Science.gov

Sample records for acute radiation research

  1. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). We successfully developed a dog model of acute radiation enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis.

  2. [Acute radiation injury].

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsutomu

    2012-03-01

    Cell death due to DNA damage by ionizing radiation causes acute radiation injury of tissues and organs. Frequency and severity of the injuries increase according to dose increase, when the dose becomes more than threshold dose. The threshold dose of acute human radiation death is 1 Gy and LD50 of human is 4 Gy. Human dies due to the cerebrovascular syndrome, the gastrointestinal syndrome or the hematopoetic syndrome, when he received more than 20 Gy, 10-20 Gy or 3-8 Gy to his total body, respectively. Any tissue or organ, including embryo and fetus, does not show the acute injury, when it received less than 100 mSv. Acute injuries are usually reversible, and late injuries are sometimes irreversible.

  3. Acute radiation risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.

  4. Acute radiation syndrome and chronic radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Giannoula, Evanthia; Fountos, George P

    2013-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) or sickness or poisoning or toxicity is induced after a whole body exposure of men to high doses of radiation between 1-12Gy. First symptoms are from the gastrointestinal system, which together with bone marrow are the most sensitive parts of our body. Chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) may be induced by smaller than 1Gy radiation doses or after a mild form of ARS. Prophylaxis and treatment suggestions are described. In cases of ARS, a large part of the exposed population after proper medical care may survive, while without medical care this part of the population will be lost. Prophylaxis may also save another part of the population.

  5. Acute effects of solar particle event radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wan, X. Steven; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Lin, L.; Cengel, K.

    2014-01-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animals exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations: gamma rays or electrons). All animal studies described have been approved by the University of PA IACUC. Some conclusions from recent CARR investigations are as follows: (i) the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for SPE-like protons compared with standard reference radiations (gammas or electrons) for white blood cells (WBCs) vary greatly between mice, ferrets and pigs, with the RBE values being greater in ferrets than those in mice, and considerably greater in pigs compared with those in ferrets or mice [1, 2]. This trend for the data suggests that the RBE values for WBCs in humans could be considerably greater than those observed in small mammals, and SPE proton radiation may be far more hazardous to humans than previously estimated from small animal studies. (ii) Very low doses of SPE proton radiation (25 cGy) increase blood clotting times in ferrets, and the low SPE-like dose rate has more severe effects than high dose rate radiation [3]. (iii) Results from pig and ferret studies suggest that disseminated intravascular coagulation is a major cause of death at doses near the LD50 level for SPE-like proton and gamma radiation. (iv) Exposure to SPE-like proton or gamma radiation, in combination with

  6. Acute radiation syndrome after endovascular AAA repair.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Saum A; Coyle, Brian W; Vogel, Todd R; Haser, Paul B; Graham, Alan M

    2011-02-01

    Acute radiation syndrome or radiation sickness is a serious illness that occurs after the body receives a high dose of radiation, typically over a short period of time. This condition may be underrecognized by interventionalists and must be considered whenever performing complex endovascular procedures.

  7. Pharmacological countermeasures for the acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Mang; Whitnall, Mark H

    2009-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is defined as the signs and symptoms that occur within several months after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). This syndrome develops after total- or partial-body irradiation at a relatively high dose (above about 1 Gy in humans) and dose rate. Normal tissue injuries induced by IR differ depending on the target organ and cell type. Organs and cells with high sensitivity to radiation include the skin, the hematopoietic system, the gut, the spermatogenic cells and the vascular system. Exposure to IR causes damage to DNA, protein, and lipids in mammalian cells, as well as increased mitochondria-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with subsequent cell cycle checkpoint arrest, apoptosis, and stress-related responses. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are a primary lethal lesion induced by IR. The cellular response to damage is complex and relies on simultaneous activation of a number of signaling networks. Among these, the activation of DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), and signaling pathways containing ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), play important roles. The transcription factor NFkappaB has emerged as a pro-survival actor in response to IR in ATM and p53-induced protein with a death domain (PIDD) cascades. Although radiation-induced ARS has been well documented at the clinical level, and mechanistic information is accumulating, successful prophylaxis and treatment for ARS is problematic, even with the use of supportive care and growth factors. There is a pressing need to develop radiation countermeasures that can be used both in the clinic, for small-scale incidents, and outside the clinic, in mass casualty scenarios. In this review we summarize recent information on intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways relevant to radiation countermeasure research.

  8. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Harald; Meineke, Viktor

    2011-11-25

    Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  9. Radiobiology of the acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macià I Garau, Miquel; Lucas Calduch, Anna; López, Enric Casanovas

    2011-07-06

    ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME OR ACUTE RADIATION SICKNESS IS CLASSICALLY SUBDIVIDED INTO THREE SUBSYNDROMES: the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal and neurovascular syndrome but many other tissues can be damaged. The time course and severity of clinical signs and symptoms are a function of the overall body volume irradiated, the inhomogeneity of dose exposure, the particle type, the absorbed dose and the dose rate. Classical pathophysiology explain the failure of each of these organs and the timing of appearance of their signs and symptoms due to radiation-induced cytocidal effects of a great number of parenchymal cells of hierarchically organized tissues. Contemporaneously, many other radiation-induced effects has been described and all of them may lead to tissue injury with their corresponding signs and symptoms that can be expressed after short or long period of time. Radiation-induced multi-organ involvement is thought to be due to radiation-induced systemic inflammatory response mediated by released pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  10. Radiobiology of the acute radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Macià i Garau, Miquel; Lucas Calduch, Anna; López, Enric Casanovas

    2011-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome or acute radiation sickness is classically subdivided into three subsyndromes: the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal and neurovascular syndrome but many other tissues can be damaged. The time course and severity of clinical signs and symptoms are a function of the overall body volume irradiated, the inhomogeneity of dose exposure, the particle type, the absorbed dose and the dose rate. Classical pathophysiology explain the failure of each of these organs and the timing of appearance of their signs and symptoms due to radiation-induced cytocidal effects of a great number of parenchymal cells of hierarchically organized tissues. Contemporaneously, many other radiation-induced effects has been described and all of them may lead to tissue injury with their corresponding signs and symptoms that can be expressed after short or long period of time. Radiation-induced multi-organ involvement is thought to be due to radiation-induced systemic inflammatory response mediated by released pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24376969

  11. Charms of radiation research.

    SciTech Connect

    Inokuti, M.; Physics

    2005-01-01

    Most of my professional efforts over nearly five decades have been devoted to radiation research, that is, studies of the physical, chemical, and biological actions of high-energy radiation on matter. (By the term 'high-energy radiation' I mean here x rays, .GAMMA. rays, neutrons, and charged particles of high enough energies to produce ionization in matter. I exclude visible light, infrared waves, microwaves, and sound waves.) Charms of radiation research lie in its interdisciplinary character; although my training was in basic physics, the scope of my interest has gradually increased to cover many other areas, to my deep satisfaction. High-energy radiation is an important component of the universe, and of our environment. It often provides an effective avenue for characterizing matter and understanding its behavior. Near Earth's surface this radiation is normally present in exceptionally low quantity, and yet it plays a significant role in some atmospheric phenomena such as auroras, and also in the evolution of life. The recent advent of various devices for producing high-energy radiation has opened up the possibility of many applications, including medical and industrial uses. I have worked on some aspects of those uses. At every opportunity to address a broad audience I try to convey a sense of intellectual fun, together with some of the elements of the basic science involved. A goal of radiation education might be to make the word 'radiation' as common and familiar as words such as 'fire' and 'electricity' through increased usage.

  12. Acute Radiation Sickness Amelioration Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    5 - HT3 ) receptor antagonist anti-emetic drug...THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED SUMMARY Serotonin type-3 ( 5 - HT3 ) receptor antagonists were identified in the early to mid-1980s as a new class of anti-emetic...NAAG) was formed to evaluate 5 - HT3 receptor antagonists for protection of military personnel against radiation-induced nausea and vomiting.

  13. Acute radiation syndrome: assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Elizabeth H; Nemhauser, Jeffrey B; Smith, James M; Kazzi, Ziad N; Farfán, Eduardo B; Chang, Arthur S; Naeem, Syed F

    2010-06-01

    Primary care physicians may be unprepared to diagnose and treat rare, yet potentially fatal, illnesses such as acute radiation syndrome (ARS). ARS, also known as radiation sickness, is caused by exposure to a high dose of penetrating, ionizing radiation over a short period of time. The time to onset of ARS is dependent on the dose received, but even at the lowest doses capable of causing illness, this will occur within a matter of hours to days. This article describes the clinical manifestations of ARS, provides guidelines for assessing its severity, and makes recommendations for managing ARS victims.

  14. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    Armed Forces Ra ioloy Research Institute Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones, and General...Gnotobiological Isolation Russia State Medical University 19990119 114 Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones...effects of antibiotics and probiotics (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus) in mice irradiated with 7 Gy. The effects were studied in normal mice and mice

  15. The NASA Space Radiation Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of the NASA Space Radiation Research Program. This program combines basic research on the mechanisms of radiobiological action relevant for improving knowledge of the risks of cancer, central nervous system and other possible degenerative tissue effects, and acute radiation syndromes from space radiation. The keystones of the NASA Program are five NASA Specialized Center's of Research (NSCOR) investigating space radiation risks. Other research is carried out through peer-reviewed individual investigations and in collaboration with the US Department of Energies Low-Dose Research Program. The Space Radiation Research Program has established the Risk Assessment Project to integrate data from the NSCOR s and other peer-reviewed research into quantitative projection models with the goals of steering research into data and scientific breakthroughs that will reduce the uncertainties in current risk projections and developing the scientific knowledge needed for future individual risk assessment approaches and biological countermeasure assessments or design. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was created by the Program to simulate space radiation on the ground in support of the above research programs. New results from NSRL will be described.

  16. Emetic Mechanism in Acute Radiation Sickness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-20

    humans renders the subjects refractory to a wide variety of chemical emetic agents, now numbering more than 25 substances of both exogenous and endogenous...tractus solitarius with each of three neurons (shown as large triangles) in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). These hells of NTS connect...Outputs are innervated through autonomic ganglia or by direct efferent connections. I4 Acute radiation-induced vomiting is generally typified by the

  17. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  18. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  19. Radiation health research, 1986 - 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A collection of 225 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by NASA during the period 1986 through 1990 is reported. Each abstract was categorized within one of four discipline areas: physics, biology, risk assessment, and microgravity. Topic areas within each discipline were assigned as follows: Physics - atomic physics, nuclear science, space radiation, radiation transport and shielding, and instrumentation; Biology - molecular biology, cellular radiation biology, tissue, organs and organisms, radioprotectants, and plants; Risk assessment - radiation health and epidemiology, space flight radiation health physics, inter- and intraspecies extrapolation, and radiation limits and standards; and Microgravity. When applicable subareas were assigned for selected topic areas. Keywords and author indices are provided.

  20. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri

    found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as hematopoietic cells, a subset of mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, etc. [Beutler et al. 2000 ] Potential mechanisms responsible for radiation-acquired marrow cell failure include direct toxicity , direct damage of hematopoietic multipotential cells or cellular or humoral immune suppression of the marrow multipotential cells. [ Beutler et al. 2000] Methods: These studies were conducted at several different research institutions and laboratories listed as follows: Kazan All-Union Scientific Research Veterinary, Biotechnology Centre of Russian Academy of Science (North Osetia), Institute Belarussian Scientific and Research Institute for Radiobiology in Gomel, the St. Petersburg Veterinary Institute, the Advanced Medical Technology and Systems Inc., Ontario, Canada. The studies were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee for ethical animal research equivalent, at each institution. A critically important volume of purified Radiation Toxins (RT) was isolated from larger mammalian irradiated animals. Subsequently the RT were characterized chemically and biologically. The experimental design of later studies compared relative toxicity, potential for development of acute radiation hematopoietic syndrome, and potential cloning disorder of multipotential hematopoietic progenitors and their derivative and lethality after intravenous or intramuscular injections of SRD containing Hematopoietic Radiation Toxins. These experiments have employed a wide variety of experimental animals. The animals were irradiated in RUM-17, Puma, and Panorama devices. The dose varied from 0.7Gy to 100Gy. The methods of immune depletion, immuno-lympho plasmasabsorption, as well as direct extraction, were used to refine and purify the specific Radiation Toxins from the central lymph of animals with Hematopoietic forms of Radiation Toxins. Experiments include administration of Hematopoietic

  1. Acute Stroke Imaging Research Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Köhrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wu, Ona; Warach, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The recent “Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment” meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced neuroimaging in acute stroke treatment. The goals of the meeting were to assess state-of-the-art practice in terms of acute stroke imaging research and to propose specific recommendations regarding: (1) the standardization of perfusion and penumbral imaging techniques, (2) the validation of the accuracy and clinical utility of imaging markers of the ischemic penumbra, (3) the validation of imaging biomarkers relevant to clinical outcomes, and (4) the creation of a central repository to achieve these goals. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them. PMID:18477656

  2. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    López, Mario; Martín, Margarita

    2011-07-13

    The acute radiation syndrome (ARS) occurs after whole-body or significant partial-body irradiation (typically at a dose of >1 Gy). ARS can involve the hematopoietic, cutaneous, gastrointestinal and the neurovascular organ systems either individually or in combination. There is a correlation between the severity of clinical signs and symptoms of ARS and radiation dose. Radiation induced multi-organ failure (MOF) describes the progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems over time. Radiation combined injury (RCI) is defined as radiation injury combined with blunt or penetrating trauma, burns, blast, or infection. The classic syndromes are: hematopoietic (doses >2-3 Gy), gastrointestinal (doses 5-12 Gy) and cerebrovascular syndrome (doses 10-20 Gy). There is no possibility to survive after doses >10-12 Gy. The Phases of ARS are-prodromal: 0-2 days from exposure, latent: 2-20 days, and manifest illness: 21-60 days from exposure. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) at a dose of 5 μg/kg body weight per day subcutaneously has been recommended as treatment of neutropenia, and antibiotics, antiviral and antifungal agents for prevention or treatment of infections. If taken within the first hours of contamination, stable iodine in the form of nonradioactive potassium iodide (KI) saturates iodine binding sites within the thyroid and inhibits incorporation of radioiodines into the gland. Finally, if severe aplasia persists under cytokines for more than 14 days, the possibility of a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation should be evaluated. This review will focus on the clinical aspects of the ARS, using the European triage system (METREPOL) to evaluate the severity of radiation injury, and scoring groups of patients for the general and specific management of the syndrome.

  3. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    López, Mario; Martín, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome (ARS) occurs after whole-body or significant partial-body irradiation (typically at a dose of >1 Gy). ARS can involve the hematopoietic, cutaneous, gastrointestinal and the neurovascular organ systems either individually or in combination. There is a correlation between the severity of clinical signs and symptoms of ARS and radiation dose. Radiation induced multi-organ failure (MOF) describes the progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems over time. Radiation combined injury (RCI) is defined as radiation injury combined with blunt or penetrating trauma, burns, blast, or infection. The classic syndromes are: hematopoietic (doses >2–3 Gy), gastrointestinal (doses 5–12 Gy) and cerebrovascular syndrome (doses 10–20 Gy). There is no possibility to survive after doses >10–12 Gy. The Phases of ARS are—prodromal: 0–2 days from exposure, latent: 2–20 days, and manifest illness: 21–60 days from exposure. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) at a dose of 5 μg/kg body weight per day subcutaneously has been recommended as treatment of neutropenia, and antibiotics, antiviral and antifungal agents for prevention or treatment of infections. If taken within the first hours of contamination, stable iodine in the form of nonradioactive potassium iodide (KI) saturates iodine binding sites within the thyroid and inhibits incorporation of radioiodines into the gland. Finally, if severe aplasia persists under cytokines for more than 14 days, the possibility of a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation should be evaluated. This review will focus on the clinical aspects of the ARS, using the European triage system (METREPOL) to evaluate the severity of radiation injury, and scoring groups of patients for the general and specific management of the syndrome. PMID:24376971

  4. Linking Doses with Clinical Scores of Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen

    2016-10-01

    In radiation accidents, determining the radiation dose the victim received is a key step for medical decision making and patient prognosis. To reconstruct and evaluate the absorbed dose, researchers have developed many physical devices and biological techniques during the last decades. However, using the physical parameter "absorbed dose" alone is not sufficient to predict the clinical development of the various organs injured in an individual patient. In operational situations for radiation accidents, medical responders need more urgently to classify the severity of the radiation injury based on the signs and symptoms of the patient. In this work, the author uses a unified hematopoietic model to describe dose-dependent dynamics of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets, and the corresponding clinical grading of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. This approach not only visualizes the time course of the patient's probable outcome in the form of graphs but also indirectly gives information of the remaining stem and progenitor cells, which are responsible for the autologous recovery of the hematopoietic system. Because critical information on the patient's clinical evolution can be provided within a short time after exposure and only peripheral cell counts are required for the simulation, these modeling tools will be useful to assess radiation exposure and injury in human-involved radiation accident/incident scenarios.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Risaku

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome affects military personnel and civilians following the uncontrolled dispersal of radiation, such as that caused by detonation of nuclear devices and inappropriate medical treatments. Therefore, there is a growing need for medical interventions that facilitate the improved recovery of victims and patients. One promising approach may be cell therapy, which, when appropriately implemented, may facilitate recovery from whole body injuries. This editorial highlights the current knowledge regarding the use of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the benefits and limitations of which are under investigation. Establishing successful therapies for acute radiation syndrome may require using such a therapeutic approach in addition to conventional approaches.

  6. Space Radiation Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of space radiation on astronauts is one of the most important limiting factors for human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit, including a journey to Mars. This talk will present an overview of space radiation issues that arise throughout the solar system and will describe research efforts at NASA aimed at studying space radiation effects on astronauts, including the experimental program at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent work on galactic cosmic ray simulation at ground based accelerators will also be presented. The three major sources of space radiation, namely geomagnetically trapped particles, solar particle events and galactic cosmic rays will be discussed as well as recent discoveries of the harmful effects of space radiation on the human body. Some suggestions will also be given for developing a space radiation program in the Republic of Korea.

  7. [Cutaneous damage after acute exposure to ionizing radiation: decisive for the prognosis of radiation accident victims].

    PubMed

    Dörr, H; Baier, T; Meineke, V

    2013-12-01

    The cutaneous radiation syndrome includes all deterministic effects on the skin and visible parts of the mucosa from ionizing radiation. The Intensity and duration of radiation-induced skin symptoms depend on the kind and quality of ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was the investigation of the importance of the time of the development of radiation induced-skin effects on the prognosis of radiation accident victims. Clinical data about radiation accident victims from the database SEARCH were used. 211 cases with good documentation regarding radiation-induced skin effects were selected. From these 211 patients, 166 survived the acute phase of the acute radiation syndrome, while 45 died during the acute phase. Among those patients who did not survive the acute phase, 82.2 % showed their first documented radiation-induced skin symptoms during the first 3 days after radiation exposure. Of those patients whose first documented radiation-induced skin symptoms appeared on or after day four, 94.2 % survived the acute phase. The time to the occurrence of the first radiation-induced skin effects is diagnostically significant. The skin plays an important role in the clinical course of radiation syndromes and in the development of radiation-induced multi-organ failure. In a retrospective data analysis like this, the quality of data might be a limitation.

  8. NASA Human Research Program Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Lori; Huff, Janice; Patel, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hu, Shaowwen; Kidane, Yared; Myung-Hee, Kim; Li, Yongfeng; Nounu, Hatem; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem; Hada, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is to ensure that crews can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. Current work is focused on developing the knowledge base and tools required for accurate assessment of health risks resulting from space radiation exposure including cancer and circulatory and central nervous system diseases, as well as acute risks from solar particle events. Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) Space Radiation Team scientists work at multiple levels to advance this goal, with major projects in biological risk research; epidemiology; and physical, biophysical, and biological modeling.

  9. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  10. Acute radiation disease and biological dosimetry in 1993.

    PubMed

    Vorobiev, A I

    1997-01-01

    Mankind is at risk for accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. The experience in evaluating and treating victims of radiation exposure is briefly reviewed based upon accidents occurring over the past 25 years. Individual cases of acute toxicities to the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver and bone marrow are presented. Biodosimetry (utilizing chromosome analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow and electron spin resonance spectrometry of dental enamel) has been utilized in radiation accidents to assess individual dose. Variability in the dose of ionizing radiation received is typical among the population affected by the Chernobyl accident. Whereas the acute radiation syndrome resulting in a high mortality has been well-documented, little information is available regarding the effects of chronic, low-level exposure from the Chernobyl accident.

  11. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

    1995-02-01

    A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of {open_quotes}the JANUS program{close_quotes}. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF{sub 1} mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.

  12. LifeSat - Radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    1990-01-01

    Spaceflight crews will be exposed to levels of radiation which exceed those experienced on the ground. In order to reduce the uncertainty in the evaluation of risks it is necessary to validate the responses of biological systems in space under conditions which simulate exposure levels expected during exploration class missions. The LifeSat system provides the experimental capabilities to satisfy these goals. Specifically, LifeSat is capable of long duration flights of up to 60 days, is able to fly directly into trapped radiation belts and in circular or eccentric polar orbits, has the ability to provide artificial gravity and imposes fewer restrictions than the STS on the use of hazardous materials such as chemical fixatives. These features along with reference missions and experiments are discussed with respect to radiation research goals.

  13. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Current medical management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include immune prophylaxis based on the Antiradiation Vaccine. Existing principles for the treatment of acute radiation syndromes are based on the replacement and supportive therapy. Haemotopoietic cell transplantation is recomended as an important method of treatment of a Haemopoietic form of the ARS. Though in the different hospitals and institutions, 31 pa-tients with a haemopoietic form have previously undergone transplantation with stem cells, in all cases(100%) the transplantants were rejected. Lethality rate was 87%.(N.Daniak et al. 2005). A large amount of biological substances or antigens isolated from bacterias (flagellin and derivates), plants, different types of venom (honeybees, scorpions, snakes) have been studied. This biological active substances can produce a nonspecific stimulation of immune system of mammals and protect against of mild doses of irradiation. But their radioprotection efficacy against high doses of radiation were not sufficient. Relative radioprotection characteristics or adaptive properties of antioxidants were expressed only at mild doses of radiation. However antioxidants demonstrated a very low protective efficacy at high doses of radiation. Some ex-periments demonstrated even a harmful effect of antioxidants administered to animals that had severe forms of the ARS. Only Specific Radiation Toxins roused a specific antigenic stim-ulation of antibody synthesis. An active immunization by non-toxic doses of radiation toxins includes a complex of radiation toxins that we call the Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD). Immunization must be provided not less than 24 days before irradiation and it is effective up to three years and more. Active immunization by radiation toxins significantly reduces the mortality rate (100%) and improves survival rate up to 60% compare with the 0% sur-vival rate among the irradiated animals in control groups

  14. Filgrastim for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farese, A M; MacVittie, T J

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved Neupogen(®) (filgrastim) for the treatment of patients with radiation-induced myelosuppression following a radiological/nuclear incident. It is the first medical countermeasure currently approved by the FDA for this indication under the criteria of the FDA "animal rule". This article summarizes the consequences of high-dose radiation exposure, a description of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS), the use of hematopoietic growth factors in radiation accident victims and current available treatments for H-ARS with an emphasis on the use of Neupogen in this scenario.

  15. Modulation of radiation-induced hemopoietic suppression by acute thrombocytopenia

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbe, S.; Phalen, E.; Threatte, G.; Londe, H.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications of radiation-induced hemopoietic suppression by acute thrombocytopenia were evaluated. Immediately before or after exposure to sublethal irradiation, mice were given a single injection of anti-mouse platelet serum (APS), normal heterologous serum, neuraminidase (N'ase), or saline, or no further treatment was provided. Hemopoiesis was evaluated by blood cell counts, hematocrits, and incorporation of (75Se)selenomethionine into platelets. APS and N'ase induced an acute thrombocytopenia from which there was partial recovery before the platelet count started to fall from the radiation. During the second post-treatment week, both thrombocytopoiesis and erythropoiesis were greater in mice that received APS or N'ase in addition to radiation than in control irradiated mice. Differences in leukopoiesis were not apparent. Therefore, both thrombocytopoiesis and erythropoiesis appeared to be responsive to a stimulus generated by acute thrombocytopenia in sublethally irradiated mice.

  16. Synchrotron Radiation Research--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bienenstock, Arthur; Winick, Herman

    1983-01-01

    Discusses expanding user community seeking access to synchrotron radiation sources, properties/sources of synchrotron radiation, permanent-magnet technology and its impact on synchrotron radiation research, factors limiting power, the density of synchrotron radiation, and research results illustrating benefit of higher flux and brightness. Also…

  17. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs.

  18. MODELING ACUTE EXPOSURE TO SOLAR RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major technical challenges in calculating solar flux on the human form has been the complexity of the surface geometry (i.e., the surface normal vis a vis the incident radiation). The American Cancer Society reports that over 80% of skin cancers occur on the face, he...

  19. Acute and long term health effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1986-11-19

    This paper covers selected aspects of the acute and long term health effects excluding acute radiation syndrome and carcinogenesis, resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. The changes addressed in this paper are those witnessed within an organ or whole body rather than at the molecular or even cellular level. They include acute and late health effects. Some of these effects are threshold effects, meaning that the dose must exceed a certain threshold before one sees these effects. Less than the threshold dose results in no observable organ or whole body effect. The severity of the effects correlate directly with the amount of cell damage or cell death that has occurred. 15 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Physiological Mechanisms of Acute Intestinal Radiation Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    transDlantation (17) and conventional medical treatment (18,19), this is not so for the intestinal radiation s ,’ ndrome . Excluding the recent accident at...OLD ADRESSCURRENT ADDRESS ITELEPHONE NUMBER: C ’ SISUBJECT AREA( s ) OF INTEREST: ZI I DNA OR OTHER GOVERNMENT CONTRACT...ORMANIZArIGN REPORT NUMBER( S ) S . MONITORING ORGANIZATION ;EPORT NQUMýS( S ) DRA-TR-86-241 6a. NAME Or PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 66, OFPCE SYMBOL i7. NAME OF

  1. Patents for Toll-like receptor ligands as radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Pollard, Harvey B

    2015-01-01

    Acute radiation exposure induces apoptosis of tissues in the hematopoietic, digestive, cutaneous, cardiovascular and nervous systems; extensive apoptosis of these tissues ultimately leads to acute radiation syndrome. A novel strategy for developing radiation countermeasures has been to imitate the genetic mechanisms acquired by radiation-resistant tumors. Two mechanisms that underlie this ability of tumor cells are the p53 and NF-κB pathways. The loss of p53 function results in the inactivation of pro-apoptotic control mechanisms, while constitutive activation of NF-κB results in the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes. Various Toll-like receptor ligands are capable of up regulating the NF-κB pathway, which increases radio-resistance and reduces radiation-induced apoptosis in various tissues. Several Toll-like receptor ligands have been patented and are currently under development as radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome. Ongoing studies suggest that a few of these attractive agents are progressing well along the US FDA approval pathway to become radiation countermeasures.

  2. Patents for Toll-like receptor ligands as radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay K; Pollard, Harvey B

    2015-01-01

    Acute radiation exposure induces apoptosis of tissues in the hematopoietic, digestive, cutaneous, cardiovascular and nervous systems; extensive apoptosis of these tissues ultimately leads to acute radiation syndrome. A novel strategy for developing radiation countermeasures has been to imitate the genetic mechanisms acquired by radiation-resistant tumors. Two mechanisms that underlie this ability of tumor cells are the p53 and NF-κB pathways. The loss of p53 function results in the inactivation of pro-apoptotic control mechanisms, while constitutive activation of NF-κB results in the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes. Various Toll-like receptor ligands are capable of up regulating the NF-κB pathway, which increases radio-resistance and reduces radiation-induced apoptosis in various tissues. Several Toll-like receptor ligands have been patented and are currently under development as radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome. Ongoing studies suggest that a few of these attractive agents are progressing well along the US FDA approval pathway to become radiation countermeasures. PMID:26135043

  3. Mitigation Strategies for Acute Radiation Exposure during Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Epelman, Slava

    2006-01-01

    While there are many potential risks in a Moon or Mars mission, one of the most important and unpredictable is that of crew radiation exposure. The two forms of radiation that impact a mission far from the protective environment of low-earth orbit, are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The effects of GCR occur as a long-term cumulative dose that results increased longer-term medical risks such as malignancy and neurological degeneration. Unfortunately, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE that could potentially endanger the mission and harm the crew. Reanalysis of the largest SPE in August 1972 revealed that the dose rate was significantly higher than previously stated in the literature. The peak dose rate was 9 cGy h(sup -1) which exceeds the low dose-rate criteria for 25 hrs (National Council on Radiation Protection) and 16 hrs (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). The bone marrow dose accumulated was 0.8 Gy, which exceeded the 25 and 16 hour criteria and would pose a serious medical risk. Current spacesuits would not provide shielding from the damaging effects for an SPE as large as the 1972 event, as increased shielding from 1-5 grams per square centimeters would do little to shield the bone marrow from exposure. Medical management options for an acute radiation event are discussed based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security, Centers for Disease Control and evidence-based scientific literature. The discussion will also consider how to define acute exposure radiation safety limits with respect to exploration-class missions, and to determine the level of care necessary for a crew that may be exposed to an SPE similar to August 1972.

  4. Mitigation Strategies for Acute Radiation Exposure during Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Epelman, Slava

    2006-01-01

    While there are many potential risks in a Moon or Mars mission, one of the most important and unpredictable is that of crew radiation exposure. The two forms of radiation that impact a mission far from the protective environment of low-earth orbit, are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The effects of GCR occur as a long-term cumulative dose that results increased longer-term medical risks such as malignancy and neurological degeneration. Unfortunately, relatively little has been published on the medical management of an acute SPE that could potentially endanger the mission and harm the crew. Reanalysis of the largest SPE in August 1972 revealed that the dose rate was significantly higher than previously stated in the literature. The peak dose rate was 9 cGy h(sup -1) which exceeds the low-dose-rate criteria for 25 hrs (National Council on Radiation Protection) and 16 hrs (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation). The bone marrow dose accumulated was 0.8 Gy, which exceeded the 25 and 16 hour criteria and would pose a serious medical risk. Current spacesuits would not provide shielding from the damaging effects for an SPE as large as the 1972 event, as increased shielding from 1-5 gm/cm(sup 2) would do little to shield the bone marrow from exposure. Medical management options for an acute radiation event are discussed based on recommendations from the Department of Homeland Security, Centers for Disease Control and evidence-based scientific literature. The discussion will also consider how to define acute exposure radiation safety limits with respect to exploration-class missions, and to determine the level of care necessary for a crew that may be exposed to an SPE similar to August 1972.

  5. [Hematopoiesis during remote period after acute radiation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kotenko, K V; Bushmanov, A Iu; Suvorova, L A; Galstian, I A; Nadezhina, N M; Nugis, V Iu

    2011-01-01

    Based on the long (19.7 +/- 1.8 year) hemopoiesis follow-up study in 152 patients after acute radiation syndrome (ARS) as a result of exposure to gamma-, gamma-beta and gamma-eta radiation in a wide dose range (1.2-9.8 Gy) it was detected that cytopenia appears in the late consequences period: thrombocytopenia was found in 26.9% cases, leukocytopenia, neutropenia and lymphocytopenia--in 13.1% patients. A higher ARS degree causes the increase of various disorders (cytopenia and cytosis) in the late period. It reflects a tight interrelation between blood cell contents and radiation dose. Frequency of cytopenias increases if such somatic disorders: persistent hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis and late radiation ulcers as appear.

  6. Acute Radiation Disease : Cutaneous Syndrome and Toxic properties of Radiomimetics -Radiation Neurotoxins and Hematotoxins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Cutaneous injury is an important complication of a general or local acute irradiation. A type of a skin and tissues lesions depends on a type, intensity, and period of irradiation. Also, the clinical picture, signs, and manifestations of the cutaneous syndrome depend on a type of the radiation toxins circulated in lymph and blood of irradiated mammals. Radiation Toxins were isolated from lymph of the mammals that were irradiated and developed different forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) -Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, and Hematopoietic. Radiation Toxins can be divided into the two important types of toxins (Neu-rotoxins and Hematotoxins) or four groups. The effects of Radiation Neurotoxins include severe damages and cell death of brain, heart, gastrointestinal tissues and endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels. The hematotoxicity of Hematotoxic Radiation Toxins includes lym-phopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia in the blood circulation and transitory lymphocytosis and leukocytosis in the Central Lymphatic System. In all cases, administration of the Radiomimetics (Radiation Toxins) intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy, radiation naive mammals had induced and developed the typical clinical manifestations of the ARS. In all cases, administration of Radiomimetics by subtoxic doses had demonstrated development of typical clinical signs of the cutaneous syndrome such as hair loss, erythema, swelling, desqua-mation, blistering and skin necrosis. In animal-toxic models, we have activated development of the local skin and tissue injury after injection of Radiation Toxins with cytoxic properties.

  7. Accelerator Facilities for Radiation Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1999-01-01

    HSRP Goals in Accelerator Use and Development are: 1.Need for ground-based heavy ion and proton facility to understand space radiation effects discussed most recently by NAS/NRC Report (1996). 2. Strategic Program Goals in facility usage and development: -(1) operation of AGS for approximately 600 beam hours/year; (2) operation of Loma Linda University (LLU) proton facility for approximately 400 beam hours/year; (3) construction of BAF facility; and (4) collaborative research at HIMAC in Japan and with other existing or potential international facilities. 3. MOA with LLU has been established to provide proton beams with energies of 40-250 important for trapped protons and solar proton events. 4. Limited number of beam hours available at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

  8. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (CvARS) is an extremely severe in-jury of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). CvARS can be induced by the high doses of neutron, heavy ions, or gamma radiation. The Syndrome clinical picture depends on a type, timing, and the doses of radiation. Four grades of the CvARS were defined: mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. Also, four stages of CvARS were developed: prodromal, latent, manifest, outcome -death. Duration of stages depends on the types, doses, and time of radiation. The CvARS clinical symptoms are: respiratory distress, hypotension, cerebral edema, severe disorder of cerebral blood microcirculation, and acute motor weakness. The radiation toxins, Cerebro-Vascular Radiation Neurotoxins (SvARSn), determine development of the acute radiation syndrome. Mechanism of action of the toxins: Though pathogenesis of radiation injury of CNS remains unknown, our concept describes the Cv ARS as a result of Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity, cell death through apoptotic necrosis. Neurotoxicity occurs after the high doses radiation exposure, formation of radiation neuro-toxins, possible bioradicals, or group of specific enzymes. Intracerebral hemorrhage can be a consequence of the damage of endothelial cells caused by radiation and the radiation tox-ins. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB)and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB)is possibly the most significant effect of microcirculation disorder and metabolic insufficiency. NMDA-receptors excitotoxic injury mediated by cerebral ischemia and cerebral hypoxia. Dam-age of the pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5 and Purkinje cell layer the cerebral cortex , damage of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus occur as a result of cerebral ischemia and intracerebral bleeding. Methods: Radiation Toxins of CV ARS are defined as glycoproteins with the molec-ular weight of RT toxins ranges from 200-250 kDa and with high enzymatic activity

  9. Immunotherapy of acute radiation syndromes with antiradiation gamma G globulin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Casey, Rachael; Jones, Jeffrey; Kedar, Prasad

    Introduction: If an immunotherapy treatment approach to treatment of acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed; consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants- SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of antiradiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-indeced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic and enterotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties that combined with the direct physiochemical direct radiation damage, induce the development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and observed that their toxic properties were neutralized by specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: Rabbits were inoculated with SRD radiation toxins to induce hyperimmune serum. The hyperimmune serum was pooled from several animals, purified, and concentrated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the hyperimmune serum revealed high titers of IgG with specific binding to radiation toxins. The antiradiation IgG preparation was injected into laboratory animals one hour before and three hours after irradiation, and was evaluated for its ability to protect inoculated animals against the development of acute radiation syndromes. Results: Animals that were inoculated with specific antiradiation antibodies before receiving lethal irradiation at LD 100/30 exhibited 60-75% survival rate at 30 days, whereas all control animals expired by 30 days following exposure. These inoculated animals also exhibited markedly reduced clinical symptoms of ARS, even those that did not survive irradiation. Discussion: The results of our experiments demonstrate that rabbit hyperimmune serum directed against SRD toxins afford significant, albeit

  10. Researchers develop four new radiation control methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.J. )

    1989-10-01

    The author describes exploratory research into radiation transport processes which has resulted in four new products to help utilities reduce radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. According to the author, chemical decontamination, elevated pH chemistry, zinc passivation, and cobalt-free hardfacing alloys can reduce radiation fields. These four processes are discussed in this paper.

  11. What's New in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leukemia (AML) About Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) What’s New in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Research and Treatment? Researchers ... benefit from current treatments. Researchers are studying many new chemo drugs for use in AML, including: Sapacitabine, ...

  12. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    SciTech Connect

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-08-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child.

  13. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Immunoprophylaxis by Antiradiation Vaccine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Jones, Jeffrey; Casey, Rachael; Kedar, Prasad

    Introduction: Traditionally, the treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) includes supportive therapy, cytokine therapy, blood component transfusions and even stem cell transplantation. Recommendations for ARS treatment are based on clinical symptoms, laboratory results, radiation exposure doses and information received from medical examinations. However, the current medical management of ARS does not include immune prophylaxis based on antiradiation vaccines or immune therapy with hyperimmune antiradiation serum. Immuneprophylaxis of ARS could result from stimulating the immune system via immunization with small doses of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) that possess significant immuno-stimulatory properties. Methods: Principles of immuno-toxicology were used to derive this method of immune prophylaxis. An antiradiation vaccine containing a mixture of Hematotoxic, Neurotoxic and Non-bacterial (GI) radiation toxins, underwent modification into a toxoid forms of the original SRD radiation toxins. The vaccine was administered to animals at different times prior to irradiation. The animals were subjected to lethal doses of radiation that induced different forms of ARS at LD 100/30. Survival rates and clinical symptoms were observed in both control and vaccine-treated animals. Results: Vaccination with non-toxic doses of Radiation toxoids induced immunity from the elaborated Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD) toxins. Neutralization of radiation toxins by specific antiradiation antibodies resulted in significantly improved clinical symptoms in the severe forms of ARS and observed survival rates of 60-80% in animals subjected to lethal doses of radiation expected to induce different forms of ARS at LD 100/30. The most effective vaccination schedule for the antiradiation vaccine consisted of repeated injections 24 and 34 days before irradiation. The vaccine remained effective for the next two years, although the specific immune memory probably

  14. Overview of NASA's space radiation research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk in space. The strategy employed has three research components: (1) ground-based simulation of space radiation components to develop a science-based understanding of radiation risk; (2) space-based measurements of the radiation environment on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms to validate predictions; and, (3) implementation of countermeasures to mitigate risk. NASA intends to significantly expand its support of ground-based radiation research in line with completion of the Booster Applications Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, expected in summer of 2003. A joint research solicitation with the Department of Energy is under way and other interagency collaborations are being considered. In addition, a Space Radiation Initiative has been submitted by the Administration to Congress that would provide answers to most questions related to the International Space Station within the next 10 years.

  15. Overview of NASA's space radiation research program.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2003-06-01

    NASA is developing the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk in space. The strategy employed has three research components: (1) ground-based simulation of space radiation components to develop a science-based understanding of radiation risk; (2) space-based measurements of the radiation environment on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms to validate predictions; and, (3) implementation of countermeasures to mitigate risk. NASA intends to significantly expand its support of ground-based radiation research in line with completion of the Booster Applications Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, expected in summer of 2003. A joint research solicitation with the Department of Energy is under way and other interagency collaborations are being considered. In addition, a Space Radiation Initiative has been submitted by the Administration to Congress that would provide answers to most questions related to the International Space Station within the next 10 years.

  16. Applications of radiation belt research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2011-10-01

    When Arthur Clark and John Pierce proposed geosynchronous and low-Earth-orbiting (GEO and LEO) communications satellites, respectively, they did not envision that the environment in which their concepts would fly would be anything but benign. Discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts in 1958 fundamentally altered understanding of Earth's near-space environment and its impacts on technologies. Indeed, the first commercial telecommunications satellite, Telstar 1, in LEO, failed some 6 months after launch (10 July 1962) due to trapped radiation that had been enhanced from the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test on the day prior to launch. Today radiation trapped in the geomagnetic field, as well as solar energetic particles that can access the magnetosphere, forms critical constraints on the design and operations of satellite systems. These considerations were important factors in the planning of the AGU Chapman Conference on radiation belts that was hosted in July 2011 by the Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John's, Canada (see "Chapman Conference on Radiation Belts and the Inner Magnetosphere," page 4). The conference presentations, discussions, and hallway conversations illuminated current understanding of Earth's radiation belts and critical issues remaining. Certainly, fundamental understanding of radiation belt origins remains elusive. The relative roles of adiabatic processes, geomagnetic storm injections, and wave heating, among other considerations, are central topics of intense debate and of competing modeling regimes by numerous active groups.

  17. Mathematical Models of Human Hematopoiesis Following Acute Radiation Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    thermochemical) 1.054 350 × 103 joule (J) foot-pound-force (ft lbf) 1.355 818 joule (J) calorie (cal) (thermochemical) 4.184 joule (J) Pressure...approaches zero , τ2I approaches (1 − δmax/2δ0)/δmax = τ2I,min. Thus, the total MK transit time approaches τ2I,min + τ2M = (τmin − τ0/2) + τ0/2 = τmin...Treatment of victims at the zero -energy reactor accident in Vinca,” Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Radiation Injury: Proceedings of a Scientific Meet

  18. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-01-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism. PMID:27326395

  19. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism.

  20. Research status on radiation hormesis at CRIEPI

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Sadao

    1996-12-31

    In 1982, Thomas D. Luckey, Prof. Emeritus, University of Missouri published a paper on radiation hormesis. His emphasis was on the beneficial effects of low-level radiation contributing to a healthy body, longer life, vitalization, etc. Radiation hormesis research by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan was initiated on the rationale that if Luckey`s claim were true, radiation management in Japan was extremely erroneous and the research institutes had to determine the truth. Obtaining many test results from some human data and various animal experiments on the health effects of low-level radiation that support the radiation hormesis hypothesis, the Central Research Institute decided to expand their research activities into a collaborative testing program with 14 universities and 2 other institutes on various subjects. The subjects in which they are now interested are as follows: 1. enhancement of molecular biological activities such as gene repair and apoptosis by low-level radiation; 2. enhancement of the immune system such as the ratio of Helper T cell/Suppressor T cell by low-level radiation; 3. rejuvenation such as cell membrane permeability, superoxide dismutase activity, and the therapy of old-age diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure.

  1. Antiradiation Antitoxin IgG : Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: High doses of radiation induce apoptotic necrosis of radio-sensitive cells. Mild doses of radiation induce apoptosis or controlled programmed death of radio-sensitive cells with-out development of inflammation and formation of Radiation Toxins. Cell apoptotic necrosis initiates Radiation Toxins (RT)formation. Radiation Toxins play an important role as a trig-ger mechanism for inflammation development and cell lysis. If an immunotherapy approach to treatment of the acute radiation syndromes (ARS) were to be developed, a consideration could be given to neutralization of radiation toxins (Specific Radiation Determinants-SRD) by specific antiradiation antibodies. Therapeutic neutralization effects of the blocking anti-radiation antibodies on the circulated RT had been studied. Radiation Toxins were isolated from the central lymph of irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular(Cv ARS),Cardiovascular (Cr ARS),Gastrointestinal(Gi ARS) and Haemopoietic (Hp ARS) forms of ARS. To accomplish this objective, irradiated animals were injected with a preparation of anti-radiation immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained from hyperimmune donors. Radiation-induced toxins that we call Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD) possess toxic (neurotoxic, haemotoxic) characteristics as well as specific antigenic properties. Depending on direct physiochemical radiation damage, they can induce development of many of the pathological processes associated with ARS. We have tested several specific hyperimmune IgG preparations against these radiation toxins and ob-served that their toxic properties were neutralized by the specific antiradiation IgGs. Material and Methods: A scheme of experiments was following: 1.Isolation of radiation toxins (RT) from the central lymph of irradiated animals with different form of ARS. 2.Transformation of a toxic form of the RT to a toxoid form of the RT. 3.Immunization of radiation naive animals. Four groups of rabbits were inoculated with a toxoid form of SRD

  2. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  3. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  4. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute's Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Brawley, Otis W.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Michalski, Jeff M.; Movsas, Benjamin; Thomas, Charles R.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  5. Development of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The space radiation environment, particularly solar particle events (SPEs), poses the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to humans; and organ doses from SPE exposure may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or within lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUMDOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUMDOSE, written in FORTRAN, are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The ARR code is written in C. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in friendly way. A GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept example for future integration of other human space applications risk projection models. The current version of the ARRBOD GUI is a new self-contained product and will have follow-on versions, as options are added: 1) human geometries of MAX/FAX in addition to CAM/CAF; 2) shielding distributions for spacecraft, Mars surface and atmosphere; 3) various space environmental and biophysical models; and 4) other response models to be connected to the BRYNTRN. The major components of the overall system, the subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces are described in this

  6. Research priorities for occupational radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

  7. The acute gastrointestinal subsyndrome of the acute radiation syndrome: a rhesus macaque model.

    PubMed

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M; Bennett, Alexander; Gelfond, Daniel; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Tudor, Gregory; Booth, Catherine; McFarland, Emylee; Jackson, William

    2012-10-01

    The development of medical countermeasures against the acute gastrointestinal subsyndrome of the acute radiation syndrome in humans requires well characterized and validated animal models. These models must adhere to the criteria of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Animal Rule and consider the natural history and clinical context of the human radiation response and treatment in the nuclear terrorist scenario. The models must define the radiation dose- and time-dependent relationships for mortality and major signs of morbidity, including concurrent damage in other organs, such as the bone marrow, that may contribute to the overall mortality and morbidity. There are no such models of the gastrointestinal syndrome in response to total-body irradiation in the nonhuman primate. Herein, these parameters are defined for the rhesus macaque exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation and administered medical management. Rhesus macaques (n = 69) were exposed bilaterally to 6 MV linear accelerator-derived photon total body irradiation to midline tissue (thorax) doses ranging from 10.0 to 14.0 Gy at 0.80 Gy min(-1). Following irradiation, all animals were administered supportive care consisting of fluids, anti-emetics, anti-diarrheal medication, antibiotics, blood transfusions, analgesics, and nutrition. The primary endpoint was survival at 15 d post-irradiation. Secondary endpoints included indices of dehydration, diarrhea, weight loss, hematological parameters, cellular histology of the small and large intestine, and mean survival time of decedents. Mortality within the 15-d in vivo study defined the acute gastrointestinal syndrome and provided an LD30/15 of 10.76 Gy, LD50/15 of 11.33 Gy, and an LD70/15 of 11.90 Gy. Intestinal crypt and villus loss were dose- and time-dependent with an apparent nadir 7 d post-irradiation and recovery noted thereafter. Severe myelosuppression and thrombocytopenia were noted in all animals, requiring the administration of

  8. Center for Applied Radiation Research (CARR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, Thomas N.

    1997-01-01

    Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU) Center for Applied Radiation Research (CARR) was established in 1995 to address the tasks, missions and technological needs of NASA. CARR is built on a tradition of radiation research at Prairie View A&M started in 1984 with NASA funding. This continuing program has lead to: (1) A more fundamental and practical understanding of radiation effects on electronics and materials; (2) A dialog between space, military and commercial electronics manufacturers; (3) Innovative electronic circuit designs; (4) Development of state-of-the-art research facilities at PVAMU; (5) Expanded faculty and staff to mentor student research; and (6) Most importantly, increased flow in the pipeline leading to expanded participation of African-Americans and other minorities in science and technological fields of interest to NASA.

  9. Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection Graphical User Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hateni N.; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The integration of human space applications risk projection models of organ dose and acute radiation risk has been a key problem. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model using the BRYNTRN with SUM DOSE computer codes, and a probabilistic model of Acute Radiation Risk (ARR). The codes BRYNTRN and SUM DOSE are a Baryon transport code and an output data processing code, respectively. The risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, the response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN. A GUI for the ARR and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations, which are required for operations of the ARRBOD modules. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation. Only a graphical user interface (GUI) can handle input and output for BRYNTRN to the response models easily and correctly. The purpose of the GUI development for ARRBOD is to provide seamless integration of input and output manipulations for the operations of projection modules (BRYNTRN, SLMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model) in assessing the acute risk and the organ doses of significant Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The assessment of astronauts radiation risk from SPE is in support of mission design and operational planning to manage radiation risks in future space missions. The ARRBOD GUI can identify the proper shielding solutions using the gender-specific organ dose assessments in order to avoid ARR symptoms, and to stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The quantified evaluation of ARR severities based on any given shielding configuration and a specified EVA or other mission

  10. Overview of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Solar particle events (SPEs) pose the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to astronauts be-cause organ doses from large SPEs may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model of Baryon transport code (BRYNTRN) with an output data processing module of SUMDOSE, and a probabilistic model of acute radiation risk (ARR). BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation, and the risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, these response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in a user-friendly way. The GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations direc-torate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. Assessment of astronauts' organ doses and ARS from the exposure to historically large SPEs is in support of mission design and opera-tion planning to avoid ARS and stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept for future integration of other risk projection models for human space applications. We present an overview of the ARRBOD GUI prod-uct, which is a new self-contained product, for the major components of the overall system, subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces.

  11. Overview of Graphical User Interface for ARRBOD (Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Nounu, Hatem N.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Solar particle events (SPEs) pose the risk of acute radiation sickness (ARS) to astronauts, because organ doses from large SPEs may reach critical levels during extra vehicular activities (EVAs) or lightly shielded spacecraft. NASA has developed an organ dose projection model of Baryon transport code (BRYNTRN) with an output data processing module of SUMDOSE, and a probabilistic model of acute radiation risk (ARR). BRYNTRN code operation requires extensive input preparation, and the risk projection models of organ doses and ARR take the output from BRYNTRN as an input to their calculations. With a graphical user interface (GUI) to handle input and output for BRYNTRN, these response models can be connected easily and correctly to BRYNTRN in a user friendly way. The GUI for the Acute Radiation Risk and BRYNTRN Organ Dose (ARRBOD) projection code provides seamless integration of input and output manipulations required for operations of the ARRBOD modules: BRYNTRN, SUMDOSE, and the ARR probabilistic response model. The ARRBOD GUI is intended for mission planners, radiation shield designers, space operations in the mission operations directorate (MOD), and space biophysics researchers. Assessment of astronauts organ doses and ARS from the exposure to historically large SPEs is in support of mission design and operation planning to avoid ARS and stay within the current NASA short-term dose limits. The ARRBOD GUI will serve as a proof-of-concept for future integration of other risk projection models for human space applications. We present an overview of the ARRBOD GUI product, which is a new self-contained product, for the major components of the overall system, subsystem interconnections, and external interfaces.

  12. Bile loss in the acute intestinal radiation syndrome in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Dunston, S.G.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Holeski, C.; Eaton, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bile duct ligation (BDL), choledochostomy, bile acid sequestering within the intestinal lumen by cholestyramine, and fluid and electrolyte replacement on survival time and development of diarrhea after whole-body exposure to doses of ionizing radiation that result in death from acute intestinal injury were studied. BDL significantly prolonged survival and delayed the onset of diarrhea after exposure to /sup 137/Cs gamma rays, fission neutrons, or cyclotron-produced neutrons in the range of doses that produce intestinal death or death from a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic injuries. Cannulation of the bile duct with exteriorized bile flow (choledochostomy) to protect the irradiated intestine from the mucolytic action of bile salts did not duplicate the effect of BDL in increasing survival time. Choledochostomy without fluid replacement eliminated the occurrence of diarrhea in 15.4 Gy irradiated rats. Diarrhea did occur in irradiated animals with choledochostomy if they received duodenal injections of fluid and electrolytes to replace the fluid lost as a result of bile drainage. Duodenal injection of fluid and electrolytes had no significant effect on survival time in irradiated rats. Injection of fluid and electrolytes into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated rats resulted in an increase in survival time that was comparable to that observed after BDL. Addition of antibiotics to the peritoneally injected fluid and electrolytes further increased survival time (up to 9 days). This survival time approached that seen in animals receiving the same radiation dose but which had the intestine exteriorized and shielded to minimize radiation injury to the intestine. Postmortem histological examinations of the irradiated small intestine showed mucosal regeneration in these long-term survivors receiving fluid and antibiotic therapy.

  13. Space radiation health research, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jablin, M. H. (Compiler); Brooks, C. (Compiler); Ferraro, G. (Compiler); Dickson, K. J. (Compiler); Powers, J. V. (Compiler); Wallace-Robinson, J. (Compiler); Zafren, B. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of 227 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by the NASA Space Radiation Health Program for the period 1991-1992. Each abstract has been categorized within one of three discipline areas: Physics, Biology and Risk Assessment. Topic areas within each discipline have been assigned as follows: Physics - Atomic Physics, Theory, Cosmic Ray and Astrophysics, Experimental, Environments and Environmental Models, Solar Activity and Prediction, Experiments, Radiation Transport and Shielding, Theory and Model Development, Experimental Studies, and Instrumentation. Biology - Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Radiation Biology, Transformation, Mutation, Lethality, Survival, DNA Damage and Repair, Tissue, Organs, and Organisms, In Vivo/In Vitro Systems, Carcinogenesis and Life Shortening, Cataractogenesis, Genetics/Developmental, Radioprotectants, Plants, and Other Effects. Risk Assessment - Risk Assessment, Radiation Health and Epidemiology, Space Flight Radiation Health Physics, Inter- and Intraspecies Extrapolation and Radiation Limits and Standards. Section I contains refereed journals; Section II contains reports/meetings. Keywords and author indices are provided. A collection of abstracts spanning the period 1986-1990 was previously issued as NASA Technical Memorandum 4270.

  14. Nuclear Weapon Effect Research at PSR (Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation) - 1983. Symptomatology of Acute Radiation Effects in Humans after Exposure to Doses of 75 to 4500 Rads (cGy) Free-in-Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-31

    fluid loss and electrolyte imbalance from vomit- ing and injury to the gastrointestinal tract may lead to fainting, prostration, and a shock condition...diarrhea are partly psychogenic , so medical attention may he less effective in controlling them than in controlling purely somat.c symptoms of hemopoietic...Fanger, H., and C. C. Lushbaugh, "Radiation Death from Cardio- vascular Shock Following a Criticality Accident," Arch. Path., Vol. 83, May 1967, pp

  15. The role of MRI in the diagnosis of acute radiation reaction in breast cancer patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startseva, Zh A.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Usova, AV; Frolova, I. G.; Simonov, K. A.; Velikaya, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    A clinical case with acute radiation reaction of the left breast after organ-preserving surgery with 10 Gy IORT (24.8 Gy) conventional radiation therapy has been presented. Comprehensive MRI examination showed signs of radiation- induced damage to skin, soft tissues and vessels of the residual breast.

  16. Influence of acute hypoxia and radiation quality on cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Tinganelli, Walter; Ma, Ning-Yi; Von Neubeck, Cläre; Maier, Andreas; Schicker, Corinna; Kraft-Weyrather, Wilma; Durante, Marco

    2013-01-01

    To measure the effect of acute oxygen depletion on cell survival for different types of radiation, experiments have been performed using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and RAT-1 rat prostate cancer cells. A special chamber has been developed to perform irradiations under different levels of oxygenation. The oxygen concentrations used were normoxia (air), hypoxia (94.5% N2, 5% CO2, 0.5% O2) and anoxia (95% N2, 5% CO2). Cells were exposed to X-rays and to C-, N- or O-ions with linear energy transfer (LET) values ranging from 100–160 keV/µm. The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values have been calculated from the measured clonogenic survival curves. For both cell lines, the X-ray OER depended on the survival level. For particle irradiation, OER was not dependent on the survival level but decreased with increasing LET. The RBE of CHO cells under oxic conditions reached a plateau for LET values above 100 keV/µm, while it was still increasing under anoxia. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that our chamber could be used to measure radiosensitivity under intermediate hypoxia. Measurements suggest that ions heavier than carbon could be of additional advantage in the irradiation, especially of radioresistant hypoxic tumor regions. PMID:23824123

  17. Earth Radiation Budget Research at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    In the 1970s research studies concentrating on satellite measurements of Earth's radiation budget started at the NASA Langley Research Center. Since that beginning, considerable effort has been devoted to developing measurement techniques, data analysis methods, and time-space sampling strategies to meet the radiation budget science requirements for climate studies. Implementation and success of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) was due to the remarkable teamwork of many engineers, scientists, and data analysts. Data from ERBE have provided a new understanding of the effects of clouds, aerosols, and El Nino/La Nina oscillation on the Earth's radiation. CERES spacecraft instruments have extended the time coverage with high quality climate data records for over a decade. Using ERBE and CERES measurements these teams have created information about radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and throughout the atmosphere for a better understanding of our climate. They have also generated surface radiation products for designers of solar power plants and buildings and numerous other applications

  18. Anti-radiation vaccine: Immunologically-based Prophylaxis of Acute Toxic Radiation Syndromes Associated with Long-term Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Jones, Jeffrey; Casey, Rachael C.

    2007-01-01

    Protecting crew from ionizing radiation is a key life sciences problem for long-duration space missions. The three major sources/types of radiation are found in space: galactic cosmic rays, trapped Van Allen belt radiation, and solar particle events. All present varying degrees of hazard to crews; however, exposure to high doses of any of these types of radiation ultimately induce both acute and long-term biological effects. High doses of space radiation can lead to the development of toxicity associated with the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) which could have significant mission impact, and even render the crew incapable of performing flight duties. The creation of efficient radiation protection technologies is considered an important target in space radiobiology, immunology, biochemistry and pharmacology. Two major mechanisms of cellular, organelle, and molecular destruction as a result of radiation exposure have been identified: 1) damage induced directly by incident radiation on the macromolecules they encounter and 2) radiolysis of water and generation of secondary free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce chemical bond breakage, molecular substitutions, and damage to biological molecules and membranes. Free-radical scavengers and antioxidants, which neutralize the damaging activities of ROS, are effective in reducing the impact of small to moderate doses of radiation. In the case of high doses of radiation, antioxidants alone may be inadequate as a radioprotective therapy. However, it remains a valuable component of a more holistic strategy of prophylaxis and therapy. High doses of radiation directly damage biological molecules and modify chemical bond, resulting in the main pathological processes that drive the development of acute radiation syndromes (ARS). Which of two types of radiation-induced cellular lethality that ultimately develops, apoptosis or necrosis, depends on the spectrum of incident radiation, dose, dose rate, and

  19. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  20. Influence of radiation quality on mouse chromosome 2 deletions in radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Natalie; Finnon, Rosemary; Manning, Grainne; Bouffler, Simon; Badie, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Leukaemia is the prevailing neoplastic disorder of the hematopoietic system. Epidemiological analyses of the survivors of the Japanese atomic bombings show that exposure to ionising radiation (IR) can cause leukaemia. Although a clear association between radiation exposure and leukaemia development is acknowledged, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. A hemizygous deletion on mouse chromosome 2 (del2) is a common feature in several mouse strains susceptible to radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (rAML). The deletion is an early event detectable 24h after exposure in bone marrow cells. Ultimately, 15-25% of exposed animals develop AML with 80-90% of cases carrying del2. Molecular mapping of leukaemic cell genomes identified a minimal deleted region (MDR) on chromosome 2 (chr2) in which a tumour suppressor gene, Sfpi1 is located, encoding the transcription factor PU.1, essential in haematopoiesis. The remaining copy of Sfpi1 has a point mutation in the coding sequence for the DNA-binding domain of the protein in 70% of rAML, which alters a single CpG sequence in the codon for arginine residue R235. In order to identify chr2 deletions and Sfpi.1/PU.1 loss, we performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on a unique panel of 79rAMLs. Using a custom made CGH array specifically designed for mouse chr2, we analysed at unprecedentedly high resolution (1.4M array- 148bp resolution) the size of the MDR in low LET and high-LET induced rAMLs (32 X-ray- and 47 neutron-induced). Sequencing of Sfpi1/PU.1DNA binding domain identified the presence of R235 point mutations, showing no influence of radiation quality on R235 type or frequency. We identified for the first time rAML cases with complex del2 in a subset of neutron-induced AMLs. This study allowed us to re-define the MDR to a much smaller 5.5Mb region (still including Sfpi1/PU.1), identical regardless of radiation quality.

  1. 50 years of radiation research: medicine.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Theodore L

    2002-10-01

    The advances brought about by research in radiation medicine over the past 50 years are presented. The era began with the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the establishment of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission to understand what damage was caused by exposure of a large population to radiation. A better understanding of the effects of whole-body exposure led to the development of whole-body radiation treatment techniques and to bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of leukemias. The field of diagnostic imaging was revolutionized by a series of inventions that included angiography, mammography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and ultrasound imaging. The field of nuclear medicine came of age through new man-made radionuclides and the invention of scanning and imaging techniques including positron emission tomography. Radiotherapy, a minor sideline of radiology, developed into radiation oncology, an extremely important component of modern cancer therapy. The advances in clinical radiotherapy were made possible by discoveries and inventions in physics and engineering and by insights and discoveries in radiobiology. The result of the last 50 years of progress is a very powerful set of clinical tools.

  2. OCT visualization of acute radiation mucositis: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkova, Natalia; Maslennikova, Anna; Terentieva, Anna; Fomina, Yulia; Khomutinnikova, Nina; Balalaeva, Irina; Vyseltseva, Yulia; Larin, Roman; Kornoukhova, Natalia; Shakhov, Andrey; Shakhova, Natalia; Gelikonov, Grigory; Kamensky, Vladislav; Feldchtein, Felix

    2005-08-01

    We present pilot results in optical coherence tomography (OCT) visualization of normal mucosa radiation damage. 15 patients undergoing radiation treatment of head and neck cancer were enrolled. OCT was used to monitor the mucositis development during and after treatment. OCT can see stages of radiation mucositis development, including hidden ones, before any clinical manifestations.

  3. Countermeasure development : Specific Immunoprophylaxis and Immunotherapy of Combined Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    healthy mammals induces development of lymphocytosis, leukocytosis, trombocytosis, and ac-tivation of blood coagulation cascade. Administration of SRT (IV or IM) to radiation naive animals induces leukopeina, thrombopenia, lymphopenia as a result of clonogenic programmed cell death. Blood coagulation cascade suppression is registered. Materials and Methods: Cows, horses, rabbits, rats, mice were used for different stages of our experiments. Animals were quarantined at laboratory conditions for three weeks prior to experimentation. Isolation of the SRT was provided from the central lymphatic duct of irradiated cows. Immunization of horses and rabbits to obtain Antiradiation Antibodies (Specific Antiradiation Antidote -SAR) was provided. Animals: cows, mice, rats were irradiated in the VSRI (Kazan), Academy of Vet-erinary Medicine (Moscow), Scientific Research Institute of Radiobiology (Gomel), Scientific Research Nuclear Center (Dubna). Equipment for gamma-irradiation: " Pyma", "Panorama" -Co gamma radiation source. Irradiation was performed by different doses corresponding to induction of severe forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS). Mice and rats were re-ceiving the combined radiation and thermal injury. Model of the thermal injury: Burns -10% of total body surface. Third grade of burns was used as a model. Thermal Injury was given after irradiation. Preparations of Antiradiation Vaccine -contained a toxoid form of Radiation Toxins were used for immune-prophylaxis. Preparations of Antiradiation Antidote IgG con-tained antibodies to Radiation Toxins was used for immune-therapy. Scheme of experiments: I. Control: Group A. Animals with the ARS not received any treatment. Group B. Animals with the thermal injury not received any treatment. Group C. Animals with combined forms of the ARS not received any treatment. II. Specific Immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine (AV): Group D. Animals undergone immune-prophylaxis by AV. Irradiation was provided 24 days after

  4. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Comparison of Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants radioprotection potency.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliev, Slava; Popov, Dmitri; Lisenkov, Nikolai

    Introduction: This experimental study of biological effects of the Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants which were used for prophylaxis and treatment of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by high doses of the low-LET radiation. An important role of Reactive Oxyden Species (Singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and bio-radicals)in development of the Acute Radiation Syndromes could be defined as a "central dogma" of radiobiology. Oxida-tion and damages of lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA are playing active role in development of postradiation apoptosis. However, the therapeutic role of antioxidants in modification of a postradiation injury caused by high doses of radiation remains controversial.Previous stud-ies had revealed that antioxidants did not increase a survival rate of mammals with severe forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by High Doses of the low-LET radiation. The Antiradiation Vaccine(ARV) contains toxoid forms of the Radiation Toxins(RT) from the Specific Radiation Determinants Group (SRD). The RT SRD has toxic and antigenic prop-erties at the same time and stimulates a specific antibody elaboration and humoral response form activated acquired immune system. The blocking antiradiation antibodies induce an im-munologically specific effect and have inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity, and radiation induced cytol-ysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. Methods and materials: Scheme of experiments: 1. Irradiated animals with development of Cerebrovascular ARS (Cv-ARS), Cardiovascular ARS (Cr-ARS) Gastrointestinal ARS(GI-ARS), Hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS) -control -were treated with placebo administration. 2. Irradiated animals were treated with antioxidants prophylaxisis and treatment of Cv-ARS, Cr-SRS, GI-ARS, Hp-ARS forms of the ARS. 3. irradiated animals were treated with radioprotection by Antiradiation Vaccine

  5. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Francois; Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu; Liu, Geoffrey

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help

  6. Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Daila S. Gridley, PhD

    2012-03-30

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 noelle.metting@science.doe.gov Submitted March 2012 To: https://www.osti.gov/elink/241.3.jsp Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information

  7. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  8. Serial Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Optic Radiations after Acute Optic Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    van der Walt, Anneke; Butzkueven, Helmut; Klistorner, Alexander; Egan, Gary F.; Kilpatrick, Trevor J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) changes within the optic radiations of patients after optic neuritis (ON). We aimed to study optic radiation DTI changes over 12 months following acute ON and to study correlations between DTI parameters and damage to the optic nerve and primary visual cortex (V1). We measured DTI parameters [fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and mean diffusivity (MD)] from the optic radiations of 38 acute ON patients at presentation and 6 and 12 months after acute ON. In addition, we measured retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, visual evoked potential amplitude, optic radiation lesion load, and V1 thickness. At baseline, FA was reduced and RD and MD were increased compared to control. Over 12 months, FA reduced in patients at an average rate of −2.6% per annum (control = −0.51%; p = 0.006). Change in FA, RD, and MD correlated with V1 thinning over 12 months (FA: R = 0.450, p = 0.006; RD: R = −0.428, p = 0.009; MD: R = −0.365, p = 0.029). In patients with no optic radiation lesions, AD significantly correlated with RNFL thinning at 12 months (R = 0.489, p = 0.039). In conclusion, DTI can detect optic radiation changes over 12 months following acute ON that correlate with optic nerve and V1 damage. PMID:27555964

  9. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2016-05-03

    The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), filgrastim) and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim) for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family) in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP) model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy) whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets) was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products) in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication.

  10. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay K.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), filgrastim) and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim) for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family) in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP) model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy) whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets) was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products) in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication. PMID:27153057

  11. Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Reduces Time Spent With Acute Dermatitis for Women of All Breast Sizes During Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Gary M. Li Tianyu; Nicolaou, Nicos; Chen Yan; Ma, Charlie C.-M.; Anderson, Penny R.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To study the time spent with radiation-induced dermatitis during a course of radiation therapy for breast cancer in women treated with conventional or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 804 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation from 2001 to 2006. All patients were treated with whole-breast radiation followed by a boost to the tumor bed. Whole-breast radiation consisted of conventional wedged photon tangents (n = 405) earlier in the study period and mostly of photon IMRT (n = 399) in later years. All patients had acute dermatitis graded each week of treatment. Results: The breakdown of the cases of maximum acute dermatitis by grade was as follows: 3%, Grade 0; 34%, Grade 1; 61%, Grade 2; and 2%, Grade 3. The breakdown of cases of maximum toxicity by technique was as follows: 48%, Grade 0/1, and 52%, Grade 2/3, for IMRT; and 25%, Grade 0/1, and 75%, Grade 2/3, for conventional radiation therapy (p < 0.0001). The IMRT patients spent 82% of weeks during treatment with Grade 0/1 dermatitis and 18% with Grade 2/3 dermatitis, compared with 29% and 71% of patients, respectively, treated with conventional radiation (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the time spent with Grade 2/3 toxicity was decreased in IMRT patients with small (p = 0.0015), medium (p < 0.0001), and large (p < 0.0001) breasts. Conclusions: Breast IMRT is associated with a significant decrease both in the time spent during treatment with Grade 2/3 dermatitis and in the maximum severity of dermatitis compared with that associated with conventional radiation, regardless of breast size.

  12. Acute Radiation Hypotension in the Rabbit: a Model for the Human Radiation Shock Syndrome.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makale, Milan Theodore

    This study has shown that total body irradiation (TBI) of immature (40 to 100 day old) rabbits leads to an acute fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) 30 to 90 minutes after exposure, which takes no more than about three minutes, and often results in pressures which are less than 50% of the lowest pre-exposure MAP. This is termed acute cardiovascular collapse (ACC). ACC is often accompanied by ECG T-wave elevation, a sharp rise in ear temperature, labored breathing, pupillary constriction, bladder emptying, and loss of abdominal muscle tone. About 73% of 40 to 100 day rabbits exhibit ACC; the others and most older rabbits display gradual pressure reductions (deliberate hypotension) which may be profound, and which may be accompanied by the same changes associated with ACC. ACC and deliberate hypotension occurred in rabbits cannulated in the dorsal aorta, and in non-operated animals. The decline in MAP for all 40 to 100 day cannulated rabbits (deliberate and ACC responders) is 55.4%. The experiments described below only involved 40 to 100 day cannulated TBI rabbits. Heart region irradiation resulted in an average MAP decline of 29.1%, with 1/15 rabbits showing ACC. Heart shielding during TBI reduced the decline in MAP to 19%, with 1/10 rabbits experiencing ACC. These results imply that the heart region, which includes the heart, part of the lungs, neural receptors, roots of the systemic vessels, and the blood, is a sensitive target. Bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to 24.9%, and abolished ACC. Atropine (6 mg/kg) reduced the frequency of ACC to 26%, and the decline in MAP to 41.4%. In 11/13 rabbits the voltage generated by left vagal transmission rose after TBI. The vagi appear to participate in radiation hypotension. Heart shielding together with bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to only 9.9%, with no ACC responders. The mean right ventricular pressure (MRVP) rose after TBI in 8/10 rabbits. In animals which displayed either ACC or steep

  13. Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 Improves Both Acute and Late Experimental Radiation Enteritis in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Sandra

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: Acute and/or chronic radiation enteritis can develop after radiotherapy for pelvic cancers. Experimental and clinical observations have provided evidence of a role played by acute mucosal disruption in the appearance of late effects. The therapeutic potential of acute administration of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) against acute and chronic intestinal injury was investigated in this study. Methods and Materials: Intestinal segments were surgically exteriorized and exposed to 16.7 or 19 Gy X-rays. The rats were treated once daily with vehicle or a protease-resistant GLP-2 derivative for 14 days before irradiation, with or without 7 days of GLP-2 after treatment. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were made 2 and 15 weeks after radiation exposure. Results: In the control animals, GLP-2 induced an increase in intestinal mucosal mass, along with an increase in villus height and crypt depth. GLP-2 administration before and after irradiation completely prevented the acute radiation-induced mucosal ulcerations observed after exposure to 16.7 Gy. GLP-2 treatment strikingly reduced the late radiation damage observed after 19 Gy irradiation. Microscopic observations revealed an improved organization of the intestinal wall and an efficient wound healing process, especially in the smooth muscle layers. Conclusion: GLP-2 has a clear therapeutic potential against both acute and chronic radiation enteritis. This therapeutic effect is mediated through an increased mucosal mass before tissue injury and the stimulation of still unknown mechanisms of tissue response to radiation damage. Although these preliminary results still need to be confirmed, GLP-2 might be a way to limit patient discomfort during radiotherapy and reduce the risk of consequential late effects.

  14. Current status of liquid sheet radiator research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; McMaster, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    Initial research on the external flow, low mass liquid sheet radiator (LSR), has been concentrated on understanding its fluid mechanics. The surface tension forces acting at the edges of the sheet produce a triangular planform for the radiating surface of width, W, and length, L. It has been experimentally verified that (exp L)/W agrees with the theoretical result, L/W = (We/8)exp 1/2, where We is the Weber number. Instability can cause holes to form in regions of large curvature such as where the edge cylinders join the sheet of thickness, tau. The W/tau limit that will cause hole formation with subsequent destruction of the sheet has yet to be reached experimentally. Although experimental measurements of sheet emissivity have not yet been performed because of limited program scope, calculations of the emissivity and sheet lifetime is determined by evaporation losses were made for two silicon based oils; Dow Corning 705 and Me(sub 2). Emissivities greater than 0.75 are calculated for tau greater than or equal to 200 microns for both oils. Lifetimes for Me(sub 2) are much longer than lifetimes for 705. Therefore, Me(sub 2) is the more attractive working fluid for higher temperatures (T greater than or equal to 400 K).

  15. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  16. Effects of Ozonated Olive Oil on Acute Radiation Proctitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Fatma Ayça; Bakkal, Bekir Hakan; Sümer, Demet; Köktürk, Füruzan; Bektaş, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute radiation proctitis is a common complication of pelvic radiation and management of acute radiation proctitis is under evaluation. The beneficial effects of ozonated olive oil (OzOO) have already been shown in the treatment of chronic wounds. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Aims: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into three groups: control; irradiation+saline (1 mL); and irradiation +OzOO (1 mL). A single fraction of 17.5 Gy was delivered to each rat. The OzOO was administered rectally each day after irradiation. Each rat was observed daily for signs of proctitis. Irradiated rats were euthanised on days 5 and 10. The mucosal changes were evaluated macroscopically and pathologically. Results: According to the clinical findings, five rats in the irradiation+saline group showed Grade 4 symptoms on the 10th day. Macroscopic finding scores on the 10th day in the irradiation+saline and irradiation+OzOO groups were statistically significantly different. On pathological examination, radiation-induced mucosal damage was the most prominent 10 days after irradiation in saline-treated rats. On the 10th day, the irradiation+OzOO group showed mild inflammation and slight crypt change, which corresponded to Grade 1 pathological findings. Conclusion: OzOO attenuates macroscopic and pathological findings of acute radiation proctitis in rats. PMID:25207143

  17. Evaluation of acute radiation optic neuropathy by B-scan ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Lovato, A.A.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.; Castro, J.R. )

    1990-09-15

    We studied the accuracy of B-scan ultrasonography to diagnose radiation-induced optic neuropathy in 15 patients with uveal melanoma. Optic neuropathy was diagnosed by an observer masked as to clinical and photographic data. We analyzed planimetry area measurements of the retrobulbar nerve before and after irradiation. The retrobulbar area of the optic nerve shadow on B-scan was quantitated with a sonic digitizer. Increased optic nerve shadow area was confirmed in 13 of 15 patients who had radiation optic neuropathy (P less than .004). The correct diagnosis was confirmed when the results of ultrasound were compared to fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. In 13 patients there was acute radiation optic neuropathy. Two patients did not show an enlarged retrobulbar optic nerve, and the clinical appearance suggested early progression to optic atrophy. Ultrasonography documents the enlargement of the optic nerve caused by acute radiation changes.

  18. Subacute radiation dermatitis: a histologic imitator of acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    LeBoit, P.E.

    1989-02-01

    The histopathologic changes of radiation dermatitis have been classified either as early effects (necrotic keratinocytes, fibrin thrombi, and hemorrhage) or as late effects (vacuolar changes at the dermal-epidermal junction, atypical radiation fibroblasts, and fibrosis). Two patients, one exposed to radiation therapeutically and one accidentally, are described. Skin biopsy specimens showed an interface dermatitis characterized by numerous dyskeratotic epidermal cells with lymphocytes in close apposition (satellite cell necrosis); that is, the epidermal changes were similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease. Because recipients of bone marrow transplants frequently receive total body irradiation as part of their preparatory regimen, the ability of radiation to cause persistent epidermal changes similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease could complicate the interpretation of posttransplant skin biopsy specimens.

  19. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal`s exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats.

  20. Radiation injury and acute death in Armadillidium vulgare (terrestrial isopod, Crustacea) subjected to ionizing radiation. [/sup 137/Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuchi, Y.; Egami, N.

    1981-01-01

    From whole- and partial-body irradiation experiments with adult Armadillidium vulgare, the following conclusions were drawn: the LD/sub 50/-30 days for this animal when subjected to ..gamma.. radiation at 25 +- 2/sup 0/C was about 30 kR. Radiosensitivity of the animal changed during the molt cycle. Ionizing radiation increased mortality at ecdysis and during intermolt stages. Anatomical and histological observations indicated that (1) gastrointestinal injury as the major cause of acute death does not apply to this animal because the intestine is not a cell-proliferative organ: (2) the epidermis may be the critical target organ.

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Innovative Medical Approaches in Military Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-30

    lymphoblastic leukemia: a randomized phase III trial. Blood. 1995;86(2):444–50. 36. Hu KX, Sun QY, Guo M, Ai HS. The radiation protection and therapy effects of...Literature 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute radiation syndrome: innovative medical...MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13

  2. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of acute radiation syndrome: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Komůrková, Denisa; Hoferová, Zuzana

    2014-04-16

    This article concisely summarizes data on the action of one of the principal and best known growth factors, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), in a mammalian organism exposed to radiation doses inducing acute radiation syndrome. Highlighted are the topics of its real or anticipated use in radiation accident victims, the timing of its administration, the possibilities of combining G-CSF with other drugs, the ability of other agents to stimulate endogenous G-CSF production, as well as of the capability of this growth factor to ameliorate not only the bone marrow radiation syndrome but also the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. G-CSF is one of the pivotal drugs in the treatment of radiation accident victims and its employment in this indication can be expected to remain or even grow in the future.

  3. Acute high-dose X-radiation-induced genomic changes in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Muradyan, A; Gilbertz, K; Stabentheiner, S; Klause, S; Madle, H; Meineke, V; Ullmann, R; Scherthan, H

    2011-06-01

    Accidents with ionizing radiation often involve single, acute high-dose exposures that can lead to acute radiation syndrome and late effects such as carcinogenesis. To study such effects at the cellular level, we investigated acute ionizing radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in A549 adenocarcinoma cells at the genome-wide level by exposing the cells to an acute dose of 6 Gy 240 kV X rays. One sham-irradiated clone and four surviving irradiated clones were recovered by minimal dilution and further expanded and analyzed by chromosome painting and tiling-path array CGH, with the nonirradiated clone 0 serving as the control. Acute X-ray exposure induced specific translocations and changes in modal chromosome number in the four irradiated clones. Array CGH disclosed unique and recurrent genomic changes, predominantly losses, and revealed that the fragile sites FRA3B and FRA16D were preferential regions of genomic alterations in all irradiated clones, which is likely related to radioresistant S-phase progression and genomic stress. Furthermore, clone 4 displayed an increased radiosensitivity at doses >5 Gy. Pairwise comparisons of the gene expression patterns of all irradiated clones to the sham-irradiated clone 0 revealed an enrichment of the Gene Ontology term "M Phase" (P = 6.2 × 10(-7)) in the set of differentially expressed genes of clone 4 but not in those of clones 1-3. Ionizing radiation-induced genomic changes and fragile site expression highlight the capacity of a single acute radiation exposure to affect the genome of exposed cells by inflicting genomic stress.

  4. Potential for a pluripotent adult stem cell treatment for acute radiation sickness

    PubMed Central

    Rodgerson, Denis O; Reidenberg, Bruce E; Harris, Alan G; Pecora, Andrew L

    2012-01-01

    Accidental radiation exposure and the threat of deliberate radiation exposure have been in the news and are a public health concern. Experience with acute radiation sickness has been gathered from atomic blast survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and from civilian nuclear accidents as well as experience gained during the development of radiation therapy for cancer. This paper reviews the medical treatment reports relevant to acute radiation sickness among the survivors of atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, among the victims of Chernobyl, and the two cases described so far from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi disaster. The data supporting the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the new efforts to expand stem cell populations ex vivo for infusion to treat bone marrow failure are reviewed. Hematopoietic stem cells derived from bone marrow or blood have a broad ability to repair and replace radiation induced damaged blood and immune cell production and may promote blood vessel formation and tissue repair. Additionally, a constituent of bone marrow-derived, adult pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic like stem cells, are highly resistant to ionizing radiation and appear capable of regenerating radiation damaged tissue including skin, gut and lung. PMID:24520532

  5. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, N.; Barnes, E.; van Draanen, J.; Stacey, E.; Mitera, G.; Breen, D.; Giotis, A.; Czarnota, G.; Pang, J.; De Angelis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. One of the most common side effects of radiation is acute skin reaction (radiation dermatitis) that ranges from a mild rash to severe ulceration. Approximately 85% of patients treated with radiation therapy will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction. Acute radiation-induced skin reactions often lead to itching and pain, delays in treatment, and diminished aesthetic appearance—and subsequently to a decrease in quality of life. Surveys have demonstrated that a wide variety of topical, oral, and intravenous agents are used to prevent or to treat radiation-induced skin reactions. We conducted a literature review to identify trials that investigated products for the prophylaxis and management of acute radiation dermatitis. Thirty-nine studies met the pre-defined criteria, with thirty-three being categorized as prophylactic trials and six as management trials. For objective evaluation of skin reactions, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were the most commonly used tools (65% of the studies). Topical corticosteroid agents were found to significantly reduce the severity of skin reactions; however, the trials of corticosteroids evaluated various agents, and no clear indication about a preferred corticosteroid has emerged. Amifostine and oral enzymes were somewhat effective in preventing radiation-induced skin reactions in phase ii and phase iii trials respectively; further large randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to better investigate those products. Biafine cream (Ortho–McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ, U.S.A.) was found not to be superior to standard regimes in the prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions (n = 6). In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent for the prevention and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions. Future trials should focus

  6. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Hindley, Andrew; Zain, Zakiyah; Wood, Lisa; Whitehead, Anne; Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  7. Prophylaxis and treatment of acute radiation ulcers in rats with low-power infrared laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursova, Larisa V.; Kaplan, Michael A.; Nikitina, Rosa G.; Maligina, Antonina I.

    1999-12-01

    Exposure of radiation ulcers in rats to low-power infrared laser radiation (LPLR) (wavelength--890 nm, pulse power--6 W, frequency--150 and 300 Hz, irradiation time--10 min) noticeably accelerates their healing, reduces exudative processes, increases number of specialized cells in wound. Application of LPLR prior to radiation damage decreases ulcer dimensions.

  8. Hydrogen therapy may be an effective and specific novel treatment for acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Cui, Jianguo; Sun, Quan; Cai, Jianming

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, however, it is seldom regarded as a therapeutic gas. Recent studies show that inhaled hydrogen gas (H(2)) has antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities that protect the brain against ischemia-reperfusion injury and stroke by selectively reducing hydroxyl and peroxynitrite radicals. It is also well known that more than a half of the ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage is caused by hydroxyl radicals. Studies have show that reducing hydroxyl radicals can significantly improve the protection of cells from radiation damage. In like manner, we hypothesize that hydrogen therapy may be an effective, specific and unique treatment for acute radiation syndrome.

  9. Supplemental vitamin A prevents the acute radiation-induced defect in wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, S.M.; Gruber, C.A.; Rettura, G.; Gruber, D.K.; Demetriou, A.A.; Seifter, E.

    1984-10-01

    Acute radiation injury leads to thymic involution, adrenal enlargement, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal ulceration, and impaired wound healing. The authors hypothesized that supplemental vitamin A would mitigate these adverse effects in rats exposed to acute whole-body radiation. To test their hypothesis, dorsal skin incisions and subcutaneous implantation of polyvinyl alcohol sponges were performed in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats at varying times following sham radiation or varying doses of whole-body radiation (175-850 rad). In each experiment, the control diet (which contains about 18,000 IU vit. A/kg chow (3 X the NRC RDA for normal rats)) was supplemented with 150,000 IU vit. A/kg diet beginning at, before, or after sham radiation and wounding or radiation and wounding. The supplemental vitamin A prevented the impaired wound healing and lessened the weight loss, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thymic involution, adrenal enlargement, decrease in splenic weight, and gastric ulceration of the radiated (750-850 rad) wounded rats. This was true whether the supplemental vitamin A was begun before (2 or 4 days) or after (1-2 hours to 4 days) radiation and wounding; the supplemental vitamin A was more effective when started before or up to 2 days after radiation and wounding. The authors believe that prevention of the impaired wound healing following radiation by supplemental vitamin A is due to its enhancing the early inflammatory reaction to wounding, including increasing the number of monocytes and macrophages at the wound site; possible effect on modulating collagenase activity; effect on epithelial cell (and possible mesenchymal cell) differentiation; stimulation of immune responsiveness; and lessening of the adverse effects of radiation.

  10. Common strategic research agenda for radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    Reflecting the change in funding strategies for European research projects, and the goal to jointly improve medical radiation protection through sustainable research efforts, five medical societies involved in the application of ionising radiation (European Association of Nuclear Medicine, EANM; European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. EFOMP; European Federation of Radiographer Societies, EFRS; European Society of Radiology, ESR; European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology, ESTRO) have identified research areas of common interest and developed this first edition of the Common Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for medical radiation protection. The research topics considered necessary and most urgent for effective medical care and efficient in terms of radiation protection are summarised in five main themes: 1. Measurement and quantification in the field of medical applications of ionising radiation 2. Normal tissue reactions, radiation-induced morbidity and long-term health problems 3. Optimisation of radiation exposure and harmonisation of practices 4. Justification of the use of ionising radiation in medical practice 5. Infrastructures for quality assurance The SRA is a living document; thus comments and suggestions by all stakeholders in medical radiation protection are welcome and will be dealt with by the European Alliance for Medical Radiation Protection Research (EURAMED) established by the above-mentioned societies.

  11. Ataxia Telangiectasia–Mutated Gene Polymorphisms and Acute Normal Tissue Injuries in Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Lihua; Cui, Jingkun; Tang, Fengjiao; Cong, Xiaofeng; Han, Fujun

    2015-04-01

    dependent on the incidence of the injury. These support the evidence of an association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and acute radiation injuries, encouraging further research of this topic.

  12. Gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome in Göttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    PubMed

    Elliott, Thomas B; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Gulani, Jatinder; Koch, Amory; Olsen, Cara H; Christensen, Christine; Chappell, Mark; Whitnall, Mark H; Moroni, Maria

    2014-12-01

    In the absence of supportive care, exposing Göttingen minipigs to γ-radiation doses of less than 2 Gy achieves lethality due to hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Doses of 2 to 5 Gy are associated with an accelerated hematopoietic syndrome, characterized by villus blunting and fusion, the beginning of sepsis, and a mild transient reduction in plasma citrulline concentration. We exposed male Göttingen minipigs (age, 5 mo; weight, 9 to 11 kg) to γ-radiation doses of 5 to 12 Gy (total body; (60)Co, 0.6 Gy/min) to test whether these animals exhibit classic gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS). After exposure, the minipigs were monitored for 10 d by using clinical signs, CBC counts, and parameters associated with the development of the gastrointestinal syndrome. Göttingen minipigs exposed to γ radiation of 5 to 12 Gy demonstrate a dose-dependent occurrence of all parameters classically associated with acute GI-ARS. These results suggest that Göttingen minipigs may be a suitable model for studying GI-ARS after total body irradiation, but the use of supportive care to extend survival beyond 10 d is recommended. This study is the first step toward determining the feasibility of using Göttingen minipigs in testing the efficacy of candidate drugs for the treatment of GI-ARS after total body irradiation.

  13. Gastrointestinal Acute Radiation Syndrome in Göttingen Minipigs (Sus Scrofa Domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Thomas B; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Gulani, Jatinder; Koch, Amory; Olsen, Cara H; Christensen, Christine; Chappell, Mark; Whitnall, Mark H; Moroni, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of supportive care, exposing Göttingen minipigs to γ-radiation doses of less than 2 Gy achieves lethality due to hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Doses of 2 to 5 Gy are associated with an accelerated hematopoietic syndrome, characterized by villus blunting and fusion, the beginning of sepsis, and a mild transient reduction in plasma citrulline concentration. We exposed male Göttingen minipigs (age, 5 mo; weight, 9 to 11 kg) to γ-radiation doses of 5 to 12 Gy (total body; 60Co, 0.6 Gy/min) to test whether these animals exhibit classic gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS). After exposure, the minipigs were monitored for 10 d by using clinical signs, CBC counts, and parameters associated with the development of the gastrointestinal syndrome. Göttingen minipigs exposed to γ radiation of 5 to 12 Gy demonstrate a dose-dependent occurrence of all parameters classically associated with acute GI-ARS. These results suggest that Göttingen minipigs may be a suitable model for studying GI-ARS after total body irradiation, but the use of supportive care to extend survival beyond 10 d is recommended. This study is the first step toward determining the feasibility of using Göttingen minipigs in testing the efficacy of candidate drugs for the treatment of GI-ARS after total body irradiation. PMID:25527026

  14. 11th International Conference of Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-18

    Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

  15. Perception of low dose radiation risks among radiation researchers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Songwon; Lee, Dalnim; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Expert’s risk evaluation of radiation exposure strongly influences the public’s risk perception. Experts can inform laypersons of significant radiation information including health knowledge based on experimental data. However, some experts’ radiation risk perception is often based on non-conclusive scientific evidence (i.e., radiation levels below 100 millisievert), which is currently under debate. Examining perception levels among experts is important for communication with the public since these individual’s opinions have often exacerbated the public’s confusion. We conducted a survey of Korean radiation researchers to investigate their perceptions of the risks associated with radiation exposure below 100 millisievert. A linear regression analysis revealed that having ≥ 11 years’ research experience was a critical factor associated with radiation risk perception, which was inversely correlated with each other. Increased opportunities to understand radiation effects at < 100 millisievert could alter the public’s risk perception of radiation exposure. In addition, radiation researchers conceived that more scientific evidence reducing the uncertainty for radiation effects < 100 millisievert is necessary for successful public communication. We concluded that sustained education addressing scientific findings is a critical attribute that will affect the risk perception of radiation exposure. PMID:28166286

  16. Acute Radiation-Induced Nocturia in Prostate Cancer Patients Is Associated With Pretreatment Symptoms, Radical Prostatectomy, and Genetic Markers in the TGF{beta}1 Gene

    SciTech Connect

    De Langhe, Sofie; De Ruyck, Kim; Ost, Piet; Fonteyne, Valerie; Werbrouck, Joke; De Meerleer, Gert; De Neve, Wilfried; Thierens, Hubert

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: After radiation therapy for prostate cancer, approximately 50% of the patients experience acute genitourinary symptoms, mostly nocturia. This may be highly bothersome with a major impact on the patient's quality of life. In the past, nocturia is seldom reported as a single, physiologically distinct endpoint, and little is known about its etiology. It is assumed that in addition to dose-volume parameters and patient- and therapy-related factors, a genetic component contributes to the development of radiation-induced damage. In this study, we investigated the association among dosimetric, clinical, and TGF{beta}1 polymorphisms and the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia in prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Data were available for 322 prostate cancer patients treated with primary or postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Five genetic markers in the TGF{beta}1 gene (-800 G>A, -509 C>T, codon 10 T>C, codon 25 G>C, g.10780 T>G), and a high number of clinical and dosimetric parameters were considered. Toxicity was scored using an symptom scale developed in-house. Results: Radical prostatectomy (P<.001) and the presence of pretreatment nocturia (P<.001) are significantly associated with the occurrence of radiation-induced acute toxicity. The -509 CT/TT (P=.010) and codon 10 TC/CC (P=.005) genotypes are significantly associated with an increased risk for radiation-induced acute nocturia. Conclusions: Radical prostatectomy, the presence of pretreatment nocturia symptoms, and the variant alleles of TGF{beta}1 -509 C>T and codon 10 T>C are identified as factors involved in the development of acute radiation-induced nocturia. These findings may contribute to the research on prediction of late nocturia after IMRT for prostate cancer.

  17. Radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin in gamma induced acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kindekov, Ivan; Mileva, Milka; Krastev, Dimo; Vassilieva, Vladimira; Raynova, Yuliana; Doumanova, Lyuba; Aljakov, Mitko; Idakieva, Krassimira

    2014-05-04

    The radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin (RtH) against radiation-induced injuries (stomach ulcers, survival time and endogenous haemopoiesis) and post-radiation recovery was investigated in male albino mice (C3H strain). Radiation course was in a dose of 7.5 Gy (LD 100/30 - dose that kills 100% of the mice at 30 days) from (137)Cs with a dose of 2.05 Gy/min. Radiation injuries were manifested by inducing а hematopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome. RtH was administered intraperitoneally in a single dose of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b. w.) once a day for five consecutive days before irradiation. The results obtained showed that radiation exposure led to (1) 100% mortality rate, (2) ulceration in the stomach mucosa and (3) decrease formation of spleen colonies as a marker of endogenous haemopoiesis. Administration of RtH at a dose of 200 mg/kg provided better protection against radiation-induced stomach ulceration, mitigated the lethal effects of radiation exposure and recovered endogenous haemopoiesis versus irradiated but not supplemented mice. It could be expected that RtH will find a use in mitigating radiation induced injury and enhanced radiorecovery.

  18. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities and a corresponding growth in the number of applications in both basic and applied sciences. The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x- ray source for many applications in the medical sciences. There is a dual aspect to the field of medical applications of synchrotron radiation. First there are the important in-vitro programs such as structural biology, x-ray microscopy, and radiation cell biology. Second there are the programs that are ultimately targeted at in-vivo applications. The present status of synchrotron coronary angiography, bronchography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy programs at laboratories around the world is reviewed.

  19. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, I

    1998-05-12

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal.

  20. The triterpenoid RTA 408 is a robust mitigator of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Devorah C; Alexeev, Vitali; Lash, Elizabeth; Guha, Chandan; Rodeck, Ulrich; Fleming, William H

    2015-03-01

    Bone marrow suppression due to exposure to ionizing radiation is a significant clinical problem associated with radiation therapy as well as with nonmedical radiation exposure. Currently, there are no small molecule agents available that can enhance hematopoietic regeneration after radiation exposure. Here, we report on the effective mitigation of acute hematopoietic radiation syndrome in mice by the synthetic triterpenoid, RTA 408. The administration of a brief course of RTA 408 treatment, beginning 24 h after lethal doses of radiation to bone marrow, significantly increased overall survival. Importantly, treatment with RTA 408 led to the full recovery of steady state hematopoiesis with normalization of the frequency of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Moreover, hematopoietic stem cells from RTA 408-mitigated mice showed lineage-balanced, long-term, multilineage potential in serial transplantation assays, indicative of their normal self-renewal activity. The potency of RTA 408 in mitigating radiation-induced bone marrow suppression makes it an attractive candidate for potential clinical use in treating both therapy-related and unanticipated radiation exposure.

  1. Immuno-therapy of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Extracorporeal Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Methods Results Summary and conclusions Introduction: Existing Medical Management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include methods of specific immunotherapy and active detoxication. Though the Acute Radiation Syndromes were defined as an acute toxic poisonous with development of pathological processes: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), Toxic Multiple Organ Injury (TMOI), Toxic Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome(TMODS), Toxic Multiple Organ Failure (TMOF). Radiation Toxins of SRD Group play an important role as the trigger mechanisms in development of the ARS clinical symptoms. Methods: Immuno-Lympho-Plasmo-Sorption is a type of Immuno-therapy which includes prin-ciples of immunochromato-graphy, plasmopheresis, and hemodialysis. Specific Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies are the active pharmacological agents of immunotherapy . Antiradia-tion Antitoxic Antibodies bind selectively to Radiation Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins, Hematotox-ins and neutralize their toxic activity. We have developed the highly sensitive method and system for extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption with antigen-specific IgG which is clinically important for treatment of the toxic and immunologic phases of the ARS. The method of extracorporeal-immune-lypmh-plasmo-sorption includes Antiradiation Antitoxic Antibodies (AAA) immobilized on microporous polymeric membranes with a pore size that is capable to provide diffusion of blood-lymph plasma. Plasma of blood or lymph of irradiated mammals contains Radiation Toxins (RT) that have toxic and antigenic properties. Radiation Toxins are Antigen-specific to Antitoxic blocking antibodies (Immunoglobulin G). Plasma diffuses through membranes with immobilized AAA and AA-antibodies bind to the polysaccharide chain of tox-ins molecules and complexes of AAA-RT that are captured on membrane surfaces. RT were removed from plasma. Re-transfusion of plasma of blood and lymph had been provided. We show a statistical significant

  2. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  3. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  4. Nuclear-weapon-effect research at PSR (Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation) - 1983. Volume 10. Symptomatology of acute radiation effects in humans after exposure to doses of 75 to 4500 rads (cGy) free-in-air. Final technical report, 27 October 1982-30 November 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, S.J.; Young, R.W.; Anno, G.H.; Withers, H.R.

    1984-08-31

    This report distills from available data descriptions of typical human symptoms in reaction to prompt ionizing radiation in the dose range 75 to 4500 rads (cGy) free-in-air. The descriptions correlate symptoms with dose and time over the acute post-exposure period of six weeks. Their purpose is to provide an empirical base for estimating combat troop performance after a nuclear weapon attack. The dose range of interest is subdivided into eight subranges associated with important pathophysiological events. For each subrange, the signs and symptoms manifested by an exposed population are estimated--symptom onset, severity, duration, and incidence. The early or prodromal phase of radiation sickness begins about 2 to 4 hrs after doses of 300 to 530 rads (cGy). Onset time diminishes with dose, occurring within minutes of exposure to 4500 rads (cGy). Characteristic prodromal symptoms are nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and diarrhea. The prodromal phase lasts from several days to a matter of hours, depending on dose. Symptoms of the hemopoietic syndrome are bleeding, fever, infection, and ulceration. Symptoms of the gastrointestinal syndrome are fluid loss, electrolyte imbalance, severe diarrhea, and septicemia.

  5. What's New in Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) in Adults Research?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Adults About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) What’s New in Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment? Researchers ... have the Philadelphia chromosome. Gene expression profiling This new lab technique is being studied to help identify ...

  6. Micro RNA responses to chronic or acute exposures to low dose ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, M. Ahmad; Omaruddin, Romaica A.; Kreger, Bridget; de Toledo, Sonia M.; Azzam, Edouard I.

    2014-01-01

    Human health risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation remain ambiguous and are the subject of intense debate. A wide variety of biological effects are induced after cellular exposure to ionizing radiation, but the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remain to be completely understood. We hypothesized that low dose c-radiation-induced effects are controlled by the modulation of micro RNA (miRNA) that participate in the control of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and are involved in many cellular processes. We monitored the expression of several miRNA in human cells exposed to acute or chronic low doses of 10 cGy or a moderate dose of 400 cGy of 137Cs γ-rays. Dose, dose rate and time dependent differences in the relative expression of several miRNA were investigated. The expression patterns of many miRNA differed after exposure to either chronic or acute 10 cGy. The expression of miRNA let-7e, a negative regulator of RAS oncogene, and the c-MYC miRNA cluster were upregulated after 10 cGy chronic dose but were downregulated after 3 h of acute 10 cGy. The miR-21 was upregulated in chronic or acute low dose and moderate dose treated cells and its target genes hPDCD4, hPTEN, hSPRY2, and hTPM1 were found to be downregulated. These findings provide evidence that low dose and dose rate c-irradiation dictate the modulation of miRNA, which can result in a differential cellular response than occurs at high doses. This information will contribute to understanding the risks to human health after exposure to low dose radiation. PMID:22367372

  7. Radiation resistance of primary clonogenic blasts from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Uckun, F.M. Childrens Cancer Group, Arcadia, CA ); Aeppli, D.; Song, C.W. )

    1993-11-15

    Detailed comparative analyses of the radiation sensitivity of primary clonogenic blasts from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were performed to achieve a better understanding of clinical radiation resistance in ALL. The radiation sensitivity of primary clonogenic blasts from 74 children with newly diagnosed ALL was analyzed using leukemic progenitor cell (LPC) assays. Primary bone marrow blasts from all 74 patients were exposed to ionizing radiation and subsequently assayed for LPC-derived blast colony formation. Radiation survival curves of LPC were constructed for each of the newly diagnosed patients using computer programs for the single-hit multitarget as well as the linear quadratic models of cell survival. A marked interpatient variation in intrinsic radiation sensitivity was observed between LPC populations. The SF[sub 2] values ranged from 0.01 to 1.00. Patients were divided into groups according to their sex, age, WBC at diagnosis, cell cycle distribution of leukemic blasts, and immunophenotype. Only immunophenotype provided a significant correlation with the intrinsic radiation sensitivity of LPC. Patients with B-lineage ALL had higher SF[sub 2] and smaller [alpha] values than T-lineage ALL patients, consistent with greater intrinsic radiation resistance at the level of LPC. Notably, 43% of B-lineage ALL cases, but only 27% of T-lineage ALL cases had LPC with SF[sub 2] [ge] 0.5. Similarly, 66% of B-lineage ALL cases, but only 37% of T-lineage ALL cases had LPC with [alpha] values [le] 0.4 Gy[sup [minus]1]. Combining the two indicators of radiation resistance, they found that only 34% of the B-lineage ALL patients had none of the two parameters in the respective critical regions, while 63% of the T-lineage patients had none. In multivariate analyses, the immunophenotypic B-lineage affiliation was the only significant predictor of radiation resistance at the level of LPC. 42 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, part 4: acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Doran M; Iddins, Carol J; Parrillo, Steven J; Glassman, Erik S; Goans, Ronald E

    2014-09-01

    To provide proper medical care for patients after a radiation incident, it is necessary to make the correct diagnosis in a timely manner and to ascertain the relative magnitude of the incident. The present article addresses the clinical diagnosis and management of high-dose radiation injuries and illnesses in the first 24 to 72 hours after a radiologic or nuclear incident. To evaluate the magnitude of a high-dose incident, it is important for the health physicist, physician, and radiobiologist to work together and to assess many variables, including medical history and physical examination results; the timing of prodromal signs and symptoms (eg, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, transient incapacitation, hypotension, and other signs and symptoms suggestive of high-level exposure); and the incident history, including system geometry, source-patient distance, and the suspected radiation dose distribution.

  9. Radioprotectors and Radiomitigators for Improving Radiation Therapy: The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Gateway for Accelerating Clinical Translation.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Pataje G S; Narayanan, Deepa; Hallett, Kory; Bernhard, Eric J; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Evans, Gregory; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Weingarten, Michael; Coleman, C Norman

    2015-09-01

    Although radiation therapy is an important cancer treatment modality, patients may experience adverse effects. The use of a radiation-effect modulator may help improve the outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients undergoing radiation therapy either by enhancing tumor cell killing or by protecting normal tissues. Historically, the successful translation of radiation-effect modulators to the clinic has been hindered due to the lack of focused collaboration between academia, pharmaceutical companies and the clinic, along with limited availability of support for such ventures. The U.S. Government has been developing medical countermeasures against accidental and intentional radiation exposures to mitigate the risk and/or severity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and the delayed effects of acute radiation exposures (DEARE), and there is now a drug development pipeline established. Some of these medical countermeasures could potentially be repurposed for improving the outcome of radiation therapy and HRQOL of cancer patients. With the objective of developing radiation-effect modulators to improve radiotherapy, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Development Center at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), supported by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), provided funding to companies from 2011 to 2014 through the SBIR contracts mechanism. Although radiation-effect modulators collectively refer to radioprotectors, radiomitigators and radiosensitizers, the focus of this article is on radioprotection and mitigation of radiation injury. This specific SBIR contract opportunity strengthened existing partnerships and facilitated new collaborations between academia and industry. In this commentary, we assess the impact of this funding opportunity, outline the review process, highlight the organ/site-specific disease needs in the clinic for the development of radiation-effect modulators, provide a general understanding of a framework for gathering

  10. Radioprotectors and Radiomitigators for Improving Radiation Therapy: The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Gateway for Accelerating Clinical Translation

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Pataje G. S.; Narayanan, Deepa; Hallett, Kory; Bernhard, Eric J.; Ahmed, Mansoor M.; Evans, Gregory; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Weingarten, Michael; Coleman, C. Norman

    2015-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is an important cancer treatment modality, patients may experience adverse effects. The use of a radiation-effect modulator may help improve the outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients undergoing radiation therapy either by enhancing tumor cell killing or by protecting normal tissues. Historically, the successful translation of radiation-effect modulators to the clinic has been hindered due to the lack of focused collaboration between academia, pharmaceutical companies and the clinic, along with limited availability of support for such ventures. The U.S. Government has been developing medical countermeasures against accidental and intentional radiation exposures to mitigate the risk and/or severity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and the delayed effects of acute radiation exposures (DEARE), and there is now a drug development pipeline established. Some of these medical countermeasures could potentially be repurposed for improving the outcome of radiation therapy and HRQOL of cancer patients. With the objective of developing radiation-effect modulators to improve radiotherapy, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Development Center at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), supported by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), provided funding to companies from 2011 to 2014 through the SBIR contracts mechanism. Although radiation-effect modulators collectively refer to radioprotectors, radiomitigators and radiosensitizers, the focus of this article is on radioprotection and mitigation of radiation injury. This specific SBIR contract opportunity strengthened existing partnerships and facilitated new collaborations between academia and industry. In this commentary, we assess the impact of this funding opportunity, outline the review process, highlight the organ/site-specific disease needs in the clinic for the development of radiation-effect modulators, provide a general understanding of a framework for gathering

  11. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnell, Lisa; Blattnig, Steve; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice; Kim, Myung-Hee; Norman, Ryan; Patel, Zarana; Simonsen, Lisa; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    Crew health and performance may be impacted by a major solar particle event (SPE), multiple SPEs, or the cumulative effect of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and SPEs. Beyond low-Earth orbit, the protection of the Earth's magnetosphere is no longer available, such that increased shielding and protective mechanisms are necessary in order to prevent acute radiation sickness and impacts to mission success or crew survival. While operational monitoring and shielding are expected to minimize radiation exposures, there are EVA scenarios outside of low-Earth orbit where the risk of prodromal effects, including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and fatigue, as well as skin injury and depletion of the blood-forming organs (BFO), may occur. There is a reasonable concern that a compromised immune system due to high skin doses from a SPE or due to synergistic space flight factors (e.g., microgravity) may lead to increased risk to the BFO. The primary data available at present are derived from analyses of medical patients and persons accidentally exposed to acute, high doses of low-linear energy transfer (LET) (or terrestrial) radiation. Data more specific to the space flight environment must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of increase of this risk and to develop appropriate protection strategies. In particular, information addressing the distinct differences between solar proton exposures and terrestrial exposure scenarios, including radiation quality, dose-rate effects, and non-uniform dose distributions, is required for accurate risk estimation.

  12. Ethics in acute care research: a global perspective and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hansoti, Bhakti; Hauswald, Mark; Sethuraman, Kinjal; Kerr, Nancy Louise; Scordino, David; Biros, Michelle H

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference focused on global health and emergency care research. One conference breakout session discussed research ethics and developed a research agenda concerning global acute care research ethics. This article represents the proceedings from that session, particularly focusing on ethical issues related to protecting human subjects while conducting acute care research. Protecting human research subjects from unnecessary risk is an important component of conducting ethical research, regardless of the research site. There are widely accepted ethical principles related to human subjects research; however, the interpretation of these principles requires specific local knowledge and expertise to ensure that research is conducted ethically within the societal and cultural norms. There is an obligation to conduct research ethically while recognizing the roles and responsibilities of all participants. This article discusses the complexities of determining and applying socially and culturally appropriate ethical principles during the conduct of global acute care research. Using case studies, it focuses both on the procedural components of ethical research conducted outside of "Western" culture and on basic ethical principles that are applicable to all human subjects research. This article also proposes specific research topics to stimulate future thought and the study of ethics in these complex circumstances.

  13. Ionizing radiation: future etiologic research and preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Darby, S C; Inskip, P D

    1995-11-01

    Estimates of cancer risks following exposure to ionizing radiation traditionally have been based on the experience of populations exposed to substantial (and known) doses delivered over short periods of time. Examples include survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and persons treated with radiation for benign or malignant disease. Continued follow-up of these populations is important to determine the long-term effects of exposure in childhood, to characterize temporal patterns of excess risk for different types of cancer, and to understand better the interactions between radiation and other host and environmental factors. Most population exposure to radiation occurs at very low dose rates. For low linear energy transfer (LET) radiations, it often has been assumed that cancer risks per unit dose are lower following protracted exposure than following acute exposure. Studies of nuclear workers chronically exposed over a working lifetime provide data that can be used to test this hypothesis, and preliminary indications are that the risks per unit dose for most cancers other than leukemia are similar to those for acute exposure. However, these results are subject to considerable uncertainty, and further information on this question is needed. Residential radon is the major source of population exposure to high-LET radiation. Current estimates of the risk of lung cancer due to residential exposure to radon and radon daughters are based on the experience of miners exposed to much higher concentrations. Data indicate that lung cancer risk among miners is inversely associated with exposure rate, and also is influenced by the presence of other lung carcinogens such as arsenic in the mine environment. Further study of populations of radon-exposed miners would be informative, particularly those exposed at below-average levels. More direct evidence on the effects of residential exposure to radon also is desirable but might be difficult to come by, as risks

  14. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group.

    PubMed

    Waselenko, Jamie K; MacVittie, Thomas J; Blakely, William F; Pesik, Nicki; Wiley, Albert L; Dickerson, William E; Tsu, Horace; Confer, Dennis L; Coleman, C Norman; Seed, Thomas; Lowry, Patrick; Armitage, James O; Dainiak, Nicholas

    2004-06-15

    Physicians, hospitals, and other health care facilities will assume the responsibility for aiding individuals injured by a terrorist act involving radioactive material. Scenarios have been developed for such acts that include a range of exposures resulting in few to many casualties. This consensus document was developed by the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group to provide a framework for physicians in internal medicine and the medical subspecialties to evaluate and manage large-scale radiation injuries. Individual radiation dose is assessed by determining the time to onset and severity of nausea and vomiting, decline in absolute lymphocyte count over several hours or days after exposure, and appearance of chromosome aberrations (including dicentrics and ring forms) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Documentation of clinical signs and symptoms (affecting the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, cerebrovascular, and cutaneous systems) over time is essential for triage of victims, selection of therapy, and assignment of prognosis. Recommendations based on radiation dose and physiologic response are made for treatment of the hematopoietic syndrome. Therapy includes treatment with hematopoietic cytokines; blood transfusion; and, in selected cases, stem-cell transplantation. Additional medical management based on the evolution of clinical signs and symptoms includes the use of antimicrobial agents (quinolones, antiviral therapy, and antifungal agents), antiemetic agents, and analgesic agents. Because of the strong psychological impact of a possible radiation exposure, psychosocial support will be required for those exposed, regardless of the dose, as well as for family and friends. Treatment of pregnant women must account for risk to the fetus. For terrorist or accidental events involving exposure to radioiodines, prophylaxis against malignant disease of the thyroid is also recommended, particularly for children and adolescents.

  15. Radiation budget measurement/model interface research

    SciTech Connect

    Vonderhaar, T.H.

    1981-10-01

    The NIMBUS 6 data were analyzed to form an up to date climatology of the Earth radiation budget as a basis for numerical model definition studies. Global maps depicting infrared emitted flux, net flux and albedo from processed NIMBUS 6 data for July, 1977, are presented. Zonal averages of net radiation flux for April, May, and June and zonal mean emitted flux and net flux for the December to January period are also presented. The development of two models is reported. The first is a statistical dynamical model with vertical and horizontal resolution. The second model is a two level global linear balance model. The results of time integration of the model up to 120 days, to simulate the January circulation, are discussed. Average zonal wind, meridonal wind component, vertical velocity, and moisture budget are among the parameters addressed.

  16. Radiative flux opens new window on climate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.; Whitlock, C. H.; Charlock, T. P.

    1995-01-01

    For several decades, global satellite observations have been made of the rate at which electromagnetic energy (radiative flux) is emerging from the top of the atmosphere of our planet in the spectral range of about 0.2-50.0 microns. At the same time, models have been developed to infer the radiative flux at the surface from the values observed by the satellites at the upper boundary. The balance of incoming and outgoing radiative flux (radiation budget) at both boundaries, determines the net gain or loss of the radiative energy within an atmospheric column. Climate researchers can use the radiative flux as a tool to validate climate models, separate the radiative impact of clouds from surface and atmosphere contributions, and to understand the global hydrological cycle. When applied to physical processes occurring at the surface, information on the radiative flux has the potential to substantially advance our understanding of the transport of heat, moisture, and momentum across the surface/atmosphere interface. Geophysicists of many disciplines stand to benefit from efforts to improve the use of this latter untapped resource. Oceanographers can improve the representation of the selective absorption of radiation in the oceans; biologists and ecologists can improve their models for carbon dioxide exchange and biological heating in oceans; agronomists can model more realistically biomass and crop yields; and environmentalists can obtain better assessment of natural resources of radiation.

  17. Radiation Effects Research and Device Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-04

    disadvantages over classic inorganic-based cells in that their photo-conversion efficiency is low (less than 8% presently), their specific power... cell as a layered PN junction similar to a silicon solar cell but with changed physical parameters to represent the lower mobilities and different...enable a better understanding of the effects of radiation on the solar cells and will be more representative of what might happen if the cells are sent

  18. Non-cancer effects in acute radiation syndrome survivors in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Belyi, David; Kovalenko, Aleksander; Bazyka, Dmitrij; Bebeshko, Vladimir

    2010-06-01

    The 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred is known as the most severe nuclear disaster in the history of humankind. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was diagnosed in 237 persons but only 134 of those were confirmed, including 28 patients who died due to lethal total-body gamma-irradiation and severe skin injuries caused by beta/gamma-emitting radionuclides. A small group of ARS survivors offers an interesting observational insight pertinent to the on-going discussions about long-term non-cancer effects of ionizing radiation. This descriptive study summarizes more than 20 y of follow-up, makes attempts to offer a prognosis for the Chernobyl ARS survivors' health, and explores the link between the outcomes of interest and radiation exposure.

  19. European consensus on the medical management of acute radiation syndrome and analysis of the radiation accidents in Belgium and Senegal.

    PubMed

    Gourmelon, Patrick; Benderitter, Marc; Bertho, Jean Marc; Huet, Christelle; Gorin, Norbert Claude; De Revel, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    A European consensus concerning the medical management of mass radiation exposure was obtained in 2005 during a conference held by the European Group for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation, the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, and the University of Ulm. At the conference, a two-step triage strategy to deal with large masses of radiation-exposed patients was designed. The first step of this strategy concerns the first 48 h and involves scoring the patients exclusively on the basis of their clinical symptoms and biological data. This allows the non-irradiated bystanders and outpatient candidates to be identified. The remaining patients are hospitalized and diagnosis is confirmed after the first 48-h period according to the METREPOL (Medical Treatment Protocols for radiation accident victims) scale. This grades the patients according to the severity of their symptoms. It was also agreed that in the case of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), emergency hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is not necessary. Instead, cytokines that promote hematological reconstruction should be administered as early as possible for 14-21 d. Crucial tests for determining whether the patient has residual hematopoiesis are physical dose reconstructions combined with daily blood count analyses. It was agreed that HSC transplantation should only be considered if severe aplasia persists after cytokine treatment. Two recent cases of accidental radiation exposure that were managed successfully by following the European consensus with modification are reviewed here. Thus, a European standard for the evaluation and treatment of ARS victims is now available. This standard may be suitable for application around the world.

  20. Research needs and opportunities in radiation chemistry workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara, Paul F

    1998-04-19

    There is a growing urgency for forefront basic research on ionizing radiation-induced chemical reactions, due to the relevance of these reactions in such areas of critical national need as environmental waste management, environmental remediation, nuclear energy production, and medical diagnosis and radiation therapy. Fortunately, the emergence of new theoretical and experimental tools for the study of radiation-induced chemical and physical processes, i.e. Radiation Chemistry, makes future progress quite promising. Nevertheless, a recent decline in he number of young investigators in radiation chemistry, as well as a natural obsolescence of large research facilities in radiation chemistry are serious obstacles to further progress. Understanding radiation-induced processes is of vital significance in such diverse fields as waste remediation in environmental cleanup, radiation processing of polymers and food, medical diagnosis and therapy, catalysis of chemical reactions, environmentally benign synthesis, and nuclear energy production. Radiation chemistry provides for these fields fundamental quantitative data, such as reaction rate coefficients, diffusion coefficients, radiation chemical yields, etc. As well as providing useful quantitative information of technological and medical importance, radiation chemistry is also a valuable tool for solving fundamental problems in chemistry and in material sciences. Exploiting the many facets of radiation chemistry requires a thorough and comprehensive understanding of the underlying chemical and physical processes. An understanding of the structure and dynamics of “tracks” produced by ionizing radiation is a central issue in the field. There is a continuing need to study the ultrafast processes that link the chemistry and physics of radiation-induced phenomena. This is especially true for practically important, but less well understood, nonstandard environments such as interfacial systems, supercritical media, and

  1. Acute Hematological Effects of Solar Particle Event Proton Radiation in the Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, J. K.; Wan, X. S.; Wroe, A. J.; Rightnar, S.; Cengel, K. A.; Diffenderfer, E. S.; Krigsfeld, G. S.; Gridley, D. S.; Kennedy, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) is expected to occur in astronauts during large solar particle events (SPEs). One parameter associated with ARS is the hematopoietic syndrome, which can result from decreased numbers of circulating blood cells in those exposed to radiation. The peripheral blood cells are critical for an adequate immune response, and low blood cell counts can result in an increased susceptibility to infection. In this study, Yucatan minipigs were exposed to proton radiation within a range of skin dose levels expected for an SPE (estimated from previous SPEs). The proton-radiation exposure resulted in significant decreases in total white blood cell count (WBC) within 1 day of exposure, 60% below baseline control value or preirradiation values. At the lowest level of the blood cell counts, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils were decreased up to 89.5%, 60.4%, 73.2% and 75.5%, respectively, from the preirradiation values. Monocytes and lymphocytes were decreased by an average of 70% (compared to preirradiation values) as early as 4 h after radiation exposure. Skin doses greater than 5 Gy resulted in decreased blood cell counts up to 90 days after exposure. The results reported here are similar to studies of ARS using the nonhuman primate model, supporting the use of the Yucatan minipig as an alternative. In addition, the high prevalence of hematologic abnormalities resulting from exposure to acute, whole-body SPE-like proton radiation warrants the development of appropriate countermeasures to prevent or treat ARS occurring in astronauts during space travel. PMID:23672458

  2. Acute hematological effects of solar particle event proton radiation in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, J K; Wan, X S; Wroe, A J; Rightnar, S; Cengel, K A; Diffenderfer, E S; Krigsfeld, G S; Gridley, D S; Kennedy, A R

    2013-07-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) is expected to occur in astronauts during large solar particle events (SPEs). One parameter associated with ARS is the hematopoietic syndrome, which can result from decreased numbers of circulating blood cells in those exposed to radiation. The peripheral blood cells are critical for an adequate immune response, and low blood cell counts can result in an increased susceptibility to infection. In this study, Yucatan minipigs were exposed to proton radiation within a range of skin dose levels expected for an SPE (estimated from previous SPEs). The proton-radiation exposure resulted in significant decreases in total white blood cell count (WBC) within 1 day of exposure, 60% below baseline control value or preirradiation values. At the lowest level of the blood cell counts, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils were decreased up to 89.5%, 60.4%, 73.2% and 75.5%, respectively, from the preirradiation values. Monocytes and lymphocytes were decreased by an average of 70% (compared to preirradiation values) as early as 4 h after radiation exposure. Skin doses greater than 5 Gy resulted in decreased blood cell counts up to 90 days after exposure. The results reported here are similar to studies of ARS using the nonhuman primate model, supporting the use of the Yucatan minipig as an alternative. In addition, the high prevalence of hematologic abnormalities resulting from exposure to acute, whole-body SPE-like proton radiation warrants the development of appropriate countermeasures to prevent or treat ARS occurring in astronauts during space travel.

  3. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    The United States undertook the launching of an artificial Earth satellite as part of its contribution to the International Geophysical Year. The Vanguard program was established to meet that commitment, and it developed a launch vehicle, ground station network, and suite of scientific payloads, including the cosmic ray experiment proposed by James A. Van Allen. Although Vanguard eventually exceeded all of its pre-stated goals, the preemptive launches of Sputniks I and II by the Soviets in October and November 1957 spurred the U.S. into a frenzy of activity, resulting in the launches of Explorers I and III in January and March of 1958. The data from those two satellites quickly revealed the lower boundary of an unexpected region of high intensity radiation trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. The original announcement in May 1958 stated that the radiation was probably composed of either protons or electrons, and that, if electrons, it was probably bremsstrahlung formed in the satellite shell. Immediately following that announcement, approval was received for what became Explorer IV, whose announced purpose was to follow up on the new discovery. Another reason for the satellite, unmentioned at the time, was its inclusion as a component of the highly classified Argos program, a covert military program to test whether the detonation of nuclear devices at high altitude would inject measurable numbers of charged particles into durable trajectories in the Earth's magnetic field. Our team at Iowa produced the satellites under the oversight of, and with assistance by, the Army Ballistic Missile Agency in Huntsville, and with the contributions of key hardware from several other government laboratories. The project was completed in the unbelievably short period of seventy-seven days from approval to launch. Launched into a higher-inclination orbit than the earlier Explorers, Explorer IV confirmed the discovery and greatly expanded our understanding of the natural

  4. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes.

  5. Low-dose total-body γ irradiation modulates immune response to acute proton radiation.

    PubMed

    Luo-Owen, Xian; Pecaut, Michael J; Rizvi, Asma; Gridley, Daila S

    2012-03-01

    Health risks due to exposure to low-dose/low-dose-rate radiation alone or when combined with acute irradiation are not yet clearly defined. This study quantified the effects of protracted exposure to low-dose/low-dose-rate γ rays with and without acute exposure to protons on the response of immune and other cell populations. C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with ⁵⁷Co (0.05 Gy at 0.025 cGy/h); subsets were subsequently exposed to high-dose/high-dose-rate proton radiation (250 MeV; 2 or 3 Gy at 0.5 Gy/min). Analyses were performed at 4 and 17 days postexposure. Spleen and thymus masses relative to body mass were decreased on day 4 after proton irradiation with or without pre-exposure to γ rays; by day 17, however, the decrease was attenuated by the priming dose. Proton dose-dependent decreases, either with or without pre-exposure to γ rays, occurred in white blood cell, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts in blood but not in spleen. A similar pattern was found for lymphocyte subpopulations, including CD3+ T, CD19+ B, CD4+ T, CD8+ T and NK1.1+ natural killer (NK) cells. Spontaneous DNA synthesis by leukocytes after proton irradiation was high in blood on day 4 and high in spleen on day 17; priming with γ radiation attenuated the effect of 3 Gy in both body compartments. Some differences were also noted among groups in erythrocyte and thrombocyte characteristics. Analysis of splenocytes activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies showed changes in T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines. Overall, the data demonstrate that pre-exposure of an intact mammal to low-dose/low-dose-rate γ rays can attenuate the response to acute exposure to proton radiation with respect to at least some cell populations.

  6. Research of radiation resistant Er doped fiber for space detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian-ping; Zhang, Ge; Wang, Pu-pu; Li, Run-dong; Jiang, Cong; Xiao, Chun

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, erbium doped fibers for space detection are researched for feature of radiation resistance. Fibers with different coated carbon are hydrogen loaded and radiated, and too thick of carbon layer around fiber would not bring best radiation-resistant performance, since thick carbon layer would make the entering of hydrogen difficult. We also research the duration of saturated hydrogen loading under the high and low temperature respectively, and it's found that the fibers' photo sensitivities tend to be flat after some days. Hydrogen is reloaded into the fibers which have been loaded once, this help us to deep understand the mechanism of hydrogen loading for the fiber gratings. Loss and wave width changes are also researched under different radiation dose.

  7. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rühm, W.; Fantuzzi, E.; Harrison, R.; Schuhmacher, H.; Vanhavere, F.; Alves, J.; Bottollier Depois, J. F.; Fattibene, P.; Knežević, Ž.; Lopez, M. A.; Mayer, S.; Miljanić, S.; Neumaier, S.; Olko, P.; Stadtmann, H.; Tanner, R.; Woda, C.

    2016-01-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises—based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members—five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  8. Protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Lan; Lu, Yan; Ji, Yue; Wang, Yaqing; Dong, Ke; Kong, Xiangqing; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. C57/BL6 mice were orally administered seabuckthorn pulp oil, seed oil and control olive oil once per day for 7 days before exposure to total-body X-ray irradiation of 7.5 Gy. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used for the measurement of apoptotic cells and proteins, inflammation factors and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Seabuckthorn oil pretreatment increased the post-radiation survival rate and reduced the damage area of the small intestine villi. Both the pulp and seed oil treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell numbers and cleaved caspase 3 expression. Seabuckthorn oil downregulated the mRNA level of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Both the pulp and seed oils elevated the level of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and reduced the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) are the predominant components of pulp oil and seed oil, respectively. Pretreatment with PLA and ALA increased the post-radiation survival time. In conclusion, seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils protect against mouse intestinal injury from high-dose radiation by reducing cell apoptosis and inflammation. ALA and PLA are promising natural radiation countermeasure candidates. PMID:27422938

  9. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. A nonhuman primate model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome plus medical management.

    PubMed

    Farese, Ann M; Cohen, Melanie V; Katz, Barry P; Smith, Cassandra P; Jackson, William; Cohen, Daniel M; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    The development of medical countermeasures against the hematopoietic subsyndrome of the acute radiation syndrome requires well characterized and validated animal models. The model must define the radiation dose- and time-dependent relationships for mortality and major signs of morbidity to include other organ damage that may contribute to morbidity and mortality. Herein, the authors define these parameters for a nonhuman primate exposed to total body radiation and administered medical management. A blinded, randomized study (n = 48 rhesus macaques) determined the lethal dose-response relationship using bilateral 6 MV linear accelerator photon radiation to doses in the range of 7.20 to 8.90 Gy at 0.80 Gy min(-1). Following irradiation, animals were monitored for complete bloodcounts, body weight, temperature, diarrhea, and hydration status for 60 d. Animals were administered medical management consisting of intravenous fluids, prophylactic antibiotics, blood transfusions, anti-diarrheals, analgesics, and nutrition. The primary endpoint was survival at 60 d post-irradiation; secondary endpoints included hematopoietic-related parameters, number of transfusions, incidence of documented infection, febrile neutropenia, severity of diarrhea, mean survival time of decedents, and tissue histology. The study defined an LD30/60 of 7.06 Gy, LD50/60 of 7.52 Gy, and an LD70/60 of 7.99 Gy with a relatively steep slope of 1.13 probits per linear dose. This study establishes a rhesus macaque model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome and shows the marked effect of medical management on increased survival and overall mean survival time for decedents. Furthermore, following a nuclear terrorist event, medical management may be the only treatment administered at its optimal schedule.

  11. A Nonhuman Primate Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome Plus Medical Management

    PubMed Central

    Farese, A.M.; Cohen, M.V.; Katz, B. P.; Smith, C. P.; Jackson, W.; Cohen, D. M.; MacVittie, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of medical countermeasures against the hematopoietic sub-syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome requires well characterized and validated animal models. The model must define the radiation dose- and time-dependent relationships for mortality and major signs of morbidity to include other organ damage that may contribute to the morbidity and mortality. Herein, we define these parameters for the nonhuman primate exposed to total-body radiation and administered medical management. A blinded, randomized study (n=48 rhesus macaques) determined the lethal dose response relationship using bilateral, 6 MV linear accelerator photon radiation to doses in the range of 7.20 to 8.90Gy at 0.80Gy minute−1. Following irradiation animals were monitored for complete blood counts, body weight, temperature, diarrhea, and hydration status for 60 days. Animals were administered medical management consisting of intravenous fluids, prophylactic antibiotics, blood transfusions, anti-diarrheals, analgesics and nutrition. The primary endpoint was survival at 60 days post irradiation; secondary endpoints included hematopoietic-related parameters, number of transfusions, incidence of documented infection, febrile neutropenia, severity of diarrhea, mean survival time of decedents and tissue histology. The study defined an LD30/60 of 7.06Gy, LD50/60 of 7.52Gy, and an LD70/60 of 7.99Gy with a relatively steep slope of 1.13 probits per linear dose. This study establishes a rhesus macaque model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome and shows the marked effect of medical management on increased survival and overall mean survival time for decedents. Furthermore, following a nuclear terrorist event, medical management may be the only treatment administered at its optimal schedule. PMID:22929469

  12. Direct and indirect tasks on assessment of dose and time distributions and thresholds of acute radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Osovets, S V; Azizova, T V; Day, R D; Wald, N; Moseeva, M B

    2012-02-01

    Mathematical methods were developed to construct dose and time distributions and their associated risks and threshold values for lethal and non-lethal effects of acute radiation exposure to include mortality and incidence, prodromal vomiting, and agranulocytosis. A new distribution (T-model) was obtained to describe time parameters of acute radiation syndrome such as the latency period, time to onset of vomiting, and time to initiation of agranulocytosis. Based on the dose and time distributions, the parameter translation method was defined using an orthogonal regression, which allows one to solve for these distributions in the case of acute radiation exposure. The assessment of threshold doses was performed for some effects of acute radiation syndrome: for the latency period, ∼6-8 Gy absorbed dose and ∼0.7-0.9 h time to onset of vomiting; and for incidence (agranulocytosis), ∼2-3 Gy absorbed dose and ∼2-3 h time to onset of vomiting. The obtained new formula for assessment of radiation risk is applicable to the time parameters of acute radiation syndrome.

  13. Inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 mitigates the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Lung; Lento, William E; Castle, Katherine D; Chao, Nelson J; Kirsch, David G

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to a nuclear accident or radiological attack can cause death from acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which results from radiation injury to vital organs such as the hematopoietic system. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any medical countermeasures for this specific purpose. With growing concern over nuclear terrorism, there is an urgent need to develop small molecule deliverables that mitigate mortality from ARS. One emerging modulator of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) activity is glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). The inhibition of GSK-3 has been shown to augment hematopoietic repopulation in mouse models of bone marrow transplantation. In this study, we performed an in vitro screen using irradiated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) to test the effects of four GSK-3 inhibitors: CHIR99021; 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO); SB415286; and SB216763. This screen showed that SB216763 significantly increased the frequency of c-Kit(+) Lin(-) Sca1(+) (KLS) cells and hematopoietic colony-forming cells in irradiated BM-MNCs. Importantly, administration of a single dose of SB216763 to C57BL/6J mice by subcutaneous injection 24 h after total-body irradiation significantly improved hematopoietic recovery and mitigated hematopoietic ARS. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 is an effective medical countermeasure against acute radiation injury of the hematopoietic system.

  14. Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Mitigates the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Lung; Lento, William E.; Castle, Katherine D.; Chao, Nelson J.; Kirsch, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to a nuclear accident or radiological attack can cause death from acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which results from radiation injury to vital organs such as the hematopoietic system. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any medical countermeasures for this specific purpose. With growing concern over nuclear terrorism, there is an urgent need to develop small molecule deliverables that mitigate mortality from ARS. One emerging modulator of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) activity is glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). The inhibition of GSK-3 has been shown to augment hematopoietic repopulation in mouse models of bone marrow transplantation. In this study, we performed an in vitro screen using irradiated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) to test the effects of four GSK-3 inhibitors: CHIR99021; 6-Bromoindirubin-3′-oxime (BIO); SB415286; and SB216763. This screen showed that SB216763 significantly increased the frequency of c-Kit+ Lin− Sca1+ (KLS) cells and hematopoietic colony-forming cells in irradiated BM-MNCs. Importantly, administration of a single dose of SB216763 to C57BL/6J mice by subcutaneous injection 24 h after total-body irradiation significantly improved hematopoietic recovery and mitigated hematopoietic ARS. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 is an effective medical countermeasure against acute radiation injury of the hematopoietic system. PMID:24720754

  15. A basic fibroblast growth factor analog for protection and mitigation against acute radiation syndromes.

    PubMed

    Casey-Sawicki, Kate; Zhang, Mei; Kim, Sunghee; Zhang, Amy; Zhang, Steven B; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Singh, Ravi; Yang, Shanmin; Swarts, Steven; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan; Zhang, Lurong; Zhang, Aiguo; Okunieff, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The effects of fibroblast growth factors and their potential as broad-spectrum agents to treat and mitigate radiation injury have been studied extensively over the past two decades. This report shows that a peptide mimetic of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-P) protects and mitigates against acute radiation syndromes. FGF-P attenuates both sepsis and bleeding in a radiation-induced bone marrow syndrome model and reduces the severity of gastrointestinal and cutaneous syndromes; it should also mitigate combined injuries. FGF-2 and FGF-P induce little or no deleterious inflammation or vascular leakage, which distinguishes them from most other growth factors, angiogenic factors, and cytokines. Although recombinant FGFs have proven safe in several ongoing clinical trials, they are expensive to synthesize, can only be produced in limited quantity, and have limited shelf life. FGF-P mimics the advantageous features of FGF-2 without these disadvantages. This paper shows that FGF-P not only has the potential to be a potent yet safe broad-spectrum medical countermeasure that mitigates acute radiotoxicity but also holds promise for thermal burns, ischemic wound healing, tissue engineering, and stem-cell regeneration.

  16. Acute toxicity effects of Prunus avium fruit extract and selection of optimum dose against radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Sharma, K; Singh, Smita

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of different doses of the methanolic extract of the fruit pulp of Prunus avium (family Rosaceae), which is used ethno-medicinally for the treatment of various diseases, and to find out the optimal dose of Prunus avium extract against 10 Gy gamma-radiation exposure. To test acute toxicity in mice, different doses of PAE (Prunus avium fruit extract) were given orally for 15 consecutive days, after which the animals were observed for another 15 days; the LD50/15 of the methanolic extract was calculated to be 4.947 gm/kg body weight (b.wt). In optimum dose selection against radiation exposure, oral administration of 450 mg/kg b.wt/d of PAE for 15 consecutive days before exposure to 10 Gy of gamma-radiation was found to afford maximum protection in terms of body weight and survivability of the mice in comparison to other doses.

  17. Low-dose radiation modifies skin response to acute gamma-rays and protons.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao Wen; Pecaut, Michael J; Cao, Jeffrey D; Moldovan, Maria; Gridley, Daila S

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to obtain pilot data on the effects of protracted low-dose/low-dose-rate (LDR) γ-rays on the skin, both with and without acute gamma or proton irradiation (IR). Six groups of C57BL/6 mice were examined: a) 0 Gy control, b) LDR, c) Gamma, d) LDR+Gamma, e) Proton, and f) LDR+Proton. LDR radiation was delivered to a total dose of 0.01 Gy (0.03 cGy/h), whereas the Gamma and Proton groups received 2 Gy (0.9 Gy/min and 1.0 Gy/min, respectively). Assays were performed 56 days after exposure. Skin samples from all irradiated groups had activated caspase-3, indicative of apoptosis. The significant (p<0.05) increases in immunoreactivity in the Gamma and Proton groups were not present when LDR pre-exposure was included. However, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay for DNA fragmentation and histological examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections revealed no significant differences among groups, regardless of radiation regimen. The data demonstrate that caspase-3 activation initially triggered by both forms of acute radiation was greatly elevated in the skin nearly two months after whole-body exposure. In addition, LDR γ-ray priming ameliorated this response.

  18. [Acute radiation effects in victims of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station].

    PubMed

    Gus'kova, A K; Baranov, A E; Barabanova, A V; Gruzdev, G P; Piatkin, E K

    1987-12-01

    Observation made over 115 patients with acute radiation sickness due to exposure to external gamma- and beta-rays confirmed high efficiency of the earlier proposed principles of prognostication of the degree of severity by clinical manifestations of the primary disease response and those of separate syndromes, using the methods of hematological and cytogenetic analyses. Out of 115 victims, 56 persons had radiation burns (RB), 17--intestinal syndrome (IS), 80--oropharyngeal syndrome (ORS), 7--interstitial radiation pneumonitis (IRP). In thanatogenesis, of prime importance were: RB (more than 40% of the body surface)--19 persons and IRP--7 persons. A severe course of intestinal and oropharyngeal syndromes was combined with other fatal manifestations of radiation injury. Early isolation of patients (II-IV stages), selective decontamination of the intestine, prescription of a wide spectrum antibiotics, antimycotic and antiviral drugs, as well as gamma-globulin could practically remove the risk of the development of fatal infectious complications during a medullary and transitory forms of radiation sickness.

  19. Amifostine ameliorates recognition memory defect in acute radiation syndrome caused by relatively low-dose of gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Joong-Sun; Song, Myoung-Sub; Seo, Heung-Sik; Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Jong Choon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Shin, Taekyun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2010-03-01

    This study examined whether amifostine (WR-2721) could attenuate memory impairment and suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice with the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). These were assessed using object recognition memory test, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis [Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX)]. Amifostine treatment (214 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to irradiation significantly attenuated the recognition memory defect in ARS, and markedly blocked the apoptotic death and decrease of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells in ARS. Therefore, amifostine may attenuate recognition memory defect in a relatively low-dose exposure of ARS in adult mice, possibly by inhibiting a detrimental effect of irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis.

  20. Biological dosimetry by the triage dicentric chromosome assay: potential implications for treatment of acute radiation syndrome in radiological mass casualties.

    PubMed

    Romm, Horst; Wilkins, Ruth C; Coleman, C Norman; Lillis-Hearne, Patricia K; Pellmar, Terry C; Livingston, Gordon K; Awa, Akio A; Jenkins, Mark S; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A; Oestreicher, Ursula; Prasanna, Pataje G S

    2011-03-01

    Biological dosimetry is an essential tool for estimating radiation dose. The dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) is currently the tool of choice. Because the assay is labor-intensive and time-consuming, strategies are needed to increase throughput for use in radiation mass casualty incidents. One such strategy is to truncate metaphase spread analysis for triage dose estimates by scoring 50 or fewer metaphases, compared to a routine analysis of 500 to 1000 metaphases, and to increase throughput using a large group of scorers in a biodosimetry network. Previously, the National Institutes for Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) sponsored a double-blinded interlaboratory comparison among five established international cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories to determine the variability in calibration curves and in dose measurements in unknown, irradiated samples. In the present study, we further analyzed the published data from this previous study to investigate how the number of metaphase spreads influences dose prediction accuracy and how this information could be of value in the triage and management of people at risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Although, as expected, accuracy decreased with lower numbers of metaphase spreads analyzed, predicted doses by the laboratories were in good agreement and were judged to be adequate to guide diagnosis and treatment of ARS. These results demonstrate that for rapid triage, a network of cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories can accurately assess doses even with a lower number of scored metaphases.

  1. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  2. [High-dose radiation-induced meningioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ryosuke; Nikaido, Yuji; Yamada, Tomonori; Mishima, Hideaki; Tamaki, Ryo

    2005-03-01

    A 12 year-old girl was treated with prophylatic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). At the age of 39, she was admitted to our hospital for status epilepticus. Computed tomography demonstrated two, enhancing bilateral sided intracranial tumors. After surgery, this patient presented meningiomas which histologically, were of the meningothelial type. The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylatic cranial irradiation, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumor. Twelve cases of high-dose radiation-induced meningioma following ALL are also reviewed.

  3. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  4. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Quintens, Roel; Samari, Nada; de Saint-Georges, Louis; van Oostveldt, Patrick; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi

    2016-01-01

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays) or during chronic (Californium-252) exposure to ionizing radiation using mouse mature neuron cultures. Acute exposure to low (0.1 Gy) doses of X-rays caused a delay in neurite outgrowth and a reduction in soma size, while only the high dose impaired neuronal survival. Of interest, the strongest effect on neuronal morphology and survival was evident in cells exposed to microgravity and in particular in cells exposed to both microgravity and radiation. Removal of neurons from simulated microgravity for a period of 24 h was not sufficient to recover neurite length, whereas the soma size showed a clear re-adaptation to normal ground conditions. Genome-wide gene expression analysis confirmed a modulation of genes involved in neurite extension, cell survival and synaptic communication, suggesting that these changes might be responsible for the observed morphological effects. In general, the observed synergistic changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by simulated space conditions might help to better evaluate the astronaut's health risks and underline the importance of investigating the central nervous system and long-term cognition during and after a space flight. PMID:27203085

  5. Impact of Preexisting Interstitial Lung Disease on Acute, Extensive Radiation Pneumonitis: Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Yuichi; Abe, Takefumi; Omae, Minako; Matsui, Takashi; Kato, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirotsugu; Enomoto, Yasunori; Ishihara, Takeaki; Inui, Naoki; Yamada, Kazunari; Yokomura, Koshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for developing acute extended radiation pneumonitis with a focus on the presence and radiological characteristics of preexisting interstitial lung disease. Methods Of 1429 irradiations for lung cancer from May 2006 to August 2013, we reviewed 651 irradiations involving the lung field. The presence, compatibility with usual interstitial pneumonia, and occupying area of preexisting interstitial lung disease were retrospectively evaluated by pretreatment computed tomography. Cases of non-infectious, non-cardiogenic, acute respiratory failure with an extended bilateral shadow developing within 30 days after the last irradiation were defined as acute extended radiation pneumonitis. Results Nine (1.4%) patients developed acute extended radiation pneumonitis a mean of 6.7 days after the last irradiation. Although preexisting interstitial lung disease was found in 13% of patients (84 patients), 78% of patients (7 patients) with acute extended radiation pneumonitis cases had preexisting interstitial lung disease, which resulted in incidences of acute extended radiation pneumonitis of 0.35 and 8.3% in patients without and with preexisting interstitial lung disease, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the presence of preexisting interstitial lung disease (odds ratio = 22.6; 95% confidence interval = 5.29–155; p < 0.001) and performance status (≥2; odds ratio = 4.22; 95% confidence interval = 1.06–20.8; p = 0.049) were significant predictive factors. Further analysis of the 84 patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease revealed that involvement of more than 10% of the lung field was the only independent predictive factor associated with the risk of acute extended radiation pneumonitis (odds ratio = 6.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.0–37.4); p = 0.038). Conclusions Pretreatment computed tomography evaluations of the presence of and area size occupied

  6. RADIATION CHEMISTRY 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE JULY 18-23

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Orlando

    2010-07-23

    The 2010 Gordon Conference on Radiation Chemistry will present cutting edge research regarding the study of radiation-induced chemical transformations. Radiation Chemistry or 'high energy' chemistry is primarily initiated by ionizing radiation: i.e. photons or particles with energy sufficient to create conduction band electrons and 'holes', excitons, ionic and neutral free radicals, highly excited states, and solvated electrons. These transients often interact or 'react' to form products vastly different than those produced under thermal equilibrium conditions. The non-equilibrium, non-thermal conditions driving radiation chemistry exist in plasmas, star-forming regions, the outer solar system, nuclear reactors, nuclear waste repositories, radiation-based medical/clinical treatment centers and in radiation/materials processing facilities. The 2010 conference has a strong interdisciplinary flavor with focus areas spanning (1) the fundamental physics and chemistry involved in ultrafast (atto/femtosecond) energy deposition events, (2) radiation-induced processes in biology (particularly spatially resolved studies), (3) radiation-induced modification of materials at the nanoscale and cosmic ray/x-ray mediated processes in planetary science/astrochemistry. While the conference concentrates on fundamental science, topical applied areas covered will also include nuclear power, materials/polymer processing, and clinical/radiation treatment in medicine. The Conference will bring together investigators at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present work in poster format or as contributors to the Young Investigator session. The program and format provides excellent avenues to promote cross-disciplinary collaborations.

  7. NASA Self-Assessment of Space Radiation Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space exploration involves unavoidable exposures to high-energy galactic cosmic rays whose penetration power and associated secondary radiation makes radiation shielding ineffective and cost prohibitive. NASA recognizing the possible health dangers from cosmic rays notified the U.S. Congress as early as 1959 of the need for a dedicated heavy ion accelerator to study the largely unknown biological effects of galactic cosmic rays on astronauts. Information and scientific tools to study radiation health effects expanded over the new decades as NASA exploration programs to the moon and preparations for Mars exploration were carried out. In the 1970 s through the early 1990 s a more than 3-fold increase over earlier estimates of fatal cancer risks from gamma-rays, and new knowledge of the biological dangers of high LET radiation were obtained. Other research has increased concern for degenerative risks to the central nervous system and other tissues at lower doses compared to earlier estimates. In 1996 a review by the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board re-iterated the need for a dedicated ground-based accelerator facility capable of providing up to 2000 research hours per year to reduce uncertainties in risks projections and develop effective mitigation measures. In 1998 NASA appropriated funds for construction of a dedicated research facility and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) opened for research in October of 2003. This year marks the 8th year of NSRL research were about 1000 research hours per year have been utilized. In anticipation of the approaching ten year milestone, funded investigators and selected others are invited to participate in a critical self-assessment of NSRL research progress towards NASA s goals in space radiation research. A Blue and Red Team Assessment format has been integrated into meeting posters and special plenary sessions to allow for a critical debate on the progress of the research and major gaps areas. Blue

  8. Initial symptoms of acute radiation syndrome in the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    PubMed

    Akashi, M; Hirama, T; Tanosaki, S; Kuroiwa, N; Nakagawa, K; Tsuji, H; Kato, H; Yamada, S; Kamata, T; Kinugasa, T; Ariga, H; Maekawa, K; Suzuki, G; Tsujii, H

    2001-09-01

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, at the uranium conversion plant in Tokai-mura (Tokai-village), Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. When the criticality occurred, three workers saw a "blue-white glow," and a radiation monitor alarm was sounded. They were severely exposed to neutron and gamma-ray irradiation, and subsequently developed acute radiation syndrome (ARS). One worker reported vomiting within minutes and loss of consciousness for 10-20 seconds. This worker also had diarrhea an hour after the exposure. The other worker started to vomit almost an hour after the exposure. The three workers, including their supervisor, who had no symptoms at the time, were brought to the National Mito Hospital by ambulance. Because of the detection of gamma-rays from their body surface by preliminary surveys and decreased numbers of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, they were transferred to the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), which has been designated as a hospital responsible for radiation emergencies. Dose estimations for the three workers were performed by prodromal symptoms, serial changes of lymphocyte numbers, chromosomal analysis, and 24Na activity. The results obtained from these methods were fairly consistent. Most of the data, such as the dose rate of radiation, its distribution, and the quality needed to evaluate the average dose, were not available when the decision for hematopoitic stem cell transplantation had to be made. Therefore, prodromal symptoms may be important in making decisions for therapeutic strategies, such as stem-cell transplantation in heavily exposed victims.

  9. Berberine inhibits acute radiation intestinal syndrome in human with abdomen radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-hui; Wang, Dong-lin; Hu, Yi-de; Pu, Ping; Li, De-zhi; Wang, Wei-dong; Zhu, Bo; Hao, Ping; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xian-qiong; Wan, Jiu-qing; Zhou, Yi-bing; Chen, Zheng-tang

    2010-09-01

    Radiation-induced acute intestinal symptoms (RIAISs) are the most relevant complication of abdominal or pelvic radiation. Considering the negative impact of RIAIS on patients' daily activities, the preventive effects of berberine on RIAIS in patients were investigated. Thirty-six patients with seminoma or lymphomas were randomized to receive berberine oral (n = 18) or not (n = 18). Forty-two patients with cervical cancer were randomized to a trial group (n = 21) and control group (n = 21). Radiotherapy used a parallel opposed anterior and posterior. 300-mg berberine was administered orally three times daily in trial groups. Eight patients with RIAIS were treated with 300-mg berberine three times daily from the third to the fifth week. Toxicities, such as fatigue, anorexia/nausea, etc., were graded weekly according to CTC version 2.0. Patients with abdominal/pelvic radiation in the control group showed grade 1 fatigue, anorexia/nausea, colitis, vomiting, proctitis, weight loss, diarrhea and grade 2 anorexia/nausea, fatigue. Only grade 1 colitis, anorexia/nausea, and fatigue were seen in patients of abdominal radiation treated with berberine. Grade 1 fatigue, colitis, anorexia/nausea, and proctitis occurred in patients of pelvic radiotherapy treated with berberine. Pretreatment with berberine significantly decreased the incidence and severity of RIAIS in patients with abdominal/pelvic radiotherapy when compared with the patients of the control group (P < 0.05). RIAIS were reduced in patients with abdominal radiotherapy/pelvic radiation after receiving berberine treatment. Berberine significantly reduced the incidence and severity of RIAIS and postponed the occurrence of RIAIS in patients with abdominal or whole pelvic radiation.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  11. Medical Management of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: Recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-15

    Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; National Marrow Donor Program, Minneapolis, Minnesota; University of Ne - braska, Omaha, Nebraska...Involvement and Failure: A Challenge for Pathoge - netic, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches and Research. London: British Table 9. Sources for...Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial infections in patients with cancer—is it justified? [Letter]. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25:346-8. [PMID

  12. Medical Managment of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: Recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-15

    gia; Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; National Marrow Donor Program, Minneapolis, Minnesota; University of Ne - braska, Omaha...Organ Involvement and Failure: A Challenge for Pathoge - netic, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches and Research. London: British Table 9. Sources for...Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial infections in patients with cancer—is it justified? [Letter]. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25:346-8

  13. Citrulline as a Biomarker for Gastrointestinal-Acute Radiation Syndrome: Species Differences and Experimental Condition Effects.

    PubMed

    Bujold, K; Hauer-Jensen, M; Donini, O; Rumage, A; Hartman, D; Hendrickson, H P; Stamatopoulos, J; Naraghi, H; Pouliot, M; Ascah, A; Sebastian, M; Pugsley, M K; Wong, K; Authier, S

    2016-07-01

    Animal models of hematopoietic and gastrointestinal acute radiation syndromes (ARS) have been characterized to develop medical countermeasures. Acute radiation-induced decrease of intestinal absorptive function has been correlated to a decrease in the number of intestinal crypt cells resulting from apoptosis and enterocyte mass reduction. Citrulline, a noncoded amino acid, is produced almost exclusively by the enterocytes of the small intestine. Citrullinemia has been identified as a simple, sensitive and suitable biomarker for radiation-induced injury associated with gastrointestinal ARS (GI-ARS). Here we discuss the effect of radiation on plasma citrulline levels in three different species, C57BL/6 mice, Göttingen minipigs and rhesus nonhuman primates (NHPs), measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effects of experimental study conditions such as feeding and anesthesia were also examined on plasma citrulline levels in the NHPs. Both the mice and Göttingen minipigs were partial-body irradiated (PBI) with doses from 13-17 Gy and 8-16 Gy, respectively, whereas NHPs were total-body irradiated (TBI) with doses from 6.72-13 Gy. Blood samples were taken at different time points and plasma citrulline levels were measured in the three species at baseline and after irradiation. Basal plasma citrulline concentrations (mean ± SEM) in mice and minipigs were 57.8 ± 2.8 μM and 63.1 ± 2.1 μM, respectively. NHPs showed a basal plasma citrulline concentration of 32.6 ± 0.7 μM, very similar to that of humans (∼40 μM). Plasma citrulline progressively decreased after irradiation, reaching nadir values between day 3.5 and 7. The onset of citrulline recovery was observed earlier at lower radiation doses, while only partial citrulline recovery was noted at higher radiation doses in minipigs and NHPs, complete recovery was noted in mice at all doses. Plasma citrulline levels in NHPs anesthetized with ketamine and acepromazine significantly

  14. Considerations for Observational Research using Large Datasets in Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Chen, Aileen; Chen, Ronald C.; Hoffman, Karen; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Smith, Benjamin D.; Yu, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based datasets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the Red Journal assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytic challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold substantial promise for advancing our understanding of

  15. Critical Issues in Radiation Protection Knowledge Management for Preserving Radiation Protection Research and Development Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Dewji, Shaheen Azim

    2017-02-01

    As a hub of domestic radiation protection capabilities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has a mandate to develop and actuate a formal knowledge management (KM) effort. This KM approach exceeds recruitment and training efforts but focuses on formalized strategies for knowledge transfer from outgoing subject matter experts in radiation protection to incoming generations. It is envisioned that such an effort will provide one avenue for preserving domestic capabilities to support stakeholder needs in the federal government and the nuclear industry while continuing to lead and innovate in research and development on a global scale. However, in the absence of broader coordination within the United States, preservation of radiation protection knowledge continues to be in jeopardy in the absence of a dedicated KM effort.

  16. Critical issues in radiation protection knowledge management for preserving radiation protection research and development capabilities

    DOE PAGES

    Dewji, Shaheen Azim

    2017-01-01

    As a hub of domestic radiation protection capabilities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has a mandate to develop and actuate a formal knowledge management (KM) effort. This KM approach exceeds recruitment and training efforts but focuses on formalized strategies for knowledge transfer from outgoing subject matter experts in radiation protection to incoming generations. It is envisioned that such an effort will provide one avenue for preserving domestic capabilities to support stakeholder needs in the federal government and the nuclear industry while continuing to lead and innovate in research and development on a global scale. Furthermore, inmore » the absence of broader coordination within the United States, preservation of radiation protection knowledge continues to be in jeopardy in the absence of a dedicated KM effort.« less

  17. Critical issues in radiation protection knowledge management for preserving radiation protection research and development capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, Shaheen Azim

    2017-01-01

    As a hub of domestic radiation protection capabilities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has a mandate to develop and actuate a formal knowledge management (KM) effort. This KM approach exceeds recruitment and training efforts but focuses on formalized strategies for knowledge transfer from outgoing subject matter experts in radiation protection to incoming generations. It is envisioned that such an effort will provide one avenue for preserving domestic capabilities to support stakeholder needs in the federal government and the nuclear industry while continuing to lead and innovate in research and development on a global scale. Furthermore, in the absence of broader coordination within the United States, preservation of radiation protection knowledge continues to be in jeopardy in the absence of a dedicated KM effort.

  18. Collective radiation biodosimetry for dose reconstruction of acute accidental exposures: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Pass, B

    1997-01-01

    Quantification of the biologically relevant dose is required to establish cause and effect between radiation detriment or burden and important biological outcomes. Most epidemiologic studies of unanticipated radiation exposure fail to establish cause and effect because researchers have not been able to construct a valid quantification of dose for the exposed population. However, no one biodosimetric technique (biophysical or biological) meets all the requirements of an ideal dosimeter. This paper reviews how the collection of biodosimetric data for victims of radiation accidents can be used to create a dosimetric "gold standard." Particular emphasis is placed on the use of electron spin resonance, a standard for radiation accident dosimetry. As an example of this technique, a review will be presented of a previously reported study of an individual exposed to a 60Co sterilization source. PMID:9467051

  19. Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Sadao

    1999-06-06

    Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.

  20. Research on radiation detectors, boiling transients, and organic lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The accomplishments of a space projects research facility are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) a study of radiation resistant semiconductor devices, (2) synthesis of high temperature organic lubricants, (3) departure from phase equilibrium during boiling transients, (4) effects of neutron irradiation on defect state in tungsten, and (5) determination of photon response function of NE-213 liquid scintillation detectors.

  1. GUI to Facilitate Research on Biological Damage from Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Frances A.; Ponomarev, Artem Lvovich

    2010-01-01

    A graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer program has been developed to facilitate research on the damage caused by highly energetic particles and photons impinging on living organisms. The program brings together, into one computational workspace, computer codes that have been developed over the years, plus codes that will be developed during the foreseeable future, to address diverse aspects of radiation damage. These include codes that implement radiation-track models, codes for biophysical models of breakage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by radiation, pattern-recognition programs for extracting quantitative information from biological assays, and image-processing programs that aid visualization of DNA breaks. The radiation-track models are based on transport models of interactions of radiation with matter and solution of the Boltzmann transport equation by use of both theoretical and numerical models. The biophysical models of breakage of DNA by radiation include biopolymer coarse-grained and atomistic models of DNA, stochastic- process models of deposition of energy, and Markov-based probabilistic models of placement of double-strand breaks in DNA. The program is designed for use in the NT, 95, 98, 2000, ME, and XP variants of the Windows operating system.

  2. Protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester against acute radiation-induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, JianJun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Jin, Liugen; Chen, Junliang; Du, Bin; Pang, Qingfeng

    2015-03-01

    Caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and it can eliminate the free radicals. The current study was intended to evaluate the protective effect of CAPE against the acute radiation-induced liver damage in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally administered with CAPE (30 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days before exposing them to a single dose of 30 Gy of β-ray irradiation to upper abdomen. We found that pretreatment with CAPE significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Histological evaluation further confirmed the protection of CAPE against radiation-induced hepatotoxicity. TUNEL assay showed that CAPE pretreatment inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis. Moreover, CAPE inhibited the nuclear transport of NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the level of tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taken together, these results suggest that pretreatment with CAPE offers protection against radiation-induced hepatic injury.

  3. Biologics as countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Romaine, Patricia L P; Newman, Victoria L

    2015-04-01

    Despite significant scientific advances toward the development of a safe, nontoxic and effective radiation countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) over the past six decades, no drug has been approved by the US FDA. Several biologics are currently under development as radiation countermeasures for ARS, of which three have received FDA Investigational New Drug (IND) status for clinical investigation. Presently, two of these agents, entolimod (CBLB502) and HemaMax (recombinant human IL-12) are progressing with large animal studies and clinical trials. Neupogen (G-CSF, filgrastim) has recently been recommended for approval by an FDA Advisory Committee. Filgrastim, GM-CSF (Leukine, sargramostim), and PEGylated G-CSF (Neulasta) have high potential and well-documented therapeutic effects in countering myelosuppression and may receive full licensing approval by the FDA in the future. The former two biologics are available in the US Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) for use in the event of nuclear or radiological emergency. The Emergency Use Authorization (EAU) application for entolimod may be filed soon with the FDA. Biologics are attractive agents that are progressing along the path for FDA approval, to fill the unmet need for ARS countermeasures.

  4. Biologics as countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay K; Romaine, Patricia LP; Newman, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant scientific advances toward the development of a safe, nontoxic and effective radiation countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) over the past six decades, no drug has been approved by the US FDA. Several biologics are currently under development as radiation countermeasures for ARS, of which three have received FDA Investigational New Drug (IND) status for clinical investigation. Presently, two of these agents, entolimod (CBLB502) and HemaMax (recombinant human IL-12) are progressing with large animal studies and clinical trials. Neupogen (G-CSF, filgrastim) has recently been recommended for approval by an FDA Advisory Committee. Filgrastim, GM-CSF (Leukine, sargramostim), and PEGylated G-CSF (Neulasta) have high potential and well-documented therapeutic effects in countering myelosuppression and may receive full licensing approval by the FDA in the future. The former two biologics are available in the US Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) for use in the event of nuclear or radiological emergency. The Emergency Use Authorization (EAU) application for entolimod may be filed soon with the FDA. Biologics are attractive agents that are progressing along the path for FDA approval, to fill the unmet need for ARS countermeasures. PMID:25416452

  5. Proton and heavy ion acceleration facilities for space radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jack

    2003-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for medium energy nuclear physics and heavy charged particle radiobiology and radiotherapy at particle accelerators are in the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation health. In this article we survey some of the particle accelerator facilities in the United States and around the world that are being used for space radiation health and related research, and illustrate some of their capabilities with discussions of selected accelerator experiments applicable to the human exploration of space.

  6. Urinary metabolic signatures and early triage of acute radiation exposure in rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingxiao; Lau, Kim Kt; Zhou, Xian; Wu, Jianfang; Yang, Jun; Wang, Chang

    2017-03-28

    After a large-scale radiological accident, early-response biomarkers to assess radiation exposure over a broad dose range are not only the basis of rapid radiation triage, but are also the key to the rational use of limited medical resources and to the improvement of treatment efficiency. Because of its high throughput, rapid assays and minimally invasive sample collection, metabolomics has been applied to research into radiation exposure biomarkers in recent years. Due to the complexity of radiobiological effects, most of the potential biomarkers are both dose-dependent and time-dependent. In reality, it is very difficult to find a single biomarker that is both sensitive and specific in a given radiation exposure scenario. Therefore, a multi-parameters approach for radiation exposure assessment is more realistic in real nuclear accidents. In this study, untargeted metabolomic profiling based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and targeted amino acid profiling based on LC-MS/MS were combined to investigate early urinary metabolite responses within 48 h post-exposure in a rat model. A few of the key early-response metabolites for radiation exposure were identified, which revealed the most relevant metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a panel of potential urinary biomarkers was selected through a multi-criteria approach and applied to early triage following irradiation. Our study suggests that it is feasible to use a multi-parameters approach to triage radiation damage, and the urinary excretion levels of the relevant metabolites provide insights into radiation damage and repair.

  7. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, Paige L.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV

  8. [Administration of Palonosetron and Phenotropil for Prophylaxis of the N-V-D Stage of Acute Radiation Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Drachouv, I S; Bykov, V N; Seleznev, A B

    2016-01-01

    Experiments on small (rats) and large (dogs) animals have shown that a sequential administration of Palonosetron and Phenotropil decreases the intensity of the main manifestations of the N-V-D stage of acute radiation syndrome. These data show the appropriateness of a combined administration of Palonosetron and Phenotropil to prevent a reduced work capacity in the individuals participating in elimination of the consequences of accidents associated with overexposure to radiation.

  9. [Radiation-induced intracranial osteosarcoma after radiation for acute lymphocytic leukemia associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Junichi; Natsumeda, Manabu; Nishihira, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Saito, Akihiko; Okamoto, Kouichirou; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2013-06-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with osteosarcoma of the occipital bone 16 years after 24 Gy of craniospinal irradiation for acute lymphocytic leukemia. The tumor had both intra- and extra-cranial components. However, the affected skull appeared to be normal on imaging because of permeative infiltration by the tumor. Subtotal resection was achieved and the tumor was verified histologically as an osteosarcoma. The residual tumor soon showed remarkable enlargement and disseminated to the spinal cord. Both of the enlarged and disseminated tumor masses were treated by surgical intervention and chemotherapy. However, the patient deteriorated due to the tumor regrowth and died 11 months after the initial diagnosis. This patient had previously developed a leukemia, a colon cancer, a rectal cancer and a hepatocellular carcinoma. His brother also died of leukemia. The patient had a heterozygous TP53 germ-line mutation of codon 248 in the exon 7. In conclusion, we consider the present tumor to be a rare example of radiation-induced skull osteosarcoma in a member of the cancer-prone family with TP53 germ-line mutation which is associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

  10. Autologous bone marrow stromal cell transplantation as a treatment for acute radiation enteritis induced by a moderate dose of radiation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Liu, Xu; Li, Hongyu; Qi, Xingshun; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-05-01

    Radiation enteritis is one of the most common complications of cancer radiotherapy, and the development of new and effective measures for its prevention and treatment is of great importance. Adult bone marrow stromal stem cells (ABMSCs) are capable of self-renewal and exhibit low immunogenicity. In this study, we investigated ABMSC transplantation as a treatment for acute radiation enteritis. We developed a dog model of acute radiation enteritis using abdominal intensity-modulated radiation therapy in a single X-ray dose of 14 Gy. ABMSCs were cultured in vitro, identified via immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, and double labeled with CM-Dil and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) before transplantation, which took place 48 hours after abdominal irradiation in a single fraction. The dog model of acute radiation enteritis was transplanted with cultured ABMSCs labeled with CM-Dil and SPIO into the mesenteric artery through the femoral artery. Compared with untreated control groups, dogs treated with ABMSCs exhibited substantially longer survival time and improved relief of clinical symptoms. ABMSC transplantation induced the regeneration of the intestinal epithelium and the recovery of intestinal function. Furthermore, ABMSC transplantation resulted in elevated serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-11 (IL10) and intestinal radioprotective factors, such as keratinocyte growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor-2, and platelet-derived growth factor-B while reducing the serum level of the inflammatory cytokine IL17. ABMSCs induced the regeneration of the intestinal epithelium and regulated the secretion of serum cytokines and the expression of radioprotective proteins and thus could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective mitigators of and protectors against acute radiation enteritis.

  11. Ionizing radiation: Future etiologic research and preventive strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, S.C.; Inskip, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    Estimates of cancer risks following exposure to ionizing radiation traditionally have been based on the experience of populations exposed to substantial (and known) doses delivered over short periods of time. Examples include survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and persons treated with radiation for benign or malignant disease. Continued follow-up of these populations is important to determine the long-term effects of exposure in childhood, to characterize temporal patterns of excess risk for different types of cancer, and to understand better the interactions between radiation and other host and environmental factors. Studies of nuclear workers chronically exposed over a working lifetime provide data that preliminary indications are that the risks per unit dose for most cancers other than leukemia are similar to those for acute exposure. However, these results are subject to considerable uncertainty, and further information on this question is needed. Residential radon is the major source of population exposure to high-LET radiation. Current estimates of the risk of lung cancer due to residential exposure to radon and radon daughters are based on the experience of miners exposed to much higher concentrations. Data indicate that lung cancer risk among miners is inversely associated with exposure rate, and also is influenced by the presence of other lung carcinogens such as arsenic in the mine environment. Further study of populations of radon-exposed miners would be informative, particularly those exposed at below-average levels. More direct evidence on the effects of residential exposure to radon also is desirable but might be difficult to come by, as risks associated with radon levels found in most homes might be too low to be quantified accurately in epidemiological studies. 29 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Efficacy of Polaprezinc for Acute Radiation Proctitis in a Rat Model

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Keita; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tanooka, Masao; Nakamura, Takeshi; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Tsujimura, Tohru; Hirota, Shozo

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to standardize the experimental rat model of radiation proctitis and to examine the efficacy of polaprezinc on radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 54 female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were used. The rats were divided into three groups: those treated with polaprezinc (PZ+), those treated with base alone, exclusive of polaprezinc (PZ-), and those treated without any medication (control). All the rats were irradiated to the rectum. Polaprezinc was prepared as an ointment. The ointment was administered rectally each day after irradiation. All rats were killed on the 10th day after irradiation. The mucosal changes were evaluated endoscopically and pathologically. The results were graded from 0 to 4 and compared according to milder or more severe status, as applicable. Results: According to the endoscopic findings, the proportion of mild changes in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 71.4%, 25.0%, and 14.3% respectively. On pathologic examination, the proportion of low-grade findings in the PZ+, PZ-, and control group was 80.0%, 58.3%, and 42.9% for mucosal damage, 85.0%, 41.7%, and 42.9% for a mild degree of inflammation, and 50.0%, 33.3%, and 4.8% for a shallow depth of inflammation, respectively. The PZ+ group tended to have milder mucosal damage than the other groups, according to all criteria used. In addition, significant differences were observed between the PZ+ and control groups regarding the endoscopic findings, degree of inflammation, and depth of inflammation. Conclusions: This model was confirmed to be a useful experimental rat model for radiation proctitis. The results of the present study have demonstrated the efficacy of polaprezinc against acute radiation-induced rectal disorders using the rat model.

  13. (Acute radiation syndrome within the high-exposure group of Chernobyl)

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1990-11-05

    Dr. K. F. Eckerman participated as a member of an American scientific team in meetings with Soviet scientists at the Institute of Biophysics in Moscow on October 18 and 19, 1990. The meetings were part of an agreement between the two countries under the Joint USSR-USA Coordinating Committee on Civil Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS). The meetings were part of the efforts of Working Group 7.2 on Health Effects. These discussions were limited to the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) within the highly exposed Chernobyl patients. The specific objective of this meeting was to review the clinical and laboratory data on the Chernobyl ARS patients and to see what might be done to make these data available to improve our understanding of the syndrome.

  14. High-dose radiation-induced meningiomas following acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children.

    PubMed

    Salvati, M; Cervoni, L; Artico, M

    1996-05-01

    The authors review three personal cases of patients who developed cerebral meningiomas following high-dose radiotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Two patients were female and one male. Their ages when the leukemia appeared were between 11 and 15 years. All patients were treated with a course of prophylactic irradiation to the neuraxis for a total dose of 24 Gy. After an average interval of 10.4 years, all three patients presented a meningioma; histologically, one was meningothelial and two were fibrous. All three meningiomas presented atypical features. At follow-up 1, 4, and 4 years respectively after surgery, none of these patients presents neurological deficits or neuroradiological signs of recurrence. Forty-nine cases of high-dose radiation-induced meningioma are also reviewed.

  15. Nuclear model calculations and their role in space radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Heilbronn, L. H.

    2002-01-01

    Proper assessments of spacecraft shielding requirements and concomitant estimates of risk to spacecraft crews from energetic space radiation requires accurate, quantitative methods of characterizing the compositional changes in these radiation fields as they pass through thick absorbers. These quantitative methods are also needed for characterizing accelerator beams used in space radiobiology studies. Because of the impracticality/impossibility of measuring these altered radiation fields inside critical internal body organs of biological test specimens and humans, computational methods rather than direct measurements must be used. Since composition changes in the fields arise from nuclear interaction processes (elastic, inelastic and breakup), knowledge of the appropriate cross sections and spectra must be available. Experiments alone cannot provide the necessary cross section and secondary particle (neutron and charged particle) spectral data because of the large number of nuclear species and wide range of energies involved in space radiation research. Hence, nuclear models are needed. In this paper current methods of predicting total and absorption cross sections and secondary particle (neutrons and ions) yields and spectra for space radiation protection analyses are reviewed. Model shortcomings are discussed and future needs presented. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All right reserved.

  16. Acute DNA damage activates the tumour suppressor p53 to promote radiation-induced lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Lung; Castle, Katherine D.; Moding, Everett J.; Blum, Jordan M.; Williams, Nerissa; Luo, Lixia; Ma, Yan; Borst, Luke B.; Kim, Yongbaek; Kirsch, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic cancer therapies, such as chemoradiation, cause haematological toxicity primarily by activating the tumour suppressor p53. While inhibiting p53-mediated cell death during cancer therapy ameliorates haematologic toxicity, whether it also impacts carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here we utilize a mouse model of inducible p53 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to show that temporarily blocking p53 during total-body irradiation (TBI) not only ameliorates acute toxicity, but also improves long-term survival by preventing lymphoma development. Using KrasLA1 mice, we show that TBI promotes the expansion of a rare population of thymocytes that express oncogenic KrasG12D. However, blocking p53 during TBI significantly suppresses the expansion of KrasG12D-expressing thymocytes. Mechanistically, bone marrow transplant experiments demonstrate that TBI activates p53 to decrease the ability of bone marrow cells to suppress lymphoma development through a non-cell-autonomous mechanism. Together, our results demonstrate that the p53 response to acute DNA damage promotes the development of radiation-induced lymphoma. PMID:26399548

  17. [Solcoseryl--dental adherent paste in the treatment of acute radiation-induced inflammation of oral mucosa, gingivae and tongue].

    PubMed

    Kryst, L; Kowalik, S; Bartkowski, S; Henning, G

    1990-07-01

    On the basis of a study carried out in three teaching departments of maxillofacial surgery the effect was analysed of Solcoseryl dental adherent paste and Linomag in the treatment of acute radiation-induced stomatitis. Both drugs were effective but Solcoseryl was superior to the other drug since it accelerated healing by about 50% and formed a protecting dressing on the inflamed mucosa.

  18. Enhancing Cloud Radiative Processes and Radiation Efficiency in the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Iacono, Michael J.

    2015-03-09

    The objective of this research has been to evaluate and implement enhancements to the computational performance of the RRTMG radiative transfer option in the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Efficiency is as essential as accuracy for effective numerical weather prediction, and radiative transfer is a relatively time-consuming component of dynamical models, taking up to 30-50 percent of the total model simulation time. To address this concern, this research has implemented and tested a version of RRTMG that utilizes graphics processing unit (GPU) technology (hereinafter RRTMGPU) to greatly improve its computational performance; thereby permitting either more frequent simulation of radiative effects or other model enhancements. During the early stages of this project the development of RRTMGPU was completed at AER under separate NASA funding to accelerate the code for use in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Goddard Earth Observing System GEOS-5 global model. It should be noted that this final report describes results related to the funded portion of the originally proposed work concerning the acceleration of RRTMG with GPUs in WRF. As a k-distribution model, RRTMG is especially well suited to this modification due to its relatively large internal pseudo-spectral (g-point) dimension that, when combined with the horizontal grid vector in the dynamical model, can take great advantage of the GPU capability. Thorough testing under several model configurations has been performed to ensure that RRTMGPU improves WRF model run time while having no significant impact on calculated radiative fluxes and heating rates or on dynamical model fields relative to the RRTMG radiation. The RRTMGPU codes have been provided to NCAR for possible application to the next public release of the WRF forecast model.

  19. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca; Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

  20. Acute radiation sickness amelioration analysis. Technical report, 20 July 1990-19 July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.I.; Feister, A.J.; Bareis, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    Three tasks were conducted under the Acute Radiation Sickness Amelioration Analysis in support of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and NATO Army Armaments Group (NAAG) Project Group 29 (PG-29) on drugs for the prevention of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting: (1) documents were collected and entered into a data base, (2) data reviews and analyses were performed, and (3) PG-29 and Triservice meetings involving anti-emetic drug development were supported and documented. Approximately 2000 documents were collected, with 1424 complete bibliographic citations entered into a WordPerfect 5.1 data base. Eight reviews and analyses addressing different aspects of the safety and efficacy of the candidate anti-emetic drugs ondansetron and granistron were prepared. Support was provided for seven international PG-29 meetings and two U.S. Triservice meetings in which the efforts of PG-29 were discussed. These tasks have enabled the DNA and PG-29 to make good progress toward the goal of recommending a serotonin type-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist anti-emetic drug for use in military personnel.

  1. Studies of adaptive response and mutation induction in MCF-10A cells following exposure to chronic or acute ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Manesh, Sara Shakeri; Sangsuwan, Traimate; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak

    2015-10-01

    A phenomenon in which exposure to a low adapting dose of radiation makes cells more resistant to the effects of a subsequent high dose exposure is termed radio-adaptive response. Adaptive response could hypothetically reduce the risk of late adverse effects of chronic or acute radiation exposures in humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of such responses is of relevance for radiation protection as well as for the clinical applications of radiation in medicine. However, due to the variability of responses depending on the model system and radiation condition, there is a need to further study under what conditions adaptive response can be induced. In this study, we analyzed if there is a dose rate dependence for the adapting dose, assuming that the adapting dose induces DNA response/repair pathways that are dose rate dependent. MCF-10A cells were exposed to a 50mGy adapting dose administered acutely (0.40Gy/min) or chronically (1.4mGy/h or 4.1mGy/h) and then irradiated by high acute challenging doses. The endpoints of study include clonogenic cell survival and mutation frequency at X-linked hprt locus. In another series of experiment, cells were exposed to 100mGy and 1Gy at different dose rates (acutely and chronically) and then the mutation frequencies were studied. Adaptive response was absent at the level of clonogenic survival. The mutation frequencies were significantly decreased in the cells pre-exposed to 50mGy at 1.4mGy/h followed by 1Gy acute exposure as challenging dose. Importantly, at single dose exposures (1 Gy or 100mGy), no differences at the level of mutation were found comparing different dose rates.

  2. Shielding considerations for the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP).

    PubMed

    Sayler, Elaine; Dolney, Derek; Avery, Stephen; Koch, Cameron

    2013-05-01

    The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is a commercially available platform designed to deliver conformal, image-guided radiation to small animals using a dual-anode kV x-ray source. At the University of Pennsylvania, a free-standing 2 m enclosure was designed to shield the SARRP according to federal code regulating cabinet x-ray systems. The initial design consisted of 4.0-mm-thick lead for all secondary barriers and proved wholly inadequate. Radiation levels outside the enclosure were 15 times higher than expected. Additionally, the leakage appeared to be distributed broadly within the enclosure, so concern arose that a subject might receive significant doses outside the intended treatment field. Thus, a detailed analysis was undertaken to identify and block all sources of leakage. Leakage sources were identified by Kodak X-OmatV (XV) film placed throughout the enclosure. Radiation inside the enclosure was quantified using Gafchromic film. Outside the enclosure, radiation was measured using a survey meter. Sources of leakage included (1) an unnecessarily broad beam exiting the tube, (2) failure of the secondary collimator to confine the primary beam entirely, (3) scatter from the secondary collimator, (4) lack of beam-stop below the treatment volume, and (5) incomplete shielding of the x-ray tube. The exit window was restricted, and a new collimator was designed to address problems (1-3). A beam-stop and additional tube shielding were installed. These modifications reduced internal scatter by more than 100-fold. Radiation outside the enclosure was reduced to levels compliant with federal regulations, provided the SARRP is operated using tube potentials of 175 kV or less. In addition, these simple and relatively inexpensive modifications eliminate the possibility of exposing a larger animal (such as a rat) to significant doses outside the treatment field.

  3. Imaging of nontraumatic acute hip pain in children: multimodality approach with attention to the reduction of medical radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Zahir U; DeFlorio, Robert; Catanzano, Tara M

    2014-08-01

    Nontraumatic acute hip pain in children is common. However, the presentation and etiology is variable, including difficulty with weight bearing and abnormal gait. Barriers in communication, multiple possible etiologies, and age-specific anatomical variations of the pediatric hip make the evaluation of hip pain in children a difficult clinical diagnosis. Multimodality radiologic approach plays an important role for the evaluation of these children. However, owing to the complexity of pediatric hip disease, children sometimes undergo multiple radiologic examinations, resulting in delay in diagnosis and increased radiation dose. This article focuses on the illustration and discussion of common causes of acute hip pain or limp in children. Current recommendations for the imaging of these patients with specific attention to the ALARA (as low radiation as reasonably achievable) principle of radiation exposure are considered. Examples of the entities discussed are provided.

  4. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to tune intense monochromatic beams over wide energy ranges clearly differentiates these sources from standard clinical and research tools. The tunable spectrum, high intrinsic collimation of the beams, polarization and intensity of the beams make possible in-vitro and in-vivo research and therapeutic programs not otherwise possible. From the beginning of research operation at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), many programs have been carrying out basic biomedical research. At first, the research was limited to in-vitro programs such as the x-ray microscope, circular dichroism, XAFS, protein crystallography, micro-tomography and fluorescence analysis. Later, as the coronary angiography program made plans to move its experimental phase from SSRL to the NSLS, it became clear that other in-vivo projects could also be carried out at the synchrotron. The development of SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility) on beamline X17 became the home not only for angiography but also for the MECT (Multiple Energy Computed Tomography) project for cerebral and vascular imaging. The high energy spectrum on X17 is necessary for the MRT (Microplanar Radiation Therapy) experiments. Experience with these programs and the existence of the Medical Programs Group at the NSLS led to the development of a program in synchrotron based mammography. A recent adaptation of the angiography hardware has made it possible to image human lungs (bronchography). Fig. 1 schematically depicts the broad range of active programs at the NSLS.

  5. Protracted Oxidative Alterations in the Mechanism of Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gorbunov, Nikolai V.; Sharma, Pushpa

    2015-01-01

    The biological effects of high-dose total body ionizing irradiation [(thereafter, irradiation (IR)] are attributed to primary oxidative breakage of biomolecule targets, mitotic, apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the dose-limiting tissues, clastogenic and epigenetic effects, and cascades of functional and reactive responses leading to radiation sickness defined as the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The range of remaining and protracted injuries at any given radiation dose as well as the dynamics of post-IR alterations is tissue-specific. Therefore, functional integrity of the homeostatic tissue barriers may decline gradually within weeks in the post-IR period culminating with sepsis and failure of organs and systems. Multiple organ failure (MOF) leading to moribundity is a common sequela of the hemotapoietic form of ARS (hARS). Onset of MOF in hARS can be presented as “two-hit phenomenon” where the “first hit” is the underlying consequences of the IR-induced radiolysis in cells and biofluids, non-septic inflammation, metabolic up-regulation of pro-oxidative metabolic reactions, suppression of the radiosensitive hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues and the damage to gut mucosa and vascular endothelium. While the “second hit” derives from bacterial translocation and spread of the bacterial pathogens and inflammagens through the vascular system leading to septic inflammatory, metabolic responses and a cascade of redox pro-oxidative and adaptive reactions. This sequence of events can create a ground for development of prolonged metabolic, inflammatory, oxidative, nitrative, and carbonyl, electrophilic stress in crucial tissues and thus exacerbate the hARS outcomes. With this perspective, the redox mechanisms, which can mediate the IR-induced protracted oxidative post-translational modification of proteins, oxidation of lipids and carbohydrates and their countermeasures in hARS are subjects of the current review. Potential role of ubiquitous, radioresistant

  6. Protracted Oxidative Alterations in the Mechanism of Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, Nikolai V; Sharma, Pushpa

    2015-02-27

    The biological effects of high-dose total body ionizing irradiation [(thereafter, irradiation (IR)] are attributed to primary oxidative breakage of biomolecule targets, mitotic, apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the dose-limiting tissues, clastogenic and epigenetic effects, and cascades of functional and reactive responses leading to radiation sickness defined as the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The range of remaining and protracted injuries at any given radiation dose as well as the dynamics of post-IR alterations is tissue-specific. Therefore, functional integrity of the homeostatic tissue barriers may decline gradually within weeks in the post-IR period culminating with sepsis and failure of organs and systems. Multiple organ failure (MOF) leading to moribundity is a common sequela of the hemotapoietic form of ARS (hARS). Onset of MOF in hARS can be presented as "two-hit phenomenon" where the "first hit" is the underlying consequences of the IR-induced radiolysis in cells and biofluids, non-septic inflammation, metabolic up-regulation of pro-oxidative metabolic reactions, suppression of the radiosensitive hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues and the damage to gut mucosa and vascular endothelium. While the "second hit" derives from bacterial translocation and spread of the bacterial pathogens and inflammagens through the vascular system leading to septic inflammatory, metabolic responses and a cascade of redox pro-oxidative and adaptive reactions. This sequence of events can create a ground for development of prolonged metabolic, inflammatory, oxidative, nitrative, and carbonyl, electrophilic stress in crucial tissues and thus exacerbate the hARS outcomes. With this perspective, the redox mechanisms, which can mediate the IR-induced protracted oxidative post-translational modification of proteins, oxidation of lipids and carbohydrates and their countermeasures in hARS are subjects of the current review. Potential role of ubiquitous, radioresistant mesenchymal

  7. Combined Hydration and Antibiotics with Lisinopril to Mitigate Acute and Delayed High-dose Radiation Injuries to Multiple Organs.

    PubMed

    Fish, Brian L; Gao, Feng; Narayanan, Jayashree; Bergom, Carmen; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E; Orschell, Christie M; Medhora, Meetha

    2016-11-01

    The NIAID Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program is developing medical agents to mitigate the acute and delayed effects of radiation that may occur from a radionuclear attack or accident. To date, most such medical countermeasures have been developed for single organ injuries. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used to mitigate radiation-induced lung, skin, brain, and renal injuries in rats. ACE inhibitors have also been reported to decrease normal tissue complication in radiation oncology patients. In the current study, the authors have developed a rat partial-body irradiation (leg-out PBI) model with minimal bone marrow sparing (one leg shielded) that results in acute and late injuries to multiple organs. In this model, the ACE inhibitor lisinopril (at ~24 mg m d started orally in the drinking water at 7 d after irradiation and continued to ≥150 d) mitigated late effects in the lungs and kidneys after 12.5-Gy leg-out PBI. Also in this model, a short course of saline hydration and antibiotics mitigated acute radiation syndrome following doses as high as 13 Gy. Combining this supportive care with the lisinopril regimen mitigated overall morbidity for up to 150 d after 13-Gy leg-out PBI. Furthermore, lisinopril was an effective mitigator in the presence of the growth factor G-CSF (100 μg kg d from days 1-14), which is FDA-approved for use in a radionuclear event. In summary, by combining lisinopril (FDA-approved for other indications) with hydration and antibiotics, acute and delayed radiation injuries in multiple organs were mitigated.

  8. Radiation exposure of fertile women in medical research studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Fertile women may be exposed to ionizing radiation as human subjects in medical research studies. If the woman is pregnant, such exposures may result in risk to an embryo/fetus. Fertile women may be screened for pregnancy before exposure to ionizing radiation by interview, general examination, or pregnancy test. Use of the sensitive serum pregnancy test has become common because it offers concrete evidence that the woman is not pregnant (more specifically, that an embryo is not implanted). Evidence suggests that risk to the embryo from radiation exposure before organogenesis is extremely low or nonexistent. Further, demonstrated effects on organogenesis are rare or inconclusive at fetal doses below 50 mSv (5 rem). Therefore, there may be some level of radiation exposure below which risk to the fetus may be considered essentially zero, and a serum pregnancy test is unnecessary. This paper reviews the fetal risks and suggests that consideration be given to establishing a limit to the fetus of 0.5 mSv (50 mrem), below which pregnancy screening need not include the use of a serum pregnancy test.

  9. Liquid droplet radiator program at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presler, A. F.; Coles, C. E.; Diem-Kirsop, P. S.; White, K. A., III

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) are jointly engaged in a program for technical assessment of the Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) concept as an advanced high performance heat ejection component for future space missions. NASA Lewis has responsibility for the technology needed for the droplet generator, for working fluid qualification, and for investigating the physics of droplets in space; NASA Lewis is also conducting systems/mission analyses for potential LDR applications with candidate space power systems. For the droplet generator technology task, both micro-orifice fabrication techniques and droplet stream formation processes have been experimentally investigated. High quality micro-orifices (to 50 micron diameter) are routinely fabricated with automated equipment. Droplet formation studies have established operating boundaries for the generation of controlled and uniform droplet streams. A test rig is currently being installed for the experimental verification, under simulated space conditions, of droplet radiation heat transfer performance analyses and the determination of the effect radiative emissivity of multiple droplet streams. Initial testing has begun in the NASA Lewis Zero-Gravity Facility for investigating droplet stream behavior in microgravity conditions. This includes the effect of orifice wetting on jet dynamics and droplet formation. Results for both Brayton and Stirling power cycles have identified favorable mass and size comparisons of the LDR with conventional radiator concepts.

  10. Life-span exposure to sinusoidal-50 Hz magnetic field and acute low-dose γ radiation induce carcinogenic effects in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Soffritti, Morando; Tibaldi, Eva; Padovani, Michela; Hoel, David G; Giuliani, Livio; Bua, Luciano; Lauriola, Michelina; Falcioni, Laura; Manservigi, Marco; Manservisi, Fabiana; Panzacchi, Simona; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2002 the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELFMF) as a possible carcinogen on the basis of epidemiological evidence. Experimental bioassays on rats and mice performed up to now on ELFMF alone or in association with known carcinogens have failed to provide conclusive confirmation. Objectives To study the carcinogenic effects of combined exposure to sinusoidal-50 Hz (S-50 Hz) magnetic fields and acute γ radiation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods We studied groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to 20 or 1000 μT S-50 Hz MF and also to 0.1 Gy γ radiation delivered as a single acute exposure at 6 weeks of age. Results The results of the study showed significant carcinogenic effects for the mammary gland in males and females and a significant increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of the heart as well as increased incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in males. Conclusions These results call for a re-evaluation of the safety of non-ionizing radiation.

  11. Overview of use of G-CSF and GM-CSF in the treatment of acute radiation injury.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Glen

    2014-06-01

    Depression of hematopoietic elements due to significant levels of whole-body or partial-body irradiation due to radiation-induced suppression of mitosis in the stem and progenitor cells can result in life-threatening injury. Successful administration of intensive care of patients experiencing acute radiation sickness (ARS; also called acute radiation syndrome) is dependent upon the ability to stimulate the recovery of surviving hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), assuming the non-hematopoietic injuries are also survivable with treatment. To date, there have been a number of studies involving radiation accidents where patients were treated with cytokines. Although the data overall seem to indicate that the period of neutropenia is shortened and survival prolonged, so far there is no statistically significant proof that cytokine administration actually decreases mortality in radiation-injured humans. Some studies have shown no improved survival when used in a mouse model; however, studies in canines and primates have shown improved survival. CSF therapy is considered a valuable adjunct to treatment with antibiotics and strict hygiene controls in certain irradiated patients. It appears that these drugs do shorten the periods of neutropenia in irradiated patients and must be considered part of the therapeutic armamentarium in the treatment of ARS in a mass casualty situation. Based on review of the human experience with G-CSF and GM-CSF, as well as some animal studies, current consensus opinions support the prompt administration of these materials to patients suffering significant bone marrow depression from exposure to ionizing radiation.

  12. Combined mitigation of the gastrointestinal and hematopoietic acute radiation syndromes by an LPA2 receptor-specific nonlipid agonist.

    PubMed

    Patil, Renukadevi; Szabó, Erzsébet; Fells, James I; Balogh, Andrea; Lim, Keng G; Fujiwara, Yuko; Norman, Derek D; Lee, Sue-Chin; Balazs, Louisa; Thomas, Fridtjof; Patil, Shivaputra; Emmons-Thompson, Karin; Boler, Alyssa; Strobos, Jur; McCool, Shannon W; Yates, C Ryan; Stabenow, Jennifer; Byrne, Gerrald I; Miller, Duane D; Tigyi, Gábor J

    2015-02-19

    Pharmacological mitigation of injuries caused by high-dose ionizing radiation is an unsolved medical problem. A specific nonlipid agonist of the type 2 G protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA2) 2-[4-(1,3-dioxo-1H,3H-benzoisoquinolin-2-yl)butylsulfamoyl]benzoic acid (DBIBB) when administered with a postirradiation delay of up to 72 hr reduced mortality of C57BL/6 mice but not LPA2 knockout mice. DBIBB mitigated the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome, increased intestinal crypt survival and enterocyte proliferation, and reduced apoptosis. DBIBB enhanced DNA repair by augmenting the resolution of γ-H2AX foci, increased clonogenic survival of irradiated IEC-6 cells, attenuated the radiation-induced death of human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors and enhanced the survival of the granulocyte/macrophage lineage. DBIBB also increased the survival of mice suffering from the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome after total-body irradiation. DBIBB represents a drug candidate capable of mitigating acute radiation syndrome caused by high-dose γ-radiation to the hematopoietic and gastrointestinal system.

  13. A preclinical rodent model of acute radiation-induced lung injury after ablative focal irradiation reflecting clinical stereotactic body radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhen-Yu; Lee, Hae-June; Choi, Won Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Eun, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Il; Park, Kwangwoo; Lee, Ji Min; Cho, Jaeho

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we established an image-guided small-animal micro-irradiation system mimicking clinical stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The goal of this study was to develop a rodent model of acute phase lung injury after ablative irradiation. A radiation dose of 90 Gy was focally delivered to the left lung of C57BL/6 mice using a small animal stereotactic irradiator. At days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 14 after irradiation, the lungs were perfused with formalin for fixation and paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome. At days 7 and 14 after irradiation, micro-computed tomography (CT) images of the lung were taken and lung functional measurements were performed with a flexiVent™ system. Gross morphological injury was evident 9 days after irradiation of normal lung tissues and dynamic sequential events occurring during the acute phase were validated by histopathological analysis. CT images of the mouse lungs indicated partial obstruction located in the peripheral area of the left lung. Significant alteration in inspiratory capacity and tissue damping were detected on day 14 after irradiation. An animal model of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) in the acute phase reflecting clinical stereotactic body radiotherapy was established and validated with histopathological and functional analysis. This model enhances our understanding of the dynamic sequential events occurring in the acute phase of radiation-induced lung injury induced by ablative dose focal volume irradiation.

  14. Vicious circle of acute radiation toxicities and weight loss predicts poor prognosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo; Jiang, Xiong-ying; Qiu, Bo; Shen, Lu-Jun; Chen, Chen; Xia, Yun-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Weight loss during radiotherapy has been known as a negative prognostic factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, but the factors related to weight loss during radiotherapy were not fully understood. Methods: A total of 322 newly diagnosed NPC patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between June 2002 and August 2006 were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier methods and log-rank test were applied for survival analysis; a multiple regression was used to identify the factors related to weight loss during radiotherapy. Results: The mean and median values of weight loss (%) during radiotherapy were 6.85% and 6.70%. NPC patients with critical weight loss (> 5.4%) have poorer overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) than the patients without critical weight loss (p = 0.002 and 0.021, respectively). Pre-radiotherapy weight, acute mucosal toxicity, acute pharynx and esophagus toxicity, and acute upper gastrointestinal toxicity were related to the weight loss during radiotherapy independently (p = 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.009, respectively). Conclusions: Acute radiation toxicities had significant and independent impact on weight loss during radiotherapy. The vicious circle of acute radiation toxicities and weight loss had bad effect on prognosis of NPC patients. PMID:28382146

  15. Literature Review and Global Consensus on Management of Acute Radiation Syndrome Affecting Nonhematopoietic Organ Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Gent, Robert Nicolas; Carr, Zhanat; Schneider, Rita; Bader, Judith; Buglova, Elena; Chao, Nelson; Coleman, C. Norman; Ganser, Arnold; Gorin, Claude; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Huff, L. Andrew; Lillis-Hearne, Patricia; Maekawa, Kazuhiko; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Powles, Ray; Schünemann, Holger; Shapiro, Alla; Stenke, Leif; Valverde, Nelson; Weinstock, David; White, Douglas; Albanese, Joseph; Meineke, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The World Health Organization convened a panel of experts to rank the evidence for medical countermeasures for management of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in a hypothetical scenario involving the hospitalization of 100 to 200 victims. The goal of this panel was to achieve consensus on optimal management of ARS affecting nonhematopoietic organ systems based upon evidence in the published literature. Methods English-language articles were identified in MEDLINE and PubMed. Reference lists of retrieved articles were distributed to conferees in advance of and updated during the meeting. Published case series and case reports of ARS, publications of randomized controlled trials of relevant interventions used to treat nonirradiated individuals, reports of studies in irradiated animals, and prior recommendations of subject matter experts were selected. Studies were extracted using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation system. In cases in which data were limited or incomplete, a narrative review of the observations was made. Results No randomized controlled trials of medical countermeasures have been completed for individuals with ARS. Reports of countermeasures were often incompletely described, making it necessary to rely on data generated in nonirradiated humans and in experimental animals. A strong recommendation is made for the administration of a serotonin-receptor antagonist prophylactically when the suspected exposure is >2 Gy and topical steroids, antibiotics, and antihistamines for radiation burns, ulcers, or blisters; excision and grafting of radiation ulcers or necrosis with intractable pain; provision of supportive care to individuals with neurovascular syndrome; and administration of electrolyte replacement therapy and sedatives to individuals with significant burns, hypovolemia, and/ orshock. A strong recommendation is made against the use of systemic steroids in the absence of a specific indication. A weak

  16. Transplantation of Endothelial Cells to Mitigate Acute and Chronic Radiation Injury to Vital Organs.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Shahin; Ginsberg, Michael; Scandura, Joseph; Butler, Jason M; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-08-01

    Current therapeutic approaches for treatment of exposure to radiation involve the use of antioxidants, chelating agents, recombinant growth factors and transplantation of stem cells (e.g., hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). However, exposure to high-dose radiation is associated with severe damage to the vasculature of vital organs, often leading to impaired healing, tissue necrosis, thrombosis and defective regeneration caused by aberrant fibrosis. It is very unlikely that infusion of protective chemicals will reverse severe damage to the vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The role of irradiated vasculature in mediating acute and chronic radiation syndromes has not been fully appreciated or well studied. New approaches are necessary to replace and reconstitute ECs in organs that are irreversibly damaged by radiation. We have set forth the novel concept that ECs provide paracrine signals, also known as angiocrine signals, which not only promote healing of irradiated tissue but also direct organ regeneration without provoking fibrosis. We have developed innovative technologies that enable manufacturing and banking of human GMP-grade ECs. These ECs can be transplanted intravenously to home to and engraft to injured tissues where they augment organ repair, while preventing maladaptive fibrosis. In the past, therapeutic transplantation of ECs was not possible due to a shortage of availability of suitable donor cell sources and preclinical models, a lack of understanding of the immune privilege of ECs, and inadequate methodologies for expansion and banking of engraftable ECs. Recent advances made by our group as well as other laboratories have breached the most significant of these obstacles with the development of technologies to manufacture clinical-scale quantities of GMP-grade and human ECs in culture, including genetically diverse reprogrammed human amniotic cells into vascular ECs (rAC-VECs) or human pluripotent stem cells into vascular ECs (iVECs). This

  17. Transplantation of Endothelial Cells to Mitigate Acute and Chronic Radiation Injury to Vital Organs

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Shahin; Ginsberg, Michael; Scandura, Joseph; Butler, Jason M.; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Current therapeutic approaches for treatment of exposure to radiation involve the use of antioxidants, chelating agents, recombinant growth factors and transplantation of stem cells (e.g., hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). However, exposure to high-dose radiation is associated with severe damage to the vasculature of vital organs, often leading to impaired healing, tissue necrosis, thrombosis and defective regeneration caused by aberrant fibrosis. It is very unlikely that infusion of protective chemicals will reverse severe damage to the vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The role of irradiated vasculature in mediating acute and chronic radiation syndromes has not been fully appreciated or well studied. New approaches are necessary to replace and reconstitute ECs in organs that are irreversibly damaged by radiation. We have set forth the novel concept that ECs provide paracrine signals, also known as angiocrine signals, which not only promote healing of irradiated tissue but also direct organ regeneration without provoking fibrosis. We have developed innovative technologies that enable manufacturing and banking of human GMP-grade ECs. These ECs can be transplanted intravenously to home to and engraft to injured tissues where they augment organ repair, while preventing maladaptive fibrosis. In the past, therapeutic transplantation of ECs was not possible due to a shortage of availability of suitable donor cell sources and preclinical models, a lack of understanding of the immune privilege of ECs, and inadequate methodologies for expansion and banking of engraftable ECs. Recent advances made by our group as well as other laboratories have breached the most significant of these obstacles with the development of technologies to manufacture clinical-scale quantities of GMP-grade and human ECs in culture, including genetically diverse reprogrammed human amniotic cells into vascular ECs (rAC-VECs) or human pluripotent stem cells into vascular ECs (iVECs). This

  18. Acute clinical adverse radiation effects after Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Tuleasca, Constantin; George, Mercy; Faouzi, Mohamed; Schiappacasse, Luis; Leroy, Henri-Arthur; Zeverino, Michele; Daniel, Roy Thomas; Maire, Raphael; Levivier, Marc

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) represent a common indication of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). While most studies focus on the long-term morbidity and adverse radiation effects (AREs), none describe the acute clinical AREs that might appear on a short-term basis. These types of events are investigated, and their incidence, type, and outcomes are reported in the present paper. METHODS The included patients were treated between July 2010 and March 2016, underwent at least 6 months of follow-up, and presented with a disabling symptom during the first 6 months after GKS that affected their quality of life. The timing of appearance, as well as the type of main symptom and outcome, were noted. The prescribed dose was 12 Gy at the margin. RESULTS Thirty-five (22%) of 159 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria had acute clinical AREs. The mean followup period was 30 months (range 6-49.2 months). The mean time of appearance was 37.9 days (median 31 days; range 3-110 days). In patients with de novo symptoms, the more frequent symptoms were vertigo (n = 4; 11.4%) and gait disturbance (n = 3; 8.6%). The exacerbation of a preexisting symptom was more frequently related to hearing loss (n = 10; 28.6%), followed by gait disturbance (n = 7; 20%) and vertigo (n = 3, 8.6%). In the univariate logistic regression analysis, the following factors were statistically significant: age (p = 0.002; odds ratio [OR] 0.96), hearing at baseline by Gardner-Robertson (GR) class (p = 0.006; OR 0.21), pure tone average at baseline (p = 0.006; OR 0.97), and Koos grade at baseline (with Koos Grade I used as a reference) (for Koos Grade II, OR 0.17 and p = 0.002; for Koos Grade III, OR 0.42 and p = 0.05). The following were not statistically significant but showed a tendency toward significance: the number of isocenters (p = 0.06; OR 0.94) and the maximal dose received by the cochlea (p = 0.07; OR 0.74). Fractional polynomial regression analysis showed a nonlinear relationship between the

  19. Bioluminescence tomography guided radiation therapy for preclinical research

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Yu, Jingjing; Eslami, Sohrab; Iordachita, Iulian; Reyes, Juvenal; Malek, Reem; Tran, Phuoc T.; Patterson, Michael S.; Wong, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In pre-clinical radiation research, it is challenging to localize soft tissue targets based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guidance. As a more effective method to localize soft tissue targets, we developed an online bioluminescence tomography (BLT) system for the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). We demonstrated BLT-guided radiotherapy and validated targeting accuracy, based on a newly developed reconstruction algorithm. Methods and Materials The BLT system was designed to dock onto the SARRP for image acquisition and to be detached before radiation delivery. A 3-mirror system was devised to reflect the bioluminescence emitted from the subject to a stationary CCD camera. Multispectral BLT and the incomplete variables truncated conjugate gradient method with a permissible region shrinking strategy were employed as the optimization scheme to reconstruct bioluminescent source distributions. To validate BLT targeting accuracy, a small cylindrical light source with high CBCT contrast was placed in a phantom and also in the abdomen of a mouse carcass. The center of mass (CoM) of the source was recovered from BLT and used to guide radiation delivery. The accuracy of the BLT-guided targeting was validated with films and compared with the CBCT-guided delivery. In vivo experiments were conducted to demonstrate the BLT localization capability for various source geometries. Results Online BLT was able to recover the CoM of the imbedded light source with an average accuracy of 1 mm compared to CBCT localization. The difference between the BLT- and CBCT-guided irradiation shown on the films was consistent with the source localization revealed in the BLT and CBCT images. The in vivo results demonstrated that our BLT system could potentially be applied for multiple targets and tumors. Conclusions The online BLT/CBCT/SARRP system provides an effective solution for soft tissue targeting, particularly for small, non-palpable, or orthotopic tumor

  20. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Nascimento, Mariana; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10{sup 8} colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  1. The Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome in Rhesus Macaques: A Systematic Review of the Lethal Dose Response Relationship.

    PubMed

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M; Jackson, William

    2015-11-01

    Well characterized animal models that mimic the human response to potentially lethal doses of radiation are required to assess the efficacy of medical countermeasures under the criteria of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration "animal rule." Development of a model requires the determination of the radiation dose response relationship and time course of mortality and morbidity across the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. The nonhuman primate, rhesus macaque, is a relevant animal model that may be used to determine the efficacy of medical countermeasures to mitigate major signs of morbidity and mortality at selected lethal doses of total body irradiation. A systematic review of relevant studies that determined the dose response relationship for the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in the rhesus macaque relative to radiation quality, dose rate, and exposure uniformity has never been performed. The selection of data cohorts was made from the following sources: Ovid Medline (1957-present), PubMed (1954-present), AGRICOLA (1976-present), Web of Science (1954-present), and U.S. HHS REPORT (2002 to present). The following terms were used: Rhesus, total body-irradiation, total body x irradiation, TBI, irradiation, gamma radiation, hematopoiesis, LD50/60, Macaca mulatta, whole-body irradiation, nonhuman primate, NHP, monkey, primates, hematopoietic radiation syndrome, mortality, and nuclear radiation. The reference lists of all studies, published and unpublished, were reviewed for additional studies. The total number of hits across all search sites was 3,001. There were a number of referenced, unpublished, non-peer reviewed government reports that were unavailable for review. Fifteen studies, 11 primary (n = 863) and four secondary (n = 153) studies [n = 1,016 total nonhuman primates (NHP), rhesus Macaca mulatta] were evaluated to provide an informative and consistent review. The dose response relationships (DRRs) were determined for uniform or non-uniform total

  2. Establishing a murine model of the hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Plett, P Artur; Sampson, Carol H; Chua, Hui Lin; Joshi, Mandar; Booth, Catherine; Gough, Alec; Johnson, Cynthia S; Katz, Barry P; Farese, Ann M; Parker, Jeffrey; MacVittie, Thomas J; Orschell, Christie M

    2012-10-01

    The authors have developed a murine model of the Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome (H-ARS) for efficacy testing of medical countermeasures (MCM) against radiation according to the FDA Animal Rule. Ten- to 12-wk-old male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the LD50/30-LD70/30 dose of total body irradiation (TBI, (137)Cs, 0.62-0.67 Gy min(-1)) in the morning hours when mice were determined to be most radiosensitive, and they were assessed for 30-d survival and mean survival time (MST). Antibiotics were delivered in drinking water on days 4-30 post-TBI at a concentration based on the amount of water that lethally-irradiated mice were found to consume. The fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, as well as the tetracycline doxycycline, and aminoglycoside neomycin, all significantly increased MST of decedent mice, while ciprofloxacin (p = 0.061) and doxycycline + neomycin (p = 0.005) showed at least some efficacy to increase 30-d survival. Blood sampling (30 μL/mouse every fifth day) was found to negatively impact 30-d survival. Histopathology of tissues harvested from nonmoribund mice showed expected effects of lethal irradiation, while moribund mice were largely septicemic with a preponderance of enteric organisms. Kinetics of loss and recovery of peripheral blood cells in untreated mice and those treated with two MCM, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and Amifostine further characterized and validated this model for use in screening studies and pivotal efficacy studies of candidate MCM for licensure to treat irradiated individuals suffering from H-ARS.

  3. Preliminary clinical findings on NEUMUNE as a potential treatment for acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stickney, Dwight R; Groothuis, Jessie R; Ahlem, Clarence; Kennedy, Mike; Miller, Barry S; Onizuka-Handa, Nanette; Schlangen, Karen M; Destiche, Daniel; Reading, Chris; Garsd, Armando; Frincke, James M

    2010-12-01

    5-androstenediol (5-AED) has been advanced as a possible countermeasure for treating the haematological component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). It has been used in animal models to stimulate both innate and adaptive immunity and treat infection and radiation-induced immune suppression. We here report on the safety, tolerability and haematologic activity of 5-AED in four double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled studies on healthy adults including elderly subjects. A 5-AED injectable suspension formulation (NEUMUNE) or placebo was administered intramuscularly as either a single injection, or once daily for five consecutive days at doses of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg. Subjects (n = 129) were randomized to receive NEUMUNE (n = 95) or the placebo (n = 34). NEUMUNE was generally well-tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were local injection site reactions (n = 104, 81%) that were transient, dose-volume dependent, mild to moderate in severity, and that resolved over the course of the study. Blood chemistries revealed a transient increase (up to 28%) in creatine phosphokinase and C-reactive protein levels consistent with intramuscular injection and injection site irritation. The blood concentration profile of 5-AED is consistent with a depot formulation that increases in disproportionate increments following each dose. NEUMUNE significantly increased circulating neutrophils (p < 0.001) and platelets (p < 0.001) in the peripheral blood of adult and elderly subjects. A dose-response relationship was identified. Findings suggest that parenteral administration of 5-AED in aqueous suspension may be a safe and effective means to stimulate innate immunity and alleviate neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with ARS.

  4. Establishing a murine model of the Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Plett, P. Artur; Sampson, Carol H.; Chua, Hui Lin; Joshi, Mandar; Booth, Catherine; Gough, Alec; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Katz, Barry P.; Farese, Ann M.; Parker, Jeffrey; MacVittie, Thomas J.; Orschell, Christie M.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a murine model of the Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome (H-ARS) for efficacy testing of medical countermeasures (MCM) against radiation according to the FDA Animal Rule. Ten to 12 week old male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the LD50/30-LD70/30 dose of total body irradiation (TBI, 137Cs, 0.62-0.67 Gy min-1) in the morning hours when mice were determined to be most radiosensitive, and assessed for 30 day survival and mean survival time (MST). Antibiotics were delivered in the drinking water on days 4-30 post-TBI at a concentration based on the amount of water that lethally-irradiated mice were found to consume. The fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, and the tetracycline doxycycline and aminoglycoside neomycin, all significantly increased MST of decedent mice, while ciprofloxacin (p=0.061) and doxycycline + neomycin (p=0.005) showed at least some efficacy to increase 30 day survival. Blood sampling (30uL/mouse every 5th day) was found to negatively impact 30 day survival. Histopathology of tissues harvested from non-moribund mice showed expected effects of lethal irradiation, while moribund mice were largely septicemic with a preponderance of enteric organisms. Kinetics of loss and recovery of peripheral blood cells in untreated mice and those treated with two MCM, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and Amifostine, further characterized and validated our model for use in screening studies and pivotal efficacy studies of candidate MCM for licensure to treat irradiated individuals suffering from H-ARS. PMID:22929467

  5. Acute Esophagus Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kwint, Margriet; Uyterlinde, Wilma; Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Heuvel, Michel van den; Knegjens, Joost; Herk, Marcel van; Belderbos, Jose

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy were prospectively analyzed. The fractionation scheme was 66 Gy in 24 fractions. All patients received concurrently a daily dose of cisplatin (6 mg/m Superscript-Two ). Maximum AET was scored according to Common Toxicity Criteria 3.0. Dose-volume parameters V5 to V70, D{sub mean} and D{sub max} of the esophagus were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the dose-effect relation between these parameters and grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 AET. The outcome was compared with the clinically used esophagus V35 prediction model for grade {>=}2 after radical 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) treatment. Results: In our patient group, 9% did not experience AET, and 31% experienced grade 1 AET, 38% grade 2 AET, and 22% grade 3 AET. The incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 AET was not different from that in patients treated with CCRT using 3DCRT. The V50 turned out to be the most significant dosimetric predictor for grade {>=}3 AET (P=.012). The derived V50 model was shown to predict grade {>=}2 AET significantly better than the clinical V35 model (P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, the V50 was identified as most accurate predictor of grade {>=}3 AET. There was no difference in the incidence of grade {>=}2 AET between 3DCRT and IMRT in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  7. EEG patterns in persons exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of the chernobyl accident. Part 2: quantitative EEG analysis in patients who had acute radiation sickness.

    PubMed

    Loganovsky, Konstantin N; Yuryev, Konstantin L

    2004-01-01

    Cross-sectional quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) study (1996-2001) among Chernobyl accident survivors, who had confirmed acute radiation sickness and were irradiated in dose of 1-5 Gy, revealed the neurophysiological markers of ionizing radiation. Neuropsychological markers were: left fronto-temporal dominant frequency reduction; absolute delta-power lateralization to the left (dominant) hemisphere; relative delta-power increase in the fronto-temporal areas; absolute theta-power decrease in the left temporal region; absolute and relative alpha-power diffusive decrease, which may reflect cortico-limbic dysfunction lateralized to the left, dominant hemisphere, with the fronto-temporal cortical and hippocampal damage. Quantitative electroencephalogram proposed for differentiation of radiation and nonradiation brain damages and as a new biological dosymetry method. High radiosensitivity of the brain, neocortex, and dominant hemisphere higher radiosensitivity are discussed.

  8. Radiation chemistry in solvent etxraction: FY2011 research

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program in the area of radiation chemistry during FY 2011. The tasks assigned during FY 2011 included: (1) Continue measurements free radical reaction kinetics in the organic phase; (2) Continue development of an alpha-radiolysis program and compare alpha and gamma radiolysis for CMPO; (3) Initiate an effort to understand dose rate effects in radiation chemistry; and (4) Continued work to characterize TALSPEAK radiation chemistry, including the examination of metal complexed ligand kinetics. Progress made on each of these tasks is reported here. Briefly, the method developed to measure the kinetics of the reactions of the NO3 radical with solvent extraction ligands in organic solution during FY10 was extended here to a number of compounds to better understand the differences between radical reactions in the organic versus aqueous phases. The alpha-radiolysis program in FY11 included irradiations of CMPO solutions with 244Cm, 211At and the He ion beam, for comparison to gamma irradiations, and a comparison of the gamma irradiation results for CMPO at three different gamma dose rates. Finally, recent results for TALSPEAK radiolysis are reported, summarizing the latest in an effort to understand how metal complexation to ligands affects their reaction kinetics with free radicals.

  9. TU-G-BRA-08: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): Hybrid PET-MRI Imaging of Acute Radiation Induced Cardiac Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sherif, O; Xhaferllari, I; Gaede, S; Sykes, J; Butler, J; Wisenberg, G; Prato, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify the presence of low-dose radiation induced cardiac toxicity in a canine model using hybrid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Research ethics board approval was obtained for a longitudinal imaging study of 5 canines after cardiac irradiation. Animals were imaged at baseline, 1 week post cardiac irradiation, and 1 month post cardiac irradiation using a hybrid PET- MRI system (Biograph mMR, Siemens Healthcare). The imaging protocol was designed to assess acute changes in myocardial perfusion and inflammation. Myocardial perfusion imaging was performed using N13-ammonia tracer followed by a dynamic PET acquisition scan. A compartmental tracer kinetic model was used for absolute perfusion quantification. Myocardial inflammation imaging was performed using F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer. The standard uptake value (SUV) over a region encompassing the whole heart was used to compare FDG scans. All animals received a simulation CT scan (GE Medical Systems) for radiation treatment planning. Radiation treatment plans were created using the Pinncale3 treatment planning system (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and designed to resemble the typical cardiac exposure during left-sided breast cancer radiotherapy. Cardiac irradiations were performed in a single fraction using a TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems). Results: The delivered dose (mean ± standard deviation) to heart was 1.8±0.2 Gy. Reductions in myocardial stress perfusion relative to baseline were observed in 2 of the 5 animals 1 month post radiation. A global inflammatory response 1 month post radiation was observed in 4 of the 5 animals. The calculated SUV at 1 month post radiation was significantly higher (p=0.05) than the baseline SUV. Conclusion: Low doses of cardiac irradiation (< 2 Gy) may lead to myocardial perfusion defects and a global inflammatory response that can be detectable as early as 1 month post irradiation

  10. Gravitational radiation theory. M.A. Thesis - Rice Univ.; [survey of current research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    A survey is presented of current research in the theory of gravitational radiation. The mathematical structure of gravitational radiation is stressed. Furthermore, the radiation problem is treated independently from other problems in gravitation. The development proceeds candidly through three points of view - scalar, rector, and tensor radiation theory - and the corresponding results are stated.

  11. Human Research Program Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woloschak, Gayle; Steinberg-Wright, S.; Coleman, Norman; Grdina, David; Hill, Colin; Iliakis, George; Metting, Noelle; Meyers, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 9-11, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE) of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Space Radiation SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the demands placed on the HRP. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the SRP charge. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on December 11, 2009. The SRP noted that current SRPE strategy is properly science-based and views this as the best assurance of the likelihood that answers to the questions posed as gaps in knowledge can be found, that the uncertainty in risk estimates can be reduced, and that a solid, cost-effective approach to risk reduction solutions is being developed. The current approach of the SRPE, based on the use of carefully focused research solicitations, requiring thorough peer-review and approaches demonstrated to be on the path to answering the NASA strategic questions, addressed to a broad extramural community of qualified scientists, optimally positioned to take advantage of serendipitous discoveries and to leverage scientific advances made elsewhere, is sound and appropriate. The SRP viewed with concern statements by HRP implying that the only science legitimately deserving support should be "applied" or, in some instances that the very term "research" might be

  12. Health effects in those with acute radiation sickness from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Fred A; Gus'kova, Angelina K; Gusev, Igor

    2007-11-01

    The Chernobyl accident resulted in almost one-third of the reported cases of acute radiation sickness (ARS) reported worldwide. Cases occurred among the plant employees and first responders but not among the evacuated populations or general population. The diagnosis of ARS was initially considered for 237 persons based on symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Ultimately, the diagnosis of ARS was confirmed in 134 persons. There were 28 short term deaths of which 95% occurred at whole body doses in excess of 6.5 Gy. Underlying bone marrow failure was the main contributor to all deaths during the first 2 mo. Allogenic bone marrow transplantation was performed on 13 patients and an additional six received human fetal liver cells. All of these patients died except one individual who later was discovered to have recovered his own marrow and rejected the transplant. Two or three patients were felt to have died as a result of transplant complications. Skin doses exceeded bone marrow doses by a factor of 10-30, and at least 19 of the deaths were felt to be primarily due to infection from large area beta burns. Internal contamination was of relatively minor importance in treatment. By the end of 2001, an additional 14 ARS survivors died from various causes. Long term treatment has included therapy for beta burn fibrosis and skin atrophy as well as for cataracts.

  13. Gene expression-based dosimetry by dose and time in mice following acute radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Tucker, James D; Divine, George W; Grever, William E; Thomas, Robert A; Joiner, Michael C; Smolinski, Joseph M; Auner, Gregory W

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable methods for performing biological dosimetry are of paramount importance in the event of a large-scale nuclear event. Traditional dosimetry approaches lack the requisite rapid assessment capability, ease of use, portability and low cost, which are factors needed for triaging a large number of victims. Here we describe the results of experiments in which mice were acutely exposed to (60)Co gamma rays at doses of 0 (control) to 10 Gy. Blood was obtained from irradiated mice 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after exposure. mRNA expression levels of 106 selected genes were obtained by reverse-transcription real time PCR. Stepwise regression of dose received against individual gene transcript expression levels provided optimal dosimetry at each time point. The results indicate that only 4-7 different gene transcripts are needed to explain ≥ 0.69 of the variance (R(2)), and that receiver-operator characteristics, a measure of sensitivity and specificity, of ≥ 0.93 for these statistical models were achieved at each time point. These models provide an excellent description of the relationship between the actual and predicted doses up to 6 Gy. At doses of 8 and 10 Gy there appears to be saturation of the radiation-response signals with a corresponding diminution of accuracy. These results suggest that similar analyses in humans may be advantageous for use in a field-portable device designed to assess exposures in mass casualty situations.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute radiation syndrome: innovative medical approaches in military medicine.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Erik B; Varney, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    After a radiological or nuclear event, acute radiation syndrome (ARS) will present complex medical challenges that could involve the treatment of hundreds to thousands of patients. Current medical doctrine is based on limited clinical data and remains inadequate. Efforts to develop medical innovations that address ARS complications are unlikely to be generated by industry because of market uncertainties specific to this type of injury. A prospective strategy could be the integration of cellular therapy to meet the medical demands of ARS. The most clinically advanced cellular therapy to date is the administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results of currently published investigations describing MSC safety and efficacy in a variety of injury and disease models demonstrate the unique qualities of this reparative cell population in adapting to the specific requirements of the damaged tissue in which the cells integrate. This report puts forward a rationale for the further evaluation of MSC therapy to address the current unmet medical needs of ARS. We propose that the exploration of this novel therapy for the treatment of the multivariate complications of ARS could be of invaluable benefit to military medicine.

  15. Gene Expression-Based Dosimetry by Dose and Time in Mice Following Acute Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, James D.; Divine, George W.; Grever, William E.; Thomas, Robert A.; Joiner, Michael C.; Smolinski, Joseph M.; Auner, Gregory W.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable methods for performing biological dosimetry are of paramount importance in the event of a large-scale nuclear event. Traditional dosimetry approaches lack the requisite rapid assessment capability, ease of use, portability and low cost, which are factors needed for triaging a large number of victims. Here we describe the results of experiments in which mice were acutely exposed to 60Co gamma rays at doses of 0 (control) to 10 Gy. Blood was obtained from irradiated mice 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after exposure. mRNA expression levels of 106 selected genes were obtained by reverse-transcription real time PCR. Stepwise regression of dose received against individual gene transcript expression levels provided optimal dosimetry at each time point. The results indicate that only 4–7 different gene transcripts are needed to explain ≥ 0.69 of the variance (R2), and that receiver-operator characteristics, a measure of sensitivity and specificity, of ≥ 0.93 for these statistical models were achieved at each time point. These models provide an excellent description of the relationship between the actual and predicted doses up to 6 Gy. At doses of 8 and 10 Gy there appears to be saturation of the radiation-response signals with a corresponding diminution of accuracy. These results suggest that similar analyses in humans may be advantageous for use in a field-portable device designed to assess exposures in mass casualty situations. PMID:24358280

  16. Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Dana; Proulx, Denise; Saoudi, A.; Ng, Cheng E. . E-mail: cng@ohri.ca

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial.

  17. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  18. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; ...

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  19. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yeh, M.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  20. Economic evaluation of Australian acute care accreditation (ACCREDIT-CBA (Acute)): study protocol for a mixed-method research project

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna I; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork—Cost–Benefit Analysis (ACCREDIT-CBA (Acute)) study is designed to determine and make explicit the costs and benefits of Australian acute care accreditation and to determine the effectiveness of acute care accreditation in improving patient safety and quality of care. The cost–benefit analysis framework will be provided in the form of an interactive model for industry partners, health regulators and policy makers, accreditation agencies and acute care service providers. Methods and design The study will use a mixed-method approach to identify, quantify and monetise the costs and benefits of accreditation. Surveys, expert panels, focus groups, interviews and primary and secondary data analysis will be used in cross-sectional and case study designs. Ethics and dissemination The University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee has approved this project (approval number HREC 10274). The results of the study will be reported via peer-reviewed publications, conferences and seminar resentations and will form part of a doctoral thesis. PMID:23396564

  1. Radiation dosimetry at the BNL Medical Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.; Reciniello, R.N.; Greenberg, D.D.; Hu, J.P.

    1998-11-01

    The Medical Research Reactor, BMRR, at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, BNL, is a three megawatt, 3 MW, heterogeneous, tank-type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was designed for biomedical studies, and became operational in 1959. It provides thermal and epithermal neutron beams suitable for research studies such as radiation therapy of various types of tumors. At the present time, the major program at BMRR is Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT. Modifications have been made to the BMRR to significantly increase the available epithermal neutron flux density to a patient in clinical trials of BNCT. The data indicate that the flux density and dose rate are concentrated in the center of the beam, the patient absorbs neutrons rather than gamma radiation and as noted previously even with the increasing flux values, gamma-ray dose received by the attending personnel has remained minimal. Flux densities in the center of the thermal port and epithermal port beams have been characterized with an agreement between the measurements and the calculations.

  2. A Summary of Lightpipe Radiation Thermometry Research at NIST.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Benjamin K

    2006-01-01

    During the last 10 years, research in light-pipe radiation thermometry has significantly reduced the uncertainties for temperature measurements in semiconductor processing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has improved the calibration of lightpipe radiation thermometers (LPRTs), the characterization procedures for LPRTs, the in situ calibration of LPRTs using thin-film thermocouple (TFTC) test wafers, and the application of model-based corrections to improve LPRT spectral radiance temperatures. Collaboration with industry on implementing techniques and ideas established at NIST has led to improvements in temperature measurements in semiconductor processing. LPRTs have been successfully calibrated at NIST for rapid thermal processing (RTP) applications using a sodium heat-pipe blackbody between 700 °C and 900 °C with an uncertainty of about 0.3 °C (k = 1) traceable to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Employing appropriate effective emissivity models, LPRTs have been used to determine the wafer temperature in the NIST RTP Test Bed with an uncertainty of 3.5 °C. Using a TFTC wafer for calibration, the LPRT can measure the wafer temperature in the NIST RTP Test Bed with an uncertainty of 2.3 °C. Collaborations with industry in characterizing and calibrating LPRTs will be summarized, and future directions for LPRT research will be discussed.

  3. The Teaching/Research Nexus and Internationalisation: An Action Research Project in Radiation Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guatelli, Susanna; Layton, Catherine; Cutajar, Dean; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to unpack the teaching and learning experiences of academics and students when a new way of teaching radiation physics was introduced. In an attempt to articulate the University of Wollongong's commitment to the enhancement of the teaching/research nexus and to the development of learning communities, staff of the School of…

  4. Developing system for delivery of optical radiation in medicobiological researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loschenov, Victor B.; Taraz, Majid

    2004-06-01

    Methods of optical diagnostics and methods of photodynamic therapy are actively used in medico-biological researches. The system for delivery of optical radiation is one of the key methods in these researches. Usually these systems use flexible optical fibers with diameters from 200 to 1000 micron. Two types of systems for delivery are subdivided, first for diagnostic researches, second for therapeutic procedures. Existing diagnostic catheters, which have most widely applied in medicine, have bifurcated with diameter of the tip equal 1.8 mm. These devices, which are called fiber-optical catheters, satisfy the majority endoscopes researches. However, till now the problem of optical-diagnostics inside tissue is not soled. Especially it is important at diagnostics of a mammary gland, livers, thyroid glands tumor, tumor of a brain and some other studies connected with punctures. In these cases, it is necessary that diameter of fiber-optical catheters be less than one millimeter. This work is devoted to the development of these catheters. Also in clinical procedures such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP), cylindrical light diffusing tips are rapidly becoming a popular device for the administration of the desired light dose for the illumination of hollow organs, such as bronchus, trachea and oesophagus. This work is devoted to the development of these catheters.

  5. Curcumin protects against radiation-induced acute and chronic cutaneous toxicity in mice and decreases mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

    SciTech Connect

    Okunieff, Paul . E-mail: paul_okunieff@urmc.rochester.edu; Xu Jianhua; Hu Dongping; Liu Weimin; Zhang Lurong; Morrow, Gary; Pentland, Alice; Ryan, Julie L.; Ding, Ivan M.D.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether curcumin ameliorates acute and chronic radiation skin toxicity and to examine the expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1Ra, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-{alpha}, and lymphotoxin-{beta}) or fibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]-{beta}) during the same acute and chronic phases. Methods and Materials: Curcumin was given intragastrically or intraperitoneally to C3H/HeN mice either: 5 days before radiation; 5 days after radiation; or both 5 days before and 5 days after radiation. The cutaneous damage was assessed at 15-21 days (acute) and 90 days (chronic) after a single 50 Gy radiation dose was given to the hind leg. Skin and muscle tissues were collected for measurement of cytokine mRNA. Results: Curcumin, administered before or after radiation, markedly reduced acute and chronic skin toxicity in mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin significantly decreased mRNA expression of early responding cytokines (IL-1 IL-6, IL-18, TNF-{alpha}, and lymphotoxin-{beta}) and the fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-{beta}, in cutaneous tissues at 21 days postradiation. Conclusion: Curcumin has a protective effect on radiation-induced cutaneous damage in mice, which is characterized by a downregulation of both inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines in irradiated skin and muscle, particularly in the early phase after radiation. These results may provide the molecular basis for the application of curcumin in clinical radiation therapy.

  6. MicroRNA Expression for Early Prediction of Late Occurring Hematologic Acute Radiation Syndrome in Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Port, Matthias; Herodin, Francis; Valente, Marco; Drouet, Michel; Ullmann, Reinhard; Doucha-Senf, Sven; Lamkowski, Andreas; Majewski, Matthäus; Abend, Michael

    2016-01-01

    For effective medical management of radiation-exposed persons after a radiological/nuclear event, blood-based screening measures in the first few days that could predict hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) are needed. For HARS severity prediction, we used microRNA (miRNA) expression changes measured on days one and two after irradiation in a baboon model. Eighteen baboons underwent different patterns of partial or total body irradiation, corresponding to an equivalent dose of 2.5 or 5 Gy. According to changes in blood cell counts (BCC) the surviving baboons (n = 17) exhibited mild (H1-2, n = 4) or more severe (H2-3, n = 13) HARS. In a two Stage study design we screened 667 miRNAs using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) platform. In Stage II we validated candidates where miRNAs had to show a similar regulation (up- or down-regulated) and a significant 2-fold miRNA expression difference over H0. Seventy-two candidate miRNAs (42 for H1-2 and 30 for H2-3) were forwarded for validation. Forty-two of the H1-2 miRNA candidates from the screening phase entered the validation step and 20 of them showed a statistically significant 2–4 fold up-regulation relative to the unexposed reference (H0). Fifteen of the 30 H2-3 miRNAs were validated in Stage II. All miRNAs appeared 2–3 fold down-regulated over H0 and allowed an almost complete separation of HARS categories; the strongest candidate, miR-342-3p, showed a sustained and 10-fold down-regulation on both days 1 and 2. In summary, our data support the medical decision making of the HARS even within the first two days after exposure where diagnostic tools for early medical decision are required but so far missing. The miRNA species identified and in particular miR-342-3p add to the previously identified mRNAs and complete the portfolio of identified mRNA and miRNA transcripts for HARS prediction and medical management. PMID:27846229

  7. MicroRNA Expression for Early Prediction of Late Occurring Hematologic Acute Radiation Syndrome in Baboons.

    PubMed

    Port, Matthias; Herodin, Francis; Valente, Marco; Drouet, Michel; Ullmann, Reinhard; Doucha-Senf, Sven; Lamkowski, Andreas; Majewski, Matthäus; Abend, Michael

    2016-01-01

    For effective medical management of radiation-exposed persons after a radiological/nuclear event, blood-based screening measures in the first few days that could predict hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) are needed. For HARS severity prediction, we used microRNA (miRNA) expression changes measured on days one and two after irradiation in a baboon model. Eighteen baboons underwent different patterns of partial or total body irradiation, corresponding to an equivalent dose of 2.5 or 5 Gy. According to changes in blood cell counts (BCC) the surviving baboons (n = 17) exhibited mild (H1-2, n = 4) or more severe (H2-3, n = 13) HARS. In a two Stage study design we screened 667 miRNAs using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) platform. In Stage II we validated candidates where miRNAs had to show a similar regulation (up- or down-regulated) and a significant 2-fold miRNA expression difference over H0. Seventy-two candidate miRNAs (42 for H1-2 and 30 for H2-3) were forwarded for validation. Forty-two of the H1-2 miRNA candidates from the screening phase entered the validation step and 20 of them showed a statistically significant 2-4 fold up-regulation relative to the unexposed reference (H0). Fifteen of the 30 H2-3 miRNAs were validated in Stage II. All miRNAs appeared 2-3 fold down-regulated over H0 and allowed an almost complete separation of HARS categories; the strongest candidate, miR-342-3p, showed a sustained and 10-fold down-regulation on both days 1 and 2. In summary, our data support the medical decision making of the HARS even within the first two days after exposure where diagnostic tools for early medical decision are required but so far missing. The miRNA species identified and in particular miR-342-3p add to the previously identified mRNAs and complete the portfolio of identified mRNA and miRNA transcripts for HARS prediction and medical management.

  8. Background radiation, electrical work, and some other exposures associated with acute myeloid leukemia in a case-referent study.

    PubMed

    Flodin, U; Fredriksson, M; Persson, B; Hardell, L; Axelson, O

    1986-01-01

    The effect of potential risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 59 cases and 354 referents, all of whom were alive. Information on exposure was obtained through a questionnaire mailed to the subjects. The possible effect of background radiation was evaluated by means of a gamma radiation index, which accounted for the differences between cases and referents in this respect, i.e., in time spent in concrete buildings both at home and at work places. In the 20-54 yr old age group, there was an association between leukemia morbidity and index of background radiation. X-ray treatment and electrical work were also associated with increased rate ratios. With regard to solvents, only styrene appeared as a risk factor, but the number of exposed subjects was small. Other exposures were less clearly associated with increased risks.

  9. Errors and Uncertainties in Dose Reconstruction for Radiation Effects Research

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2008-04-14

    Dose reconstruction for studies of the health effects of ionizing radiation have been carried out for many decades. Major studies have included Japanese bomb survivors, atomic veterans, downwinders of the Nevada Test Site and Hanford, underground uranium miners, and populations of nuclear workers. For such studies to be credible, significant effort must be put into applying the best science to reconstructing unbiased absorbed doses to tissues and organs as a function of time. In many cases, more and more sophisticated dose reconstruction methods have been developed as studies progressed. For the example of the Japanese bomb survivors, the dose surrogate “distance from the hypocenter” was replaced by slant range, and then by TD65 doses, DS86 doses, and more recently DS02 doses. Over the years, it has become increasingly clear that an equal level of effort must be expended on the quantitative assessment of uncertainty in such doses, and to reducing and managing uncertainty. In this context, this paper reviews difficulties in terminology, explores the nature of Berkson and classical uncertainties in dose reconstruction through examples, and proposes a path forward for Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) Project 2.4 that requires a reasonably small level of effort for DOSES-2008.

  10. Radiation chemistry in solvent extraction: FY2010 Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program in the area of radiation chemistry during FY 2010. The tasks assigned during FY 2010 included: • Development of techniques to measure free radical reaction kinetics in the organic phase. • Initiation of an alpha-radiolysis program • Initiation of an effort to understand dose rate effects in radiation chemistry • Continued work to characterize TALSPEAK radiation chemistry Progress made on each of these tasks is reported here. Briefly, a method was developed and used to measure the kinetics of the reactions of the •NO3 radical with solvent extraction ligands in organic solution, and the method to measure •OH radical reactions under the same conditions has been designed. Rate constants for the CMPO and DMDOHEMA reaction with •NO3 radical in organic solution are reported. Alpha-radiolysis was initiated on samples of DMDOHEMA in alkane solution using He ion beam irradiation and 211At isotope irradiation. The samples are currently being analyzed for comparison to DMDOHEMA ?-irradiations using a custom-developed mass spectrometric method. Results are also reported for the radiolytic generation of nitrous acid, in ?-irradiated nitric acid. It is shown that the yield of nitrous acid is unaffected by an order-of-magnitude change in dose rate. Finally, recent results for TALSPEAK radiolysis are reported, summarizing the effects on solvent extraction efficiency due to HDEHP irradiation, and the stable products of lactic acid and DTPA irradiation. In addition, results representing increased scope are presented for the radiation chemistry program. These include an investigation of the effect of metal complexation on radical reaction kinetics using DTPA as an example, and the production of a manuscript reporting the mechanism of Cs-7SB radiolysis. The Cs-7SB work takes advantage of recent results from a current LDRD program to understand the fundamental chemistry

  11. 100 Years of Radiation Research in the Footsteps of Failla.

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric J

    2017-01-31

    Gioacchino Failla was initially appointed to operate the radon plant at Memorial Hospital in 1916. What to most people would have been a part-time temporary position was to him a career. He was not satisfied to simply fabricate radon seeds, he wanted to understand the physics and biology of the radiation emitted by the progeny of radium. His was not the first medical physics group in the United States, though it was one of the earliest, but it was the first to put such emphasis on the biological effects. After more than 28 years at Memorial Hospital, Failla moved his research group to Columbia University Medical Center and his pioneering work, blending physics and biology, has continued to date at Columbia by those that he trained or inspired, under three directors that followed him.

  12. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-10

    Enclosed are proceedings of the workshop on Internal Dosimetry held on Atlanta, Georgia in April 1992. The recommendations from the Workshop were considered by the CIRRPC Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research in identifying those areas to be undertaken by individual Federal Agencies or in cooperative efforts. This document presents summaries of the following sessions: A.1 Applications and limitations of ICRP and other metabolic models, A.2 Applications and implementation of proposed ICRP lung model, A.3 Estimates of intake from repetitive bioassay data, A.4 Chelation models for plutonium urinalysis data, B.1 Transuranium/uranium registry data, B.2 Autopsy tissue analysis, B.3 Bioassay / Whole body counting, B.4 Data base formatting and availability, C.1 An overview of calculational techniques in use today, C.2 The perfect code, C.3 Dose calculations based on individuals instead of averages, C.4 From macro dosimetry to micro dosimetry.

  13. A patient-centered research agenda for the care of the acutely ill older patient

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Heidi L.; Leykum, Luci K.; Mattison, Melissa L. P.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Meltzer, David O.

    2015-01-01

    Hospitalists and others acute care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients (ACOP) Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through four steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a Partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of ten research questions in the following areas: advanced care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision-making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training. PMID:25877486

  14. A patient-centered research agenda for the care of the acutely ill older patient.

    PubMed

    Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O

    2015-05-01

    Hospitalists and others acute-care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through 4 steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of 10 research questions in the following areas: advanced-care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training.

  15. Study of biological effects of varying mixtures of Cf-252 and gamma radiation on the acute radiation syndromes: Relevance to clinical radiotherapy of radioresistant cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Y.; Wierzbicki, J. Univ. of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY ); Feola, J.M. )

    1993-11-15

    Data for the 30 day bone marrow syndrome (BM-50) and the 6-10 day gastrointestinal (GI-50) syndrome for a one and two fraction schedule and acute and low dose rate irradiation using pure and mixed Cf-252 and photon radiation are presented. The radiation of Cf-252 is a mixture of neutrons and gamma rays. Balb/c mice of both sexes were total body irradiated with acute Co-60, low dose rate Cs-137 and Cf-252 using a 1 x and 2 x schedule. For low linear energy transfer radiations of Co-60 or Cs-137 there was expected to be an increase in the dose to produce the gastrointestinal and bone marrow syndromes with minimal change for Cf-252 neutrons. The proportion of photons in the Cf-252 radiation field were further altered by mixing Cs-137 with the Cf-252 sources and mice were total body irradiated with different proportions of photons to determine the effect on the radiation syndromes. The effects of mixing Cf-252 neutrons with different proportions of photons on the syndromes was determined. There was increase in BM-50 and GI-50 doses with fractionated or low dose rate photon irradiations and the dose modifying factors were 1.3-1.4 for the GI syndrome and 1.2 for the bone marrow syndrome. For Cf-252 there was minimal fractionation effect for the GI-50 syndrome, which increased by 1.1 for x 1 vs. x 2 fractions; for the BM-50 syndrome it rose by a 1.1 factor. For LDR Cs-137 the dose for the GI-50 syndrome rose 2.2-fold. For mixed neutron-photon radiation of 0%, 15%, 35%, and 65% [eta]/[gamma] mixtures, the dose to produce the BM-50 and GI-50 endpoints dropped sharply from 0 to 35% neutrons and remained flat thereafter. For major tissues such as the bone marrow and GI tract, Cf-252 behaved as high linear energy transfer for mixtures of neutrons and gamma rays when the radiations were delivered simultaneously at the low dose rates studied. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Immunomodulatory effects of high-protein diet with resveratrol supplementation on radiation-induced acute-phase inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ok; Park, HyunJin; Chun, Mison; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesized that a high-protein diet and/or resveratrol supplementation will improve acute inflammatory responses in rats after receiving experimental abdominal radiation treatment (ART). Based on our previous study, the period of 10 days after ART was used as an acute inflammation model. Rats were exposed to a radiation dose of 17.5 Gy and were supplied with a control (C), 30% high-protein diet (HP), resveratrol supplementation (RES), or HP with RES diet ([HP+RES]). At day 10 after ART, we measured profiles of lipids, proteins, and immune cells in blood. The levels of clusters of differentiating 4(+) (CD4(+)) cells and regulatory T cells, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine were also measured. ART caused significant disturbances of lipid profiles by increasing triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The proinflammatroy cytokine levels were also increased by ART. All the experimental diets (HP, RES, and [HP+RES]) significantly decreased levels of TG, monocytes, proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-OHdG, whereas the platelet counts were increased. In addition, the HP and [HP+RES] diets decreased the concentrations of plasma LDL-C and total cholesterol. Also, the HP and RES diets decreased regulatory T cells compared with those of the control diet in ART group. Further, the HP diet led to a significant recovery of white blood cell counts, as well as increased percentages of lymphocyte and decreased percentages of neutrophils. In summary, RES appeared to be significantly effective in minimizing radiation-induced damage to lipid metabolism and immune responses. Our study also demonstrated the importance of dietary protein intake in recovering from acute inflammation by radiation.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy and radiation synovectomy research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zamenhof, R.G.; Nwanguma, C.I.; Wazer, D.E.; Saris, S.; Madoc-Jones, H. ); Sledge, C.B.; Shortkroff, S. )

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, current research in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and radiation synovectomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor is reviewed. In the last few years, major emphasis has been placed on the development of BNCT primarily for treatment of brain tumors. This has required a concerted effort in epithermal beam design and construction as well as the development of analytical capabilities for {sup 10}B analysis and patient treatment planning. Prompt gamma analysis and high-resolution track-etch autoradiography have been developed to meet the needs, respectively, for accurate bulk analysis and for quantitative imaging of {sup 10}B in tissue at subcellular resolutions. Monte Carlo-based treatment planning codes have been developed to ensure optimized and individualized patient treatments. In addition, the development of radiation synovectomy as an alternative therapy to surgical intervention is joints that are affected by rheumatoid arthritis is described.

  18. Radiation carcinogenesis and acute radiation mortality in the rat as produced by 2.2 GeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shellabarger, C. J.; Straub, R. F.; Jesseph, J. E.; Montour, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Biological studies, proton carcinogenesis, the interaction of protons and gamma-rays on carcinogenesis, proton-induced acute mortality, and chemical protection against proton-induced acute mortality were studied in the rat and these proton-produced responses were compared to similar responses produced by gamma-rays or X-rays. Litter-mate mice were assigned to each experimental and control group so that approximately equal numbers of litter mates were placed in each group. Animals to be studied for mammary neoplasia were handled for 365 days post-exposure when all animals alive were killed. All animals were examined frequently for mammary tumors and as these were found, they were removed, sectioned and given a pathologic classification.

  19. Single- and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Lai, H; Singh, N P

    1996-04-01

    We investigated the effects of acute (2-h) exposure to pulsed (2-micros pulse width, 500 pulses s(-1)) and continuous wave 2450-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA strand breaks in brain cells of rat. The spatial averaged power density of the radiation was 2mW/cm2, which produced a whole-body average-specific absorption rate of 1.2W/kg. Single- and double-strand DNA breaks in individual brain cells were measured at 4h post-exposure using a microgel electrophoresis assay. An increase in both types of DNA strand breaks was observed after exposure to either the pulsed or continuous-wave radiation, No significant difference was observed between the effects of the two forms of radiation. We speculate that these effects could result from a direct effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy on DNA molecules and/or impairment of DNA-damage repair mechanisms in brain cells. Our data further support the results of earlier in vitro and in vivo studies showing effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA.

  20. Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility Project-(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, N.; Takashima, Y.; Katoh, M.; Hosaka, M.; Takami, K.; Morimoto, H.; Hori, Y.; Sasaki, S.; Koda, S.; Ito, T.; Sakurai, I.; Hara, H.; Okamoto, W.; Watanabe, N.; Takeda, Y.

    2010-06-01

    A synchrotron radiation facility that is used not only for basic research, but also for engineering and industrial research and development has been proposed to be constructed in the Central area of Japan. The key equipment of this facility is a compact electron storage ring that is able to supply hard X-rays. The circumference of the storage ring is 72 m with the energy of 1.2 GeV, the beam current of 300 mA, and the natural emittance of about 53 nm-rad. The configuration of the storage ring is based on four triple bend cells, and four of the twelve bending magnets are 5 T superconducting ones. The bending angle and critical energy are 12 degree and 4.8 keV, respectively. For the top-up operation, the electron beam will be injected from a booster synchrotron with the full energy. Currently, six beamlines are planned for the first phase starting from 2012.

  1. Research on fast rise time EMP radiating-wave simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lisi; Liu, Haitao; Wang, Yun

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an antenna of High altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) radiating-wave simulator which expands the testing zone larger than the traditional transmission line simulator. The numerical results show that traverse electramagnetic (TEM) antenna can be used to radiate HEMP simulation radiating wave, but in low frequency band the emissive capability is poor. The experiment proves the numerical model is valid. The results of this paper show that TEM antenna can be used to HEMP radiating-wave simulator, and can prove the low frequency radiation capability through resistance loaded method.

  2. Therapeutic effect of long-term melatonin treatment on the course and fatal outcome of modeled acute radiation sickness.

    PubMed

    Vasin, M V; Ushakov, I B; Kovtun, V Yu; Semenova, L A; Koroleva, L V; Galkin, A A; Afanas'ev, R V

    2014-04-01

    We studied the effect of long-term administration of melatonin to male C57Bl/6 mice starting from day 3 after whole-body γ-irradiation (9.5-10.0 Gy, 7.7-17.1 cGy/min). It was found that replacement of drinking water with melatonin solution (5 mg/liter) did not reduce the amount of fluid intake throughout the period of acute radiation injury. The daily dose of melatonin was 0.9-1.2 mg/kg body weight (this parameter was lower at the peak of the disease and increased during the recovery stage). Melatonin by more than 20% (p<0.05) improved survival of mice exposed to γ-irradiation in a dose of LD97/30, reduced leukopenia during the stage of acute manifestations of the disease and maximum mortality, and increased blood leukocyte count by 40% (p<0.05) by day 12 after irradiation.

  3. [Modern condition and prospects of improvement of the specialized medical care for acute bone marrow syndrome of radiation etiology].

    PubMed

    Khalimov, Iu Sh; Grebeniuk, A N; Legeza, V I; Karamullin, M A; Salukhov, V V

    2013-01-01

    It is shown, that tactics of treatment of acute marrow failure of radiant etiology is based, first of all, on measures of supporting, replaceable and stimulating therapy. The modern means, used for prophylactic and treatment of infectious complications, are resulted. Opportunities and restrictions of transfusion of donor thrombocytes and granulocytes, erythrocytes and chilled plasma are described. Therapeutic efficiency of transplantation of a bone marrow, cells of embryonic liver and stem cells of peripheral or umbilical cord blood is analyzed. It is shown, that the greatest prospects in perfection of the specialized medical aid at acute radiation syndrome are connected to complex application of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-3, granulocyte or granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulated factor, thrombopoietin and others cytokines.

  4. Stage specificity, dose response, and doubling dose for mouse minisatellite germ-line mutation induced by acute radiation.

    PubMed

    Dubrova, Y E; Plumb, M; Brown, J; Fennelly, J; Bois, P; Goodhead, D; Jeffreys, A J

    1998-05-26

    Germ-line mutation induction at mouse minisatellite loci by acute irradiation with x-rays was studied at premeiotic and postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. An elevated paternal mutation rate was found after irradiation of premeiotic spermatogonia and stem cells, whereas the frequency of minisatellite mutation after postmeiotic irradiation of spermatids was similar to that in control litters. In contrast, paternal irradiation did not affect the maternal mutation rate. A linear dose-response curve for paternal mutation induced at premeiotic stages was found, with a doubling dose of 0.33 Gy, a value close to those obtained in mice after acute spermatogonia irradiation using other systems for mutation detection. High frequencies of spontaneous and induced mutations at minisatellite loci allow mutation induction to be evaluated at low doses of exposure in very small population samples, which currently makes minisatellite DNA the most powerful tool for monitoring radiation-induced germ-line mutation.

  5. The impact of microbial immune enteral nutrition on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Xin, Fu-Ze; Yang, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Dao-Gui; Mi, Yue-Tang; Yu, Jun-Xiu; Li, Guo-Yong

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of microbial immune enteral nutrition by microecopharmaceutics and deep sea fish oil and glutamine and Peptisorb on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status. From June 2010 to January 2013, 46 acute radiation enteritis patients in Liaocheng People's Hospital were randomized into the microbial immune enteral nutrition group and the control group: 24 patients in treatment group and 22 patients in control group. The immune microbial nutrition was given to the study group, but not to the control group. The concentration of serum albumin and prealbumin and the number of CD3 (+) T cell, CD4 (+) T cell, CD8 (+) T cell, CD4 (+)/CD8 (+) and natural killer cell of the two groups were detected on the 1, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The arm muscle circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were recorded, and the tolerance of the two groups for enteral nutrition and intestinal symptoms was collected and then comparing the two indicators and get results. The tolerance of microbial immune enteral nutrition group about abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea was better than the control group (P values were 0.018, 0.04 and 0.008 after 7 days; P values were 0.018, 0.015 and 0.002 after 14 days); and the cellular immune parameters were better than the control group((△) P = 0.008,([Symbol: see text]) P = 0.039, (☆) P = 0.032); No difference was found in nutrition indicators. To the patients with acute radiation enteritis, microbial immune enteral nutrition could improve the patient's immune status, and the tolerance of enteral nutrition could be better for the bowel function and the patients' rehabilitation.

  6. Preclinical acute toxicity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry and microPET imaging studies of [(18)F]fluorocholine in mice.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marina B; Ferreira, Soraya M Z M D; Nascimento, Leonardo T C; Costa, Flávia M; Mendes, Bruno M; Ferreira, Andrea V; Malamut, Carlos; Silva, Juliana B; Mamede, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    [(18)F]Fluorocholine ([(18)F]FCH) has been proven to be effective in prostate cancer. Since [(18)F]FCH is classified as a new radiopharmaceutical in Brazil, preclinical safety and efficacy data are required to support clinical trials and to obtain its approval. The aim of this work was to perform acute toxicity, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry and microPET imaging studies of [(18)F]FCH. The results could support its use in nuclear medicine as an important piece of work for regulatory in Brazil.

  7. TU-CD-303-02: Beyond Radiation Induced Double Strand Breaks - a New Horizon for Radiation Therapy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.

    2015-06-15

    Recent advances in cancer research have shed new light on the complex processes of how therapeutic radiation initiates changes at cellular, tissue, and system levels that may lead to clinical effects. These new advances may transform the way we use radiation to combat certain types of cancers. For the past two decades many technological advancements in radiation therapy have been largely based on the hypothesis that direct radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks cause cell death and thus tumor control and normal tissue damage. However, new insights have elucidated that in addition to causing cellular DNA damage, localized therapeutic radiation also initiates cascades of complex downstream biological responses in tissue that extend far beyond where therapeutic radiation dose is directly deposited. For instance, studies show that irradiated dying tumor cells release tumor antigens that can lead the immune system to a systemic anti-cancer attack throughout the body of cancer patient; targeted irradiation to solid tumor also increases the migration of tumor cells already in bloodstream, the seeds of potential metastasis. Some of the new insights may explain the long ago discovered but still unexplained non-localized radiation effects (bystander effect and abscopal effect) and the efficacy of spatially fractionated radiation therapy (microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy) where many “hot” and “cold” spots are intentionally created throughout the treatment volume. Better understanding of the mechanisms behind the non-localized radiation effects creates tremendous opportunities to develop new and integrated cancer treatment strategies that are based on radiotherapy, immunology, and chemotherapy. However, in the multidisciplinary effort to advance new radiobiology, there are also tremendous challenges including a lack of multidisciplinary researchers and imaging technologies for the microscopic radiation-induced responses. A better grasp of the essence of

  8. Chemotherapy of acute myeloid leukaemia in adults: Medical Research Council.

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) were randomized between 2 regimens of chemotherapy: TRAP and BARTS III. Overall, patients randomized to TRAP, which was the more intensive of the 2 regimens, fared slightly better (P = 0.06) than those on BARTS III. However, the improvement in survival associated with more intensive chemotherapy was substantial only for patients who had favourable prognostic features at presentation, such as a normal total leucocyte count, or absence of palpable liver, or, especially, age under 40. Indeed, for patients under 40, those allocated to the more intensive regimen (TRAP) lived considerably longer than those allocated to BARTS III (P less than 0.002) while for patients over 40 there was no material difference in survival between patients on the 2 protocols. It thus appears that intensive chemotherapy is likely to be more effective when favourable prognostic features are recorded. PMID:365212

  9. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination 10th anniversary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Ten years ago, on April 9, 1984, the Science Advisor to the President, and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, established the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) to meet the need for an interagency committee to address Congressionally mandated and agency-identified issues related to radiation research and policy. CIRRPC replaced the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy, a committee of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology, and assumed the responsibilities of the Interagency Radiation Research Committee and the Radiation Policy Council, whose charters had expired. Since then, CIRRPC has been recognized as an effective and respected mechanism for coordinating radiation policy among Federal agencies and as an efficient coordinator and evaluator of Federal efforts on designated radiation research projects. In the last 10 years, CIRRPC has established various Policy and Science Subpanels to undertake the oftentimes difficult task of resolving and coordinating agency policies and responses to issues dealing with radiation. These subpanels addressed such issues as the metrication of radiation units, the policy impact of the radioepidemiological tables, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials, radon protection and health effects, predisaster planning for human health effects research, and ionizing radiation risk assessment. These subpanels and their work represent CIRRPC`s continuing effort to seek a common position on issues of national significance and interest.

  10. The observed relationship between the occurrence of acute radiation effects and leukemia mortality among A-bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Neriishi, K.; Stram, D.O.; Vaeth, M.; Mizuno, S.; Akiba, S. )

    1991-02-01

    In an analysis of a follow-up study of a fixed population of 73,330 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the slope of an estimated dose response between ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality was found to be steeper (P less than 0.002), by a factor of 2.4, among those who reported epilation within 60 days of the bombings, compared to those who did not experience this sign of acute radiation exposure. The strength of this empirical finding as evidence of biological association in individual radiosensitivity for these two end points is studied here. The major factor complicating the interpretation of this finding as evidence of such an association is the degree of imprecision of the radiation dosimetry system used in assignment of radiation doses to the A-bomb survivors. Using models recently suggested for dealing with dosimetry errors in epidemiological analysis of the A-bomb survivor data, the sensitivity of the apparent association between leukemia mortality and severe epilation to the assumed level of dosimetry error is investigated.

  11. The observed relationship between the occurrence of acute radiation effects and leukemia mortality among A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Neriishi, K; Stram, D O; Vaeth, M; Mizuno, S; Akiba, S

    1991-02-01

    In an analysis of a follow-up study of a fixed population of 73,330 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the slope of an estimated dose response between ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality was found to be steeper (P less than 0.002), by a factor of 2.4, among those who reported epilation within 60 days of the bombings, compared to those who did not experience this sign of acute radiation exposure. The strength of this empirical finding as evidence of biological association in individual radiosensitivity for these two end points is studied here. The major factor complicating the interpretation of this finding as evidence of such an association is the degree of imprecision of the radiation dosimetry system used in assignment of radiation doses to the A-bomb survivors. Using models recently suggested for dealing with dosimetry errors in epidemiological analysis of the A-bomb survivor data, the sensitivity of the apparent association between leukemia mortality and severe epilation to the assumed level of dosimetry error is investigated.

  12. Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy for the Quantitative Assessment of Acute Ionizing Radiation Induced Skin Toxicity Using a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Lee; Korpela, Elina; Kim, Anthony; Yohan, Darren; Niu, Carolyn; Wilson, Brian C.; Liu, Stanley K.

    2016-01-01

    Acute skin toxicities from ionizing radiation (IR) are a common side effect from therapeutic courses of external beam radiation therapy (RT) and negatively impact patient quality of life and long term survival. Advances in the understanding of the biological pathways associated with normal tissue toxicities have allowed for the development of interventional drugs, however, current response studies are limited by a lack of quantitative metrics for assessing the severity of skin reactions. Here we present a diffuse optical spectroscopic (DOS) approach that provides quantitative optical biomarkers of skin response to radiation. We describe the instrumentation design of the DOS system as well as the inversion algorithm for extracting the optical parameters. Finally, to demonstrate clinical utility, we present representative data from a pre-clinical mouse model of radiation induced erythema and compare the results with a commonly employed visual scoring. The described DOS method offers an objective, high through-put evaluation of skin toxicity via functional response that is translatable to the clinical setting. PMID:27284926

  13. Survivors and scientists: Hiroshima, Fukushima, and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 1975-2014.

    PubMed

    Lindee, Susan

    2016-04-01

    In this article, I reflect on the Radiation Effects Research Foundation and its ongoing studies of long-term radiation risk. Originally called the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (1947-1975), the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has carried out epidemiological research tracking the biomedical effects of radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki for almost 70 years. Radiation Effects Research Foundation scientists also played a key role in the assessment of populations exposed at Chernobyl and are now embarking on studies of workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. I examine the role of estimating dosimetry in post-disaster epidemiology, highlight how national identity and citizenship have mattered in radiation risk networks, and track how participants interpreted the relationships between nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. Industrial interests in Japan and the United States sought to draw a sharp line between the risks of nuclear war and the risks of nuclear power, but the work of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (which became the basis of worker protection standards for the industry) and the activism of atomic bomb survivors have drawn these two nuclear domains together. This is so particularly in the wake of the Fukushima disaster, Japan's 'third atomic bombing'. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation is therefore a critical node in a complex global network of scientific institutions that adjudicate radiation risk and proclaim when it is present and when absent. Its history, I suggest, can illuminate some properties of modern disasters and the many sciences that engage with them.

  14. [Cumulative radiation dosage and epidemiological research in the Chernobyl region].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, A I; Domracheva, E V; Klevezal', G A; Meshcheriakova, L M; Moiseeva, T N; Osechinskiĭ, I V; Serezhenkov, V A; Shklovskiĭ-Kordi, N E

    1994-01-01

    Individual biological dosimetry covering chromosomal analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectrometry has been performed in 1300 subjects exposed to ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident. Cumulative radiation doses above 40 ImC were registered in 5%, about 100 ImC in 1% of the examinees. In 1% of cytogenetic investigations there appeared multiaberrant cells indicative of hot particle incorporation. Regional epidemiologists do not record changes in the incidence of hematological diseases. This may be explained by a small percent of the dose carriers, rare occurrence of hematological disorders and the time of radiation-induced oncogenic effects. The above representative group exposed to definite radiation doses may serve the subject of epidemiological surveys on the role of low-dose and low-rate radiation in pathogenesis of human diseases.

  15. Prophylactic Treatment with Adlay Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Severe Acute Radiation Dermatitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Jen; Hou, Ming-Feng; Kan, Jung-Yu; Juan, Chiung-Hui; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Luo, Kuei-Hau; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a frequent adverse effect in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but there are only a small number of studies providing evidence-based interventions for this clinical condition. Adlay is a cereal crop that has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of oral prophylactic treatment with adlay bran extract in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis. A total of 110 patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were analyzed. Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind design, 73 patients received oral treatment with adlay bran extract and 37 patients received olive oil (placebo). Treatment was started at the beginning of radiation therapy and continued until the termination of radiation treatment. Our results showed that the occurrence of severe acute radiation dermatitis (RTOG grade 2 or higher) was significantly lower in patients treated with oral adlay bran extract compared to placebo (45.2% versus 75.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.24). No serious adverse effects from adlay bran treatment were noted. In conclusion, prophylactic oral treatment with adlay bran extract reduces the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis and may have potential use in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

  16. Prophylactic Treatment with Adlay Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Severe Acute Radiation Dermatitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Jen; Hou, Ming-Feng; Kan, Jung-Yu; Juan, Chiung-Hui; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F.; Luo, Kuei-Hau; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Acute radiation dermatitis is a frequent adverse effect in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but there are only a small number of studies providing evidence-based interventions for this clinical condition. Adlay is a cereal crop that has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of oral prophylactic treatment with adlay bran extract in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis. A total of 110 patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were analyzed. Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind design, 73 patients received oral treatment with adlay bran extract and 37 patients received olive oil (placebo). Treatment was started at the beginning of radiation therapy and continued until the termination of radiation treatment. Our results showed that the occurrence of severe acute radiation dermatitis (RTOG grade 2 or higher) was significantly lower in patients treated with oral adlay bran extract compared to placebo (45.2% versus 75.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.24). No serious adverse effects from adlay bran treatment were noted. In conclusion, prophylactic oral treatment with adlay bran extract reduces the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis and may have potential use in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:26495009

  17. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in radiation research: Current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Sudha; Chawla, Raman; Kumar, Raj; Singh, Shefali; Zheleva, Antoaneta; Dimitrova, Yanka; Gadjeva, Veselina; Arora, Rajesh; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to radiation leads to a number of health-related malfunctions. Ionizing radiation is more harmful than non-ionizing radiation, as it causes both direct and indirect effects. Irradiation with ionizing radiation results in free radical-induced oxidative stress. Free radical-mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in a plethora of diseased states, including cancer, arthritis, aging, Parkinson's disease, and so on. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has various applications to measure free radicals, in radiation research. Free radicals disintegrate immediately in aqueous environment. Free radicals can be detected indirectly by the EPR spin trapping technique in which these forms stabilize the radical adduct and produce characteristic EPR spectra for specific radicals. Ionizing radiation-induced free radicals in calcified tissues, for example, teeth, bone, and fingernail, can be detected directly by EPR spectroscopy, due to their extended stability. Various applications of EPR in radiation research studies are discussed in this review. PMID:21814437

  18. Comparative proteomic profiling and possible toxicological mechanism of acute injury induced by carbon ion radiation in pubertal mice testes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong

    2016-07-01

    We investigated potential mechanisms of acute injury in pubertal mice testes after exposure to carbon ion radiation (CIR). Serum testosterone was measured following whole-body irradiation with a 2Gy carbon ion beam. Comparative proteomic profiling and Western blotting were applied to identify potential biomarkers and measure protein expression, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to investigate protein localization. Serum testosterone was lowest at 24h after CIR, and 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified at this time point that included eIF4E, an important regulator of initiation that combines with mTOR and 4EBP1 to control protein synthesis via the mTOR signalling pathway during proliferation and apoptosis. Protein expression and localization studies confirmed their association with acute injury following exposure to CIR. These three proteins may be useful molecular markers for detecting abnormal spermatogenesis following exposure to environmental and cosmic radiation

  19. Comparative proteomic profiling and possible toxicological mechanism of acute injury induced by carbon ion radiation in pubertal mice testes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Hong; Di, Cuixia; Xie, Yi; Zhou, Xin; Yan, Jiawei; Zhao, Qiuyue

    2015-12-01

    We investigated potential mechanisms of acute injury in pubertal mice testes after exposure to carbon ion radiation (CIR). Serum testosterone was measured following whole-body irradiation with a 2Gy carbon ion beam. Comparative proteomic profiling and Western blotting were applied to identify potential biomarkers and measure protein expression, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to investigate protein localization. Serum testosterone was lowest at 24h after CIR, and 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified at this time point that included eIF4E, an important regulator of initiation that combines with mTOR and 4EBP1 to control protein synthesis via the mTOR signaling pathway during proliferation and apoptosis. Protein expression and localization studies confirmed their association with acute injury following exposure to CIR. These three proteins may be useful molecular markers for detecting abnormal spermatogenesis following exposure to environmental and therapeutic radiation.

  20. Vascular Access Port Implantation and Serial Blood Sampling in a Gottingen Minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) Model of Acute Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Maria; Coolbaugh, Thea V; Mitchell, Jennifer M; Lombardini, Eric; Moccia, Krinon D; Shelton, Larry J; Nagy, Vitaly; Whitnall, Mark H

    2011-01-01

    Threats of nuclear and other radiologic exposures have been increasing, but no countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome has been approved by regulatory authorities. Because of their similarity to humans in regard to physiology and anatomy, we are characterizing Gottingen minipigs as a model to aid the development of radiation countermeasures. Irradiated minipigs exhibit immunosuppression, severe thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and acute inflammation. These complications render serial acquisition of blood samples problematic. Vascular access ports (VAP) facilitate serial sampling, but their use often is complicated by infections and fibrin deposition. We demonstrate here the successful use of VAP for multiple blood samplings in irradiated minipigs. Device design and limited postoperative prophylactic antimicrobial therapy before irradiation were key to obtaining serial sampling, reducing swelling, and eliminating infection and skin necrosis at the implantation site. Modifications of previous protocols included the use of polydioxanone sutures instead of silk; eliminating chronic port access; single-use, sterile, antireflux prefilled syringes for flushing; strict aseptic weekly maintenance of the device, and acclimating animals to reduce stress. VAP remained functional in 19 of 20 irradiated animals for as long as 3 mo. The remaining VAP failed due to a small leak in the catheter, leading to clot formation. VAP-related sepsis occurred in 2 minipigs. Blood sampling did not cause detectable stress in nonanesthetized sham-irradiated animals, according to leukograms and clinical signs. PMID:21333166

  1. Acceleration of atherogenesis in ApoE−/− mice exposed to acute or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pasquali, Emanuela; Braga-Tanaka, Ignacia; Tanaka, Satoshi; Pannicelli, Alessandro; Giardullo, Paola; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Tapio, Soile; Atkinson, Michael J.; Saran, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is epidemiological evidence for increased non-cancer mortality, primarily due to circulatory diseases after radiation exposure above 0.5 Sv. We evaluated the effects of chronic low-dose rate versus acute exposures in a murine model of spontaneous atherogenesis. Female ApoE−/− mice (60 days) were chronically irradiated for 300 days with gamma rays at two different dose rates (1 mGy/day; 20 mGy/day), with total accumulated doses of 0.3 or 6 Gy. For comparison, age-matched ApoE−/− females were acutely exposed to the same doses and sacrificed 300 days post-irradiation. Mice acutely exposed to 0.3 or 6 Gy showed increased atherogenesis compared to age-matched controls, and this effect was persistent. When the same doses were delivered at low dose rate over 300 days, we again observed a significant impact on global development of atherosclerosis, although at 0.3 Gy effects were limited to the descending thoracic aorta. Our data suggest that a moderate dose of 0.3 Gy can have persistent detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, and that a high dose of 6 Gy poses high risks at both high and low dose rates. Our results were clearly nonlinear with dose, suggesting that lower doses may be more damaging than predicted by a linear dose response. PMID:26359350

  2. Acute Hematological Effects in Mice Exposed to the Expected Doses, Dose-rates, and Energies of Solar Particle Event-like Proton Radiation.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Cengel, Keith A; Wan, X Steven; Rusek, Adam; Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-07-01

    NASA has funded several projects that have provided evidence for the radiation risk in space. One radiation concern arises from solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is composed of energetic electrons, protons, alpha particles and heavier particles. SPEs are unpredictable and the accompanying SPE radiation can place astronauts at risk of blood cell death, contributing to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to infection. The doses, dose rates, and energies of the proton radiation expected to occur during a SPE have been simulated at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, delivering total body doses to mice. Hematological values were evaluated at acute time points, up to 24 hrs. post-radiation exposure.

  3. Acute Hematological Effects in Mice Exposed to the Expected Doses, Dose-rates, and Energies of Solar Particle Event-like Proton Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Cengel, Keith A.; Wan, X. Steven; Rusek, Adam; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has funded several projects that have provided evidence for the radiation risk in space. One radiation concern arises from solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is composed of energetic electrons, protons, alpha particles and heavier particles. SPEs are unpredictable and the accompanying SPE radiation can place astronauts at risk of blood cell death, contributing to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to infection. The doses, dose rates, and energies of the proton radiation expected to occur during a SPE have been simulated at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, delivering total body doses to mice. Hematological values were evaluated at acute time points, up to 24 hrs. post-radiation exposure. PMID:25202654

  4. Acute hematological effects in mice exposed to the expected doses, dose-rates, and energies of solar particle event-like proton radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Cengel, Keith A.; Steven Wan, X.; Rusek, Adam; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-07-01

    NASA has funded several projects that have provided evidence for the radiation risk in space. One radiation concern arises from solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is composed of energetic electrons, protons, alpha particles and heavier particles. SPEs are unpredictable and the accompanying SPE radiation can place astronauts at risk of blood cell death, contributing to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to infection. The doses, dose rates, and energies of the proton radiation expected to occur during an SPE have been simulated at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, delivering total body doses to mice. Hematological values were evaluated at acute time points, up to 24 hours post-radiation exposure.

  5. TU-H-BRB-01: Physics and Dosimetry for Radiation Countermeasure Research.

    PubMed

    Bourland, J

    2016-06-01

    The US government has substantial research and development activities underway for medical countermeasures that will insure the long-term safety and survival of the country's population after unfortunate large-scale biological, chemical and radiological and nuclear events. Preparedness includes research and development of medical countermeasures to address radiation-induced cutaneous and internal injury from radiation and nuclear events as well as for minimizing radiation risks incurred during and after travel in space. Other important research and development efforts include the repurposing of countermeasures and development of radioprotectors and mitigators to improve the outcome of radiation treatment. Participating agencies include NIAID, BARDA, NCI, and NASA, with examples of research and development funding that includes the Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) consortia (NIAID) and primary and sub-contracts with commercial entities (BARDA). Each of these programs requires substantial medical and health physics effort in collaboration with biology colleagues to provide a range of radiation sources, dosimetry instrumentation and assessment methods, and animal models for specific radiation-induced effects and injuries. Radiation countermeasure activities for government agencies will be reviewed, the importance of model development will be stressed, example radiation countermeasure research projects will be reviewed, and the roles for medical physicists will be discussed.

  6. Exact research on the theory of the blackbody thermal radiation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Wei, Bing

    2016-01-01

    After studying the normalized Planck equation in depth, a brand-new type of spectrum curves of blackbody thermal radiation is given. Two important parameters of the new type curves, namely relative width RWη and symmetric factor RSFη, are defined. The paper points out that the experimental verification of the parameters has three significant applications: (1) Giving a method to measure temperature by detecting the radiation wavelength. (2) Determining the blackbody grade. (3) The temperature obtained from the law of the blackbody thermal radiation can be used as a criterion. PMID:27876795

  7. Exact research on the theory of the blackbody thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Wei, Bing

    2016-11-01

    After studying the normalized Planck equation in depth, a brand-new type of spectrum curves of blackbody thermal radiation is given. Two important parameters of the new type curves, namely relative width RWη and symmetric factor RSFη, are defined. The paper points out that the experimental verification of the parameters has three significant applications: (1) Giving a method to measure temperature by detecting the radiation wavelength. (2) Determining the blackbody grade. (3) The temperature obtained from the law of the blackbody thermal radiation can be used as a criterion.

  8. Combined exposure to simulated microgravity and acute or chronic radiation reduces neuronal network integrity and cell survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benotmane, Rafi

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. This study aimed at assessing the effect of these combined conditions on neuronal network density, cell morphology and survival, using well-connected mouse cortical neuron cultures. To this end, neurons were exposed to acute low and high doses of low LET (X-rays) radiation or to chronic low dose-rate of high LET neutron irradiation (Californium-252), under the simulated microgravity generated by the Random Positioning Machine (RPM, Dutch space). High content image analysis of cortical neurons positive for the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin unveiled a reduced neuronal network integrity and connectivity, and an altered cell morphology after exposure to acute/chronic radiation or to simulated microgravity. Additionally, in both conditions, a defect in DNA-repair efficiency was revealed by an increased number of γH2AX-positive foci, as well as an increased number of Annexin V-positive apoptotic neurons. Of interest, when combining both simulated space conditions, we noted a synergistic effect on neuronal network density, neuronal morphology, cell survival and DNA repair. Furthermore, these observations are in agreement with preliminary gene expression data, revealing modulations in cytoskeletal and apoptosis-related genes after exposure to simulated microgravity. In conclusion, the observed in vitro changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by space simulated conditions provide us with mechanistic understanding to evaluate health risks and the development of countermeasures to prevent neurological disorders in astronauts over long-term space travels. Acknowledgements: This work is supported partly by the EU-FP7 projects CEREBRAD (n° 295552)

  9. Long-term hematopoietic stem cell damage in a murine model of the hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chua, Hui Lin; Plett, P Artur; Sampson, Carol H; Joshi, Mandar; Tabbey, Rebeka; Katz, Barry P; MacVittie, Thomas J; Orschell, Christie M

    2012-10-01

    Residual bone marrow damage (RBMD) persists for years following exposure to radiation and is believed to be due to decreased self-renewal potential of radiation-damaged hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Current literature has examined primarily sublethal doses of radiation and time points within a few months of exposure. In this study, the authors examined RBMD in mice surviving lethal doses of total body ionizing irradiation (TBI) in a murine model of the Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome (H-ARS). Survivors were analyzed at various time points up to 19 mo post-TBI for hematopoietic function. The competitive bone marrow (BM) repopulating potential of 150 purified c-Kit+ Sca-1+ lineage- CD150+ cells (KSLCD150+) remained severely deficient throughout the study compared to KSLCD150+ cells from non-TBI age-matched controls. The minimal engraftment from these TBI HSCs is predominantly myeloid, with minimal production of lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo. All classes of blood cells as well as BM cellularity were significantly decreased in TBI mice, especially at later time points as mice aged. Primitive BM hematopoietic cells (KSLCD150+) displayed significantly increased cell cycling in TBI mice at all time points, which may be a physiological attempt to maintain HSC numbers in the post-irradiation state. Taken together, these data suggest that the increased cycling among primitive hematopoietic cells in survivors of lethal radiation may contribute to long-term HSC exhaustion and subsequent RBMD, exacerbated by the added insult of aging at later time points.

  10. Risk of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia post radiation treatment for breast cancer: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Henry; Malmgren, Judith; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2013-02-01

    Ionizing radiation is a known cause of myeloid leukemia, but it is not known whether therapeutic doses for breast cancer (BC) pose an increased risk. We hypothesized that BC radiation treatment is associated with increased risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as seen in a previously conducted study. We used 2001-2009 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database records to identify a cohort of women with first primary stage 0 BC who were treated with radiation, a group which is not treated with chemotherapy. We identified subsequent MDS/AML diagnoses in the cohort using SEER to query appropriate ICD-O-3 codes. We compared observed MDS/AML rates in the BC cohort to expected rates, estimated as first primary MDS/AML in the entire female population, and calculated observed/expected rate ratios with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Overall, a very small number of cases of MDS/AML occurred in this cohort with 22 observed cases versus 9.4 expected cases using national incidence data. We estimated an increased risk of 2.34 for MDS/AML in stage 0 BC cases treated with radiation compared to the general population (95 % CI 1.49, 3.46, p < 0.001). The age adjusted relative risk is 1.46, (95 % CI 0.93, 2.16, p = 0.08). Our results suggest that radiation treatment for BC is associated with an increased risk of MDS/AML and affects a very small number of patients.

  11. Rectal planning risk volume correlation with acute and late toxicity in 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dias, R S; Giordani, A J; Souhami, L; Segreto, R A; Segreto, H R C

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rectum motion during 3-Dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in prostate cancer patients, to derive a planning volume at risk (PRV) and to correlate the PRV dose-volume histograms (DVH) with treatment complications.This study was conducted in two phases. Initially, the PRV was defined prospectively in 50 consecutive prostate cancer patients (Group 1) who received a radical course of 3-D CRT. Then, the obtained PRV was used in the radiotherapy planning of these same 50 patients plus another 59 prostate cancer patients (Group 2) previously treated between 2004 and 2008. All these patients' data, including the rectum and PRV DVHs, were correlated to acute and late complications, according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) v4.0.The largest displacement occurred in the anterior axis. Long-term gastrointestinal (GI) complications grade ≥ 2 were seen in 9.2% of the cases. Factors that influenced acute GI reactions were: doses at 25% (p 5 0.011) and 40% (p 5 0.005) of the rectum volume and at 40% of the PRV (p 5 0.012). The dose at 25% of the rectum volume (p 5 0.033) and acute complications ≥ grade 2 (p 5 0.018) were prognostic factors for long-term complications. The PRV DVH did not correlate with late toxicity. The rectum showed a significant inter-fraction motion during 3D-CRT for prostate cancer. PRV dose correlated with acute gastrointestinal complications and may be a useful tool to predict and reduce their occurrence.

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation of Personal, Clinical, and Radiation Dosimetric Parameters for Acute Skin Reaction during Whole Breast Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Sik; Lee, Jung Ae; Lee, Nam Kwon; Park, Young Je; Lee, Suk; Kim, Chul Yong; Son, Gil Soo

    2016-01-01

    Skin reaction is major problem during whole breast radiotherapy. To identify factors related to skin reactions during whole breast radiotherapy, various personal, clinical, and radiation dosimetric parameters were evaluated. From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 125 patients who underwent breast conserving surgery and adjuvant whole breast irradiation were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had both whole breast irradiation and boost to the tumour bed. Skin reaction was measured on the first day of boost therapy based on photography of the radiation field and medical records. For each area of axilla and inferior fold, the intensity score of erythema (score 1 to 5) and extent (score 0 to 1) were summed. The relationship of various parameters to skin reaction was evaluated using chi-square and linear regression tests. The V100 (volume receiving 100% of prescribed radiation dose, p < 0.001, both axilla and inferior fold) and age (p = 0.039 for axilla and 0.026 for inferior fold) were significant parameters in multivariate analyses. The calculated axilla dose (p = 0.003) and breast separation (p = 0.036) were also risk factors for axilla and inferior fold, respectively. Young age and large V100 are significant factors for acute skin reaction that can be simply and cost-effectively measured. PMID:27579310

  13. PU.1 downregulation in murine radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML): from molecular mechanism to human AML

    PubMed Central

    Verbiest, Tom; Bouffler, Simon; Nutt, Stephen L.; Badie, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor PU.1, encoded by the murine Sfpi1 gene (SPI1 in humans), is a member of the Ets transcription factor family and plays a vital role in commitment and maturation of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Murine studies directly link primary acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and decreased PU.1 expression in specifically modified strains. Similarly, a radiation-induced chromosome 2 deletion and subsequent Sfpi1 point mutation in the remaining allele lead to murine radiation-induced AML. Consistent with murine data, heterozygous deletion of the SPI1 locus and mutation of the −14kb SPI1 upstream regulatory element were described previously in human primary AML, although they are rare events. Other mechanisms linked to PU.1 downregulation in human AML include TP53 deletion, FLT3-ITD mutation and the recurrent AML1-ETO [t(8;21)] and PML-RARA [t(15;17)] translocations. This review provides an up-to-date overview on our current understanding of the involvement of PU.1 in the initiation and development of radiation-induced AML, together with recommendations for future murine and human studies. PMID:25750172

  14. Information and research needs of acute-care clinical nurses.

    PubMed

    Spath, M; Buttlar, L

    1996-01-01

    The majority of nurses surveyed used the library on a regular but limited basis to obtain information needed in caring for or making decisions about their patients. A minority indicated that the libraries in their own institutions totally met their information needs. In fact, only 4% depended on the library to stay abreast of new information and developments in the field. Many of the nurses had their own journal subscriptions, which could account in part for the limited use of libraries and the popularity of the professional journal as the key information source. This finding correlates with the research of Binger and Huntsman, who found that 95% of staff development educators relied on professional journal literature to keep up with current information in the field, and only 45% regularly monitored indexing-and-abstracting services. The present study also revealed that nurses seek information from colleagues more than from any other source, supporting the findings of Corcoran-Perry and Graves. Further research is necessary to clarify why nurses use libraries on a limited basis. It appears, as Bunyan and Lutz contend, that a more aggressive approach to marketing the library to nurses is needed. Further research should include an assessment of how the library can meet the information needs of nurses for both research and patient care. Options to be considered include offering library orientation sessions for new staff nurses, providing current-awareness services by circulating photocopied table-of-contents pages, sending out reviews of new monographs, inviting nurses to submit search requests on a topic, scheduling seminars and workshops that teach CD-ROM and online search strategies, and providing information about electronic databases covering topics related to nursing. Information on databases may be particularly important in light of the present study's finding that databases available in CD-ROM format are consulted very little. Nursing education programs should

  15. The effect of acute dose charge particle radiation on expression of DNA repair genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad Akram; Soedipe, Ayodotun; Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu; Zhang, Ye; Shishodia, Shishir; Gridley, Daila S; Pourmand, Nader; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

    2011-03-01

    The space radiation environment consists of trapped particle radiation, solar particle radiation, and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), in which protons are the most abundant particle type. During missions to the moon or to Mars, the constant exposure to GCR and occasional exposure to particles emitted from solar particle events (SPE) are major health concerns for astronauts. Therefore, in order to determine health risks during space missions, an understanding of cellular responses to proton exposure is of primary importance. The expression of DNA repair genes in response to ionizing radiation (X-rays and gamma rays) has been studied, but data on DNA repair in response to protons is lacking. Using qPCR analysis, we investigated changes in gene expression induced by positively charged particles (protons) in four categories (0, 0.1, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy) in nine different DNA repair genes isolated from the testes of irradiated mice. DNA repair genes were selected on the basis of their known functions. These genes include ERCC1 (5' incision subunit, DNA strand break repair), ERCC2/NER (opening DNA around the damage, Nucleotide Excision Repair), XRCC1 (5' incision subunit, DNA strand break repair), XRCC3 (DNA break and cross-link repair), XPA (binds damaged DNA in preincision complex), XPC (damage recognition), ATA or ATM (activates checkpoint signaling upon double strand breaks), MLH1 (post-replicative DNA mismatch repair), and PARP1 (base excision repair). Our results demonstrate that ERCC1, PARP1, and XPA genes showed no change at 0.1 Gy radiation, up-regulation at 1.0 Gy radiation (1.09 fold, 7.32 fold, 0.75 fold, respectively), and a remarkable increase in gene expression at 2.0 Gy radiation (4.83 fold, 57.58 fold and 87.58 fold, respectively). Expression of other genes, including ATM and XRCC3, was unchanged at 0.1 and 1.0 Gy radiation but showed up-regulation at 2.0 Gy radiation (2.64 fold and 2.86 fold, respectively). We were unable to detect gene expression for the

  16. Final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination, 1984-1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). The committee was established to address national and international issues involving ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Three sections are included in the report: a summary of CIRRPC`s history structure, and operations; CIRRPC`s most significant activities, findings and recommendations on national radiation issues of sufficient importance and scope to require interagency attention; topics for future consideration by Federal agencies.

  17. Radiation induced endothelial cell retraction in vitro: correlation with acute pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Onoda, J M; Kantak, S S; Diglio, C A

    1999-01-01

    We determined the effects of low dose radiation (<200 cGy) on the cell-cell integrity of confluent monolayers of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMEC). We observed dose- and time-dependent reversible radiation induced injuries to PMEC monolayers characterized by retraction (loss of cell-cell contact) mediated by cytoskeletal F-actin reorganization. Radiation induced reorganization of F-actin microfilament stress fibers was observed > or =30 minutes post irradiation and correlated positively with loss of cell-cell integrity. Cells of irradiated monolayers recovered to form contact inhibited monolayers > or =24 hours post irradiation; concomitantly, the depolymerized microfilaments organized to their pre-irradiated state as microfilament stress fibers arrayed parallel to the boundaries of adjacent contact-inhibited cells. Previous studies by other investigators have measured slight but significant increases in mouse lung wet weight >1 day post thoracic or whole body radiation (> or =500 cGy). Little or no data is available concerning time intervals <1 day post irradiation, possibly because of the presumption that edema is mediated, at least in part, by endothelial cell death or irreversible loss of barrier permeability functions which may only arise 1 day post irradiation. However, our in vitro data suggest that loss of endothelial barrier function may occur rapidly and at low dose levels (< or =200 cGy). Therefore, we determined radiation effects on lung wet weight and observed significant increases in wet weight (standardized per dry weight or per mouse weight) in < or =5 hours post thoracic exposure to 50 200 cGy x-radiation. We suggest that a single fraction of radiation even at low dose levels used in radiotherapy, may induce pulmonary edema by a reversible loss of endothelial cell-cell integrity and permeability barrier function.

  18. [The diagnosis, clinical picture and treatment of acute radiation sickness in the victims of the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. II. Non-bone marrow syndromes of radiation lesions and their treatment].

    PubMed

    Gus'kova, A K; Baranov, A E; Barabanova, A V; Moiseev, A A; Piatkin, E K

    1989-01-01

    Out of 115 victims to the breakdown, 56 persons had radiation burns, 17 the intestinal syndrome, 80 the oropharyngeal syndrome, and 7 interstitial radiation pneumonitis. In the lethal outcome, of crucial importance were radiation burns (over 40% of the body surface) (19 persons) and radiation pneumonitis (7 persons). The grave intestinal and oropharyngeal syndromes were accompanied by other fatal manifestations of radiation injuries. Hemoperfusion, plasmapheresis, continuous heparinization and administration of freshly frozen plasma did not bring about any improvement. The local use of different remedies under aseptic conditions was the leading method of the treatment of radiation burns in the acute period. Parenteral feeding turned out to produce a beneficial effect in the treatment of the intestinal and oropharyngeal syndromes.

  19. [Research progress of acute kanamycin sulfate-induced deafness in guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zedeng; Kng, Weijia

    2012-05-01

    To present a summary of current knowledge regarding acute kanamycin sulfate-induced deafness in guinea pig, by reviewing the published literature. Animal model of acute deafness induced by a single dose of kanamycin sulfate in combination with ethacrynic acid or furosemide in guinea pig was usually used to investigate the mechanism of cochlear cell degeneration. There were different time sequences of cell degeneration of spiral ganglion cell and hair cell in different studies. The findings may result from different doses, order of two drugs administration or time point chosen. There remains scope for further research in chronic kanamycin-induced deafness, which more replicates the type of exposure to people than acute deafness.

  20. Education and training for radiation scientists: radiation research program and American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland, May 12-14, 2003.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Stone, Helen B; Alexander, George A; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Bedford, Joel S; Bristow, Robert G; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Fuks, Zvi; Gorelic, Lester S; Hill, Richard P; Joiner, Michael C; Liu, Fei-Fei; McBride, William H; McKenna, W Gillies; Powell, Simon N; Robbins, Michael E C; Rockwell, Sara; Schiff, Peter B; Shaw, Edward G; Siemann, Dietmar W; Travis, Elizabeth L; Wallner, Paul E; Wong, Rosemary S L; Zeman, Elaine M

    2003-12-01

    Current and potential shortfalls in the number of radiation scientists stand in sharp contrast to the emerging scientific opportunities and the need for new knowledge to address issues of cancer survivorship and radiological and nuclear terrorism. In response to these challenges, workshops organized by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), National Cancer Institute (NCI) (Radiat. Res. 157, 204-223, 2002; Radiat. Res. 159, 812-834, 2003), and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) (Nature, 421, 787, 2003) have engaged experts from a range of federal agencies, academia and industry. This workshop, Education and Training for Radiation Scientists, addressed the need to establish a sustainable pool of expertise and talent for a wide range of activities and careers related to radiation biology, oncology and epidemiology. Although fundamental radiation chemistry and physics are also critical to radiation sciences, this workshop did not address workforce needs in these areas. The recommendations include: (1) Establish a National Council of Radiation Sciences to develop a strategy for increasing the number of radiation scientists. The strategy includes NIH training grants, interagency cooperation, interinstitutional collaboration among universities, and active involvement of all stakeholders. (2) Create new and expanded training programs with sustained funding. These may take the form of regional Centers of Excellence for Radiation Sciences. (3) Continue and broaden educational efforts of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the Radiation Research Society (RRS). (4) Foster education and training in the radiation sciences for the range of career opportunities including radiation oncology, radiation biology, radiation epidemiology, radiation safety, health/government policy, and industrial research. (5) Educate other

  1. Emetic mechanism in acute radiation sickness. Technical report, 1 December 1982-30 November 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Borison, H.L.

    1987-08-20

    A dose-response relationship was established in normal cats for the evocation of vomiting within 24 h after whole-body exposure to /sup 60/Co radiation with doses ranging from 7.5 to 60 Gy delivered at 1.0 Gy/min. Vomiting was recorded oscillographically. Radiation-induced vomiting was elicited unabatedly at the optimal dose of 45 Gy in chronically postremectomized cats. Radioemetic susceptibility was evaluated in normal cats after each of two doses of radiation, from 7.5 to 60 Gy, given on successive days. Occurrence of radioemetic protection against the second irradiation was manifested in direct relation to the magnitude of the first exposure, and complete protection for 24 h resulted after second radiation exposure at the highest dose level. Postremectomized cats were also fully protected against the radioemetic effect of a second exposure at 45 Gy. All normal cats vomited in response to an emetic drug injection during the state of radioemetic refractoriness after the second irradiation at 45 Gy. A neural origin of emetic signal generated by first radiation exposure was examined in postrema-intact cats.

  2. Earth Radiation Array (ERA). [for climate research and earth radiation budget monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James W.; Grush, Ronald C.; Arking, Albert

    1989-01-01

    The NASA's Earth Radiation Array (ERA), which is currently being developed to provide calibrated radiation measurements from various areas of the earth for at least 11 years, i.e., one solar cycle, contains a mosaic array of detectors which measures the outgoing radiation of the earth in all directions without the need for mechanical scanning. The angular measurements obtained by the ERA over set intervals of time will be integrated to produce total reflected and emitted flux values from each of the target areas. The ERA is designed as a relatively small instrument (less than 1-cu-m volume and 100-kg mass), which can be included in the payload complement of many different satellites. The key requirement of the ERA is the ability to operate for up to 11 years continuously and without failure.

  3. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-01-06

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants.

  4. A fast all-sky radiative transfer model and its implications for solar energy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y.; Sengupta, M.

    2015-12-01

    Radiative transfer models simulating broadband solar radiation, e.g. Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM) and its GCM applications, have been widely used by atmospheric scientists to model solar resource for various energy applications such as operational forecasting. Due to the complexity of solving the radiative transfer equation, simulating solar radiation under cloudy conditions can be extremely time consuming though many approximations, e.g. two-stream approach and delta-M truncation scheme, have been utilized. To provide a new option to approximate solar radiation, we developed a Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) using simulated cloud transmittance and reflectance from 16-stream RRTM model runs. The solar irradiances at the land surface were simulated by combining parameterized cloud properties with a fast clear-sky radiative transfer model. Using solar radiation measurements from the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) central facility in Oklahoma as a benchmark against the model simulations, we were able to demonstrate that the accuracy of FARMS was comparable to the two-stream approach. However, FARMS is much more efficient since it does not explicitly solve the radiative transfer equation for each individual cloud condition. We further explored the use of FARMS to promote solar resource assessment and forecasting research through the increased ability to accommodate higher spatial and temporal resolution calculations for the next generation of satellite and numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  5. Serial changes of liver stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in acute liver failure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hidekatsu; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Onodera, Mio; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Yoshida, Yuichi; Kataoka, Koujiro; Sawara, Kei; Miyamoto, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Kanta; Endo, Ryujin; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2012-02-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is a new technology used to determine liver elasticity. We report the case of a patient that survived hyperacute-type acute liver failure (ALF) and who showed a dramatic change in the value of shear wave velocity (SWV) measured by ARFI, which corresponded with the severity of her liver damage. The value of SWV increased significantly up to 3.6 ± 0.3 m/s during the encephalopathy phase and then decreased along with the recovery of liver function, the blood flow of the right portal vein, and the liver volume. These findings suggest the value of SWV in ALF as a reliable marker of liver tissue damage. Further investigations of the pathophysiological significance of SWV in ALF are warranted.

  6. Mitigation of the hematopoietic and gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome by octadecenyl thiophosphate, a small molecule mimic of lysophosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenlin; Kimura, Yasuhiro; Gududuru, Veeresh; Wu, Wenjie; Balogh, Andrea; Szabo, Erzsebet; Thompson, Karin Emmons; Yates, C Ryan; Balazs, Louisa; Johnson, Leonard R; Miller, Duane D; Strobos, Jur; McCool, W Shannon; Tigyi, Gabor J

    2015-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the small molecule octadecenyl thiophosphate (OTP), a synthetic mimic of the growth factor-like mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), showed radioprotective activity in a mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI) when given orally or intraperitoneally 30 min before exposure to 9 Gy γ radiation. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of OTP, delivered subcutaneously, for radioprotection or radiomitigation from -24 h before to up to +72 h postirradiation using a mouse TBI model with therapeutic doses at around 1 mg/kg. OTP was injected at 10 mg/kg without observable toxic side effects in mice, providing a comfortable safety margin. Treatment of C57BL/6 mice with a single dose of OTP over the time period from -12 h before to +26 h after a lethal dose of TBI reduced mortality by 50%. When administered at +48 h to +72 h postirradiation (LD50/30 to LD100/30), OTP reduced mortality by ≥34%. OTP administered at +24 h postirradiation significantly elevated peripheral white blood cell and platelet counts, increased crypt survival in the jejunum, enhanced intestinal glucose absorption and reduced endotoxin seepage into the blood. In the 6.4-8.6 Gy TBI range using LD50/10 as the end point, OTP yielded a dose modification factor of 1.2. The current data indicate that OTP is a potent radioprotector and radiomitigator ameliorating the mortality and tissue injury of acute hematopoietic as well as acute gastrointestinal radiation syndrome.

  7. BM-16INCREASED ACUTE RADIATION EFFECT (ARE) WITH IPILUMUMAB AND RADIOSURGERY IN PATIENTS WITH MELANOMA BRAIN METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Khoja, Leila; Kurtz, Goldie; Zadeh, Gelareh; Laperriere, Normand; Menard, Cynthia; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Bernstein, Mark; Kongkham, Paul; Joshua, Anthony; Hogg, David; Butler, Marcus; Chung, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ipilumumab (Ipi), an antibody that enhances T-cell activation, has been shown to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Ipilumumab may have synergistic effects with radiotherapy but this may result in increased toxicity. This study investigated the incidence of acute radiation effect (ARE) in patients with melanoma brain metastases treated with Ipi and radiosurgery (SRS) or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). METHODOLOGY: This retrospective study included metastatic melanoma patients treated at our institution from 2008-2013 who received SRS or WBRT for brain metastases within 4 months of Ipi treatment. We evaluated the incidence, timing and factors associated with acute radiation effect (ARE). RESULTS: From 159 patients treated with Ipi, 22 patients also received brain RT within 4 months of treatment. Three patients were excluded for lack of follow-up brain imaging, thus 19 were analysed: 14 males and 5 females, with median age 58 years (range 24-82). Ten were treated with SRS, 7 with WBRT, and 2 with SRS plus WBRT. Median dose for SRS was 21 Gy (range: 15-24 Gy). Five of 13 patients treated with SRS (38%) experienced symptomatic edema requiring steroids within 1 month of starting Ipi, and within 4 months of RT. One patient had a haemorrhage and 1 required surgical resection, which demonstrated viable disease. Therefore 3 patients (23%) treated with SRS developed isolated ARE. These metastases had volumes less than 4.2 cm3 and were treated within 4 months of Ipi to a median dose of 19.5 Gy (range 15-21 Gy). No patients with WBRT alone developed ARE. CONCLUSIONS: Following SRS for brain mets and Ipi, ARE was seen in 23% of patients within 4 months of starting Ipi treatment. This is greater than the commonly reported 10% risk of ARE after SRS alone for brain metastasis. No increased toxicity was seen with WBRT and Ipi.

  8. Ethical problems in conducting research in acute epidemics: the Pfizer meningitis study in Nigeria as an illustration.

    PubMed

    Ezeome, Emmanuel R; Simon, Christian

    2010-04-01

    The ethics of conducting research in epidemic situations have yet to account fully for differences in the proportion and acuteness of epidemics, among other factors. While epidemics most often arise from infectious diseases, not all infectious diseases are of epidemic proportions, and not all epidemics occur acutely. These and other variations constrain the generalization of ethical decision-making and impose ethical demands on the individual researcher in a way not previously highlighted. This paper discusses a number of such constraints and impositions. It applies the ethical principles enunciated by Emmanuel et al.(1) to the controversial Pfizer study in Nigeria in order to highlight the particular ethical concerns of acute epidemic research, and suggest ways of meeting such challenges. The paper recommends that research during epidemics should be partly evaluated on its own merits in order to determine its ethical appropriateness to the specific situation. Snap decisions to conduct research during acute epidemics should be resisted. Community engagement, public notification and good information management are needed to promote the ethics of conducting research during acute epidemics. Individual consent is most at risk of being compromised, and every effort should be made to ensure that it is maintained and valid. Use of data safety management boards should be routine. Acute epidemics also present opportunities to enhance the social value of research and maximize its benefits to communities. Ethical research is possible in acute epidemics, if the potential challenges are thought of ahead of time and appropriate precautions taken.

  9. Acute effects of exposure to space radiation on CNS function and cognitive performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On exploratory class missions, such as a mission to Mars, astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation (cosmic rays) that are not experienced in low earth orbit where the Space Shuttle and International Space Station operate. Exposure to cosmic rays produces changes in neuronal functi...

  10. Standing at the shore of the atmospheric radiation study and climate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2017-02-01

    This article reflects the key scientific milestones of the atmospheric radiation studies from 1980s onward in the field of aerosol and cloud microphysical properties and their climate impact mainly through the author's research experiences.

  11. Innovative techniques in radiation oncology. Clinical research programs to improve local and regional control in cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, L.W.; Markoe, A.M.; Micaily, B.; Fisher, S.A.; Lamm, F.R. )

    1990-02-01

    There is a growing importance in failure analysis in cancer management. In these analyses locoregional failure as the cause of death emerges as a significant problem in many tumor sites, e.g., head and neck cancer, gynecologic cancer, genitourinary cancer. Because of these data, the radiation oncology community has attributed high priority to research efforts to improve locoregional control. These efforts include the following: (1) brachytherapy alone or with external beam radiation therapy or surgery; (2) intraoperative radiation therapy; (3) hyperthermia with radiation therapy; (4) particle irradiation (protons, neutrons, stripped nuclei, and pions); and (5) routes of administration of the treatment, including infusional (intravenous) chemotherapy with radiation therapy, intraarterial monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides, and intraarterial chemotherapy with radiation therapy. Each area of investigation is discussed.

  12. The earth radiation budget satellite system for climate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, C. V.; Cooper, J. E.; Harrison, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The mission implications of providing earth radiation budget data for climate studies have been thoroughly studied. The results of these studies indicate the need for a multisensor, multisatellite system consisting of high and midinclination orbits. To meet this need, NASA and NOAA are planning a joint Earth Radiation Budget Satellite System (ERBSS) composed of instruments on two of NOAA's near-polar Sun-synchronous TIROS-N/NOAA A through G series of operational satellites and on an NASA midinclination satellite of the Applications Explorer Mission (AEM) type referred to as ERBS-A/AEM. This paper describes the scientific objectives of ERBSS, the associated data analysis methods, mission analysis (sampling), and instrument definition.

  13. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, T.P.; Goland, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed. (DLC)

  14. Research on radiation characteristic of plasma antenna through FDTD method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianming; Fang, Jingjing; Lu, Qiuyuan; Liu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The radiation characteristic of plasma antenna is investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach in this paper. Through using FDTD method, we study the propagation of electromagnetic wave in free space in stretched coordinate. And the iterative equations of Maxwell equation are derived. In order to validate the correctness of this method, we simulate the process of electromagnetic wave propagating in free space. Results show that electromagnetic wave spreads out around the signal source and can be absorbed by the perfectly matched layer (PML). Otherwise, we study the propagation of electromagnetic wave in plasma by using the Boltzmann-Maxwell theory. In order to verify this theory, the whole process of electromagnetic wave propagating in plasma under one-dimension case is simulated. Results show that Boltzmann-Maxwell theory can be used to explain the phenomenon of electromagnetic wave propagating in plasma. Finally, the two-dimensional simulation model of plasma antenna is established under the cylindrical coordinate. And the near-field and far-field radiation pattern of plasma antenna are obtained. The experiments show that the variation of electron density can introduce the change of radiation characteristic.

  15. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) Research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits 1990 with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum June 1997 and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  16. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnson, V.; Clem, J.; Deangelis, G.

    The Super Sonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant passengers and crew by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in effects due to particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Standing Committee provided recommendations on SST radiobiological issues and operational requirements. The lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies of effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in 2000 and more recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes brings renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  17. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Research: SST - Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; DeAngelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent (1990) lowering of recommended exposure limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  18. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  19. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W; Goldhagen, P; Rafnsson, V; Clem, J M; De Angelis, G; Friedberg, W

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  20. TNFSF10/TRAIL regulates human T4 effector memory lymphocyte radiosensitivity and predicts radiation-induced acute and subacute dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Baijer, Jan; Déchamps, Nathalie; Perdry, Hervé; Morales, Pablo; Kerns, Sarah; Vasilescu, Alexandre; Baulande, Sylvain; Azria, David; Roméo, Paul Henri; Schmitz, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity of T4 effector-memory (T4EM) lymphocytes to radiation-induced apoptosis shows heritability compatible with a Mendelian mode of transmission. Using gene expression studies and flow cytometry, we show a higher TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL/TNFSF10) mRNA level and a higher level of membrane bound TRAIL (mTRAIL) on radiosensitive compared to radioresistant T4EM lymphocytes. Functionally, we show that mTRAIL mediates a pro-apoptotic autocrine signaling after irradiation of T4EM lymphocytes linking mTRAIL expression to T4EM radiosensitivity. Using single marker and multimarker Family-Based Association Testing, we identified 3 SNPs in the TRAIL gene that are significantly associated with T4EM lymphocytes radiosensitivity. Among these 3 SNPs, two are also associated with acute and subacute dermatitis after radiotherapy in breast cancer indicating that T4EM lymphocytes radiosensitivity may be used to predict response to radiotherapy. Altogether, these results show that mTRAIL level regulates the response of T4EM lymphocytes to ionizing radiation and suggest that TRAIL/TNFSF10 genetic variants hold promise as markers of individual radiosensitivity. PMID:26982083

  1. Research progress in radiation detectors, pattern recognition programs, and radiation damage determination in DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baily, N. A.

    1973-01-01

    The radiological implications of statistical variations in energy deposition by ionizing radiation were investigated in the conduct of the following experiments: (1) study of the production of secondary particles generated by the passage of the primary radiation through bone and muscle; (2) the study of the ratio of nonreparable to reparable damage in DNA as a function of different energy deposition patterns generated by X rays versus heavy fast charged particles; (3) the use of electronic radiography systems for direct fluoroscopic tomography and for the synthesis of multiple planes and; (4) the determination of the characteristics of systems response to split fields having different contrast levels, and of minimum detectable contrast levels between the halves under realistic clinical situations.

  2. DELAYED EFFECTS OF ACUTE RADIATION EXPOSURE IN A MURINE MODEL OF THE H-ARS: MULTIPLE-ORGAN INJURY CONSEQUENT TO <10 GY TOTAL BODY IRRADIATION

    PubMed Central

    Unthank, Joseph L.; Miller, Steven J.; Quickery, Ariel K.; Ferguson, Ethan L.; Wang, Meijing; Sampson, Carol H.; Chua, Hui Lin; DiStasi, Matthew R.; Feng, Hailin; Fisher, Alexa; Katz, Barry P.; Plett, P. Artur; Sandusky, George E.; Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Vemula, Sasidhar; Cohen, Eric P.; MacVittie, Thomas J.; Orschell, Christie M.

    2015-01-01

    The threat of radiation exposure from warfare or radiation accidents raises the need for appropriate animal models to study the acute and chronic effects of high dose rate radiation exposure. The goal of this study was to assess the late development of fibrosis in multiple organs (kidney, heart, and lung) in survivors of the C57BL/6 mouse model of the hematopoietic-acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS). Separate groups of mice for histological and functional studies were exposed to a single uniform total body dose between 8.53 and 8.72 Gy of gamma radiation from a 137Cs radiation source and studied 1–21 months later. Blood urea nitrogen levels were elevated significantly in the irradiated mice at 9 and 21 mo (from ~22 to 34 ± 3.8 and 69±6.0 mg/dl, p<0.01 vs non-irradiated controls) and correlated with glomerosclerosis (29±1.8% vs 64±9.7% of total glomeruli, p<0.01 vs non-irradiated controls). Glomerular tubularization and hypertrophy and tubular atrophy were also observed at 21 mo post-total body irradiation (TBI). An increase in interstitial, perivascular, pericardial and peri-bronchial fibrosis/collagen deposition was observed from ~9–21 mo post-TBI in kidney, heart and lung of irradiated mice relative to age-matched controls. Echocardiography suggested decreased ventricular volumes with a compensatory increase in left ventricular ejection fraction. The results indicate that significant delayed effects of acute radiation exposure occur in kidney, heart, and lung in survivors of the murine H-ARS TBI model which mirrors pathology detected in larger species and humans at higher radiation doses focused on specific organs. PMID:26425910

  3. Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure in a Murine Model of the H-ARS: Multiple-Organ Injury Consequent to <10 Gy Total Body Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Unthank, Joseph L; Miller, Steven J; Quickery, Ariel K; Ferguson, Ethan L; Wang, Meijing; Sampson, Carol H; Chua, Hui Lin; DiStasi, Matthew R; Feng, Hailin; Fisher, Alexa; Katz, Barry P; Plett, P Artur; Sandusky, George E; Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Vemula, Sasidhar; Cohen, Eric P; MacVittie, Thomas J; Orschell, Christie M

    2015-11-01

    The threat of radiation exposure from warfare or radiation accidents raises the need for appropriate animal models to study the acute and chronic effects of high dose rate radiation exposure. The goal of this study was to assess the late development of fibrosis in multiple organs (kidney, heart, and lung) in survivors of the C57BL/6 mouse model of the hematopoietic-acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS). Separate groups of mice for histological and functional studies were exposed to a single uniform total body dose between 8.53 and 8.72 Gy of gamma radiation from a Cs radiation source and studied 1-21 mo later. Blood urea nitrogen levels were elevated significantly in the irradiated mice at 9 and 21 mo (from ∼22 to 34 ± 3.8 and 69 ± 6.0 mg dL, p < 0.01 vs. non-irradiated controls) and correlated with glomerosclerosis (29 ± 1.8% vs. 64 ± 9.7% of total glomeruli, p < 0.01 vs. non-irradiated controls). Glomerular tubularization and hypertrophy and tubular atrophy were also observed at 21 mo post-total body irradiation (TBI). An increase in interstitial, perivascular, pericardial and peribronchial fibrosis/collagen deposition was observed from ∼9-21 mo post-TBI in kidney, heart, and lung of irradiated mice relative to age-matched controls. Echocardiography suggested decreased ventricular volumes with a compensatory increase in the left ventricular ejection fraction. The results indicate that significant delayed effects of acute radiation exposure occur in kidney, heart, and lung in survivors of the murine H-ARS TBI model, which mirrors pathology detected in larger species and humans at higher radiation doses focused on specific organs.

  4. Effects of proton and gamma radiation on lymphocyte populations and acute response to antigen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kajioka, E. H.; Gheorghe, C.; Andres, M. L.; Abell, G. A.; Folz-Holbeck, J.; Slater, J. M.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical use of proton radiation in the management of cancer, as well as benign disorders, is rapidly increasing. The major goal of this study was to compare the effects of proton and gamma (60Co) radiation on cell-mediated and humoral immunological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a single dose of 3 Gray (Gy) protons or gamma-rays and intraperitoneally injected 1 day later with sheep red blood cells (sRBC). On 4, 10, 15, and 29 days after exposure, subsets from each group were euthanised; nonirradiated controls (with and without sRBC injection) were included. Body and relative spleen weights, leukocyte counts, spontaneous blastogenesis, lymphocyte populations, and anti-sRBC titers were evaluated. RESULTS: The data showed significant depression (p < 0.05) in nearly all assays on days 4 and 10 after irradiation. B lymphocytes (CD19+) were the most radiosensitive, although reconstitution back to normal levels was observed by day 15. T cell (CD3+) and T helper cell (CD4+) recovery was evident by day 29, whereas the T cytotoxic cell (CD8+) count remained significantly below normal. Natural killer cells (NK1.1+) were relatively radioresistant. Anti-sRBC antibody production was slow and low titers were obtained after irradiation. No significant differences were noted between the two types of radiation. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the data show that whole-body irradiation with protons or gamma-rays, at the dose employed, results in marked, but transient, immunosuppression. However, at the time points of testing and with the assays used, little or no differences were found between the two forms of radiation.

  5. Flaxseed Mitigates Acute Oxidative Lung Damage in a Mouse Model of Repeated Radiation and Hyperoxia Exposure Associated with Space Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A.; Solomides, Charalambos C.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2015-01-01

    Background Spaceflight missions may require crewmembers to conduct extravehicular activities (EVA). Pre-breathe protocols in preparation for an EVA entail 100% hyperoxia exposure that may last for a few hours and be repeated 2-3 times weekly. Each EVA is associated with additional challenges such as low levels of total body cosmic/galactic radiation exposure that may present a threat to crewmember health. We have developed a mouse model of total body radiation and hyperoxia exposure and identified acute damage of lung tissues. In the current study we evaluated the usefulness of dietary flaxseed (FS) as a countermeasure agent for such double-hit exposures. Methods We evaluated lung tissue changes 2 weeks post-initiation of exposure challenges. Mouse cohorts (n=5/group) were pre-fed diets containing either 0% FS or 10% FS for 3 weeks and exposed to: a) normoxia (Untreated); b) >95% O2 (O2); c) 0.25Gy single fraction gamma radiation (IR); or d) a combination of O2 and IR (O2+IR) 3 times per week for 2 consecutive weeks, where 8-hour hyperoxia treatments were spanned by normoxic intervals. Results At 2 weeks post challenge, while control-diet fed mice developed significant lung injury and inflammation across all challenges, FS protected lung tissues by decreasing bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) neutrophils (p<0.003) and protein levels, oxidative tissue damage, as determined by levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.008) and nitrosative stress as determined by nitrite levels. Lung hydroxyproline levels, a measure of lung fibrosis, were significantly elevated in mice fed 0% FS (p<0.01) and exposed to hyperoxia/radiation or the combination treatment, but not in FS-fed mice. FS also decreased levels of a pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrogenic cytokine (TGF-β1) gene expression levels in lung. Conclusion Flaxseed mitigated adverse effects in lung of repeat exposures to radiation/hyperoxia. This data will provide useful information in the design of countermeasures to early

  6. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of mouse radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)

    PubMed Central

    Badie, Christophe; Blachowicz, Agnieszka; Barjaktarovic, Zarko; Finnon, Rosemary; Michaux, Arlette; Sarioglu, Hakan; Brown, Natalie; Manning, Grainne; Benotmane, M. Abderrafi; Tapio, Soile; Polanska, Joanna; Bouffler, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    A combined transcriptome and proteome analysis of mouse radiation-induced AMLs using two primary AMLs, cell lines from these primaries, another cell line and its in vivo passage is reported. Compared to haematopoietic progenitor and stem cells (HPSC), over 5000 transcriptome alterations were identified, 2600 present in all materials. 55 and 3 alterations were detected in the proteomes of the cell lines and primary/in vivo passage material respectively, with one common to all materials. In cell lines, approximately 50% of the transcriptome changes are related to adaptation to cell culture, and in the proteome this proportion was higher. An AML ‘signature’ of 17 genes/proteins commonly deregulated in primary AMLs and cell lines compared to HPSCs was identified and validated using human AML transcriptome data. This also distinguishes primary AMLs from cell lines and includes proteins such as Coronin 1, pontin/RUVBL1 and Myeloperoxidase commonly implicated in human AML. C-Myc was identified as having a key role in radiation leukaemogenesis. These data identify novel candidates relevant to mouse radiation AML pathogenesis, and confirm that pathways of leukaemogenesis in the mouse and human share substantial commonality. PMID:27250028

  7. Excellence in Radiation Research for the 21st Century (EIRR21): Description of an Innovative Research Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    P'ng, Christine; Ito, Emma; How, Christine; Bezjak, Andrea; Bristow, Rob; Catton, Pam; Fyles, Anthony; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Jaffray, David; Kelley, Shana; Wong Shun; Liu Feifei

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To describe and assess an interdisciplinary research training program for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and clinical fellows focused on radiation medicine; funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research since 2003, the program entitled 'Excellence in Radiation Research for the 21st Century' (EIRR21) aims to train the next generation of interdisciplinary radiation medicine researchers. Methods and Materials: Online surveys evaluating EIRR21 were sent to trainees (n=56), mentors (n=36), and seminar speakers (n=72). Face-to-face interviews were also conducted for trainee liaisons (n=4) and participants in the international exchange program (n=2). Results: Overall response rates ranged from 53% (mentors) to 91% (trainees). EIRR21 was well received by trainees, with the acquisition of several important skills related to their research endeavors. An innovative seminar series, entitled Brainstorm sessions, imparting 'extracurricular' knowledge in intellectual property protection, commercialization strategies, and effective communication, was considered to be the most valuable component of the program. Networking with researchers in other disciplines was also facilitated owing to program participation. Conclusions: EIRR21 is an innovative training program that positively impacts the biomedical community and imparts valuable skill sets to foster success for the future generation of radiation medicine researchers.

  8. Acute effect of exposure of mollusk single neuron to 900-MHz mobile phone radiation.

    PubMed

    Partsvania, B; Sulaberidze, T; Shoshiashvili, L; Modebadze, Z

    2011-09-01

    The goal of the present work was to explore the influence of commercially available cell phone irradiation on the single neuron excitability and memory processes. A Transverse Electromagnetic Cell (TEM Cell) was used to expose single neurons of mollusk to the electromagnetic field. Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method was used for modeling the TEM Cell and the electromagnetic field interactions with living nerve ganglion and neurons. Neuron electrophysiology was investigated using standard microelectrode technique. The specific absorption rate (SAR) deposited into the single neuron was calculated to be 0.63 W/kg with a temperature increment of 0.1°C. After acute exposure, average firing threshold of the action potentials was not changed. However, the average latent period was significantly decreased. This indicates that together with latent period the threshold and the time of habituation might be altered during exposure. However, these alterations are transient and only latent period remains on the changed level.

  9. Epigenetics in radiation biology: a new research frontier

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Matt; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The number of people that receive exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) via occupational, diagnostic, or treatment-related modalities is progressively rising. It is now accepted that the negative consequences of radiation exposure are not isolated to exposed cells or individuals. Exposure to IR can induce genome instability in the germline, and is further associated with transgenerational genomic instability in the offspring of exposed males. The exact molecular mechanisms of transgenerational genome instability have yet to be elucidated, although there is support for it being an epigenetically induced phenomenon. This review is centered on the long-term biological effects associated with IR exposure, mainly focusing on the epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and small RNAs) involved in the molecular etiology of IR-induced genome instability, bystander and transgenerational effects. Here, we present evidence that IR-mediated effects are maintained by epigenetic mechanisms, and demonstrate how a novel, male germline-specific, small RNA pathway is posited to play a major role in the epigenetic inheritance of genome instability. PMID:23577019

  10. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe{sub 2} and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials.

  11. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe[sub 2] and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials.

  12. Prospects for management of gastrointestinal injury associated with the acute radiation syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Walker, R.I.

    1988-08-01

    The effect of total-body ionizing radiation on the digestive tract is dose-dependent and time-dependent. At low doses (1.5 Gy), one observes only a short prodromal syndrome consisting of nausea, vomiting, and gastric suppression. At doses greater than 6 Gy, the prodromal syndrome is more marked, and it is followed after a 2-5-day remission period by a subacute syndrome, characterized by diarrhea and hematochezia. This gastrointestinal syndrome is superimposed onto a radiation-induced bone marrow suppression. The combination of intestinal and hemopoietic syndromes results in dehydration, anemia, and infection, leading eventually to irreversible shock and death. The treatment of prodromal symptoms is based on the administration of antiemetics and gastrokinetics, although an effective treatment devoid of side effects is not yet available for human therapy. The treatment of the gastrointestinal subacute syndrome remains difficult and unsuccessful after exposure to total body doses greater than 8-10 Gy. Supportive therapy to prevent infection and dehydration may be effective if restoration or repopulation of the intestinal and bone marrow stem cells does occur. In addition, bone marrow transplantation may improve the prospect of treating the hemopoietic syndrome, although the experience gained in Chernobyl suggests that this treatment is difficult to apply in the case of nuclear accidents. Administration of radioprotectants before irradiation decreases damage to healthy cells, while not protecting cancerous tissues. In the future, stimulation of gastrointestinal and hemopoietic progenitor cells may be possible using cell growth regulators, but much remains to be done to improve the treatment of radiation damage to the gastrointestinal tract. 77 references.

  13. Prospects for management of gastrointestinal injury associated with the acute radiation syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Walker, R.I.

    1988-08-01

    The effect of total-body ionizing radiation on the digestive tract is dose-dependent and time-dependent. At low doses (1.5 Gy), one observes only a short prodromal syndrome consisting of nausea, vomiting, and gastric suppression. At doses>6 Gy, the prodromal syndrome is more marked, and it is followed after a 2-5-day remission period by a subacute syndrome, characterized by diarrhea and hematochezia. This gastrointestinal syndrome is superimposed onto a radiation-induced bone marrow suppression. The combination of intestinal and hemopoietic syndromes results in dehydration, anemia, and infection, leading eventually to irreversible shock and death. The treatment of prodromal symptoms is based on the administration of antiemetics and gastrokinetics, although an effective treatment devoid of side effects is not yet available for human therapy. The treatment of the gastrointestinal subacute syndrome remains difficult and unsuccessful after exposure to total-body doses >8-10 Gy. Supportive therapy to prevent infection and dehydration may be effective if restoration or repopulation of the intestinal and bone marrow stem cells does occur. In addition, bone marrow transplantation may improve the prospect of treating the hemopoietic syndrome, although the experience gained in Chernobyl suggests that this treatment is difficult to apply in the case of nuclear accidents. Administration of radioprotectants before irradiation decreases damage to healthy cells, while not protecting cancerous tissues. In the future, stimulation of gastrointestinal and hemopoietic progenitor cells may be possible using cell growth regulators, but much remains to be done to improve the treatment of radiation damage to the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Acute radiation effects on cutaneous microvasculature: evaluation with a laser Doppler perfusion monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Amols, H.I.; Goffman, T.E.; Komaki, R.; Cox, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring is a noninvasive technique for measuring blood flow in epidermal microvasculature that makes use of the frequency shift of light reflected from red blood cells. Measurements in patients undergoing radiation therapy show increases in blood flow of ten to 25 times baseline at doses above 50 Gy, and increases are observed with doses as low as 2 Gy. Follow-up measurements show rapid decreases in flow levels after completion of therapy, but levels remain elevated even at 1 year.

  15. Combined Mitigation of the Gastrointestinal and Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndromes by a Novel LPA2 Receptor-specific Non-lipid Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Renukadevi; Szabó, Erzsébet; Fells, James I.; Balogh, Andrea; Lim, Keng G.; Fujiwara, Yuko; Norman, Derek B.; Lee, Sue-Chin; Balazs, Louisa; Thomas, Fridtjof; Patil, Shivaputra; Emmons-Thompson, Karin; Boler, Alyssa; Strobos, Jur; McCool, Shannon W.; Yates, C. Ryan; Stabenow, Jennifer; Byrne, Gerrald I.; Miller, Duane D.; Tigyi, Gábor J.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological mitigation of injuries caused by high-dose ionizing radiation is an unsolved medical problem. A specific nonlipid agonists of the type 2 GPCR for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA2) 2-[4-(1,3-Dioxo-1H,3H-benzoisoquinolin-2-yl)butylsulfamoyl]benzoic acid (DBIBB) when administered with a postirradiation delay up to 72 hours reduced mortality of C57BL/6 mice but not in LPA2 KO mice. DBIBB mitigated the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome, increased intestinal crypt survival and enterocyte proliferation, and reduced apoptosis. DBIBB enhanced DNA repair by augmenting the resolution of γ–H2AX foci, increased clonogenic survival of irradiated IEC-6 cells, attenuated the radiation-induced death of human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors and enhanced the survival of the granulocyte/macrophage lineage. DBIBB also increased the survival of mice suffering of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome after total body irradiation. DBIBB represents the first drug candidate capable of mitigating acute radiation syndrome caused by high-dose γ-radiation to the hematopoietic and gastrointestinal system. PMID:25619933

  16. Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  17. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. M.; Zhong, H. Q.; Zhai, J.; Wang, C. X.; Xiong, H. L.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2013-08-01

    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo.

  18. Management of acute skin toxicity with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil during platinum-based concurrent chemo-radiation in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; Rampino, Monica; Ostellino, Oliviero; Schena, Marina; Pecorari, Giancarlo; Garzino Demo, Paolo; Fasolis, Massimo; Arcadipane, Francesca; Martini, Stefania; Cavallin, Chiara; Airoldi, Mario; Ricardi, Umberto

    2017-02-01

    Acute skin toxicity is a frequent finding during combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Its timely and appropriate management is crucial for both oncological results and patient's global quality of life. We herein report clinical data on the use of Hypericum perforatum and neem oil in the treatment of acute skin toxicity during concurrent chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer. A consecutive series of 50 head and neck cancer patients undergoing concomitant radio-chemotherapy with weekly cisplatin was analyzed. Treatment with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil was started in case of G2 acute skin toxicity according to the RTOG/EORTC scoring scale and continued during the whole treatment course and thereafter until complete recovery. The maximum detected acute skin toxicity included Grade 2 events in 62% of cases and G3 in 32% during treatment and G2 and G3 scores in 52 and 8%, respectively, at the end of chemo-radiation. Grade 2 toxicity was mainly observed during weeks 4-5, while G3 during weeks 5-6. Median times spent with G2 or G3 toxicity were 23.5 and 14 days. Patients with G3 toxicity were reconverted to a G2 profile in 80% of cases, while those with a G2 score had a decrease to G1 in 58% of cases. Time between maximum acute skin toxicity and complete skin recovery was 30 days. Mean worst pain score evaluated with the Numerical Rating Scale-11 was 6.9 during treatment and 4.5 at the end of chemo-radiotherapy. Hypericum perforatum and neem oil proved to be a safe and effective option in the management of acute skin toxicity in head and neck cancer patients submitted to chemo-radiation with weekly cisplatin. Further studies with a control group and patient-reported outcomes are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  19. Summary information and data sets for NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory, 1981--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, W.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the solar radiation and meteorological data collected at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, from 1981 through 1991. The data collection was part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. The report includes long-term averages and monthly and annual variability for key solar radiation elements and describes the hourly data sets for 1981 through 1991. Described in the report are how the elements were measured and how the data were collected and processed into hourly values. Procedures used for quality assessment of the hourly data values are presented, and the position of the solar radiation and meteorological elements in the data sets are defined; samples of read statements are provided.

  20. Summary information and data sets for NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory, 1981--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, W.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the solar radiation and meteorological data collected at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, from 1981 through 1991. The data collection was part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. The report includes long-term averages and monthly and annual variability for key solar radiation elements and describes the hourly data sets for 1981 through 1991. Described in the report are how the elements were measured and how the data were collected and processed into hourly values. Procedures used for quality assessment of the hourly data values are presented, and the position of the solar radiation and meteorological elements in the data sets are defined; samples of read statements are provided.

  1. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  2. Radiation safety education for laboratory animal science.

    PubMed

    Emrich, J; Lambert, K

    2000-08-01

    Students enrolled in the laboratory animal science graduate program at MCP Hahnemann University seek to gain entrance to veterinary school or to manage an animal facility within an academic institution, pharmaceutical or biotechnology company conducting biomedical research. Ongoing interaction between faculty in the radiation oncology, radiation safety, and lab animal science disciplines revealed an acute need for radiation safety education for laboratory animal science students who will likely interact with researchers either designing and writing protocols for animal studies using radiation or radioactive materials, or veterinary staff who will use sources of radiation to diagnose and/or treat possible animal injuries and diseases. A core course in the Radiation Sciences graduate program was modified to address the needs of these students, instructing them in radiation safety, detection and counting instrumentation, and radiation biology. These fundamental areas were integrated to help the students gain a sound, basic knowledge of radiation and radioactive materials used in biomedical research.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. Radiation thermometry at NIST: An update of services and research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry

    1989-01-01

    An overview of activities at the National Institute of Standards and Terminology (NIST) in radiation thermometry and related temperature scale research is presented. An expansion of calibration services for pyrometers will be described as well as efforts to develop calibration services for blackbody simulators. Research relevant to the realization of the new international temperature scale (ITS 90) will be discussed.

  5. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

  6. Radiation protective structure alternatives for habitats of a lunar base research outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Fred J.; Foo, Lai T.; Mcgrew, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The solar and galactic cosmic radiation levels on the Moon pose a hazard to extended manned lunar missions. Lunar soil represents an available, economical material to be used for radiation shielding. Several alternatives have been suggested to use lunar soil to protect the inhabitants of a lunar base research outpost from radiation. The Universities Space Research Association has requested that a comparative analysis of the alternatives be performed, with the purpose of developing the most advantageous design. Eight alternatives have been analyzed, including an original design which was developed to satisfy the identified design criteria. The original design consists of a cylindrical module and airlock, partially buried in the lunar soil, at a depth sufficient to achieve adequate radiation shielding. The report includes descriptions of the alternatives considered, the method of analysis used, and the final design selected.

  7. Statistical Prediction of Solar Particle Event Frequency Based on the Measurements of Recent Solar Cycles for Acute Radiation Risk Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myung-Hee, Y. Kim; Shaowen, Hu; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPEs) present significant acute radiation risks to the crew members during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded space vehicles for space missions beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field. Acute radiation sickness (ARS) can impair performance and result in failure of the mission. Improved forecasting capability and/or early-warning systems and proper shielding solutions are required to stay within NASA's short-term dose limits. Exactly how to make use of observations of SPEs for predicting occurrence and size is a great challenge, because SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature even though the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by the time position within the solar activity cycle. Therefore, we developed a probabilistic model approach, where a cumulative expected occurrence curve of SPEs for a typical solar cycle was formed from a non-homogeneous Poisson process model fitted to a database of proton fluence measurements of SPEs that occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19 - 23) and those of large SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice. From the fitted model, the expected frequency of SPEs was estimated at any given proton fluence threshold (Phi(sub E)) with energy (E) >30 MeV during a defined space mission period. Corresponding Phi(sub E) (E=30, 60, and 100 MeV) fluence distributions were simulated with a random draw from a gamma distribution, and applied for SPE ARS risk analysis for a specific mission period. It has been found that the accurate prediction of deep-seated organ doses was more precisely predicted at high energies, Phi(sub 100), than at lower energies such as Phi(sub 30) or Phi(sub 60), because of the high penetration depth of high energy protons. Estimates of ARS are then described for 90th and 95th percentile events for several mission lengths and for several likely organ dose-rates. The ability to accurately measure high energy protons

  8. Association of Hematological Nadirs and Survival in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Hematopoietic Syndrome of Acute Radiation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gluzman-Poltorak, Zoya; Vainstein, Vladimir; Basile, Lena A

    2015-08-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-12 (rHuIL-12) mitigates the hematopoietic subsyndrome of acute radiation syndrome (HSARS) after total body irradiation (TBI) in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of HSARS. The mechanism for this effect appears to involve multiple effects of rHuIL-12 on hematopoiesis. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine hematological nadirs and survival across our three NHP completed studies. Animals were irradiated (700 cGy) and treated with a single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (n = 64) or rHuIL-12 (50-500 ng/kg; n = 108) 24-25 h after irradiation, or with daily subcutaneous injections of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; 10 μg/kg/day) for 18 days starting 24-25 h after exposure (n = 26). Blood samples were obtained at various time points up to day 60 after TBI. Lymphocytes, neutrophils and platelets were significantly lower in nonsurvivors than in survivors in the overall sample and in each treatment group (P < 0.001 for each comparison, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Lymphocyte nadir was the strongest and most consistent predictor of death by Spearman's rank correlation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of death and threshold hematologic nadir values (where nadir values less than or equal the threshold are predictive of death) showed that a threshold of 0.08 × 10(9)/L for lymphocytes had the largest positive predictive value of death (97.2% and 92.5% for the control and rHuIL-12 groups, respectively) and high sensitivity (76.1% and 62.7%, respectively), consistent with human radiation victims data. The current findings suggest that enhanced early bone marrow regeneration resulting in increases in nadir values for all major blood cell types may be the main mechanism of action by which rHuIL-12 mitigates the lethality of HSARS.

  9. Clinical and Dosimetric Predictors of Acute Severe Lymphopenia During Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Temozolomide for High-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jiayi; DeWees, Todd A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; Speirs, Christina K.; Mullen, Daniel F.; Fergus, Sandra; Tran, David D.; Linette, Gerry; Campian, Jian L.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Dunn, Gavin; Simpson, Joseph R.; Robinson, Clifford G.

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Acute severe lymphopenia (ASL) frequently develops during radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) for high-grade glioma (HGG) and is associated with decreased survival. The current study was designed to identify potential predictors of ASL, with a focus on actionable RT-specific dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: From January 2007 to December 2012, 183 patients with HGG were treated with RT+TMZ and had available data including total lymphocyte count (TLC) and radiation dose-volume histogram parameters. ASL was defined as TLC of <500/μL within the first 3 months from the start of RT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of ASL. Results: Fifty-three patients (29%) developed ASL. Patients with ASL had significantly worse overall survival than those without (median: 12.5 vs 20.2 months, respectively, P<.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-11.41), older age (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), lower baseline TLC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98), and higher brain volume receiving 25 Gy (V{sub 25Gy}) (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.003-1.05) as the most significant predictors for ASL. Brain V{sub 25Gy} <56% appeared to be the optimal threshold (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.11-5.01), with an ASL rate of 38% versus 20% above and below this threshold, respectively (P=.006). Conclusions: Female sex, older age, lower baseline TLC, and higher brain V{sub 25Gy} are significant predictors of ASL during RT+TMZ therapy for HGG. Maintaining the V{sub 25Gy} of brain below 56% may reduce the risk of ASL.

  10. Influence of Double-Strand Break Repair on Radiation Therapy-Induced Acute Skin Reactions in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh; Sharan, Krishna; Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Curative radiation therapy (RT)-induced toxicity poses strong limitations for efficient RT and worsens the quality of life. The parameter that explains when and to what extent normal tissue toxicity in RT evolves would be of clinical relevance because of its predictive value and may provide an opportunity for personalized treatment approach. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand breaks and repair were analyzed by microscopic γ-H2AX foci analysis in peripheral lymphocytes from 38 healthy donors and 80 breast cancer patients before RT, a 2 Gy challenge dose of x-ray exposed in vitro. Results: The actual damage (AD) at 0.25, 3, and 6 hours and percentage residual damage (PRD) at 3 and 6 hours were used as parameters to measure cellular radiosensitivity and correlated with RT-induced acute skin reactions in patients stratified as non-overresponders (NOR) (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grade <2) and overresponders (OR) (RTOG grade ≥2). The results indicated that the basal and induced (at 0.25 and 3 hours) γ-H2AX foci numbers were nonsignificant (P>.05) between healthy control donors and the NOR and OR groups, whereas it was significant between ORs and healthy donors at 6 hours (P<.001). There was a significantly higher PRD in OR versus NOR (P<.05), OR versus healthy donors (P<.001) and NOR versus healthy donors (P<.01), supported further by the trend analysis (r=.2392; P=.0326 at 6 hours). Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that the measurement of PRD by performing γ-H2AX foci analysis has the potential to be developed into a clinically useful predictive assay.

  11. Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Akimoto, Tetsuo . E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Noda, Shin-ei; Ito, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Takumi; Kashiwagi, Bunzo; Nakano, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The main symptoms of acute GU toxicity were dysuria and increase in the urinary frequency or nocturia. The grade distribution of acute GU toxicity in the patients was as follows: Grade 0-1, 42 patients (63%); Grade 2-3, 25 patients (37%). The urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy was determined using the following dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters: V30 (percentage of the urethral volume receiving 30% of the prescribed radiation dose), V80, V90, V100, V110, V120, V130, and V150. In addition, the D5 (dose covering 5% of the urethral volume), D10, D20, and D50 of the urethra were also estimated. The V30-V150 values in the patients with Grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity were significantly higher than those in patients with Grade 0-1 toxicity. The D10 and D20, but not D5 and D50, values were also significantly higher in the patients with Grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity than in those with Grade 0-1 toxicity. Regarding the influence of the number of needles implanted, there was no correlation between the number of needles implanted and the severity of acute GU toxicity or the V30-V150 values and D5-D50 values. Conclusions: It was concluded that HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT is feasible for localized prostate cancer, when considered from the viewpoint of acute toxicity. However, because the urethral dose was closely associated with the grade of severity of the acute GU toxicity, the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy must be kept low to reduce the severity of acute GU toxicity.

  12. Considerations for observational research using large data sets in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E; Chen, Aileen; Chen, Ronald C; Hoffman, Karen; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Smith, Benjamin D; Yu, James B

    2014-09-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  13. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Chen, Aileen; Chen, Ronald C.; Hoffman, Karen; Tina Shih, Ya-Chen; Smith, Benjamin D.; Yu, James B.

    2014-09-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  14. Attitudes toward the use of animals in chronic versus acute pain research: results of a web-based forum.

    PubMed

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Griffin, Gilly

    2016-09-01

    When asked about the use of animals in biomedical research, people often state that the research is only acceptable if pain and distress are minimised. However, pain is caused when the aim is to study pain itself, resulting in unalleviated pain for many of the animals involved. Consequently, the use of animals in pain research is often considered contentious. To date, no research has explored people's views toward different types of animal-based pain research (e.g. chronic or acute pain). This study used a web-based survey to explore people's willingness to support the use of mice in chronic versus acute pain research. The majority of the participants opposed the use of mice for either chronic (68.3%) or acute (63.1%) pain research. There was no difference in the levels of support or opposition for chronic versus acute pain research. Unsupportive participants justified their opposition by focusing on the perceived lack of scientific merit, or the existence of non-animal alternatives. Supporters emphasised the potential benefits that could arise, with some stating that the benefits outweigh the costs. The majority of the participants were opposed to pain research involving mice, regardless of the nature and duration of the pain inflicted, or the perceived benefit of the research. A better understanding of public views toward animal use in pain research may provide a stronger foundation for the development of policy governing the use of animals in research where animals are likely to experience unalleviated pain.

  15. Acute Radiation Effects on Cardiac Function Detected by Strain Rate Imaging in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Erven, Katrien; Jurcut, Ruxandra; Weltens, Caroline; Giusca, Sorin; Ector, Joris; Wildiers, Hans; Van den Bogaert, Walter; Voigt, Jens-Uwe

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the occurrence of early radiation-induced changes in regional cardiac function using strain rate imaging (SRI) by tissue Doppler echocardiography. Methods and Materials: We included 20 left-sided and 10 right-sided breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) to the breast or chest wall. Standard echocardiography and SRI were performed before RT (baseline), immediately after RT (post-RT), and at 2 months follow-up (FUP) after RT. Regional strain (S) and strain rate (SR) values were obtained from all 18 left ventricular (LV) segments. Data were compared to the regional radiation dose. Results: A reduction in S was observed post-RT and at FUP in left-sided patients (S{sub post-RT}: -17.6 {+-} 1.5%, and S{sub FUP}: -17.4 {+-} 2.3%, vs. S{sub baseline}: -19.5 {+-} 2.1%, p < 0.001) but not in right-sided patients. Within the left-sided patient group, S and SR were significantly reduced after RT in apical LV segments (S{sub post-RT}: -15.3 {+-} 2.5%, and S{sub FUP}: -14.3 {+-} 3.7%, vs. S{sub baseline}: -19.3 {+-} 3.0%, p < 0.01; and SR{sub post-RT}: -1.06 {+-} 0.15 s {sup -1}, and SR{sub FUP}: -1.16 {+-} 0.28 s {sup -1}, vs. SR{sub baseline}: -1.29 {+-} 0.27s {sup -1}, p = 0.01), but not in mid- or basal segments. Furthermore, we observed that segments exposed to more than 3 Gy showed a significant decrease in S after RT (S{sub post-RT}: -16.1 {+-} 1.6%, and S{sub FUP}: -15.8 {+-} 3.4%, vs. S{sub baseline}: -18.9 {+-} 2.6%, p < 0.001). This could not be observed in segments receiving less than 3 Gy. Conclusions: SRI shows a dose-related regional decrease in myocardial function after RT. It might be a useful tool in the evaluation of modern RT techniques, with respect to cardiac toxicity.

  16. Evaluating Radioprotective Effect of Hesperidin on Acute Radiation Damage in the Lung Tissue of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeyan, A.; Fardid, R.; Haddadi, G.H.; Takhshid, M.A.; Hosseinzadeh, M.; Najafi, M.; Salajegheh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage, Lung is a radiosensitive organ and its damage is a dose-limiting factor in radiotherapy. The administration of dietary antioxidants has been suggested to protect against the succeeding tissue damage. The present study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of Hesperidin (HES) against γ-irradiation-induced tissue damage in the lung of male rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty two rats were divided into four groups. Rats in Group 1 received PBS and underwent sham irradiation. Rats in Group 2 received HES and underwent sham irradiation. Rats in Group 3 received PBS and underwent γ-irradiation. Rats in Group 4 received HES and underwent γ-irradiation. These rats were exposed to γ-radiation 18 Gy using a single fraction cobalt-60 unit, and were administered HES (100 mg/kg/d, b.w, orally) for 7 days prior to irradiation. Rats in each group were sacrificed 24 hours after radiotherapy (RT) for the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and histopathological evaluations. Results: Compared to group 1, the level of SOD and GSH significantly decreased and MDA level significantly increased in group 3 at 24 h following irradiation, (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001), respectively. A statistically significant difference in all parameters was observed for rats in group 4 as compared to group 3 (p<0.05). Histopathological results 24 hours after RT showed that radiation has increased inflammation, lymphocyte, macrophage and neutrophil compared to group 1 ( p<0.0125). Oral administration of HES before RT significantly decreased macrophage and neutrophil when compared to group 3 (p<0.0125), but partly there was inflammation and lymphocyte that indicated there was no significant difference when compared to group 3 (p>0.0125). Conclusion: Oral administration of HES was found to offer protection against

  17. Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS assay for quantitation of plasma citrulline for application to animal models of the acute radiation syndrome across multiple species.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jace W; Tudor, Gregory; Bennett, Alexander; Farese, Ann M; Moroni, Maria; Booth, Catherine; MacVittie, Thomas J; Kane, Maureen A

    2014-07-01

    The potential risk of a radiological catastrophe highlights the need for identifying and validating potential biomarkers that accurately predict radiation-induced organ damage. A key target organ that is acutely sensitive to the effects of irradiation is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, referred to as the GI acute radiation syndrome (GI-ARS). Recently, citrulline has been identified as a potential circulating biomarker for radiation-induced GI damage. Prior to biologically validating citrulline as a biomarker for radiation-induced GI injury, there is the important task of developing and validating a quantitation assay for citrulline detection within the radiation animal models used for biomarker validation. Herein, we describe the analytical development and validation of citrulline detection using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay that incorporates stable-label isotope internal standards. Analytical validation for specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, intra- and interday precision, extraction recovery, matrix effects, and stability was performed under sample collection and storage conditions according to the Guidance for Industry, Bioanalytical Methods Validation issued by the US Food and Drug Administration. In addition, the method was biologically validated using plasma from well-characterized mouse, minipig, and nonhuman primate GI-ARS models. The results demonstrated that circulating citrulline can be confidently quantified from plasma. Additionally, circulating citrulline displayed a time-dependent response for radiological doses covering GI-ARS across multiple species.

  18. Radioprotective Properties of Indralin in Combination with Monizol in the Treatment of Local Acute and Delayed Radiation Injuries Caused by Local Skin γ-Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Vasin, M V; Ushakov, I B; Kovtun, V Yu; Semenova, L A; Komarova, S N; Galkin, A A; Afanas'ev, R V

    2015-10-01

    Female rats were exposed to local γ-irradiation of the right hindpaw in doses of 30-50 Gy at 131-154 sGy/min dose rate. Radioprotector indralin was administered per os 15 min prior to irradiation, monizol was injected intraperitoneally 5 min after irradiation. Indralin showed marked radioprotective properties both for acute and delayed symptoms of local radiation injuries. In combination with monizol, radioprotective effect of indralin was potentiated to dose reduction factor of 1.4-1.5 both for radiation burn severity reduction and for restriction of postradiational contracture development and amputation of the irradiated limb.

  19. Principals Of Radiation Toxicology: Important Aspects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    . 1990, 2012] Moderate and high doses of radiation induces necrosis of radiosensitive cells with the subsequent formation of radiation toxins and their induced acute inflammatory processes. Radiation necrosis is the most substantial and most severe form of radiation induced injury, and when widespread, has grave therapeutic implications. [D. Popov et al. 1990, 2012,Claudio A. et al. 2002, Robertson J. et al. 2002, ] Relatively small doses of Radiation Toxins induce apoptosis and high doses of Radiation Toxins induce necrosis. [Rastogi P. et al. 2009, D. Popov et al. 1990, 2012,] Threshold of Toxic Effects occurs and can be defined. [D. Popov et al. 2012, ] Radiation Toxins affects Somatic cells and Germ Cells. Radiation Toxins can induce teratogenic processes. Specific Toxicity of Radiation Toxins can affects developing fetus. Material and Methods, Results: http://www.intechopen.com/books/current-topics-in-ionizing-radiation-research/radiation-toxins-molecular-mechanisms-of-toxicity-and-radiomimetic-properties- Conclusion: Radiation is a physical agent - induce activation of some secretory proteins with high enzymatic activity. This proteins called as Radiation Toxins can produce specific for radiation biological and toxic effects after administration to radiation naive mammals. [V. Maliev et al. 2007, D. Popov et al. 1990, 2012] Radiation Toxins are teratogenic and oncogenic. Radiation Toxins effects depend on Administered Dose and Radiation effects depend on Exposure Dose and Absorbed Dose. The levels of Radiation Toxins correlates with Radiation Exposure.

  20. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1983. High Efficiency, Radiation Damage, and Blanket Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This three day conference, sixth in a series that began in 1974, was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on October 18-20, 1983. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of space photovoltaic systems, their research status, and program goals. Papers were presented and workshops were held in a variety of technology areas, including basic cell research, advanced blanket technology, and radiation damage.

  1. Mitigation Effect of an FGF-2 Peptide on Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome After High-Dose Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Lurong; Sun Weimin; Wang Jianjun; Zhang Mei; Yang Shanmin; Tian Yeping; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan; Pena, Louis A.; Zhang Kunzhong; Cao Yongbing; Yin Liangjie; Wang Wei; Zhang Lei; Schaefer, Katherine L.; Saubermann, Lawrence J.; Swarts, Steven G.; Fenton, Bruce M.; Keng, Peter C.; Okunieff, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Acute gastrointestinal syndrome (AGS) resulting from ionizing radiation causes death within 7 days. Currently, no satisfactory agent exists for mitigation of AGS. A peptide derived from the receptor binding domain of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-P) was synthesized and its mitigation effect on AGS was examined. Methods and Materials: A subtotal body irradiation (sub-TBI) model was created to induce gastrointestinal (GI) death while avoiding bone marrow death. After 10.5 to 16 Gy sub-TBI, mice received an intramuscular injection of FGF-P (10 mg/kg/day) or saline (0.2 ml/day) for 5 days; survival (frequency and duration) was measured. Crypt cells and their proliferation were assessed by hematoxylin, eosin, and BrdU staining. In addition, GI hemoccult score, stool formation, and plasma levels of endotoxin, insulin, amylase, interleukin (IL)-6, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were evaluated. Results: Treatment with FGF-P rescued a significant fraction of four strains of mice (33-50%) exposed to a lethal dose of sub-TBI. Use of FGF-P improved crypt survival and repopulation and partially preserved or restored GI function. Furthermore, whereas sub-TBI increased plasma endotoxin levels and several pro-inflammation cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha), FGF-P reduced these adverse responses. Conclusions: The study data support pursuing FGF-P as a mitigator for AGS.

  2. Effect of acute nutritional deprivation on immune function in mice. II. Response to sublethal radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, E.J.; Barczynski, L.K.

    1984-03-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory indicated that mice starved for 48 or 72 hr were resistant to the intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. In the present experiments, we investigated the possibility that rapidly proliferating monocytes were responsible for the early protective effect observed in these mice. Confirming previous studies, the numbers of L. monocytogenes in livers and spleens of starved mice were 2-3 logs lower than those of fed mice 72 hr after inoculation of bacteria. The early protective effect of starvation could be eliminated completely by nonlethal doses of radiation (200-900 rads). Organ bacterial counts in starved-irradiated mice were similar to those of fed mice. Correlative histopathologic studies were carried out on all three groups of mice. Seventy-two hours after challenge with L. monocytogenes, the livers of fed mice had multiple microabscesses with cental necrosis and a poor mononuclear response. In contrast, livers of starved mice had fewer infectious foci, less necrosis, and a more prominent monocyte/macrophage inflammatory response. Similar to fed mice, the livers of starved-irradiated mice had marked necrosis and few monocytes/macrophages. In addition, the number of peripheral blood monocytes in starved mice was increased 72 hr after inoculation compared to fed and starved-irradiated mice. The data from these experiments suggest that a proliferating population of monocytes is responsible for resistance of starved mice against L. monocytogenes.

  3. Acute Ultraviolet Radiation Perturbs Epithelialization but not the Biomechanical Strength of Full-thickness Cutaneous Wounds.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Patricia L; Lerche, Catharina M; Wulf, Hans Christian; Jorgensen, Lars N; Liedberg, Ann-Sofie H; Hansson, Christer; Ågren, Magnus S

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that priming of the skin with ultraviolet radiation (UVR) before being injured would enhance wound healing. Four groups, each comprising 20 immunocompetent hairless mice, were exposed to simulated solar irradiation in escalating UVR doses; 0 standard erythema dose (SED) = control, 1 SED, 3 SED and 5 SED. Twenty-four hours after UV irradiation, inflammation was quantified by skin reflectance (erythema) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) tissue levels, and two 6 mm full-thickness excisional wounds and one 3 cm incisional wound were inflicted. Epidermal hyperplasia was assessed by quantitative histology. Five days after wounding, wound coverage by neoepithelium and wound width of the excisional wounds was quantified in hematoxylin-eosin sections, and breaking strength was measured in strips from incisional wounds. Erythema (P < 0.001), MPO levels (P < 0.0005) and epidermal cell layers (P < 0.001) increased dose-dependently by UV exposure of dorsal skin. In the excisional wounds, epithelial coverage decreased (P = 0.024) by increasing the UVR dose, whereas there was no significant difference (P = 0.765) in wound MPO levels. Neither wound width (P = 0.850) nor breaking strength (P = 0.320) differed among the groups. Solar-simulated UVR 24 h before wounding impaired epithelialization but was not detrimental for surgical incisional wound healing.

  4. Use of the adaptive classifier for determination of LD50 in the acute radiation disease.

    PubMed

    Vodicka, I; Hanus, J; Hradil, J

    1989-01-01

    In experiments on female Wistar rats a new method for the determination of LD50 is demonstrated and compared with the classical probit method using the same experimental animals. The method is applicable for the computation of LD50 and analogical quantities in man, too. The method is based on the application of an adaptive logical circuit (ADALINE) trained for the dichotomous prognostic classification of irradiated individuals quod vitam according to a set of clinical and laboratory indicators registered on the third day after irradiation. After the training procedure has been finished, the classifier makes possible an individual prognosis of survival or death. The analogue output signal according to which the classification is performed changes continually from negative to positive values and exhibits S-shaped relation to the radiation dose. Its zero value corresponds to the position of LD50 on the abscissa. For the construction of the searched function, i.e. for the optimum approximation of experimentally obtained values of the output signal, the method of the changeable polyhedron was applied belonging to the optimalization numerical methods used in the regulation technics. The computed value of LD50 was 7.80 Gy in rats very closely corresponding with the value 7.61 Gy determined by means of the classical probit method.

  5. Molecular ecology studies of species radiations: current research gaps, opportunities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    de la Harpe, Marylaure; Paris, Margot; Karger, Dirk N; Rolland, Jonathan; Kessler, Michael; Salamin, Nicolas; Lexer, Christian

    2017-03-18

    Understanding the drivers and limits of species radiations is a crucial goal of evolutionary genetics and molecular ecology, yet research on this topic has been hampered by the notorious difficulty of connecting micro- and macro-evolutionary approaches to studying the drivers of diversification. To chart the current research gaps, opportunities, and challenges of molecular ecology approaches to studying radiations, we examine the literature in the journal Molecular Ecology and re-visit recent high-profile examples of evolutionary genomic research on radiations. We find that available studies of radiations are highly unevenly distributed among taxa, with many ecologically important and species-rich organismal groups remaining severely understudied, including arthropods, plants, and fungi. Most studies employed molecular methods suitable over either short or long evolutionary time scales, such as microsatellites or Restriction site Associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) in the former case and conventional amplicon sequencing of organellar DNA in the latter. The potential of molecular ecology studies to address and resolve patterns and processes around the species level in radiating groups of taxa is currently limited primarily by sample size and a dearth of information on radiating nuclear genomes as opposed to organellar ones. Based on our literature survey and personal experience, we suggest possible ways forward in the coming years. We touch on the potential and current limitations of whole genome sequencing (WGS) in studies of radiations. We suggest that WGS and targeted ('capture') resequencing emerge as the methods of choice for scaling up the sampling of populations, species, and genomes, including currently understudied organismal groups and the genes or regulatory elements expected to matter most to species radiations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

  7. Broadcasting in the airways: the fifth anniversary of the Radiation Research Podcast (1).

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Vered Anzenberg; Boerma, Marjan; Buonanno, Manuela; Costes, Sylvain; Criswell, Tracy; Gonon, Geraldine; Pandey, Badri N; Pinto, Massimo; Rockwell, Sara

    2012-07-01

    The Radiation Research Podcast was funded just over five years ago by a few Radiation Research Society members. To date, the volunteers running the podcast have produced and published online, open access, over 70 audio interviews. The program includes monthly interviews with authors of articles, award winners, and other recordings at conferences, such as round table discussions. We here present an overview of the podcast, from its creation to its fifth birthday, to explain how it is working, how the featured interviews are scheduled, and what future directions are taken. So, stay tuned!

  8. Radiation processing project at the institute of nuclear energy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C. M.; Fu, Y. K.; Wang, Y. H.; Chen, Y. T.; Wei, Y. H.; Lee, K. P.; Wang, Y. K.

    The utilization of scientific approach to preserve and sterilize the agricultural products has long been studied since 1954 and was adopted by several countries gradually since 1958. Starting from July 1977 this Institute began to study the preservation of potatoes and onions with reference to sprout inhibition which is discussed and its economical aspect is evaluated. The design concept of a megacurie 60Co irradiator at this Institute is illustrated. The progress of construction work for the irradiator and the safety device in particular are reported. Current research project on the preservation of agricultural products in this Institute is presented.

  9. Numerical simulation and experimental research of the integrated high-power LED radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, J. H.; Zhang, C. L.; Gan, Z. J.; Zhou, C.; Chen, C. G.; Chen, S.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal management has become an urgent problem to be solved with the increasing power and the improving integration of the LED (light emitting diode) chip. In order to eliminate the contact resistance of the radiator, this paper presented an integrated high-power LED radiator based on phase-change heat transfer, which realized the seamless connection between the vapor chamber and the cooling fins. The radiator was optimized by combining the numerical simulation and the experimental research. The effects of the chamber diameter and the parameters of fin on the heat dissipation performance were analyzed. The numerical simulation results were compared with the measured values by experiment. The results showed that the fin thickness, the fin number, the fin height and the chamber diameter were the factors which affected the performance of radiator from primary to secondary.

  10. First Author Research Productivity of United States Radiation Oncology Residents: 2002-2007

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Peter B. Sopka, Dennis M.; Kathpal, Madeera; Haynes, Jeffrey C.; Lally, Brian E.; Li, Linna

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: Participation in investigative research is a required element of radiation oncology residency in the United States. Our purpose was to quantify the first author research productivity of recent U.S. radiation oncology residents during their residency training. Methods and Materials: We performed a computer-based search of PubMed and a manual review of the proceedings of the annual meetings of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology to identify all publications and presented abstracts with a radiation oncology resident as the first author between 2002 and 2007. Results: Of 1,098 residents trained at 81 programs, 50% published {>=}1 article (range, 0-9), and 53% presented {>=}1 abstract (range, 0-3) at an American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meeting. The national average was 1.01 articles published and 1.09 abstracts presented per resident during 4 years of training. Of 678 articles published, 82% represented original research and 18% were review articles. Residents contributed 15% of all abstracts at American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meetings, and the resident contribution to orally presented abstracts increased from 12% to 21% during the study period. Individuals training at programs with >6 residents produced roughly twice as many articles and abstracts. Holman Research Pathway residents produced double the national average of articles and abstracts. Conclusion: Although variability exists among individuals and among training programs, U.S. radiation oncology residents routinely participate in investigative research suitable for publication or presentation at a scientific meeting. These data provide national research benchmarks that can assist current and future radiation oncology residents and training programs in their self-assessment and research planning.

  11. Space radiation research in the new millenium--from where we come and where we go.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, J

    2001-01-01

    Space radiation research had a significant impact in the past. The physical interaction of heavy charged particles with living matter and the development of models, including microdosimetry, were stimulated by problems encountered in space. New phenomena were discovered. Advanced dosimetric techniques had to be developed and computational methods to describe the radiation field in space. The understanding of the radiobiology of heavy ions, necessary for a well-founded risk assessment and prompted by space radiation research, constitutes also the basis for heavy ion radiotherapy. So far unknown areas like the interaction of microgravity and radiation were opened. The space station will give even more opportunities. For the first time it will be possible to investigate animals for a longer time under the influence of both microgravity and radiation. Living systems can be exposed under well defined conditions with parallel physical measurements. Solar particle events are still an unsolved problem. Significant improvement in their predictability and quantitative description can be expected. All this will not only give exciting opportunities for research but will also translate into immediate benefit for human beings. This paper will attempt to give an overview of the past achievements and glance into the future.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2005-11-30

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the ARM Climate Research Facility and ARM Science programs and presents key accomplishments in 2006. Noteworthy scientific and infrastructure accomplishments in 2006 include: • Collaborating with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to lead the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment, a major international field campaign held in Darwin, Australia • Successfully deploying the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger, Africa • Developing the new ARM Aerial Vehicles Program (AVP) to provide airborne measurements • Publishing a new finding on the impacts of aerosols on surface energy budget in polar latitudes • Mitigating a long-standing double-Intertropical Convergence Zone problem in climate models using ARM data and a new cumulus parameterization scheme.

  13. Evaluation of Radiometers in Full-Time Use at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, S. M.; Myers, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the evaluation of the relative performance of the complement of solar radiometers deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL).

  14. [Cohort studies of the atomic bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation].

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-03-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has been evaluating the risk of atomic bomb radiation for various diseases since the beginning of its former organization, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. Cohorts of atomic-bomb survivors, in-utero survivors, and survivors' offspring have been followed up. The risk of all solid cancers at 1 Gy was estimated as ERR = 0.47 and EAR = 52/10,000 person-years for people who were exposed at 30 years of age and had reached 70 years of age, based on the cancer incidence during 1958-1998. The risk seemed to be increased in the in-utero survivors, but was rather lower than the risk for the survivors exposed at a young age. Effects on the offspring of survivors have not been shown to be significant. Continuing the research is important in order to more accurately estimate and understand radiation-induced health effects.

  15. A radiation-induced acute apoptosis involving TP53 and BAX precedes the delayed apoptosis and neoplastic transformation of CGL1 human hybrid cells.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Marc S; Mayhugh, Brendan M; McDowell, Berry; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Smith, Martin L; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Spandau, Dan F; Lewis, Davina A

    2005-06-01

    Exposing CGL1 (HeLa x fibroblast) hybrid cells to 7 Gy of X rays results in the onset of a delayed apoptosis in the progeny of the cells 10 to 12 cell divisions postirradiation that correlates with the emergence of neoplastically transformed foci. The delayed apoptosis begins around day 8 postirradiation and lasts for 11 days. We now demonstrate that the delayed apoptosis is also characterized by the appearance of approximately 50-kb apoptotic DNA fragments and caspase 3 activation postirradiation. In addition, we confirm that stabilization of TP53 and transactivation of pro-apoptosis BAX also occurs during the delayed apoptosis and show that anti-apoptosis BCL-X(L) is down-regulated. To test whether the delayed apoptosis was due to a nonfunctional acute TP53 damage response in CGL1 cells, studies of acute apoptosis were completed. After irradiation, CGL1 cells underwent an acute wave of apoptosis that involves TP53 stabilization, transactivation of BAX gene expression, and a rapid caspase activation that ends by 96 h postirradiation. In addition, the acute onset of apoptosis correlates with transactivation of a standard wild-type TP53-responsive reporter (pG13-CAT) in CGL1 cells after radiation exposure. We propose that the onset of the delayed apoptosis is not the result of a nonfunctional acute TP53 damage response pathway but rather is a consequence of X-ray-induced genomic instability arising in the distant progeny of the irradiated cells.

  16. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination second annual report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.L.

    1996-06-30

    This is the second annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, to replace the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy. During CIRRPC`s second year, the member agencies have called upon this interagency resource to assist in coordinating science and policy issues and to provide a vehicle to accomplish multiagency tasks.

  17. Incident acute pseudogout and prior bisphosphonate use: Matched case–control study in the UK-Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Edward; Muller, Sara; Paskins, Zoe; Hider, Samantha L.; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milisa; Mallen, Christian D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Oral bisphosphonates are the most commonly used drugs to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Acute pseudogout is anecdotally reported to occur following bisphosphonate initiation but empirical data are lacking. We investigated whether treatment with oral bisphosphonates is a risk factor for incident acute pseudogout. A matched case–control study was undertaken using data from the UK-Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Adults who consulted for incident acute pseudogout between 1987 and 2012 were each matched for gender, age at pseudogout diagnosis, and general practice to up to 4 control subjects without pseudogout. The exposure of interest was a prescription for an oral bisphosphonate issued within the 60-day period prior to the date of incident acute pseudogout. Associations between incident acute pseudogout and prior bisphosphonate prescription were examined using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for hyperparathyroidism, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hemochromatosis, hypophosphatasia, and prescriptions for diuretics and oral corticosteroids. Two thousand eleven acute pseudogout cases were compared with 8013 matched controls without acute pseudogout (mean age [standard deviation] 72 years [14]; 52% male). One hundred twenty-three cases (6.1%) had received an oral bisphosphonate prescription in the 60-day exposure period compared with 305 controls (3.8%) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.69). This association was stronger in females (adjusted IRR 1.49; 95% CI 1.15–1.94) and was nonsignificant in males (0.83; 0.48–1.44). Incident acute pseudogout was associated with prescription of an oral bisphosphonate in the preceding 60 days. Prescribers should be aware of acute pseudogout as a possible side effect of bisphosphonate treatment. Further research is needed to explore the risks conferred by different bisphosphonates and the mechanism underlying this association. PMID:28328803

  18. European low-dose radiation risk research strategy: future of research on biological effects at low doses.

    PubMed

    Salomaa, Sisko; Averbeck, Dietrich; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Sabatier, Laure; Bouffler, Simon; Atkinson, Michael; Jourdain, Jean-René

    2015-04-01

    In 2009, the European High Level and Expert Group identified key policy and scientific questions to be addressed through a strategic research agenda for low-dose radiation risk. This initiated the establishment of a European Research Platform, called MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Research Initiative). In 2010, the DoReMi Network of Excellence was launched in the Euratom 7th Framework Programme. DoReMi has acted as an operational tool for the sustained development of the MELODI platform during its early years. A long-term Strategic Research Agenda for European low-dose radiation risk research has been developed by MELODI. Strategic planning of DoReMi research activities is carried out in close collaboration with MELODI. The research priorities for DoReMi are designed to focus on objectives that are achievable within the 6-y lifetime of the project and that are in areas where stimulus and support can help progress towards the longer-term strategic objectives.

  19. Comparison of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in QU-DB Cells after Acute and Fractionated Irradiation: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Kamran Samani, Roghayeh; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Radiation effects induced in non-irradiated cells are termed radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). The present study intends to examine the RIBE response of QU-DB bystander cells to first, second and third radiation fractions and compare their cumulative outcome with an equal, single acute dose. Materials and Methods This experimental study irradiated three groups of target cells for one, two and three times with60Co gamma rays. One hour after irradiation, we transferred their culture media to non-irradiated (bystander) cells. We used the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay to evaluate RIBE response in the bystander cells. The numbers of micronuclei generated in bystander cells were determined. Results RIBE response to single acute doses increased up to 4 Gy, then decreased, and finally at the 8 Gy dose disappeared. The second and third fractions induced RIBE in bystander cells, except when RIBE reached to the maximum level at the first fraction. We split the 4 Gy acute dose into two fractions, which decreased the RIBE response. However, fractionation of 6 Gy (into two fractions of 3 Gy or three fractions of 2 Gy) had no effect on RIBE response. When we split the 8 Gy acute dose into two fractions we observed RIBE, which had disappeared following the single 8 Gy dose. Conclusion The impact of dose fractionation on RIBE induced in QU-DB cells de- pended on the RIBE dose-response relationship. Where RIBE increased proportion- ally with the dose, fractionation reduced the RIBE response. In contrast, at high dos- es where RIBE decreased proportionally with the dose, fractionation either did not change RIBE (at 6 Gy) or increased it (at 8 Gy). PMID:27602316

  20. 2012 RADIATION CHEMISTRY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR, JULY 28, - AUGUST 3, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    y LaVerne

    2012-08-03

    The overarching objective of this conference is to catalyze the interchange of new ideas and recent discoveries within the basic radiation sciences of physics, chemistry, and biology, and to facilitate translating this knowledge to applications in medicine and industry. The 9 topics for the GRC are: "œFrom Energy Absorption to Disease", "œBiodosimetry after a Radiological Incident," "œTrack Structure and Low Energy Electrons," "Free Radical Processes in DNA and Proteins," "Irradiated Polymers for Industrial/ Medical Applications," "Space Radiation Chemistry/Biology," "Nuclear Power and Waste Management," "Nanoparticles and Surface Interfaces", and the "Young Investigator" session.

  1. Gordon Research Conference on Radiation & Climate in 2009, July 5 -10

    SciTech Connect

    Quiang Fu

    2009-07-10

    The 2009 Gordon Research Conference on Radiation and Climate will present cutting-edge research on the outstanding issues in global climate change with focus on the radiative forcing and sensitivity of the climate system and associated physical processes. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, including grand challenges in radiation and climate, radiative forcing, climate feedbacks, cloud processes in climate system, hydrological cycle in changing climate, absorbing aerosols and Asian monsoon, recent climate changes, and geo-engineering. The invited speakers will present the recent most important advances and future challenges in these areas. The Conference will bring together a collection of leading investigators who are at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for scientists especially junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

  2. BREN Tower: A Monument to the Material Culture of Radiation Dosimetry Research

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Edwards

    2008-05-30

    With a height of more than 1,500 feet, the BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) Tower dominates the surrounding desert landscape of the Nevada Test Site. Associated with the nuclear research and atmospheric testing programs carried out during the 1950s and 1960s, the tower was a vital component in a series of experiments aimed at characterizing radiation fields from nuclear detonations. Research programs conducted at the tower provided the data for the baseline dosimetry studies crucial to determining the radiation dose rates received by the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Today, BREN Tower stands as a monument to early dosimetry research and one of the legacies of the Cold War.

  3. The Transition of Acute Postoperative Pain to Chronic Pain: An Integrative Overview of Research on Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chapman, C Richard; Vierck, Charles J

    2017-04-01

    The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this article is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain. The second purpose of this article is to integrate theory, information, and causal reasoning in these areas. Conceptual mapping reveals 5 classes of hypotheses pertaining to pain. These propose that chronic pain results from: 1) persistent noxious signaling in the periphery; 2) enduring maladaptive neuroplastic changes at the spinal dorsal horn and/or higher central nervous system structures reflecting a multiplicity of factors, including peripherally released neurotrophic factors and interactions between neurons and microglia; 3) compromised inhibitory modulation of noxious signaling in medullary-spinal pathways; 4) descending facilitatory modulation; and 5) maladaptive brain remodeling in function, structure, and connectivity. The third purpose of this article is to identify barriers to progress and review opportunities for advancing the field. This review reveals a need for a concerted, strategic effort toward integrating clinical epidemiology, basic science research, and current theory about pain mechanisms to hasten progress toward understanding, managing, and preventing persistent postsurgical pain.

  4. Synergistic targeted therapy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia: a model of translational research in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Mi, J-Q; Chen, S-J; Zhou, G-B; Yan, X-J; Chen, Z

    2015-12-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), the M3 subtype of acute myeloid leukaemia, was once a lethal disease, yet nowadays the majority of patients with APL can be successfully cured by molecularly targeted therapy. This dramatic improvement in the survival rate is an example of the advantage of modern medicine. APL is characterized by a balanced reciprocal chromosomal translocation fusing the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) gene on chromosome 15 with the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) gene on chromosome 17. It has been found that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or arsenic trioxide (ATO) alone exerts therapeutic effect on APL patients with the PML-RARα fusion gene, and the combination of both drugs can act synergistically to further enhance the cure rate of the patients. Here, we provide an insight into the pathogenesis of APL and the mechanisms underlying the respective roles of ATRA and ATO. In addition, treatments that lead to more effective differentiation and apoptosis of APL cells, including leukaemia-initiating cells, and more thorough eradication of the disease will be discussed. Moreover, as a model of translational research, the development of a cure for APL has followed a bidirectional approach of 'bench to bedside' and 'bedside to bench', which can serve as a valuable example for the diagnosis and treatment of other malignancies.

  5. Clinical issues and research in respiratory failure from severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levy, Mitchell M; Baylor, Melisse S; Bernard, Gordon R; Fowler, Rob; Franks, Teri J; Hayden, Frederick G; Helfand, Rita; Lapinsky, Stephen E; Martin, Thomas R; Niederman, Michael S; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Slutsky, Arthur S; Stewart, Thomas E; Styrt, Barbara A; Thompson, B Taylor; Harabin, Andrea L

    2005-03-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, along with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, convened a panel to develop recommendations for treatment, prevention, and research for respiratory failure from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and other newly emerging infections. The clinical and pathological features of acute lung injury (ALI) from SARS appear indistinguishable from ALI from other causes. The mainstay of treatments for ALI remains supportive. Patients with ALI from SARS who require mechanical ventilation should receive a lung protective, low tidal volume strategy. Adjuvant treatments recommended include prevention of venous thromboembolism, stress ulcer prophylaxis, and semirecumbent positioning during ventilation. Based on previous experience in Canada, infection control resources and protocols were recommended. Leadership structure, communication, training, and morale are an essential aspect of SARS management. A multicenter, placebo-controlled trial of corticosteroids for late SARS is justified because of widespread clinical use and uncertainties about relative risks and benefits. Studies of combined pathophysiologic endpoints were recommended, with mortality as a secondary endpoint. The group recommended preparation for studies, including protocols, ethical considerations, Web-based registries, and data entry systems.

  6. Design and baseline data from the Gratitude Research in Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) study

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Jeff C.; Beale, Eleanor E.; Beach, Scott R.; Celano, Christopher M.; Belcher, Arianna M.; Moore, Shannon V.; Suarez, Laura; Gandhi, Parul U.; Motiwala, Shweta R.; Gaggin, Hanna; Januzzi, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Positive psychological constructs, especially optimism, have been linked with superior cardiovascular health. However, there has been minimal study of positive constructs in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), despite the prevalence and importance of this condition. Furthermore, few studies have examined multiple positive psychological constructs and multiple cardiac-related outcomes within the same cohort to determine specifically which positive construct may affect a particular cardiac outcome. Materials and methods The Gratitude Research in Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) study examines the association between optimism/gratitude 2 weeks post-ACS and subsequent clinical outcomes. The primary outcome measure is physical activity at 6 months, measured via accelerometer, and key secondary outcome measures include levels of prognostic biomarkers and rates of nonelective cardiac rehospitalization at 6 months. These relationships will be analyzed using multivariate linear regression, controlling for sociodemographic, medical, and negative psychological factors; associations between baseline positive constructs and subsequent rehospitalizations will be assessed via Cox regression. Results Overall, 164 participants enrolled and completed the baseline 2-week assessment; the cohort had a mean age of 61.5 +/− 10.5 years and was 84% men; this was the first ACS for 58% of participants. Conclusion The GRACE study will determine whether optimism and gratitude are prospectively and independently associated with physical activity and other critical outcomes in the 6 months following an ACS. If these constructs are associated with superior outcomes, this may highlight the importance of these constructs as independent prognostic factors post-ACS. PMID:26166171

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2012-10-10

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2013-01-11

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  9. Performance tuning Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Intel Xeon Phi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, is a designed for dual use for forecasting and research. WRF offers multiple physics options that can be combined in any way. One of the physics options is radiance computation. The major source for energy for the earth's climate is solar radiation. Thus, it is imperative to accurately model horizontal and vertical distribution of the heating. Goddard solar radiative transfer model includes the absorption duo to water vapor,ozone, ozygen, carbon dioxide, clouds and aerosols. The model computes the interactions among the absorption and scattering by clouds, aerosols, molecules and surface. Finally, fluxes are integrated over the entire longwave spectrum.In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discusses in this paper. The optimizations improved the performance of the original Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 2.2x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved the performance of the Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme on a dual socket configuration of eight core Intel Xeon E5-2670 CPUs by a factor of 2.1x compared to the original Goddard longwave radiative transfer scheme code.

  10. Research on infrared radiation characteristics of Pyromark1200 high-temperature coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xuyao; Huan, Kewei; Dong, Wei; Wang, Jinghui; Zang, Yanzhe; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2014-11-01

    Pyromark 1200 (Tempil Co, USA), which is a type of high-temperature high-emissivity coating, is silicon-based with good thermal radiation performance. Its stably working condition is at the temperature range 589~922 K thus a wide range of applications in industrial, scientific research, aviation, aerospace and other fields. Infrared emissivity is one of the most important factors in infrared radiation characteristics. Data on infrared spectral emissivity of Pyromark 1200 is in shortage, as well as the reports on its infrared radiation characteristics affected by its spray painting process, microstructure and thermal process. The results of this research show that: (1) The coating film critical thickness on the metal base is 10μm according to comparison among different types of spray painting process, coating film thickness, microstructure, which would influence the infrared radiation characteristics of Pyromark 1200 coating. The infrared spectral emissivity will attenuate when the coating film thickness is lower or much higher than that. (2) Through measurements, the normal infrared radiation characteristics is analyzed within the range at the temperature range 573~873 K under normal atmospheric conditions, and the total infrared spectral emissivity of Pyromark 1200 coating is higher than 0.93 in the 3~14 μm wavelength range. (3) The result of 72-hour aging test at the temperature 673 K which studied the effect of thermal processes on the infrared radiation characteristics of the coating shows that the infrared spectral emissivity variation range is approximately 0.01 indicating that Pyromark 1200 coating is with good stability. Compared with Nextel Velvet Coating (N-V-C) which is widely used in optics field, Pyromark 1200 high-temperature coating has a higher applicable temperature and is more suitable for spraying on the material surface which is in long-term operation under high temperature work conditions and requires high infrared spectral emissivity.

  11. Offshore Radiation Observations for Climate Research at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Charles K.; Schuster, Gregory L.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Denn, Frederick M.; Smith, William L., Jr.; Fabbri, Bryan E.; Madigan, James J., Jr.; Knapp, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    When radiometers on a satellite are pointed towards the planet with the goal of understanding a phenomenon quantitatively, rather than just creating a pleasing image, the task at hand is often problematic. The signal at the detector can be affected by scattering, absorption, and emission; and these can be due to atmospheric constituents (gases, clouds, and aerosols), the earth's surface, and subsurface features. When targeting surface phenomena, the remote sensing algorithm needs to account for the radiation associated with the atmospheric constituents. Likewise, one needs to correct for the radiation leaving the surface, when atmospheric phenomena are of interest. Rigorous validation of such remote sensing products is a real challenge. In visible and near infrared wavelengths, the jumble of effects on atmospheric radiation are best accomplished over dark surfaces with fairly uniform reflective properties (spatial homogeneity) in the satellite instrument's field of view (FOV). The ocean's surface meets this criteria; land surfaces - which are brighter, more spatially inhomogeneous, and more changeable with time - generally do not. NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project has used this backdrop to establish a radiation monitoring site in Virginia's coastal Atlantic Ocean. The project, called the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE), is located on a rigid ocean platform allowing the accurate measurement of radiation parameters that require precise leveling and pointing unavailable from ships or buoys. The COVE site is an optimal location for verifying radiative transfer models and remote sensing algorithms used in climate research; because of the platform's small size, there are no island wake effects; and suites of sensors can be simultaneously trained both on the sky and directly on ocean itself. This paper describes the site, the types of measurements made, multiple years of atmospheric and ocean surface radiation observations, and

  12. Regulatory T Cells Contribute to the Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation via Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dasom; Lee, Gihyun; Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Park, Soojin; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Ji Min; Yang, Jieun; Cho, Jaeho; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used to treat various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Previously, we reported that bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) has an anti-inflammatory effect through the induction of regulatory T cells. Radiotherapy is a common anti-cancer method, but often causes adverse effects, such as inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced acute lung inflammation. Mice were focally irradiated with 75 Gy of X-rays in the lung and administered bvPLA2 six times after radiation. To evaluate the level of inflammation, the number of immune cells, mRNA level of inflammatory cytokine, and histological changes in the lung were measured. BvPLA2 treatment reduced the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. In addition, bvPLA2 treatment decreased inflammasome-, chemokine-, cytokine- and fibrosis-related genes’ mRNA expression. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuating effect of bvPLA2 on radiation-induced lung inflammation. Furthermore, regulatory T cell depletion abolished the therapeutic effects of bvPLA2 in radiation-induced pneumonitis, implicating the anti-inflammatory effects of bvPLA2 are dependent upon regulatory T cells. These results support the therapeutic potential of bvPLA2 in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis treatments. PMID:27144583

  13. Research on characteristics of radiated noise of large cargo ship in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongdong; Zhang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the shipping industry, the number of the world's ship is gradually increasing. The characteristics of the radiated noise of the ship are also of concern. Since the noise source characteristics of multichannel interference, the surface wave and the sea temperature microstructure and other reasons, the sound signal received in the time-frequency domain has varying characteristics. The signal of the radiated noise of the large cargo ship JOCHOH from horizontal hydrophone array in some shallow water of China is processed and analyzed in the summer of 2015, and the results show that a large cargo ship JOCHOH has a number of noise sources in the direction of the ship's bow and stern lines, such as host, auxiliary and propellers. The radiating sound waves generated by these sources do not meet the spherical wave law at lower frequency in the ocean, and its radiated noise has inherent spatial distribution, the variation characteristics of the radiated noise the large cargo ship in time and frequency domain are given. The research method and results are of particular importance.

  14. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 192) Plutonium Radioisotope Brief Toxicological Profile Toxicology FAQs Polonium-210 Q & A: Information about Public Health Issues Related to Polonium-210 Contamination in the United Kingdom Guidance for Public ...

  15. An assessment of research opportunities and the need for synchrotron radiation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The workshop focused on six topics, all of which are areas of active research: (1) speciation, reactivity and mobility of contaminants in aqueous systems, (2) the role of surfaces and interfaces in molecular environmental science, (3) the role of solid phases in molecular environmental science, (4) molecular biological processes affecting speciation, reactivity, and mobility of contaminants in the environment, (5) molecular constraints on macroscopic- and field-scale processes, and (6) synchrotron radiation facilities and molecular environmental sciences. These topics span a range of important issues in molecular environmental science. They focus on the basic knowledge required for understanding contaminant transport and fate and for the development of science-based remediation and waste management technologies. Each topic was assigned to a working group charged with discussing recent research accomplishments, significant research opportunities, methods required for obtaining molecular-scale information on environmental contaminants and processes, and the value of synchrotron x-ray methods relative to other methods in providing this information. A special working group on synchrotron radiation facilities was convened to provide technical information about experimental facilities at the four DOE-supported synchrotron radiation sources in the US (NSLS, SSRL, AS and UPS) and synchrotron- based methods available for molecular environmental science research. Similar information on the NSF-funded Cornell High Energy synchrotron Source (CHESS) was obtained after the workshop was held.

  16. Accelerator-based radiation sources for next-generation radiobiological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVeaux, Linda C.; Wells, Douglas P.; Hunt, Alan; Webb, Tim; Beezhold, Wendland; Harmon, J. Frank

    2006-06-01

    The Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) of Idaho State University has developed a unique radiation research facility to answer next-generation radiobiological questions. The IAC has 10 operating research accelerators. These include continuously delivered radiation beams such as a 950 keV electron beam and a 2 MeV light-ion Van de Graaff. The IAC also has a number of pulsed electron linacs which range in energy from 4 to 40 MeV. The most intense amongst them deliver peak dose rates greater than 10 12 Gy/s. The operational flexibility of pulsed electron linacs allows control of peak and average dose rate, pulse separation and total dose over many orders of magnitude in these parameters. These high dose rates also allow delivery of large doses on time scales that are very small when compared to biological responses. The spectrum of particle beams that the IAC can deliver includes alphas, protons, neutrons, electrons (betas), and gammas (X-rays). Current radiobiological research at the IAC is focused upon radiation effects in unicellular organisms. The effectiveness of extremely high dose rate electron irradiation for the neutralization of microbes is being investigated. Concurrently, we are characterizing the survival mechanisms employed by microbes when exposed to these extremely high doses and dose rates. We have isolated strains from several diverse species that show increased radiation-resistance over normal populations. In addition, we were the first to demonstrate radiation-induced Bystander effects in unicellular organisms. Because of the numerous and diverse accelerators at the IAC, these and many other novel radiobiological investigations are readily attainable.

  17. Transient impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in relatively low-dose of acute radiation syndrome is associated with inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Sun; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Jong Choon; Kang, Seong Soo; Bae, Chun-Sik; Shin, Taekyun; Jin, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Sung Ho; Wang, Hongbing; Moon, Changjong

    2008-09-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TUNEL method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In addition, the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks after single whole-body gamma-irradiation were examined in order to evaluate the hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction in the relatively low-dose exposure of ARS. The number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the dentate gyrus (DG) was increased 6-12 h after acute gamma-irradiation (a single dose of 0.5 to 4 Gy). In contrast, the number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells began to decrease significantly 6 h postirradiation, reaching its lowest level 24 h after irradiation. The level of Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner within the range of irradiation applied (0-4 Gy). In passive avoidance and object recognition memory test, the mice trained 1 day after acute irradiation (2 Gy) showed significant memory deficits, compared with the sham controls. In conclusion, the pattern of the hippocampus-dependent memory dysfunction is consistent with the change in neurogenesis after acute irradiation. It is suggested that a relatively low dose of ARS in adult ICR mice is sufficiently detrimental to interrupt the functioning of the hippocampus, including learning and memory, possibly through the inhibition of neurogenesis.

  18. Phase I and Phase II Therapies for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Update on Currently Studied Drugs in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Cesar; Akyol, Onat; Ho, Wing Mann; Araujo, Camila; Huang, Lei; Applegate II, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a devastating cause of death and disability, consequences of which depend on the time from ischemia onset to treatment, the affected brain region, and its size. The main targets of ischemic stroke therapy aim to restore tissue perfusion in the ischemic penumbra in order to decrease the total infarct area by maintaining blood flow. Advances in research of pathological process and pathways during acute ischemia have resulted in improvement of new treatment strategies apart from restoring perfusion. Additionally, limiting the injury severity by manipulating the molecular mechanisms during ischemia has become a promising approach, especially in animal research. The purpose of this article is to review completed and ongoing phases I and II trials for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, reviewing studies on antithrombotic, thrombolytic, neuroprotective, and antineuroinflammatory drugs that may translate into more effective treatments. PMID:28286764

  19. Relative biological effectiveness of simulated solar particle event proton radiation to induce acute hematological change in the porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, Steven X.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Cengel, Keith A.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for simulated solar particle event (SPE) radiation on peripheral blood cells using Yucatan minipigs and electron-simulated SPE as the reference radiation. The results demonstrated a generally downward trend in the RBE values with increasing doses of simulated SPE radiation for leukocytes in the irradiated animals. The fitted RBE values for white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils were above 1.0 in all three radiation dose groups at all time-points evaluated, and the lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals were > 1.0 in the majority of the dose groups at different time-points, which together suggest that proton-simulated SPE radiation is more effective than electron-simulated SPE radiation in reducing the number of peripheral WBCs, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, especially at the low end of the 5–10 Gy dose range evaluated. Other than the RBE values, the responses of leukocytes to electron-simulated SPE radiation and proton-simulated SPE radiation exposure are highly similar with respect to the time-course, the most radiosensitive cell type (the lymphocytes), and the shape of the dose–response curves, which is generally log-linear. These findings provide additional evidence that electron-simulated SPE radiation is an appropriate reference radiation for determination of RBE values for the simulated SPE radiations, and the RBE estimations using electron-simulated SPE radiation as the reference radiation are not complicated by other characteristics of the leukocyte response to radiation exposure. PMID:24027300

  20. Relative biological effectiveness of simulated solar particle event proton radiation to induce acute hematological change in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Wan, Steven X; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Cengel, Keith A; Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for simulated solar particle event (SPE) radiation on peripheral blood cells using Yucatan minipigs and electron-simulated SPE as the reference radiation. The results demonstrated a generally downward trend in the RBE values with increasing doses of simulated SPE radiation for leukocytes in the irradiated animals. The fitted RBE values for white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils were above 1.0 in all three radiation dose groups at all time-points evaluated, and the lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals were > 1.0 in the majority of the dose groups at different time-points, which together suggest that proton-simulated SPE radiation is more effective than electron-simulated SPE radiation in reducing the number of peripheral WBCs, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, especially at the low end of the 5-10 Gy dose range evaluated. Other than the RBE values, the responses of leukocytes to electron-simulated SPE radiation and proton-simulated SPE radiation exposure are highly similar with respect to the time-course, the most radiosensitive cell type (the lymphocytes), and the shape of the dose-response curves, which is generally log-linear. These findings provide additional evidence that electron-simulated SPE radiation is an appropriate reference radiation for determination of RBE values for the simulated SPE radiations, and the RBE estimations using electron-simulated SPE radiation as the reference radiation are not complicated by other characteristics of the leukocyte response to radiation exposure.

  1. Development of a new minipig model to study radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome and its application in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sehwan; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Sun-Joo; Jin, Sungho; Kim, Jin; Lee, Seung-Sook; Bang, Ho Yoon; Jeon, Byung Suk; Park, Sunhoo

    2014-04-01

    Because of insufficient clinical data regarding acute radiation damage after single high-dose radiation exposure, acute radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome remains difficult to treat. The goal of this study was to establish an appropriate and efficient minipig model to study high-dose radiation-induced GI syndrome after radiation exposure. For endoscopic access to the ileum, ileocutaneous anastomosis was performed 3 weeks before irradiation in six male Göttingen minipigs. Minipigs were locally irradiated at the abdominal area using a gamma source as follows: 1,000 cGy (n = 3) and 1,500 cGy (n = 3). Endoscopic evaluation for the terminal ileum was periodically performed via the ileocutaneous anastomosis tract. Pieces of tissue were serially taken for histological examination. The irradiated intestine presented characteristic morphological changes over time. The most obvious changes in the ileum were mucosal atrophy and telangiectasia from day 1 to day 17 after abdominal irradiation. Microscopic findings were characterized as architectural disorganization, loss of villi and chronic active inflammation. Increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression was closely correlated with severity of tissue damage and inflammation. Particularly, the plasma citrulline level (PCL), a potential marker for radiation-induced intestinal damage, was significantly decreased the day after irradiation and recovered when irradiated mucosa was normalized. Our results also showed that PCL changes were positively correlated with microscopic changes and the endoscopic score in radiation-induced mucosal damage. In conclusion, the ileocutaneous anastomosis model using the minipig mimics human GI syndrome and allows the study of sequential changes in the ileum, the main target tissue of abdominal irradiation. In addition, PCL could be a simple biomarker for radiation-induced intestinal damage.

  2. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, Paul E.; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Barker, Christopher A.; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G.; Dicker, Adam P.; Formenti, Silvia C.; Graves, Edward E.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Hei, Tom K.; Kimmelman, Alec C.; Kirsch, David G.; Kozak, Kevin R.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Marples, Brian; and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  3. Current status and recommendations for the future of research, teaching, and testing in the biological sciences of radiation oncology: report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, executive summary.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Paul E; Anscher, Mitchell S; Barker, Christopher A; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G; Cha, Yong I; Dicker, Adam P; Formenti, Silvia C; Graves, Edward E; Hahn, Stephen M; Hei, Tom K; Kimmelman, Alec C; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Lawrence, Theodore S; Marples, Brian; McBride, William H; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Park, Catherine C; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Zietman, Anthony L; Steinberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  4. Reconstruction of the Radiation Emergency Medical System From the Acute to the Sub-acute Phases After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Crisis.

    PubMed

    Ojino, Mayo; Ishii, Masami

    2014-02-01

    The radiation emergency medical system in Japan ceased to function as a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, which has commonly become known as the "Fukushima Accident." In this paper, we review the reconstruction processes of the radiation emergency medical system in order of events and examine the ongoing challenges to overcoming deficiencies and reinforcing the system by reviewing relevant literature, including the official documents of the investigation committees of the National Diet of Japan, the Japanese government, and the Tokyo Electric Power Company, as well as technical papers written by the doctors involved in radiation emergency medical activities in Fukushima. Our review has revealed that the reconstruction was achieved in 6 stages from March 11 to July 1, 2011: (1) Re-establishment of an off-site center (March 13), (2) Re-establishment of a secondary radiation emergency hospital (March 14), (3) Reconstruction of the initial response system for radiation emergency care (April 2), (4) Reinforcement of the off-site center and stationing of disaster medical advisors at the off-site center (April 4), (5) Reinforcement of the medical care system and an increase in the number of hospitals for non-contaminated patients (From April 2 to June 23), and (6) Enhancement of the medical care system in the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant and the construction of a new medical care system, involving both industrial medicine and emergency medicine (July 1). Medical resources such as voluntary efforts, academic societies, a local community medical system and university hospitals involved in medical care activities on 6 stages originally had not planned. In the future, radiation emergency medical systems should be evaluated with these 6 stages as a basis, in order to reinforce and enrich both the existing and backup systems so that minimal harm will come to nuclear power plant workers or evacuees and that they will receive proper care. This

  5. Acute Temporal Changes of MRI-Tracked Tumor Vascular Parameters after Combined Anti-angiogenic and Radiation Treatments in a Rat Glioma Model: Identifying Signatures of Synergism.

    PubMed

    Elmghirbi, Rasha; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Brown, Stephen L; Panda, Swayamprava; Aryal, Madhava P; Keenan, Kelly A; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Cabral, Glauber; Ewing, James R

    2017-01-01

    In this study we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers to monitor the acute temporal changes in tumor vascular physiology with the aim of identifying the vascular signatures that predict response to combined anti-angiogenic and radiation treatments. Forty-three athymic rats implanted with orthotopic U-251 glioma cells were studied for approximately 21 days after implantation. Two MRI studies were performed on each animal, pre- and post-treatment, to measure tumor vascular parameters. Two animal groups received treatment comprised of Cilengitide, an anti-angiogenic agent and radiation. The first group received a subcurative regimen of Cilengitide 1 h before irradiation, while the second group received a curative regimen of Cilengitide 8 h before irradiation. Cilengitide was given as a single dose (4 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) after the pretreatment MRI study and before receiving a 20 Gy radiation dose. After irradiation, the post-treatment MRI study was performed at selected time points: 2, 4, 8 and 12 h (n = ≥5 per time point). Significant changes in vascular parameters were observed at early time points after combined treatments in both treatment groups (1 and 8 h). The temporal changes in vascular parameters in the first group (treated 1 h before exposure) resembled a previously reported pattern associated with radiation exposure alone. Conversely, in the second group (treated 8 h before exposure), all vascular parameters showed an initial response at 2-4 h postirradiation, followed by an apparent lack of response at later time points. The signature time point to define the "synergy" of Cilengitide and radiation was 4 h postirradiation. For example, 4 h after combined treatments using a 1 h separation (which followed the subcurative regimen), tumor blood flow was significantly decreased, nearly 50% below baseline (P = 0.007), whereas 4 h after combined treatments using an 8 h separation (which followed the curative regimen), tumor blood flow was only 10

  6. Position statement on ethics, equipoise and research on charged particle radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Mark; Timlin, Claire; Peach, Ken; Binik, Ariella; Puthenparampil, Wilson; Lodge, Mark; Kehoe, Sean; Brada, Michael; Burnet, Neil; Clarke, Steve; Crellin, Adrian; Dunn, Michael; Fossati, Piero; Harris, Steve; Hocken, Michael; Hope, Tony; Ives, Jonathan; Kamada, Tadashi; London, Alex John; Miller, Robert; Parker, Michael; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Savulescu, Julian; Short, Susan; Skene, Loane; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tuan, Jeffrey; Weijer, Charles

    2014-08-01

    The use of charged-particle radiation therapy (CPRT) is an increasingly important development in the treatment of cancer. One of the most pressing controversies about the use of this technology is whether randomised controlled trials are required before this form of treatment can be considered to be the treatment of choice for a wide range of indications. Equipoise is the key ethical concept in determining which research studies are justified. However, there is a good deal of disagreement about how this concept is best understood and applied in the specific case of CPRT. This report is a position statement on these controversies that arises out of a workshop held at Wolfson College, Oxford in August 2011. The workshop brought together international leaders in the relevant fields (radiation oncology, medical physics, radiobiology, research ethics and methodology), including proponents on both sides of the debate, in order to make significant progress on the ethical issues associated with CPRT research. This position statement provides an ethical platform for future research and should enable further work to be done in developing international coordinated programmes of research.

  7. CCM-AMI, a Polyethylene Glycol Micelle with Amifostine, as an Acute Radiation Syndrome Protectant in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hung; Kuo, Min-Liang; Wang, Jen-Ling; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Chang, Li-Ching; Chan, Leong-Perng; Lin, Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Acute radiation syndrome results from radiation exposure, such as in accidental nuclear disasters. Safe and effective radioprotectants, mitigators, and treatment drugs must be developed as medical countermeasures against radiation exposure. Here, the authors evaluated CCM-Ami, a novel polyethylene glycol micelle encapsulated with amifostine, for its radioprotective properties after total-body irradiation from a 60Co source. Male C57BL/6 mice (6-8 wk old) were intravenously injected with 45 mg kg(-1) of CCM-Ami 90 min before exposure to 7.2 and 8.5 Gy irradiation at a dose rate of 0.04 Gy min(-1). Both survival benefit and hematopoietic protection were observed after prophylactic CCM-Ami administration when compared with the effects measured in excipient control and amifostine groups. Pharmacokinetic results showed that after the intravenous injection, the plasma concentration of WR-1065, the active form of amifostine, was higher in CCM-Ami-treated mice than in amifostine-treated mice. These findings suggest that CCM-Ami-mediated hematopoietic protection plays a key role in enhancing survival of mice exposed to radiation toxicity and thus indicate that CCM-Ami is a radioprotectant that can be used safely and effectively in nuclear disasters.

  8. The Gottingen minipig is a model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome: G-CSF stimulates hematopoiesis and enhances survival from lethal total-body gamma-irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H.; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D.; Holt, Rebecca K.; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS), to enhance discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematological parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery following irradiation provide a convenient means to compare efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials Male Gottingen minipigs, 4–5 months old and weighing 9–11 kg were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen®, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body gamma-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results Results indicate G-CSF enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusion These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing numbers of circulating granulocytes. PMID:23845847

  9. Activities of the National Academy of Sciences in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Edington, C.W.

    1991-02-01

    The activities of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), has a long history and the specific time period supported by this contract is but a small piece of the long-term continuing program. As a background, in August 1945, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima (6 August) and Nagasaki (9 August). Shortly after the bombings, US medical teams joined forces with their Japanese counterparts to form a Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bombs. As a result of the Joint Commission's investigations, it was determined that consideration should be given to the establishment of a long-term study of the potential late health effects of exposure of the survivors to radiation from the bombs. The results obtained from RERF studies contribute the vast majority of information that provides a better understanding of radiation effects on humans. This information has been used extensively by national organizations and international committees for estimating risks associated with radiation exposures. The estimated risks developed by these independent organizations are used by government agencies around the world to establish standards for protection of individuals exposed in the occupational, medical, and general environment. Some of these results are described briefly in this report.

  10. SURFRAD-A National Surface Radiation Budget Network for Atmospheric Research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, John A.; Deluisi, John J.; Long, Charles N.

    2000-10-01

    A surface radiation budget observing network (SURFRAD) has been established for the United States to support satellite retrieval validation, modeling, and climate, hydrology, and weather research. The primary measurements are the downwelling and upwelling components of broadband solar and thermal infrared irradiance. A hallmark of the network is the measurement and computation of ancillary parameters important to the transmission of radiation. SURFRAD commenced operation in 1995. Presently, it is made up of six stations in diverse climates, including the moist subtropical environment of the U.S. southeast, the cool and dry northern plains, and the hot and arid desert southwest. Network operation involves a rigorous regimen of frequent calibration, quality assurance, and data quality control. An efficient supporting infrastructure has been created to gather, check, and disseminate the basic data expeditiously. Quality controlled daily processed data files from each station are usually available via the Internet within a day of real time. Data from SURFRAD have been used to validate measurements from NASA's Earth Observing System series of satellites, satellite-based retrievals of surface erythematogenic radiation, the national ultraviolet index, and real-time National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) products. It has also been used for carbon sequestration studies, to check radiative transfer codes in various physical models, for basic research and instruction at universities, climate research, and for many other applications. Two stations now have atmospheric energy flux and soil heat flux instrumentation, making them full surface energy balance sites. It is hoped that eventually all SURFRAD stations will have this capability.

  11. Colony-stimulating factors for the treatment of the hematopoietic component of the acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS): a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Newman, Victoria L; Seed, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest national security threats to the United States is the detonation of an improvised nuclear device or a radiological dispersal device in a heavily populated area. As such, this type of security threat is considered to be of relatively low risk, but one that would have an extraordinary high impact on health and well-being of the US citizenry. Psychological counseling and medical assessments would be necessary for all those significantly impacted by the nuclear/radiological event. Direct medical interventions would be necessary for all those individuals who had received substantial radiation exposures (e.g., >1 Gy). Although no drugs or products have yet been specifically approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) to treat the effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and pegylated G-CSF have been used off label for treating radiation accident victims. Recent threats of terrorist attacks using nuclear or radiologic devices makes it imperative that the medical community have up-to-date information and a clear understanding of treatment protocols using therapeutically effective recombinant growth factors and cytokines such as G-CSF and GM-CSF for patients exposed to injurious doses of ionizing radiation. Based on limited human studies with underlying biology, we see that the recombinants, G-CSF and GM-CSF appear to have modest, but significant medicinal value in treating radiation accident victims. In the near future, the US FDA may approve G-CSF and GM-CSF as ‘Emergency Use Authorization’ (EUA) for managing radiation-induced aplasia, an ARS-related pathology. In this article, we review the status of growth factors for the treatment of radiological/nuclear accident victims.

  12. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-04-11

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition.

  13. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition. PMID:27077845

  14. Transfer of Real-time Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model; Research to Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K. S. F.; Hwang, J.; Shin, D. K.; Kim, G. J.; Morley, S.; Henderson, M. G.; Friedel, R. H.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (rtDREAM) was developed by LANL for nowcast of energetic electrons' flux at the radiation belt to quantify potential risks from radiation damage at the satellites. Assimilated data are from multiple sources including LANL assets (GEO, GPS). For transfer from research to operation of the rtDREAM code, LANL/KSWC/NOAA makes a Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU) on the collaboration between three parts. By this MOU, KWSC/RRA provides all the support for transitioning the research version of DREAM to operations. KASI is primarily responsible for providing all the interfaces between the current scientific output formats of the code and useful space weather products that can be used and accessed through the web. In the second phase, KASI will be responsible in performing the work needed to transform the Van Allen Probes beacon data into "DREAM ready" inputs. KASI will also provide the "operational" code framework and additional data preparation, model output, display and web page codes back to LANL and SWPC. KASI is already a NASA partnering ground station for the Van Allen Probes' space weather beacon data and can here show use and utility of these data for comparison between rtDREAM and observations by web. NOAA has offered to take on some of the data processing tasks specific to the GOES data.

  15. The Spectrumof the Cosmic Background Radiation: Early and RecentMeasurements from the White Mountain Research Station

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, G.F.

    1985-09-01

    The White Mountain Research Station has provided a support facility at a high, dry, radio-quiet site for measurements that have established the blackbody character of the cosmic microwave background radiation. This finding has confirmed the interpretation of the radiation as a relic of the primeval fireball and helped to establish the hot Big Bang theory as the standard cosmological model.

  16. Evaluation of genotoxicity of the acute gamma radiation on earthworm Eisenia fetida using single cell gel electrophoresis technique (Comet assay).

    PubMed

    Sowmithra, K; Shetty, N J; Jha, S K; Chaubey, R C

    2015-12-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution. Radiation-induced lesions in DNA can be considered to be molecular markers for early effects of ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation produces a wide spectrum of DNA. Some of these lesions, i.e., DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites can be detected by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay by measuring the migration of DNA from immobilized nuclear DNA. E. fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, i.e., 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50Gy, and comet assay was performed for all the doses along with control at 1, 3 and 5h post irradiation to evaluate the genotoxicity of gamma radiation in this organism. The DNA damage was measured as percentage of comet tail DNA. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in samples exposed to 5Gy and above, and the increase in DNA damage was dose dependent i.e., DNA damage was increased with increased doses of radiation. The highest DNA damage was noticed at 1h post irradiation and gradually decreased with time, i.e., at 3 and 5h post irradiation. The present study reveals that gamma radiation induces DNA damage in E. fetida and the comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for its detection to detect genotoxicity of gamma radiation.

  17. Identification of Differential Gene Expression Patterns after Acute Exposure to High and Low Doses of Low-LET Ionizing Radiation in a Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue.

    PubMed

    Tilton, Susan C; Markillie, Lye Meng; Hays, Spencer; Taylor, Ronald C; Stenoien, David L

    2016-11-01

    In this study we utilized a systems biology approach to identify dose- (0.1, 2.0 and 10 Gy) and time- (3 and 8 h) dependent responses to acute ionizing radiation exposure in a complex tissue, reconstituted human skin. The low dose used here (0.1 Gy) falls within the range of certain medical diagnostic procedures. Of the two higher doses used, 2.0 Gy is typically administered for radiotherapy, while 10 Gy is lethal. Because exposure to any of these doses is possible after an intentional or accidental radiation events, biomarkers are needed to rapidly and accurately triage potentially exposed individuals. Here, tissue samples were acutely exposed to X-ray-generated low-linear-energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation, and direct RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to quantify altered transcripts. The time points used for this study aid in assessing early responses to exposure, when key signaling pathways and biomarkers can be identified, which precede and regulate later phenotypic alterations that occur at high doses, including cell death. We determined that a total of 1,701 genes expressed were significantly affected by high-dose radiation, with the majority of genes affected at 10 Gy. Expression levels of a group of 29 genes, including GDF15, BBC3, PPM1D, FDXR, GADD45A, MDM2, CDKN1A, TP53INP1, CYCSP27, SESN1, SESN2, PCNA and AEN, were similarly altered at both 2 and 10 Gy, but not 0.1 Gy, at both time points. A much larger group of upregulated genes, including those involved in inflammatory responses, was significantly altered only after 10 Gy irradiation. At high doses, downregulated genes were associated with cell cycle regulation and exhibited an apparent linear response between 2 and 10 Gy. While only a few genes were significantly affected by 0.1 Gy irradiation, using stringent statistical filters, groups of related genes regulating cell cycle progression and inflammatory responses consistently exhibited opposite trends in their regulation compared to high

  18. First Generation Gene Expression Signature for Early Prediction of Late Occurring Hematological Acute Radiation Syndrome in Baboons.

    PubMed

    Port, M; Herodin, F; Valente, M; Drouet, M; Lamkowski, A; Majewski, M; Abend, M

    2016-07-01

    We implemented a two-stage study to predict late occurring hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS) in a baboon model based on gene expression changes measured in peripheral blood within the first two days after irradiation. Eighteen baboons were irradiated to simulate different patterns of partial-body and total-body exposure, which corresponded to an equivalent dose of 2.5 or 5 Gy. According to changes in blood cell counts the surviving baboons (n = 17) exhibited mild (H1-2, n = 4) or more severe (H2-3, n = 13) HARS. Blood samples taken before irradiation served as unexposed control (H0, n = 17). For stage I of this study, a whole genome screen (mRNA microarrays) was performed using a portion of the samples (H0, n = 5; H1-2, n = 4; H2-3, n = 5). For stage II, using the remaining samples and the more sensitive methodology, qRT-PCR, validation was performed on candidate genes that were differentially up- or down-regulated during the first two days after irradiation. Differential gene expression was defined as significant (P < 0.05) and greater than or equal to a twofold difference above a H0 classification. From approximately 20,000 genes, on average 46% appeared to be expressed. On day 1 postirradiation for H2-3, approximately 2-3 times more genes appeared up-regulated (1,418 vs. 550) or down-regulated (1,603 vs. 735) compared to H1-2. This pattern became more pronounced at day 2 while the number of differentially expressed genes decreased. The specific genes showed an enrichment of biological processes coding for immune system processes, natural killer cell activation and immune response (P = 1 × E-06 up to 9 × E-14). Based on the P values, magnitude and sustained differential gene expression over time, we selected 89 candidate genes for validation using qRT-PCR. Ultimately, 22 genes were confirmed for identification of H1-3 classifications and seven genes for identification of H2-3 classifications using qRT-PCR. For H1-3 classifications, most genes were

  19. Big Data and Comparative Effectiveness Research in Radiation Oncology: Synergy and Accelerated Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Trifiletti, Daniel M.; Showalter, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    Several advances in large data set collection and processing have the potential to provide a wave of new insights and improvements in the use of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The era of electronic health records, genomics, and improving information technology resources creates the opportunity to leverage these developments to create a learning healthcare system that can rapidly deliver informative clinical evidence. By merging concepts from comparative effectiveness research with the tools and analytic approaches of “big data,” it is hoped that this union will accelerate discovery, improve evidence for decision making, and increase the availability of highly relevant, personalized information. This combination offers the potential to provide data and analysis that can be leveraged for ultra-personalized medicine and high-quality, cutting-edge radiation therapy. PMID:26697409

  20. Fundamental remote sensing science research program: The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deering, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization (SRAEC) Project was established within the NASA Fundamental Remote Sensing Science Research Program to improve our understanding of the fundamental relationships of energy interactions between the sensor and the surface target, including the effect of the atmosphere. The current studies are generalized into the following five subject areas: optical scene modeling, Earth-space radiative transfer, electromagnetic properties of surface materials, microwave scene modeling, and scatterometry studies. This report has been prepared to provide a brief overview of the SRAEC Project history and objectives and to report on the scientific findings and project accomplishments made by the nineteen principal investigators since the project's initiation just over three years ago. This annual summary report derives from the most recent annual principal investigators meeting held January 29 to 31, 1985.

  1. Radiation Proctopathy

    PubMed Central

    Grodsky, Marc B.; Sidani, Shafik M.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a widely utilized treatment modality for pelvic malignancies, including prostate cancer, rectal cancer, and cervical cancer. Given its fixed position in the pelvis, the rectum is at a high risk for injury secondary to ionizing radiation. Despite advances made in radiation science, up to 75% of the patients will suffer from acute radiation proctitis and up to 20% may experience chronic symptoms. Symptoms can be variable and include diarrhea, bleeding, incontinence, and fistulization. A multitude of treatment options exist. This article summarizes the latest knowledge relating to radiation proctopathy focusing on the vast array of treatment options. PMID:26034407

  2. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Research and Treatment? More In Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia About Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  3. Facilitators and barriers to doing workplace mental health research: Case study of acute psychological trauma in a public transit system.

    PubMed

    Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi

    2016-03-10

    The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.

  4. A high resolution small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) with x-ray tomographic guidance capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John; Armour, Elwood; Kazanzides, Peter; Iordachita, Iulian; Tryggestad, Erik; Deng, Hua; Matinfar, Mohammad; Kennedy, Christopher; Liu, Zejian; Chan, Timothy; Gray, Owen; Verhaegen, Frank; McNutt, Todd; Ford, Eric; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the CT imaging, conformal irradiation and treatment planning capabilities of a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). Methods The SARRP employs a dual-focal spot, constant voltage x-ray source mounted on a gantry with a source-to-isocenter distance of 35 cm. Gantry rotation is limited to 120° from vertical. Eighty to 100 kVp x-rays from the smaller 0.4 mm focal spot are used for imaging. Both 0.4 mm and 3.0 mm focal spots operate at 225 kVp for irradiation. Robotic translate/rotate stages are used to position the animal. Cone-beam (CB) CT imaging is achieved by rotating the horizontal animal between the stationary x-ray source and a flat-panel detector. Radiation beams range from 0.5 mm in diameter to (60 × 60) mm2. Dosimetry is measured with radio-chromic films. Monte Carlo dose calculations are employed for treatment planning. The combination of gantry and robotic stage motions facilitate conformal irradiation. Results The SARRP spans 3 ft × 4 ft × 6 ft (WxLxH). Depending on filtration, the isocenter dose outputs at 1 cm depth in water range from 22 to 375 cGy/min from the smallest to the largest radiation fields. The 20% to 80% dose fall-off spans 0.16 mm. CBCT with (0.6 × 0.6 × 0.6) mm3 voxel resolution is acquired with less than 1 cGy. Treatment planning is performed at sub-mm resolution. Conclusions The capability of the SARRP to deliver highly focal beams to multiple animal model systems provides new research opportunities that more realistically bridge laboratory research and clinical translation. PMID:18640502

  5. Laboratory research of laser-radiated blood therapy and its clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fu-Shou; Yang, Xi-Cheng; Zhang, Hong-Lin

    1995-05-01

    This paper deals with the therapy by the He-Ne laser of low power, modulated pulse and low dosage of 365 nm optic source. To radiate the blood in vitro of patient's, at the time, the blood was treated with addition of oxygen. The treated blood was then retransfusion into the same patient. From 1993 to 1994, we have cured 202 cases with prominent therapeutic effect. The results of clinic and laboratory research showed: It greatly increased the immunologic function of the body, the total effective ratio achived 95% (cerebral vascular diseases), and greatly decreased the drug reaction of patients after the tumors were treated by chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  6. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, Aron; Wilcox, Stephen; Stoffel, Thomas

    2015-12-23

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  7. Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following chemotherapy (paclitaxel and carboplatin) and radiation therapy in ovarian cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, M; Nakayama, K; Rahman, M T; Rahman, M; Katagiri, H; Katagiri, A; Ishibashi, T; Iida, K; Nakayama, N; Miyazaki, K

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the incidence of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) that occur during chemotherapy for ovarian cancer has increased. While alkylating agents and topoisomerase II inhibitors are particularly mutagenic and have strong leukemogenic potential, paclitaxel and combination chemotherapy/radiation therapy also appear to induce t-MDS. The present authors report a case of t-MDS that developed during chemotherapy and radiation therapy for ovarian cancer. The patient was a 75-year-old woman who received six courses of cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/cisplatin (CAP) therapy after initial surgery for Stage IIIc grade ovarian cancer in 1995. Beginning in February 2005, the patient experienced multiple recurrences due to sternal metastasis. Chemotherapy, including paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC), was administered intermittently and was combined with radiation therapy to a sternal metastatic lesion. Pancytopenia was observed in December 2008, and she was diagnosed with t-MDS (WHO subtype, refractory cytopenias with multilineage dysplasia [RCMD]): the time from first chemotherapy to t-MDS onset was 106 months. Without evidence of blast crisis, the recurrent lesions continued to grow and caused multiple cerebral infarctions, from which she eventually died. The cumulative doses of paclitaxel and carboplatin administered to this patient were 1,968 mg and 6,480 mg, respectively.

  8. Activities of the National Academy of Sciences in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Edington, C.W.

    1992-06-01

    This progress report relates progress in the various research projects evaluating the late health effects, both somatic and genetic, resulting from radiation exposure of the survivors of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Considerable progress has been made in the collection and utilization of the various epidemiological data bases. These include the Life Span Study, (LSS) cohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort, the In Utero cohort, the leukemia registry and the F-1 Study population. Important progress has been made in using RERF Tumor and Tissue Registry records for evaluation of cancer incidence and radiation risk estimates for comparison with cancer mortality and risk in the LSS cohort. At the present time, a manuscript on the incidence of solid tumors (1950-1987) is undergoing internal and external review for publication as an RERF Technical report (TR) and for publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. In addition, manuscripts are in preparation on (1) a comprehensive report on the incidence of hematological cancers, including analysis of leukemia by cell type (1950-1987), (2) a general description of Tumor Registry operations and (3) a comparison of incidence- and mortality-based estimates of radiation risk in the LSS cohort.

  9. Acute Skin Toxicity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Who's at Risk?

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Laser, Benjamin; Kowalski, Alex V.; Fontenla, Sandra C.; Pena-Greenberg, Elizabeth; Yorke, Ellen D.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Hunt, Margie A.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: We examined the rate of acute skin toxicity within a prospectively managed database of patients treated for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigated factors that might predict skin toxicity. Methods: From May 2006 through January 2008, 50 patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with 60 Gy in three fractions or 44-48 Gy in four fractions. Patients were treated with multiple coplanar beams (3-7, median 4) with a 6 MV linac using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and dynamic multileaf collimation. Toxicity grading was performed and based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin reactions were calculated by Fisher's exact test. Results: After a minimum 3 months of follow-up, 19 patients (38%) developed Grade 1, 4 patients (8%) Grade 2, 2 patients (4%) Grade 3, and 1 patient Grade 4 acute skin toxicity. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin toxicity included using only 3 beams (p = 0.0007), distance from the tumor to the posterior chest wall skin of less than 5 cm (p = 0.006), and a maximum skin dose of 50% or higher of the prescribed dose (p = 0.02). Conclusions: SBRT can be associated with significant skin toxicity. One must consider the skin dose when evaluating the treatment plan and consider the bolus effect of immobilization devices.

  10. Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

    2011-04-18

    We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

  11. Suitability of commonly used housekeeping genes in gene expression studies for space radiation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenz, A.; Stojicic, N.; Lau, P.; Hellweg, C. E.; Baumstark-Khan, C.

    Research on the effects of ionizing radiation exposure involves the use of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for measuring changes in gene expression. Several variables need to be controlled for gene expression analysis, such as different amounts of starting material between the samples, variations in enzymatic efficiencies of the reverse transcription step, and differences in RNA integrity. Normalization of the obtained data to an invariant endogenous control gene (reference gene) is the elementary step in relative quantification strategy. There is a strong correlation between the quality of the normalized data and the stability of the reference gene itself. This is especially relevant when the samples have been obtained after exposure to radiation qualities inducing different amounts and kinds of damage, leading to effects on cell cycle delays or even on cell cycle blocks. In order to determine suitable reference genes as internal controls in qRT-PCR assays after exposure to ionizing radiation, we studied the gene expression levels of nine commonly used reference genes which are constitutively expressed in A549 lung cancer cells. Expression levels obtained for ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, PBGD, 18S rRNA, G6PDH, HPRT, UBC, TFRC and SDHA were determined after exposure to 2 and 6 Gy X-radiation. Gene expression data for Growth arrest and damage-inducible gene 45 (GADD45α) and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A/p21CIP1) were selected to elucidate the influence of normalization by using appropriate and inappropriate internal control genes. According to these results, we strongly recommend the use of a panel of reference genes instead of only one.

  12. ACUTE AND CHRONIC INTAKES OF FALLOUT RADIONUCLIDES BY MARSHALLESE FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTING AT BIKINI AND ENEWETAK AND RELATED INTERNAL RADIATION DOSES

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L.; Weinstock, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  13. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis of Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Cisplatin

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Daniel R.; Song, William Y.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Rose, Brent S.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that increased bowel radiation dose is associated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using a previously derived normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods: Fifty patients with Stage I-III cervical cancer undergoing IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin were analyzed. Acute GI toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, excluding upper GI events. A logistic model was used to test correlations between acute GI toxicity and bowel dosimetric parameters. The primary objective was to test the association between Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity and the volume of bowel receiving {>=}45 Gy (V{sub 45}) using the logistic model. Results: Twenty-three patients (46%) had Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity. The mean (SD) V{sub 45} was 143 mL (99). The mean V{sub 45} values for patients with and without Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity were 176 vs. 115 mL, respectively. Twenty patients (40%) had V{sub 45} >150 mL. The proportion of patients with Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity with and without V{sub 45} >150 mL was 65% vs. 33% (p = 0.03). Logistic model parameter estimates V50 and {gamma} were 161 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 60-399) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04-0.63), respectively. On multivariable logistic regression, increased V{sub 45} was associated with an increased odds of Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity (odds ratio 2.19 per 100 mL, 95% CI 1.04-4.63, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increasing bowel V{sub 45} is correlated with increased GI toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing IMRT and concurrent cisplatin. Reducing bowel V{sub 45} could reduce the risk of Grade {>=}2 GI toxicity by approximately 50% per 100 mL of bowel spared.

  14. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  15. Neurobehavioural Changes and Brain Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Exposure to GSM900 Mobile Phone Radiations in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Nirwane, Abhijit; Sridhar, Vinay; Majumdar, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    The impact of mobile phone (MP) radiation on the brain is of specific interest to the scientific community and warrants investigations, as MP is held close to the head. Studies on humans and rodents revealed hazards MP radiation associated such as brain tumors, impairment in cognition, hearing etc. Melatonin (MT) is an important modulator of CNS functioning and is a neural antioxidant hormone. Zebrafish has emerged as a popular model organism for CNS studies. Herein, we evaluated the impact of GSM900MP (GSM900MP) radiation exposure daily for 1 hr for 14 days with the SAR of 1.34W/Kg on neurobehavioral and oxidative stress parameters in zebrafish. Our study revealed that, GSM900MP radiation exposure, significantly decreased time spent near social stimulus zone and increased total distance travelled, in social interaction test. In the novel tank dive test, the GSM900MP radiation exposure elicited anxiety as revealed by significantly increased time spent in bottom half; freezing bouts and duration and decreased distance travelled, average velocity, and number of entries to upper half of the tank. Exposed zebrafish spent less time in the novel arm of the Y-Maze, corroborating significant impairment in learning as compared to the control group. Exposure decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities whereas, increased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was encountered showing compromised antioxidant defense. Treatment with MT significantly reversed the above neurobehavioral and oxidative derangements induced by GSM900MP radiation exposure. This study traced GSM900MP radiation exposure induced neurobehavioral aberrations and alterations in brain oxidative status. Furthermore, MT proved to be a promising therapeutic candidate in ameliorating such outcomes in zebrafish. PMID:27123163

  16. Nuclear Weapon Effect Research at PSR (Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation) - 1983. Acute Radiation Effects on Individual Crewmember Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-31

    r a ~~~W IfIlS a Q. -IC’ -4 Z V) w - - - - - - - @ - - - - t - - - - a - - - -. - - - - - - -t - w IF0 i - - - -- - -- - - - - - ~1~ 199 c z U. aula I...quantities or slight modifications.. Among th nest useful of diagnos-""’ tics using residuals are,’’" - v..-- I . The res•iduals e =Yi -Yi themselves

  17. Patient-Derived Xenografts as a Model System for Radiation Research

    PubMed Central

    Willey, Christopher D.; Gilbert, Ashley; Anderson, Joshua C.; Gillespie, G. Yancey

    2015-01-01

    The cancer literature is filled with promising preclinical studies demonstrating impressive efficacy for new therapeutics, yet translation of these approaches into clinical successes has been rare, indicating that current methods used to predict efficacy are sub-optimal. The most likely reason for the limitation of these studies is the disconnect between preclinical models and cancers treated in the clinic. Specifically, most preclinical models are poor representations of human disease. Immortalized cancer cell lines that dominate the cancer literature may be, in a sense, “paper tigers” that have been selected by decades of culture to be artificially driven by highly targetable proteins. Thus, although effective in treating these cell lines either in vitro or as artificial tumors transplanted from culture into experimental animals as xenografts, the identified therapies will likely underperform in a clinical setting. This inherent limitation not only applies to drug testing, but also to experiments with radiation therapy. Indeed, traditional radiobiology methods rely on monolayer culture systems, with emphasis on colony formation and DNA damage assessment that may have limited clinical translation. As such, there has been keen interest in developing tumor explant systems in which patient tumors are directly transplanted into, and solely maintained in vivo, using immunocompromised mice. These so-called Patient-Derived Xenografts (PDX) represent a robust model system that has been garnering support in academia and industry as a superior preclinical approach to drug testing. Likewise, PDX models have the potential to improve radiation research. In this review, we describe how PDX models are currently being used for both drug and radiation testing and how they can be incorporated into a translational research program. PMID:26384275

  18. Image Guided Small Animal Radiation Research Platform: Calibration of Treatment Beam Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Ford, Eric; Iordachita, Iulian; Wong, John; Kazanzides, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression, and response to therapy, with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is a portable system for precision irradiation with beam sizes down to approximately 0.5 mm and optimally planned radiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. This paper focuses on the geometric calibration of the system for high-precision irradiation. A novel technique for calibration of the treatment beam is presented, which employs an x-ray camera whose precise positioning need not be known. Using the camera system we acquired a digitally reconstructed 3D “star shot” for gantry calibration, and then developed a technique to align each beam to a common isocenter with the robotic animal positioning stages. The calibration incorporates localization by cone-beam CT guidance. Uncorrected offsets of the beams with respect to the calibration origin ranged from 0.4 mm to 5.2 mm. With corrections, these alignments can be brought to within < 1 mm. The calibration technique was used to deliver a stereotactic-like arc treatment to a phantom constructed with EBT Gafchromic films. All beams were shown to intersect at a common isocenter with a measured beam (FWHM) of approximately 1.07 mm using the 0.5 mm collimated beam. The desired positioning accuracy of the SARRP is 0.25 mm and the results indicate an accuracy of 0.2 mm. To fully realize the radiation localization capabilities of the SARRP, precise geometric calibration is required, as with any such system. The x-ray camera-based technique presented here provides a straightforward and semi-automatic method for system calibration. PMID:19141881

  19. Image-guided small animal radiation research platform: calibration of treatment beam alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Ford, Eric; Iordachita, Iulian; Wong, John; Kazanzides, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression and response to therapy with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) is a portable system for precision irradiation with beam sizes down to approximately 0.5 mm and optimally planned radiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. This paper focuses on the geometric calibration of the system for high-precision irradiation. A novel technique for the calibration of the treatment beam is presented, which employs an x-ray camera whose precise positioning need not be known. Using the camera system we acquired a digitally reconstructed 3D 'star shot' for gantry calibration and then developed a technique to align each beam to a common isocenter with the robotic animal positioning stages. The calibration incorporates localization by cone-beam CT guidance. Uncorrected offsets of the beams with respect to the calibration origin ranged from 0.4 mm to 5.2 mm. With corrections, these alignment errors can be reduced to the sub-millimeter range. The calibration technique was used to deliver a stereotactic-like arc treatment to a phantom constructed with EBT Gafchromic films. All beams were shown to intersect at a common isocenter with a measured beam (FWHM) of approximately 1.07 mm using the 0.5 mm collimated beam. The desired positioning accuracy of the SARRP is 0.25 mm and the results indicate an accuracy of 0.2 mm. To fully realize the radiation localization capabilities of the SARRP, precise geometric calibration is required, as with any such system. The x-ray camera-based technique presented here provides a straightforward and semi-automatic method for system calibration.

  20. Long-term effects of acute low-dose ionizing radiation on the neonatal mouse heart: a proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Mayur V; Barjaktarovic, Zarko; Azimzadeh, Omid; Kempf, Stefan J; Merl, Juliane; Hauck, Stefanie M; Eriksson, Per; Buratovic, Sonja; Atkinson, Michael J; Tapio, Soile

    2013-11-01

    Epidemiological studies establish that children and young adults are especially susceptible to radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (CVD). The biological mechanisms behind the elevated CVD risk following exposure at young age remain unknown. The present study aims to elucidate the long-term effects of ionizing radiation by studying the murine cardiac proteome after exposure to low and moderate radiation doses. NMRI mice received single doses of total body (60)Co gamma-irradiation on postnatal day 10 and were sacrificed 7 months later. Changes in cardiac protein expression were quantified using isotope-coded protein label and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 32, 31, 66, and 34 significantly deregulated proteins after doses of 0.02, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Gy, respectively. The four doses shared 9 deregulated proteins. Bioinformatics analysis showed that most of the deregulated proteins belonged to a limited set of biological categories, including metabolic processes, inflammatory response, and cytoskeletal structure. The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha was predicted as a common upstream regulator of several deregulated proteins. This study indicates that both adaptive and maladaptive responses to the initial radiation damage persist well into adulthood. It will contribute to the understanding of the long-term consequences of radiation-induced injury and developmental alterations in the neonatal heart.

  1. The advantages of creating a positive radiation safety culture in the higher education and research sectors.

    PubMed

    Coldwell, T; Cole, P; Edwards, C; Makepeace, J; Murdock, C; Odams, H; Whitcher, R; Willis, S; Yates, L

    2015-12-01

    The safety culture of any organisation plays a critical role in setting the tone for both effective delivery of service and high standards of performance. By embedding safety at a cultural level, organisations are able to influence the attitudes and behaviours of stakeholders. To achieve this requires the ongoing commitment of heads of organisations and also individuals to prioritise safety no less than other competing goals (e.g. in universities, recruitment and retention are key) to ensure the protection of both people and the environment. The concept of culture is the same whatever the sector, e.g. medical, nuclear, industry, education, and research, but the higher education and research sectors within the UK are a unique challenge in developing a strong safety culture. This report provides an overview of the challenges presented by the sector, the current status of radiation protection culture, case studies to demonstrate good and bad practice in the sector and the practical methods to influence change.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2012-04-13

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  3. Principal results of the Medical Research Council's 8th acute myeloid leukaemia trial.

    PubMed

    Rees, J K; Gray, R G; Swirsky, D; Hayhoe, F G

    1986-11-29

    Between 1978 and 1983, 1127 patients with de-novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) were entered into the Medical Research Council (MRC)'s 8th AML trial. All received the same induction therapy consisting of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and 6-thioguanine--DAT (1 + 5). The 67% who entered complete remission were randomised to consolidation with two or six further courses of DAT. Adults under the age of 55 were randomised for central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis with intrathecal cytarabine and methotrexate. Finally, those still in remission after 1 year of cytarabine and 6-thioguanine (AT) maintenance were randomised to receive either late intensification with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cytarabine, and prednisolone (COAP) or continued AT. The median survival for the whole group was 12 months; the median duration of first remission was 15 months, with relapse-free survival at 5 years estimated at 18%. The factors most strongly associated with poor survival were performance status and age at presentation, but even among those over 60 years of age, half went into remission. Six courses of DAT consolidation gave a small advantage over two courses in reducing the number of late relapses but no significant survival advantage. Late intensification showed a marginally significant advantage over continued AT maintenance. The incidence of CNS relapse was low and unaffected by prophylaxis. The second remission rate varied from 10% when the first remission was shorter than 6 months to 61% when it had continued for more than 2 years. 40 patients received histocompatible allogeneic bone-marrow transplants in first remission. There was a high procedure-related death rate, particularly among patients over 30 years of age. Thus, initially at least, the transplanted group had shorter survival than a comparable group of chemotherapy-treated patients. Treatment specifications remained unchanged throughout the trial but those enrolled in the later half of the trial had a better (p = 0

  4. Comparative effectiveness research on patients with acute ischemic stroke using Markov decision processes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several methodological issues with non-randomized comparative clinical studies have been raised, one of which is whether the methods used can adequately identify uncertainties that evolve dynamically with time in real-world systems. The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of different combinations of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatments and combinations of TCM and Western medicine interventions in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) by using Markov decision process (MDP) theory. MDP theory appears to be a promising new method for use in comparative effectiveness research. Methods The electronic health records (EHR) of patients with AIS hospitalized at the 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine between May 2005 and July 2008 were collected. Each record was portioned into two "state-action-reward" stages divided by three time points: the first, third, and last day of hospital stay. We used the well-developed optimality technique in MDP theory with the finite horizon criterion to make the dynamic comparison of different treatment combinations. Results A total of 1504 records with a primary diagnosis of AIS were identified. Only states with more than 10 (including 10) patients' information were included, which gave 960 records to be enrolled in the MDP model. Optimal combinations were obtained for 30 types of patient condition. Conclusion MDP theory makes it possible to dynamically compare the effectiveness of different combinations of treatments. However, the optimal interventions obtained by the MDP theory here require further validation in clinical practice. Further exploratory studies with MDP theory in other areas in which complex interventions are common would be worthwhile. PMID:22400712

  5. Review and Evaluation of Updated Research on the Health Effects Associated with Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dauer, Lawrence T.; Brooks, Antone L.; Hoel, David G.; Morgan, William F.; Stram, Daniel; Tran, Phung

    2010-07-01

    Potential health effects of low levels of radiation have predominantly been based on those effects observed at high levels of radiation. The authors have reviewed more than 200 percent publications in radiobiology and epidermiology related to low dose radiation and concluded that recent radiobiological studies at low-doses; that doses <100 mSv in a single exposure appear to be too small to allow epidermiological detection of statistically significant excess cancers in the presence of naturally occurring cancers; that low dose radiation research should to holistic, systems-based approaches to develop models that define the shape of the dose-response relationships at low doses; and that these results should be combined with the latest epidermiology to produce a comprehensive understanding of radiation effects that addresses both damage, likely with a linear effect, and response, possibly with non-linear consequences.

  6. Cancer research results of the consortial radiation team of the NSBRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicello, J. F.; Chang, P. Y.; Huso, D. L.; Kennedy, A. R.

    During the last eight years through a cooperative agreement with NASA, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) has been investigating biological risks for personnel in Space, biologic mechanisms and environmental factors responsible for those risks, and countermeasures that could reduce the consequences. The NSBRI uses a programmatic approach where each major risk is investigated by a team through a consortium of individual peer-reviewed research grants. In its initial structuring, NSBRI recognized radiation as one of the major risks in Space, and the Radiation Team has been investigating radiation-induced excess cancer incidences, damage to the central nervous system, and other non-malignant diseases. This presentation reports cancer results and underlying mechanisms. The team is completing the first comprehensive measurement of cancers induced by protons or energetic heavy ions (HZEs) in rodent models (J. Dicello). The results for breast cancer suggest that the biological effectiveness of particles such as iron ions may be less than that frequently assumed. The Team has further demonstrated that exposures to such particles at levels comparable to those in space might be mitigated through pharmaceutical intervention even after exposures have occurred (D. Huso). Dr. Huso's group was able to identify through genetic marking with quantitative immunohistochemistry and microarray analysis that resistant, poorly differentiated breast cancers appear to arise from epithelial cells with a unique gene expression profile. In a parallel NIH grant, Dr. D. Huso developed a new transgenic mouse model for NSBRI studies that better parallels specific genetic pathways associated with hematopoietic malignancies. Dr. A. Kennedy's group at the University of Pennsylvania has shown that non-toxic nutritional supplements can decrease the cytotoxicity levels of oxidative stress and yields of malignantly transformed cells induced by the types of radiation encountered

  7. Genetic influences on the neural and physiological bases of acute threat: A research domain criteria (RDoC) perspective.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Powers, Abigail; Jovanovic, Tanja; Koenen, Karestan C

    2016-01-01

    The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative aims to describe key dimensional constructs underlying mental function across multiple units of analysis-from genes to observable behaviors-in order to better understand psychopathology. The acute threat ("fear") construct of the RDoC Negative Valence System has been studied extensively from a translational perspective, and is highly pertinent to numerous psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and trauma-related disorders. We examined genetic contributions to the construct of acute threat at two units of analysis within the RDoC framework: (1) neural circuits and (2) physiology. Specifically, we focused on genetic influences on activation patterns of frontolimbic neural circuitry and on startle, skin conductance, and heart rate responses. Research on the heritability of activation in threat-related frontolimbic neural circuitry is lacking, but physiological indicators of acute threat have been found to be moderately heritable (35-50%). Genetic studies of the neural circuitry and physiology of acute threat have almost exclusively relied on the candidate gene method and, as in the broader psychiatric genetics literature, most findings have failed to replicate. The most robust support has been demonstrated for associations between variation in the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes with threat-related neural activation and physiological responses. However, unbiased genome-wide approaches using very large samples are needed for gene discovery, and these can be accomplished with collaborative consortium-based research efforts, such as those of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.

  8. Genetic Influences on the Neural and Physiological Bases of Acute Threat: A Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Jennifer A.; Powers, Abigail; Jovanovic, Tanja; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2015-01-01

    The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative aims to describe key dimensional constructs underlying mental function across multiple units of analysis—from genes to observable behaviors—in order to better understand psychopathology. The acute threat (“fear”) construct of the RDoC Negative Valence System has been studied extensively from a translational perspective, and is highly pertinent to numerous psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and trauma-related disorders. We examined genetic contributions to the construct of acute threat at two units of analysis within the RDoC framework: 1) neural circuits and 2) physiology. Specifically, we focused on genetic influences on activation patterns of frontolimbic neural circuitry and on startle, skin conductance, and heart rate responses. Research on the heritability of activation in threat-related frontolimbic neural circuitry is lacking, but physiological indicators of acute threat have been found to be moderately heritable (35-50%). Genetic studies of the neural circuitry and physiology of acute threat have almost exclusively relied on the candidate gene method and, as in the broader psychiatric genetics literature, most findings have failed to replicate. The most robust support has been demonstrated for associations between variation in the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes with threat-related neural activation and physiological responses. However, unbiased genome-wide approaches using very large samples are needed for gene discovery, and these can be accomplished with collaborative consortium-based research efforts, such as those of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium. PMID:26377804