence. The review concludes that psychiatric rehabilitation interventions are currently a mixture of evidence-based practices, promising practices and emerging methods that can be effectively tied together using the psychiatric rehabilitation process framework of helping individuals with serious mental illnesses choose, get and keep valued roles, and together with complementary treatment orientated psychosocial interventions, provide a broad strategy for facilitating recovery.

  15. [Detection of the rotavirus group antigen by a screening test using the ELISA-IC kit in subjects with acute gastroenteritis, at the pediatric services of Moldavia].

    PubMed

    Avram, G; Zavate, O; Combiescu, A A; Perşu, A; Ivan, A; Constantiniu, S; Pancu, V; Popovici, S; Boghean, T; Nicola, P

    1987-01-01

    The rotaviral antigen was detected by a screening test using the ELISA-IC kit in 17.6% out of 415 children with acute gastroenteritis. The highest frequency (28.9%) was found in children hospitalized in pediatric services with a diagnosis of diarrhoeic disease associated to acute respiratory infection. The rotavirus infection incidence was about three times higher during the cold season than during summer (30.4% versus 10.5%). The 6-11 month age group was the most severely affected.

  16. [Psychiatric consultation in the nursing home. An inquiry among Amsterdam nursing home physicians].

    PubMed

    Meesters, Paul D

    2002-06-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common among nursing home residents. However, little is known about psychiatric consultation in Dutch nursing homes. As an exploration of the topic, Amsterdam-based nursing home physicians were asked to rate a number of aspects of psychiatric consultation as performed in their nursing home. Striking differences are reported between 14 participating nursing homes with regard to the intensity of psychiatric consultation and the number of consultation requests, which seems low compared with the perceived psychiatric problems. Somatically ill and psychogeriatric residents are estimated to generate an equal number of consultation requests. Psychiatric consultation appears to be characterized by diagnostic clarification, medication recommendations and behavioral management advice whereas staff-directed activities are scarce. Physicians report shortcomings in psychiatric skills among care staff. Research is necessary concerning the psychiatric care delivered to nursing home residents, as well as with regard to the optimal model for psychiatric consultation services. Integration of psychiatric care in nursing homes with mental health care services appears to be desirable.

  17. Web of Objects Based Ambient Assisted Living Framework for Emergency Psychiatric State Prediction.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Abedin, Sarder Fakhrul; Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-09-06

    Ambient assisted living can facilitate optimum health and wellness by aiding physical, mental and social well-being. In this paper, patients' psychiatric symptoms are collected through lightweight biosensors and web-based psychiatric screening scales in a smart home environment and then analyzed through machine learning algorithms to provide ambient intelligence in a psychiatric emergency. The psychiatric states are modeled through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and the model parameters are estimated using a Viterbi path counting and scalable Stochastic Variational Inference (SVI)-based training algorithm. The most likely psychiatric state sequence of the corresponding observation sequence is determined, and an emergency psychiatric state is predicted through the proposed algorithm. Moreover, to enable personalized psychiatric emergency care, a service a web of objects-based framework is proposed for a smart-home environment. In this framework, the biosensor observations and the psychiatric rating scales are objectified and virtualized in the web space. Then, the web of objects of sensor observations and psychiatric rating scores are used to assess the dweller's mental health status and to predict an emergency psychiatric state. The proposed psychiatric state prediction algorithm reported 83.03 percent prediction accuracy in an empirical performance study.

  18. Web of Objects Based Ambient Assisted Living Framework for Emergency Psychiatric State Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Abedin, Sarder Fakhrul; Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-01-01

    Ambient assisted living can facilitate optimum health and wellness by aiding physical, mental and social well-being. In this paper, patients’ psychiatric symptoms are collected through lightweight biosensors and web-based psychiatric screening scales in a smart home environment and then analyzed through machine learning algorithms to provide ambient intelligence in a psychiatric emergency. The psychiatric states are modeled through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and the model parameters are estimated using a Viterbi path counting and scalable Stochastic Variational Inference (SVI)-based training algorithm. The most likely psychiatric state sequence of the corresponding observation sequence is determined, and an emergency psychiatric state is predicted through the proposed algorithm. Moreover, to enable personalized psychiatric emergency care, a service a web of objects-based framework is proposed for a smart-home environment. In this framework, the biosensor observations and the psychiatric rating scales are objectified and virtualized in the web space. Then, the web of objects of sensor observations and psychiatric rating scores are used to assess the dweller’s mental health status and to predict an emergency psychiatric state. The proposed psychiatric state prediction algorithm reported 83.03 percent prediction accuracy in an empirical performance study. PMID:27608023

  19. An overview of the socio-cultural and psychiatric aspects of women's reproductive health in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Aina, O F

    2007-09-01

    The challenges associated with women reproductive health in West African sub region have over the years become a source of concern to relevant world bodies such as WHO, UNFPA, World Bank etc. Some of these challenges include Infertility, Family Planning and Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). However, of greater concern is the scourge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) most especially HIV/ AIDS and the unacceptably high maternal mortality in the sub region where Nigeria alone accounts for the highest percentage (10%) of the global 60,000 maternal deaths annually. Significant psychiatric complications such as anxiety and depression are associated with menstruation and menopause. However, the postpartum period is the most vulnerable with significant proportion of women developing such psychopathologies as Puerperal (maternity) blues, Postpartum Depression (PPD) and Acute Organic Brain Syndrome. Sociocultural factors, the dearth of psychiatrists in West Africa coupled with the poor or non-recognition of the psychiatric complications by the obstetric staff have not allowed enough clinical attention to be paid to these problems. It is thus advocated that improvement in the maternal and child health care component of the primary health care (PHC) services will go a long way to attenuate the psychiatric complications associated with childbirth.

  20. [The psychiatric hospital circuit: the trajectories of young people prior to psychiatric hospitalization].

    PubMed

    Scisleski, Andrea Cristina Coelho; Maraschin, Cleci; Silva, Rosane Neves da

    2008-02-01

    This article analyzes psychiatric hospitalization of young patients from a contemporary social-subjective (rather than a psychopathological) perspective, following the trajectory of these youth prior to their admission. The study was conducted at the Center for Comprehensive Psychosocial Care for Children and Adolescents, São Pedro Psychiatric Hospital, in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Recurrent traits in the trajectory of these youth expressed how the health care network functioned with them prior to their hospitalization, with a consistent pattern of socioeconomic deprivation, low schooling, and drug use. Another key aspect was the role of the court system in referring them for hospitalization, adhering to a kind of logic that punished both the youth and the services and paradoxically formed a strategy for access to health services.

  1. [Psychiatric reform 25 years after the General Law of Health].

    PubMed

    Desviat, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    The paper analyzes the situation of the psychiatric reform 25 years of the General Health Law. The author wonders what has been done and what has been left undone, on the degree of implementation of the Community model that adopts the law and its future sustainability. It highlights, among the strengths, the loss of hegemony of the psychiatric hospital and the great development of alternative resources, and seeks to explain the reason for the inadequacies of care, policy and training, as well as threats: the changes in the management of social and health services, increased privatization of services, the theoretical impoverishment and changing demands of the population.

  2. Professional learning partnerships: a collaboration between education and service.

    PubMed

    Williams-Barnard, Carol L; Bockenhauer, Barbarajo; O'Keefe Domaleski, Vareen; Eaton, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    Escalating mental health care needs coupled with a decreasing nurse labor force demand a fundamental paradigm shift in undergraduate education and service partnerships among psychiatric-mental health nursing students and practicing nurses. The purpose of this two-group comparative study was to identify factors that contribute to a successful learning partnership between nursing students and practicing nurses engaged in a clinical specialty partnership program within an acute psychiatric-mental health setting. The convenience sample consisted of 51 partners: 33 undergraduate students and 18 practicing nurses. The Learning Partnership Survey was administered to all partners allowing comparison of ranking among factors important to the partner relationship. Contrary to previous research, student and nurse partners were more similar in their factor ranking in the present study. Statistically significant differences were noted in the ranking of 2 of the 15 factors that fostered successful learning partnerships. Implications for professional learning partnerships between nursing academia and service institutions are discussed.

  3. Mental health services for Alzheimer's disease. Current trends in reimbursement and public policy, and the future under managed care.

    PubMed

    Bartels, S J; Colenda, C C

    1998-01-01

    Behavioral or psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease are strongly related to the use of health care services and result in a significant emotional and financial burden for families. This paper is an overview of major trends in the organization and funding of mental health services for people with Alzheimer's disease, emphasizing specific public policy and reimbursement initiatives that have affected acute and long-term care. Recent trends reflecting increased federal scrutiny of Medicare-reimbursed services and the current and future challenges in providing mental health services to people with Alzheimer's disease within managed care and capitated health plans are also addressed.

  4. The Psychiatric Disorders of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Charles R.; Lucas, Alexander R.

    A general textbook on the psychiatric disorders of childhood, the book is intended to be an introductory text for students and practitioners working with children (such as psychiatric and pediatric residents and psychologists, teachers, medical students). The genesis of mental illness is discussed in terms of the contributions of heredity and the…

  5. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  6. A review of trazodone use in psychiatric and medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Khouzam, Hani Raoul

    2017-01-01

    Trazodone is an antidepressant that is FDA-approved for the treatment of depression. It has been used by mental health and primary care providers for the treatment of multiple psychiatric and medical conditions .This review describes trazodone mechanism of action, formulation, dosage and adverse effects and then summarizes the beneficial effects of trazodone in the treatment of various psychiatric and medical conditions such as major depression, as well non-approved FDA indications such as insomnia,anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, feeding and eating disorders, substance use disorders, behavioral disturbances associated with cognitive dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, certain pain conditions, and rehabilitation after acute ischemic stroke. Despite trazodone's favorable effects in the treatment of FDA-unapproved psychiatric and medical conditions, large, randomized controlled clinical trials are still needed to confirm its efficacy in the treatment of the multiple conditions for which it is often used in clinical practice.

  7. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Yaroslav; Kaplitt, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy has become of increasing interest in clinical neurosurgery with the completion of numerous clinical trials for Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and pediatric genetic disorders. With improved understanding of the dysfunctional circuitry mediating various psychiatric disorders, deep brain stimulation for refractory psychiatric diseases is being increasingly explored in human patients. These factors are likely to facilitate development of gene therapy for psychiatric diseases. Because delivery of gene therapy agents would require the same surgical techniques currently being employed for deep brain stimulation, neurosurgeons are likely to lead the development of this field, as has occurred in other areas of clinical gene therapy for neurologic disorders. We review the current state of gene therapy for psychiatric disorders and focus specifically on particular areas of promising research that may translate into human trials for depression, drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Issues that are relatively unique to psychiatric gene therapy are also discussed.

  8. Exorcism: a psychiatric viewpoint.

    PubMed Central

    Trethowan, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    Doctors, for several reasons, should be concerned with exorcism is the view of Professor Trethowan, who in this paper, looks at the main features of exorcism as practised in the middle ages and now appearing in the modern world, as was seen in the recent Ossett case in Britain. He examines in some detail the nature of supposed demoniacal possession and describes its symptoms and signs. He also touches on the social, as opposed to the religious, background in which demoniacal possession flourished (not lacking in the world today), so leading to an examination of the psychodynamic aspects of demoniacal possession and the question of absolute evil. Finally he compares the techniques of exorcism and of modern psychiatric practice. PMID:966260

  9. Handedness in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Fleminger, J J; Dalton, R; Standage, K F

    1977-11-01

    Eight hundred psychiatric patients and eight hundred controls completed a handedness preference questionnaire. There was no significant difference in handedness between the two samples, but, contrary to some previous reports, excess of sinistrality was not associated with male sex. The distribution of handedness was similar in neurotics and controls, but among psychotics in general there was a higher proportion of fully right-handed subjects. Among schizophrenics there was a significantly higher proportion of left-handed writers among males than females. There were relatively few left-handed writers of either sex among patients with affective psychosis. Female patients with personality disorders had a significantly higher proportion of mixed handedness than controls. The findings are considered in relation to suggestions that functional psychoses may be associated with asymmetrical cerebral dysfunction, and that poorly lateralized function may be related to anomalous psychological development.

  10. Emergency Mental Health Services for Children After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Tim A; Kim, Yonsu; Lubens, Pauline; Singh, Amrita; Snowden, Lonnie; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Much literature documents elevated psychiatric symptoms among adults after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). We, however, know of no research in children that examines emergency mental health services following 9/11. We test whether children's emergency services for crisis mental health care rose above expected values in September 2001. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999-2003; N = 127,200 visits). Findings in California indicate an 8.7% increase of children's emergency mental health visits statistically attributable to 9/11. Non-Hispanic white more than African American children account for this acute rise in emergency services.

  11. 42 CFR 482.62 - Condition of participation: Special staff requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... psychiatric nursing services must be a registered nurse who has a master's degree in psychiatric or mental... staffing pattern must insure the availability of a registered professional nurse 24 hours each day. There must be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers...

  12. 42 CFR 482.62 - Condition of participation: Special staff requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... psychiatric nursing services must be a registered nurse who has a master's degree in psychiatric or mental... staffing pattern must insure the availability of a registered professional nurse 24 hours each day. There must be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers...

  13. 42 CFR 482.62 - Condition of participation: Special staff requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... psychiatric nursing services must be a registered nurse who has a master's degree in psychiatric or mental... staffing pattern must insure the availability of a registered professional nurse 24 hours each day. There must be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers...

  14. 42 CFR 482.62 - Condition of participation: Special staff requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... psychiatric nursing services must be a registered nurse who has a master's degree in psychiatric or mental... staffing pattern must insure the availability of a registered professional nurse 24 hours each day. There must be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers...

  15. 42 CFR 482.62 - Condition of participation: Special staff requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... psychiatric nursing services must be a registered nurse who has a master's degree in psychiatric or mental... staffing pattern must insure the availability of a registered professional nurse 24 hours each day. There must be adequate numbers of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers...

  16. A Psychiatric Primer for Programs Serving People with Developmental Disabilities. Monograph #101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dal Pozzo, Earlene; Bernstein, Gail S.

    Intended for personnel in programs serving persons with developmental disabilities, the booklet provides basic information about the major psychiatric disorders and their treatment. Five sections cover: the major disorders; medications--uses and problems; assessment; cooordination of services; and psychiatric emergencies. Major disorders such as…

  17. 75 FR 23105 - Medicare Program; Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Prospective Payment System Payment-Update for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...This notice updates the payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient psychiatric hospital services provided by inpatient psychiatric facilities (IPFs). These changes are applicable to IPF discharges occurring during the rate year beginning July 1, 2010 through June 30, 2011. We are also responding to comments on the IPF PPS teaching adjustment and the market......

  18. Gender Differences in Psychiatric Diagnoses among Inpatients with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Bradley, Elspeth A.; Gracey, Carolyn D.; Durbin, Janet; Koegl, Chris

    2009-01-01

    There are few published studies on the relationship between gender and psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Adults (N = 1,971) with and without intellectual disabilities who received inpatient services for psychiatric diagnosis and clinical issues were examined. Among individuals with intellectual disabilities,…

  19. Defining the Needs of Patients with Intellectual Disabilities in the High Security Psychiatric Hospitals in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, S. D.; Dolan, M.; Johnston, S.; Middleton, H.; Harty, M. A.; Carlisle, J.; Thornicroft, G.; Appleby, L.; Jones, P.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a substantial proportion of the patients with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the high security psychiatric hospitals (HSPHs) should be transferred to more appropriate services to cater for their specific needs in the longer term. The individual and placement needs of high secure psychiatric patients detained…

  20. Combined medical-psychiatric inpatient units: evaluation of the Centre for the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Maier, A B; Wächtler, C; Hofmann, W

    2007-08-01

    Considering the large number of elderly patients in acute hospitals who receive medical as well as psychiatric treatment because of relevant comorbidity, adequate interdisciplinary treatment models have to be developed and applied. The Centre for Elderly, a cooperation project between the departments of geriatric and psychogeriatric medicine in a community hospital in Germany, was founded in 2000. In addition to traditionally structured units, the centre consists of interdisciplinary units. Patient-, staff- and hospital-related characteristics influenced by the reformation of both departments were evaluated by comparing hospital-based registry data records containing age, gender, main and minor diagnoses, length of stay and patient transferrals within the centre. Experts working at the centre were asked to take a stand on the development of the treatment quality, allocation of patients, diagnostic procedures, consultation services and information transmission. The number of admissions to the Centre for the Elderly increased within one year. The distribution of the main diagnose groups remained unchanged, with an overlap between the geriatric and psychogeriatric department consisting of the main diagnoses dementia and depression. The length of stay and the number of transferrals decreased significantly in both departments. The majority of the interviewed employees stated that the treatment quality and the allocation of patients were improved. We conclude that interdisciplinary treatment between the departments of psychiatry and geriatric medicine may contribute to the medical needs of subgroups of elderly inpatients suffering from medical-psychiatric comorbidity.

  1. Designer drugs in psychiatric practice - a review of the literature and the recent situation in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szily, Erika; Bitter, István

    2013-12-01

    In recent years service providers experienced a new phenomenon in the drug markets of Hungary: the dramatically increasing sale and use of designer drugs. In psychiatric practice, the first sign of this new trend was the increasing number of hospitalized patients with acute psychosis using a new type of designer drug: MDPV (3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone). The range of designer drugs available is wider than ever before. They are inexpensive and many times are known to be legal, undetectable, safe or natural to the consumers. In fact, the compounds and their biological effects are many times unknown to the consumers and to the physicians as well, while a recently emerging body of data suggests that the somatic and mental consequences of their consumption are frequent, severe, and sometimes even life-threatening. The aims of this paper are to summarize the most important general information about some widely used designer drugs (synthetic cathinones and cannabinoids); to draw attention to present and upcoming trends of substance abuse patterns; and to highlight the importance and consequences of these trends in every day clinical practice, considering the most important and challenging somatic and psychiatric consequences of designer drug abuse.

  2. Veterans' psychiatric benefits: enter courts and attorneys.

    PubMed

    Sparr, L F; White, R; Friedman, M J; Wiles, D B

    1994-01-01

    In 1988, the Veterans Judicial Review Act (VJRA) was signed into law, ending more than a century of Congressional measures that kept veterans' benefits claims completely out of the appellate court system. Before this new law, any decision made by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA) about a veteran's claim was final, and there was no recourse for independent judgment of an appeal. The legislation modified the existing Board of Veterans Appeals (BVA) to enhance its independence from the Veterans' Administration and established a new Court of Veterans Appeals (CVA) with jurisdiction to review BVA decisions. Veterans' benefits proceedings have not only been insulated from the courts, they also have been undesirable to private attorneys, because since 1864 Congress has prohibited attorneys from charging more than $10 to advocate a VA disability claim. The new law allows attorneys to represent veterans before the CVA and receive appropriate remuneration. In 1991, the number of veterans was estimated at 26,897,000, and VA disability compensation programs spent $9.6 billion. Currently, there are about 2,179,000 veterans receiving service-connected monetary compensation; approximately 13.5 percent (293,200) have a primary psychiatric disability. The CVA is a specialized Article I court that has seven justices and sits in Washington, D.C. In its formative years, the Court has reached decisions that have had an impact on the veterans' psychiatric benefits examination process. Now more than ever, non-VA psychiatrists may be asked to offer probative opinions in veterans' benefits proceedings. The authors review VA psychiatric disability procedures and, using case examples, discuss both precedent decisions involving VA psychiatric claimants and the evolving standards of judicial review.

  3. Psychiatric manifestations of treatable hereditary metabolic disorders in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Detecting psychiatric disorders of secondary origin is a crucial concern for the psychiatrist. But how can this reliably be done among a large number of conditions, most of which have a very low prevalence? Metabolic screening undertaken in a population of subjects with psychosis demonstrated the presence of treatable metabolic disorders in a significant number of cases. The nature of the symptoms that should alert the clinician is also a fundamental issue and is not limited to psychosis. Hereditary metabolic disorders (HMD) are a rare but important cause of psychiatric disorders in adolescents and adults, the signs of which may remain isolated for years before other more specific organic signs appear. HMDs that present purely with psychiatric symptoms are very difficult to diagnose due to low awareness of these rare diseases among psychiatrists. However, it is important to identify HMDs in order to refer patients to specialist centres for appropriate management, disease-specific treatment and possible prevention of irreversible physical and neurological complications. Genetic counselling can also be provided. This review focuses on three HMD categories: acute, treatable HMDs (urea cycle abnormalities, remethylation disorders, acute intermittent porphyria); chronic, treatable HMDs (Wilson’s disease, Niemann-Pick disease type C, homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis); and chronic HMDs that are difficult to treat (lysosomal storage diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, creatine deficiency syndrome). We also propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of HMDs in patients with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:25478001

  4. Psychiatric manifestations of treatable hereditary metabolic disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Demily, Caroline; Sedel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Detecting psychiatric disorders of secondary origin is a crucial concern for the psychiatrist. But how can this reliably be done among a large number of conditions, most of which have a very low prevalence? Metabolic screening undertaken in a population of subjects with psychosis demonstrated the presence of treatable metabolic disorders in a significant number of cases. The nature of the symptoms that should alert the clinician is also a fundamental issue and is not limited to psychosis. Hereditary metabolic disorders (HMD) are a rare but important cause of psychiatric disorders in adolescents and adults, the signs of which may remain isolated for years before other more specific organic signs appear. HMDs that present purely with psychiatric symptoms are very difficult to diagnose due to low awareness of these rare diseases among psychiatrists. However, it is important to identify HMDs in order to refer patients to specialist centres for appropriate management, disease-specific treatment and possible prevention of irreversible physical and neurological complications. Genetic counselling can also be provided. This review focuses on three HMD categories: acute, treatable HMDs (urea cycle abnormalities, remethylation disorders, acute intermittent porphyria); chronic, treatable HMDs (Wilson's disease, Niemann-Pick disease type C, homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis); and chronic HMDs that are difficult to treat (lysosomal storage diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, creatine deficiency syndrome). We also propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of HMDs in patients with psychiatric symptoms.

  5. How to write a psychiatric consultation.

    PubMed

    Garrick, T R; Stotland, N L

    1982-07-01

    The written psychiatric consultation is the distillation, the official permanent record, and the one universal element of the consultation process. Both the document and process present a good and growing opportunity for service and teaching. The authors offer a conceptual and practical scheme to help potential consultants make decisions about the content, style, and wording of their written communications. Each of the components of the consultation document, including headings, openings, history, examination, and formulations, is considered in terms of its effects on the liaison with the consultee and the care of the patient.

  6. Do Race, Ethnicity, and Psychiatric Diagnoses Matter in the Prevalence of Multiple Chronic Medical Conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Humensky, Jennifer; Druss, Benjamin; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Gomes, Arminda P.; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background The proportion of people in the United States with multiple chronic medical conditions (MCMC) is increasing. Yet, little is known about the relationship that race, ethnicity, and psychiatric disorders have on the prevalence of MCMCs in the general population. Methods This study used data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N= 33,107). Multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for socio-demographic variables, body mass index, and quality of life were used to examine differences in the 12-month prevalence of MCMC by race/ethnicity, psychiatric diagnosis, and the interactions between race/ethnicity and psychiatric diagnosis. Results Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics reported lower odds of MCMC and African Americans reported higher odds of MCMC after adjusting for covariates. People with psychiatric disorders reported higher odds of MCMC compared to people without psychiatric disorders. There were significant interactions between race and psychiatric diagnosis associated with rates of MCMC. In the presence of certain psychiatric disorders, the odds of MCMC were higher among African Americans with psychiatric disorders compared to non-Hispanic Whites with similar psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Our study results indicate that race, ethnicity, and psychiatric disorders are associated with the prevalence of MCMC. As the rates of MCMC rise, it is critical to identify which populations are at increased risk and how to best direct services to address their health care needs. PMID:23552429

  7. When the safe place does not protect: reports of victimisation and adverse experiences in psychiatric institutions.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Mesquita, Cristina; da Costa Maia, Ângela

    2016-12-01

    Psychiatric patients report higher levels of victimisation and are at risk for further victimisation in different contexts, such as psychiatric institutions. Studies in this field tend to focus on hospital staff as victims, experiencing classic forms of victimisation (e.g. physical assault, threats, verbal abuse), through qualitative studies. This is a quantitative retrospective study that aims to know the occurrence of psychiatric victimisation and other adverse experiences in Portuguese psychiatric patients. Ninety-five psychiatric patients, between 20 and 79 years old (M - 45.18, SD - 13.06), with a history of psychiatric hospitalisation answered the Experiences in Psychiatric Institution Inventory. Participants were recruited in four psychiatric hospitals. Inpatients were approached during their hospitalisation; outpatients were approached in scheduled appointment days. Only 23 (24.2%) participants reported no victimisation. Total Experiences of Self varied from 0 to 7 (M - 1.75, SD - 1.72), Total Witnessed Experiences varied from 0 to 7 (M - 1.17, SD - 1.64), and Total Global Experiences varied from 0 to 14 (M - 2.92, SD - 3.01). These results show that victimisation and adverse experiences in psychiatric contexts are frequent and go beyond classic forms of victimisation. A deeper knowledge of these experiences and their impact in the mental health of psychiatric patients may promote quality of care provided and lead to more effective treatments, thus reducing the number and length of hospitalisations, and the financial burden for public health services.

  8. [The reform of psychiatric care in Poland--2001].

    PubMed

    Puzyński, Stanisław; Langiewicz, Wanda; Pietrzykowska, Bozena

    2002-01-01

    Both positive and negative effects of the reform of the health care financing system are noted. Low prices offered by Sickness Funds for particular services (a bed-day, a visit) should be regarded as a negative effect of the reform. Particularly insufficient were the prices of services in some specialised psychiatric wards and in outpatient clinics. Prices in many community-based psychiatric facilities were also considerably underestimated. Undoubtedly, the reform has led to positive changes in the organization of inpatient care. These changes include: further reduction of beds in large hospitals organisational structure as well as a marked increase in the number of psychiatric wards at general hospitals, which should be the key units of psychiatric inpatient care. Increase in the number of day hospitals is another positive effect of the reform. The programme of psychiatric care transformation is presented mostly in the Mental Health Programme. The main goal of this programme is to ensure appropriate care for the mentally disordered people, namely comprehensive and accessible health care as well as other forms of help and and support necessary for living in family and in society. This goal will be accomplished by health care and other forms of help mentioned in the Mental Health Act and in the Social Help Act. Community-based model of psychiatric care is the key element of this system. Also, the Programme states desired accessibility rates for staff, number of beds and number of particular forms of psychiatric and alcohol treatment care. Separate rates for adult and children/youth population have been elaborated.

  9. Community resources for psychiatric and psychosocial problems. Family physicians' referral patterns in urban Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Craven, M. A.; Allen, C. J.; Kates, N.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the number and pattern of psychiatric and psychosocial referrals to community resources by family physicians (FPs) and to determine whether referral practices correlate with physician variables. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of referrals by FPs to 34 key psychiatric and psychosocial community resources identified by a panel of FPs, psychiatric social workers, psychiatric nurses, public health nurses, and the local community information service. SETTING: Regional municipality of 434,000 persons in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven of 34 (79%) community agencies identified 261 FPs who made 4487 referrals to participating agencies (range 0 to 65, median 15, mean 17.19 +/- 13.42). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of referrals to all agencies; variables, such as physician sex, school of graduation, year of graduation, and certificate status in the College of Family Physicians of Canada, related to referral patterns. RESULTS: Referrals to outpatient psychiatric clinics, support services, and general counseling services accounted for 96% of all referrals. Physicians' average annual referral profile was as follows: 8.6 patients to a support service, 6.3 to an outpatient psychiatric service, 1.6 to a counseling service, and 0.46 to a substance abuse service. Referral profiles of individual physicians varied greatly. Female FPs made fewer referrals than male FPs to support services, but both made similar numbers of referrals to psychiatric, counseling, and substance abuse services. The more recent the year of graduation, the greater the number of referrals to psychiatric (r = 0.158, P = 0.0107) and counseling services (r = 0.137, P = 0.0272) and the higher the fraction of referrals to psychiatric services (r = 0.286, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians in Hamilton-Wentworth made few referrals to psychiatric and psychosocial services. Only physician sex and year of graduation correlated significantly with numbers of referrals made. Recent

  10. Neighborhood Influences on Emergency Medical Services Use for Acute Stroke – A Population-based Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Meurer, William J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Kerber, Kevin A.; Zahuranec, Darin B.; Burke, James; Baek, Jonggyu; Sanchez, Brisa; Smith, Melinda A; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Lisabeth, Lynda

    2015-01-01

    Objective Delay to hospital arrival limits acute stroke treatment. Use of emergency medical service (EMS) is key in ensuring timely stroke care. We aimed to identify low-EMS utilizing neighborhoods and to evaluate whether neighborhood-level factors were associated with (EMS) use. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, a population-based stroke surveillance study of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage cases presenting to emergency departments in Nueces County, Texas. The primary outcome was arrival by EMS. The primary exposures were neighborhood resident age, poverty, and violent crime. We estimated the association of neighborhood level factors with EMS use using hierarchical logistic regression, controlling for individual factors (stroke severity, ethnicity and age). Results During 2000-2009 there were 4004 identified strokes, with EMS use data available for 3474. Nearly half (49%) of stroke cases arrived by EMS. Adjusted stroke EMS utilization was lower in neighborhoods with higher family income (OR 0.86 95% CI 0.75-0.97) and a larger percentage of older adults (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.89). Individual factors associated with stroke EMS use included white race (OR 1.41 95% CI 1.13-1.76) and older age (OR 1.36 per 10-year age increment, 95% CI 1.27-1.46). The proportion of neighborhood stroke cases arriving by EMS ranged from 17% to 71%. The fully adjusted model only explained 0.3% (95% CI 0-1.1%) of neighborhood EMS stroke use variance, indicating that individual factors are more strongly associated with stroke EMS use than neighborhood factors. Conclusions While some neighborhood-level factors were associated with EMS use, patient-level factors explained nearly all variability in stroke EMS use. In this community, strategies to increase EMS use should target individuals rather than specific neighborhoods. PMID:26386884

  11. Asian models of excellence in psychiatric care and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Chandra, Naveen; Chen, Char-Nie; Ganesan, M; Koyama, Asuka; Kua, E E Heok; Lee, Myung Soo; Lin, Chih Yuan; Ng, Chee; Setoya, Yutaro; Takeshima, Tadashi; Zou, Yizhuang

    2008-10-01

    In Asia, like other regions, the circumstances for psychiatric care and rehabilitation impose various limitations on us. However, committed professionals have been creating innovative models of excellence, which are culturally appropriate and clinically effective. In this paper, seven innovative models of psychiatric care and rehabilitation are presented. The Nitte project in India provides a comprehensive free rural psychiatric service, while transforming the 'brain drain' problem to 'brain circulation' cooperation. Through Social Enterprises in Hong Kong recovered clients are trained and employed. Senior Peer Counselling in Singapore emphasizes the relief of emotional distress by psychological methods and the primacy of communication in the healing or therapeutic relationship. Seoul Mental Health 2020, an epoch-making project in Korea, has increased the coverage rate of community mental health centres remarkably. Yuli Psychiatric Rehabilitation Model in Taiwan helps long-term inpatients to get reintegrated into the community. In Japan, models of excellence for community-based psychiatry have been developed at local government, hospital and community/NGO levels. Chinese Psychiatry Online, an excellent website, provides public education, resource searching, self-testing and consultation services for the public along with various contents for professionals. We must disseminate information about models of excellence which provide great benefit to the people who suffer from psychiatric illness without high expenses.

  12. Reflective Prompts to Guide Termination of the Psychiatric Clinical Student Nursing Experience.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Grace B

    2016-04-01

    The average length of stay on psychiatric inpatient units has decreased in the past 40 years from 24.9 to 7.2 days. Inpatient psychiatric nurses are challenged to meet the standards and scope of practice despite the changing circumstances of their work environment. The amount of time student nurses spend with a given patient has been affected by changes in acute psychiatric inpatient care and decreased length of stay; however, opportunities exist for effective termination of the nurse-client relationship. Facilitation of students' awareness and understanding of the dynamics inherent in the termination process is an important teaching task for psychiatric nursing clinical instructors. In the current article, a clinically focused learning activity using structured prompts to guide and promote psychiatric nursing students' experiences with the process of termination is described and teaching strategies are discussed.

  13. 42 CFR 456.170 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456.170 Section 456.170 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND..., and social evaluations. (a) Before admission to a mental hospital or before authorization for...

  14. Psychiatric Inpatient Admissions of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Predictive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Amy; Newton, Jonathan; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; Holt, Geraldine

    2005-01-01

    Information on admission to psychiatric inpatient units is lacking from the literature on contemporary services for people with intellectual disability and mental health needs. Here we report on predictors of admission for a cohort of 752 adults from this population living in community settings; 83 were admitted. We also report on two subsamples…

  15. [Psychiatric advance directives--medical models into psychiatric medicine].

    PubMed

    Mautner, Sigal; Lachman, Max; Kaplan, Zeev; Shalev, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Since the year 2005, in the field of general medicine, the legislature in Israel determined ways to implement medically advanced directives according to the power of the law. Different states in the world had implemented parallel legislation for patients who suffer from mental illness. Psychiatric Advance Directives is a legitimate document which is valid in Australia, New Zealand, Scotland, England and in 25 countries in the U.S.A. Psychiatric advance directives (PAD's) allow competent persons, through advance instructions, to state their preferences for future mental health treatment in the event of an incapacitating psychiatric crisis. Self Determination Theory, Self Care and Autonomy are dominant supportive approaches in the creation of Psychiatric Advance Directives. Research conducted on psychiatric advance directives shows positive potential benefits for mental health clients, therapists and psychiatrists. More research in that area must be conducted. Psychiatric advance directives are currently developed and implemented with the cooperation of the Tauber Foundation and the Beer Sheva Mental Health Center. This is the first step in learning of effective ways to use this intervention in Israel and change perceptions toward a positive connection between medical efficiency and client preferences.

  16. Psychiatric side effects attributed to phenylpropanolamine.

    PubMed

    Lake, C R; Masson, E B; Quirk, R S

    1988-07-01

    Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a sympathomimetic drug similar in structure to amphetamine which, in the United States, is present in over 130 medications, primarily decongestants, cough/cold remedies, and anorectic agents. We have reviewed 37 cases (published in North America and Europe since 1960) that received diagnoses of acute mania, paranoid schizophrenia, and organic psychosis and that were attributed to PPA product ingestion. Of the 27 North American case reports, more reactions followed the ingestion of combination products than preparations containing PPA alone; more occurred after ingestion of over-the-counter products than those obtained by prescription or on-the-street; and more of the cases followed ingestion of recommended doses than overdoses. Groups at particular risk appear to be those with a past or family psychiatric history, children under the age of 6 and post-partum women. Failure to recognize PPA as an etiological agent in the onset of symptoms usually led to a diagnosis of schizophrenia or mania, lengthy hospitalization, and treatment with substantial doses of neuroleptics or lithium. While generally safe at recommended doses, PPA can be hazardous to susceptible individuals and we urge physicians to be alert to the potential for PPA related psychiatric reactions. We have compiled an alphabetized table (Table 1: Prescription and Over-the-Counter Products Containing Phenylpropanolamine) allowing busy clinicians quick access to those drugs containing PPA.

  17. Inpatient Suicide in a Chinese Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Hao, Yuantao; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Guo, Yangbo; Su, Jinghua; Lu, Huixian

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the risk factors for suicide among psychiatric inpatients in China. In this study we identified the risk factors of suicide among psychiatric inpatients at Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital. All psychiatric inpatients who died by suicide during the 1956-2005 period were included in this study. Using a case-control design, 64…

  18. Circadian Rhythms and Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Asarnow, Lauren D.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review provides a conceptual introduction to sleep and circadian research in psychiatric illness, and discusses recent experimental and intervention findings in this area. Recent Findings In this review, studies published since January 2011 on circadian disturbance and psychiatric illness have been summarized. Summary Exciting new results have increasingly utilized objective and validated instruments to measure the circadian system in experimental studies. Since 2011, treatment research has still predominantly utilized self-report measures as outcome variables. However, research in the treatment domain for sleep/circadian disturbances comorbid with psychiatric illness has advanced the field in its work to broaden the validation of existing sleep treatments to additional patient populations with comorbid sleep/circadian disruptions, address how to increase access to and affordability of treatment for sleep and circadian dysfunction for patients with psychiatric disorders, and how to combine psychosocial treatments with psychopharmacology to optimize treatment outcomes. PMID:24060916

  19. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the “tip of the iceberg” of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  20. Stories of change: the Text Analysis of handovers in an Italian psychiatric residential care home.

    PubMed

    Accordini, M; Saita, E; Irtelli, F; Buratti, M; Saluto, G

    2017-02-15

    Handovers assure a timely and correct information transfer while socializing workers to the service's culture, however no study describes them as instruments to document organizational change and only a few have focused on psychiatric settings.

  1. 78 FR 46733 - Medicare Program; Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Prospective Payment System-Update for Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...This notice updates the prospective payment rates for Medicare inpatient hospital services provided by inpatient psychiatric facilities (IPFs). These changes are applicable to IPF discharges occurring during the fiscal year (FY) beginning October 1, 2013 through September 30,...

  2. 77 FR 47223 - Medicare Program; Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities Prospective Payment System-Update for Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...This notice updates the prospective payment rates for Medicare inpatient hospital services provided by inpatient psychiatric facilities (IPFs). These changes are applicable to IPF discharges occurring during the fiscal year (FY) beginning October 1, 2012 through September 30,...

  3. The Traditional Role of a Psychiatric Consultant in a Nontraditional College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzl, Ugo

    1974-01-01

    This article describes the establishment and operation of psychiatric consultation services at a small nontraditional college in New England. The prototype for this program was the satellite setup described by Curtis. (JA)

  4. [Subjective glance in ethics and attitudes in psychiatric nursing].

    PubMed

    Schädle-Deininger, Hilde

    2014-07-01

    Patients with psychiatric problems have the right to receive qualified and humane psychiatric nursing. To meet these requirements nurses should reflect on their daily practice and whether they support clients in respect of autonomy, empowerment and recovery or only meet the requirements of the institution and well-worn routines. The Code of Ethics for Nurses (International Council of Nurses [ICN] and the four principles of Beauchamp and Childress [respect of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice]) help nurses to decide in their daily work on the narrow line between autonomy and treating the patient like a child. Emphasis is laid on the nurses' duty to influence the political development in health services.

  5. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Bhola, Poornima; Kapur, Malavika

    2003-01-01

    The increasing focus on child mental health in developing countries like India points to the importance of epidemiological data in developing training, service and research paradigms.This review attempts to synthesise and evaluate the available research on the prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India and highlight significant conceptual and methodological trends. It identified 55 epidemiological studies conducted between 1964 and 2002 in the community and school settings. Despite considerable progress, various methodological lacunae continue to limit the value of the epidemiological surveys. These include issues related to sampling, case definition methods, tools, multi-informant data and data analysis. The importance of a socio-culturally relevant research framework has been highlighted. The review suggests directions for future research to guide planning of services that meet the mental health needs of vulnerable children and adolescents PMID:21206860

  6. Continuing Care for Mentally Stable Psychiatric Patients in Primary Care: Patients' Preferences and Views

    PubMed Central

    Agyapong, Vincent I. O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the preferences of psychiatric patients regarding attendance for their continuing mental health care once stable from a primary care setting as opposed to a specialized psychiatric service setting. Methods. 150 consecutive psychiatric patients attending outpatient review in a community mental health centre in Dublin were approached and asked to complete a semistructured questionnaire designed to assess the objectives of the study. Results. 145 patients completed the questionnaire giving a response rate of 97%. Ninety-eight patients (68%) preferred attending a specialized psychiatry service even when stabilised on their treatment. The common reason given by patients in this category was fear of substandard quality of psychiatric care from their general practitioners (GPs) (67 patients, 68.4%). Twenty-nine patients (20%) preferred to attend their GP for continuing mental health care. The reasons given by these patients included confidence in GPs, providing same level of care as psychiatrist for mental illness (18 patients or 62%), and the advantage of managing both mental and physical health by GPs (13 patients, 45%). Conclusion. Most patients who attend specialised psychiatric services preferred to continue attending specialized psychiatric services even if they become mentally stable than primary care, with most reasons revolving around fears of inadequate psychiatric care from GPs. PMID:22844590

  7. Oxymoronic or synergistic: deconstructing the psychiatric and/or mental health nurse.

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, John; Stevenson, Chris; Lakeman, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Examination of the names used to signify a nurse who specializes in working with people with mental health problems indicates the absence of a shared nomenclature and the frequent conflation of the terms 'psychiatric' and 'mental health'. Informed by the work of Derrida (1978) and Saussure (1916-1983), the authors encourage the deconstruction of and problematization of these terms, and this shows that what nurses who work with people with so-called mental illness are called has depended on where they have worked, the vagaries of passing fashion, and public policy. Further, there are irreconcilable philosophical, theoretical, and clinical positions that prevent nurses from practicing simultaneously as 'psychiatric' and 'mental health' nurses. Related service user literature indicates that it is disingenuous to camouflage 'psychiatric' services as 'mental health' services, and as signifiers, signified, and signs, psychiatric and mental health nursing are sustained by political agendas, which do not necessarily prioritize the needs of the person with the illness. Clearly demarked and less disingenuous signs for both mental health and psychiatric care would not only be a more honest approach, but would also be in keeping with the service user literature that highlights the expectation that there are two signs (and thus two services): psychiatric and mental health services.

  8. Pioneering the psychiatric nurse role in foster care.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Julie E; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; McMillen, J Curtis

    2013-12-01

    Older youth served in the foster care system have elevated rates of mental health disorders and are high users of mental health services, yet concerns have been raised about the quality of this care. This paper describes the details of a psychiatric nurse's work within a multidisciplinary team to address gaps in care for older youth with psychiatric disorders. We describe the process, outcomes, and lessons learned in developing and piloting a psychiatric nurse intervention for older youth in the foster care system as part of a multidimensional treatment foster care program. Our experiences support further work to develop a role for nursing to improve the quality of mental health treatment in foster care.

  9. Evaluation of outcomes in Psychiatric Consultation-Liaison Nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Yakimo, Richard; Kurlowicz, Lenore H; Murray, Ruth Beckmann

    2004-12-01

    This report describes and evaluates the current status of outcome analysis in Psychiatric Consultation-Liaison Nursing (PCLN) and offers suggestions for future development. The status of outcome evaluation generally in psychiatric nursing is described with attention given to the scope of practice of PCLN and outcomes used by psychiatric consultation-liaison nurses (PCLNs) to evaluate their interventions. An evaluation framework based on Donabedian's paradigm of structure, process, and outcome is presented and its applicability shown to PCLN. This framework is further explicated with regard to a review of published studies of PCLN within the outcome domains of cost reduction, satisfaction with services, changes in clinical status, and perceptions of work environment. Finally, recommendations for further development of outcomes in PCLN are offered, based on the strengths and limitations of the extant literature.

  10. Patient and System-Related Delays of Emergency Medical Services Use in Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results from the Third Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-3Ps)

    PubMed Central

    AlHabib, Khalid F.; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Almahmeed, Wael; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Amin, Haitham; Al Jarallah, Mohammed; Alfaleh, Hussam F.; Panduranga, Prashanth; Hersi, Ahmad; Kashour, Tarek; Al Aseri, Zohair; Ullah, Anhar; Altaradi, Hani B.; Nur Asfina, Kazi; Welsh, Robert C.; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about Emergency Medical Services (EMS) use and pre-hospital triage of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Arabian Gulf countries. Methods Clinical arrival and acute care within 24 h of STEMI symptom onset were compared between patients transferred by EMS (Red Crescent and Inter-Hospital) and those transferred by non-EMS means. Data were retrieved from a prospective registry of 36 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries, from January 2014 to January 2015. Results We enrolled 2,928 patients; mean age, 52.7 (SD ±11.8) years; 90% men; and 61.7% non-Arabian Gulf citizens. Only 753 patients (25.7%) used EMS; which was mostly via Inter-Hospital EMS (22%) rather than direct transfer from the scene to the hospital by the Red Crescent (3.7%). Compared to the non-EMS group, the EMS group was more likely to arrive initially at a primary or secondary health care facility; thus, they had longer median symptom-onset-to-emergency department arrival times (218 vs. 158 min; p˂.001); they were more likely to receive primary percutaneous coronary interventions (62% vs. 40.5%, p = 0.02); they had shorter door-to-needle times (38 vs. 42 min; p = .04); and shorter door-to-balloon times (47 vs. 83 min; p˂.001). High EMS use was independently predicted mostly by primary/secondary school educational levels and low or moderate socioeconomic status. Low EMS use was predicted by a history of angina and history of percutaneous coronary intervention. The groups had similar in-hospital deaths and outcomes. Conclusion Most acute STEMI patients in the Arabian Gulf region did not use EMS services. Improving Red Crescent infrastructure, establishing integrated STEMI networks, and launching educational public campaigns are top health care system priorities. PMID:26807577

  11. Psychosocial functioning of individuals with schizophrenia in community housing facilities and the psychiatric hospital in Zurich.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Matthias; Briner, David; Kawohl, Wolfram; Seifritz, Erich; Baumgartner-Nietlisbach, Gabriela

    2015-12-15

    Individuals with severe mental illness frequently have difficulties in obtaining and maintaining adequate accommodation. If they are not willing or able to adapt to requirements of traditional supported housing institutions they may live in sheltered and emergency accommodation. Adequate mental health services are rarely available in these facilities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mental health, functional and social status of individuals living in community sheltered housing facilities. A cross-sectional survey of n=338 individuals in sheltered housing compared to a sample of patients at intake in acute inpatient psychiatry (n=619) concerning clinical and social variables was carried out in the catchment area of Zurich. Matched subsamples of individuals with schizophrenia (n=168) were compared concerning functioning and impairments on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS). Individuals with schizophrenia in sheltered housing (25% of the residents) have significantly more problems concerning substance use, physical illness, psychopathological symptoms other than psychosis and depression, and relationships, daily activities and occupation than patients with schizophrenia at intake on an acute psychiatric ward. Community sheltered accommodation although conceptualized to prevent homelessness in the general population de facto serve as housing facilities for individuals with schizophrenia and other severe mental illness.

  12. Community Service Models for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic relapsing and remitting mental illness with lifetime prevalence between 0.40 to 1.4 percent. Most people with schizophrenia are treated in psychiatric units of local general hospitals for short periods of time when acutely ill. With the worldwide trend toward closure of asylums and institutions in the 1950s, there has been an increasing focus on treatment in the community. Community mental health teams (CMHT) are the kernel of community treatment. Although their composition and modus operandi differ according to patient need, all models claim superiority over outcomes of long inpatient stay. Case management, assertive outreach, and crisis resolution sometimes compete for resources. What is the evidence for their efficacy? What is the right mix of their use? As we discuss these, we propose that there may be room for the application of established industry models of service delivery, such as Just-in-Time (JIT), in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:21179632

  13. Undergraduate college students' perceptions of psychiatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Wantz, Richard A; Firmin, Michael W; Stolzfus, Melissa J; Ray, Brigitte N; Holmes, Hannah J; Geib, Ellen F

    2012-11-01

    We surveyed undergraduate students' perceptions of psychiatric nurses' effectiveness and analyzed other sources of data. Students reported that psychiatric nurses' strengths include helping in situations that involve psychiatric symptoms, mental health evaluation, and drug abuse. Psychiatric nurses also were said to be effective when helping an individual with psychiatric symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations. Friends or associates, common knowledge, school and education, and movies are some sources by which students learn about psychiatric nurses. Sources that provided less influential information include insurance carriers, newspapers, and personal experience.

  14. The psychiatric aspects of tropical disorders.

    PubMed

    German, G A

    1979-01-01

    The nature of psychiatric disorders in tropical regions is affected much more by the effect on the patient of certain environmental and cultural factors than by any specific features of tropical diseases. In places where the standards of health care and health education are not yet fully developed, abnormalities of physical development, particularly those affecting the development of the cerebral cortex, are of great importance. For example, protein-energy malnutrition may result in deficits in cerebral maturation and efficiency that reduce the capacity of the brain to manage its behavioural functions and may give rise to impaired capacities for concentration, foresight, and judgement and impairment of inhibitory control over intensely experienced emotions. In addition, certain cultural attitudes that are widespread in pre-literate societies influence the type of secondary reaction to disease: for example, acute symptoms tend to be florid and uninhibited, and violently experienced and externalized emotions such as hilarity, terror, anger, and grief are the rule rather than the exception.Certain tropical diseases are, however, the direct cause of severe disturbance of cerebral functioning, while others affect only the finer cerebral controls so that normally controlled fears, anxieties, and other personality traits emerge. These specific brain syndromes may be acute or chronic and may be triggered by an apparently trivial physical cause. Acute brain syndromes appear to be more common in tropical countries perhaps because in the adult the cerebral cortical reserve is less than it ought to be because of the prevalence of earlier minimal brain damage. Formal psychiatric reactions are, of course, also seen in tropical countries, but the expression of, for example, schizophrenia, hypomanic and manic states, and depression is coloured by the underlying personality and the cultural background of the patient. Perhaps in no other setting is the intimate relationship between

  15. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases.

  16. Quinolones: review of psychiatric and neurological adverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Ana M; Filipe, Augusto

    2011-06-01

    of reports, while for ofloxacin and pefloxacin, the number of reports may be over-representative. A total of 232 ADRs were identified from the selected articles, with 206 of these related to psychiatric and/or neurological ADRs. The other 26 were related to other body systems but were reported together with the reactions of interest. Mania, insomnia, acute psychosis and delirium were the most frequently reported psychiatric adverse events; grand mal convulsion, confusional state, convulsions and myoclonus were the most frequently reported neurological adverse events. Several aspects should be taken into account in the development of CNS adverse effects, such as the pharmacokinetics of quinolones, chemical structure and quinolone uptake in the brain. These events may affect not only susceptible patients but also 'healthy' patients.

  17. Psychiatric pharmacogenomics in pediatric psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Wall, Christopher A; Croarkin, Paul E; Swintak, Cosima; Koplin, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    This article provides an overview of where psychiatric pharmacogenomic testing stands as an emerging clinical tool in modern psychotropic prescribing practice, specifically in the pediatric population. This practical discussion is organized around the state of psychiatric pharmacogenomics research when choosing psychopharmacologic interventions in the most commonly encountered mental illnesses in youth. As with the rest of the topics on psychopharmacology for children and adolescents in this publication, a clinical vignette is presented, this one highlighting a clinical case of a 16 year old genotyped during hospitalization for recalcitrant depression.

  18. The nature of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry. Pragmatism articulates a sensible approach to psychiatric disorders just seeking categories that perform well in the world. But it makes no claim about the reality of those disorders. This is problematic, because we have a duty to advocate for our profession and our patients against other physicians who never doubt the reality of the disorders they treat. Constructivism has been associated with anti-psychiatry activists, but we should admit that social forces play a role in the creation of our diagnoses, as they do in many sciences. However, truly socially constructed psychiatric disorders are rare. I then describe powerful arguments against a realist theory of psychiatric disorders. Because so many prior psychiatric diagnoses have been proposed and then abandoned, can we really claim that our current nosologies have it right? Much of our current nosology arose from a series of historical figures and events which could have gone differently. If we re-run the tape of history over and over again, the DSM and ICD would not likely have the same categories on every iteration. Therefore, we should argue more confidently for the reality of broader constructs of psychiatric illness rather than our current diagnostic categories, which remain tentative. Finally, instead of thinking that our disorders are true because they correspond to clear entities in the world, we should consider a coherence theory of truth by which disorders

  19. Psychiatric Disorders: Diagnosis to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krystal, John H.; State, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings in a range of scientific disciplines are challenging the conventional wisdom regarding the etiology, classification and treatment of psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the current state of the psychiatric diagnostic nosology and recent progress in three areas: genomics, neuroimaging, and therapeutics development. The accelerating pace of novel and unexpected findings is transforming the understanding of mental illness and represents a hopeful sign that the approaches and models that have sustained the field for the past 40 years are yielding to a flood of new data and presaging the emergence of a new and more powerful scientific paradigm. PMID:24679536

  20. Psychiatric disorders in civilian pilots.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G

    1983-07-01

    Psychiatric disorders are second only to cardiovascular disorders as a cause of permanent loss of licence in both professional aircrew and private pilots in the UK. In professional aircrew, psychiatric disorders are commonly aviation-related, whilst in private pilots less effective selection and the stresses of business and personal affairs are common factors. Because human error is a major cause of accidents, the early diagnosis of disorders of thought and behaviour is clearly crucial in promoting flight safety. Airline doctors and AMEs must play the most important part.

  1. Psychiatric Genomics and Mental Health Treatment: Setting the Ethical Agenda.

    PubMed

    Kong, Camillia; Dunn, Michael; Parker, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Realizing the benefits of translating psychiatric genomics research into mental health care is not straightforward. The translation process gives rise to ethical challenges that are distinctive from challenges posed within psychiatric genomics research itself, or that form part of the delivery of clinical psychiatric genetics services. This article outlines and considers three distinct ethical concerns posed by the process of translating genomic research into frontline psychiatric practice and policy making. First, the genetic essentialism that is commonly associated with the genomics revolution in health care might inadvertently exacerbate stigma towards people with mental disorders. Secondly, the promises of genomic medicine advance a narrative of individual empowerment. This narrative could promote a fatalism towards patients' biology in ways that function in practice to undermine patients' agency and autonomy, or, alternatively, a heightened sense of subjective genetic responsibility could become embedded within mental health services that leads to psychosocial therapeutic approaches and the clinician-patient therapeutic alliance being undermined. Finally, adopting a genomics-focused approach to public mental health risks shifting attention away from the complex causal relationships between inequitable socio-economic, political, and cultural structures and negative mental health outcomes. The article concludes by outlining a number of potential pathways for future ethics research that emphasizes the importance of examining appropriate translation mechanisms, the complementarity between genetic and psychosocial models of mental disorder, the implications of genomic information for the clinician-patient relationship, and funding priorities and resource allocation decision making in mental health.

  2. Teaching Psychodynamics to Psychiatric Residents through Psychiatric Outpatient Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso Zoppe, Eva Helena C.; Schoueri, Patricia; Castro, Monica; Neto, Francisco Lotufo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates whether a course that was designed for first-year psychiatric residents and that specifically addressed psychodynamic principles fostered residents' progress in knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding these concepts. Methods: The course was given in the 2005 academic year to all residents (N=18) in their first…

  3. Psychiatric Disorders in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Asadian-koohestani, Fatemeh; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Dastgiri, Saeed; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Arman, Soroor; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Motavallian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    ADHD; and Tabriz had the highest rates of social phobia. Therefore, these percentage of psychiatric disorders in Iran lead us toward a greater use of consultation and mental health services PMID:27437005

  4. Neuromuscular training with injury prevention counselling to decrease the risk of acute musculoskeletal injury in young men during military service: a population-based, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapidly increasing number of activity-induced musculoskeletal injuries among adolescents and young adults is currently a true public health burden. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme with injury prevention counselling is effective in preventing acute musculoskeletal injuries in young men during military service. Methods The trial design was a population-based, randomised study. Two successive cohorts of male conscripts in four companies of one brigade in the Finnish Defence Forces were first followed prospectively for one 6-month term to determine the baseline incidence of injury. After this period, two new successive cohorts in the same four companies were randomised into two groups and followed prospectively for 6 months. Military service is compulsory for about 90% of 19-year-old Finnish men annually, who comprised the cohort in this study. This randomised, controlled trial included 968 conscripts comprising 501 conscripts in the intervention group and 467 conscripts in the control group. A neuromuscular training programme was used to enhance conscripts' motor skills and body control, and an educational injury prevention programme was used to increase knowledge and awareness of acute musculoskeletal injuries. The main outcome measures were acute injuries of the lower and upper limbs. Results In the intervention groups, the risk for acute ankle injury decreased significantly compared to control groups (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.15 to 0.78, P = 0.011). This risk decline was observed in conscripts with low as well as moderate to high baseline fitness levels. In the latter group of conscripts, the risk of upper-extremity injuries also decreased significantly (adjusted HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99, P = 0.047). In addition, the intervention groups tended to have less time loss due to injuries (adjusted HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.04). Conclusions A

  5. Characteristics of aggression among psychiatric inpatients by ward type in Japan: Using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised (SOAS-R).

    PubMed

    Sato, Makiko; Noda, Toshie; Sugiyama, Naoya; Yoshihama, Fumihiro; Miyake, Michi; Ito, Hiroto

    2016-07-22

    Aggressive behaviour by psychiatric patients is a serious issue in clinical practice, and adequate management of such behaviour is required, with careful evaluation of the factors causing the aggression. To examine the characteristics of aggressive incidents by ward type, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted for 6 months between April 2012 and June 2013 using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised, Japanese version (SOAS-R) in 30 wards across 20 Japanese psychiatric hospitals. Participating wards were categorized into three types based on the Japanese medical reimbursement system: emergency psychiatric, acute psychiatric, and standard wards (common in Japan, mostly treating non-acute patients). On analyzing the 443 incidents reported, results showed significant differences in SOAS-R responses by ward type. In acute and emergency psychiatric wards, staff members were the most common target of aggression. In acute psychiatric wards, staff requiring patients to take medication was the most common provocation, and verbal aggression was the most commonly used means. In emergency psychiatric wards, victims felt threatened. In contrast, in standard wards, both the target and provocation of aggression were most commonly other patients, hands were used, victims reported experiencing physical pain, and seclusion was applied to stop their behaviour. These findings suggest that ward environment was an important factor influencing aggressive behaviour. Ensuring the quality and safety of psychiatric care requires understanding the characteristics of incidents that staff are likely to encounter in each ward type, as well as implementing efforts to deal with the incidents adequately and improve the treatment environment.

  6. Decision making in psychiatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Murdach, A D

    1987-01-01

    Social workers increasingly are being required to assist clients in emergency situations. Such conditions typically require rapid decision making and quick action. In this article, the processes practitioners use in their interventions in psychiatric emergencies are examined. This examination is based on concepts derived from cognitive psychology and decision-making theory. Implications for practice and training also are discussed.

  7. The Psychiatric Comorbidity Hypothesis Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Kavale, Kenneth A.; Bauman, Stephanie San Miguel

    1998-01-01

    The authors of an earlier article, which argued that the social skills deficits typically found in children with learning disabilities (LD) are largely due to the comorbidity of LD with psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorder, respond to a critique that did not find this relationship…

  8. The virtues in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Mann, D W

    1997-01-01

    Using as a guide Pellegrino and Thomasma's "end-oriented beneficence model" of the virtues in medical practice, the author derives from the cardinal forms of psychiatric treatment a set of virtues particular to this field. Prior work from Jung, Havens and Menzer-Benaron helps to clarify the analysis.

  9. Management of Current Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carbonnel, François; David, Michel; Norton, Joanna; Bourrel, Gérard; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe and analyse the experience of family physicians in managing current psychiatric disorders to obtain a better understanding of the underlying reasons of under-detection and inadequate prescribing identified in studies. Methods: A qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Sample of 15 practicing family physicians, recruited by telephone from a precedent cohort (Sesame1) with a maximum variation: sex, age, single or group practice, urban or rural. Qualitative method is inspired by the completed grounded theory of a verbatim semiopragmatic analysis from 2 experts in this approach. Results: Family physicians found that current psychiatric disorders were related to psychological symptoms in reaction to life events. Their role was to make patients aware of a psychiatric symptom rather than establish a diagnosis. Their management responsibility was considered in contrasting ways: it was claimed or endured. They defined their position as facilitating compliance to psychiatrist consultations, while assuring a complementary psychotherapeutic approach. Prescribing medication was not a priority for them. Conclusions: The identified under-detection is essentially due to inherent frontline conditions and complexity of clinical forms. The family physician role, facilitating compliance to psychiatrist consultations while assuring a support psychotherapy is the main result of this study. More studies should be conducted to define more accurately the clinical reality, management and course of current psychiatric disorders in primary care.

  10. Functional and psychiatric vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Staab, J P

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral factors have long been recognized as affecting spatial orientation and balance function. Neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic studies conducted worldwide over the last 30 years have substantially advanced our knowledge about the inherently strong connectivity among threat/anxiety, vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems in the brain. Clinical investigations have shed greater light on the nature of functional and psychiatric disorders that manifest or magnify vestibular morbidity. Concepts of these syndromes have changed over 150 years. Even their nomenclature has had different meanings in different eras. This chapter will review functional and psychiatric vestibular disorders. Terminology will follow the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition, beta draft and the International Classification of Vestibular Disorders. Anxiety plays a central role in behavioral vestibular morbidity. Anxiety, traumatic stress, obsessive, and depressive disorders may be primary causes of episodic and chronic vestibular symptoms or secondary complications of other vestibular disorders. These psychiatric illnesses affect 30-50% of patients who consult neurologists or otologists for vestibular symptoms. Coexisting psychiatric disorders adversely affect treatment for patients with structural vestibular diseases, especially when unrecognized. Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness is the leading cause of long-term vestibular disability. Fortunately, pharmacologic, psychotherapeutic, and rehabilitative treatments of these illnesses have improved in recent years.

  11. Antidepressant adherence after psychiatric hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Zivin, Kara; Ganoczy, Dara; Pfeiffer, Paul N.; Miller, Erin M.; Valenstein, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    Objective Depressed patients discharged from psychiatric hospitalizations face increased risks for adverse outcomes including suicide, yet antidepressant adherence rates during this high-risk period are unknown. Using Veterans Affairs (VA) data, we assessed antidepressant adherence and predictors of poor adherence among depressed veterans following psychiatric hospitalization. Method We identified VA patients nationwide with depressive disorders who had a psychiatric hospitalization between April 1, 1999 and September 30, 2003, received antidepressant medication, and had an outpatient appointment following discharge. We calculated medication possession ratios (MPRs), a measure of medication adherence, within three and six months following discharge. We assessed patient factors associated with having lower levels of adherence (MPRs <0.8) after discharge. Results 20,931 and 23,182 patients met criteria for three and six month MPRs. The mean three month MPR was 0.79 (s.d.=0.37). The mean six month MPR was 0.66 (s.d.=0.40). Patients with poorer adherence were male, younger, non-white, and had a substance abuse disorder, but were less likely to have PTSD or other anxiety disorders. Conclusion Poor antidepressant adherence is common among depressed patients after psychiatric hospitalization. Efforts to improve adherence at this time may be critical in improving the outcomes of these high-risk patients. PMID:19609666

  12. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Parental Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Iranian Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Moini, Rozita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the psychiatric comorbidity of a clinical sample of children with ADHD and the psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method: Structured psychiatric interviews assessing lifetime psychiatric disorders by "DSM-IV" criteria, using the Farsi version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results: The…

  13. The psychoactive effects of psychiatric medication: the elephant in the room.

    PubMed

    Moncrieff, Joanna; Cohen, David; Porter, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The psychoactive effects of psychiatric medications have been obscured by the presumption that these medications have disease-specific actions. Exploiting the parallels with the psychoactive effects and uses of recreational substances helps to highlight the psychoactive properties of psychiatric medications and their impact on people with psychiatric problems. We discuss how psychoactive effects produced by different drugs prescribed in psychiatric practice might modify various disturbing and distressing symptoms, and we also consider the costs of these psychoactive effects on the mental well-being of the user. We examine the issue of dependence, and the need for support for people wishing to withdraw from psychiatric medication. We consider how the reality of psychoactive effects undermines the idea that psychiatric drugs work by targeting underlying disease processes, since psychoactive effects can themselves directly modify mental and behavioral symptoms and thus affect the results of placebo-controlled trials. These effects and their impact also raise questions about the validity and importance of modern diagnosis systems. Extensive research is needed to clarify the range of acute and longer-term mental, behavioral, and physical effects induced by psychiatric drugs, both during and after consumption and withdrawal, to enable users and prescribers to exploit their psychoactive effects judiciously in a safe and more informed manner.

  14. Childhood Trauma and Psychiatric Disorders as Correlates of School Dropout in a National Sample of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia; Alegria, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    The effect of childhood trauma, psychiatric diagnoses, and mental health services on school dropout among U.S.-born and immigrant youth is examined using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, a nationally representative probability sample of African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites,…

  15. The recovery paradigm in trauma work: approaches to healing psychiatric disability and substance abuse in women's lives.

    PubMed

    Bussey, Marian; Wise, Judith Bula

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of integrative treatment for women with psychiatric disabilities and substance issues, particularly those who have histories of abuse, violence, and trauma. Psychiatric rehabilitation, trauma, and cooccurring dimensions of treatment are discussed. Promising programs using consumer-oriented service models are highlighted.

  16. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzbold, Marcelo; Diaz, Alexandre; Martins, Evandro Tostes; Rufino, Armanda; Amante, Lúcia Nazareth; Thais, Maria Emília; Quevedo, João; Hohl, Alexandre; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Walz, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed. PMID:19043523

  17. Low self-esteem and psychiatric patients: Part II – The relationship between self-esteem and demographic factors and psychosocial stressors in psychiatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Salsali, Mahnaz; Silverstone, Peter H

    2003-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to identify the effects and relative importance of demographic factors and psychosocial stressors on self-esteem of psychiatric patients. Method The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, patients and controls completed two self-esteem questionnaires, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale. In addition, a large amount of demographic and psychosocial data was collected on all patients. Results Significantly increased self-esteem was observed with an increase in age, educational achievement and income. Employed patients showed significantly higher self-esteem compared to unemployed patients. Female patients had a significantly lower self-esteem compared to male patients. The self-esteem of psychiatric patients did not vary significantly with their marital status. No relationship was detected between acute stressors and the self-esteem of psychiatric patients, although severe enduring stressors were associated with lower self-esteem in psychiatric patients. Conclusion The results of this large study demonstrate that the self-esteem of adult psychiatric patients is affected by a number of demographic and psychosocial factors including age, sex, educational status, income, employment status, and enduring psychosocial stressors. PMID:12622872

  18. American Psychiatric Nurses Association-Transitions in Practice Certificate Program: Bridging the Knowledge Gap in Caring for Psychiatric Patients Within the General Nursing Workforce.

    PubMed

    Adams, Susie M; Black, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to publicize an important new Web-based educational program. Recognizing the growing gap in psychiatric-mental health knowledge and the need to better prepare new graduates and nurses transitioning from other service lines into psychiatric inpatient nursing settings, the American Psychiatric Nurses Association developed a 15-hour, modularized curriculum to provide foundational psychiatric-mental health knowledge. This modularized curriculum, called American Psychiatric Nurses Association Transitions in Practice (ATP) focuses on the knowledge and skills to insure the success of nurses new to psychiatric-mental health nursing settings and to improve the overall care for persons with mental health and substance use disorders. The ATP program is also proving to be useful content for nurses in emergency departments, hospitals, and other health settings to improve their care of patients with psychiatric and mental health needs. A summary of the program modules and a toolkit with suggested measures for nurses, patients, and agency outcomes is described. Feedback from participants completing the ATP program within the first 6 months is overwhelmingly positive and holds promise for widespread application across a variety of health care settings.

  19. Blueprint for development of the advanced practice psychiatric nurse workforce.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Nancy P; Delaney, Kathleen R; Stuart, Gail W

    2012-01-01

    The mental health system is inefficient and ineffective in providing behavioral health care services to the 1 in 4 Americans who have a mental illness or a substance abuse problem. Current health care reform initiatives present a significant opportunity for advanced practice psychiatric nurses-psychiatric mental health (APRN-PMH) to develop action-oriented recommendations for developing their workforce and thereby increasing access to high-quality and full-spectrum behavioral health care services. If endorsed by the professional nursing associations and the APRN-PMH workforce, the strategies presented in this paper provide a blueprint for developing the APRN-PMH workforce. Achieving these goals will significantly reform the APRN-PMH workforce, thereby contributing to the overall goal of supporting an integrated model of behavioral health care. No change has as much potential to influence the APRN-PMH workforce as the uniting of all APRN-PMHs in a "Blueprint for APRN-PMH Workforce Development."

  20. New directions for psychiatric rehabilitation in the USA.

    PubMed

    Bond, G R; Drake, R E

    2016-11-21

    American researchers have led the world in developing, evaluating, and disseminating evidence-based psychiatric rehabilitation practices for people with serious mental illness. Paradoxically, however, the USA lags behind most industrialized nations in providing access to high-quality mental health and psychiatric services. This essay examines several evidence-based practices developed in the USA, the spread of these practices, the barriers to ensuring availability to people who could benefit from these services, and some promising directions for overcoming the barriers. Factors influencing the growth and sustainment of effective client-centred practices include the availability of adequate and stable funding, committed leadership, and the influence of vested interests. Two strategies for promoting the spread and sustainment of well-implemented evidence-based practices are the adoption of fidelity scales and learning communities.

  1. The barriers to and enablers of providing reasonably adjusted health services to people with intellectual disabilities in acute hospitals: evidence from a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Goulding, Lucy; Giatras, Nikoletta; Abraham, Elisabeth; Gillard, Steve; White, Sarah; Edwards, Christine; Hollins, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the factors that promote and compromise the implementation of reasonably adjusted healthcare services for patients with intellectual disabilities in acute National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. Design A mixed-methods study involving interviews, questionnaires and participant observation (July 2011–March 2013). Setting Six acute NHS hospital trusts in England. Methods Reasonable adjustments for people with intellectual disabilities were identified through the literature. Data were collected on implementation and staff understanding of these adjustments. Results Data collected included staff questionnaires (n=990), staff interviews (n=68), interviews with adults with intellectual disabilities (n=33), questionnaires (n=88) and interviews (n=37) with carers of patients with intellectual disabilities, and expert panel discussions (n=42). Hospital strategies that supported implementation of reasonable adjustments did not reliably translate into consistent provision of such adjustments. Good practice often depended on the knowledge, understanding and flexibility of individual staff and teams, leading to the delivery of reasonable adjustments being haphazard throughout the organisation. Major barriers included: lack of effective systems for identifying and flagging patients with intellectual disabilities, lack of staff understanding of the reasonable adjustments that may be needed, lack of clear lines of responsibility and accountability for implementing reasonable adjustments, and lack of allocation of additional funding and resources. Key enablers were the Intellectual Disability Liaison Nurse and the ward manager. Conclusions The evidence suggests that ward culture, staff attitudes and staff knowledge are crucial in ensuring that hospital services are accessible to vulnerable patients. The authors suggest that flagging the need for specific reasonable adjustments, rather than the vulnerable condition itself, may address some of the barriers

  2. Closeness, chaos and crisis: the attractions of working in acute mental health care.

    PubMed

    Deacon, M; Warne, T; McAndrew, S

    2006-12-01

    This paper makes a case for the attractiveness of acute mental health inpatient nursing (acute nursing) and argues that an altered perception of this work is essential if we are to provide the most acutely mentally ill and vulnerable people with a stable and expert nursing workforce. The discussion draws on an ethnographic study conducted in an inner-city psychiatric unit in England and the advantages of this method for understanding nursing work are described. Within our findings, we set out two overarching themes: the contextual realities of the contemporary acute ward and features of attraction that encourage nurses to work in the acute care setting. The former includes nurses' responsibility for the total ward environment and the latter the 'comfort of closeness' and 'surviving and thriving in chaos and crisis'. In conclusion, we argue that despite the unpopularity of the acute inpatient mental health environment, the highly sophisticated skills employed by acute nurses actually ensure the promotion of health for the majority of service users.

  3. Career Choice and Longevity in U.S. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Robbi K; Diefenbeck, Cynthia A; Brown, Carlton G

    2015-06-01

    The demand for mental health services in the United States taxes the existing care continuum and is projected to increase as federal initiatives such as the Affordable Care Act and mental health parity improve access to, and coverage for, mental health services. Quality health care providers, such as psychiatric-mental health nurses, are needed to bolster the mental health system. Prior research has focused on the unpopularity of psychiatric nursing as a career choice for nursing students. The purpose of this study is to understand how seasoned psychiatric nurses came to choose and remain in the specialty; descriptive phenomenology is used. In a face-to-face interview, eight registered nurses described their experiences with psychiatric nursing as a student, their entry into psychiatric nursing, and factors related to their longevity in the specialty. Giorgi's Existential Phenomenological Research Method was employed to analyze the interview data. Three themes emerged related to career choice: Interest Developed Prior to or While in Nursing School, Personal Relevance, and Validation of Potential. Three themes emerged related to retention: Overcoming Stereotypes to Develop Career Pride, Positive Team Dynamics, and Remaining Hopeful. Nurse educators play an important role in identifying talent, validating capability, enhancing interest, and increasing students' confidence to pursue a psychiatric nursing career, while nursing administrators and clinical specialists play a key role in retention. Findings also stimulate pertinent questions surrounding the long-term viability of the psychiatric-mental health nursing specialty.

  4. The Banner Psychiatric Center: A Model for Providing Psychiatric Crisis Care to the Community while Easing Behavioral Health Holds in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Little-Upah, Pat; Carson, Chris; Williamson, Robert; Williams, Tom; Cimino, Michael; Mehta, Neena; Buehrle, Jeff; Kisiel, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Banner Health in the Phoenix, AZ, metropolitan area provides individuals in a behavioral health crisis with an alternative to presenting to an Emergency Department (ED). By implementing a process to quickly move patients out of our ED, our health care system has been able to greatly reduce the hold time for behavioral health patients. Through access to psychiatric clinicians around the clock at the Banner Psychiatric Center, patients now receive the appropriate treatment and needed care in a timely manner. Finally, disposition of patients into appropriate levels of care has freed up acute care Level 1 beds to be available to patients who meet those criteria. PMID:23596368

  5. Psychiatric Boarding in Washington State and the Inadequacy of Mental Health Resources.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    Psychiatric boarding is a term derived from emergency medicine that describes the holding of patients deemed in need of hospitalization in emergency departments for extended periods because psychiatric beds are not available. Such boarding has occurred for many years in the shadows of mental health care as both inpatient beds and community services have decreased. This article focuses on a 2014 Washington State Supreme Court decision that examined the interpretation of certain sections of the Washington state civil commitment statute that had been used to justify the extended boarding of detained psychiatric patients in general hospital emergency departments. The impact of this decision on the state of Washington should be significant and could spark a national debate about the negative impacts of psychiatric boarding on patients and on the nation's general hospital emergency services.

  6. Black South African psychiatric recipients: have they been overlooked under the recent democratization?

    PubMed

    Jones, Lani V

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the literature on service accessibility, utilization, and treatment needs for Black South African adults with psychiatric disabilities and highlights the paucity of empirical studies in these areas. Current research draws attention to the finding that Black South Africans essentially have been neglected or ignored in the mental health system, suggesting that the government should formulate and implement programs and policies to ensure the effective delivery of psychiatric services. A framework for practice is warranted in which traditional health practices are parallel to mainstream westernized psychiatric care that emphasizes culturally relevant care and naturally occurring community supports rather than large psychiatric institutions. It is suggested here that "psychosocial competence" may provide a resonant and particularly useful framework for practice in this population.

  7. Stereotyped paroxysmal psychiatric symptoms during oculogyric crisis or 'cognitive dystonia': a case report.

    PubMed

    Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkhel, Sujit; Akhtar, Sayeed

    2011-02-01

    Oculogyric crisis (OGC) is an acute dystonia which can occur after initiation of antipsychotic treatment. Stereotypic paroxysmal psychiatric symptoms have been described along with OGC that resolve spontaneously when the later remits. We report a case of tardive OGC associated with zuclopenthixol in which there were associated paroxysmal auditory pseudohallucinations.

  8. Conducting focus groups with women with severe psychiatric disabilities: a methodological overview.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, N F; Bourjolly, J N

    2001-01-01

    This article presents information on the methodology used in conducting focus groups with women with severe psychiatric disabilities. The purpose of the focus groups was to understand the experiences of low-income women with severe psychiatric disabilities in accessing and using primary health care services. Discussed are the design decisions researchers should reflect on when constructing and conducting focus groups with women with severe psychiatric disabilities. Information on how guidelines from the literature on conducting focus groups were adapted for these women as well as lessons learned from this experience are presented.

  9. Relationship of comorbid substance and alcohol use disorders to disability among patients in routine psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Joshua; West, Joyce C; Rae, Donald S; Regier, Darrel A

    2006-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to present data on the relationship of mental and comorbid substance use disorders to work disability and functioning in routine psychiatric practice in the United States. Data were used from the 1997 and 1999 American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education's Practice Research Network Study of Psychiatric Patients and Treatments, totaling 754 psychiatrists and 3,088 patients. Results found patients with comorbid substance use disorders had significantly higher rates of work disability. These findings highlight the critical need to address the disturbing lack of substance use treatment and rehabilitation services for this population.

  10. Low back pain patients in a psychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Maruta, T; Swanson, D W; Swenson, W M

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with low back pain resistant to medical and surgical treatment were studied. On admission to the psychiatric service, these patients revealed apparent features of conversion and hysterical personality, as characterized also by the MMPI profile. During hospitalization, however, there was increased appearance and recognition of anxious-depressive features. We suggest that these patients should be treated by the combined approach of supportive psychotherapy and physiotherapy, with appropriate use of antidepressants.

  11. [Inhalant abusers and psychiatric symptoms].

    PubMed

    Okudaira, K; Yabana, T; Takahashi, H; Iizuka, H; Nakajima, K; Saito, A

    1996-01-01

    There are different opinions about the cause of chronic psychiatric symptoms observed in drug abusers between Japanese and foreign psychiatrists. The Japanese seem to recognize the chronic psychosis as the result of drug abuse. In the other hand, foreigners diagnose these cases as dual diagnosis of drug abuse and psychosis. Authors studied the problem in this research. One of the authors has examined 120 inhalant abusers of all, in- and out-patients in Kanagawa Prefectural Center of Psychiatry, Serigaya Hospital from 1991 to 1995. These patients were classified into three groups: psychosis group (23 patients), dependence group (51 patients) and abuse group (46 patients) according to their clinical courses and psychiatric symptoms. The psychosis group consists of patients who showed psychiatric symptoms such as hallucination, delusion and thought disturbance for long time after detoxification. The dependence group contains patients whose inhalant dependence was severe and met DSM-4 Diagnostic Criteria for Substance Dependence, but manifested no chronic psychiatric symptoms after detoxification. The patients belonging to abuse group were at the earlier stages of inhalant abuse and had no chronic psychiatric symptoms. The average age of the first inhalant abuse was 14.7 years old in the psychosis group, 14.8 years in the dependence group and 14.7 years in the abuse group. The average years of abuse was 9.0 years in the psychosis group, and 8.5 years in the dependence group. There was little difference between these two groups. The psychosis patients manifested chronic symptoms 5.7 years on average after the first abuse of inhalants. About one forth (26.1%) of the psychosis patients and only 5.9% of the dependence patients had family history of schizophrenia. The difference was statistically significant. These results suggest that chronic psychiatric symptoms are caused not only by inhalant abuse, but also by the genetic factors of psychosis of each patient. There have

  12. Evaluating the effects of variation in clinical practice: a risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E) analysis of acute stroke services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methods for the cost-effectiveness analysis of health technologies are now well established, but such methods may also have a useful role in the context of evaluating the effects of variation in applied clinical practice. This study illustrates a general methodology for the comparative analysis of applied clinical practice at alternative institutions – risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E) analysis – with an application that compares acute hospital services for stroke patients admitted to the main public hospitals in South Australia. Methods Using linked, routinely collected data on all South Australian hospital separations from July 2001 to June 2008, an analysis of the RAC-E of services provided at four metropolitan hospitals was undertaken using a decision analytic framework. Observed (plus extrapolated) and expected lifetime costs and survival were compared across patient populations, from which the relative cost-effectiveness of services provided at the different hospitals was estimated. Results Unadjusted results showed that at one hospital patients incurred fewer costs and gained more life years than at the other hospitals (i.e. it was the dominant hospital). After risk adjustment, the cost minimizing hospital incurred the lowest costs, but with fewer life-years gained than one other hospital. The mean incremental cost per life-year gained of services provided at the most effective hospital was under $20,000, with an associated 65% probability of being cost-effective at a $50,000 per life year monetary threshold. Conclusions RAC-E analyses can be used to identify important variation in the costs and outcomes associated with clinical practice at alternative institutions. Such data provides an impetus for further investigation to identify specific areas of variation, which may then inform the dissemination of best practice service delivery and organisation. PMID:22905669

  13. 42 CFR 412.404 - Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. 412.404 Section 412.404 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.404 Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. (a) General requirements. (1)...

  14. 42 CFR 412.404 - Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. 412.404 Section 412.404 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.404 Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. (a) General requirements. (1)...

  15. 42 CFR 412.404 - Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. 412.404 Section 412.404 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.404 Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. (a) General requirements. (1)...

  16. 42 CFR 412.404 - Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. 412.404 Section 412.404 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.404 Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. (a) General requirements. (1)...

  17. 42 CFR 412.404 - Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. 412.404 Section 412.404 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.404 Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for inpatient hospital services of psychiatric facilities. (a) General requirements. (1)...

  18. Psychiatric disorders: a conceptual taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2007-04-01

    This article summarizes six conceptual dimensions that underlie common assumptions about what counts as an adequate category of psychiatric disorder. These dimensions are 1) causalism-descriptivism, 2) essentialism-nominalism, 3) objectivism-evaluativism, 4) internalism-externalism, 5) entities-agents, and 6) categories-continua. Four different versions of the medical model are described and compared with respect to these dimensions. The medical models vary in several ways, but all can be considered "essentialistic." As a counter to the essentialist homogeneity among the medical models, two nominalist analyses of psychiatric classification are reviewed. In order to fill out the space defined by the conceptual dimensions, two alternatives to medical model approaches are also described. After making some suggestions about where DSM-V might best be aligned with respect to the conceptual dimensions, the authors review the distinction between empirical and nonempirical aspects of classification--and argue that nonempirical aspects of classification are legitimate and necessary.

  19. Psychiatric Aspects of Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, G.; Desousa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Surgical transplantation of human organs from deceased as well as living donors to sick and dying patients began after the Second World War. Over the past 50 years the transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells has become a worldwide practice which has extended, and greatly enhanced the quality of hundreds of thousands of lives. The field of transplantation medicine provides an important chance for liaison between psychiatric professionals and other transplant physicians and surgeons. The discrepancy between the ever-increasing demand for organs but the decreasing supply makes it important to evaluate and prioritize individuals who are in dire need of the organ. However, this also gives rise to certain ethical questions. The following paper discusses various psychiatric aspects of organ transplantation in general. PMID:25013589

  20. French perspectives on psychiatric classification.

    PubMed

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11.

  1. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  2. Imaging genetics and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, R; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Umeda-Yano, S; Watanabe, Y; Fukunaga, M; Takeda, M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an integrated research method that uses neuroimaging and genetics to assess the impact of genetic variation on brain function and structure. Imaging genetics is both a tool for the discovery of risk genes for psychiatric disorders and a strategy for characterizing the neural systems affected by risk gene variants to elucidate quantitative and mechanistic aspects of brain function implicated in psychiatric disease. Early studies of imaging genetics included association analyses between brain morphology and single nucleotide polymorphisms whose function is well known, such as catechol-Omethyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). GWAS of psychiatric disorders have identified genes with unknown functions, such as ZNF804A, and imaging genetics has been used to investigate clues of the biological function of these genes. The difficulty in replicating the findings of studies with small sample sizes has motivated the creation of largescale collaborative consortiums, such as ENIGMA, CHARGE and IMAGEN, to collect thousands of images. In a genome-wide association study, the ENIGMA consortium successfully identified common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume at 12q24, and the CHARGE consortium replicated this finding. The new era of imaging genetics has just begun, and the next challenge we face is the discovery of small effect size signals from large data sets obtained from genetics and neuroimaging. New methods and technologies for data reduction with appropriate statistical thresholds, such as polygenic analysis and parallel independent component analysis (ICA), are warranted. Future advances in imaging genetics will aid in the discovery of genes and provide mechanistic insight into psychiatric disorders.

  3. Imaging Genetics and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, R; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Umeda-Yano, S; Watanabe, Y; Fukunaga, M; Takeda, M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an integrated research method that uses neuroimaging and genetics to assess the impact of genetic variation on brain function and structure. Imaging genetics is both a tool for the discovery of risk genes for psychiatric disorders and a strategy for characterizing the neural systems affected by risk gene variants to elucidate quantitative and mechanistic aspects of brain function implicated in psychiatric disease. Early studies of imaging genetics included association analyses between brain morphology and single nucleotide polymorphisms whose function is well known, such as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). GWAS of psychiatric disorders have identified genes with unknown functions, such as ZNF804A, and imaging genetics has been used to investigate clues of the biological function of these genes. The difficulty in replicating the findings of studies with small sample sizes has motivated the creation of large-scale collaborative consortiums, such as ENIGMA, CHARGE and IMAGEN, to collect thousands of images. In a genome-wide association study, the ENIGMA consortium successfully identified common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume at 12q24, and the CHARGE consortium replicated this finding. The new era of imaging genetics has just begun, and the next challenge we face is the discovery of small effect size signals from large data sets obtained from genetics and neuroimaging. New methods and technologies for data reduction with appropriate statistical thresholds, such as polygenic analysis and parallel independent component analysis (ICA), are warranted. Future advances in imaging genetics will aid in the discovery of genes and provide mechanistic insight into psychiatric disorders. PMID:25732148

  4. Psychiatric oncology: Cancer in mind

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Santosh K.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial oncology is an upcoming area of interest, which deals with numerous psychiatric, psychological, and social aspects of malignancies. Psychiatric oncology relates to some of the common psychological and emotional problems encountered in persons with malignancy and their formal and informal caregivers. This oration will discuss the importance of this field of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry, with a focus on the research and practice in the Indian setting. This presentation will also share the findings and researches of the presenter. All these range from studies on cancer pain and palliative care, screening for psychiatric morbidity, quality of life, communication skills for health professionals in breaking bad news and handling difficult questions, and counseling. The findings on researches on somatization and illness behavior in cancer patients would highlight newer challenges in this field. Caregivers of persons with cancer are as important as the patient, but usually ignored. The stress, strain, burden, positive emotions, and coping in the context of care giving for persons with cancer are being increasingly realized. Professional caregivers should be aware of caregiver difficulties and support them through their ordeal. Lastly, the importance of dealing with staff stress and burnout among health professionals looking after families with cancer patients and survivors will be emphasized. PMID:22988317

  5. TRP channels and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Chahl, Loris A

    2011-01-01

    Depression and schizophrenia are major psychiatric disorders that cause much human suffering. Current treatments have major limitations and new drug targets are eagerly sought. Study of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in these disorders is at an early stage and the potential of agents that activate or inhibit these channels remains speculative. The findings that TRPC6 channels promote dendritic growth and are selectively activated by hyperforin, the key constitutent of St John's wort, suggest that TRPC6 channels might prove to be a new target for antidepressant drug development. There is now considerable evidence that TRPV1 antagonists have anxiolytic activity but there is no direct evidence that they have antidepressant activity. There is also no direct evidence that TRP channels play a role in schizophrenia. However, the findings that TRPC channels are involved in neuronal development and fundamental synaptic mechanisms, and that TRPV1 channels play a role in central dopaminergic and cannabinoid mechanisms is suggestive of potential roles of these channels in schizophrenia. Investigation of TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of yielding further understanding of the aetiology of psychiatric disorders and the development of new drug treatments.

  6. Explanatory Models for Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    How can we best develop explanatory models for psychiatric disorders? Because causal factors have an impact on psychiatric illness both at micro levels and macro levels, both within and outside of the individual, and involving processes best understood from biological, psychological, and sociocultural perspectives, traditional models of science that strive for single broadly applicable explanatory laws are ill suited for our field. Such models are based on the incorrect assumption that psychiatric illnesses can be understood from a single perspective. A more appropriate scientific model for psychiatry emphasizes the understanding of mechanisms, an approach that fits naturally with a multicausal framework and provides a realistic paradigm for scientific progress, that is, understanding mechanisms through decomposition and reassembly. Simple subunits of complicated mechanisms can be usefully studied in isolation. Reassembling these constituent parts into a functioning whole, which is straightforward for simple additive mechanisms, will be far more challenging in psychiatry where causal networks contain multiple nonlinear interactions and causal loops. Our field has long struggled with the interrelationship between biological and psychological explanatory perspectives. Building from the seminal work of the neuronal modeler and philosopher David Marr, the author suggests that biology will implement but not replace psychology within our explanatory systems. The iterative process of interactions between biology and psychology needed to achieve this implementation will deepen our understanding of both classes of processes. PMID:18483135

  7. Health Care Reform and the Federal Transformation Initiatives: Capitalizing on the Potential of Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Delaney, Kathleen; Merwin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade the US federal government proposed a transformation vision of mental health service delivery; patient-centered, evidence-based and recovery oriented treatment models. Health care reform brings additional expectations for innovation in mental/substance use service delivery, particularly the idea of creating systems where physical health, mental health and substance use treatment is fully integrated. Psychiatric nurses, as one of the four core US mental health professions, have the potential to play a significant role in the both the transformation initiative and health care reform vision. However, psychiatric nurses, particularly advanced practice psychiatric nurses, are an untapped resource due in part to significant state regulatory barriers that limit their scope of practice in many states. The purpose of this paper is to document what is currently known about advanced practice psychiatric nurses and discuss policy implications for tapping into the strengths of this workforce. Strategies for facilitating utilization of advanced practice psychiatric nurses discussed. PMID:21233135

  8. Supporting Students with Psychiatric Disabilities in Postsecondary Education: Important Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupferman, Scott I.; Schultz, Jared C.

    2015-01-01

    We began the exploratory process of identifying knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are important for disability service professionals to possess in order to provide beneficial services to students with psychiatric disabilities in postsecondary education. Using a three-round Delphi survey, two groups of experts identified 54 knowledge, skill,…

  9. 42 CFR 482.61 - Condition of participation: Special medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Special medical record requirements for psychiatric hospitals. 482.61 Section 482.61 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS...

  10. Who experiences seclusion? An examination of demographics and duration in a public acute inpatient mental health service.

    PubMed

    Chavulak, Jacinta; Petrakis, Melissa

    2017-03-21

    Restrictive interventions such as seclusion may occur during an acute mental health crisis. Such interventions are experienced by people as traumatic and counter to recovery. The current study aimed to investigate the use of seclusion and who was secluded amongst patients presenting with psychotic symptomology. All acute inpatient admissions were examined across a 12-month period January-December 2013. Electronic and paper records were accessed and audited for all 655 admissions. There were 91 admissions that included a seclusion and 200 seclusion events. There were 79 unique patients who experienced seclusion. For those experiencing seclusion: two-thirds were male, 49% were either homeless or had no fixed abode, 32% received case management in the community prior to their inpatient stay, and 56% were unemployed or not in the workforce. The median and mode duration of seclusion was 4 h. By understanding seclusion interventions better, changes can be made to enhance practice. This descriptive research into seclusion has clarified the demographics of who is most likely to experience seclusion, for how long, and the implications for reducing restrictive interventions. How the social work role could contribute to reforms to protect and enhance the rights and well-being of marginalized members of our communities, at their most vulnerable, is considered.

  11. Antibiotics May Trigger Mitochondrial Dysfunction Inducing Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, George B.; Samuel, Joshua; Kream, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Clinical usage of several classes of antibiotics is associated with moderate to severe side effects due to the promotion of mitochondrial dysfunction. We contend that this may be due to perturbation of unique evolutionary relationships that link selective biochemical and molecular aspects of mitochondrial biology to conserved enzymatic processes derived from bacterial progenitors. Operationally, stereo-selective conformational matching between mitochondrial respiratory complexes, cytosolic and nuclear signaling complexes appears to support the conservation of a critically important set of chemical messengers required for existential regulation of homeostatic cellular processes. Accordingly, perturbation of normative mitochondrial function by select classes of antibiotics is certainly reflective of the high degree of evolutionary pressure designed to maintain ongoing bidirectional signaling processes between cellular compartments. These issues are of critical importance in evaluating potentially severe side effects of antibiotics on complex behavioral functions mediated by CNS neuronal groups. The CNS is extremely dependent on delivery of molecular oxygen for maintaining a required level of metabolic activity, as reflected by the high concentration of neuronal mitochondria. Thus, it is not surprising to find several distinct behavioral abnormalities conforming to established psychiatric criteria that are associated with antibiotic usage in humans. The manifestation of acute and/or chronic psychiatric conditions following antibiotic usage may provide unique insights into key etiological factors of major psychiatric syndromes that involve rundown of cellular bioenergetics via mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, a potential window of opportunity exists for development of novel therapeutic agents targeting diminished mitochondrial function as a factor in severe behavioral disorders. PMID:28063266

  12. Psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bui, Quan M; Simpson, Scott; Nordstrom, Kimberly

    2015-05-01

    We use a case report to describe the acute psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency setting. A 34-year-old woman presented with erratic, disruptive behavior and psychotic symptoms after recreational ingestion of edible cannabis. She was also found to have mild hypokalemia and QT interval prolongation. Psychiatric management of cannabis psychosis involves symptomatic treatment and maintenance of safety during detoxification. Acute medical complications of marijuana use are primarily cardiovascular and respiratory in nature; electrolyte and electrocardiogram monitoring is indicated. This patient's psychosis, hypokalemia and prolonged QTc interval resolved over two days with supportive treatment and minimal intervention in the emergency department. Patients with cannabis psychosis are at risk for further psychotic sequelae. Emergency providers may reduce this risk through appropriate diagnosis, acute treatment, and referral for outpatient care.

  13. Psychiatric and Medical Management of Marijuana Intoxication in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Quan M.; Simpson, Scott; Nordstrom, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    We use a case report to describe the acute psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency setting. A 34-year-old woman presented with erratic, disruptive behavior and psychotic symptoms after recreational ingestion of edible cannabis. She was also found to have mild hypokalemia and QT interval prolongation. Psychiatric management of cannabis psychosis involves symptomatic treatment and maintenance of safety during detoxification. Acute medical complications of marijuana use are primarily cardiovascular and respiratory in nature; electrolyte and electrocardiogram monitoring is indicated. This patient’s psychosis, hypokalemia and prolonged QTc interval resolved over two days with supportive treatment and minimal intervention in the emergency department. Patients with cannabis psychosis are at risk for further psychotic sequelae. Emergency providers may reduce this risk through appropriate diagnosis, acute treatment, and referral for outpatient care. PMID:25987916

  14. Psychiatric morbidity among cocaine and heroin users in the community.

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Silvia; Herrero, Ma Jesús; Domingo-Salvany, Antònia; Molist, Gemma; Barrio, Gregorio; de la Fuente, Luís; Brugal, Ma Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. Moreover, co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders are common among drug users. This paper examines psychiatric disorders of young cocaine and heroin users using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). A cohort of 1266 young (18-30 years) current regular cocaine (705) and heroin (561) users were recruited outside the health services in Barcelona, Madrid and Seville, Spain. The WMH-CIDI was used to evaluate mental disorders; the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) measured the degree of dependence; and the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ) assessed social support, in a crosssectional study design. About 43% was diagnosed with a lifetime mental disorder. The most common diagnoses were depression (37.5%) and specific phobia (6.8%). During the last 12 months, prevalence rates were also slightly higher in heroin group (26.4%) than in cocaine cohort (21.7%). Every day cocaine consumption, having unstable living conditions and low social support were variables highly associated with psychiatric morbidity in cocaine cohort. In heroin cohort, earning money through illegal activities was associated with psychiatric morbidity, while the moderate use of alcohol acted as a protective factor for mental pathology. Morbidity was associated to having received psychiatric/psychological treatment during the last 12 months in both cohorts. This study has shown a relatively high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in cocaine and heroin users recruited in non-clinical settings. Future studies examining differences between cocaine and heroin patterns of consumption associated with mental diseases are necessary.

  15. Work characteristics and psychiatric disorder in civil servants in London.

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, S A; North, F M; White, I; Marmot, M G

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To describe the association between self reported and externally assessed work characteristics and psychiatric disorder. DESIGN--Analysis of questionnaire data collected from the first phase of the Whitehall II study, a cohort study of an employed population. SETTING--Twenty civil service departments in London. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 6900 male and 3414 female civil servants aged 35-55 years. MAIN RESULTS--High levels of subjective social support at work, control at work, job variety, and skill use were associated with greater satisfaction and wellbeing and less psychiatric disorder measured by the 30 item general health questionnaire (GHQ). High levels of subjective work pace and conflicting demands were associated with less satisfaction and wellbeing and greater psychiatric disorder. The combined effects of work characteristics were similar to the effects of the work characteristics considered separately, except that for men there was a small interaction between psychological demands and control on the GHQ. There was little overall support for the two factor job strain model. In contrast, objective indices of work were generally not associated with the psychological indices. Findings in men and women were generally comparable and were not significantly influenced by employment grade. CONCLUSIONS--Negative affectivity and a tendency to report negatively about both work and the psychological indices may partly explain the difference in the findings between subjective and objective work characteristics. However, subjective work characteristics were still associated with psychiatric disorder after adjusting for negative affectivity. The potential confounding effects of employment grade did not explain the association between either subjective or objective work characteristics and the psychological indices. While modifications to the work environment may directly reduce certain adverse physical health effects, the influence of work place design and

  16. [Cost analysis of psychiatric health care at the University Hospital of Fann (Senegal)].

    PubMed

    Wone, I; Gueye, A S; Ndiaye, P; Toure, K; Tal-Dia, A; Sall, F L; Diallo, I; Gueye, M

    2001-01-01

    In the current senegalese context, marked by a political will of autonomisation of health services, is proves very important to study the costs of the services provided in hospitals. Our study, which consists in a retrospective analysis of accounting archives of the psychiatric department of Fann Hospital during the year 1998, had the following objectives: determine the costs related to the functioning of the service of psychiatry, according to the source of financing, determine the average cost of the main services provided by the psychiatric department, analyze the recovery of the cost of these services. The operating costs of the psychiatric department came to 86.824.477 FCFA in 1998. 88% of the total amount were brought by the State and the remaining 12% came from community participation. The average cost of hospitalization in Clinique Moussa Diop was 91.398 F CFA. For the former patients the visit cost 6.664 F CFA; for the outpatients the price was 12,886 F CFA. The average cost of a child psychiatric visit was 8.140 F CFA and 28 days of hospitalization in the same service cost 354.825 F CFA. The share supported by the community participation is in general largely covered by the current fees in spite of the high cost of these services.

  17. The die has been cast? Rediscovering the essence of psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, John R

    Examination of the international literature that focuses on the historical 'developments' in psychiatric nursing shows a 'back and forth' shift in emphasis from interpersonal/therapy-based models to a concentration on pathophysiology, pharmacology and biological causation. Within this context, a number of ontological questions appear with conspicuous regularity and these are worthwhile considerations as they are tied to the very nature of psychiatric nursing. Examination of the relevant literature reflects this historical duality and indicates the existence of (at least) two versions of psychiatric nurse, each with a distinct emphasis. Given this documented duality, it is the duty of each nurse to ask themselves: What type of psychiatric nurse am I? What type do I want to be and what type would I want participating in the care of someone I love? Consequently, this article draws on bodies of literature pertaining to the extent of mental health problems, the views of mental health service users, and the different types of psychiatric nurse, in order to assist nurses in considering these questions. In the light of the clear emphasis evident within contemporary mental health policy and psychiatric nursing curricula, the article concludes that it may not be possible to reconcile the activities associated with both types of psychiatric nurse.

  18. Mortality, Rehospitalisation and Violent Crime in Forensic Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Hospital: Rates and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Fimińska, Zuzanna; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine rates and risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric services. Method We conducted a historical cohort study of all 6,520 psychiatric patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals between 1973 and 2009 in Sweden. We calculated hazard ratios for mortality, rehospitalisation, and violent crime using Cox regression to investigate the effect of different psychiatric diagnoses and two comorbidities (personality or substance use disorder) on outcomes. Results Over mean follow-up of 15.6 years, 30% of patients died (n = 1,949) after discharge with an average age at death of 52 years. Over two-thirds were rehospitalised (n = 4,472, 69%), and 40% violently offended after discharge (n = 2,613) with a mean time to violent crime of 4.2 years. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and outcome varied—substance use disorder as a primary diagnosis was associated with highest risk of mortality and rehospitalisation, and personality disorder was linked with the highest risk of violent offending. Furthermore comorbid substance use disorder typically increased risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusion Violent offending, premature mortality and rehospitalisation are prevalent in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals. Individualised treatment plans for such patients should take into account primary and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:27196309

  19. Aggregation of Lifetime Axis I Psychiatric Disorders through Age 30: Incidence, Predictors, and Associated Psychosocial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Richard F.; Kosty, Derek B.; Seeley, John R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data from representative birth cohorts on the aggregation of psychiatric disorders, or the cumulative number of unique diagnosed disorders experienced by persons within a circumscribed period, are limited. Consequently, risk factors for and psychosocial implications of lifetime disorder aggregation in the general population remain largely unknown. This research evaluates the incidence, predictors, and psychosocial sequela of lifetime disorder aggregation from childhood through age 30. Over a 14-year period, participants in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (probands; N = 816) were repeatedly evaluated for psychiatric disorders and assessed with multiple measures of psychosocial functioning. First-degree relatives of probands (N = 2,414) were also interviewed to establish their lifetime psychiatric history. The cumulative prevalence of common lifetime psychiatric disorders for the proband sample was 71%. Three-quarters of all proband psychiatric disorders occurred among 37% of the sample, and 82% of all disorder diagnoses were made among persons who met criteria for at least one other lifetime disorder. Lifetime disorder aggregation in probands was predicted by lifetime psychiatric disorder densities among first-degree relatives and was related to heterotypic comorbidity patterns that included disorders from both internalizing and externalizing domains, most notably major depressive and alcohol use disorders. By age 30, disorder aggregation was significantly associated with mental health care service utilization and predictive of personality disorder pathology and numerous indicators of poor psychosocial functioning. Possible implications of disorder aggregation on the conceptualization of lifetime psychiatric disorder comorbidity are discussed. PMID:23421525

  20. Neuroimaging distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders†

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Nicolas A.; Scott, Jessica; Ellison-Wright, Ian; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background It is unclear to what extent the traditional distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders reflects biological differences. Aims To examine neuroimaging evidence for the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders. Method We performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on voxel-based morphometry studies reporting decreased grey matter in 14 neurological and 10 psychiatric disorders, and compared the regional and network-level alterations for these two classes of disease. In addition, we estimated neuroanatomical heterogeneity within and between the two classes. Results Basal ganglia, insula, sensorimotor and temporal cortex showed greater impairment in neurological disorders; whereas cingulate, medial frontal, superior frontal and occipital cortex showed greater impairment in psychiatric disorders. The two classes of disorders affected distinct functional networks. Similarity within classes was higher than between classes; furthermore, similarity within class was higher for neurological than psychiatric disorders. Conclusions From a neuroimaging perspective, neurological and psychiatric disorders represent two distinct classes of disorders. PMID:26045351

  1. Evaluating current trends in psychiatric music therapy: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 21% of music therapists report working in the mental health field, more so than another other specific client population category (AMTA, 2005). The purpose of this study was to descriptively evaluate psychiatric music therapists and their institutions, philosophies, interventions, and clinical objectives. A survey was designed and posted online or mailed to music therapists who did not have email addresses in the 2005 Member Sourcebook (AMTA, 2005). A total of 176 psychiatric music therapists completed various parts of the survey for an overall response rate of 42.9%. Respondents reported working a mean of 11.3 years in the psychiatric setting, being Board-Certified Music Therapists for 13.3 years, and working at their institution for 8.4 years. Most respondents (90.6%) indicated they did not have a music therapist as a supervisor. Group music therapy was the dominant modality in psychiatric institutions for music therapists. Respondents indicated they read music therapy journals (80%) and other types of psychiatric periodicals (57.1%), presented educational sessions at conferences (44.6%), conducted in-services for hospital staff (64.8%), worked with an interdisciplinary treatment team (77.9%), and trained practica students (43.5%) and interns (37.4%). Respondents also indicated that although most were not bilingual (85.7%), they still worked with non-English speaking consumers (58.2%). Participants noted that they enjoyed working with the psychiatric population and felt they had a positive influence on treatment as indicated by Likert-type scales. Respondents reported using primarily behavioral or psychodynamic approaches but considered their primary psychological philosophy as eclectic. Participants predominantly indicated they addressed goal areas such as socialization, communication, self-esteem, coping skills, and stress reduction/management. Participants noted they employed a variety of music therapy techniques such as music assisted relaxation

  2. [Clinical severity and functionality of acute stroke patients attended at the physiotherapy public services of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Fabrícia Azevêdo; da Silva, Diana Lídice Araújo; da Rocha, Vera Maria

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the severity and functional independence of hemiplegics patients' post-acute stroke by means of a multidisciplinary clinical staff. It is a descriptive study composed by 40 hemiplegics attended at the four largest physiotherapy public services in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State. The methods used were an evaluation form, Functional Independence Measure and NIHSS. The results showed a sample predominantly female (55%), stroke ischemic (90%), right brain hemisphere (52.5%) and Hypertension Risk Factor (90%). The mean of clinical severity and functional independence was 13.32±4.7 and 54.6±17.15 respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean of functionality about stroke side (pvalue = 0.66). There is a significant relation between clinical severity and functional independence (r = -0.45 pvalue=0.003). It can be concluded that the level of clinical severity and functional dependence of stroke patients that make use of public physiotherapy services is significant and show the necessity, beyond the classic treatment, to be encouraged preventive educational actions to improve knowledge of this population.

  3. Incidence and risk factors of workplace violence on psychiatric staff

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, Marilyn; Lanza, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott; Hartley, Dan; Rierdan, Jill; Zeiss, Robert; Amandus, Harlan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND A study by Hesketh et al. found that 20% of psychiatric nurses were physically assaulted, 43% were threatened with physical assault, and 55% were verbally assaulted at least once during the equivalent of a single work week. From 2005 through 2009, the U.S. Department of Justice reported that mental health occupations had the second highest average annual rate of workplace violence, 21 violent crimes per 1,000 employed persons aged 16 or older. OBJECTIVE An evaluation of risk factors associated with patient aggression towards nursing staff at eight locked psychiatric units. PARTICIPANTS Two-hundred eighty-four nurses in eight acute locked psychiatric units of the Veterans Health Administration throughout the United States between September 2007 and September 2010. METHODS Rates were calculated by dividing the number of incidents by the total number of hours worked by all nurses, then multiplying by 40 (units of incidents per nurse per 40-hour work week). Risk factors associated with these rates were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with a Poisson model. RESULTS Combining the data across all hospitals and weeks, the overall rate was 0.60 for verbal aggression incidents and 0.19 for physical aggression, per nurse per week. For physical incidents, the evening shift (3 pm – 11 pm) demonstrated a significantly higher rate of aggression than the day shift (7 am – 3 pm). Weeks that had a case-mix with a higher percentage of patients with personality disorders were significantly associated with a higher risk of verbal and physical aggression. CONCLUSION Healthcare workers in psychiatric settings are at high risk for aggression from patients. PMID:24894691

  4. Psychiatric response to the Clapham rail crash.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, T P; Hollins, S C

    1991-01-01

    The psychiatric response to the Clapham rail crash is described. The psychiatric input was short term, dealing with the 38 inpatients and over 200 hospital staff involved in the response. The need to evolve a compact, responsive team structure is noted. The value of a proactive approach and provision of psychological debriefing is defended. Incorporation of components of the psychiatric response into the Hospital's major incident plan is reported. PMID:1994007

  5. Psychiatric Nurses' Views on Caring: Patients and Canine Companions.

    PubMed

    King, Camille

    2017-03-01

    Psychiatric nurses are expert care providers for individuals with mental health needs. The art of caring spans across multiple species, is important to understand, and is universal whether intentions are toward individuals or animals. Pets are often cared for and viewed as family members. The current research examined psychiatric nurses' views on the similarities and differences of caring for patients and their pet dogs. Twenty-five nurses were interviewed. Similarities of caring for patients and canines included trusting relationships, companionship, daily basic needs, and improved communication through monitored body language. Differences in caring included personal expectations, unconditional love, and professional boundaries. Understanding the concepts of caring for patients and pet dogs will provide the opportunity for insight into familial versus professional relationships, improve communication with others, and strengthen the human-animal bond. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(3), 46-52.].

  6. Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Walaa M.; Vohra, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    With the significant growth of the Muslim population all over the world, there exists a corresponding increase in the need for mental health services that suit this group of patients. Research demonstrates the effectiveness of the integration of spirituality and religiosity into psychotherapy and how religious beliefs could affect the management plans. This article discusses the impact of various beliefs in the Islamic faith on the bio-psychosocial model for the management of different psychiatric disorders including focusing on the modification of psychotherapeutic techniques as cognitive restructuring. It also shows other types of therapies such as music therapy, meditation therapy, and aromatherapy. The main emphasis remains to ensure that Muslim psychiatric patients get ethical, acceptable, and effective treatment. PMID:23858256

  7. Psychiatric nursing and mental health funding: the double dilemma.

    PubMed

    Hayman-White, Karla; Happell, Brenda

    2007-05-01

    The impact of mental illness on disease and disability burden is receiving more recognition than has previously been the case. It is now commonly understood that approximately 20% of the Australian population will experience a mental illness at some stage during their lives. Unfortunately this recognition is not reflected in the funding of mental health services, or in strategies to identify and rectify shortfalls in the nursing workforce. This paper provides an exploration of two areas. Firstly an overview of the current funding devoted to mental health and secondly an examination of workforce data with a view to recognising likely future trends for psychiatric nursing. The data demonstrates the existence of a double dilemma, firstly that the need for psychiatric nurses is likely to increase, and secondly that the looming workforce crisis may be more severe than has been anticipated.

  8. End-of-life care in a psychiatric hospital

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Lauren Z.; Denton, David; Minton, Ollie

    2016-01-01

    Since the Liverpool Care Pathway has been withdrawn in the UK, clinicians supporting the palliative needs of patients have faced further challenges, particularly for patients with dementia who are unable to go to a hospice owing to challenging behaviours. It is becoming more important for different services to provide long-term palliative care for patients with dementia. Mental health trusts should construct end-of-life care policies and train staff members accordingly. Through collaborative working, dying patients may be kept where they are best suited. We present the case study of a patient who received end-of-life care at a psychiatric hospital in the UK. We aim to demonstrate how effective end-of-life care might be provided in a psychiatric hospital, in accordance with recent new palliative care guidelines, and highlight potential barriers. PMID:27280036

  9. Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Walaa M; Vohra, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    With the significant growth of the Muslim population all over the world, there exists a corresponding increase in the need for mental health services that suit this group of patients. Research demonstrates the effectiveness of the integration of spirituality and religiosity into psychotherapy and how religious beliefs could affect the management plans. This article discusses the impact of various beliefs in the Islamic faith on the bio-psychosocial model for the management of different psychiatric disorders including focusing on the modification of psychotherapeutic techniques as cognitive restructuring. It also shows other types of therapies such as music therapy, meditation therapy, and aromatherapy. The main emphasis remains to ensure that Muslim psychiatric patients get ethical, acceptable, and effective treatment.

  10. Psychiatric morbidity and people's experience of and response to social problems involving rights.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Nigel J; Pleasence, Pascoe; Buck, Alexy

    2010-11-01

    Psychiatric morbidity has been shown to be associated with the increased reporting of a range of social problems involving legal rights ('rights problems'). Using a validated measure of psychiatric morbidity, this paper explores the relationship between psychiatric morbidity and rights problems and discusses the implications for the delivery of health and legal services. New representative national survey data from the English and Welsh Civil and Social Justice Survey (CSJS) surveyed 3040 adults in 2007 to explore the relationship between GHQ-12 scores and the self reported incidence of and behaviour surrounding, rights problems. It was found that the prevalence of rights problems increased with psychiatric morbidity, as did the experience of multiple problems. It was also found the likelihood of inaction in the face of problems increased with psychiatric morbidity, while the likelihood of choosing to resolve problems without help decreased. Where advice was obtained, psychiatric morbidity was associated with a greater tendency to obtain a combination of 'legal' and 'general' support, rather than 'legal' advice alone. The results suggest that integrated and 'outreach' services are of particular importance to the effective support of those facing mental illness.

  11. Sub-Diagnostic Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Di Sclafani, Victoria; Finn, Peter; Scheiner, Diane L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Psychiatric comorbidity in alcohol use disorders is clearly established, however most studies ignore data on psychiatric symptom counts that do not meet criteria for a diagnosis. We examined psychiatric symptom counts and psychological measures in the domains of anxiety, mood and externalizing pathology in 48 long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA) compared to 48 age/gender comparable light/non-drinking controls(NC). Methods Continuous measures of pathology (i.e., symptoms counts and psychological assessments) in each domain were compared between groups for: 1) all study participants, 2) excluding individuals with a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis in the domain, and 3) excluding individuals with a current psychiatric diagnosis in the domain. Results Psychiatric symptom counts and psychological pathology were greater in LTAA than NC. The differences between groups on these measures were not reduced by removal of individuals with lifetime or current diagnoses. Conclusions The bulk of the difference between LTAA and NC in psychiatric illness was carried by sub-diagnostic psychopathology. In comparison to the limited view provided by using only symptomatology that meets criteria for a diagnosis, the use of continuous measures of psychiatric symptomatology and psychological abnormality yields a much more accurate picture of psychiatric illness co-occurring with alcoholism. PMID:16965876

  12. Psychiatric Intervention after Retirement for Young Men.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    psychiatric caseloads and prepare for work with depression, alcoholism and schizophrenia . Factors which facilitate transition to the retired role with minimal difficulties are clearly defined. (Author)

  13. Psychiatric Emergencies in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Veronica; Kalra, S; Galwankar, Sagar; Sagar, Galwankar

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing life expectancy, the geriatric population has been increasing over the past few decades. By the year 2050, it is projected to compose more than a fifth of the entire population, representing a 147% increase in this age group. There has been a steady increase in the number of medical and psychiatric disorders, and a large percentage of geriatric patients are now presenting to the emergency department with such disorders. The management of our progressively complex geriatric patient population will require an integrative team approach involving emergency medicine, psychiatry, and hospitalist medicine.

  14. Socio-cultural and global health perspectives for the development of future psychiatric diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sing

    2002-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnosis and classification reflect the social and political context of an era and are embedded in it. In the last few decades, culture-bound syndromes reported in non-Western societies constituted the major focus of contention over the validity and universality of psychiatric diagnosis. In contemporary times, social, economic, and political factors, such as the hegemony of the DSM discourse, the managed care culture, pharmaceutical forces, and the global burden of disease study, have virtually made culture-bound syndromes 'disappear'. Once widely believed to be rare outside of the developed West, depression has rapidly become the master narrative of mental health worldwide. In the context of global mental health, the field of psychiatric classification must go beyond routine debates over categories. In order to address the growing discrepancy between needs and services, international cultural psychiatry must engage key social forces, such as psychiatric epidemiology, primary care psychiatry, integration of diagnostic systems, stigma, and advocacy.

  15. Psychiatric patients' vulnerability in the wake of the September 11th terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Franklin, C Laurel; Young, Diane; Zimmerman, Mark

    2002-12-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks led to speculation about the vulnerability of psychiatric patients to psychological distress following such events. This study examined the impact of national terrorist attacks on psychiatric and medical outpatients living approximately 150 to 200 miles from the attack sites (N = 308). Two to 3 weeks following 9/11, patients were given questionnaires assessing background information, healthcare service utilization, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Psychiatric patients (33%) were significantly more likely than medical patients (13%) to report distressing symptoms meeting criteria for PTSD (except for the duration criterion) despite no differences in learning about the attacks or personal involvement with the victims. Patients meeting PTSD criteria were more likely to schedule an appointment to speak with their physician about their reactions. Psychiatric patients not directly impacted by the 9/11 terrorist attacks are at increased risk for experiencing distressing symptoms following national terrorist attacks.

  16. Childhood Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorders Among Detained Youths

    PubMed Central

    King, Devon C.; Abram, Karen M.; Romero, Erin G.; Washburn, Jason J.; Welty, Leah J.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This manuscript examines the prevalence of childhood maltreatment and the relationship between childhood maltreatment and current psychiatric disorder in detained youths. Methods Clinical research interviewers assessed history of childhood maltreatment with the Child Maltreatment Assessment Profile and psychiatric diagnosis with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children version 2.3 in a stratified, random sample of 1829 detained youths at the Cook Country Juvenile Temporary Detention Center; final n=1735. History of maltreatment was also ascertained from records from the Cook County Court Child Protection Division. Results Over three-quarters of females and over two-thirds of males had a history of physical abuse (moderate or severe). More than 40% of females and 10% of males had a history of sexual abuse. Females and non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment. Among females, sexual abuse was associated with every type of psychiatric disorder. For example, females who experienced abuse were 2.6 to 10.7 times more likely to have any disorder compared with females who had no maltreatment. Among males, maltreatment was associated with every disorder except anxiety disorders (odds ratios ranged from 1.9–7.9). Among those who were sexually abused, abuse with force was associated with anxiety and affective disorders for females and attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD)/disruptive behavior and substance use disorders for males. Conclusions Psychiatrists and other mental health specialists must screen delinquent youth, not only for psychiatric disorders but also for past and ongoing maltreatment. Discharge planning should include protective and therapeutic services. Trauma-related mental health services should be available during incarceration. PMID:22193789

  17. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  18. Psychiatric Disorders after Epilepsy Diagnosis: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Liao, Chien-Chang; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Shen, Winston W.; Chen, Ta-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychiatric manifestations after occurrence of epilepsy have often been noted. However, the association between newly diagnosed epilepsy and psychiatric disorders afterward is not completely understood. We conducted two longitudinal cohorts for patients with and without epilepsy to investigate the risk factors and hazard ratios of developing psychiatric disorders after patients were newly diagnosed with epilepsy. Methods We identified 938 patients with a new diagnosis of epilepsy and 518,748 participants without epilepsy from the National Health Insurance Research Database in 2000–2002 and tracked them until 2008. We compared the incidence of developing psychiatric disorders between the two cohorts, evaluated risk factors and measured the associated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of developing psychiatric disorders. Findings The incidences of psychiatric disorders for people with and without epilepsy were 94.1 and 22.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjusting the covariates, the epilepsy cohort showed the highest risks in mental retardation (HR 31.5, 95% CI 18.9 to 52.4), bipolar disorder (HR 23.5, 95% CI 11.4 to 48.3) and alcohol or drug psychosis (HR 18.8, 95% CI 11.1 to 31.8) among psychiatric complications developed after newly diagnosed epilepsy. The risk increased with epileptic general seizure and frequency of outpatient visits for epilepsy, as well as with emergency room visits and hospitalizations for epilepsy, and with older age. Chronologically, the highest risk occurred in the first year after epilepsy diagnosis (HR 11.4, 95% CI 9.88 to 13.2). Conclusion Various psychiatric disorders were demonstrated after newly diagnosed epilepsy and closely related to general seizure and use of medical services for epilepsy. This shows a need for integrated psychiatric care for patients newly diagnosed with epilepsy, especially in the first year. PMID:23577079

  19. Mastery matters: consumer choice, psychiatric symptoms and problematic substance use among adults with histories of homelessness.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Ronni Michelle; Manning, Rachel M

    2017-05-01

    Previous research demonstrated the importance of consumer choice and mastery to residential stability and psychiatric functioning for adults with histories of homelessness. In the present study, we investigated whether these relationships hold, even in the context of problem-related substance misuse. Questionnaire data were collected in Ireland from 101 residents of long-term homeless accommodation in 2010. Hayes' PROCESS macro for mediation and moderation analysis in SPSS was employed to test our hypotheses. Findings demonstrated that the indirect effect of choice through mastery on psychiatric functioning was stronger for individuals with more recent problem-related substance use than for those with no or distant histories of problem-related substance use. Our findings confirm that consumer choice in housing and services is important to homeless services users' recovery experiences. Because of its relationship with mastery, consumer choice in housing and services protects homeless services users' psychiatric functioning, especially when substance use-related choices have had negative consequences. Our findings suggest that if homeless services take away consumer choice when substance use causes problems, they may actually undermine, rather than foster, service users' psychiatric functioning.

  20. Trauma and PTSD rates in an irish psychiatric population

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Fiona E; Hennessy, Eilis; Dooley, Barbara; Kelly, Brendan D; Ryan, Dermot A

    2013-01-01

    Although Western mental health services are increasingly finding themselves concerned with assisting traumatized individuals migrating from other countries, trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are under-detected and undiagnosed in psychiatric populations. This study examined and compared rates of traumatic experiences, frequency of traumatic events, trauma symptomatology levels, rates of torture, rates of PTSD and chart documentation of trauma and PTSD between (a) Irish and migrant service-users and (b) forced migrant and voluntary migrant service-users in Dublin, Ireland. Data were gathered from 178 psychiatric outpatients attending using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-Revised Cambodian Version and the SCID-I/P. A substantial number of service-users had experienced at least one lifetime trauma (71.3%), and a high percentage of both the Irish (47.4%) and migrant groups (70.3%) of service-users had experienced two or more events. Overall, analyses comparing rates between Irish, forced migrant and voluntary migrant service-users found that forced migrants displayed more traumatic life events, posttraumatic symptoms, and higher levels of PTSD than their voluntary migrant and Irish counterparts, with over 50% experiencing torture prior to arrival in Ireland. The lifetime rate of PTSD in the overall sample was 15.7% but only 53.57% of cases were documented in patient charts. The results of this study are informative about the nature and extent of the problem of trauma and PTSD among migrant mental health service users as well as highlighting the under-detected levels of trauma among native-born service users. PMID:28228990