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Sample records for acute rat hippocampal

  1. Increase in synaptic hippocampal zinc concentration following chronic but not acute zinc treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Sowa, Magdalena; Czupryn, Artur; Wierońska, Joanna M; Brański, Piotr; Sadlik, Krystyna; Opoka, Włodzimierz; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Smiałowska, Maria; Skangiel-Kramska, Jolanta; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

    2006-05-23

    Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), one of the most effective treatments of depression, induce mossy fiber sprouting (when assayed by means of synaptic zinc method), and this indicates an increase in the synaptic zinc level in the hippocampus following such therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic zinc hydroaspartate administration on the synaptic and total zinc level in the rat hippocampus. We used two methods of zinc determination: (1) zinc-selenium method, which images the pool of synaptic zinc, and (2) flame atomic absorption spectrometry, which assays the total concentration of zinc. Our results indicate that chronic (14 x 65 mg/kg), but not acute, zinc hydroaspartate administration intraperitoneally (i.p.) increases the pool of synaptic zinc in the majority of rat hippocampal layers (by 72-190%), except for the stratum moleculare and stratum radiatum CA, and perforant path DG. On the other hand, no changes were found in total hippocampal zinc level, measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. These data suggest that chronic zinc treatment increases the pool of synaptic zinc in the hippocampus, and this effect is similar to that observed following chronic ECS treatment. The measurement of zinc concentration in the whole hippocampus by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method is not sensitive enough to detect such subtle alteration. PMID:16674928

  2. Salvianolic Acids Attenuate Rat Hippocampal Injury after Acute CO Poisoning by Improving Blood Flow Properties

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Li; Zhang, Yan-Lin; Li, Zong-Yang; Zhu, Ming-Xia; Yao, Wei-Juan; Zhao, Jin-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning causes the major injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. The most severe damage via CO poisoning is brain injury and mortality. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning (DEACMP) occurs in forty percent of the survivors of acute CO exposure. But the pathological cause for DEACMP is not well understood. And the corresponding therapy is not well developed. In order to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid (SA) on brain injury caused by CO exposure from the view point of hemorheology, we employed a rat model and studied the dynamic of blood changes in the hemorheological and coagulative properties over acute CO exposure. Compared with the groups of CO and 20% mannitol + CO treatments, the severe hippocampal injury caused by acute CO exposure was prevented by SA treatment. These protective effects were associated with the retaining level of hematocrit (Hct), plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in red blood cells (RBCs). These results indicated that SA treatment could significantly improve the deformation of erythrocytes and prevent the damage caused by CO poisoning. Meanwhile, hemorheological indexes are good indicators for monitoring the pathological dynamic after acute CO poisoning. PMID:25705671

  3. Acute stress and hippocampal output: exploring dorsal CA1 and subicular synaptic plasticity simultaneously in anesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Matthew J; Howland, John G

    2013-01-01

    The Cornu Ammonis-1 (CA1) subfield and subiculum (SUB) serve as major output structures of the hippocampal formation. Exploring forms of synaptic plasticity simultaneously within these two output regions may improve understanding of the dynamics of hippocampal circuitry and information transfer between hippocampal and cortical brain regions. Using a novel dual-channel electrophysiological preparation in urethane-anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo, we examined the effects of acute restraint stress (30 min) on short- and long-term forms of synaptic plasticity in both CA1 and SUB by stimulating the CA3 region. Paired-pulse facilitation was disrupted in SUB but not CA1 in the dual-channel experiments following exposure to acute stress. Disruptions in CA1 PPF were evident in subsequent single-channel experiments with a more anterior recording site. Acute stress disrupted long-term potentiation induced by high-frequency stimulation (10 bursts of 20 pulses at 200 Hz) in both CA1 and SUB. Low-frequency stimulation (900 pulses at 1 Hz) did not alter CA1 plasticity while a late-developing potentiation was evident in SUB that was disrupted following exposure to acute stress. These findings highlight differences in the sensitivity to acute stress for distinct forms of synaptic plasticity within synapses in hippocampal output regions. The findings are discussed in relation to normal and aberrant forms of hippocampal-cortical information processing. PMID:24303119

  4. Effect of acute fentanyl treatment on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hai; Xu, Yueming; Liu, Fucun; Wang, Guowei; Hu, Sanjue

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), mainly characterized by short-term decline of learning and memory, occurs after operations under anesthesia. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are highly expressed in interneurons of hippocampus, and is believed to be critical for the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity between hippocampal neurons. Therefore, we investigated the effect of fentanyl, a strong agonist of MOR and often used for anesthesia and analgesia in clinical settings, on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer-collateral CA1 pathway during acute exposure and washout in vitro. Our results revealed that acute fentanyl exposure (0.01, 0.1, 1 μM) dose-dependently increased the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), which was prevented by pre-administration of picrotoxin (50 μM) or MOR antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Phe-Thr-NH2 (CTOP, 10 μM). While fentanyl exposure-increased fEPSPs amplitude was prevented by picrotoxin [an inhibitor of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR)] treatment or fentanyl washout, pretreatment of picrotoxin failed to prevent the fentanyl-impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength as well as the fentanyl-enhanced long-term depression (LTD). These results demonstrated that fentanyl acute exposure and washout increases hippocampal excitability in the Schaffer-collateral CA1 pathway, depending on disinhibiting interneurons after MOR activation. In addition, fentanyl acute exposure and washout modulated synaptic plasticity, but the inhibitory activation was not critical. Elucidating the detailed mechanisms for synaptic dysfunction after fentanyl exposure and washout may provide insights into POCD generation after fentanyl anesthesia. PMID:26578961

  5. KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine protects against acute stress-induced impairments of spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Huang, P; Lu, Q; Zhou, M; Guo, L; Xu, X

    2014-11-01

    Spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) are impaired by stress. KCNQ/Kv7 channels are closely associated with memory and the KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine represents neuroprotective effects. This study aims to test whether KCNQ/Kv7 channel activation prevents acute stress-induced impairments of spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP. Rats were placed on an elevated platform in the middle of a bright room for 30 min to evoke acute stress. The expression of KCNQ/Kv7 subunits was analyzed at 1, 3 and 12 h after stress by Western blotting. Spatial memory was examined by the Morris water maze (MWM) and the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) in the hippocampal CA1 area was recorded in vivo. Acute stress transiently decreased the expression of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 in the hippocampus. Acute stress impaired the spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP, the KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine prevented the impairments, and the protective effects of flupirtine were blocked by XE-991 (10,10-bis(4-Pyridinylmethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenone), a selective KCNQ channel blocker. Furthermore, acute stress decreased the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) at Ser9 in the hippocampus, and flupirtine inhibited the reduction. These results suggest that the KCNQ/Kv7 channels may be a potential target for protecting both hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory retrieval from acute stress influences.

  6. Acute stress enhances adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of newborn neurons via secreted astrocytic FGF2.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Elizabeth D; Muroy, Sandra E; Sun, Wayne G; Covarrubias, David; Leong, Megan J; Barchas, Laurel A; Kaufer, Daniela

    2013-04-16

    Stress is a potent modulator of the mammalian brain. The highly conserved stress hormone response influences many brain regions, particularly the hippocampus, a region important for memory function. The effect of acute stress on the unique population of adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) that resides in the adult hippocampus is unclear. We found that acute stress increased hippocampal cell proliferation and astrocytic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) expression. The effect of acute stress occurred independent of basolateral amygdala neural input and was mimicked by treating isolated NPCs with conditioned media from corticosterone-treated primary astrocytes. Neutralization of FGF2 revealed that astrocyte-secreted FGF2 mediated stress-hormone-induced NPC proliferation. 2 weeks, but not 2 days, after acute stress, rats also showed enhanced fear extinction memory coincident with enhanced activation of newborn neurons. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for brief stress on the hippocampus and improve understanding of the adaptive capacity of the brain. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00362.001.

  7. HIPPOCAMPAL MOSSY FIBER LEU-ENKEPHALIN IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN FEMALE RATS IS SIGNIFICANTLY ALTERED FOLLOWING BOTH ACUTE AND CHRONIC STRESS

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Joseph P.; Kelter, David T.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Waters, Elizabeth M.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that responses to stress are sexually dimorphic, particularly in regard to learning and memory processes: while males display impaired cognitive performance and hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cell dendritic remodeling following chronic stress, females exhibit enhanced performance and no remodeling. Leu-enkephalin, an endogenous opioid peptide found in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway, plays a critical role in mediating synaptic plasticity at the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapse. Estrogen is known to influence the expression of leu-enkephalin in the mossy fibers of females, with leu-enkephalin levels being highest at proestrus and estrus, when estrogen levels are elevated. Since stress is also known to alter the expression of leu-enkephalin in various brain regions, this study was designed to determine whether acute or chronic stress had an effect on mossy fiber leu-enkephalin levels in females or males, through the application of correlated quantitative light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Both acute and chronic stress eliminated the estrogen-dependence of leu-enkephalin levels across the estrous cycle in females, but had no effect on male levels. However, following acute stress leu-enkephalin levels in females were consistently lowered to values comparable to the lowest control values, while following chronic stress they were consistently elevated to values comparable to the highest control values. Ultrastructural changes in leu-enkephalin labeled dense core vesicles paralleled light microscopic observations, with acute stress inducing a decrease in leu-enkephalin labeled dense core vesicles, and chronic stress inducing an increase in leu-enkephalin labeled dense-core vesicles in females. These findings suggest that alterations in leu-enkephalin levels following stress could play an important role in the sex-specific responses that females display in learning processes, including those important in addiction. PMID:24275289

  8. Variations in elemental compositions of rat hippocampal formation between acute and latent phases of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy: an X-ray fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Dulinska, J; Janeczko, K; Appel, K; Setkowicz, Z

    2012-06-01

    There is growing experimental evidence that tracing the elements involved in brain hyperexcitability, excitotoxicity, and/or subsequent neurodegeneration could be a valuable source of data on the molecular mechanisms triggering or promoting further development of epilepsy. The most frequently used experimental model of the temporal lobe epilepsy observed in clinical practice is the one based on pilocarpine-induced seizures. In the frame of this study, the elemental anomalies occurring for the rat hippocampal tissue in acute and silent periods after injection of pilocarpine in rats were compared. X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied for the topographic and quantitative elemental analysis. The differences in the levels of elements such as P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn between the rats 3 days (SE72) and 6 h (SE6) after pilocarpine injection as well as naive controls were examined. Comparison of SE72 and control groups showed, for specific areas of the hippocampal formation, lower levels of P, K, Cu, and Zn, and an increase in Ca accumulation. These results as well as further analysis of the differences between the SE72 and SE6 groups confirmed that seizure-induced excitotoxicity as well as mossy fiber sprouting are the mechanisms involved in the neurodegenerative processes which may finally lead to spontaneous seizures in the chronic period of the pilocarpine model. Moreover, in the light of the results obtained, Cu seems to play a very important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy in this animal model. For all areas analyzed, the levels of this element recorded in the latent period were not only lower than those for controls but were even lower than the levels found in the acute period. The decreased hippocampal accumulation of Cu in the phase of behavior and EEG stabilization, a possible inhibitory effect of this element on excitatory amino acid receptors, and enhanced seizure susceptibility in Menkes disease (an inherited Cu transport disorder leading to Cu

  9. Dopamine Modulates Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity and Action Potential Properties in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons of Acute Rat Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Elke; Lessmann, Volkmar

    2011-01-01

    Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a cellular model of Hebbian synaptic plasticity which is believed to underlie memory formation. In an attempt to establish a STDP paradigm in CA1 of acute hippocampal slices from juvenile rats (P15–20), we found that changes in excitability resulting from different slice preparation protocols correlate with the success of STDP induction. Slice preparation with sucrose containing ACSF prolonged rise time, reduced frequency adaptation, and decreased latency of action potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons compared to preparation in conventional ASCF, while other basal electrophysiological parameters remained unaffected. Whereas we observed prominent timing-dependent long-term potentiation (t-LTP) to 171 ± 10% of controls in conventional ACSF, STDP was absent in sucrose prepared slices. This sucrose-induced STDP deficit could not be rescued by stronger STDP paradigms, applying either more pre- and/or postsynaptic stimuli, or by a higher stimulation frequency. Importantly, slice preparation with sucrose containing ACSF did not eliminate theta-burst stimulation induced LTP in CA1 in field potential recordings in our rat hippocampal slices. Application of dopamine (for 10–20 min) to sucrose prepared slices completely rescued t-LTP and recovered action potential properties back to levels observed in ACSF prepared slices. Conversely, acute inhibition of D1 receptor signaling impaired t-LTP in ACSF prepared slices. No similar restoring effect for STDP as seen with dopamine was observed in response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. ELISA measurements demonstrated a significant reduction of endogenous dopamine levels (to 61.9 ± 6.9% of ACSF values) in sucrose prepared slices. These results suggest that dopamine signaling is involved in regulating the efficiency to elicit STDP in CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:22065958

  10. Stimulation of estradiol biosynthesis by tributyltin in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Munetsuna, Eiji; Hattori, Minoru; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal functions are influenced by steroid hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol. It has been demonstrated that hippocampus-derived steroid hormones play important roles in neuronal protection and synapse formation. Our research groups have demonstrated that estradiol is de novo synthesized in the rat hippocampus. However, the mechanism(s) regulating this synthesis remains unclear. It has been reported that tributyltin, an environmental pollutant, binds to the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and modifies estrogen synthesis in human granulosa-like tumor cells. This compound can penetrate the blood brain barrier, and tends to accumulate in the brain. Based on these facts, we hypothesized that tributyltin could influence the hippocampal estradiol synthesis. A concentration of 0.1 μM tributyltin induced an increase in the mRNA content of P450(17α) and P450arom in hippocampal slices, as determined using real-time PCR. The transcript levels of other steroidogenic enzymes and a steroidogenic acute regulatory protein were not affected. The estradiol level in rat hippocampal slices was subsequently determined using a radioimmunoassay. We found that the estradiol synthesis was stimulated by ∼2-fold following a 48-h treatment with 0.1 μM tributyltin, and this was accompanied by transcriptional activation of P450(17α) and P450arom. Tributyltin stimulated de novo hippocampal estradiol synthesis by modifying the transcription of specific steroidogenic enzymes. PMID:24679120

  11. Acute Response of the Hippocampal Transcriptome Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury After Controlled Cortical Impact in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Samal, Babru B; Waites, Cameron K; Almeida-Suhett, Camila; Li, Zheng; Marini, Ann M; Samal, Nihar R; Elkahloun, Abdel; Braga, Maria F M; Eiden, Lee E

    2015-10-01

    We have previously demonstrated that mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI) injury to rat cortex causes indirect, concussive injury to underlying hippocampus and other brain regions, providing a reproducible model for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and its neurochemical, synaptic, and behavioral sequelae. Here, we extend a preliminary gene expression study of the hippocampus-specific events occurring after mCCI and identify 193 transcripts significantly upregulated, and 21 transcripts significantly downregulated, 24 h after mCCI. Fifty-three percent of genes altered by mCCI within 24 h of injury are predicted to be expressed only in the non-neuronal/glial cellular compartment, with only 13% predicted to be expressed only in neurons. The set of upregulated genes following mCCI was interrogated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) augmented with manual curation of the literature (190 transcripts accepted for analysis), revealing a core group of 15 first messengers, mostly inflammatory cytokines, predicted to account for >99% of the transcript upregulation occurring 24 h after mCCI. Convergent analysis of predicted transcription factors (TFs) regulating the mCCI target genes, carried out in IPA relative to the entire Affymetrix-curated transcriptome, revealed a high concordance with TFs regulated by the cohort of 15 cytokines/cytokine-like messengers independently accounting for upregulation of the mCCI transcript cohort. TFs predicted to regulate transcription of the 193-gene mCCI cohort also displayed a high degree of overlap with TFs predicted to regulate glia-, rather than neuron-specific genes in cortical tissue. We conclude that mCCI predominantly affects transcription of non-neuronal genes within the first 24 h after insult. This finding suggests that early non-neuronal events trigger later permanent neuronal changes after mTBI, and that early intervention after mTBI could potentially affect the neurochemical cascade leading to later reported synaptic and

  12. Movements of exploration intact in rats with hippocampal lesions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Benjamin J; Hines, Dustin J; Hamilton, Derek A; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2005-08-30

    Prompted by the theoretical prediction that damage to the hippocampus should abolish exploratory behavior, the present study examined exploratory movements in control rats and rats with hippocampal lesions produced with the neurotoxin N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA). In four daily 30-min sessions, control and hippocampal rats were exposed to an open circular table under room lighting. Both control and hippocampal rats spent a majority of time near, and organized trips away from, a portion of the table (home base) near a large cue placed proximal to the table. On Day 1, control and HPC rats made equal numbers of head orientations and a comparable number of trips, featuring equal travel distance and numbers of stops. By Day 4, dwell times near the home base increased and other movements decreased in the control rats but the activity profile of Day 1 persisted in the hippocampal rats. The high degree of similarity in behavior between hippocampal and control rats on Day 1 and the persistence of this behavior in hippocampal rats on Day 4 suggests that the hippocampus is not necessary for the display of normal exploratory movements per se. The absence of habituation of exploration in hippocampal rats is discussed in relation to contemporary theories of hippocampal function.

  13. New Hippocampal Neurons Mature Rapidly in Response to Ketamine But Are Not Required for Its Acute Antidepressant Effects on Neophagia in Rats123

    PubMed Central

    Soumier, Amelie; Carter, Rayna M.; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Virtually all antidepressant agents increase the birth of granule neurons in the adult dentate gyrus in rodents, providing a key basis for the neurogenesis hypothesis of antidepressant action. The novel antidepressant ketamine, however, shows antidepressant activity in humans within hours, far too rapid for a mechanism involving neuronal birth. Ketamine could potentially act more rapidly by enhancing maturation of new neurons born weeks earlier. To test this possibility, we assessed the effects of S-ketamine (S-(+)-ketamine hydrochloride) injection on maturation, as well as birth and survival, of new dentate gyrus granule neurons in rats, using the immediate-early gene zif268, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and BrdU, respectively. We show that S-ketamine has rapid effects on new neurons, increasing the proportion of functionally mature young granule neurons within 2 h. A single injection of S-ketamine also increased cell proliferation and functional maturation, and decreased depressive-like behavior, for at least 4 weeks in rats treated with long-term corticosterone administration (a depression model) and controls. However, the behavioral effects of S-ketamine on neophagia were unaffected by elimination of adult neurogenesis. Together, these results indicate that ketamine has surprisingly rapid and long-lasting effects on the recruitment of young neurons into hippocampal networks, but that ketamine has antidepressant-like effects that are independent of adult neurogenesis. PMID:27066531

  14. The effect of acute swim stress and training in the water maze on hippocampal synaptic activity as well as plasticity in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats: revisiting swim-induced LTP reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Heena; Frey, Julietta U

    2013-12-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a cellular model of learning and memory. An early form of LTP (E-LTP) can be reinforced into its late form (L-LTP) by various behavioral interactions within a specific time window ("behavioral LTP-reinforcement"). Depending on the type and procedure used, various studies have shown that stress differentially affects synaptic plasticity. Under low stress, such as novelty detection or mild foot shocks, E-LTP can be transformed into L-LTP in the rat dentate gyrus (DG). A reinforcing effect of a 2-min swim, however, has only been shown in (Korz and Frey (2003) J Neurosci 23:7281-7287; Korz and Frey (2005) J Neurosci 25:7393-7400; Ahmed et al. (2006) J Neurosci 26:3951-3958; Sajikumar et al., (2007) J Physiol 584.2:389-400) so far. We have reinvestigated these studies using the same as well as an improved recording technique which allowed the recording of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and the population spike amplitude (PSA) at their places of generation in freely moving rats. We show that acute swim stress led to a long-term depression (LTD) in baseline values of PSA and partially fEPSP. In contrast to earlier studies a LTP-reinforcement by swimming could never be reproduced. Our results indicate that 2-min swim stress influenced synaptic potentials as well as E-LTP negatively.

  15. Acute Restraint Stress Enhances Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Function via Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meina; Hill, Matthew N.; Zhang, Longhua; Gorzalka, Boris B.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Alger, Bradley E.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to behavioral stress normally triggers a complex, multi-level response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that helps maintain homeostatic balance. Although the endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) is sensitive to chronic stress, few studies have directly addressed its response to acute stress. Here we show that acute restraint stress enhances eCB-dependent modulation of GABA release measured by whole-cell voltage clamp of inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro. Both Ca2+-dependent, eCB-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) mediated eCB mobilization are enhanced following acute stress exposure. DSI enhancement is dependent on the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and is mimicked by both in vivo and in vitro corticosterone treatment. This effect does not appear to involve cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that can degrade eCBs; however, treatment of hippocampal slices with the L-type calcium (Ca2+) channel inhibitor, nifedipine, reverses while an agonist of these channels mimics the effect of in vivo stress. Finally, we find that acute stress produces a delayed (by 30 min) increase in the hippocampal content of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the eCB responsible for DSI. These results support the hypothesis that the ECS is a biochemical effector of glucocorticoids in the brain, linking stress with changes in synaptic strength. PMID:21890595

  16. Effect of acute and fractionated irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Seolhwa; Jung, Uhee; Kim, Insub; Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun

    2012-08-08

    Ionizing radiation has become an inevitable health concern emanating from natural sources like space travel and from artificial sources like medical therapies. In general, exposure to ionizing radiation such as γ-rays is one of the methods currently used to stress specific model systems. In this study, we elucidated the long-term effect of acute and fractionated irradiation on DCX-positive cells in hippocampal neurogenesis. Groups of two-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at acute dose (5 Gy) or fractional doses (1 Gy × 5 times and 0.5 Gy × 10 times). Six months after exposure to γ-irradiation, the hippocampus was analyzed. Doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry was used to measure changes of neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The number of DCX-positive cells was significantly decreased in all acute and fractionally irradiation groups. The long-term changes in DCX-positive cells triggered by radiation exposure showed a very different pattern to the short-term changes which tended to return to the control level in previous studies. Furthermore, the number of DCX-positive cells was relatively lower in the acute irradiation group than the fractional irradiation groups (approximately 3.6-fold), suggesting the biological change on hippocampal neurogenesis was more susceptible to being damaged by acute than fractional irradiation. These results suggest that the exposure to γ-irradiation as a long-term effect can trigger biological responses resulting in the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  17. Damage of hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ailin; Jiang, Hongbo; Xu, Lei; An, Na; Liu, Hui; Li, Yinsheng; Zhang, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism can damage the cytoskeleton and aggravate neurological deficits. However, the effect of chronic alcoholism on hippocampal neurons remains unclear. In this study, a model of chronic alcoholism was established in rats that were fed with 6% alcohol for 42 days. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide content and cystathionine-beta-synthase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism were significantly increased, while F-actin expression was decreased. Hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism appeared to have a fuzzy nuclear membrane, mitochondrial edema, and ruptured mitochondrial crista. These findings suggest that chronic alcoholism can cause learning and memory decline in rats, which may be associated with the hydrogen sulfide/cystathionine-beta-synthase system, mitochondrial damage and reduced expression of F-actin. PMID:25368648

  18. Effects of voluntary running on plasma levels of neurotrophins, hippocampal cell proliferation and learning and memory in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Yau, S-Y; Lau, B W-M; Zhang, E-D; Lee, J C-D; Li, A; Lee, T M C; Ching, Y-P; Xu, A-M; So, K-F

    2012-10-11

    Previous studies have shown that a 2-week treatment with 40 mg/kg corticosterone (CORT) in rats suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis and decreases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and impairs spatial learning, all of which could be counteracted by voluntary wheel running. BDNF and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) have been suggested to mediate physical exercise-enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition. Here we examined whether such running-elicited benefits were accompanied by corresponding changes of peripheral BDNF and IGF-1 levels in a rat model of stress. We examined the effects of acute (5 days) and chronic (4 weeks) treatment with CORT and/or wheel running on (1) hippocampal cell proliferation, (2) spatial learning and memory and (3) plasma levels of BDNF and IGF-1. Acute CORT treatment improved spatial learning without altered cell proliferation compared to vehicle treatment. Acute CORT-treated non-runners showed an increased trend in plasma BDNF levels together with a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. Acute running showed no effect on cognition, cell proliferation and peripheral BDNF and IGF-1 levels. Conversely, chronic CORT treatment in non-runners significantly impaired spatial learning and suppressed cell proliferation in association with a decreased trend in plasma BDNF level and a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. Running counteracted cognitive deficit and restored hippocampal cell proliferation following chronic CORT treatment; but without corresponding changes in plasma BDNF and IGF-1 levels. The results suggest that the beneficial effects of acute stress on cognitive improvement may be mediated by BDNF-enhanced synaptic plasticity that is hippocampal cell proliferation-independent, whereas chronic stress may impair cognition by decreasing hippocampal cell proliferation and BDNF levels. Furthermore, the results indicate a trend in changes of plasma BDNF levels associated with a

  19. The TNFα-Transgenic Rat: Hippocampal Synaptic Integrity, Cognition, Function, and Post-Ischemic Cell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, L. Creed; Kryscio, Richard J.; Norris, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), is a key regulator of neuroinflammation linked to numerous neurodegenerative conditions and diseases. The present study used transgenic rats that overexpress a murine TNFα gene, under the control of its own promoter, to investigate the impact of chronically elevated TNFα on hippocampal synaptic function. Neuronal viability and cognitive recovery in TNFα Tg rats were also determined following an ischemic insult arising from reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Basal CA3-CA1 synaptic strength, recorded in acute brain slices, was not significantly different between eight-week-old TNFα Tg rats and non-Tg rats. In contrast, slices from TNFα Tg rats showed significantly greater levels of long-term potentiation (LTP) in response to 100 Hz stimulation, suggesting that synaptic networks may be hyperexcitable in the context of elevated TNFα. Cognitive and motor deficits (assessed on the Morris Water Maze and Rotarod task, respectively) were present in TNFα Tg rats in the absence of significant differences in the loss of cortical and hippocampal neurons. TNF overexpression exacerbated MCAO-dependent deficits on the rotarod, but ameliorated cortical neuron loss in response to MCAO. PMID:27144978

  20. Ouabain Modulates the Lipid Composition of Hippocampal Plasma Membranes from Rats with LPS-induced Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Israel José Pereira; Kinoshita, Paula Fernanda; Scavone, Cristoforo; Mignaco, Julio Alberto; Barbosa, Leandro Augusto de Oliveira; Santos, Hérica de Lima

    2015-12-01

    The effects of ouabain (OUA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vivo on hippocampal membranes (RHM) of Wistar male rats aged 3 months were analyzed. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of OUA only, LPS only, OUA plus LPS, or saline, the content of proteins, phospholipids, cholesterol and gangliosides from RHM was analyzed. The total protein and cholesterol contents of RHM were not significantly affected by OUA or LPS for the experimentally paired groups. In contrast, total phospholipids and gangliosides were strongly modulated by either OUA or LPS treatments. LPS reduced the total phospholipids (roughly 23 %) and increased the total gangliosides (approximately 40 %). OUA alone increased the total phospholipids (around 23 %) and also the total gangliosides (nearly 34 %). OUA pretreatment compensated the LPS-induced changes, preserving the total phospholipids and gangliosides around the same levels of the control. Thus, an acute treatment with OUA not only modulated the composition of hippocampal membranes from 3-month-old rats, but also was apparently able to counteract membrane alterations resulting from LPS-induced neuroinflammation. This study demonstrates for the first time that the OUA capacity modulates the lipid composition of hippocampal plasma membranes from rats with LPS-induced neuroinflammation.

  1. Point application with Angong Niuhuang sticker protects hippocampal and cortical neurons in rats with cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-shu; Liu, Yuan-liang; Zhu, Dao-qi; Huang, Xiao-jing; Luo, Chao-hua

    2015-01-01

    Angong Niuhuang pill, a Chinese materia medica preparation, can improve neurological functions after acute ischemic stroke. Because of its inconvenient application and toxic components (Cinnabaris and Realgar), we used transdermal enhancers to deliver Angong Niuhuang pill by modern technology, which expanded the safe dose range and clinical indications. In this study, Angong Niuhuang stickers administered at different point application doses (1.35, 2.7, and 5.4 g/kg) were administered to the Dazhui (DU14), Qihai (RN6) and Mingmen (DU4) of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, for 4 weeks. The Morris water maze was used to determine the learning and memory ability of rats. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining were used to observe neuronal damage of the cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia. The middle- and high-dose point application of Angong Niuhuang stickers attenuated neuronal damage in the cortex and hippocampal CA1 region, and improved the memory of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia with an efficacy similar to interventions by electroacupuncture at Dazhui (DU14), Qihai (RN6) and Mingmen (DU4). Our experimental findings indicate that point application with Angong Niuhuang stickers can improve cognitive function after chronic cerebral ischemia in rats and is neuroprotective with an equivalent efficacy to acupuncture. PMID:25883629

  2. Gonadal Hormones Rapidly Enhance Spatial Memory and Increase Hippocampal Spine Density in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Jacome, Luis F; Barateli, Ketti; Buitrago, Dina; Lema, Franklin; Frankfurt, Maya; Luine, Victoria N

    2016-04-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) rapidly, within minutes, activates behaviors and cognition by binding to membrane estrogen receptors, activating cell signaling cascades and increasing dendritic spines. In female rodents, E2 enhances spatial memory within 2-4 hours, and spine density is increased in the CA1 area of the hippocampus within 30-60 minutes. Although chronic gonadal hormone treatments in male rats alter cognition and spines/spine synapses and acute hormone effects occur in hippocampal slices, effects of acute, in vivo hormone administration in males are unknown. Therefore, we assessed rapid effects of E2 (20 μg/kg) and testosterone (T) (750 μg/kg) on spatial memory using the object placement task and on hippocampal spine density using Golgi impregnation. Orchidectomized rats received hormones immediately after the training trial and were tested for retention 2 hours later. Vehicle-injected orchidectomized males spent equal time exploring objects in the old and new locations, but E2- or T-treated subjects spent more time exploring objects at the new location, suggesting enhanced memory. Both hormones also increased spine density in CA1, but not the dentate gyrus, by 20%-40% at 30 minutes and 2 hours after injections. This report is the first, to our knowledge, to show E2 and T enhancements of memory and spine density within such a short time frame in male rats.

  3. Ventral hippocampal α7 and α4β2 nicotinic receptor blockade and clozapine effects on memory in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Pocivavsek, Ana; Icenogle, Laura; Levin, Edward D.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Nicotinic systems in the hippocampus play important roles in memory function. Decreased hippocampal nicotinic receptor concentration is associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Methods We modeled in rats the cognitive effects of chronic decrease in hippocampal α7 or α4β2 receptors with 4-week continuous bilateral local infusions of the α7 nicotinic antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) or the α4β2 antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE). The working memory effects of these infusions were assessed by performance on the radial-arm maze. To test the effect of antipsychotic medication, we gave acute injections of clozapine and to determine the impact of nicotine, which is widely used by people with schizophrenia approximately half of the rats received chronic systemic infusions of nicotine. Results Chronic ventral hippocampal DHβE infusion caused a significant (p<0.001) working memory impairment. Acute systemic clozapine (2.5 mg/kg) caused a significant (p<0.005) working memory impairment in rats given control aCSF hippocampal infusions. Clozapine significantly (p<0.025) attenuated the memory deficit caused by chronic hippocampal DHβE infusions. Chronic ventral hippocampal infusions with MLA did not significantly affect the working memory performance in the radial-arm maze, but it did significantly (p<0.05) potentiate the memory impairment caused by 1.25 mg/kg of clozapine. Chronic systemic nicotine did not significantly interact with these effects. Conclusions The state of nicotinic receptor activation in the ventral hippocampus significantly affected the impact of clozapine on working memory with blockade of α7 nicotinic receptors potentiating clozapine-induced memory impairment and blockade of α4β2 receptors reversing the clozapine effect from impairing to improving memory. PMID:16715255

  4. Sexually dimorphic effects of hippocampal cholinergic deafferentation in rats.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Zachariah; Cahill, Jonathan F X; Tobey, Rachel E; Baxter, Mark G

    2004-12-01

    To determine whether the basal forebrain-hippocampal cholinergic system supports sexually dimorphic functionality, male and female Long-Evans rats were given either selective medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB) cholinergic lesions using the neurotoxin 192 IgG-saporin or a control surgery and then postoperatively tested in a set of standard spatial learning tasks in the Morris water maze. Lesions were highly specific and effective as confirmed by both choline acetyltransferase/parvalbumin immunostaining and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry. Female controls performed worse than male controls in place learning and MS/VDB lesions failed to impair spatial learning in male rats, both consistent with previous findings. In female rats, MS/VDB cholinergic lesions facilitated spatial reference learning. A subsequent test of learning strategy in the water maze revealed a female bias for a response, relative to a spatial, strategy; MS/VDB cholinergic lesions enhanced the use of a spatial strategy in both sexes, but only significantly so in males. Together, these results indicate a sexually dimorphic function associated with MS/VDB-hippocampal cholinergic inputs. In female rats, these neurons appear to support sex-specific spatial learning processes.

  5. Measurement of Inositol Triphosphate Levels from Rat Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Tabatadze, Nino; Woolley, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Inositol triphosphate (IP3) is an important second messenger that participates in signal transduction pathways in diverse cell types including hippocampal neurons. Stimulation of phospholipase C in response to various stimuli (hormones, growth factors, neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, neuromodulators, odorants, light, etc) results in hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a phospholipid that is located in the plasma membrane, and leads to the production of IP3 and diacylglycerol. Binding of IP3 to the IP3 receptor (IP3R) induces Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and enables the initiation of intracellular Ca2+-dependent signaling. Here we describe a procedure for the measurement of cellular IP3 levels in tissue homogenates prepared from rat hippocampal slices. PMID:27468425

  6. (/sup 3/H) clonidine binding to rat hippocampal membranes

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.R.

    1982-02-01

    Alpha adrenergic receptor subtypes in rat hippocampal membranes were studied, using (/sup 3/H) clonidine as the radioactive ligand. On the basis of competitive binding studies, using the selective antagonist-prazosin, WB-4101, and yohimbine, (/sup 3/H) clonidine appeared to bind to a population of presynaptic sites that are pharmacologically similar to receptors previously classified as alpha 2. A computerized model that linearized and produced the best possible fit to the experimental data points indicated that (/sup 3/H) clonidine binds to a single population of receptors possessing equal affinity for the ligand. Binding data also indicated that rat hippo-campus contains significantly fewer (/sup 3/H)clonidine binding sites than rat cortex.

  7. Investigation of Synaptic Tagging/Capture and Cross-capture using Acute Hippocampal Slices from Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Mahesh Shivarama; Sharma, Mahima; Hui, Neo Sin; Dasgupta, Ananya; Gopinadhan, Suma; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic tagging and capture (STC) and cross-tagging are two important mechanisms at cellular level that explain how synapse-specificity and associativity is achieved in neurons within a specific time frame. These long-term plasticity-related processes are the leading candidate models to study the basis of memory formation and persistence at the cellular level. Both STC and cross-tagging involve two serial processes: (1) setting of the synaptic tag as triggered by a specific pattern of stimulation, and (2) synaptic capture, whereby the synaptic tag interacts with newly synthesized plasticity-related proteins (PRPs). Much of the understanding about the concepts of STC and cross-tagging arises from the studies done in CA1 region of the hippocampus and because of the technical complexity many of the laboratories are still unable to study these processes. Experimental conditions for the preparation of hippocampal slices and the recording of stable late-LTP/LTD are extremely important to study synaptic tagging/cross-tagging. This video article describes the experimental procedures to study long-term plasticity processes such as STC and cross-tagging in the CA1 pyramidal neurons using stable, long-term field-potential recordings from acute hippocampal slices of rats. PMID:26381286

  8. Investigation of Synaptic Tagging/Capture and Cross-capture using Acute Hippocampal Slices from Rodents.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mahesh Shivarama; Sharma, Mahima; Hui, Neo Sin; Dasgupta, Ananya; Gopinadhan, Suma; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic tagging and capture (STC) and cross-tagging are two important mechanisms at cellular level that explain how synapse-specificity and associativity is achieved in neurons within a specific time frame. These long-term plasticity-related processes are the leading candidate models to study the basis of memory formation and persistence at the cellular level. Both STC and cross-tagging involve two serial processes: (1) setting of the synaptic tag as triggered by a specific pattern of stimulation, and (2) synaptic capture, whereby the synaptic tag interacts with newly synthesized plasticity-related proteins (PRPs). Much of the understanding about the concepts of STC and cross-tagging arises from the studies done in CA1 region of the hippocampus and because of the technical complexity many of the laboratories are still unable to study these processes. Experimental conditions for the preparation of hippocampal slices and the recording of stable late-LTP/LTD are extremely important to study synaptic tagging/cross-tagging. This video article describes the experimental procedures to study long-term plasticity processes such as STC and cross-tagging in the CA1 pyramidal neurons using stable, long-term field-potential recordings from acute hippocampal slices of rats. PMID:26381286

  9. Hippocampal phosphoproteomics of F344 rats exposed to 1-bromopropane

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenlie; Ichihara, Sahoko; Oikawa, Shinji; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Lingyi; Hu, Shijie; Huang, Hanlin; Ichihara, Gaku

    2015-01-15

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is neurotoxic in both experimental animals and human. To identify phosphorylated modification on the unrecognized post-translational modifications of proteins and investigate their role in 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity, changes in hippocampal phosphoprotein expression levels were analyzed quantitatively in male F344 rats exposed to 1-BP inhalation at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 or 4 weeks. Hippocampal protein extracts were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by Pro-Q Diamond gel staining and SYPRO Ruby staining coupled with two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), respectively, as well as by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify phosphoproteins. Changes in selected proteins were further confirmed by Manganese II (Mn{sup 2+})-Phos-tag SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Bax and cytochrome c protein levels were determined by western blotting. Pro-Q Diamond gel staining combined with 2D-DIGE identified 26 phosphoprotein spots (p < 0.05), and MALDI-TOF/MS identified 18 up-regulated proteins and 8 down-regulated proteins. These proteins are involved in the biological process of response to stimuli, metabolic processes, and apoptosis signaling. Changes in the expression of phosphorylated 14-3-3 θ were further confirmed by Mn{sup 2+}-Phos-tag SDS-PAGE. Western blotting showed overexpression of Bax protein in the mitochondria with down-regulation in the cytoplasm, whereas cytochrome c expression was high in the cytoplasm but low in the mitochondria after 1-BP exposure. Our results suggest that the pathogenesis of 1-BP-induced hippocampal damage involves inhibition of antiapoptosis process. Phosphoproteins identified in this study can potentially serve as biomarkers for 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • 1-BP modified hippocampal phosphoproteome in rat and 23 altered proteins were identified. • 1-BP changed phosphorylation

  10. Intra-hippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide inhibits kindled seizures and retards kindling rate in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Amin; Sayyah, Mohammad; Khoshkholgh-Sima, Baharak; Choopani, Samira; Kazemi, Jafar; Sadegh, Mehdi; Moradpour, Farshad; Nahrevanian, Hossein

    2013-04-01

    Neuroinflammation facilitates seizure acquisition and epileptogenesis in developing brain. Yet, the studies on impact of neuroinflammation on mature brain epileptogenesis have led to inconsistent results. Hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to damage caused by ischemia, hypoxia and trauma, and the consequent neuroinflammation, which can lead in turn to epilepsy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is extensively used in experimental studies to induce neuroinflammation. In this study, effect of acute and chronic intra-CA1 infusion of LPS on amygdala-kindled seizures and epileptogenesis was examined in mature rats. LPS (5 μg/rat) inhibited evoked amygdala afterdischarges and behavioral seizures. Anticonvulsant effect of LPS was observed 0.5 h after administration and continued up to 24 h. This effect was accompanied by intra-hippocampal elevation of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin1-β, and tumor necrosis factor-α and was prevented by microglia inhibitor, naloxone, NO synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, cyclooxygenase inhibitor, piroxicam, and interleukin1-β receptor antagonist, interleukin1-ra. Moreover, daily intra-hippocampal injection of LPS significantly retarded kindling rate. In order to further elucidate the effect of LPS on synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity, changes in field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spikes were measured in stratum radiatum and stratum pyramidale of LPS-treated kindled rats. LPS impaired baseline synaptic transmission in hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse and reduced the magnitude of paired-pulse facilitation. Our results suggest that direct suppression of presynaptic mechanisms in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, as well as the inflammatory mediators released by LPS in the hippocampus, is involved in antiepileptic effect of LPS.

  11. Administration of copper reduced the hyper-excitability of neurons in CA1 hippocampal slices from epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Juan; Infante, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Copper as a trace metal is involved in several neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Menkes, Wilson's, Alzheimer's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob. Electrophysiological evidence indicates that acute perfusion of copper can inhibit long-term synaptic potentiation in hippocampal slices. The objective of this work is to determine whether Cu perfusion can perturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices derived from pilocarpine treated epileptic rats. Field potential (FP) recordings of the CA1 neurons of rats with chronic epilepsy showed voltage and response duration decrease following copper sulfate perfusion. However, voltage and response duration were higher after removing copper by washing. The discharge frequency of the CA1 neurons of hippocampal slices from non-epileptic control rats was increased after acute perfusion of 10 μM of pilocarpine. This increase was blocked by administering copper sulphate 10 μM. Krebs-Ringer solution washing re-established the discharges, with a higher frequency than that provoked by pilocarpine perfusion. We discuss the blocking effect of copper and the synaptic hyper-excitability generated by its removal. PMID:27548095

  12. Effects of memantine and donepezil on cortical and hippocampal acetylcholine levels and object recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, Jouni; Sarajärvi, Timo; Rasmusson, Doug; Kemppainen, Susanna; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Lehtonen, Marko; Banerjee, Pradeep K; Semba, Kazue; Tanila, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    This preclinical study investigated the ability of memantine (MEM) to stimulate brain acetylcholine (ACh) release, potentially acting synergistically with donepezil (DON, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor). Acute systemic administration of either MEM or DON to anesthetized rats caused dose-dependent increases of ACh levels in neocortex and hippocampus, and the combination of MEM (5 mg/kg) and DON (0.5 mg/kg) produced significantly greater increases than either drug alone. To determine whether ACh release correlated with cognitive improvement, rats with partial fimbria-fornix (FF) lesions were treated with acute or chronic MEM or DON. Acute MEM treatment significantly elevated baseline hippocampal ACh release but did not significantly improve task performance on a delayed non-match-to-sample (DNMS) task, whereas chronic MEM treatment significantly improved DNMS performance but only marginally elevated baseline ACh levels. Acute or chronic treatment with DON (in the presence of neostigmine to allow ACh collection) did not significantly improve DNMS performance or alter ACh release. In order to investigate the effect of adding MEM to ongoing DON therapy, lesioned rats pretreated with DON for 3 weeks were given a single intraperitoneal dose of MEM. MEM significantly elevated baseline hippocampal ACh levels, but did not significantly improve DNMS task scores compared to chronic DON-treated animals. These data indicate that MEM, in addition to acting as an NMDA receptor antagonist, can also augment ACh release; however, in this preclinical model, increased ACh levels did not directly correlate with improved cognitive performance.

  13. Acute stress and hippocampal histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation, a retrotransposon silencing response

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Richard G.; Murakami, Gen; Dewell, Scott; Seligsohn, Ma’ayan; Baker, Miriam E. R.; Datson, Nicole A.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Pfaff, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    The hippocampus is a highly plastic brain region particularly susceptible to the effects of environmental stress; it also shows dynamic changes in epigenetic marks in response to stress and learning. We have previously shown that, in the rat, acute (30 min) restraint stress induces a substantial, regionally specific, increase in hippocampal levels of the repressive histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3). Because of the large magnitude of this effect and the fact that stress can induce the expression of endogenous retroviruses and transposable elements in many systems, we hypothesized that the H3K9me3 response was targeted to these elements as a means of containing potential genomic instability. We used ChIP coupled with next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to determine the genomic localization of the H3K9me3 response. Although there was a general increase in this response across the genome, our results validated this hypothesis by demonstrating that stress increases H3K9me3 enrichment at transposable element loci and, using RT-PCR, we demonstrate that this effect represses expression of intracisternal-A particle endogenous retrovirus elements and B2 short interspersed elements, but it does not appear to have a repressive effect on long interspersed element RNA. In addition, we present data showing that the histone H3K9-specific methyltransferases Suv39h2 is up-regulated by acute stress in the hippocampus, and that this may explain the hippocampal specificity we observe. These results are a unique demonstration of the regulatory effect of environmental stress, via an epigenetic mark, on the vast genomic terra incognita represented by transposable elements. PMID:23043114

  14. Role of the amygdala in the hippocampal kindling effect of rats.

    PubMed

    Araki, H; Aihara, H; Watanabe, S; Yamamoto, T; Ueki, S

    1985-02-01

    In the present experiment, the role of the amygdala in the formation of the hippocampal kindling effect was investigated in rats with chronic electrode implants. The number of trials required for the establishment of hippocampal kindling was significantly shortened by either ipsilateral or bilateral amygdaloid lesions. The high amplitude spike waves in the frontal cortex and reticular formation appeared earlier in the amygdaloid lesioned rats than in the sham lesioned rats. It is suggested that the amygdala has an inhibitory effect on the development of the hippocampal kindling effect. On the other hand, either the ipsilateral or bilateral amygdaloid lesions after the establishment of hippocampal kindling inhibited the induction of generalized convulsion by hippocampal stimulation. Three and 8 repeated daily stimulations were needed to reestablish the hippocampal kindling effect after the ipsilateral and bilateral amygdaloid lesions, respectively. These results do not coincide with the above-mentioned results indicating that the amygdala has an inhibitory role in the formation of hippocampal kindling. It is suggested that the neuronal circuits involved in the formation of hippocampal kindling in the amygdaloid lesioned rats are different from those in the intact rats.

  15. Baclofen infused in rat hippocampal formation impairs spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Arolfo, M P; Zanudio, M A; Ramirez, O A

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies show that baclofen, a selective GABA(B) agonist, impairs different kinds of learning. In the present study we investigated the effect of microinfused baclofen into the hippocampus of male Wistar rats, on the performance in the Morris water maze. Rats of 8-10 weeks of age were implanted with cannulae aimed bilaterally at the hippocampal formation. Baclofen (1 microl of 0.2 mM, 2.0 mM, and 20.0 mM) or sterilized saline was microinfused 1 h before each daily session (3 trials/session, 1 session/day) for 4 days. On the fifth day, the animals did not receive drug or saline injections and the retention of the location of the escape platform was tested in a 30 s free swim trial. Results from the free swim trial indicate that the doses of baclofen used during training affected the ability of the rats to swim to the target quadrant. Although no significant difference compared with the saline group was observed, the experimental rats showed a more generalized swim trajectory in the area of the target and both adjacent quadrants. Moreover, 1 microl of 20.0 mM baclofen also impaired the acquisition. We suggest that baclofen has an impairing action on spatial learning, although more studies should be conducted to reach a more precise conclusion.

  16. Acute restraint stress induces rapid and prolonged changes in erythrocyte and hippocampal redox status.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou; Bradley, Adrian J; Anderson, Stephen T; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2013-11-01

    The onset and consequential changes in reduction-oxidation (redox) status that take place in response to short-term stress have not been well defined. This study utilized erythrocytes and neural tissue from male Wistar rats to demonstrate the rapid redox alterations that occur following an acute restraining stress. Serial blood samples collected from catheterized animals were used to measure prolactin, corticosterone, glucose, general oxidative status, and glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratios. Restraint increased prolactin concentration by approximately 300% at 30 min and rapidly returned to baseline values by 120 min of stress. Baseline blood glucose and corticosterone increased during stress exposure by approximately 25% and 150% respectively. Over the experimental period, the erythrocytic oxidative status of restrained animals increased by approximately 10% per hour which persisted after stress exposure, while changes in the glutathione redox couple were not observed until 120 min following the onset of stress. Application of restraint stress increased hippocampal oxidative status by approximately 17% while no change was observed in the amygdala. It was concluded that while endocrine and metabolic markers of stress rapidly increase and habituate to stress exposure, redox status continues to change following stress in both peripheral and neural tissue. Studies with longer post-restraint times and the inclusion of several brain regions should further elucidate the consequential redox changes induced by acute restraint stress.

  17. Treadmill exercise induces hippocampal astroglial alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Caren; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Nardin, Patrícia; Biasibetti, Regina; Costa, Ana Paula; Vizueti, Adriana Fernanda; Batassini, Cristiane; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Bobermin, Larissa; Sesterheim, Patrícia; Quincozes-Santos, André; de Souza, Jaqueline; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise effects on brain health and cognitive performance have been described. Synaptic remodeling in hippocampus induced by physical exercise has been described in animal models, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Changes in astrocytes, the glial cells involved in synaptic remodeling, need more characterization. We investigated the effect of moderate treadmill exercise (20 min/day) for 4 weeks on some parameters of astrocytic activity in rat hippocampal slices, namely, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities, glutathione content, and S100B protein content and secretion, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and glucose uptake activity in this tissue. Results show that moderate treadmill exercise was able to induce a decrease in GFAP content (evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemistry) and an increase in GS activity. These changes could be mediated by corticosterone, whose levels were elevated in serum. BDNF, another putative mediator, was not altered in hippocampal tissue. Moreover, treadmill exercise caused a decrease in NO content. Our data indicate specific changes in astrocyte markers induced by physical exercise, the importance of studying astrocytes for understanding brain plasticity, as well as reinforce the relevance of physical exercise as a neuroprotective strategy. PMID:23401802

  18. Electrophysiological properties of cultured hippocampal neurons from Wistar Audiogenic Rats.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Fernando; Aguiar, José F; Oliveira, José A; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Varanda, Wamberto A

    2005-03-15

    The main goal of this work was to analyze the electrophysiological properties of cultured hippocampal neurons from a particular epileptic rat strain, called Wistar Audiogenic Rats (WAR). The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record both active and passive membrane responses in an attempt to detect alterations in their characteristics in relation to controls from Wistar rats. Neurons from WARs show a significant reduction in the magnitude of the inhibitory GABAergic currents ( approximately 45%), in spite of maintaining a normal level of the excitatory glutamatergic currents. In addition, the magnitude of potassium currents, measured at +80 mV, is reduced by about 30% in comparison to controls. Surprisingly, we also found important changes in the passive cellular properties in WAR neurons such as membrane potential (-50.0 mV in WARs and -63.1 mV in controls) and input resistance (647 MOmega in WARs and 408 MOmega in controls). The changes described here, could be the basis of the neurophysiological and behavioral alterations present in these hyperexcitable animals, contributing to a better understanding of epileptogenesis in this particular animal model.

  19. Spatial working memory and hippocampal size across pregnancy in rats.

    PubMed

    Galea, L A; Ormerod, B K; Sampath, S; Kostaras, X; Wilkie, D M; Phelps, M T

    2000-02-01

    The present experiments investigated the effects of pregnancy on performance in the Morris water maze and on hippocampal volume. In the first study, pregnant rats (in between the first and second trimester) outperformed nonpregnant rats on the Morris water maze on 1 day of testing. In the second study, rats were tested in a working memory variation of the maze in which the spatial location of the platform varied. Pregnant females traveled shorter distances than nonpregnant females during the first two trimesters, but performed worse than nonpregnant females during the third trimester. Latency measures showed a similar profile. Group differences in performance were not related to changes in swim speed. However, changes in performance in pregnant females may be related to estrogen, progesterone, and/or corticosterone levels during pregnancy, with low levels of estradiol and high levels of progesterone being associated with better performance. There were no significant differences between pregnant and nonpregnant animals on any of the brain measures, although pregnant animals tended to have a smaller hippocampus than nonpregnant animals. These results indicate that pregnancy can affect performance, possibly related to the hormonal changes that accompany pregnancy.

  20. The intra-hippocampal leucine administration impairs memory consolidation and LTP generation in rats.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Viviane; Carlini, Valeria P; Gabach, Laura; Ghersi, Marisa; de Barioglio, Susana Rubiales; Ramirez, Oscar A; Perez, Mariela F; Latini, Alexandra

    2010-10-01

    Leucine accumulates in fluids and tissues of patients affected by maple syrup urine disease, an inherited metabolic disorder, predominantly characterized by neurological dysfunction. Although, a variable degree of cognition/psychomotor delay/mental retardation is found in a considerable number of individuals affected by this deficiency, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of these alterations are still not defined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute intra-hippocampal leucine administration in the step-down test in rats. In addition, the leucine effects on the electrophysiological parameter, long-term potentiation generation, and on the activities of the respiratory chain were also investigated. Male Wistar rats were bilaterally administrated with leucine (80 nmol/hippocampus; 160 nmol/rat) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (controls) into the hippocampus immediately post-training in the behavioral task. Twenty-four hours after training in the step-down test, the latency time was evaluated and afterwards animals were sacrificed for assessing the ex vivo biochemical measurements. Leucine-treated animals showed impairment in memory consolidation and a complete inhibition of long-term potentiation generation at supramaximal stimulation. In addition, a significant increment in complex IV activity was observed in hippocampus from leucine-administered rats. These data strongly indicate that leucine compromise memory consolidation, and that impairment of long-term potentiation generation and unbalance of the respiratory chain may be plausible mechanisms underlying the deleterious leucine effect on cognition.

  1. Hippocampal morphology in a rat model of depression: the effects of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sierakowiak, Adam; Mattsson, Anna; Gómez-Galán, Marta; Feminía, Teresa; Graae, Lisette; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Damberg, Peter; Lindskog, Mia; Brené, Stefan; Åberg, Elin

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating in vivo and ex vivo evidences show that humans suffering from depression have decreased hippocampal volume and altered spine density. Moreover, physical activity has an antidepressant effect in humans and in animal models, but to what extent physical activity can affect hippocampal volume and spine numbers in a model for depression is not known. In this study we analyzed whether physical activity affects hippocampal volume and spine density by analyzing a rodent genetic model of depression, Flinders Sensitive Line Rats (FSL), with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ex vivo Golgi staining. We found that physical activity in the form of voluntary wheel running during 5 weeks increased hippocampal volume. Moreover, runners also had larger numbers of thin spines in the dentate gyrus. Our findings support that voluntary wheel running, which is antidepressive in FSL rats, is associated with increased hippocampal volume and spine numbers. PMID:25674191

  2. Daily exercise improves memory, stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and modulates immune and neuroimmune cytokines in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    Speisman, Rachel. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Rani, Asha; Foster, Thomas C.; Ormerod, Brandi K.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether daily exercise modulates immune and neuroimmune cytokines, hippocampus-dependent behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in aging male F344 rats (18 mo upon arrival). Twelve weeks after conditioned running or control group assignment (n = 6 per group), the rats were trained and tested in a rapid water maze followed by an inhibitory avoidance task. The rats were BrdU-injected beginning 12 days after behavioral testing and killed 3 weeks later to quantify cytokines and neurogenesis. Daily exercise increased neurogenesis and improved immediate and 24 h water maze discrimination index (DI) scores and 24 h inhibitory avoidance retention latencies. Daily exercise decreased cortical VEGF, hippocampal IL-1β and serum MCP-1, GRO-KC and leptin levels but increased hippocampal GRO-KC and IL-18 concentrations. Serum leptin concentration correlated negatively with new neuron number and both DI scores while hippocampal IL-1β concentration correlated negatively with memory scores in both tasks. Cortical VEGF, serum GRO-KC and serum MCP-1 levels correlated negatively with immediate DI score and we found a novel positive correlation between hippocampal IL-18 and GRO-KC levels and new neuron number. Pathway analyses revealed distinct serum, hippocampal and cortical compartment cytokine relationships. Our results suggest that daily exercise potentially improves cognition in aging rats by modulating hippocampal neurogenesis and immune and neuroimmune cytokine signaling. PMID:23078985

  3. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex stimulation enhances memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in the middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Albert; Jain, Neeraj; Vyas, Ajai; Lim, Lee Wei

    2015-01-01

    Memory dysfunction is a key symptom of age-related dementia. Although recent studies have suggested positive effects of electrical stimulation for memory enhancement, its potential targets remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that spatially targeted deep brain stimulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex enhanced memory functions in a middle-aged rat model. Our results show that acute stimulation enhanced the short-, but not the long-term memory in the novel-object recognition task. Interestingly, after chronic high-frequency stimulation, both the short- and long-term memories were robustly improved in the novel-object recognition test and Morris water-maze spatial task compared to sham. Our results also demonstrated that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation upregulated neurogenesis-associated genes along with enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Importantly, these memory behaviors were strongly correlated with the hippocampal neurogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation may serve as a novel effective therapeutic target for dementia-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04803.001 PMID:25768425

  4. Angiotensin IV and LVV-haemorphin 7 enhance spatial working memory in rats: effects on hippocampal glucose levels and blood flow.

    PubMed

    De Bundel, Dimitri; Smolders, Ilse; Yang, Rui; Albiston, Anthony L; Michotte, Yvette; Chai, Siew Yeen

    2009-07-01

    The IRAP ligands Angiotensin IV (Ang IV) and LVV-haemorphin 7 (LVV-H7) enhance performance in a range of memory paradigms in normal rats and ameliorate memory deficits in rat models for amnesia. The mechanism by which these peptides facilitate memory remains to be elucidated. In recent in vitro experiments, we demonstrated that Ang IV and LVV-H7 potentiate activity-evoked glucose uptake into hippocampal neurons. This raises the possibility that IRAP ligands may facilitate memory in hippocampus-dependent tasks through enhancement of hippocampal glucose uptake. Acute intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of 1nmol Ang IV or 0.1nmol LVV-H7 in 3 months-old Sprague-Dawley rats enhanced spatial working memory in the plus maze spontaneous alternation task. Extracellular hippocampal glucose levels were monitored before, during and after behavioral testing using in vivo microdialysis. Extracellular hippocampal glucose levels decreased significantly to about 70% of baseline when the animals explored the plus maze, but remained constant when the animals were placed into a novel control chamber. Ang IV and LVV-H7 did not significantly alter hippocampal glucose levels compared to control animals in the plus maze or control chamber. Both peptides had no effect on hippocampal blood flow as determined by laser Doppler flowmetry, excluding that either peptide increased the hippocampal supply of glucose. We demonstrated for the first time that Ang IV and LVV-H7 enhance spatial working memory in the plus maze spontaneous alternation task but no in vivo evidence was found for enhanced hippocampal glucose uptake or blood flow. PMID:19233301

  5. Changes in rat hippocampal CA1 synapses following imipramine treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenghua; Madsen, Torsten M; Wegener, Gregers; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity in hippocampus is hypothesized to play an important role in both the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and the treatment. In this study, we investigated the consequences of imipramine treatment on neuroplasticity (including neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and remodelling of synapses) in subregions of the hippocampus by quantifying number of neurons and synapses. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with imipramine or saline (i.p.) daily for 14 days. Unbiased stereological methods were used to quantify the number of neurons and synapses. No differences in the volume and number of neurons of hippocampal subregions following imipramine treatment were found. However, the number and percentage of CA1 asymmetric spine synapses increased significantly and, conversely, the percentage of asymmetric shaft synapses significantly decreased in the imipramine treated group. Our results indicate that administration of imipramine for 14 days in normal rats could significantly increase the excitatory spine synapses, and change the relative distribution of spine and shaft synapses. We speculate that the present findings may be explained by the establishment of new synaptic connections and by remodelling or transformation of existing synapses.

  6. Wnt-5a Ligand Modulates Mitochondrial Fission-Fusion in Rat Hippocampal Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Juan A.; Arrázola, Macarena S.; Ordenes, Daniela; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Braidy, Nady; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in developmental processes, including embryonic patterning, cell specification, and cell polarity. Wnt components participate in the development of the central nervous system, and growing evidence indicates that this pathway also regulates the function of the adult nervous system. In this study, we report that Wnt-5a, a noncanonical Wnt ligand, is a potent activator of mitochondrial dynamics and induces acute fission and fusion events in the mitochondria of rat hippocampal neurons. The effect of Wnt-5a was inhibited in the presence of sFRP, a Wnt scavenger. Similarly, the canonical Wnt-3a ligand had no effect on mitochondrial fission-fusion events, suggesting that this effect is specific for Wnt-5a alone. We also show that the Wnt-5a effects on mitochondrial dynamics occur with an increase in both intracellular and mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+), which was correlated with an increased phosphorylation of Drp1(Ser-616) and a decrease of Ser-637 phosphorylation, both indicators of mitochondrial dynamics. Electron microscope analysis of hippocampal tissues in the CA1 region showed an increase in the number of mitochondria present in the postsynaptic region, and this finding correlated with a change in mitochondrial morphology. We conclude that Wnt-5a/Ca2+ signaling regulates the mitochondrial fission-fusion process in hippocampal neurons, a feature that might help to further understand the role of Wnt-related pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, and represents a potentially important link between impaired metabolic function and degenerative disorders. PMID:25336659

  7. Hippocampal protection in mice with an attenuated inflammatory monocyte response to acute CNS picornavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Charles L.; LaFrance-Corey, Reghann G.; Sundsbak, Rhianna S.; Sauer, Brian M.; LaFrance, Stephanie J.; Buenz, Eric J.; Schmalstieg, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal injury during acute viral infection of the brain is associated with the development of persistent cognitive deficits and seizures in humans. In C57BL/6 mice acutely infected with the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, hippocampal CA1 neurons are injured by a rapid innate immune response, resulting in profound memory deficits. In contrast, infected SJL and B6xSJL F1 hybrid mice exhibit essentially complete hippocampal and memory preservation. Analysis of brain-infiltrating leukocytes revealed that SJL mice mount a sharply attenuated inflammatory monocyte response as compared to B6 mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiments isolated the attenuation to the SJL immune system. Adoptive transfer of B6 inflammatory monocytes into acutely infected B6xSJL hosts converted these mice to a hippocampal damage phenotype and induced a cognitive deficit marked by failure to recognize a novel object. These findings show that inflammatory monocytes are the critical cellular mediator of hippocampal injury during acute picornavirus infection of the brain. PMID:22848791

  8. Acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yewen; Yin, Xing; Wijaya, Cori; Huang, Ming-He; McConnell, Bradley K

    2011-01-01

    With heart failure leading the cause of death in the USA (Hunt), biomedical research is fundamental to advance medical treatments for cardiovascular diseases. Animal models that mimic human cardiac disease, such as myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia-reperfusion (IR) that induces heart failure as well as pressure-overload (transverse aortic constriction) that induces cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (Goldman and Tarnavski), are useful models to study cardiovascular disease. In particular, myocardial ischemia (MI) is a leading cause for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality despite controlling certain risk factors such as arteriosclerosis and treatments via surgical intervention (Thygesen). Furthermore, an acute loss of the myocardium following myocardial ischemia (MI) results in increased loading conditions that induces ventricular remodeling of the infarcted border zone and the remote non-infarcted myocardium. Myocyte apoptosis, necrosis and the resultant increased hemodynamic load activate multiple biochemical intracellular signaling that initiates LV dilatation, hypertrophy, ventricular shape distortion, and collagen scar formation. This pathological remodeling and failure to normalize the increased wall stresses results in progressive dilatation, recruitment of the border zone myocardium into the scar, and eventually deterioration in myocardial contractile function (i.e. heart failure). The progression of LV dysfunction and heart failure in rats is similar to that observed in patients who sustain a large myocardial infarction, survive and subsequently develops heart failure (Goldman). The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model in rats has been used to mimic human cardiovascular disease; specifically used to study cardiac signaling mechanisms associated with heart failure as well as to assess the contribution of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of heart failure. The method described in this report is the rat model of acute myocardial

  9. Exposure of rat hippocampal astrocytes to Ziram increases oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Matei, Ann-Marie; Trombetta, Louis D

    2016-04-01

    Pesticides have been shown in several studies to be the leading candidates of environmental toxins and may contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Ziram (zinc-bis(dimethyldithiocarbamate)) is an agricultural dithiocarbamate fungicide that is used to treat a variety of plant diseases. In spite of their generally acknowledged low toxicity, dithiocarbamates are known to cause a wide range of neurobehavioral effects as well as neuropathological changes in the brain. Astrocytes play a key role in normal brain physiology and in the pathology of the nervous system. This investigation studied the effects of 1.0 µM Ziram on rat hippocampal astrocytes. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay performed showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, in the Ziram-treated cells. Biochemical analysis also revealed a significant increase in the induction of 70 kDa heat shock and heme oxygenase 1 stress proteins. In addition, an increase of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and a significant increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were observed in the Ziram-treated cells. The ratio GSH to GSSG calculated from the treated cells was also decreased. Light and transmission electron microscopy supported the biochemical findings in Ziram-treated astrocytes. This data suggest that the cytotoxic effects observed with Ziram treatments may be related to the increase of oxidative stress. PMID:24193059

  10. Chronic exercise dampens hippocampal glutamate overflow induced by kainic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Philip V; Reiss, Jenny I; Murray, Patrick S; Dishman, Rod K; Spradley, Jessica M

    2015-05-01

    Our laboratory has previously reported that chronic, voluntary exercise diminishes seizure-related behaviors induced by convulsant doses of kainic acid. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that exercise exerts this protective effect through a mechanism involving suppression of glutamate release in the hippocampal formation. Following three weeks of voluntary wheel running or sedentary conditions, rats were injected with 10 mg/kg of kainic acid, and hippocampal glutamate was measured in real time using a telemetric, in vivo voltammetry system. A separate experiment measured electroencephalographic (EEG) activity following kainic acid treatment. Results of the voltammetry experiment revealed that the rise in hippocampal glutamate induced by kainic acid is attenuated in exercising rats compared to sedentary controls, indicating that the exercise-induced protection against seizures involves regulation of hippocampal glutamate release. The findings reveal the potential benefit of regular exercise in the treatment and prevention of seizure disorders and suggest a possible neurobiological mechanism underlying this effect. PMID:25668513

  11. Hippocampal lesions produce both nongraded and temporally graded retrograde amnesia in the same rat.

    PubMed

    Winocur, Gordon; Sekeres, Melanie J; Binns, Malcolm A; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-05-01

    Rats were administered contextual fear conditioning and trained on a water-maze, spatial memory task 28 days or 24 h before undergoing hippocampal lesion or control surgery. When tested postoperatively on both tasks, rats with hippocampal lesions exhibited retrograde amnesia for spatial memory at both delays but temporally graded retrograde amnesia for the contextual fear response. In demonstrating both types of retrograde amnesia in the same animals, the results parallel similar observations in human amnesics with hippocampal damage and provide compelling evidence that the nature of the task and the type of information being accessed are crucial factors in determining the pattern of retrograde memory loss associated with hippocampal damage. The results are interpreted as consistent with our transformation hypothesis (Winocur et al. (2010a) Neuropsychologia 48:2339-2356; Winocur and Moscovitch (2011) J Int Neuropsychol Soc 17:766-780) and at variance with standard consolidation theory and other theoretical models of memory. PMID:23401223

  12. Melanin concentrating hormone induces hippocampal acetylcholine release via the medial septum in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhi-Hong; Fukuda, Satoru; Minakawa, Yoichi; Yasuda, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Sawamura, Shigehito; Takahashi, Hidenori; Ishii, Noriko

    2013-06-01

    Among various actions of melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), its memory function has been focused in animal studies. Although MCH neurons project to various areas in the brain, one main target site of MCH is hippocampal formation for memory consolidation. Recent immunohistochemical study shows that MCH neurons directly project to the hippocampal formation and may indirectly affect the hippocampus through the medial septum nucleus (MS). It has been reported that sleep is necessary for memory and that hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release is indispensable for memory consolidation. However, there is no report how MCH actually influences the hippocampal ACh effluxes in accordance with the sleep-wake cycle changes. Thus, we investigated the modulatory function of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of MCH on the sleep-wake cycle and ACh release using microdialysis techniques. Icv injection of MCH significantly increased the rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM episode time and the hippocampal, not cortical, ACh effluxes. There was a significant correlation between REM episode time and hippocampal ACh effluxes, but not between REM episode time and cortical ACh effluxes. Microinjection of MCH into the MS increased the hippocampal ACh effluxes with no influence on the REM episode time. It appears that the effect sites of icv MCH for prolongation of REM episode time may be other neuronal areas than the cholinergic neurons in the MS. We conclude that MCH actually increases the hippocampal ACh release at least in part through the MS in rats.

  13. Acute deep brain stimulation in the thalamic reticular nucleus protects against acute stress and modulates initial events of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno-Madrigal, Víctor Manuel; Pantoja-Jiménez, Christopher Rodrigo; Bazaldúa, Adrián; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Almazán-Alvarado, Salvador; Bolaños-Alejos, Fernanda; Ortíz-López, Leonardo; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Gerardo Bernabé

    2016-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used as an alternative therapeutic procedure for pharmacoresistant psychiatric disorders. Recently the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) gained attention due to the description of a novel pathway from the amygdala to this nucleus suggesting that may be differentially disrupted in mood disorders. The limbic system is implicated in the regulation of these disorders that are accompanied by neuroplastic changes. The hippocampus is highly plastic and shows the generation of new neurons, process affected by stress but positively regulated by antidepressant drugs. We explored the impact of applying acute DBS to the TRN (DBS-TRN) in male Wistar rats exposed to acute stress caused by the forced-swim Porsolt's test (FST) and on initial events of hippocampal neurogenesis. After the first session of forced-swim, rats were randomly subdivided in a DBS-TRN and a Sham group. Stimulated rats received 10min of DBS, thus the depressant-like behavior reflected as immobility was evaluated in the second session of forced-swim. Locomotricity was evaluated in the open field test. Cell proliferation and doublecortin-associated cells were quantified in the hippocampus of other cohorts of rats. No effects of electrode implantation were found in locomotricity. Acute DBS-TRN reduced immobility in comparison to the Sham group (p<0.001). DBS-TRN increased cell proliferation (Ki67 or BrdU-positive cells; p=0.02, p=0.02) and the number of doublecortin-cells compared to the Sham group (p<0.02). Similar effects were found in rats previously exposed to the first session of forced-swim. Our data could suggest that TRN brain region may be a promising target for DBS to treat intractable depression.

  14. Acute deep brain stimulation in the thalamic reticular nucleus protects against acute stress and modulates initial events of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno-Madrigal, Víctor Manuel; Pantoja-Jiménez, Christopher Rodrigo; Bazaldúa, Adrián; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Almazán-Alvarado, Salvador; Bolaños-Alejos, Fernanda; Ortíz-López, Leonardo; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Gerardo Bernabé

    2016-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used as an alternative therapeutic procedure for pharmacoresistant psychiatric disorders. Recently the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) gained attention due to the description of a novel pathway from the amygdala to this nucleus suggesting that may be differentially disrupted in mood disorders. The limbic system is implicated in the regulation of these disorders that are accompanied by neuroplastic changes. The hippocampus is highly plastic and shows the generation of new neurons, process affected by stress but positively regulated by antidepressant drugs. We explored the impact of applying acute DBS to the TRN (DBS-TRN) in male Wistar rats exposed to acute stress caused by the forced-swim Porsolt's test (FST) and on initial events of hippocampal neurogenesis. After the first session of forced-swim, rats were randomly subdivided in a DBS-TRN and a Sham group. Stimulated rats received 10min of DBS, thus the depressant-like behavior reflected as immobility was evaluated in the second session of forced-swim. Locomotricity was evaluated in the open field test. Cell proliferation and doublecortin-associated cells were quantified in the hippocampus of other cohorts of rats. No effects of electrode implantation were found in locomotricity. Acute DBS-TRN reduced immobility in comparison to the Sham group (p<0.001). DBS-TRN increased cell proliferation (Ki67 or BrdU-positive cells; p=0.02, p=0.02) and the number of doublecortin-cells compared to the Sham group (p<0.02). Similar effects were found in rats previously exposed to the first session of forced-swim. Our data could suggest that TRN brain region may be a promising target for DBS to treat intractable depression. PMID:27435420

  15. Vitamin A status regulates glucocorticoid availability in Wistar rats: consequences on cognitive functions and hippocampal neurogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Bonhomme, Damien; Minni, Amandine M.; Alfos, Serge; Roux, Pascale; Richard, Emmanuel; Higueret, Paul; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Pallet, Véronique; Touyarot, Katia

    2014-01-01

    A disruption of the vitamin A signaling pathway has been involved in age-related memory decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations. Using vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a nutritional model leading to a hyposignaling of the retinoid pathway, we have recently demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, is efficient to reverse VAD-induced spatial memory deficits and adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. Besides, excess of glucocorticoids (GCs) occurring with aging is known to strongly inhibit hippocampal plasticity and functions and few studies report on the counteracting effects of RA signaling pathway on GCs action. Here, we have addressed whether the modulation of brain GCs availability could be one of the biological mechanisms involved in the effects of vitamin A status on hippocampal plasticity and functions. Thus, we have studied the effects of a vitamin A-free diet for 14 weeks and a 4-week vitamin A supplementation on plasma and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels in Wistar rats. We have also investigated corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) binding capacity and 11beta-Hydrosteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, both important modulators of CORT availability at the peripheral and hippocampal levels respectively. Interestingly, we show that the vitamin A status regulates levels of free plasma CORT and hippocampal CORT levels, by acting through a regulation of CBG binding capacity and 11β-HSD1 activity. Moreover, our results suggest that increased CORT levels in VAD rats could have some deleterious consequences on spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis whereas these effects could be corrected by a vitamin A supplementation. Thus, the modulation of GCs availability by vitamin A status is an important biological mechanism that should be taken into account in order to prevent age-related cognitive decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations. PMID:24550796

  16. Hippocampal theta wave activity during configural and non-configural tasks in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakimoto, Yuya; Hattori, Minoru; Takeda, Kozue; Okada, Kana; Sakata, Shogo

    2013-03-01

    This study examined hippocampal theta power during configural and non-configural tasks in rats. Experiment 1 compared hippocampal theta power during a negative patterning task (A+, B+, AB-) to a configural task and a simple discrimination task (A+, B-) as a non-configural task. The results showed that hippocampal theta power during the non-reinforcement trial (non-RFT) of the negative patterning task was higher than that during the simple discrimination task. However, this hippocampal power may reflect sensory processing for compound stimuli that have cross-modality features (the non-RFT of the negative patterning task was presented together with visual and auditory stimuli, but the non-RFT of the simple discrimination task was presented with visual or auditory stimulus alone). Thus, in experiment 2, we examined whether the experiment 1 results were attributable to sensory processing of a compound stimulus by comparing hippocampal theta power during negative patterning (A+, B+, AB-), simultaneous feature-negative (A+, AB-), and simple discrimination tasks (A+, B-). Experiment 2 showed that hippocampal theta activity during the non-RFT in the negative patterning task was higher than that in the simultaneous feature-negative and simple discrimination tasks. Thus, we showed that hippocampal theta activity increased during configural tasks but not during non-configural tasks.

  17. Effect of dorsal hippocampal lesion compared to dorsal hippocampal blockade by atropine on reference memory in vision deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Dhume, R A; Noronha, A; Nagwekar, M D; Mascarenhas, J F

    1989-10-01

    In order to study the primacy of the hippocampus in place learning function 24 male adult albino rats were hippocampally-lesioned in dorsal hippocampus involving fornical damage (group I); sham operated for comparison with group I (group II); cannulated for instillation of atropine sulphate in the same loci as group I (group III); and cannulated for instillation of saline which served as control for group III (group IV). All the animals were enucleated and their reference memory (long-term memory) was tested, using open 4-arm radial maze. There was loss of reference memory in groups I and III. However, hippocampally-lesioned animals, showed recovery of reference memory deficit within a short period of 10 days or so. Whereas atropinized animals showed persistent reference memory deficit as long as the instillation effect continued. The mechanism involved in the recovery of reference memory in hippocampally-lesioned animals and persistent deficit of reference memory in atropinized animals has been postulated to explain the primacy of hippocampus in the place learning function under normal conditions.

  18. Tualang honey supplement improves memory performance and hippocampal morphology in stressed ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Rahbi, Badriya; Zakaria, Rahimah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Hassan, Asma; Mohd Ismail, Zul Izhar; Muthuraju, Sangu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, our research team has reported that Tualang honey was able to improve immediate memory in postmenopausal women comparable with that of estrogen progestin therapy. Therefore the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of Tualang honey supplement on hippocampal morphology and memory performance in ovariectomized (OVX) rats exposed to social instability stress. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: (i) sham-operated controls, (ii) stressed sham-operated controls, (iii) OVX rats, (iv) stressed OVX rats, (v) stressed OVX rats treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), and (vi) stressed OVX rats treated with Tualang honey. These rats were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by novel object recognition (NOR) test. Right brain hemispheres were subjected to Nissl staining. The number and arrangement of pyramidal neurons in regions of CA1, CA2, CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG) were recorded. Two-way ANOVA analyses showed significant interactions between stress and OVX in both STM and LTM test as well as number of Nissl-positive cells in all hippocampal regions. Both E2 and Tualang honey treatments improved both short-term and long-term memory and enhanced the neuronal proliferation of hippocampal CA2, CA3 and DG regions compared to that of untreated stressed OVX rats.

  19. Anterior Thalamic Lesions Alter Both Hippocampal-Dependent Behavior and Hippocampal Acetylcholine Release in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Lisa M.; Hall, Joseph M.; Vetreno, Ryan P.

    2011-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are important for learning and memory as damage to this region produces a persistent amnestic syndrome. Dense connections between the ATN and the hippocampus exist, and importantly, damage to the ATN can impair hippocampal functioning. Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key neurotransmitter in the hippocampus, and in vivo…

  20. Diurnal inhibition of NMDA-EPSCs at rat hippocampal mossy fibre synapses through orexin-2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Perin, Martina; Longordo, Fabio; Massonnet, Christine; Welker, Egbert; Lüthi, Anita

    2014-10-01

    Diurnal release of the orexin neuropeptides orexin-A (Ox-A, hypocretin-1) and orexin-B (Ox-B, hypocretin-2) stabilises arousal, regulates energy homeostasis and contributes to cognition and learning. However, whether cellular correlates of brain plasticity are regulated through orexins, and whether they do so in a time-of-day-dependent manner, has never been assessed. Immunohistochemically we found sparse but widespread innervation of hippocampal subfields through Ox-A- and Ox-B-containing fibres in young adult rats. The actions of Ox-A were studied on NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission in acute hippocampal slices prepared around the trough (Zeitgeber time (ZT) 4-8, corresponding to 4-8 h into the resting phase) and peak (ZT 23) of intracerebroventricular orexin levels. At ZT 4-8, exogenous Ox-A (100 nm in bath) inhibited NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (NMDA-EPSCs) at mossy fibre (MF)-CA3 (to 55.6 ± 6.8% of control, P = 0.0003) and at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses (70.8 ± 6.3%, P = 0.013), whereas it remained ineffective at non-MF excitatory synapses in CA3. Ox-A actions were mediated postsynaptically and blocked by the orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) antagonist JNJ10397049 (1 μm), but not by orexin-1 receptor inhibition (SB334867, 1 μm) or by adrenergic and cholinergic antagonists. At ZT 23, inhibitory effects of exogenous Ox-A were absent (97.6 ± 2.9%, P = 0.42), but reinstated (87.2 ± 3.3%, P = 0.002) when endogenous orexin signalling was attenuated for 5 h through i.p. injections of almorexant (100 mg kg(-1)), a dual orexin receptor antagonist. In conclusion, endogenous orexins modulate hippocampal NMDAR function in a time-of-day-dependent manner, suggesting that they may influence cellular plasticity and consequent variations in memory performance across the sleep-wake cycle.

  1. Diurnal inhibition of NMDA-EPSCs at rat hippocampal mossy fibre synapses through orexin-2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Perin, Martina; Longordo, Fabio; Massonnet, Christine; Welker, Egbert; Lüthi, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal release of the orexin neuropeptides orexin-A (Ox-A, hypocretin-1) and orexin-B (Ox-B, hypocretin-2) stabilises arousal, regulates energy homeostasis and contributes to cognition and learning. However, whether cellular correlates of brain plasticity are regulated through orexins, and whether they do so in a time-of-day-dependent manner, has never been assessed. Immunohistochemically we found sparse but widespread innervation of hippocampal subfields through Ox-A- and Ox-B-containing fibres in young adult rats. The actions of Ox-A were studied on NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission in acute hippocampal slices prepared around the trough (Zeitgeber time (ZT) 4–8, corresponding to 4–8 h into the resting phase) and peak (ZT 23) of intracerebroventricular orexin levels. At ZT 4–8, exogenous Ox-A (100 nm in bath) inhibited NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (NMDA-EPSCs) at mossy fibre (MF)–CA3 (to 55.6 ± 6.8% of control, P = 0.0003) and at Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses (70.8 ± 6.3%, P = 0.013), whereas it remained ineffective at non-MF excitatory synapses in CA3. Ox-A actions were mediated postsynaptically and blocked by the orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) antagonist JNJ10397049 (1 μm), but not by orexin-1 receptor inhibition (SB334867, 1 μm) or by adrenergic and cholinergic antagonists. At ZT 23, inhibitory effects of exogenous Ox-A were absent (97.6 ± 2.9%, P = 0.42), but reinstated (87.2 ± 3.3%, P = 0.002) when endogenous orexin signalling was attenuated for 5 h through i.p. injections of almorexant (100 mg kg−1), a dual orexin receptor antagonist. In conclusion, endogenous orexins modulate hippocampal NMDAR function in a time-of-day-dependent manner, suggesting that they may influence cellular plasticity and consequent variations in memory performance across the sleep–wake cycle. PMID:25085886

  2. High-frequency electroacupuncture evidently reinforces hippocampal synaptic transmission in Alzheimer's disease rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Kong, Li-hong; Wang, Hui; Shen, Feng; Wang, Ya-wen; Zhou, Hua; Sun, Guo-jie

    2016-01-01

    The frequency range of electroacupuncture in treatment of Alzheimer's disease in rats is commonly 2–5 Hz (low frequency) and 50–100 Hz (high frequency). We established a rat model of Alzheimer's disease by injecting β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42) into the bilateral hippocampal dentate gyrus to verify which frequency may be better suited in treatment. Electroacupuncture at 2 Hz or 50 Hz was used to stimulate Baihui (DU20) and Shenshu (BL23) acupoints. The water maze test and electrophysiological studies demonstrated that spatial memory ability was apparently improved, and the ranges of long-term potentiation and long-term depression were increased in Alzheimer's disease rats after electroacupuncture treatment. Moreover, the effects of electroacupuncture at 50 Hz were better than that at 2 Hz. These findings suggest that high-frequency electroacupuncture may enhance hippocampal synaptic transmission and potentially improve memory disorders in Alzheimer's disease rats. PMID:27335565

  3. Protein kinase C regulates mood-related behaviors and adult hippocampal cell proliferation in rats.

    PubMed

    Abrial, Erika; Etievant, Adeline; Bétry, Cécile; Scarna, Hélène; Lucas, Guillaume; Haddjeri, Nasser; Lambás-Señas, Laura

    2013-06-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and therapeutics of bipolar disorder are still unknown. In recent years, protein kinase C (PKC) has emerged as a potential key player in mania. To further investigate the role of this signaling system in mood regulation, we examined the effects of PKC modulators in behavioral tests modeling several facets of bipolar disorder and in adult hippocampal cell proliferation in rats. Our results showed that a single injection of the PKC inhibitors tamoxifen (80 mg/kg, i.p.) and chelerythrine (3 mg/kg, s.c.) attenuated amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion and decreased risk-taking behavior, supporting the efficacy of PKC blockade in acute mania. Moreover, chronic exposure to tamoxifen (10 mg/kg/day, i.p., for 14 days) or chelerythrine (0.3 mg/kg/day, s.c., for 14 days) caused depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test, and resulted in a reduction of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Finally, we showed that, contrary to the PKC inhibitors, the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) enhanced risk-taking behavior and induced an antidepressant-like effect. Taken together, these findings support the involvement of PKC in regulating opposite facets of bipolar disorder, and emphasize a major role for PKC in this disease. PMID:23228462

  4. Developmental hypothyroidism abolishes bilateral differences in sonic hedgehog gene control in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Wang, Liyun; Kimura, Masayuki; Abe, Hajime; Mizukami, Sayaka; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Both developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism disrupt rat hippocampal neurogenesis. We previously showed that exposing mouse offspring to manganese permanently disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis and abolishes the asymmetric distribution of cells expressing Mid1, a molecule regulated by sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. The present study examined the involvement of Shh signaling on the disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in rats with hypothyroidism. Pregnant rats were treated with methimazole (MMI) at 0 or 200 ppm in the drinking water from gestation day 10-21 days after delivery (developmental hypothyroidism). Adult male rats were treated with MMI in the same manner from postnatal day (PND) 46 to PND 77 (adult-stage hypothyroidism). Developmental hypothyroidism reduced the number of Mid1(+) cells within the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of offspring on PND 21, and consequently abolished the normal asymmetric predominance of Mid1(+) cells on the right side through the adult stage. In control animals, Shh was expressed in a subpopulation of hilar neurons, showing asymmetric distribution with left side predominance on PND 21; however, this asymmetry did not continue through the adult stage. Developmental hypothyroidism increased Shh(+) neurons bilaterally and abolished the asymmetric distribution pattern on PND 21. Adult hypothyroidism also disrupted the asymmetric distribution of Mid1(+) cells but did not affect the distribution of Shh(+) hilar neurons. The results suggest that the hippocampal neurogenesis disruption seen in hypothyroidism involves changes in asymmetric Shh(+) neuron distribution in developmental hypothyroidism and altered Mid1 expression in both developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism.

  5. Seizures following hippocampal kindling induce QT interval prolongation and increased susceptibility to arrhythmias in rats.

    PubMed

    Bealer, Steven L; Little, Jason G

    2013-07-01

    The prolonged seizures of status epilepticus produce chronic arrhythmogenic changes in cardiac function. This study was designed to determine if repeated, self-limiting seizures administered to kindled rats induce similar cardiac dysfunction. Multiple seizures administered to rats following hippocampal kindling resulted in cardiac QT interval prolongation and increased susceptibility to experimental arrhythmias. These data suggest that multiple, self-limiting seizures of intractable epilepsy may have cardiac effects that can contribute to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

  6. Acute Exercise Improves Prefrontal Cortex but not Hippocampal Function in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Basso, Julia C; Shang, Andrea; Elman, Meredith; Karmouta, Ryan; Suzuki, Wendy A

    2015-11-01

    The effects of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive functions in humans have been the subject of much investigation; however, these studies are limited by several factors, including a lack of randomized controlled designs, focus on only a single cognitive function, and testing during or shortly after exercise. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study asked how a single bout of aerobic exercise affects a range of frontal- and medial temporal lobe-dependent cognitive functions and how long these effects last. We randomly assigned 85 subjects to either a vigorous intensity acute aerobic exercise group or a video watching control group. All subjects completed a battery of cognitive tasks both before and 30, 60, 90, or 120 min after the intervention. This battery included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the Modified Benton Visual Retention Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Digit Span Test, the Trail Making Test, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Based on these measures, composite scores were formed to independently assess prefrontal cortex- and hippocampal-dependent cognition. A three-way mixed Analysis of Variance was used to determine whether differences existed between groups in the change in cognitive function from pre- to post-intervention testing. Acute exercise improved prefrontal cortex- but not hippocampal-dependent functioning, with no differences found between delay groups. Vigorous acute aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on prefrontal cortex-dependent cognition and these effects can last for up to 2 hr after exercise.

  7. The effect of excitotoxic hippocampal lesions on simple and conditional discrimination learning in the rat.

    PubMed

    Murray, T K; Ridley, R M

    1999-02-15

    The effect of excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampus on acquisition and reversal of simple and conditional tasks was investigated using a Y-maze. Hippocampal-lesioned rats were severely impaired on acquisition and reversal of a conditional visuo-spatial task (where different pairs of visually distinctive choice arms indicated whether a left or right arm choice was correct on that trial) and were unable to acquire a visuo-visual conditional discrimination (where the appearance of the start arm indicated which of the visually distinctive choice arms was correct irrespective of their left/right position). They were not impaired on acquisition or reversal of a simple spatial left/right discrimination task (where all arms had the same visual appearance) nor on acquisition of a visual discrimination (where the correct, visually distinctive, choice arm varied in its left/right position). Hippocampal-lesioned rats were, however, impaired on reversal of this visual discrimination task and on acquisition and reversal of another visual discrimination task in which the visually distinctive choice arms were less different from each other than in the first version of this task. The degree of impairment in the lesioned rats was related to task difficulty for the sham-operated rats and was not specific to tasks requiring spatial choices, visual discrimination or conditional responding. The impairment on conditional tasks was greater than the impairment on those non-conditional tasks which happened to be matched for task difficulty for the sham-operated rats, suggesting that the conditional demand may target the function of the hippocampus rather closely. Statistically worse than chance performance by hippocampal-lesioned (and sham-operated) rats at the beginning of reversal testing, which was given 24 h after achieving criterion on acquisition of that task, indicated that hippocampal-lesioned rats simultaneously exhibited good memory but impaired learning for the type of

  8. Reinforcement of Rat Hippocampal LTP by Holeboard Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Julietta U.; Korz, Volker; Uzakov, Shukhrat

    2005-01-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) can be dissociated in early-LTP lasting 4-5 h and late-LTP with a duration of more than 8 h, the latter of which requires protein synthesis and heterosynaptic activity during its induction. Previous studies in vivo have shown that early-LTP in the dentate gyrus can protein synthesis-dependently be…

  9. Activity-based anorexia is associated with reduced hippocampal cell proliferation in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Fornal, Casimir A; Takase, Luiz F; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Arner, Candice; Walsh, B Timothy; Hoebel, Bartley G; Jacobs, Barry L

    2013-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model of anorexia nervosa that mimics core features of the clinical psychiatric disorder, including severe food restriction, weight loss, and hyperactivity. The ABA model is currently being used to study starvation-induced changes in the brain. Here, we examined hippocampal cell proliferation in animals with ABA (or the appropriate control conditions). Adolescent female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 groups: control (24h/day food access), food-restricted (1h/day food access), exercise (24h/day food and wheel access), and ABA (1h/day food access, 24h/day wheel access). After 3 days of ABA, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 200mg/kg, i.p.) was injected and the rats were perfused 2h later. Brains were removed and subsequently processed for BrdU and Ki67 immunohistochemistry. The acute induction of ABA reduced cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. This effect was significant in the hilus region of the dentate gyrus, but not in the subgranular zone, where adult neurogenesis occurs. Marked decreases in cell proliferation were also observed in the surrounding dorsal hippocampus and in the corpus callosum. These results indicate a primary effect on gliogenesis rather than neurogenesis following 3 days of ABA. For each brain region studied (except SGZ), there was a strong positive correlation between the level of cell proliferation and body weight/food intake. Future studies should examine whether these changes are maintained following long-term weight restoration and whether alterations in neurogenesis occur following longer exposures to ABA.

  10. 916 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects rat behavior and hippocampal neuronal discharge☆

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Dongmei; Yang, Lei; Chen, Su; Tian, Yonghao; Wu, Shuicai

    2012-01-01

    Wistar rats were exposed to a 916 MHz, 10 W/m2 mobile phone electromagnetic field for 6 hours a day, 5 days a week. Average completion times in an eight-arm radial maze were longer in the exposed rats than control rats after 4–5 weeks of exposure. Error rates in the exposed rats were greater than the control rats at 6 weeks. Hippocampal neurons from the exposed rats showed irregular firing patterns during the experiment, and they exhibited decreased spiking activity 6–9 weeks compared with that after 2–5 weeks of exposure. These results indicate that 916 MHz electromagnetic fields influence learning and memory in rats during exposure, but long-term effects are not obvious. PMID:25657684

  11. Temperature effects on evoked potentials of hippocampal slices from euthermic chipmunks, hamsters and rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooper, D. C.; Martin, S. M.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    1. Neural activity was recorded in hippocampal slices from euthermic chipmunks, hamsters and rats. 2. While recording the evoked potentials, the temperature of the Ringer's solution bathing the slice was varied by controlling the temperature of an outer chamber jacketing the recording chamber. 3. The temperature just below that at which a population spike could be evoked, Tt, was 10.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C (mean +/- SEM) for chipmunk slices, 14.1 +/- 0.4 degrees C for rat slices and 14.8 +/- 0.4 degrees C for hamster slices. Tt was significantly lower in the chipmunk slices (P<0.01) than in the rat and hamster slices. 4. Data were interpreted as consistent with the hypothesis that chipmunk hippocampal neurons are intrinsically cold resistant.

  12. Wogonin Attenuates Hippocampal Neuronal Loss and Cognitive Dysfunction in Trimethyltin-Intoxicated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bombi; Sur, Bongjun; Cho, Seong-Guk; Yeom, Mijung; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether wogonin (WO) improved hippocampal neuronal activity, behavioral alterations and cognitive impairment, in rats induced by administration of trimethyltin (TMT), an organotin compound that is neurotoxic to these animals. The ability of WO to improve cognitive efficacy in the TMT-induced neurodegenerative rats was investigated using a passive avoidance test, and the Morris water maze test, and using immunohistochemistry to detect components of the acetylcholinergic system, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) expression. Rats injected with TMT showed impairments in learning and memory and daily administration of WO improved memory function, and reduced aggressive behavior. Administration of WO significantly alleviated the TMT-induced loss of cholinergic immunoreactivity and restored the hippocampal expression levels of BDNF and CREB proteins and their encoding mRNAs to normal levels. These findings suggest that WO might be useful as a new therapy for treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27133262

  13. Natural space-use patterns and hippocampal size in kangaroo rats.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, L F; Spencer, W D

    1994-01-01

    The size of the hippocampus, a forebrain structure that processes spatial information, correlates with the need to relocate food caches by passerine birds and with sex-specific patterns of space use in microtine rodents. The influences on hippocampal anatomy of sexual selection within species, and natural selection between species, have not yet been studied in concert, however. Here we report that natural space-use patterns predict hippocampal size within and between two species of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys). Differences in foraging behavior suggest that Merriam's kangaroo rats (D. merriami) require better spatial abilities than bannertail kangaroo rats (D. spectabilis). Sex-specific differences in mating strategy suggest that males of both species require more spatial ability than females. As predicted, hippocampal size (relative to brain size) is larger in Merriam's than in bannertail kangaroo rats, and males have larger hippocampi than females in both species. Males of a third species (D. ordii) also have smaller hippocampi than Merriam's kangaroo rat males, despite being similar to Merriam's in brain and body size. These results suggest that both natural and sexual selection affect the relative size and perhaps function of mammalian hippocampi. They also reassert that measures of functional subunits of the brain reveal more about brain evolution than measures of total brain size.

  14. Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; El-Aidi, Ahmed Amro; Ali, Mohamed Mostafa; Attia, Yasser Mahmoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Stress is any condition that impairs the balance of the organism physiologically or psychologically. The response to stress involves several neurohormonal consequences. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its release is increased by stress that predisposes to excitotoxicity in the brain. Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate glutamatergic receptors antagonist and has shown beneficial effect on cognitive function especially in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the work was to investigate memantine effect on memory and behavior in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress with the evaluation of serum markers of stress and the expression of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity. Forty-two male rats were divided into seven groups (six rats/group): control, acute restraint stress, acute restraint stress with Memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint stress with Memantine and Memantine groups (two subgroups as positive control). Spatial working memory and behavior were assessed by performance in Y-maze. We evaluated serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor, interleukin-6 and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our results revealed that Memantine improved spatial working memory in repeated stress, decreased serum level of stress markers and modified the hippocampal synaptic plasticity markers in both patterns of stress exposure; in ARS, Memantine upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulated the expression of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and in repeated restraint stress, it upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and downregulated calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression.

  15. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-01

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species. PMID:26979050

  16. Ozone modulates the effects of imipramine on immobility in the forced swim test, and nonspecific parameters of hippocampal oxidative stress in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mokoena, Mmalebuso L; Harvey, Brian H; Oliver, Douglas W; Brink, Christiaan B

    2010-06-01

    Depression has been associated with oxidative stress. There is increased awareness of the role of environmental toxins in the development of mood disorders. Ozone, a pro-oxidant and environmental pollutant, has been noted to have central nervous system effects. We investigated the effects of acute and chronic ozone inhalation on the response of imipramine in the forced-swim test (FST) and on biomarkers of oxidative stress in rat hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 0.25 or 0.7 ppm ozone per inhalation 4 h daily for either 30 days (chronic) or once (acute). Animals were then injected intraperitoneally with imipramine (10 mg/kg) or saline 24, 5 and 1 h before the forced-swim test. Hippocampal superoxide accumulation and lipid peroxidation were measured. Imipramine evoked an antidepressant-like effect independent of acute or chronic ozone exposure. However, 0.7 ppm acute ozone and 0.25 ppm chronic ozone attenuated the antidepressant-like effects of imipramine. The ozone exposures also elevated hippocampal superoxide accumulation and lipid peroxidation. Importantly, imipramine reversed the lipid peroxidation induced by chronic ozone, thereby preventing cellular damage induced by oxidative stress. Ozone exposure presents a feasible model with etiological validity to investigate oxidative stress in depression and antidepressant action.

  17. The Effect of Acute and Chronic Social Stress on the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stankiewicz, Adrian M.; Goscik, Joanna; Majewska, Alicja; Swiergiel, Artur H.; Juszczak, Grzegorz R.

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic stress contributes to the formation of brain pathology. Using gene expression microarrays, we analyzed the hippocampal transcriptome of mice subjected to acute and chronic social stress of different duration. The longest period of social stress altered the expression of the highest number of genes and most of the stress-induced changes in transcription were reversible after 5 days of rest. Chronic stress affected genes involved in the functioning of the vascular system (Alas2, Hbb-b1, Hba-a2, Hba-a1), injury response (Vwf, Mgp, Cfh, Fbln5, Col3a1, Ctgf) and inflammation (S100a8, S100a9, Ctla2a, Ctla2b, Lcn2, Lrg1, Rsad2, Isg20). The results suggest that stress may affect brain functions through the stress-induced dysfunction of the vascular system. An important issue raised in our work is also the risk of the contamination of brain tissue samples with choroid plexus. Such contamination would result in a consistent up- or down-regulation of genes, such as Ttr, Igf2, Igfbp2, Prlr, Enpp2, Sostdc1, 1500015O10RIK (Ecrg4), Kl, Clic6, Kcne2, F5, Slc4a5, and Aqp1. Our study suggests that some of the previously reported, supposedly specific changes in hippocampal gene expression, may be a result of the inclusion of choroid plexus in the hippocampal samples. PMID:26556046

  18. The Effect of Acute and Chronic Social Stress on the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Mice.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Adrian M; Goscik, Joanna; Majewska, Alicja; Swiergiel, Artur H; Juszczak, Grzegorz R

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic stress contributes to the formation of brain pathology. Using gene expression microarrays, we analyzed the hippocampal transcriptome of mice subjected to acute and chronic social stress of different duration. The longest period of social stress altered the expression of the highest number of genes and most of the stress-induced changes in transcription were reversible after 5 days of rest. Chronic stress affected genes involved in the functioning of the vascular system (Alas2, Hbb-b1, Hba-a2, Hba-a1), injury response (Vwf, Mgp, Cfh, Fbln5, Col3a1, Ctgf) and inflammation (S100a8, S100a9, Ctla2a, Ctla2b, Lcn2, Lrg1, Rsad2, Isg20). The results suggest that stress may affect brain functions through the stress-induced dysfunction of the vascular system. An important issue raised in our work is also the risk of the contamination of brain tissue samples with choroid plexus. Such contamination would result in a consistent up- or down-regulation of genes, such as Ttr, Igf2, Igfbp2, Prlr, Enpp2, Sostdc1, 1500015O10RIK (Ecrg4), Kl, Clic6, Kcne2, F5, Slc4a5, and Aqp1. Our study suggests that some of the previously reported, supposedly specific changes in hippocampal gene expression, may be a result of the inclusion of choroid plexus in the hippocampal samples.

  19. The Effect of Acute and Chronic Social Stress on the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Mice.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Adrian M; Goscik, Joanna; Majewska, Alicja; Swiergiel, Artur H; Juszczak, Grzegorz R

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic stress contributes to the formation of brain pathology. Using gene expression microarrays, we analyzed the hippocampal transcriptome of mice subjected to acute and chronic social stress of different duration. The longest period of social stress altered the expression of the highest number of genes and most of the stress-induced changes in transcription were reversible after 5 days of rest. Chronic stress affected genes involved in the functioning of the vascular system (Alas2, Hbb-b1, Hba-a2, Hba-a1), injury response (Vwf, Mgp, Cfh, Fbln5, Col3a1, Ctgf) and inflammation (S100a8, S100a9, Ctla2a, Ctla2b, Lcn2, Lrg1, Rsad2, Isg20). The results suggest that stress may affect brain functions through the stress-induced dysfunction of the vascular system. An important issue raised in our work is also the risk of the contamination of brain tissue samples with choroid plexus. Such contamination would result in a consistent up- or down-regulation of genes, such as Ttr, Igf2, Igfbp2, Prlr, Enpp2, Sostdc1, 1500015O10RIK (Ecrg4), Kl, Clic6, Kcne2, F5, Slc4a5, and Aqp1. Our study suggests that some of the previously reported, supposedly specific changes in hippocampal gene expression, may be a result of the inclusion of choroid plexus in the hippocampal samples. PMID:26556046

  20. Aged rats show dominant modulation of lower frequency hippocampal theta rhythm during running.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Terry B J; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2016-10-01

    Aging causes considerable decline in both physiological and mental functions, particularly cognitive function. The hippocampal theta rhythm (4-12Hz) is related to both cognition and locomotion. Aging-related findings of the frequency and amplitude of hippocampal theta oscillations are inconsistent and occasionally contradictory. This inconsistency may be due to the effects of the sleep/wake state and different frequency subbands being overlooked. We assumed that aged rats have lower responses of the hippocampal theta rhythm during running, which is mainly due to the dominant modulation of theta frequency subbands related to cognition. By simultaneously recording electroencephalography, physical activity (PA), and the heart rate (HR), this experiment explored the theta oscillations before, during, and after treadmill running at a constant speed in 8-week-old (adult) and 60-week-old (middle-aged) rats. Compared with adult rats, the middle-aged rats exhibited lower theta activity in all frequency ranges before running. Running increased the theta frequency (Frq, 4-12Hz), total activity of the whole theta band (total power, TP), activity of the middle theta frequency (MT, 6.5-9.5Hz), and PA in both age groups. However, the middle-aged rats still showed fewer changes in these parameters during the whole running process. After the waking baseline values were substracted, middle-aged rats showed significantly fewer differences in ΔFrq, ΔTP, and ΔMT but significantly more differences in low-frequency theta activity (4.0-6.5Hz) and HR than the adult rats did. Therefore, the decreasing activity and response of the whole theta band in the middle-aged rats resulted in dominant modulation of the middle to lower frequency (4.0-9.5Hz) theta rhythm. The different alterations in the theta rhythm during treadmill running in the two groups may reflect that learning decline with age.

  1. Aged rats show dominant modulation of lower frequency hippocampal theta rhythm during running.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Terry B J; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2016-10-01

    Aging causes considerable decline in both physiological and mental functions, particularly cognitive function. The hippocampal theta rhythm (4-12Hz) is related to both cognition and locomotion. Aging-related findings of the frequency and amplitude of hippocampal theta oscillations are inconsistent and occasionally contradictory. This inconsistency may be due to the effects of the sleep/wake state and different frequency subbands being overlooked. We assumed that aged rats have lower responses of the hippocampal theta rhythm during running, which is mainly due to the dominant modulation of theta frequency subbands related to cognition. By simultaneously recording electroencephalography, physical activity (PA), and the heart rate (HR), this experiment explored the theta oscillations before, during, and after treadmill running at a constant speed in 8-week-old (adult) and 60-week-old (middle-aged) rats. Compared with adult rats, the middle-aged rats exhibited lower theta activity in all frequency ranges before running. Running increased the theta frequency (Frq, 4-12Hz), total activity of the whole theta band (total power, TP), activity of the middle theta frequency (MT, 6.5-9.5Hz), and PA in both age groups. However, the middle-aged rats still showed fewer changes in these parameters during the whole running process. After the waking baseline values were substracted, middle-aged rats showed significantly fewer differences in ΔFrq, ΔTP, and ΔMT but significantly more differences in low-frequency theta activity (4.0-6.5Hz) and HR than the adult rats did. Therefore, the decreasing activity and response of the whole theta band in the middle-aged rats resulted in dominant modulation of the middle to lower frequency (4.0-9.5Hz) theta rhythm. The different alterations in the theta rhythm during treadmill running in the two groups may reflect that learning decline with age. PMID:27496645

  2. Tactile stimulation effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning and memory in prenatally stressed rats.

    PubMed

    de Los Angeles, Guerrero Aguilera María; Del Carmen, Rubio Osornio María; Wendy, Portillo Martínez; Socorro, Retana-Márquez

    2016-06-01

    Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is increased by spatial learning and postnatal stimulation. Conversely, prenatal stress (PS) produces a decrease in the proliferation of hippocampal granular cells. This work evaluated the effect of postnatal tactile stimulation (PTS), when applied from birth to adulthood, on cognitive performance and hippocampal neurogenesis (survival and differentiation) in PS female and male rats. The response of the adrenal axis to training in the Morris water maze (MWM) was also analyzed. PS was provided during gestational days 15 through 21. Hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive performance in the MWM were assessed at an age of three months. Results showed that escape latencies of both female and male PS rats were longer compared to those of their controls (CON). DG cell survival increased in the PS female rats. Corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the male and female PS rats after MWM training. PTS improved escape latencies and increased the number of new neurons in the DG of PS animals, and their corticosterone concentrations were similar to those in CON. In CON, PTS diminished DG cell survival but increased differentiation and reduces latency in the MWM. These results show that long-term PTS in PS animals might prevent learning deficits in adults through increase in the number of DG new cells and decrease of the reactivity of the adrenal axis to MWM training.

  3. Resistance to extinction after schedules of partial delay or partial reinforcement in rats with hippocampal lesions.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, J N; Feldon, J; Ursin, H; Gray, J A

    1985-01-01

    Two experimental procedures were employed to establish the reason why hippocampal lesions apparently block the development of tolerance for aversive events in partial reinforcement experiments, but do not do so in partial punishment experiments. Rats were trained to run in a straight alley following hippocampal lesions (HC), cortical control lesions (CC) or sham operations (SO), and resistance to extinction was assessed following differing acquisition conditions. In Experiment 1 a 4-8 min inter-trial interval (ITI) was used. Either every acquisition trial was rewarded immediately (Continuous Reinforcement, CR), or only a randomly selected half of the trials were immediately rewarded, the reward being delayed for thirty seconds on the other trials (Partial Delay, PD). This delay procedure produced increased resistance to extinction in rats in all lesion groups. In Experiment 2 the ITI was reduced to a few seconds, and rats were trained either on a CR schedule, or on a schedule in which only half the trials were rewarded (Partial Reinforcement, PR). This form of partial reinforcement procedure also produced increased resistance to extinction in rats in all lesion groups. It thus appears that hippocampal lesions only prevent the development of resistance to aversive events when the interval between aversive and subsequent appetitive events exceeds some minimum value. PMID:4029302

  4. Leptin-induced downregulation of the rat hippocampal somatostatinergic system may potentiate its anorexigenic effects.

    PubMed

    Perianes-Cachero, Arancha; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Puebla-Jiménez, Lilian; Canelles, Sandra; Viveros, María Paz; Mela, Virginia; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Arilla-Ferreiro, Eduardo; Barrios, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    The learning and memory mechanisms in the hippocampus translate hormonal signals of energy balance into behavioral outcomes involved in the regulation of food intake. As leptin and its receptors are expressed in the hippocampus and somatostatin (SRIF), an orexigenic neuropeptide, may inhibit leptin-mediated suppression of food intake in other brain areas, we asked whether chronic leptin infusion induces changes in the hippocampal somatostatinergic system and whether these modifications are involved in leptin-mediated effects. We studied 18 male Wistar rats divided into three groups: controls (C), treated intracerebroventricularly (icv) with leptin (12 μg/day) for 14 days (L) and a pair-fed group (PF) that received the same amount of food consumed by the L group. Food restriction increased whereas leptin decreased the hippocampal SRIF receptor density, due to changes in SRIF receptor 2 protein levels. These changes in the PF group were concurrent with an increase of hippocampal G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 protein levels and activation of Akt and cyclic AMP response element binding protein. The inhibitory effect of SRIF on adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, however, was decreased in L rats, coincident with lower G inhibitory α3 and higher AC-I levels as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 activation. In addition, 20 male Wistar rats were included to analyze whether the leptin antagonist L39A/D40A/F41A and the SRIF receptor agonist SMS 201-995 modify SRIF signaling and food intake, respectively. Administration of L39A/D40A/F41A reversed changes in SRIF signaling, whereas SMS 201-995 ameliorated food consumption in L. Altogether, these results suggest that increased somatostatinergic tone in PF rats may be a mechanism to improve the hippocampal orexigenic effects in a situation of metabolic demand, whereas down-regulation of this system in L rats may represent a mechanism to enhance the anorexigenic effects of leptin.

  5. Short-Term Sleep Deprivation Stimulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats Following Global Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Oumei; Li, Rong; Zhao, Lei; Yu, Lijuan; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jia; Chen, Beibei; Yang, Junqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation (SD) plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR). Methods One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d. Results The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects. Conclusions Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process. PMID:26039740

  6. Qualitatively different hippocampal subfield engagement emerges with mastery of a spatial memory task by rats.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Guillaume L; Amin, Eman; Aggleton, John P

    2008-01-30

    The parallel, entorhinal cortex projections to different hippocampal regions potentially support separate mnemonic functions. To examine this possibility, rats were trained in a radial-arm maze task so that hippocampal activity could be compared after "early" (two sessions) or "late" (five sessions) learning. Induction of the immediate-early gene Zif268 was then measured, so revealing possible activity differences across hippocampal subfields and the parahippocampal cortices. Each rat in the two experimental groups (early, late) was also yoked to a control rat that obtained the same number of rewards, visited the same number of maze arms, and spent a comparable amount of time in the maze. Although overall Zif268 levels did not distinguish the four groups, significant correlations were found between spatial memory performance and levels of dentate gyrus Zif268 expression in the early but not the late training group. Conversely, hippocampal fields CA3 and CA1 Zif268 expression correlated with performance in the late but not the early training group. This reversal in the correlation pattern was echoed by structural equation modeling, which revealed dynamic changes in effective network connectivity. With early training, the dentate gyrus appeared to help determine CA1 activity, but by late training the dentate gyrus reduced its neural influence. Furthermore, CA1 was distinguished from CA3, each subfield developing opposite relations with task mastery. Thus, functional entorhinal cortex coupling with CA1 activity became more direct with additional training, so producing a trisynaptic circuit bypass. The present study reveals qualitatively different patterns of hippocampal subfield engagement dependent on task demands and mastery.

  7. Role of ethanolamine phosphate in the hippocampus of rats with acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Aguado-Llera, D; Puebla-Jiménez, L; Barrios, V; Hernández-Pinto, A; Arilla-Ferreiro, E

    2011-01-01

    Here, we assessed the effects of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) on the rat hippocampal somatostatinergic system and whether administration of an ethanolamine phosphate salt could prevent the appearance of the clinical signs and the impairment of the somatostatinergic system in this pathological condition. Female Lewis rats were injected in both hindlimb footpads with myelin basic protein from guinea pig brain and complete Freund's adjuvant and were sacrificed when limp tail (grade 1 EAE) or severe hindlimb paralysis (grade 3 EAE) were observed. One group was injected daily with ethanolamine phosphate, starting two days prior to immunization and for 15 days thereafter. The animals were sacrificed 15 days post-immunization. Acute EAE in grade 3 increased anti-myelin basic protein antibodies in rat serum as well as tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ levels in hippocampal extracts. In addition, it decreased the somatostatin receptor density, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 mRNA and protein content, and the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on adenylyl cyclase activity in the hippocampus. The protein levels of the inhibitory G protein subunits αi(1-3), the G protein-coupled receptor kinase isoforms 2, 5 and 6, the phosphorylated cyclic AMP-binding protein and the somatostatin-like immunoreactivity content were unaltered in this brain area. Acute EAE in grade 1 did not modify any of these parameters. Ethanolamine phosphate administration prevented the clinical expression of acute EAE as well as the decrease in the somatostatin receptor density, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 expression and the capacity of somatostatin to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity at the time-period studied. Furthermore, it blunted the rise in serum anti-myelin basic protein antibodies and hippocampal interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. Altogether, these data suggest that ethanolamine phosphate might provide protection against acute EAE.

  8. Palmitone prevents pentylenetetrazole-caused neuronal damage in the CA3 hippocampal region of prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Cano-Europa, E; González-Trujano, M E; Reyes-Ramírez, A; Hernández-García, A; Blas-Valdivia, V; Ortiz-Butrón, R

    2010-02-12

    Palmitone is a secondary metabolite of polyketide origin extracted from leaves of Annona diversifolia Saff. (Annonaceae). We found that palmitone possesses anticonvulsant properties against penicillin-, 4-AP-, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-caused seizure in adult animals. Some convulsants as PTZ cause neuronal damage in different brain regions such as the CA3 hippocampal region. Our objective was to evaluate if palmitone protects against PTZ-caused seizures and hippocampal neuronal damage in prepubertal rats. We used 32 prepubertal Wistar rats (30-35 days old) divided into four groups of 8 animals; group I was the control group, group II received a single PTZ dose of 50mg/kg ip, group III received a single palmitone dose of 50mg/kg ip, and group IV received a palmitone dose of 50mg/kg ip plus a PTZ dose of 50mg/kg ip. Ten days after administration, the animals were killed using pentobarbital anesthesia (35 mg/kg). The brains were removed and were embedded in paraffin. Coronal cuts of 7 microm were obtained from -2.8 to -3.3 from Bregma. Each section was stained with cresyl violet-eosin. We evaluated the number of normal and abnormal neurons in the CA3 hippocampal region in a 10,000 microm(2) section. It was observed that palmitone did not prevent the PTZ-caused seizure but palmitone prevents the PTZ-caused neuronal damage in the CA3 hippocampal region. PMID:20045039

  9. Tianeptine reverses stress-induced asymmetrical hippocampal volume and N-acetylaspartate loss in rats: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Shu, Xi-Ji; Chen, Fu-Yin; Zhu, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Hai; Liu, Li-Jiang; Ai, Yong-Xun; Li, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Hu

    2011-12-30

    Stress-induced hippocampal volume loss and decrease in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) level have been reported to be associated with impaired neural plasticity and neuronal damage in adults. Accordingly, reversing structural and metabolite damage in the hippocampus may be a desirable goal for antidepressant therapy. The present study investigated the effects of tianeptine on chronic stress-induced hippocampal volume loss and metabolite alterations in vivo in 24 Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were subjected to a consecutive 28-day forced swimming test stress. Tianeptine (50mg/kg) or saline was administered intragastrically 4h after swimming each day. Spontaneous behaviors, serum corticosterone concentration, hippocampal volume and NAA level were evaluated after stress. Chronic tianeptine treatment counteracted the chronic stress-induced suppression of spontaneous behaviors, elevated serum corticosterone concentration, reduced hippocampal volume and decreased NAA level. Moreover, we found asymmetrical right-left hippocampal volume loss in stressed rats, with the left hippocampus more sensitive to chronic stress than the right hippocampus. In addition, stressed rats showed a decreased level of hippocampal metabolites, without significant loss of hippocampal volume. These findings provide experimental evidence for impaired structural plasticity of the brain being an important feature of depressive illness and suggest that prophylactic tianeptine treatments could reverse structural changes in brain. The structural and neurochemical alterations in the hippocampus may be valuable indexes for evaluating the prophylactic and curative effect of antidepressant treatments in depressive and stress-related disorders.

  10. Functional network changes in hippocampal CA1 after status epilepticus predict spatial memory deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Anna L; Mahoney, J Matthew; Richard, Gregory R; Holmes, Gregory L; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Scott, Rod C

    2012-08-15

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological emergency, which has been associated with subsequent cognitive impairments. Neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 is thought to be an important mechanism of these impairments. However, it is also possible that functional interactions between surviving neurons are important. In this study we recorded in vivo single-unit activity in the CA1 hippocampal region of rats while they performed a spatial memory task. From these data we constructed functional networks describing pyramidal cell interactions. To build the networks, we used maximum entropy algorithms previously applied only to in vitro data. We show that several months following SE pyramidal neurons display excessive neuronal synchrony and less neuronal reactivation during rest compared with those in healthy controls. Both effects predict rat performance in a spatial memory task. These results provide a physiological mechanism for SE-induced cognitive impairment and highlight the importance of the systems-level perspective in investigating spatial cognition.

  11. Disruption of ripple-associated hippocampal activity during rest impairs spatial learning in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ego-Stengel, Valérie; Wilson, Matthew A

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a key role in the acquisition of new memories for places and events. Evidence suggests that the consolidation of these memories is enhanced during sleep. At the neuronal level, reactivation of awake experience in the hippocampus during sharp-wave ripple events, characteristic of slow-wave sleep, has been proposed as a neural mechanism for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. However, a causal relation between sleep reactivation and memory consolidation has not been established. Here we show that disrupting neuronal activity during ripple events impairs spatial learning. We trained rats daily in two identical spatial navigation tasks followed each by a 1-hour rest period. After one of the tasks, stimulation of hippocampal afferents selectively disrupted neuronal activity associated with ripple events without changing the sleep-wake structure. Rats learned the control task significantly faster than the task followed by rest stimulation, indicating that interfering with hippocampal processing during sleep led to decreased learning.

  12. Effect of acupuncture on hippocampal Ref-1 expression in cerebral multi-infarction rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cun-Zhi; Li, Zu-Guang; Wang, De-Jin; Shi, Guang-Xia; Liu, Li-Ying; Li, Qian-Qian; Li, Chong

    2013-03-01

    Redox effector factor (Ref-1) is a sensitive marker for oxidative cellular injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acupuncture on hippocampal Ref-1 expression in cerebral multi-infarction rats. The rats with reference memory impairment were randomly allocated to three groups: impaired group, acupuncture group and placebo acupuncture group. Moreover, normal group and sham-operated group were set as control groups. Morris water maze test showed that cerebral multi-infarction rats did not present significant changes in spatial working memory performance. Further investigation by immunohistochemistry revealed that acupunctural treatment significantly increased the expression of Ref-1 in the hippocampus of the impaired rats. These findings suggested that the spatial working memory was unaffected in the cerebral multi-infarction rats although spatial reference memory deficits were detected in our previous study; in addition, acupuncture could increase the Ref-1 expression, consequently exerting the anti-oxidant effects.

  13. Effects of environmental enrichment on cognitive function and hippocampal NGF in the non-handled rats.

    PubMed

    Pham, T M; Söderström, S; Winblad, B; Mohammed, A H

    1999-08-01

    In this study we examine whether exposure to differential housing after weaning would counteract the effects of postnatal handling (H) or nonhandling (NH) treatment by affecting learning and memory processes in young rats. In addition, we seek to determine if experience in enriched environment would alter hippocampal nerve growth factor (NGF) levels which is one of the factors known to be involved in the regulation of the survival and differentiation of developing basal forebrain neurones. Rats were either exposed to handling treatment, or left undisturbed starting day 1 after birth through day 21. After weaning on day 22, we exposed half of the H rats and half of the NH rats to environmental enrichment for 60 days. The other respective half of the rats was housed in isolated environmental condition (IC). Behavioural measures were taken in open field test, and spatial water maze test. Exposure to enriched environment following postnatal handling and nonhandling increased hippocampal NGF levels, and improved cognitive function in the both groups, with NH rats being more responsive to the effects of enrichment. Our results suggest that environmental enrichment has the potential to prevent or reduce the cognitive and neurochemical deficits in the adult animals associated with nonhandling.

  14. Antidepressant-like effects of curcumin in WKY rat model of depression is associated with an increase in hippocampal BDNF

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Laura L.; Akinfiresoye, Luli; Nwulia, Evaristus; Kamiya, Atsushi; Kulkarni, Amol; Tizabi, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin is the principal active ingredient found in turmeric (Curcuma longa), a plant used in traditional Asian diets and herbal medicines. It is known to have a wide range of biological actions including antidepressant-like effects which have been observed in stress-induced depression models. This study was designed to investigate the antidepressant potential of curcumin in a non-induced model of depression. Moreover, since brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in antidepressant effects of many drugs, we also evaluated the effects of curcumin on BDNF in the hippocampus. Adult male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, a putative model of depression, were injected acutely or chronically (10 d) with 50, 100, and 200mg/kg curcumin. Open field locomotor activity (OFLA) and forced swim test (FST), a measure of helplessness, were measured 1 hour after acute and 18–20 hours after last chronic injection. Results showed a dose-dependent reduction of immobility in the FST by curcumin in both acute and chronic studies, without any significant effect on OFLA. The effect of higher chronic curcumin dose in FST was still evident a week later. Chronic curcumin also resulted in a dose-dependent increase in hippocampal BDNF. This data provides evidence for an antidepressant-like effect of curcumin, possibly through increased neurotrophic activity, in the WKY model of depression, and support the notion that curcumin may prove an effective and lasting natural antidepressant. PMID:23142609

  15. Delivery of Epidermal Neural Crest Stem Cells (EPI-NCSC) to hippocamp in Alzheimer's Disease Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzade, Banafshe; Nobakht, Maliheh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Rahbar Roshandel, Nahid; Rasouli, Homa; Samadi Kuchaksaraei, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Najafzade, Nowruz; Asalgoo, Sara; Hejazian, Leila Beygom; Ghoroghi, Fatima Moghani

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by progressive neuronal loss in hippocamp. Epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSC) can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of transplanting EPI-NCSC into AD rat model. Methods: Two weeks after induction of AD by injection of Amyloid-β 1-40 into CA1 area of rat hippocamp, Y-maze and single-trial passive avoidance tests were used to show deficit of learning and memory abilities. EPI-NCSC were obtained from the vibrissa hair follicle of rat, cultured and labeled with bromodeoxyuridine. When Alzheimer was proved by behavioral tests, EPI-NCSC was transplanted into CA3 area of hippocamp in AD rat model. The staining of EPI-NCSC markers (nestin and SOX10) was done in vitro. Double-labeling immunofluorescence was performed to study survival and differentiation of the grafted cells. Results: We showed that transplanted EPI-NCSC survive and produce many neurons and a few glial cells, presenting glial fibrillary acidic protein. Total number of granule cells in hippocamp was estimated to be more in the AD rat model with transplanted cells as compared to AD control group. We observed that rats with hippocampal damage made more errors than control rats on the Y-maze, when reward locations were reversed. Conclusion: Transplanted cells were migrated to all areas of hippocamp and the total number of granule cell in treatment group was equal compared to control group. Transplantation of EPI-NCSC into hippocamp might differentiate into cholinergic neurons and could cure impairment of memory in AD rat model. PMID:22562026

  16. An NCAM mimetic, FGL, alters hippocampal cellular morphometry in young adult (4 month-old) rats.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Bunmi; Gabbott, Paul L; Rezaie, Payam; Corbett, Nicola; Medvedev, Nikolay I; Cowley, Thelma R; Lynch, Marina A; Stewart, Michael G

    2013-06-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is ubiquitously expressed within the CNS and has roles in development, cognition, neural plasticity and regulation of the immune system. NCAM is thus potentially an important pharmacological target for treatment of brain diseases. A cell adhesion mimetic FGL, a 15 amino-acid peptide derived from the second fibronectin type-III module of NCAM, has been shown to act as a neuroprotective agent in experimental disease and ageing models, restoring hippocampal/cognitive function and markedly alleviating deleterious changes in the CNS. However, the effects of FGL on the hippocampus of young healthy rats are unknown. The present study has examined the cellular neurobiological consequences of subcutaneous injections of FGL, on hippocampal cell morphometry in young (4 month-old) rats. We determined the effects of FGL on hippocampal volume, pyramidal neuron number/density (using unbiased quantitative stereology), and examined aspects of neurogenesis (using 2D morphometric analyses). FGL treatment reduced total volume of the dorsal hippocampus (associated with a decrease in total pyramidal neuron numbers in CA1 and CA3), and elevated the number of doublecortin immunolabeled neurons in the dentate gyrus, indicating a likely influence on neurogenesis in young healthy rats. These data indicate that FGL has a specific age dependent effect on the hippocampus, differing according to the development and maturity of the CNS.

  17. Centella asiatica Attenuates Diabetes Induced Hippocampal Changes in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasarao, Nelli; Swapna Rekha, Somesula; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been reported to affect functions of the hippocampus. We hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a herb traditionally being used to improve memory, prevents diabetes-related hippocampal dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of C. asiatica on the hippocampus in diabetes. Methods. Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced adult male diabetic rats received 100 and 200 mg/kg/day body weight (b.w) C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract for four consecutive weeks. Following sacrifice, hippocampus was removed and hippocampal tissue homogenates were analyzed for Na+/K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPases activity levels. Levels of the markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α; interleukin, IL-6; and interleukin, IL-1β) and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation product: LPO, superoxide dismutase: SOD, catalase: CAT, and glutathione peroxidase: GPx) were determined. The hippocampal sections were visualized for histopathological changes. Results. Administration of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract to diabetic rats maintained near normal ATPases activity levels and prevents the increase in the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus. Lesser signs of histopathological changes were observed in the hippocampus of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract treated diabetic rats. Conclusions. C. asiatica leaf protects the hippocampus against diabetes-induced dysfunction which could help to preserve memory in this condition. PMID:25161691

  18. Cariprazine delays ouabain-evoked epileptiform spikes and loss of activity in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    El-Mallakh, Rif S; Payne, Ralphiel S; Schurr, Avital; Gao, Yonglin; Lei, Zhemin; Kiss, Béla; Gyertyán, István; Adham, Nika

    2015-09-30

    In the only bipolar cycling in vitro model, rat hippocampal slices are treated with the sodium pump inhibitor ouabain, which induces epileptiform activity, followed by refractory activity loss that recovers and cycles back to epileptiform activity. Thus, clinical cycling seen in patients with bipolar disorder is modeled on a cellular level as alternating hyperactivity and hypoactivity interspersed with normal activity. In this study, we tested the ability of cariprazine a new antipsychotic candidate to block ouabain-induced changes in rat hippocampal slices. Cycling of population spikes and epileptiform bursts was evoked using an extracellular stimulation electrode located in the Schaeffer collaterals of 400-µm-thick rat hippocampal slices treated with ouabain (3.3μM) alone or in combination with cariprazine (1, 5, 25, and 50µM). Responses were recorded using an extracellular electrode placed in the cell body layer of the CA1 region. Cariprazine 25 and 50µM delayed ouabain-induced epileptiform burst onset and subsequent activity loss. Lower cariprazine concentrations were ineffective. Cariprazine delays the onset of ouabain-induced epileptiform bursts and the loss of spiking activity similarly to that previously demonstrated with the mood stabilizer lithium. These results suggest that cariprazine may have therapeutic potential for treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:26160196

  19. Regulation of GABA Equilibrium Potential by mGluRs in Rat Hippocampal CA1 Neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Rajput, Padmesh S; Kumar, Ujendra; Sastry, Bhagavatula R

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium potential for GABA-A receptor mediated currents (EGABA) in neonatal central neurons is set at a relatively depolarized level, which is suggested to be caused by a low expression of K+/Cl- co-transporter (KCC2) but a relatively high expression of Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1). Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in stratum radiatum induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the current study, the effects of TBS on EGABA in neonatal and juvenile hippocampal CA1 neurons and the underlying mechanisms were examined. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are suggested to modulate KCC2 and NKCC1 levels in cortical neurons. Therefore, the involvement of mGluRs in the regulation of KCC2 or NKCC1 activity, and thus EGABA, following TBS was also investigated. Whole-cell patch recordings were made from Wistar rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, in a slice preparation. In neonates, TBS induces a positive shift in EGABA, which was prevented by NKCC1 antisense but not NKCC1 sense mRNA. (RS)-a-Methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG), a group I and II mGluR antagonist, blocked TBS-induced shifts in both juvenile and neonatal hippocampal neurons. While blockade of mGluR1 or mGluR5 alone could interfere with TBS-induced shifts in EGABA in neonates, only a combined blockade could do the same in juveniles. These results indicate that TBS induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal neurons but a positive shift in neonatal hippocampal neurons via corresponding changes in KCC2 and NKCC1 expressions, respectively. mGluR activation seems to be necessary for both shifts to occur while the specific receptor subtype involved seems to vary. PMID:26389591

  20. Regulation of GABA Equilibrium Potential by mGluRs in Rat Hippocampal CA1 Neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Rajput, Padmesh S; Kumar, Ujendra; Sastry, Bhagavatula R

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium potential for GABA-A receptor mediated currents (EGABA) in neonatal central neurons is set at a relatively depolarized level, which is suggested to be caused by a low expression of K+/Cl- co-transporter (KCC2) but a relatively high expression of Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1). Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in stratum radiatum induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the current study, the effects of TBS on EGABA in neonatal and juvenile hippocampal CA1 neurons and the underlying mechanisms were examined. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are suggested to modulate KCC2 and NKCC1 levels in cortical neurons. Therefore, the involvement of mGluRs in the regulation of KCC2 or NKCC1 activity, and thus EGABA, following TBS was also investigated. Whole-cell patch recordings were made from Wistar rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, in a slice preparation. In neonates, TBS induces a positive shift in EGABA, which was prevented by NKCC1 antisense but not NKCC1 sense mRNA. (RS)-a-Methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG), a group I and II mGluR antagonist, blocked TBS-induced shifts in both juvenile and neonatal hippocampal neurons. While blockade of mGluR1 or mGluR5 alone could interfere with TBS-induced shifts in EGABA in neonates, only a combined blockade could do the same in juveniles. These results indicate that TBS induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal neurons but a positive shift in neonatal hippocampal neurons via corresponding changes in KCC2 and NKCC1 expressions, respectively. mGluR activation seems to be necessary for both shifts to occur while the specific receptor subtype involved seems to vary.

  1. Regulation of GABA Equilibrium Potential by mGluRs in Rat Hippocampal CA1 Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Rajput, Padmesh S.; Kumar, Ujendra; Sastry, Bhagavatula R.

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium potential for GABA-A receptor mediated currents (EGABA) in neonatal central neurons is set at a relatively depolarized level, which is suggested to be caused by a low expression of K+/Cl- co-transporter (KCC2) but a relatively high expression of Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1). Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in stratum radiatum induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the current study, the effects of TBS on EGABA in neonatal and juvenile hippocampal CA1 neurons and the underlying mechanisms were examined. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are suggested to modulate KCC2 and NKCC1 levels in cortical neurons. Therefore, the involvement of mGluRs in the regulation of KCC2 or NKCC1 activity, and thus EGABA, following TBS was also investigated. Whole-cell patch recordings were made from Wistar rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, in a slice preparation. In neonates, TBS induces a positive shift in EGABA, which was prevented by NKCC1 antisense but not NKCC1 sense mRNA. (RS)-a-Methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG), a group I and II mGluR antagonist, blocked TBS-induced shifts in both juvenile and neonatal hippocampal neurons. While blockade of mGluR1 or mGluR5 alone could interfere with TBS-induced shifts in EGABA in neonates, only a combined blockade could do the same in juveniles. These results indicate that TBS induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal neurons but a positive shift in neonatal hippocampal neurons via corresponding changes in KCC2 and NKCC1 expressions, respectively. mGluR activation seems to be necessary for both shifts to occur while the specific receptor subtype involved seems to vary. PMID:26389591

  2. Memory and hippocampal architecture following short-term midazolam in western diet-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Dorothea S; Falangola, Maria F; Ledreux, Aurélie; Nie, Xingju; Suhre, Wendy M; Boger, Heather A; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-05-16

    The impact of short-term benzodiazepine exposure on cognition in middle-aged or older patients is a highly debated topic among anesthesiologists, critical care physicians and public media. "Western diet" (WD) consumption is linked to impaired cognition as well. The combination of benzodiazepines with substantial exposure to WD might set the stage for increased hippocampal vulnerability for benzodiazepines leading to exaggerated cognitive impairment in the postoperative period. In this study, Fischer 344 rats were fed either WD or standard rodent diet from 5 to 10.5 months of age. Rats were exposed to midazolam or placebo two days prior to an MRI scan using Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) to assess brain microstructural integrity, followed by behavioral testing using a water radial arm maze. Hippocampal tissue was collected to assess alterations in protein biochemistry in brain regions associated with learning and memory. Our results showed that rats exposed to the combination of midazolam and WD had significantly delayed time of learning and exhibited spatial memory impairment. Further, we observed an overall increase of kurtosis metrics in the hippocampus and increased expression of the mitochondrial protein VDAC2 in midazolam-treated rats. Our data suggest that both the short-acting benzodiazepine midazolam and WD contribute to negatively affect the brain in middle-aged rats. This study is the first application of DKI on the effects of midazolam and WD exposure, and the findings demonstrate that diffusion metrics are sensitive indicators of changes in the complexity of neurite architecture.

  3. Effect of intermittent hypoxia on long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Payne, Ralphiel S; Goldbart, Aviv; Gozal, David; Schurr, Avital

    2004-12-17

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep has been shown to induce apoptosis in a time-dependent manner and spatial learning deficits in adult rats. Recently, we have demonstrated that IH induced significant decreases in Ser-133-phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (pCREB) without changes in total CREB. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in the hippocampal CA1, a marker of apoptosis, peaked at 3 days of IH and returned to normoxic values at 14 days of IH. In addition, biphasic changes in spatial task learning were correlated with the CREB phosphorylation time course. In the present study, the rat hippocampal slice preparation was used to evaluate the ability to induce and maintain a CA1 population spike long-term potentiation (PS-LTP) in room air (RA)-maintained and IH-exposed rats. A significant decrease in the ability to sustain PS-LTP for 15 min in slices prepared from IH-exposed rats for either 3 days (34% of total) or 7 days (51% of total) as compared to slices prepared from RA-maintained rats (76% of total) was observed. These results suggest that the diminishment in the ability of neuronal tissue to express and sustain PS-LTP is correlated with previously reported biphasic changes in CREB phosphorylation and programmed cell death. PMID:15542074

  4. Consensus Modeling of Oral Rat Acute Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    An acute toxicity dataset (oral rat LD50) with about 7400 compounds was compiled from the ChemIDplus database. This dataset was divided into a modeling set and a prediction set. The compounds in the prediction set were selected so that they were present in the modeling set used...

  5. Long-Term Potentiation by Theta-Burst Stimulation Using Extracellular Field Potential Recordings in Acute Hippocampal Slices.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, Therese; Lalanne, Txomin; Watt, Alanna J; Sjöström, P Jesper

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes how to carry out theta-burst long-term potentiation (LTP) with extracellular field recordings in acute rodent hippocampal slices. This method is relatively simple and noninvasive and provides a way to sample many neurons simultaneously, making it suitable for applications requiring higher throughput than whole-cell recording. PMID:27250947

  6. Estrogen administration modulates hippocampal GABAergic subpopulations in the hippocampus of trimethyltin-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Valentina; Di Maria, Valentina; Marchese, Elisa; Lattanzi, Wanda; Biamonte, Filippo; Michetti, Fabrizio; Geloso, Maria Concetta

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented involvement of estrogens in the modulation of hippocampal functions in both physiological and pathological conditions, the present study investigates the effects of 17-beta estradiol (E2) administration in the rat model of hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT) administration (8 mg/kg), characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1, CA3/hilus hippocampal subfields, associated with astroglial and microglial activation, seizures and cognitive impairment. After TMT/saline treatment, ovariectomized animals received two doses of E2 (0.2 mg/kg intra-peritoneal) or vehicle, and were sacrificed 48 h or 7 days after TMT-treatment. Our results indicate that in TMT-treated animals E2 administration induces the early (48 h) upregulation of genes involved in neuroprotection and synaptogenesis, namely Bcl2, trkB, cadherin 2 and cyclin-dependent-kinase-5. Increased expression levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad) 67, neuropeptide Y (Npy), parvalbumin, Pgc-1α and Sirtuin 1 genes, the latter involved in parvalbumin (PV) synthesis, were also evident. Unbiased stereology performed on rats sacrificed 7 days after TMT treatment showed that although E2 does not significantly influence the extent of TMT-induced neuronal death, significantly enhances the TMT-induced modulation of GABAergic interneuron population size in selected hippocampal subfields. In particular, E2 administration causes, in TMT-treated rats, a significant increase in the number of GAD67-expressing interneurons in CA1 stratum oriens, CA3 pyramidal layer, hilus and dentate gyrus, accompanied by a parallel increase in NPY-expressing cells, essentially in the same regions, and of PV-positive cells in CA1 pyramidal layer. The present results add information concerning the role of in vivo E2 administration on mechanisms involved in cellular plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:26594149

  7. Dimethyl fumarate attenuates intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced spatial memory impairment and hippocampal neurodegeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Majkutewicz, Irena; Kurowska, Ewelina; Podlacha, Magdalena; Myślińska, Dorota; Grembecka, Beata; Ruciński, Jan; Plucińska, Karolina; Jerzemowska, Grażyna; Wrona, Danuta

    2016-07-15

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) is a widely-accepted animal model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). The present study evaluated the ability of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an agent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, to prevent spatial memory impairments and hippocampal neurodegeneration mediated by ICV injection of STZ in 4-month-old rats. Rodent chow containing DMF (0.4%) or standard rodent chow was made available on day 0. Rat body weight and food intake were measured daily for whole the experiment (21days). STZ or vehicle (SHAM) ICV injections were performed on days 2 and 4. Spatial reference and working memory were evaluated using the Morris water maze on days 14-21. Cells containing Fluoro-Jade B (neurodegeneration marker), IL-6, IL-10 were quantified in the hippocampus and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the basal forebrain. The disruption of spatial memory and a high density of hippocampal CA1-3 cells labeled with Fluoro-Jade B or containing IL-6 or IL-10 were observed in the STZ group but not in the STZ+DMF group, as compared to the SHAM or SHAM+DMF groups. STZ vs. STZ+DMF differences were found: worse reference memory acquisition, fewer ChAT-positive neurons in the medial septum (Ch1), more Fluoro-Jade-positive CA1 hippocampal cells in STZ rats. DMF therapy in a rodent model of sAD prevented the disruption of spatial reference and working memory, loss of Ch1 cholinergic cells and hippocampal neurodegeneration as well as the induction of IL-6 and IL-10 in CA1. These beneficial cognitive and molecular effects validate the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of DMF in the hippocampus. PMID:27083302

  8. Exercise-induced hippocampal anti-inflammatory response in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Simões, Priscila Santos Rodrigues; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; da Graça Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2013-01-01

    Aging is often accompanied by cognitive decline, memory impairment and an increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Most of these age-related alterations have been associated with deleterious processes such as changes in the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Indeed, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lower levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines are found in the aged brain. This perturbation in pro- and anti-inflammatory balance can represent one of the mechanisms that contribute to age-associated neuronal dysfunction and brain vulnerability. We conducted an experimental study to investigate whether an aerobic exercise program could promote changes in inflammatory response in the brains of aged rats. To do so, we evaluated the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 1 beta (IL1β), interleukin 6 (IL6) and interleukin 10 (IL10) in the hippocampal formation of 18 month old rats that underwent treadmill training over 10 consecutive days. Quantitative immunoassay analyses showed that the physical exercise increased anti-inflammatory cytokine levels IL10 in the hippocampal formation of aged rats, when compared to the control group. The hippocampal levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1β, IL6 and TNFα were not statistically different between the groups. However, a significant reduction in IL1β/IL10, IL6/IL10 and TNFα/IL10 ratio was observed in the exercised group in relation to the control group. These findings indicate a favorable effect of physical exercise in the balance between hippocampal pro- and anti-inflammatory during aging, as well as reinforce the potential therapeutic of exercise in reducing the risk of neuroinflammation-linked disorders.

  9. A three-plane architectonic atlas of the rat hippocampal region.

    PubMed

    Boccara, Charlotte N; Kjonigsen, Lisa J; Hammer, Ingvild M; Bjaalie, Jan G; Leergaard, Trygve B; Witter, Menno P

    2015-07-01

    The hippocampal region, comprising the hippocampal formation and the parahippocampal region, has been one of the most intensively studied parts of the brain for decades. Better understanding of its functional diversity and complexity has led to an increased demand for specificity in experimental procedures and manipulations. In view of the complex 3D structure of the hippocampal region, precisely positioned experimental approaches require a fine-grained architectural description that is available and readable to experimentalists lacking detailed anatomical experience. In this paper, we provide the first cyto- and chemoarchitectural description of the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region in the rat at high resolution and in the three standard sectional planes: coronal, horizontal and sagittal. The atlas uses a series of adjacent sections stained for neurons and for a number of chemical marker substances, particularly parvalbumin and calbindin. All the borders defined in one plane have been cross-checked against their counterparts in the other two planes. The entire dataset will be made available as a web-based interactive application through the Rodent Brain WorkBench (http://www.rbwb.org) which, together with this paper, provides a unique atlas resource.

  10. Decreased brain zinc availability reduces hippocampal neurogenesis in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sang Won; Won, Seok Joon; Hamby, Aaron M; Yoo, Byung Hoon; Fan, Yang; Sheline, Christian T; Tamano, Haruna; Takeda, Atsushi; Liu, Jialing

    2009-09-01

    In the adult brain, neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG), where high levels of vesicular zinc are localized in the presynaptic terminals. To determine whether zinc has a role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis under normal or pathologic conditions, we manipulated the level of vesicular zinc experimentally. To reduce hippocampal vesicular zinc, rats were either fed a zinc-deficient diet or treated with a zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ). The number of progenitor cells and immature neurons was decreased significantly in the DG after 6 weeks of dietary zinc deprivation. Conversely, the number of progenitor cells and immature neurons was restored after a 2-week reversal to a normal zinc-containing diet. Similarly, a 1-week treatment with the zinc chelator, CQ, reduced the number of progenitor cells. The results of our previous study showed that hypoglycemia increased hippocampal neurogenesis. This study shows that zinc chelation reduced hypoglycemia-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Finally, the role of vesicular zinc on neurogenesis was further assessed in zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) gene deleted mice. Zinc transporter 3 knockout (KO) mice had significantly fewer proliferating progenitor cells and immature neurons after hypoglycemia. Our data provide converging evidence in support of the essential role zinc has in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis.

  11. A three-plane architectonic atlas of the rat hippocampal region.

    PubMed

    Boccara, Charlotte N; Kjonigsen, Lisa J; Hammer, Ingvild M; Bjaalie, Jan G; Leergaard, Trygve B; Witter, Menno P

    2015-07-01

    The hippocampal region, comprising the hippocampal formation and the parahippocampal region, has been one of the most intensively studied parts of the brain for decades. Better understanding of its functional diversity and complexity has led to an increased demand for specificity in experimental procedures and manipulations. In view of the complex 3D structure of the hippocampal region, precisely positioned experimental approaches require a fine-grained architectural description that is available and readable to experimentalists lacking detailed anatomical experience. In this paper, we provide the first cyto- and chemoarchitectural description of the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region in the rat at high resolution and in the three standard sectional planes: coronal, horizontal and sagittal. The atlas uses a series of adjacent sections stained for neurons and for a number of chemical marker substances, particularly parvalbumin and calbindin. All the borders defined in one plane have been cross-checked against their counterparts in the other two planes. The entire dataset will be made available as a web-based interactive application through the Rodent Brain WorkBench (http://www.rbwb.org) which, together with this paper, provides a unique atlas resource. PMID:25533645

  12. Differential hippocampal protein expression between normal aged rats and aged rats with postoperative cognitive dysfunction: A proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Saiying; Ran, Ke; Hu, Zhonghua; Liu, Zhaoqian; Duan, Kaiming

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences in the expression of hippocampal proteins between normal control aged rats and aged rats with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). A total of 24 aged rats were randomly divided into a surgery group (n=12) and a control group (n=12). The rats in the surgery group were treated with 2 h isoflurane anesthesia and splenectomy, while the rats in the control group received 40% oxygen for 2 h without surgery. The cognitive functions of the two groups were examined using a Y-maze test. The protein expression profiles of the hippocampus of six aged rats (three rats with POCD and three from the normal control group) were assessed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. A total of three differential proteins were further confirmed between the POCD rats and normal rats using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The expression levels of 21 proteins in the rats with POCD were significantly different compared with the normal control rats. These proteins were functionally clustered to synaptic plasticity (three proteins), oxidative stress (four proteins), energy production (six proteins), neuroinflammation (three proteins) and glutamate metabolism (two proteins). In addition, three proteins (fatty acid binding protein 7, brain, glutamate dehydrogenase 1 and glutamine synthetase), associated with astrocytic function, were significantly different in the rats with POCD compared with those in the normal control (P<0.05). Similar changes in the mRNA expression levels of the three proteins in the hippocampi of POCD rats were also detected using RT-qPCR. Neuroinflammation, glutamate toxicity and oxidative stress were possibly involved in the pathological mechanism underlying POCD in aged rats. In addition, astrocytes may also be important in POCD in aged rats. PMID:25936412

  13. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on spatial memory and synapses in rat hippocampal CA1.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhong; Shi, Changhua; Lu, Guobing; Xu, Qian; Liu, Shaochen

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of mobile phone radiation on spatial learning, reference memory, and morphology in related brain regions. After the near-field radiation (0.52-1.08 W/kg) was delivered to 8-week-old Wistar rats 2 hours per day for 1 month, behavioral changes were examined using the Morris water maze. Compared with the sham-irradiated rats, the irradiated rats exhibited impaired performance. Morphological changes were investigated by examining synaptic ultrastructural changes in the hippocampus. Using the physical dissector technique, the number of pyramidal neurons, the synaptic profiles, and the length of postsynaptic densities in the CA1 region were quantified stereologically. The morphological changes included mitochondrial degenerations, fewer synapses, and shorter postsynaptic densities in the radiated rats. These findings indicate that mobile phone radiation can significantly impair spatial learning and reference memory and induce morphological changes in the hippocampal CA1 region.

  14. Conserved hippocampal cellular pathophysiology but distinct behavioural deficits in a new rat model of FXS.

    PubMed

    Till, Sally M; Asiminas, Antonis; Jackson, Adam D; Katsanevaki, Danai; Barnes, Stephanie A; Osterweil, Emily K; Bear, Mark F; Chattarji, Sumantra; Wood, Emma R; Wyllie, David J A; Kind, Peter C

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in techniques for manipulating genomes have allowed the generation of transgenic animals other than mice. These new models enable cross-mammalian comparison of neurological disease from core cellular pathophysiology to circuit and behavioural endophenotypes. Moreover they will enable us to directly test whether common cellular dysfunction or behavioural outcomes of a genetic mutation are more conserved across species. Using a new rat model of Fragile X Syndrome, we report that Fmr1 knockout (KO) rats exhibit elevated basal protein synthesis and an increase in mGluR-dependent long-term depression in CA1 of the hippocampus that is independent of new protein synthesis. These defects in plasticity are accompanied by an increase in dendritic spine density selectively in apical dendrites and subtle changes in dendritic spine morphology of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Behaviourally, Fmr1 KO rats show deficits in hippocampal-dependent, but not hippocampal-independent, forms of associative recognition memory indicating that the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) causes defects in episodic-like memory. In contrast to previous reports from mice, Fmr1 KO rats show no deficits in spatial reference memory reversal learning. One-trial spatial learning in a delayed matching to place water maze task was also not affected by the loss of FMRP in rats. This is the first evidence for conservation across mammalian species of cellular and physiological hippocampal phenotypes associated with the loss of FMRP. Furthermore, while key cellular phenotypes are conserved they manifest in distinct behavioural dysfunction. Finally, our data reveal novel information about the selective role of FMRP in hippocampus-dependent associative memory.

  15. Effect of neonatal handling on adult rat spatial learning and memory following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, A; Pondiki, S; Kitraki, E; Diamantopoulou, A; Panagiotaropoulos, T; Raftogianni, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2008-03-01

    Brief neonatal handling permanently alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function resulting in increased ability to cope with stress. Since stress is known to affect cognitive abilities, in the present study we investigated the effect of brief (15 min) handling on learning and memory in the Morris water maze, following exposure to an acute restraint stress either before training or recall. Exposure of non-handled rats to the acute stress prior to training resulted in quicker learning of the task, than in the absence of the stressor. When acute stress preceded acquisition, male handled rats showed an overall better learning performance, and both sexes of handled animals were less impaired in the subsequent memory trial, compared to the respective non-handled. In addition, the number of neurons immunoreactive for GR was higher in all areas of Ammon's horn of the handled rats during the recall. In contrast, the number of neurons immunoreactive for MR was higher in the CA1 and CA2 areas of the non-handled males. When the acute restraint stress was applied prior to the memory test, neonatal handling was not effective in preventing mnemonic impairment, as all animal groups showed a similar deficit in recall. In this case, no difference between handled and non-handled rats was observed in the number of GR positive neurons in the CA2 and CA3 hippocampal areas during the memory test. These results indicate that early experience interacts with sex and acute stress exposure in adulthood to affect performance in the water maze. Hippocampal corticosterone receptors may play a role in determining the final outcome.

  16. EFFECTS OF NICOTINE ON DEPRESSIVE-LIKE BEHAVIOR AND HIPPOCAMPAL VOLUME OF FEMALE WKY RATS

    PubMed Central

    Tizabi, Yousef; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Tyler, Khandra Y.; Getachew, Bruk; Madani, Reza; Sharma, Yukti; Manaye, Kebreten F.

    2009-01-01

    The observed high incidence of smoking amongst depressed individuals has led to the hypothesis of ‘self medication” with nicotine in some of these patients. The inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats exhibit depressive-like characteristics as evidenced by exaggerated immobility in the forced swim test (FST). One aim of this study was to investigate whether nicotine may have an antidepressant-like effect in these animals. Moreover, because of human postmortem studies indicating a reduction of the hippocampus volume in depressed patients, it was of interest to determine whether such an anatomical anomaly may also be manifested in WKY rats and whether it would be affected by chronic nicotine treatment. Adult female WKY and their control Wistar rats were administered nicotine consecutively (0.2 mg/kg, ip, once or twice daily for 14 days) and their activity in an open field, as well as their immobility in FST were assessed either 15 min or 18 hr after the last injection. Another set of animals was treated twice daily with 0.2 mg/kg nicotine for 14 days and sacrificed on day 15 for stereological evaluation of the hippocampal volume. When tested 15 min after the last injection, once or twice daily nicotine exacerbated the immobility in the FST in WKY rats only. When tested 18 hr after the last injection, only twice daily nicotine treatment resulted in less immobility in the FST in WKY rats. Open field locomotor activity was not affected by any nicotine regimen. WKY rats had significantly less hippocampal volume (approximately 20%) than Wistar rats which was not altered by nicotine. These findings further validate the use of WKY rats as an animal model of human depression and signify the importance of inherent genetic differences in final behavioral outcome of nicotine. PMID:19800382

  17. Differential regulation of hippocampal progenitor proliferation by opioid receptor antagonists in running and non-running spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Persson, Anders I; Naylor, Andrew S; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H; Nyberg, Fred; Eriksson, Peter S; Thorlin, Thorleif

    2004-04-01

    Voluntary running in mice and forced treadmill running in rats have been shown to increase the amount of proliferating cells in the hippocampus. Little is known as yet about the mechanisms involved in these processes. It is well known that the endogenous opioid system is affected during running and other forms of physical exercise. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of the endogenous opioids in the regulation of hippocampal proliferation in non-running and voluntary running rats. Nine days of wheel running was compared with non-running in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a rat strain known to run voluntarily. On the last 2 days of the experimental period all rats received two daily injections of the opioid receptor antagonists naltrexone or naltrindole together with injections of bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells. Brain sections from the running rats showed approximately a five-fold increase in newly generated cells in the hippocampus, and this increase was partly reduced by naltrexone but not by naltrindole. By contrast, both naltrexone and naltrindole increased hippocampal proliferation in non-running rats. In non-running rats the administration of naltrexone decreased corticosterone levels and adrenal gland weights, whereas no significant effects on these parameters could be detected for naltrindole. However, adrenal gland weights were increased in naltrexone- but not in naltrindole-administered running rats. In addition, in voluntary running rats there was a three-fold increase in the hippocampal levels of Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe compared with non-runners, indicating an increase in opioid activity in the hippocampus during running. These data suggest an involvement of endogenous opioids in the regulation of hippocampal proliferation in non-running rats, probably through hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation. During voluntary running in SHR naltrexone altered hippocampal proliferation via as yet unknown mechanisms. PMID:15078558

  18. Anti-Nogo-A Immunotherapy Does Not Alter Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Stroke in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel J.; Tsai, Shih-Yen; O'Brien, Timothy E.; Farrer, Robert G.; Kartje, Gwendolyn L.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of adult disability, including cognitive impairment. Our laboratory has previously shown that treatment with function-blocking antibodies against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A promotes functional recovery after stroke in adult and aged rats, including enhancing spatial memory performance, for which the hippocampus is critically important. Since spatial memory has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis, we investigated whether anti-Nogo-A treatment increases hippocampal neurogenesis after stroke. Adult rats were subject to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion followed 1 week later by 2 weeks of antibody treatment. Cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus was quantified at the end of treatment, and the number of newborn neurons was determined at 8 weeks post-stroke. Treatment with both anti-Nogo-A and control antibodies stimulated the accumulation of new microglia/macrophages in the dentate granule cell layer, but neither treatment increased cellular proliferation or the number of newborn neurons above stroke-only levels. These results suggest that anti-Nogo-A immunotherapy does not increase post-stroke hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:27803646

  19. Impact of neonatal anoxia on adult rat hippocampal volume, neurogenesis and behavior.

    PubMed

    Takada, Silvia Honda; Motta-Teixeira, Lívia Clemente; Machado-Nils, Aline Vilar; Lee, Vitor Yonamine; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto; Polli, Roberson Saraiva; Malheiros, Jackeline Moraes; Takase, Luiz Fernando; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Covolan, Luciene; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    Neonates that suffer oxygen deprivation during birth can have long lasting cognitive deficits, such as memory and learning impairments. Hippocampus, one of the main structures that participate in memory and learning processes, is a plastic and dynamic structure that conserves during life span the property of generating new cells which can become neurons, the so-called neurogenesis. The present study investigated whether a model of rat neonatal anoxia, that causes only respiratory distress, is able to alter the hippocampal volume, the neurogenesis rate and has functional implications in adult life. MRI analysis revealed significant hippocampal volume decrease in adult rats who had experienced neonatal anoxia compared to control animals for rostral, caudal and total hippocampus. In addition, these animals also had 55.7% decrease of double-labelled cells to BrdU and NeuN, reflecting a decrease in neurogenesis rate. Finally, behavioral analysis indicated that neonatal anoxia resulted in disruption of spatial working memory, similar to human condition, accompanied by an anxiogenic effect. The observed behavioral alterations caused by oxygen deprivation at birth might represent an outcome of the decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and volume, evidenced by immunohistochemistry and MRI analysis. Therefore, based on current findings we propose this model as suitable to explore new therapeutic approaches.

  20. L-Cysteine and glutathione restore the reduction of rat hippocampal Na+, K+-ATPase activity induced by aspartame metabolites.

    PubMed

    Simintzi, Irene; Schulpis, Kleopatra H; Angelogianni, Panagoula; Liapi, Charis; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2007-07-31

    Studies have implicated aspartame (ASP) ingestion in neurological problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate hippocampal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities after incubation with ASP or each of ASP metabolites, phenylalanine (Phe), methanol (MeOH) and aspartic acid (asp) separately. Suckling rat hippocampal homogenates or pure Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were incubated with ASP metabolites. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Incubation of hippocampal or pure Na(+),K(+)-ATPase with ASP concentrations (expected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)) after ASP consumption of 34, 150 or 200mg/kg resulted in hippocampal enzyme activity reduction of 26%, 50% or 59%, respectively, whereas pure enzyme was remarkably stimulated. Moreover, incubation with hippocampal homogenate of each one of the corresponding in the CSF ASP metabolites related to the intake of common, high/abuse doses of the sweetener, inhibited Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, while pure enzyme was activated. Hippocampal Mg(2+)-ATPase remained unaltered. Addition of l-cysteine (cys) or reduced glutathione (GSH) in ASP mixtures, related with high/toxic doses of the sweetener, completely or partially restored the inactivated membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, whereas the activated pure enzyme activity returned to normal. CSF concentrations of ASP metabolites related to common, abuse/toxic doses of the additive significantly reduced rat hippocampal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, whereas pure enzyme was activated. Cys or GSH completely or partially restored both enzyme activities.

  1. Effects of lead exposure on dendrite and spine development in hippocampal dentate gyrus areas of rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fan; Ge, Meng-Meng; Chen, Wei-Heng

    2016-03-01

    Lead exposure has been implicated in the impairment of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) areas of rats. However, whether the degradation of physiological properties is based on the morphological alteration of granule neurons in DG areas remains elusive. Here, we examined the dendritic branch extension and spine formation of granule neurons after lead exposure during development in rats. Dendritic morphology was studied using Golgi-Cox stain method, which was followed by Sholl analysis at postnatal days 14 and 21. Our results indicated that, for both ages, lead exposure significantly decreased the total dendritic length and spine density of granule neurons in the DG of the rat hippocampus. Further branch order analysis revealed that the decrease of dendritic length was observed only at the second branch order. Moreover, there were obvious deficits in the proportion and size of mushroom-type spines. These deficits in spine formation and maturity were accompanied by a decrease in Arc/Arg3.1 expression. Our present findings are the first to show that developmental lead exposure disturbs branch and spine formation in hippocampal DG areas. Arc/Arg3.1 may have a critical role in the disruption of neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity in lead-exposed rats.

  2. Tiagabine Improves Hippocampal Long-Term Depression in Rat Pups Subjected to Prenatal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rideau Batista Novais, Aline; Crouzin, Nadine; Cavalier, Mélanie; Boubal, Mathilde; Guiramand, Janique; Cohen-Solal, Catherine; de Jesus Ferreira, Marie-Céleste; Cambonie, Gilles; Vignes, Michel; Barbanel, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with the later development of cognitive and behavioral impairment in the offspring, reminiscent of the traits of schizophrenia or autism spectrum disorders. Hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term depression of glutamatergic synapses are respectively involved in memory formation and consolidation. In male rats, maternal inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to a premature loss of long-term depression, occurring between 12 and 25 postnatal days instead of after the first postnatal month, and aberrant occurrence of long-term potentiation. We hypothesized this would be related to GABAergic system impairment. Sprague Dawley rats received either LPS or isotonic saline ip on gestational day 19. Male offspring's hippocampus was studied between 12 and 25 postnatal days. Morphological and functional analyses demonstrated that prenatal LPS triggered a deficit of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons, associated with presynaptic GABAergic transmission deficiency in male offspring. Increasing ambient GABA by impairing GABA reuptake with tiagabine did not interact with the low frequency-induced long-term depression in control animals but fully prevented its impairment in male offspring of LPS-challenged dams. Tiagabine furthermore prevented the aberrant occurrence of paired-pulse triggered long-term potentiation in these rats. Deficiency in GABA seems to be central to the dysregulation of synaptic plasticity observed in juvenile in utero LPS-challenged rats. Modulating GABAergic tone may be a possible therapeutic strategy at this developmental stage. PMID:25184226

  3. Tiagabine improves hippocampal long-term depression in rat pups subjected to prenatal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rideau Batista Novais, Aline; Crouzin, Nadine; Cavalier, Mélanie; Boubal, Mathilde; Guiramand, Janique; Cohen-Solal, Catherine; de Jesus Ferreira, Marie-Céleste; Cambonie, Gilles; Vignes, Michel; Barbanel, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with the later development of cognitive and behavioral impairment in the offspring, reminiscent of the traits of schizophrenia or autism spectrum disorders. Hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term depression of glutamatergic synapses are respectively involved in memory formation and consolidation. In male rats, maternal inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to a premature loss of long-term depression, occurring between 12 and 25 postnatal days instead of after the first postnatal month, and aberrant occurrence of long-term potentiation. We hypothesized this would be related to GABAergic system impairment. Sprague Dawley rats received either LPS or isotonic saline ip on gestational day 19. Male offspring's hippocampus was studied between 12 and 25 postnatal days. Morphological and functional analyses demonstrated that prenatal LPS triggered a deficit of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons, associated with presynaptic GABAergic transmission deficiency in male offspring. Increasing ambient GABA by impairing GABA reuptake with tiagabine did not interact with the low frequency-induced long-term depression in control animals but fully prevented its impairment in male offspring of LPS-challenged dams. Tiagabine furthermore prevented the aberrant occurrence of paired-pulse triggered long-term potentiation in these rats. Deficiency in GABA seems to be central to the dysregulation of synaptic plasticity observed in juvenile in utero LPS-challenged rats. Modulating GABAergic tone may be a possible therapeutic strategy at this developmental stage.

  4. Enhanced Glutamatergic Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampal CA1 Field of Food-Restricted Rats: Involvement of CB1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Talani, Giuseppe; Licheri, Valentina; Biggio, Francesca; Locci, Valentina; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Melis, Valentina; Dazzi, Laura; Carta, Gianfranca; Banni, Sebastiano; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    The endogenous endocannabinoid system has a crucial role in regulating appetite and feeding behavior in mammals, as well as working memory and reward mechanisms. In order to elucidate the possible role of cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB1Rs) in the regulation of hippocampal plasticity in animals exposed to food restriction (FR), we limited the availability of food to a 2-h daily period for 3 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats. FR rats showed a higher long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA1 excitatory synapses with a parallel increase in glutamate release when compared with animals fed ad libitum. FR rats showed a significant increase in the long-term spatial memory determined by Barnes maze. FR was also associated with a decreased inhibitory effect of the CB1R agonist win55,212-2 on glutamatergic field excitatory postsynaptic potentials, together with a decrease in hippocampal CB1R protein expression. In addition, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels and mushroom dendritic spine density were significantly enhanced in FR rats. Altogether, our data suggest that alterations of hippocampal CB1R expression and function in FR rats are associated with dendritic spine remodeling and functional potentiation of CA1 excitatory synapses, and these findings are consistent with increasing evidence supporting the idea that FR may improve cognitive functions.

  5. Statistical analysis of dendritic spine distributions in rat hippocampal cultures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dendritic spines serve as key computational structures in brain plasticity. Much remains to be learned about their spatial and temporal distribution among neurons. Our aim in this study was to perform exploratory analyses based on the population distributions of dendritic spines with regard to their morphological characteristics and period of growth in dissociated hippocampal neurons. We fit a log-linear model to the contingency table of spine features such as spine type and distance from the soma to first determine which features were important in modeling the spines, as well as the relationships between such features. A multinomial logistic regression was then used to predict the spine types using the features suggested by the log-linear model, along with neighboring spine information. Finally, an important variant of Ripley’s K-function applicable to linear networks was used to study the spatial distribution of spines along dendrites. Results Our study indicated that in the culture system, (i) dendritic spine densities were "completely spatially random", (ii) spine type and distance from the soma were independent quantities, and most importantly, (iii) spines had a tendency to cluster with other spines of the same type. Conclusions Although these results may vary with other systems, our primary contribution is the set of statistical tools for morphological modeling of spines which can be used to assess neuronal cultures following gene manipulation such as RNAi, and to study induced pluripotent stem cells differentiated to neurons. PMID:24088199

  6. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tass, P. A.; Barnikol, U. B.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-07-15

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  7. Paroxetine ameliorates changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in chronic mild stress-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Lobna H; Nassar, Noha N; El-Denshary, Ezzeldin S; Abdel-Tawab, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression have not been fully outlined. Hence, the current study aimed at testing the link between behavioral changes in chronic mild stress (CMS) model and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism and the role of paroxetine (PAROX) in ameliorating these changes. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: vehicle control, CMS-exposed rats, and CMS-exposed rats receiving PAROX (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally). Sucrose preference, open-field, and forced swimming tests were carried out. Corticosterone (CORT) was measured in serum, while adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites, cytosolic cytochrome-c (Cyt-c), caspase-3 (Casp-3), as well as nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) were measured in hippocampal tissue homogenates. CMS-exposed rats showed a decrease in sucrose preference as well as body weight compared to control, which was reversed by PAROX. The latter further ameliorated the CMS-induced elevation of CORT in serum (91.71±1.77 ng/mL vs 124.5±4.44 ng/mL, P<0.001) as well as the changes in adenos-ine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (3.76±0.02 nmol/mg protein vs 1.07±0.01 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001). Furthermore, PAROX reduced the expression of Cyt-c and Casp-3, as well as restoring NOx levels. This study highlights the role of PAROX in reversing depressive behavior associated with stress-induced apoptosis and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in the CMS model of depression.

  8. Paroxetine ameliorates changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in chronic mild stress-exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Khedr, Lobna H; Nassar, Noha N; El-Denshary, Ezzeldin S; Abdel-tawab, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression have not been fully outlined. Hence, the current study aimed at testing the link between behavioral changes in chronic mild stress (CMS) model and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism and the role of paroxetine (PAROX) in ameliorating these changes. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: vehicle control, CMS-exposed rats, and CMS-exposed rats receiving PAROX (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally). Sucrose preference, open-field, and forced swimming tests were carried out. Corticosterone (CORT) was measured in serum, while adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites, cytosolic cytochrome-c (Cyt-c), caspase-3 (Casp-3), as well as nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) were measured in hippocampal tissue homogenates. CMS-exposed rats showed a decrease in sucrose preference as well as body weight compared to control, which was reversed by PAROX. The latter further ameliorated the CMS-induced elevation of CORT in serum (91.71±1.77 ng/mL vs 124.5±4.44 ng/mL, P<0.001) as well as the changes in adenos-ine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (3.76±0.02 nmol/mg protein vs 1.07±0.01 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001). Furthermore, PAROX reduced the expression of Cyt-c and Casp-3, as well as restoring NOx levels. This study highlights the role of PAROX in reversing depressive behavior associated with stress-induced apoptosis and changes in hippocampal energy metabolism in the CMS model of depression. PMID:26622178

  9. Isoflurane induced cognitive impairment in aged rats through hippocampal calcineurin/NFAT signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Cheng; Li, Zhengqian; Qian, Min; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiangyang

    2015-05-15

    Calcineurin (CaN) over-activation constrains synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Upon CaN activation, NFAT imports into the nucleus and guides its downstream genes, which also affect neuronal and synaptic function. Aberrant CaN/NFAT signaling involves in neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, but its role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains uninvestigated. Inhaled anesthetic isoflurane facilitates the development of POCD, and the present study investigated the role of CaN/NFAT signaling in isoflurane induced cognitive impairment of aged rats, and the therapeutic effects of CaN inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). The results indicated that hippocampal CaN activity increased and peaked at 6 h after isoflurane exposure, and NFAT, especially NFATc4, imported into the nucleus following CaN activation. Furthermore, phamacological inhibition of CaN by CsA markedly attenuated isoflurane induced aberrant CaN/NFATc4 signaling in the hippocampus, and rescued relevant spatial learning and memory impairment of aged rats. Overall, the study suggests hippocampal CaN/NFAT signaling as the upstream mechanism of isoflurane induced cognitive impairment, and provides potential therapeutic target and possible treatment methods for POCD. - Highlights: • Isoflurane induces hippocampal calcineurin activation. • Isoflurane induces hippocampal NFAT, especially NFATc4, nuclear import. • Cyclosporine A attenuates isoflurane induced aberrant calcineurin/NFAT signaling. • Cyclosporine A rescues isoflurane induced cognitive impairment. • Calcineurin/NFAT signaling is the upstream mechanism of isoflurane induced synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment.

  10. MMP-9 Inhibitor SB-3CT Attenuates Behavioral Impairments and Hippocampal Loss after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Feng; Yin, Yu Hua; Gao, Guo Yi; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of SB-3CT, a matrix metallopeptidase 9 inhibitor, on behavioral and histological outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=15/group): TBI with SB-3CT treatment, TBI with saline, and sham injury. The TBI model was induced by a fluid percussion TBI device. SB-3CT (50 mg/kg in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide) was administered intraperitoneally at 30 min, 6 h, and 12 h after the TBI. Motor function (beam-balance/beam-walk tests) and spatial learning/memory (Morris water maze) were assessed on post-operative Days 1−5 and 11–15, respectively. Fluoro-Jade staining, immunofluorescence, and cresyl violet-staining were carried out for histopathological evaluation at 24 h, 72 h, and 15 days after TBI, respectively. It was shown that TBI can result in significant behavioral deficit induced by acute neurodegeneration, increased expression of cleaved caspase-3, and long-term neuronal loss. SB-3CT intervention via the current regime provides robust behavioral protection and hippocampal neurons preservation from the deleterious effects of TBI. Hence, the efficacy of SB-3CT on TBI prognosis could be ascertained. It is believed that the current study adds to the growing literature in identifying SB-3CT as a potential therapy for human brain injury. PMID:24661104

  11. MMP-9 inhibitor SB-3CT attenuates behavioral impairments and hippocampal loss after traumatic brain injury in rat.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feng; Yin, Yu Hua; Gao, Guo Yi; Wang, Yu; Cen, Lian; Jiang, Ji-Yao

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of SB-3CT, a matrix metallopeptidase 9 inhibitor, on behavioral and histological outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=15/group): TBI with SB-3CT treatment, TBI with saline, and sham injury. The TBI model was induced by a fluid percussion TBI device. SB-3CT (50 mg/kg in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide) was administered intraperitoneally at 30 min, 6 h, and 12 h after the TBI. Motor function (beam-balance/beam-walk tests) and spatial learning/memory (Morris water maze) were assessed on post-operative Days 1-5 and 11-15, respectively. Fluoro-Jade staining, immunofluorescence, and cresyl violet-staining were carried out for histopathological evaluation at 24 h, 72 h, and 15 days after TBI, respectively. It was shown that TBI can result in significant behavioral deficit induced by acute neurodegeneration, increased expression of cleaved caspase-3, and long-term neuronal loss. SB-3CT intervention via the current regime provides robust behavioral protection and hippocampal neurons preservation from the deleterious effects of TBI. Hence, the efficacy of SB-3CT on TBI prognosis could be ascertained. It is believed that the current study adds to the growing literature in identifying SB-3CT as a potential therapy for human brain injury. PMID:24661104

  12. Hippocampal neuron number loss in rats exposed to ingested sulfite.

    PubMed

    Akdogan, Ilgaz; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Kucukatay, Vural; Yonguc, Nilufer Goksin; Ozdemir, Mehmet Bulent; Murk, William

    2011-10-01

    Sulfite, which is continuously formed in the body during metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, is commonly used in preservatives. It has been shown that there are toxic effects of sulfite on many cellular components. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible toxic effects of sulfite on pyramidal neurons by counting cell numbers in CA1 and CA2-CA3 subdivisions of the rat hippocampus. For this purpose, male albino rats were divided into a control group and a sulfite group (25 mg/kg). Sulfite was administered to the animals via drinking water for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, brains were removed and neurons were estimated in total and in a known fraction of CA1 and CA2-CA3 subdivisions of the left hippocampus by using the optical fractionator method--a stereological method. Results showed that sulfite treatment caused a significant decrease in the total number of pyramidal neurons in three subdivisions of the hippocampus (CA1 and CA2-CA3) in the sulfite group compared with the control group (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney U test). It was concluded that exogenous administration of sulfite causes loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA2-CA3 subdivisions of the rat hippocampus.

  13. Hypoxia induces an increase in intracellular magnesium via transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channels in rat hippocampal neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Fengbo; Zhao, Yin; Wang, Jing; Pei, Lei; Sun, Ning; Shi, Jing

    2011-06-10

    TRPM7, a divalent cation channel, plays an important role in neurons damaged from cerebral ischemia due to permitting intracellular calcium overload. This study aimed to explore whether magnesium was transported via a TRPM7 channel into the intracellular space of rat hippocampal neurons after 1 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and acute chemical ischemia (CI) by using methods of the Mg(2+) fluorescent probe Mag-Fura-2 to detect intracellular magnesium concentration ([Mg(2+)](i)) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry to measure extracellular magnesium concentration ([Mg(2+)](o)). The results showed that the neuronal [Mg(2+)](i) was 1.51-fold higher after 1 h of OGD at a basal level, and the increase of neuronal [Mg(2+)](i) reached a peak after 1 h of OGD and was kept for 60 min with re-oxygenation. Meanwhile, the [Mg(2+)](o) decreased after 1 h of OGD and recovered to the pre-ischemic level within 15 min after re-oxygenation. In the case of CI, the [Mg(2+)](i) peak immediately appeared in hippocampal neurons. This increase of [Mg(2+)](i) declined by removing extracellular magnesium in OGD or CI. Furthermore, by using Gd(3+) or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate to inhibit TRPM7 channels, the [Mg(2+)](i) increase, which was induced by OGD or CI, was attenuated without altering the basal level of [Mg(2+)](i). By silencing TRPM7 with shRNA in hippocampal neurons, it was found that not only was the increase of [Mg(2+)](i) induced by OGD or CI but also the basal levels of [Mg(2+)](i) were attenuated. In contrast, overexpression of TRPM7 in HEK293 cells exaggerated both the basal levels and increased [Mg(2+)](i) after 1 h of OGD/CI. These results suggest that anoxia induced the increase of [Mg(2+)](i) via TRPM7 channels in rat hippocampal neurons. PMID:21487014

  14. ToF-SIMS cluster ion imaging of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal rat neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, J. T.; Nie, H.-Y.; Taylor, A. R.; Walzak, M. J.; Chang, W. H.; MacFabe, D. F.; Lau, W. M.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the power of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) cluster ion imaging to characterize biological structures, such as that of the rat central nervous system. A large number of the studies to date have been carried out on the "structural scale" imaging several mm 2 using mounted thin sections. In this work, we present our ToF-SIMS cluster ion imaging results on hippocampal rat brain neurons, at the cellular and sub-cellular levels. As a part of an ongoing investigation to examine gut linked metabolic factors in autism spectrum disorders using a novel rat model, we have observed a possible variation in hippocampal Cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) pyramidal neuron geometry in thin, paraformaldehyde fixed brain sections. However, the fixation process alters the tissue matrix such that much biochemical information appears to be lost. In an effort to preserve as much as possible this original information, we have established a protocol using unfixed thin brain sections, along with low dose, 500 eV Cs + pre-sputtering that allows imaging down to the sub-cellular scale with minimal sample preparation.

  15. Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency impairs hippocampal myelinated growth in lactational rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Yi; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Min, Hui; Song, Binbin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency causes neurological deficits and impairments of brain function in offspring. Hypothyroxinemia is prevalent in developing and developed countries alike. However, the mechanism underlying these deficits remains less well known. Given that the myelin plays an important role in learning and memory function, we hypothesize that hippocampal myelinated growth may be impaired in rat offspring exposed to hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency. To test this hypothesis, the female Wistar rats were used and four experimental groups were prepared: (1) control; (2) maternal mild iodine deficiency diet inducing hypothyroxinemia; (3) hypothyroidism induced by maternal severe iodine deficiency diet; (4) hypothyroidism induced by maternal methimazole water. The rats were fed the diet from 3 months before pregnancy to the end of lactation. Our results showed that the physiological changes occuring in the hippocampal myelin were altered in the mild iodine deficiency group as indicated by the results of immunofluorescence of myelin basic proteins on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Moreover, hypothyroxinemia reduced the expressions of oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 and myelin-related proteins in the treatments on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Our data suggested that hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency may impair myelinated growth of the offspring.

  16. Effects of Modafinil on Behavioral Learning and Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Wang, Hai-Xia; Li, Chu-Hua; Huang, Jun-Ni; Xiao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Modafinil is a wake-promoting agent that has been proposed to improve cognitive performance at the preclinical and clinical levels. Since there is insufficient evidence for modafinil to be regarded as a cognitive enhancer, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic modafinil administration on behavioral learning in healthy adult rats. Methods: Y-maze training was used to assess learning performance, and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to assess synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region of rats. Results: Intraperitoneal administration of modafinil at 200 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg significantly improved learning performance. Furthermore, perfusion with 1mM modafinil enhanced the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous postsynaptic currents and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices. However, the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons were inhibited by treatment with 1mM modafinil. Conclusions: These results indicate that modafinil improves learning and memory in rats possibly by enhancing glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission and inhibiting GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic) inhibitory synaptic transmission. PMID:26739176

  17. Continuous recognition of spatial and nonspatial stimuli in hippocampal-lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Smith, P; Kesner, R P; Chiba, A A

    1993-03-01

    The present experiments compared the performance of hippocampal-lesioned rats to control rats on a spatial continuous recognition task and an analogous nonspatial task with similar processing demands. Daily sessions for Experiment 1 involved sequential presentation of individual arms on a 12-arm radial maze. Each arm contained a Froot Loop reinforcement the first time it was presented, and latency to traverse the arm was measured. A subset of the arms were repeated, but did not contain reinforcement. Repeated arms were presented with lags ranging from 0 to 6 (0 to 6 different arm presentations occurred between the first and the repeated presentation). Difference scores were computed by subtracting the latency on first presentations from the latency on repeated presentations, and these scores were high in all rats prior to surgery, with a decreasing function across lag. There were no differences in performance following cortical control or sham surgery. However, there was a total deficit in performance following large electrolytic lesions of the hippocampus. The second experiment employed the same continuous recognition memory procedure, but used three-dimensional visual objects (toys, junk items, etc., in various shapes, sizes, and textures) as stimuli on a flat runway. As in Experiment 1, the stimuli were presented successively and latency to run to and move the object was measured. Objects were repeated with lags ranging from 0 to 4. Performance on this task following surgery did not differ from performance prior to surgery for either the control group or the hippocampal lesion group. These results provide support for Kesner's attribute model of hippocampal function in that the hippocampus is assumed to mediate data-based memory for spatial locations, but not three-dimensional visual objects.

  18. Neonatal anoxia in rats: hippocampal cellular and subcellular changes related to cell death and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Takada, S H; dos Santos Haemmerle, C A; Motta-Teixeira, L C; Machado-Nils, A V; Lee, V Y; Takase, L F; Cruz-Rizzolo, R J; Kihara, A H; Xavier, G F; Watanabe, I-S; Nogueira, M I

    2015-01-22

    Neonatal anoxia in rodents has been used to understand brain changes and cognitive dysfunction following asphyxia. This study investigated the time-course of cellular and subcellular changes and hippocampal cell death in a non-invasive model of anoxia in neonatal rats, using Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) to reveal DNA fragmentation, Fluoro-Jade® B (FJB) to show degenerating neurons, cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect cells undergoing apoptosis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to reveal fine ultrastructural changes related to cell death. Anoxia was induced by exposing postnatal day 1 (P1) pups to a flow of 100% gaseous nitrogen for 25 min in a chamber maintained at 37 °C. Control rats were similarly exposed to this chamber but with air flow instead of nitrogen. Brain changes following anoxia were evaluated at postnatal days 2, 14, 21 and 60 (P2, P14, P21 and P60). In addition, spatial reference memory following anoxia and control treatments was evaluated in the Morris water maze, starting at P60. Compared to their respective controls, P2 anoxic rats exhibited (1) higher TUNEL labeling in cornus ammonis (CA) 1 and the dentate gyrus (DG), (2) higher FJB-positive cells in the CA2-3, and (3) somato-dendritic swelling, mitochondrial injury and chromatin condensation in irregular bodies, as well as other subcellular features indicating apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and excitotoxicity in the CA1, CA2-3 and DG, as revealed by TEM. At P14, P21 and P60, both groups showed small numbers of TUNEL-positive and FJB-positive cells. Stereological analysis at P2, P14, P21 and P60 revealed a lack of significant differences in cleaved caspase-3 IHC between anoxic and control subjects. These results suggest that the type of hippocampal cell death following neonatal anoxia is likely independent of caspase-3 activation. Neonatal anoxia induced deficits in acquisition and performance of spatial reference

  19. Effects of hippocampal stimulation on acquisition, extinction and generalization of conditioned suppression in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, J W; Lidsky, T I; Schwartzbaum, J S

    1975-12-01

    Rats implanted with electrodes in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus received posttrial stimulation in training sessions with footshock reinforcement. Afterdischarges without overt seizures were consistently without effect on the rate of acquisition of suppression of licking during an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS), although conditioning was retarded by the delivery of distracting stimuli following footshock. The rate of conditioning remained insensitive to elicitation of dorsal hippocampal afterdischarges (DHAD) despite subsequent alterations of session length, intertrial interval and preexposure to the CS. However, faster extinction of suppression occurred following DHAD, suggesting a limited but essential role of the hippocampus in addressing stored information.

  20. Neonatal anoxia in rats: hippocampal cellular and subcellular changes related to cell death and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Takada, S H; dos Santos Haemmerle, C A; Motta-Teixeira, L C; Machado-Nils, A V; Lee, V Y; Takase, L F; Cruz-Rizzolo, R J; Kihara, A H; Xavier, G F; Watanabe, I-S; Nogueira, M I

    2015-01-22

    Neonatal anoxia in rodents has been used to understand brain changes and cognitive dysfunction following asphyxia. This study investigated the time-course of cellular and subcellular changes and hippocampal cell death in a non-invasive model of anoxia in neonatal rats, using Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) to reveal DNA fragmentation, Fluoro-Jade® B (FJB) to show degenerating neurons, cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect cells undergoing apoptosis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to reveal fine ultrastructural changes related to cell death. Anoxia was induced by exposing postnatal day 1 (P1) pups to a flow of 100% gaseous nitrogen for 25 min in a chamber maintained at 37 °C. Control rats were similarly exposed to this chamber but with air flow instead of nitrogen. Brain changes following anoxia were evaluated at postnatal days 2, 14, 21 and 60 (P2, P14, P21 and P60). In addition, spatial reference memory following anoxia and control treatments was evaluated in the Morris water maze, starting at P60. Compared to their respective controls, P2 anoxic rats exhibited (1) higher TUNEL labeling in cornus ammonis (CA) 1 and the dentate gyrus (DG), (2) higher FJB-positive cells in the CA2-3, and (3) somato-dendritic swelling, mitochondrial injury and chromatin condensation in irregular bodies, as well as other subcellular features indicating apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and excitotoxicity in the CA1, CA2-3 and DG, as revealed by TEM. At P14, P21 and P60, both groups showed small numbers of TUNEL-positive and FJB-positive cells. Stereological analysis at P2, P14, P21 and P60 revealed a lack of significant differences in cleaved caspase-3 IHC between anoxic and control subjects. These results suggest that the type of hippocampal cell death following neonatal anoxia is likely independent of caspase-3 activation. Neonatal anoxia induced deficits in acquisition and performance of spatial reference

  1. Fractalkine and CX3CR1 regulate hippocampal neurogenesis in adult and aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Bachstetter, Adam D.; Morganti, Josh M.; Jernberg, Jennifer; Schlunk, Andrea; Mitchell, Staten H.; Brewster, Kaelin W.; Hudson, Charles E.; Cole, Michael J; Harrison, Jeffrey K.; Bickford, Paula C.; Gemma, Carmelina

    2010-01-01

    Microglia have neuroprotective capacities, yet chronic activation can promote neurotoxic inflammation. Neuronal fractalkine (FKN), acting on CX3CR1, has been shown to suppress excessive microglia activation. We found that disruption in FKN/ CX3CR1 signaling in young adult rodents decreased survival and proliferation of neural progenitor cells through IL-1β. Aged rats were found to have decreased levels of hippocampal FKN protein; moreover, interruption of CX3CR1 function in these animals did not affect neurogenesis. The age-related loss of FKN could be restored by exogenous FKN reversing the age-related decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis. There were no measureable changes in young animals by the addition of exogenous FKN. The results suggest that FKN/ CX3CR1 signaling has a regulatory role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis via mechanisms that involve indirect modification of the niche environment. As elevated neuroinflammation is associated with many age-related neurodegenerative diseases, enhancing FKN/ CX3CR1 interactions could provide an alternative therapeutic approach to slow age-related neurodegeneration. PMID:20018408

  2. Novelty and anxiolytic drugs dissociate two components of hippocampal theta in behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Wells, Christine E; Amos, Doran P; Jeewajee, Ali; Douchamps, Vincent; Rodgers, John; O'Keefe, John; Burgess, Neil; Lever, Colin

    2013-05-15

    Hippocampal processing is strongly implicated in both spatial cognition and anxiety and is temporally organized by the theta rhythm. However, there has been little attempt to understand how each type of processing relates to the other in behaving animals, despite their common substrate. In freely moving rats, there is a broadly linear relationship between hippocampal theta frequency and running speed over the normal range of speeds used during foraging. A recent model predicts that spatial-translation-related and arousal/anxiety-related mechanisms of hippocampal theta generation underlie dissociable aspects of the theta frequency-running speed relationship (the slope and intercept, respectively). Here we provide the first confirmatory evidence: environmental novelty decreases slope, whereas anxiolytic drugs reduce intercept. Variation in slope predicted changes in spatial representation by CA1 place cells and novelty-responsive behavior. Variation in intercept predicted anxiety-like behavior. Our findings isolate and doubly dissociate two components of theta generation that operate in parallel in behaving animals and link them to anxiolytic drug action, novelty, and the metric for self-motion. PMID:23678110

  3. Hippocampal State-Dependent Behavioral Reflex to an Identical Sensory Input in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Keita; Nishikawa, Michimasa; Kawahara, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    We examined the local field potential of the hippocampus to monitor brain states during a conditional discrimination task, in order to elucidate the relationship between ongoing brain states and a conditioned motor reflex. Five 10-week-old Wistar/ST male rats underwent a serial feature positive conditional discrimination task in eyeblink conditioning using a preceding light stimulus as a conditional cue for reinforced trials. In this task, a 2-s light stimulus signaled that the following 350-ms tone (conditioned stimulus) was reinforced with a co-terminating 100-ms periorbital electrical shock. The interval between the end of conditional cue and the onset of the conditioned stimulus was 4±1 s. The conditioned stimulus was not reinforced when the light was not presented. Animals successfully utilized the light stimulus as a conditional cue to drive differential responses to the identical conditioned stimulus. We found that presentation of the conditional cue elicited hippocampal theta oscillations, which persisted during the interval of conditional cue and the conditioned stimulus. Moreover, expression of the conditioned response to the tone (conditioned stimulus) was correlated with the appearance of theta oscillations immediately before the conditioned stimulus. These data support hippocampal involvement in the network underlying a conditional discrimination task in eyeblink conditioning. They also suggest that the preceding hippocampal activity can determine information processing of the tone stimulus in the cerebellum and its associated circuits. PMID:25397873

  4. Novelty and anxiolytic drugs dissociate two components of hippocampal theta in behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Wells, Christine E; Amos, Doran P; Jeewajee, Ali; Douchamps, Vincent; Rodgers, John; O'Keefe, John; Burgess, Neil; Lever, Colin

    2013-05-15

    Hippocampal processing is strongly implicated in both spatial cognition and anxiety and is temporally organized by the theta rhythm. However, there has been little attempt to understand how each type of processing relates to the other in behaving animals, despite their common substrate. In freely moving rats, there is a broadly linear relationship between hippocampal theta frequency and running speed over the normal range of speeds used during foraging. A recent model predicts that spatial-translation-related and arousal/anxiety-related mechanisms of hippocampal theta generation underlie dissociable aspects of the theta frequency-running speed relationship (the slope and intercept, respectively). Here we provide the first confirmatory evidence: environmental novelty decreases slope, whereas anxiolytic drugs reduce intercept. Variation in slope predicted changes in spatial representation by CA1 place cells and novelty-responsive behavior. Variation in intercept predicted anxiety-like behavior. Our findings isolate and doubly dissociate two components of theta generation that operate in parallel in behaving animals and link them to anxiolytic drug action, novelty, and the metric for self-motion.

  5. Novelty and Anxiolytic Drugs Dissociate Two Components of Hippocampal Theta in Behaving Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Christine E.; Amos, Doran P.; Jeewajee, Ali; Douchamps, Vincent; Rodgers, John; O’Keefe, John; Burgess, Neil; Lever, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal processing is strongly implicated in both spatial cognition and anxiety and is temporally organized by the theta rhythm. However, there has been little attempt to understand how each type of processing relates to the other in behaving animals, despite their common substrate. In freely moving rats, there is a broadly linear relationship between hippocampal theta frequency and running speed over the normal range of speeds used during foraging. A recent model predicts that spatial-translation-related and arousal/anxiety-related mechanisms of hippocampal theta generation underlie dissociable aspects of the theta frequency–running speed relationship (the slope and intercept, respectively). Here we provide the first confirmatory evidence: environmental novelty decreases slope, whereas anxiolytic drugs reduce intercept. Variation in slope predicted changes in spatial representation by CA1 place cells and novelty-responsive behavior. Variation in intercept predicted anxiety-like behavior. Our findings isolate and doubly dissociate two components of theta generation that operate in parallel in behaving animals and link them to anxiolytic drug action, novelty, and the metric for self-motion. PMID:23678110

  6. Parkia biglobosa Improves Mitochondrial Functioning and Protects against Neurotoxic Agents in Rat Brain Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Komolafe, Kayode; Olaleye, Tolulope M.; Seeger, Rodrigo L.; Carvalho, Fabiano B.; Boligon, Aline A.; Athayde, Margareth L.; Klimaczewski, Claudia V.; Akindahunsi, Akintunde A.; Rocha, Joao B. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Methanolic leaf extracts of Parkia biglobosa, PBE, and one of its major polyphenolic constituents, catechin, were investigated for their protective effects against neurotoxicity induced by different agents on rat brain hippocampal slices and isolated mitochondria. Methods. Hippocampal slices were preincubated with PBE (25, 50, 100, or 200 µg/mL) or catechin (1, 5, or 10 µg/mL) for 30 min followed by further incubation with 300 µM H2O2, 300 µM SNP, or 200 µM PbCl2 for 1 h. Effects of PBE and catechin on SNP- or CaCl2-induced brain mitochondrial ROS formation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were also determined. Results. PBE and catechin decreased basal ROS generation in slices and blunted the prooxidant effects of neurotoxicants on membrane lipid peroxidation and nonprotein thiol contents. PBE rescued hippocampal cellular viability from SNP damage and caused a significant boost in hippocampus Na+, K+-ATPase activity but with no effect on the acetylcholinesterase activity. Both PBE and catechin also mitigated SNP- or CaCl2-dependent mitochondrial ROS generation. Measurement by safranine fluorescence however showed that the mild depolarization of the ΔΨm by PBE was independent of catechin. Conclusion. The results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of PBE is dependent on its constituent antioxidants and mild mitochondrial depolarization propensity. PMID:25177688

  7. Hippocampal state-dependent behavioral reflex to an identical sensory input in rats.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Keita; Nishikawa, Michimasa; Kawahara, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    We examined the local field potential of the hippocampus to monitor brain states during a conditional discrimination task, in order to elucidate the relationship between ongoing brain states and a conditioned motor reflex. Five 10-week-old Wistar/ST male rats underwent a serial feature positive conditional discrimination task in eyeblink conditioning using a preceding light stimulus as a conditional cue for reinforced trials. In this task, a 2-s light stimulus signaled that the following 350-ms tone (conditioned stimulus) was reinforced with a co-terminating 100-ms periorbital electrical shock. The interval between the end of conditional cue and the onset of the conditioned stimulus was 4±1 s. The conditioned stimulus was not reinforced when the light was not presented. Animals successfully utilized the light stimulus as a conditional cue to drive differential responses to the identical conditioned stimulus. We found that presentation of the conditional cue elicited hippocampal theta oscillations, which persisted during the interval of conditional cue and the conditioned stimulus. Moreover, expression of the conditioned response to the tone (conditioned stimulus) was correlated with the appearance of theta oscillations immediately before the conditioned stimulus. These data support hippocampal involvement in the network underlying a conditional discrimination task in eyeblink conditioning. They also suggest that the preceding hippocampal activity can determine information processing of the tone stimulus in the cerebellum and its associated circuits. PMID:25397873

  8. Basal forebrain neurons suppress amygdala kindling via cortical but not hippocampal cholinergic projections in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferencz, I; Leanza, G; Nanobashvili, A; Kokaia, M; Lindvall, O

    2000-06-01

    Intraventricular administration of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin in rats has been shown to cause a selective loss of cholinergic afferents to the hippocampus and cortical areas, and to facilitate seizure development in hippocampal kindling. Here we demonstrate that this lesion also accelerates seizure progression when kindling is induced by electrical stimulations in the amygdala. However, whereas intraventricular 192 IgG-saporin facilitated the development of the initial stages of hippocampal kindling, the same lesion promoted the late stages of amygdala kindling. To explore the role of various parts of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in amygdala kindling, selective lesions of the cholinergic projections to either hippocampus or cortex were produced by intraparenchymal injections of 192 IgG-saporin into medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band or nucleus basalis, respectively. Cholinergic denervation of the cortical regions caused acceleration of amygdala kindling closely resembling that observed after the more widespread lesion induced by intraventricular 192 IgG-saporin. In contrast, removal of the cholinergic input to the hippocampus had no effect on the development of amygdala kindling. These data indicate that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons suppress kindling elicited from amygdala, and that this dampening effect is mediated via cortical but not hippocampal projections.

  9. Effect of chronic stress on synaptic currents in rat hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons.

    PubMed

    Karst, Henk; Joëls, Marian

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effect of chronic stress on synaptic responses of rat dentate granule cells to perforant path stimulation. Rats were subjected for 3 wk to unpredictable stressors twice daily or to control handling. One day after the last stressor, hippocampal slices were prepared and synaptic responses were determined with whole-cell recording. At that time, adrenal weight was found to be increased and thymus weight as well as gain in body weight were decreased in the stressed versus control animals, indicative of corticosterone hypersecretion during the stress period. In slices from rats with basal corticosteroid levels (at the circadian trough, under rest), no effect of prior stress exposure was observed on synaptic responses. However, synaptic responses of dentate granule cells from chronically stressed and control rats were differently affected by in vitro activation of glucocorticoid receptors, i.e., 1-4 h after administration of 100 nM corticosterone for 20 min. Thus the maximal response to synaptic activation of dentate cells at holding potential of -70 mV [when N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are blocked by magnesium] was significantly enhanced after corticosterone administration in chronically stressed but not in control animals. In accordance, the amplitude of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisolazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) but not of NMDA receptor-mediated currents was increased by corticosterone in stressed rats, over the entire voltage range. Corticosterone treatment also decreased the time to peak of AMPA currents, but this effect did not depend on prior stress exposure. The data indicate that following chronic stress exposure synaptic excitation of dentate granule cells may be enhanced when corticosterone levels rise. This enhanced synaptic flow could contribute to enhanced excitation of projection areas of the dentate gyrus, most notably the CA3 hippocampal region.

  10. Impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and NR2A/2B expression ratio in remifentanil withdrawal rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Yi; Liu, Shichang; Zhang, Nan; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yinguo

    2016-03-01

    Remifentanil is a kind of synthetic opioid which has gained wide clinical acceptance by anesthesiologists. In this study, we attempted to test whether withdrawal effects on learning mechanisms can be triggered by repeated low-dose remifentanil treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to remifentanil (50μg/kgs.c.) twice per day at 12h intervals for 15 days. When the animals of remifentanil group were withdrawn from remifentanil at 10h after the last injection, changes in open field test, Morris water maze test (MWM) and synaptic efficacy were examined in each group. We demonstrated that repeated exposure to 50μg/kg remifentanil produced enhanced locomotor activity indicating that a remifentanil addiction animal model in rats was established. MWM results showed that exposure to remifentanil had no influence on the spatial cognition. After withdrawal of remifentanil rats showed impaired spatial cognition. In electrophysiology test, remifentanil group rats showed a trend for a rightward shift of input/output relationship and significant deficits in maintenance of STP and LTP. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated increased NR2A/NR2B ratio that should be included depression of LTP. In the whole-cell patch-clamp recording, after elimination from remifentanil incubation, mEPSC frequency was down regulated in hippocampal CA1 neurons, indicating that basal synaptic transmission were affected by remifentanil withdrawal. Taken together, the current findings demonstrate that the remifentanil withdrawn rats exhibit obvious impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory and synaptic plasticity. Increased hippocampal NR2A/NR2B expression ratio and the changes of basal synaptic transmission may participate in the impairment of LTP. PMID:26777139

  11. Activities of visual cortical and hippocampal neurons co-fluctuate in freely moving rats during spatial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Daniel Christopher; Ji, Daoyun

    2015-01-01

    Visual cues exert a powerful control over hippocampal place cell activities that encode external spaces. The functional interaction of visual cortical neurons and hippocampal place cells during spatial navigation behavior has yet to be elucidated. Here we show that, like hippocampal place cells, many neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) of freely moving rats selectively fire at specific locations as animals run repeatedly on a track. The V1 location-specific activity leads hippocampal place cell activity both spatially and temporally. The precise activities of individual V1 neurons fluctuate every time the animal travels through the track, in a correlated fashion with those of hippocampal place cells firing at overlapping locations. The results suggest the existence of visual cortical neurons that are functionally coupled with hippocampal place cells for spatial processing during natural behavior. These visual neurons may also participate in the formation and storage of hippocampal-dependent memories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08902.001 PMID:26349031

  12. Neuroprotective Effects of Agmatine Against Cell Damage Caused by Glucocorticoids in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, M.-Y.; Wang, W.-P.; Bissette, G.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study the neuroprotective effects of agmatine against neuronal damage caused by glucocorticoids were examined in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Spectrophotometric measurements of lactate dehydrogenase activities, β-tubulin III immunocytochemical staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end-labeling assay (TUNEL) labeling and caspase-3 assays were carried out to detect cell damage or possible involved mechanisms. Our results show that dexamethasone and corticosterone produced a concentration-dependent increase of lactate dehydrogenase release in 12-day hippocampal cultures. Addition of 100 μM agmatine into media prevented the glucocorticoid-induced increase of lactate dehydrogenase release, an effect also shared with the specific N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist MK801 and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists mifepristone and spironolactone. Arcaine, an analog of agmatine with similar structure as agmatine, also blocked glucocorticoid-induced increase of lactate dehydrogenase release. Spermine and putrescine, the endogenous polyamine and metabolic products of agmatine without the guanidino moiety of agmatine, have no appreciable effect on glucocorticoid-induced injuries, indicating a structural relevance for this neuroprotection. Immunocytochemical staining with β-tubulin III confirmed the substantial neuronal injuries caused by glucocorticoids and the neuroprotective effects of agmatine against these neuronal injuries. TUNEL labeling demonstrated that agmatine significantly reduced TUNEL-positive cell numbers induced by exposure of cultured neurons to dexamethasone. Moreover, exposure of hippocampal neurons to dexamethasone significantly increased caspase-3 activity, which was inhibited by co-treatment with agmatine. Taken together, these results demonstrate that agmatine can protect cultured hippocampal neurons from glucocorticoid-induced neurotoxicity, through a possible blockade of

  13. Thrombin-induced activation of astrocytes in mixed rat hippocampal cultures is inhibited by soluble thrombomodulin.

    PubMed

    Niego, Be'eri; Samson, Andre L; Petersen, Karl-Uwe; Medcalf, Robert L

    2011-03-24

    Thrombin, a serine protease known for its role in coagulation, also induces a variety of protease activated receptor (PAR)-mediated responses in the central nervous system that contribute to many brain pathologies. Since the proteolytic specificity of thrombin is uniquely controlled by thrombomodulin (TM), we investigated the mechanisms by which thrombin and a recombinant soluble form of human TM (Solulin, INN: sothrombomodulin alpha; rhsTM) could influence rat hippocampal cultures. Treatment of hippocampal cultures with thrombin for up to 48h resulted in a significant morphological rearrangement with the formation of expansive cell-free areas (CFAs) and a reduction in cell viability; both effects were blocked by rhsTM. Treatment with the selective PAR-1 agonist, TRAP (SFLLRN) caused the formation of CFAs, suggesting that CFA formation involved PAR-1 signaling. Astrocytes prepared from PAR-1(-/-) mice also had an attenuated CFA response to thrombin. Thrombin-induced CFA formation was a consequence of cell movement and substantial changes in cell morphology, rather than due to cell detachment. Immunocytochemical and functional analyses revealed that the thrombin-sensitive cells within these hippocampal cultures were astrocytes. The effects of thrombin on CFA development were mediated by astrocyte-specific release of intracellular calcium and signalling through ERK1/2. rhsTM was able to attenuate thrombin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Finally, astrocytes were shown to maintain thrombin-sensitivity following neuronal depletion with NMDA, a result which was confirmed with pure astrocyte cultures. Hence thrombin mediates PAR-1-induced activation of hippocampal astrocytes, but not neurons, in a process that can be modulated by rhsTM. PMID:21241677

  14. Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Dendritic Plasticity Support Running-Improved Spatial Learning and Depression-Like Behaviour in Stressed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jian-Bin; Wong, Richard; Ching, Yick-Pang; Qiu, Guang; Tang, Siu-Wa; Lee, Tatia M. C.; So, Kwok-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Exercise promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic plasticity while stress shows the opposite effects, suggesting a possible mechanism for exercise to counteract stress. Changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic modification occur simultaneously in rats with stress or exercise; however, it is unclear whether neurogenesis or dendritic remodeling has a greater impact on mediating the effect of exercise on stress since they have been separately examined. Here we examined hippocampal cell proliferation in runners treated with different doses (low: 30 mg/kg; moderate: 40 mg/kg; high: 50 mg/kg) of corticosterone (CORT) for 14 days. Water maze task and forced swim tests were applied to assess hippocampal-dependent learning and depression-like behaviour respectively the day after the treatment. Repeated CORT treatment resulted in a graded increase in depression-like behaviour and impaired spatial learning that is associated with decreased hippocampal cell proliferation and BDNF levels. Running reversed these effects in rats treated with low or moderate, but not high doses of CORT. Using 40 mg/kg CORT-treated rats, we further studied the role of neurogenesis and dendritic remodeling in mediating the effects of exercise on stress. Co-labelling with BrdU (thymidine analog) /doublecortin (immature neuronal marker) showed that running increased neuronal differentiation in vehicle- and CORT-treated rats. Running also increased dendritic length and spine density in CA3 pyramidal neurons in 40 mg/kg CORT-treated rats. Ablation of neurogenesis with Ara-c infusion diminished the effect of running on restoring spatial learning and decreasing depression-like behaviour in 40 mg/kg CORT-treated animals in spite of dendritic and spine enhancement. but not normal runners with enhanced dendritic length. The results indicate that both restored hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic remodelling within the hippocampus are essential for running to counteract stress. PMID:21935393

  15. Chronic Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation Protects Against Seizures, Cognitive Impairments, Hippocampal Apoptosis, and Inflammatory Responses in Epileptic Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Zhu, Li-Jun; Wang, Xian-Hong; Zuo, Jian; He, Hui-Yan; Tian, Miao-Miao; Wang, Lei; Liang, Gui-Ling; Wang, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) has recently been demonstrated effective in the treatment of epilepsy and mood disorders. Here, we aim to determine the effects of TNS on epileptogenesis, cognitive function, and the associated hippocampal apoptosis and inflammatory responses. Rats were injected with pilocarpine to produce status epilepticus (SE) and the following chronic epilepsy. After SE induction, TNS treatment was conducted for 4 consecutive weeks. A pilocarpine re-injection was then used to induce a seizure in the epileptic rats. The hippocampal neuronal apoptosis induced by seizure was assessed by TUNEL staining and inflammatory responses by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS) number was counted through video monitoring, and the cognitive function assessed through Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. TNS treatment attenuated the SRS attacks and improved the cognitive impairment in epileptic rats. A pilocarpine re-injection resulted in less hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and reduced level of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and microglial activation in epileptic rats with TNS treatment in comparison to the epileptic rats without TNS treatment. It is concluded that TNS treatment shortly after SE not only protected against the chronic spontaneous seizures but also improved cognitive impairments. These antiepileptic properties of TNS may be related to its attenuating effects on hippocampal apoptosis and pro-inflammatory responses.

  16. Early life inflammatory pain induces long-lasting deficits in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Yoko O; Victoria, Nicole C; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Murphy, Anne Z; Parent, Marise B

    2015-02-01

    The present experiment tested the hypothesis that neonatal injury disrupts adult hippocampal functioning and that normal aging or chronic stress during adulthood, which are known to have a negative impact on hippocampal function, exacerbate these effects. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraplantar injection of the inflammatory agent carrageenan (1%) on the day of birth and their memory was tested in the hippocampal-dependent spatial water maze in adulthood and again in middle age. We found that neonatal injury impaired hippocampal-dependent memory in adulthood, that the effects of injury on memory were more pronounced in middle-aged male rats, and that chronic stress accelerated the onset of these memory deficits. Neonatal injury also decreased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the dorsal CA1 area of middle-aged rats, a brain region critical for spatial memory. Morphine administration at the time of injury completely reversed injury-induced memory deficits, but neonatal morphine treatments in the absence of injury produced significant memory impairments in adulthood. Collectively, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that neonatal injury produces long-lasting disruption in adult hippocampal functioning.

  17. Sub-anesthetic ketamine modulates intrinsic BOLD connectivity within the hippocampal-prefrontal circuit in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gass, Natalia; Schwarz, Adam James; Sartorius, Alexander; Schenker, Esther; Risterucci, Celine; Spedding, Michael; Zheng, Lei; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Dysfunctional connectivity within the hippocampal-prefrontal circuit (HC-PFC) is associated with schizophrenia, major depression, and neurodegenerative disorders, and both the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex have dense populations of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Ketamine, a potent NMDA receptor antagonist, is of substantial current interest as a mechanistic model of glutamatergic dysfunction in animal and human studies, a psychotomimetic agent and a rapidly acting antidepressant. In this study, we sought to understand the modulatory effect of acute ketamine administration on functional connectivity in the HC-PFC system of the rat brain using resting-state fMRI. Sprague-Dawley rats in four parallel groups (N=9 per group) received either saline or one of three behaviorally relevant, sub-anesthetic doses of S-ketamine (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, s.c.), and connectivity changes 15- and 30-min post-injection were studied. The strongest effects were dose- and exposure-dependent increases in functional connectivity within the prefrontal cortex and in anterior-posterior connections between the posterior hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex, and prefrontal regions. The increased prefrontal connectivity is consistent with ketamine-induced increases in HC-PFC electroencephalographic gamma band power, possibly reflecting a psychotomimetic aspect of ketamine's effect, and is contrary to the data from chronic schizophrenic patients suggesting that ketamine effect does not necessarily parallel the disease pattern but might rather reflect a hyperglutamatergic state. These findings may help to clarify the brain systems underlying different dose-dependent behavioral profiles of ketamine in the rat.

  18. Sub-Anesthetic Ketamine Modulates Intrinsic BOLD Connectivity Within the Hippocampal-Prefrontal Circuit in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Natalia; Schwarz, Adam James; Sartorius, Alexander; Schenker, Esther; Risterucci, Celine; Spedding, Michael; Zheng, Lei; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional connectivity within the hippocampal-prefrontal circuit (HC-PFC) is associated with schizophrenia, major depression, and neurodegenerative disorders, and both the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex have dense populations of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Ketamine, a potent NMDA receptor antagonist, is of substantial current interest as a mechanistic model of glutamatergic dysfunction in animal and human studies, a psychotomimetic agent and a rapidly acting antidepressant. In this study, we sought to understand the modulatory effect of acute ketamine administration on functional connectivity in the HC-PFC system of the rat brain using resting-state fMRI. Sprague–Dawley rats in four parallel groups (N=9 per group) received either saline or one of three behaviorally relevant, sub-anesthetic doses of S-ketamine (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, s.c.), and connectivity changes 15- and 30-min post-injection were studied. The strongest effects were dose- and exposure-dependent increases in functional connectivity within the prefrontal cortex and in anterior–posterior connections between the posterior hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex, and prefrontal regions. The increased prefrontal connectivity is consistent with ketamine-induced increases in HC-PFC electroencephalographic gamma band power, possibly reflecting a psychotomimetic aspect of ketamine's effect, and is contrary to the data from chronic schizophrenic patients suggesting that ketamine effect does not necessarily parallel the disease pattern but might rather reflect a hyperglutamatergic state. These findings may help to clarify the brain systems underlying different dose-dependent behavioral profiles of ketamine in the rat. PMID:24136293

  19. Maturational dynamics of hippocampal place cells in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rod C; Richard, Gregory R; Holmes, Gregory L; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal

    2011-04-01

    The ontogeny of neural substrates underlying episodic memory is not well described. Place cells are a surrogate for episodic memory and are important for spatial navigation in rodents. Although place cells are well described in mature brains, the nature of the maturation processes remains uncertain. We now report on the ontogeny of the place cell system in rats between P22 and P43, a time during which there is rapid improvement in spatial behavior. We found that place cells with adult like firing fields were observed at the earliest ages. However, at this age, adult like place cells were few in number and their place fields were not stable across multiple exposures to the same environment. Independently of confounding factors such as the number of exposures to the environment, the proportion of adult-like place cells, their firing rate, and their stability increased with age and the average spatial signal of all pyramidal cells improved. These findings could account for the poor spatial behavior observed at young ages (P20-P30) and suggests that a small number of adult-like place cells are insufficient to support navigation.

  20. Procedural Performance Benefits after Excitotoxic Hippocampal Lesions in the Rat Sequential Reaction Time Task.

    PubMed

    Busse, Sebastian; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2016-01-01

    It is widely agreed upon that hippocampal function is linked to episodic-like and spatial memory across various species, for example, rodents. However, the interplay between hippocampal function and other types of learning and memory, like procedural stimulus-response or sequential learning, is less clear. Recently (Eckart et al. in Hippocampus 22:1202-1214, 2012), we showed that excitotoxic hippocampal lesions, which mainly affected its dorsal part, led not only to the expected deficits in a spatial and episodic-like memory task, namely the object place recognition test, but also to substantial improvements in terms of speed and accuracy in a rat adaption of the human sequential reaction time task (SRTT). The design of that experiment, however, which included fixed test durations per training day, led to the fact that lesioned animals gained more instrumental experience, which may partly have accounted for their enhanced performance. In order to rule out such a potential confound, we performed the present experiment on rats with similar ibotenic lesions aiming at the dorsal hippocampus, but we now kept the amount of correct instrumental responses and reinforcements on the same level as in controls. Our data revealed that lesioned animals were still able to complete the SRTT in a substantially smaller amount of time, when compared to control and sham-operated animals, although no differences were observable in terms of speed or accuracy. Also, the animals with lesions showed impaired extinction in a subsequent test where rewards were omitted. The former effect can primarily be attributed to shorter post-reinforcement pauses in the lesioned animals, and the possible mechanisms of this and the extinction effect will be addressed in the discussion.

  1. Effect of forced exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, serum and hippocampal corticosterone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that there are positive effects of exercise on learning and memory. Moreover, some studies have demonstrated that forced exercise plays the role of a stressor. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of different timing of exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, and serum and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels. Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, sham, exercise-rest (exercise withdrawal), rest-exercise (exercised group), and exercise-exercise (continuous exercise). Rats were forced to run on a treadmill for 1 h/day at a speed 20-21-m/min. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test in different intervals (1, 7 and 21 days) after foot shock. Findings showed that after the exercise withdrawal, short-term and mid-term memories, had significant enhancement compared to the control group, while the long-term memory did not present this result. In addition, the serum and hippocampal CORT levels were at the basal levels after the rest period in the exercise-rest group. In the rest-exercise group, exercise improved mid- and long-term memories, whereas continuous exercise improved all types short-, mid- and long-term memories, particularly the mid-term memory. Twenty-one and forty-two days of exercise significantly decreased the serum and hippocampal CORT levels. It seems that exercise for at least 21 days with no rest could affect biochemical factors in the brain. Also, regular continuous exercise plays an important role in memory function. Hence, the duration and withdraw of exercise are important factors for the neurobiological aspects of the memory responses.

  2. Persistent reduction of hippocampal glutamine synthetase expression after status epilepticus in immature rats.

    PubMed

    van der Hel, W Saskia; Hessel, Ellen V S; Bos, Ineke W M; Mulder, Sandra D; Verlinde, Suzanne A M W; van Eijsden, Pieter; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2014-12-01

    Mesiotemporal sclerosis (MTS), the most frequent form of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy, often develops after an initial precipitating injury affecting the immature brain. To analyse early processes in epileptogenesis we used the juvenile pilocarpine model to study status epilepticus (SE)-induced changes in expression of key components in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, known to be affected in MTS patients. SE was induced by Li(+) /pilocarpine injection in 21-day-old rats. At 2-19 weeks after SE hippocampal protein expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and neuron damage by FluoroJade staining. Spontaneous seizures occurred in at least 44% of animals 15-18 weeks after SE. As expected in this model, we did not observe loss of principal hippocampal neurons. Neuron damage was most pronounced in the hilus, where we also detected progressive loss of parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons. Hilar neuron loss (or end-folium sclerosis), a common feature in patients with MTS, was accompanied by a progressively decreased glutamine synthetase (GS)-immunoreactivity from 2 (-15%) to 19 weeks (-33.5%) after SE. Immunoreactivity for excitatory amino-acid transporters, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein was unaffected. Our data show that SE elicited in 21-day-old rats induces a progressive reduction in hilar GS expression without affecting other key components of the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Reduced expression of glial enzyme GS was first detected 2 weeks after SE, and thus clearly before spontaneous recurrent seizures occurred. These results support the hypothesis that reduced GS expression is an early event in the development of hippocampal sclerosis in MTS patients and emphasize the importance of astrocytes in early epileptogenesis.

  3. ADOLESCENT BINGE ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ALTERS HIPPOCAMPAL PROGENITOR CELL PROLIFERATION IN RATS: EFFECTS ON CELL CYCLE KINETICS

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Justin A.; Hayes, Dayna M.; Morris, Stephanie A.; Nixon, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Binge alcohol exposure in adolescent rats potently inhibits adult hippocampal neurogenesis by altering neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation and survival; however, it is not clear whether alcohol results in an increase or decrease in net proliferation. Thus, the effects of alcohol on hippocampal NPC cell cycle phase distribution and kinetics were assessed in an adolescent rat model of an alcohol use disorder. Cell cycle distribution was measured using a combination of markers (Ki-67, bromo-deoxy-uridine incorporation, and phospho-histone H3) to determine the proportion of NPCs within G1, S, and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Cell cycle kinetics were calculated using a cumulative bromo-deoxy-uridine injection protocol to determine the effect of alcohol on cell cycle length and S-phase duration. Binge alcohol exposure reduced the proportion of NPCs in S-phase, but had no effect on G1 or G2/M phases, indicating that alcohol specifically targets S-phase of the cell cycle. Cell cycle kinetics studies revealed that alcohol reduced NPC cell cycle duration by 36% and shortened S-phase by 62%, suggesting that binge alcohol exposure accelerates progression through the cell cycle. This effect would be expected to increase NPC proliferation, which was supported by a slight, but significant increase in the number of Sox-2+ NPCs residing in the hippocampal subgranular zone following binge alcohol exposure. These studies suggest the mechanism of alcohol inhibition of neurogenesis but also reveal the earliest evidence of the compensatory neurogenesis reaction that has been observed a week after binge alcohol exposure. PMID:21484803

  4. Developmental hypothyroxinaemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency delays hippocampal axonal growth in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Wei, W; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Dong, J; Min, H; Song, B; Teng, W; Xi, Q; Chen, J

    2013-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine. Thyroid hormones are important for central nervous system development. Mild maternal iodine deficiency (ID)-induced hypothyroxinaemia causes neurological deficits and mental retardation of the foetus. However, the detailed mechanism underlying these deficits is still largely unknown. Given that the growth-associated protein of 43 kDa (GAP-43), semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)/collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) pathway are essential for axonal development, we hypothesise that hippocampal axonal growth-related proteins may be impaired, which may contribute to hippocampal axonal growth delay in rat offspring exposed to maternal hypothyroxinaemia. To test this hypothesis, maternal hypothyroxinaemia models were established in Wistar rats using a mild ID diet. Besides a negative control group, two maternal hypothyroidism models were created with either a severe ID diet or methimazole in the water. Our results showed that maternal hypothyroxinaemia exposure delayed offspring axonal growth on gestational day 19, postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14 and PN21. Consistent with this, the mean intensity of hippocampal CRMP2 and Tau1 immunofluorescence axonal protein was reduced in the mild ID group. Moreover, maternal hypothyroxinaemia disrupted expressions of GAP-43 and Sema3A. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of GSK3β and CRMP2 was also affected in the treated offspring, implying a potential mechanism by which hypothyroxinaemia-exposure affects neurodevelopment. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that maternal hypothyroxinaemia may impair axonal growth of the offspring. PMID:23763342

  5. Developmental hypothyroxinaemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency delays hippocampal axonal growth in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Wei, W; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Dong, J; Min, H; Song, B; Teng, W; Xi, Q; Chen, J

    2013-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine. Thyroid hormones are important for central nervous system development. Mild maternal iodine deficiency (ID)-induced hypothyroxinaemia causes neurological deficits and mental retardation of the foetus. However, the detailed mechanism underlying these deficits is still largely unknown. Given that the growth-associated protein of 43 kDa (GAP-43), semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)/collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) pathway are essential for axonal development, we hypothesise that hippocampal axonal growth-related proteins may be impaired, which may contribute to hippocampal axonal growth delay in rat offspring exposed to maternal hypothyroxinaemia. To test this hypothesis, maternal hypothyroxinaemia models were established in Wistar rats using a mild ID diet. Besides a negative control group, two maternal hypothyroidism models were created with either a severe ID diet or methimazole in the water. Our results showed that maternal hypothyroxinaemia exposure delayed offspring axonal growth on gestational day 19, postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14 and PN21. Consistent with this, the mean intensity of hippocampal CRMP2 and Tau1 immunofluorescence axonal protein was reduced in the mild ID group. Moreover, maternal hypothyroxinaemia disrupted expressions of GAP-43 and Sema3A. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of GSK3β and CRMP2 was also affected in the treated offspring, implying a potential mechanism by which hypothyroxinaemia-exposure affects neurodevelopment. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that maternal hypothyroxinaemia may impair axonal growth of the offspring.

  6. Effects of age and sex on the water maze performance and hippocampal cholinergic fibers in rats.

    PubMed

    Lukoyanov, N V; Andrade, J P; Dulce Madeira, M; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1999-07-16

    We have examined if age-related deterioration of spatial memory and cholinergic innervation of the dentate gyrus is gender-specific. Aging progressively affected the performance of male and female rats in place discrimination version of the water maze task. On repeated acquisition task, only old males, but not old females, were significantly impaired relative to young and adult animals of both sexes. In parallel, we found that the age-associated reduction of the density of cholinergic fibers in the dentate gyrus was significantly more profound in old males than in age-matched females. These results suggest that, although male and female rats have an identical pattern of reference memory decline, impairment of the working memory and deterioration of the hippocampal cholinergic system are slower to develop in females than in males.

  7. Isoflurane induced cognitive impairment in aged rats through hippocampal calcineurin/NFAT signaling.

    PubMed

    Ni, Cheng; Li, Zhengqian; Qian, Min; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiangyang

    2015-05-15

    Calcineurin (CaN) over-activation constrains synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Upon CaN activation, NFAT imports into the nucleus and guides its downstream genes, which also affect neuronal and synaptic function. Aberrant CaN/NFAT signaling involves in neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, but its role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains uninvestigated. Inhaled anesthetic isoflurane facilitates the development of POCD, and the present study investigated the role of CaN/NFAT signaling in isoflurane induced cognitive impairment of aged rats, and the therapeutic effects of CaN inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). The results indicated that hippocampal CaN activity increased and peaked at 6 h after isoflurane exposure, and NFAT, especially NFATc4, imported into the nucleus following CaN activation. Furthermore, phamacological inhibition of CaN by CsA markedly attenuated isoflurane induced aberrant CaN/NFATc4 signaling in the hippocampus, and rescued relevant spatial learning and memory impairment of aged rats. Overall, the study suggests hippocampal CaN/NFAT signaling as the upstream mechanism of isoflurane induced cognitive impairment, and provides potential therapeutic target and possible treatment methods for POCD.

  8. Cytomorphometric Changes in Hippocampal CA1 Neurons Exposed to Simulated Microgravity Using Rats as Model.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amit; Behari, Jitendra; Mallick, Birendra N

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity and sleep loss lead to cognitive and learning deficits. These behavioral alterations are likely to be associated with cytomorphological changes and loss of neurons. To understand the phenomenon, we exposed rats (225-275 g) to 14 days simulated microgravity (SMg) and compared its effects on CA1 hippocampal neuronal plasticity, with that of normal cage control rats. We observed that the mean area, perimeter, synaptic cleft, and length of active zone of CA1 hippocampal neurons significantly decreased while dendritic arborization and number of spines significantly increased in SMg group as compared with controls. The mean thickness of the postsynaptic density and total dendritic length remained unaltered. The changes may be a compensatory effect induced by exposure to microgravity; however, the effects may be transient or permanent, which need further study. These findings may be useful for designing effective prevention for those, including the astronauts, exposed to microgravity. Further, subject to confirmation, we propose that SMg exposure might be useful for recovery of stroke patients. PMID:24904521

  9. Decoupling Actions from Consequences: Dorsal Hippocampal Lesions Facilitate Instrumental Performance, but Impair Behavioral Flexibility in Rats.

    PubMed

    Busse, Sebastian; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2016-01-01

    The present study is part of a series of experiments, where we analyze why and how damage of the rat's dorsal hippocampus (dHC) can enhance performance in a sequential reaction time task (SRTT). In this task, sequences of distinct visual stimulus presentations are food-rewarded in a fixed-ratio-13-schedule. Our previous study (Busse and Schwarting, 2016) had shown that rats with lesions of the dHC show substantially shorter session times and post-reinforcement pauses (PRPs) than controls, which allows for more practice when daily training is kept constant. Since sequential behavior is based on instrumental performance, a sequential benefit might be secondary to that. In order to test this hypothesis in the present study, we performed two experiments, where pseudorandom rather than sequential stimulus presentation was used in rats with excitotoxic dorsal hippocampal lesions. Again, we found enhanced performance in the lesion-group in terms of shorter session times and PRPs. During the sessions we found that the lesion-group spent less time with non-instrumental behavior (i.e., grooming, sniffing, and rearing) after prolonged instrumental training. Also, such rats showed moderate evidence for an extinction impairment under devalued food reward conditions and significant deficits in a response-outcome (R-O)-discrimination task in comparison to a control-group. These findings suggest that facilitatory effects on instrumental performance after dorsal hippocampal lesions may be primarily a result of complex behavioral changes, i.e., reductions of behavioral flexibility and/or alterations in motivation, which then result in enhanced instrumental learning. PMID:27375453

  10. Prenatal stress enhances stress- and corticotropin-releasing factor-induced stimulation of hippocampal acetylcholine release in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Day, J C; Koehl, M; Deroche, V; Le Moal, M; Maccari, S

    1998-03-01

    There is growing evidence that stressors occurring during pregnancy can impair biological and behavioral responses to stress in the adult offspring. For instance, prenatal stress enhances emotional reactivity, anxiety, and depressive-like behaviors associated with a prolonged stress-induced corticosterone secretion and a reduction in hippocampal corticosteroid receptors. Among the neurotransmitters involved in these hormonal and behavioral responses, acetylcholine may play a critical role. However, it is unknown whether prenatal stressful events also may influence the development of cholinergic systems. In the present study, hippocampal acetylcholine was measured, by in vivo microdialysis, in both male and female adult prenatally stressed rats, under basal conditions, after a mild stress (saline injection) or after intracerebroventricular administration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF; 0.1 nM). No difference in basal release of acetylcholine was observed between control and prenatally stressed rats of both genders. Mild stress was found to increase hippocampal acetylcholine release to a greater extent in prenatally stressed rats than in controls. In males, the CRF-induced increase in hippocampal acetylcholine release was larger in prenatally stressed rats, as compared with controls, during the first hour after the injection and in females during the third hour after the injection. These data indicate that prenatal stress has long-term effects on the development of forebrain cholinergic systems. The augmented increase in hippocampal acetylcholine release after the mild stress and CRF injection in prenatally stressed rats may be involved in some of the hormonal and behavioral abnormalities found in prenatally stressed rats. PMID:9465013

  11. Differential effects of exercise intensities in hippocampal BDNF, inflammatory cytokines and cell proliferation in rats during the postnatal brain development.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Fernandes, Jansen; Peixinho-Pena, Luiz Fernando; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2013-10-11

    It has been established that low intensities of exercise produce beneficial effects for the brain, while high intensities can cause some neuronal damage (e.g. exacerbated inflammatory response and cell death). Although these effects are documented in the mature brain, the influence of exercise intensities in the developing brain has been poorly explored. To investigate the impact of exercise intensity in developing rats, we evaluated the hippocampal level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL6 and IL10) and the occurrence of hippocampal cell degeneration and proliferation at different stages of postnatal brain development of rats submitted to two physical exercise intensities. To this point, male rats were divided into different age groups: P21, P31, P41 and P51. Each age group was submitted to two exercise intensities (low and high) on a treadmill over 10 consecutive days, except the control rats. We verified that the density of proliferating cells was significantly higher in the dentate gyrus of rats submitted to low-intensity exercise from P21 to P30 compared with high-intensity exercise and control rats. A significant increase of proliferative cell density was found in rats submitted to high-intensity exercise from P31 to P40 when compared to low-intensity exercise and control rats. Elevated hippocampal levels of IL6 were detected in rats submitted to high-intensity exercise from P21 to P30 compared to control rats. From P41 to P50 period, higher levels of BDNF, TNFα and IL10 were found in the hippocampal formation of rats submitted to high-intensity exercise in relation to their control rats. Our data show that exercise-induced neuroplastic effects on BDNF levels and cellular proliferation in the hippocampal region are dependent on exercise intensity and developmental period. Thus, exercise intensity is an inflammation-inducing factor and exercise-induced inflammatory response during the postnatal brain development is

  12. Involvement of a glutamergic mechanism in gamma-dendrotoxin-induced hippocampal neuronal cell loss in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bagetta, Giacinto; Palma, Ernesto; Piccirilli, Silvia; Del Duca, Claudio; Morrone, A Luigi; Nappi, Guiseppe; Corasaniti, M Tiziana; Dolly, J Oliver

    2004-03-01

    The epileptogenic and neurodegenerative effects of gamma-dendrotoxin, from Dendroaspis angusticeps, a specific blocker of a non-inactivating, voltage-sensitive K+ channel, were studied after focal injection into one dorsal hippocampus in rats pretreated with CGP040116, a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and in rats bearing a monolateral surgical lesion of the Schaffer collaterals whose terminals originate from CA3 pyramids and release glutamate in the CA1 hippocampal area. Administration of 35 pmol gamma-dendrotoxin elicited in all of the treated animals (n=8) bilateral EEG discharges and damage to the hippocampal formation. Quantitation of the damage revealed significant bilateral neuronal cell loss in the CA1, CA3 and CA4 pyramidal cell layers. The lowest dose (0.35 pmol; n=4) of the toxin used did not affect EEG activity and failed to cause significant hippocampal cell loss whereas the 3.5 pmol (n=6) dose caused EEG seizures and hippocampal cell loss limited to the CA1 area. Systematic intraperitoneal administration of CGP040116 (5mg/kg given 30 min. previously) delayed the onset of EEG seizures and reduced the number of epileptogenic discharges typically observed in rats receiving an injection of gamma-dendrotoxin (35 pmol) alone. Similarly, this treatment prevented the damage inflicted to the hippocampus by the toxin and in no instance was significant neuronal loss observed. Protection against seizures and hippocampal damage was also observed by a monolateral surgical lesion to the Schaffer collaterals. In conclusion, the present data suggest that an excitotoxic, glutamate-mediated, type of mechanism underlies seizures and hippocampal damage induced by gamma-dendrotoxin in rats.

  13. Elevation of naloxone-sensitive /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine binding in hippocampal formation of genetically epilepsy-prone rats

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, D.D.; Mills, S.A.; Jobe, P.C.; Reigel, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    /sup 3/H-Dihydromorphine (DHM) binding sites were measured in the brain of non-epileptic control and GEPR rats using in vitro autoradiographic techniques. The number of naloxone-sensitive /sup 3/H-DHM binding sites was increased 38-57% in the pyramidal cell layer of ventral hippocampal CA/sub 3/ and CA/sub 1/ of GEPR-3 and GEPR-9 rats compared to non-epileptic controls. No significant differences in /sup 3/H-DHM binding were observed in dorsal hippocampal formation, lateral entorhinal cortex, lateral geniculate or cerebellum. The results suggest that an increase in the number of opioid receptors in ventral hippocampus of GEPR rats may be one factor contributing to the enhanced sensitivity of GEPR-9 rats to the proconvulsant effects of morphine.

  14. Elevated dynorphin in the hippocampal formation of aged rats: Relation to cognitive impairment on a spatial learning task

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Hannkuang; Owyang, V.; Hong, Jaushyong; Gallagher, M. )

    1989-04-01

    Radioimmunoassay revealed increased dynorphin A(1-8)-like immunoreactivity (dynA(1-8)LI) in the aged rat brain. Among a number of brain regions examined, an age-related dynA(1-8)LI elevation was found only in the hippocampal formation and frontal cortex. Moreover, the increase in dynA(1-8)LI in the aged hippocampus was associated with a decline in spatial learning ability: dynA(1-8)LI distinguished aged rats that were behaviorally impaired from aged cohorts that learned the spatial task as rapidly as younger animals. Northern blot hybridization using a {sup 32}P-labeled complementary RNA probe encoding rat prodynorphin indicated that the abundance of prodynorphin mRNA was also significantly increased in the hippocampal formation of aged rats with identified spatial learning impairments.

  15. Low-dose sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and facilitates the development of dentate gyrus-dependent learning in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Shen, Feng-Yan; Zhao, Xuan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Dao-Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ru; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Huge body of evidences demonstrated that volatile anesthetics affect the hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions, and most of them showed impairment at anesthetic dose. Here, we investigated the effect of low dose (1.8%) sevoflurane on hippocampal neurogenesis and dentate gyrus-dependent learning. Neonatal rats at postnatal day 4 to 6 (P4-6) were treated with 1.8% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Neurogenesis was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and electrophysiology recording. Four and seven weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and contextual-fear discrimination learning tests were performed to determine the influence on spatial learning and pattern separation. A 6-hour treatment with 1.8% sevoflurane promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and increased the survival of newborn cells and the proportion of immature granular cells in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats. Sevoflurane-treated rats performed better during the training days of the Morris water maze test and in contextual-fear discrimination learning test. These results suggest that a subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal rats and facilitates their performance in dentate gyrus-dependent learning tasks.

  16. Assessment of the effects of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor rofecoxib on visuospatial learning and hippocampal cell death following kainate-induced seizures in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Tina; Marklund, Niklas; Hillered, Lars; Oliw, Ernst H

    2005-12-01

    Kainate-induced seizures result in hippocampal neurodegeneration and spatial learning deficits in rodents. Previous studies show that rofecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, protects against kainate-induced hippocampal cell death 3 days after seizures. Our aim was to determine whether rofecoxib attenuates visuospatial learning deficits and late neuronal death after kainate-induced seizures. Seizures were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with kainic acid (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Eight hours later, animals received rofecoxib (10 mg/kg; n = 15) or vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide, n = 11). Animals were then treated daily for additional 2 or 9 days. Visuospatial learning was assessed in the Morris water maze (MWM) on days 5-9 after seizures. Seizure animals learned the MWM task significantly slower than non-seizure controls, but seizure animals showed higher swim speed (P < 0.05). Seizure animals receiving rofecoxib for 2 days showed no significant improvement in acquisition of the task compared to the vehicle group, even though mean latencies in the rofecoxib group were shorter from the third trial day onwards. This tendency was lost when rofecoxib was given for 9 days. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling showed cell death in limbic structures 9 days after seizures. The time course of kainate-induced hippocampal cell death might be delayed by rofecoxib treatment, as the attenuation of cell death observed 3 days after seizures was no longer present after 9 days. We conclude that even though increasing evidence points to an injurious role of cyclooxygenase-2 products in acute brain injury processes, rofecoxib treatment failed to attenuate seizure-induced visuospatial learning deficits and the late phase of hippocampal neurodegeneration. PMID:16263251

  17. Peripherally restricted acute phase response to a viral mimic alters hippocampal gene expression.

    PubMed

    Michalovicz, Lindsay T; Konat, Gregory W

    2014-03-01

    We have previously shown that peripherally restricted acute phase response (APR) elicited by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a viral mimic, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC), renders the brain hypersusceptible to excitotoxic insult as seen from profoundly exacerbated kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. In the present study, we found that this hypersusceptibility was protracted for up to 72 h. RT-PCR profiling of hippocampal gene expression revealed rapid upregulation of 23 genes encoding cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors generally within 6 h after PIC challenge. The expression of most of these genes decreased by 24 h. However, two chemokine genes, i.e., Ccl19 and Cxcl13 genes, as well as two chemokine receptor genes, Ccr1 and Ccr7, remained upregulated for 72 h suggesting their possible involvement in the induction and sustenance of seizure hypersusceptibility. Also, 12 genes encoding proteins related to glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission featured initial upregulation or downregulation followed by gradual normalization. The upregulation of the Gabrr3 gene remained upregulated at 72 h, congruent with its plausible role in the hypersusceptible phenotype. Moreover, the expression of ten microRNAs (miRs) was rapidly affected by PIC challenge, but their levels generally exhibited oscillating profiles over the time course of seizure hypersusceptibility. These results indicate that protracted seizure susceptibility following peripheral APR is associated with a robust polygenic response in the hippocampus. PMID:24363211

  18. Effects of pharmacological treatments on hippocampal NCAM1 and ERK2 expression in epileptic rats with cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qingxia; Min, Xia; Sun, Ran; Gao, Jianying; Liang, Ruqing; Li, Lei; Chu, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of various pharmacological agents on the hippocampal expression of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) in epileptic rats with cognitive dysfunction. The experiments were conducted using 120 Wistar rats: 20 controls and 100 with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). The SE rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=20/group) that received daily treatments for 1 month with one of the following: (i) saline (no effect on epilepsy); (ii) carbamazepine (an anticonvulsant); (iii) oxcarbazepine (an anticonvulsant); (iv) aniracetam (a nootropic); or (v) donepezil (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor). Spatial learning and memory were assessed using a Morris Water Maze (MWM). Hippocampal tissue was assessed for NCAM1 and ERK2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression by immunochemistry. The results revealed that SE rats had significantly poorer MWM performances compared with controls (P<0.01). Performance in SE rats was improved with donepezil treatment (P<0.01), but declined with carbamazepine (P<0.01). Compared with controls, saline-treated SE rats exhibited increased hippocampal NCAM1 mRNA expression (P<0.01). Among SE rats, NCAM1 mRNA expression was highest in those treated with donepezil, followed by aniracetam-, saline-, oxcarbazepine- and carbamazepine-treated rats. Compared to controls, saline-treated SE rats exhibited decreased hippocampal ERK2 mRNA expression (P<0.01). Among SE rats, ERK2 mRNA expression was highest in those treated with donepezil, followed by aniracetam, saline, oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine. NCAM1 and ERK2 protein expression levels were parallel to those of the mRNA. In saline-treated SE rats, hippocampal ERK2 expression was decreased and NCAM1 expression was increased; thus, these two molecules may be involved in the impairment of spatial memory. Carbamazepine augmented

  19. Effects of social housing on hippocampal dendrites and behavior in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Leedy, Gail M; Barrows, Lorraine F; Clark, Suzanne

    2013-03-01

    Social stress is both species and gender specific. For female rats, individual housing and social instability housing conditions are associated with behavioral indicators of stress and depression. The present study directly compared the effects of six weeks of individual housing, social instability and mixed sex, semi-crowded housing in a visible burrow system (VBS) on ovariectomized female rats. Paired, stable housing was used as the control. Behavioral tests were conducted two, four and six weeks into the housing manipulations and included sucrose consumption, social interest, and activity in the open field. Following a series of four behavioral tests, animals were sacrificed and brains were processed for Golgi impregnation. Basal dendrites of CA3 hippocampal neurons were measured. Results indicate that the individual housing and social instability groups were comparable to the control group for all measures. In contrast, the rats housed in the VBS exhibited reduced activity in open field testing, and alterations in social interest. Dendritic lengths were also reduced in those animals living in the VBS in comparison to the animals housed in pairs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of behavioral and neural effects of VBS housing on female rats. Further research is necessary to determine what facets of the VBS housing are responsible for the behavioral and neural changes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Animal Models'.

  20. Alteration of rat hippocampal neurogenesis and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression upon prenatal exposure to tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Nobakht, Maliheh; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Bakhshayesh, Maasoumeh; Ghafourifar, Pedram

    2011-09-01

    The present study delineates the effect of tamoxifen on neuronal density and expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in hippocampal nerve cells during prenatal and postnatal periods in rats. Pregnant rats were administered with tamoxifen one day prior to labor (E21) and on the childbirth day (E22). Hippocampi of embryos at E22 and newborns at postnatal days of 1, 7, and 21 (P1, P7, and P21) were investigated. Density of the neurons in areas of the developing hippocampus including cornu ammonis (CA1, CA3), dentate gyrus, and subiculum were studied. Our findings show that the number of pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased in CA1 and subiculum of tamoxifen-treated rats in E22, P1, and P7. We found that cellular density was lower in early stages of development, however, cellular density and thickness gradually increased during the development particularly in the third week. We found that nNOS expression was decreased in E22, P1, and P7 in animals treated with tamoxifen. The present study shows that tamoxifen affects development and differentiation of postnatal rat hippocampus, CA1 neurons, and nNOS expression.

  1. Decoupling Actions from Consequences: Dorsal Hippocampal Lesions Facilitate Instrumental Performance, but Impair Behavioral Flexibility in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Sebastian; Schwarting, Rainer K. W.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is part of a series of experiments, where we analyze why and how damage of the rat’s dorsal hippocampus (dHC) can enhance performance in a sequential reaction time task (SRTT). In this task, sequences of distinct visual stimulus presentations are food-rewarded in a fixed-ratio-13-schedule. Our previous study (Busse and Schwarting, 2016) had shown that rats with lesions of the dHC show substantially shorter session times and post-reinforcement pauses (PRPs) than controls, which allows for more practice when daily training is kept constant. Since sequential behavior is based on instrumental performance, a sequential benefit might be secondary to that. In order to test this hypothesis in the present study, we performed two experiments, where pseudorandom rather than sequential stimulus presentation was used in rats with excitotoxic dorsal hippocampal lesions. Again, we found enhanced performance in the lesion-group in terms of shorter session times and PRPs. During the sessions we found that the lesion-group spent less time with non-instrumental behavior (i.e., grooming, sniffing, and rearing) after prolonged instrumental training. Also, such rats showed moderate evidence for an extinction impairment under devalued food reward conditions and significant deficits in a response-outcome (R-O)-discrimination task in comparison to a control-group. These findings suggest that facilitatory effects on instrumental performance after dorsal hippocampal lesions may be primarily a result of complex behavioral changes, i.e., reductions of behavioral flexibility and/or alterations in motivation, which then result in enhanced instrumental learning. PMID:27375453

  2. Neonatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene induces oxidative stress causing altered hippocampal cytomorphometry and behavior during early adolescence period of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupesh; Das, Saroj Kumar; Das, Swagatika; Das, Lipsa; Patri, Manorama

    2016-05-01

    Environmental neurotoxicants like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been well documented regarding their potential to induce oxidative stress. However, neonatal exposure to B[a]P and its subsequent effect on anti-oxidant defence system and hippocampal cytomorphometry leading to behavioral changes have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of acute exposure of B[a]P on five days old male Wistar pups administered with single dose of B[a]P (0.2 μg/kg BW) through intracisternal mode. Control group was administered with vehicle i.e., DMSO and a separate group of rats without any treatment was taken as naive group. Behavioral analysis showed anxiolytic-like behavior with significant increase in time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze. Further, significant reduction in fall off time during rotarod test showing B[a]P induced locomotor hyperactivity and impaired motor co-ordination in adolescent rats. B[a]P induced behavioral changes were further associated with altered anti-oxidant defence system involving significant reduction in the total ATPase, Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Mg(2+) ATPase, GR and GPx activity with a significant elevation in the activity of catalase and GST as compared to naive and control groups. Cytomorphometry of hippocampus showed that the number of neurons and glia in B[a]P treated group were significantly reduced as compared to naive and control. Subsequent observation showed that the area and perimeter of hippocampus, hippocampal neurons and neuronal nucleus were significantly reduced in B[a]P treated group as compared to naive and control. The findings of the present study suggest that the alteration in hippocampal cytomorphometry and neuronal population associated with impaired antioxidant signaling and mood in B[a]P treated group could be an outcome of neuromorphological alteration leading to pyknotic cell death or impaired differential migration of neurons during early postnatal brain development.

  3. Amygdala-Hippocampal Connectivity Changes During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Joint Effect of Early Life Stress and Oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yan; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Pruessner, Jens C; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Previous evidence shows that acute stress changes both amygdala activity and its connectivity with a distributed brain network. Early life stress (ELS), especially emotional abuse (EA), is associated with altered reactivity to psychosocial stress in adulthood and moderates or even reverses the stress-attenuating effect of oxytocin (OXT). The neural underpinnings of the interaction between ELS and OXT remain unclear, though. Therefore, we here investigate the joint effect of ELS and OXT on transient changes in amygdala-centered functional connectivity induced by acute psychosocial stress, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design. Psychophysiological interaction analysis in the placebo session revealed stress-induced increases in functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, putamen, caudate and thalamus. Regression analysis showed that EA was positively associated with stress-induced changes in connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus. Moreover, hierarchical linear regression showed that this positive association between EA and stress-induced amygdala-hippocampal connectivity was moderated after the administration of intranasal OXT. Amygdala-hippocampal connectivity in the OXT session correlated negatively with cortisol stress responses. Our findings suggest that altered amygdala-hippocampal functional connectivity during psychosocial stress may have a crucial role in the altered sensitivity to OXT effects in individuals who have experienced EA in their childhood.

  4. Amygdala-Hippocampal Connectivity Changes During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Joint Effect of Early Life Stress and Oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yan; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Pruessner, Jens C; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Previous evidence shows that acute stress changes both amygdala activity and its connectivity with a distributed brain network. Early life stress (ELS), especially emotional abuse (EA), is associated with altered reactivity to psychosocial stress in adulthood and moderates or even reverses the stress-attenuating effect of oxytocin (OXT). The neural underpinnings of the interaction between ELS and OXT remain unclear, though. Therefore, we here investigate the joint effect of ELS and OXT on transient changes in amygdala-centered functional connectivity induced by acute psychosocial stress, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design. Psychophysiological interaction analysis in the placebo session revealed stress-induced increases in functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, putamen, caudate and thalamus. Regression analysis showed that EA was positively associated with stress-induced changes in connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus. Moreover, hierarchical linear regression showed that this positive association between EA and stress-induced amygdala-hippocampal connectivity was moderated after the administration of intranasal OXT. Amygdala-hippocampal connectivity in the OXT session correlated negatively with cortisol stress responses. Our findings suggest that altered amygdala-hippocampal functional connectivity during psychosocial stress may have a crucial role in the altered sensitivity to OXT effects in individuals who have experienced EA in their childhood. PMID:25924202

  5. Extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields disrupt rhythmic slow activity in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Bawin, S M; Satmary, W M; Jones, R A; Adey, W R; Zimmerman, G

    1996-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that weak, extremely-low-frequency (ELF; 1-100 Hz) magnetic fields affect brain electrical activity and memory processes in man and laboratory animals. Our studies sought to determine whether ELF magnetic fields could couple directly with brain tissue and affect neuronal activity in vitro. We used rat hippocampal slices to study field effects on a specific brain activity known as rhythmic slow activity (RSA), or theta rhythm, which occurs in 7-15 s bursts in the hippocampus during memory functions. RSA, which, in vivo, is a cholinergic activity, is induced in hippocampal slices by perfusion of the tissue with carbachol, a stable analog of acetylcholine. We previously demonstrated that the free radical nitric oxide (NO), synthesized in carbachol-treated hippocampal slices, lengthened and destabilized the intervals between successive RSA episodes. Here, we investigate the possibility that sinusoidal ELF magnetic fields could trigger the NO-dependent perturbation of the rate of occurrence of the RSA episodes. Carbachol-treated slices were exposed for 10 min epochs to 1 or 60 Hz magnetic fields with field intensities of 5.6, 56, or 560 microT (rms), or they were sham exposed. All exposures took place in the presence of an ambient DC field of 45 microT, with an angle of -66 degrees from the horizontal plane. Sinusoidal 1 Hz fields at 56 and 560 microT, but not at 5.6 microT, triggered the irreversible destabilization of RSA intervals. Fields at 60 Hz resulted in similar, but not statistically significant, trends. Fields had no effects on RSA when NO synthesis was pharmacologically inhibited. However, field effects could take place when extracellular NO, diffusing from its cell of origin to the extracellular space,was chelated by hemoglobin. These results suggest that ELF magnetic fields exert a strong influence on NO systems in the brain; therefore, they could modulate the functional state of a variety of neuronal ensembles. PMID:8915548

  6. Developmental effects of wheel running on hippocampal glutamate receptor expression in young and mature adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Miranda C.; Somkuwar, Sucharita S.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the behavioral benefits associated with voluntary wheel running in rodents may be due to modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in learning and memory. However, the expression of the n-Methyl-d-Aspartate glutamate receptor subunits (GluNs) in the hippocampus in response to chronic sustained voluntary wheel running has not yet been investigated. Further, the developmental effects during young and mature adulthood on wheel running output and GluN expression in hippocampal subregions has not been determined, and therefore is the main focus of this investigation. Eight-week-old and sixteen-week-old male Wistar rats were housed in home cages with free access to running wheels and running output was monitored for four weeks. Wheel access was terminated and tissue from the dorsal and ventral hippocampi were processed for Western blot analysis of GluN subunit expression. Young adult runners demonstrated an escalation in running output but this behavior was not evident in mature adult runners. In parallel, young adult runners demonstrated a significant increase in total GluN (1 and 2A) subunit expression in the dorsal hippocampus, and an opposing effect in the ventral hippocampus compared to age-matched sedentary controls; these changes in total protein expression were not associated with significant alterations in the phosphorylation of the GluN subunits. In contrast, mature adult runners demonstrated a reduction in total GluN2A expression in the dorsal hippocampus, without producing alterations in the ventral hippocampus compared to age-matched sedentary controls. In conclusion, differential running activity-mediated modulation of GluN subunit expression in the hippocampal subregions was revealed to be associated with developmental effects on running activity, which may contribute to altered hippocampal synaptic activity and behavioral outcomes in young and mature adult subjects. PMID:26220171

  7. Novel Nuclear Protein Complexes of Dystrophin 71 Isoforms in Rat Cultured Hippocampal GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Alemán, Víctor; Osorio, Beatriz; Chávez-González, Oscar; Rendon, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The precise functional role of the dystrophin 71 in neurons is still elusive. Previously, we reported that dystrophin 71d and dystrophin 71f are present in nuclei from cultured neurons. In the present work, we performed a detailed analysis of the intranuclear distribution of dystrophin 71 isoforms (Dp71d and Dp71f), during the temporal course of 7-day postnatal rats hippocampal neurons culture for 1h, 2, 4, 10, 15 and 21 days in vitro (DIV). By immunofluorescence assays, we detected the highest level of nuclear expression of both dystrophin Dp71 isoforms at 10 DIV, during the temporal course of primary culture. Dp71d and Dp71f were detected mainly in bipolar GABAergic (≥60%) and multipolar Glutamatergic (≤40%) neurons, respectively. We also characterized the existence of two nuclear dystrophin-associated protein complexes (DAPC): dystrophin 71d or dystrophin 71f bound to β-dystroglycan, α1-, β-, α2-dystrobrevins, α-syntrophin, and syntrophin-associated protein nNOS (Dp71d-DAPC or Dp71f-DAPC, respectively), in the hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, both complexes were localized in interchromatin granule cluster structures (nuclear speckles) of neuronal nucleoskeleton preparations. The present study evinces that each Dp71’s complexes differ slightly in dystrobrevins composition. The results demonstrated that Dp71d-DAPC was mainly localized in bipolar GABAergic and Dp71f-DAPC in multipolar Glutamatergic hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our results show that dystrophin 71d, dystrophin 71f and DAP integrate protein complexes, and both complexes were associated to nuclear speckles structures. PMID:26378780

  8. Developmental effects of wheel running on hippocampal glutamate receptor expression in young and mature adult rats.

    PubMed

    Staples, M C; Somkuwar, S S; Mandyam, C D

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the behavioral benefits associated with voluntary wheel running in rodents may be due to modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in learning and memory. However, the expression of the glutamatergic ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (GluN) in the hippocampus in response to chronic sustained voluntary wheel running has not yet been investigated. Further, the developmental effects during young and mature adulthood on wheel running output and GluN expression in hippocampal subregions has not been determined, and therefore is the main focus of this investigation. Eight-week-old and 16-week-old male Wistar rats were housed in home cages with free access to running wheels and running output was monitored for 4weeks. Wheel access was terminated and tissues from the dorsal and ventral hippocampi were processed for Western blot analysis of GluN subunit expression. Young adult runners demonstrated an escalation in running output but this behavior was not evident in mature adult runners. In parallel, young adult runners demonstrated a significant increase in total GluN (1 and 2A) subunit expression in the dorsal hippocampus (DH), and an opposing effect in the ventral hippocampus (VH) compared to age-matched sedentary controls; these changes in total protein expression were not associated with significant alterations in the phosphorylation of the GluN subunits. In contrast, mature adult runners demonstrated a reduction in total GluN2A expression in the DH, without producing alterations in the VH compared to age-matched sedentary controls. In conclusion, differential running activity-mediated modulation of GluN subunit expression in the hippocampal subregions was revealed to be associated with developmental effects on running activity, which may contribute to altered hippocampal synaptic activity and behavioral outcomes in young and mature adult subjects.

  9. Ultrastructural localization of extranuclear progestin receptors in the rat hippocampal formation

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Elizabeth M.; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; McEwen, Bruce S.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Progesterone’s effects on hippocampal dependent behavior and synaptic connectivity maybe mediated through the progestin receptor (PR). Although estrogen induces PR mRNA and cytosolic PR in the hippocampus, nuclear PR immunoreactivity is undetectable by light microscopy, suggesting that PR is present at extranuclear sites. To determine whether this is the case, we used immunoelectron microscopy to examine PR distribution in the hippocampal formation of proestrus rats. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that PR labeling is present in extranuclear profiles throughout the CA1 and CA3 regions and dentate gyrus, and, in contrast to light microscopic findings, in nuclei of a few pyramidal and subgranular zone cells. Most neuronal PR labeling is extranuclear and is divided between pre- and post-synaptic compartments; approximately 30% of labeled profiles were axon terminals and 30% were dendrites and dendritic spines. In most laminae, except in CA3 stratum lucidum, about 15% of PR-immunoreactive profiles were unmyelinated axons. In stratum lucidum, where the mossy fiber axons course, more than 50% of PR labeled profiles were axonal. The remaining 25% of PR labeled profiles were glia, some resembling astrocytes. PR labeling is strongly dependent on estrogen priming as few PR labeled profiles were detected in ovariectomized, oil-replaced females. Synapses formed by PR-labeled terminals were predominantly asymmetric, consistent with a role for progesterone in directly regulating excitatory transmission. These findings suggest that some of progesterone’s actions in the hippocampal formation may be mediated by direct and rapid actions on extranuclear PRs and that PRs are well positioned to regulate progesterone-induced changes at synapses. PMID:18720413

  10. Atorvastatin enhances kainate-induced gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengzhang; Wang, Jiangang; Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Yali; Liu, Zhihua; Guo, Fang Li; Wang, Xiao Fang; Vreugdenhil, Martin; Lu, Cheng Biao

    2016-09-01

    Atorvastatin has been shown to affect cognitive functions in rodents and humans. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Because hippocampal gamma oscillations (γ, 20-80 Hz) are associated with cognitive functions, we studied the effect of atorvastatin on persistent kainate-induced γ oscillation in the CA3 area of rat hippocampal slices. The involvement of NMDA receptors and multiple kinases was tested before and after administration of atorvastatin. Whole-cell current-clamp and voltage-clamp recordings were made from CA3 pyramidal neurons and interneurons before and after atorvastatin application. Atorvastatin increased γ power by ~ 50% in a concentration-dependent manner, without affecting dominant frequency. Whereas atorvastatin did not affect intrinsic properties of both pyramidal neurons and interneurons, it increased the firing frequency of interneurons but not that of pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, whereas atorvastatin did not affect synaptic current amplitude, it increased the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents, but did not affect the frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents. The atorvastatin-induced enhancement of γ oscillations was prevented by pretreatment with the PKA inhibitor H89, the ERK inhibitor U0126, or the PI3K inhibitor wortmanin, but not by the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5. Taken together, these results demonstrate that atorvastatin enhanced the kainate-induced γ oscillation by increasing interneuron excitability, with an involvement of multiple intracellular kinase pathways. Our study suggests that the classical cholesterol-lowering agent atorvastatin may improve cognitive functions compromised in disease, via the enhancement of hippocampal γ oscillations. PMID:27336700

  11. Novel Nuclear Protein Complexes of Dystrophin 71 Isoforms in Rat Cultured Hippocampal GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rafael; Cárdenas-Aguayo, María Del Carmen; Alemán, Víctor; Osorio, Beatriz; Chávez-González, Oscar; Rendon, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila; Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The precise functional role of the dystrophin 71 in neurons is still elusive. Previously, we reported that dystrophin 71d and dystrophin 71f are present in nuclei from cultured neurons. In the present work, we performed a detailed analysis of the intranuclear distribution of dystrophin 71 isoforms (Dp71d and Dp71f), during the temporal course of 7-day postnatal rats hippocampal neurons culture for 1h, 2, 4, 10, 15 and 21 days in vitro (DIV). By immunofluorescence assays, we detected the highest level of nuclear expression of both dystrophin Dp71 isoforms at 10 DIV, during the temporal course of primary culture. Dp71d and Dp71f were detected mainly in bipolar GABAergic (≥60%) and multipolar Glutamatergic (≤40%) neurons, respectively. We also characterized the existence of two nuclear dystrophin-associated protein complexes (DAPC): dystrophin 71d or dystrophin 71f bound to β-dystroglycan, α1-, β-, α2-dystrobrevins, α-syntrophin, and syntrophin-associated protein nNOS (Dp71d-DAPC or Dp71f-DAPC, respectively), in the hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, both complexes were localized in interchromatin granule cluster structures (nuclear speckles) of neuronal nucleoskeleton preparations. The present study evinces that each Dp71's complexes differ slightly in dystrobrevins composition. The results demonstrated that Dp71d-DAPC was mainly localized in bipolar GABAergic and Dp71f-DAPC in multipolar Glutamatergic hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our results show that dystrophin 71d, dystrophin 71f and DAP integrate protein complexes, and both complexes were associated to nuclear speckles structures.

  12. ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECTS OF LOW KETAMINE DOSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED HIPPOCAMPAL AMPA/NMDA RECEPTOR DENSITY RATIO IN FEMALE WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    PubMed Central

    Tizabi, Yousef; Bhatti, Babur H; Manaye, Kebreten F; Das, Jharna R; Akinfiresoye, Luli

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical as well as limited clinical studies indicate that ketamine, a non-competitive glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, may exert a quick and prolonged antidepressant effect. It has been postulated that ketamine action is due to inhibition of NMDA and stimulation of AMPA receptors. Here, we sought to determine whether ketamine would exert antidepressant effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a putative animal model of depression and whether this effect would be associated with changes in AMPA/NMDA receptor densities in the hippocampus. Adult female WKY rats and their control Wistar rats were subjected to acute and chronic ketamine doses and their locomotor activity (LMA) and immobility in the forced swim test (FST) were evaluated. Hippocampal AMPA and NMDA receptor densities were also measured following a chronic ketamine dose. Ketamine, both acutely (0.5–5.0 mg/kg ip) and chronically (0.5–2.5 mg/kg daily for 10 days) resulted in a dose-dependent and prolonged decrease in immobility in the FST in WKY rats only, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect in this model. Chronic treatment with an effective dose of ketamine also resulted in an increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density ratio in the hippocampus of WKY rats. LMA was not affected by any ketamine treatment in either strain. These results indicate a rapid and lasting antidepressant-like effect of a low ketamine dose in WKY rat model of depression. Moreover, the increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density in hippocampus could be a contributory factor to behavioral effects of ketamine. These findings suggest potential therapeutic benefit in simultaneous reduction of central NMDA and elevation of AMPA receptor function in treatment of depression. PMID:22521815

  13. Apoptosis of Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons Is Virus Independent in a Mouse Model of Acute Neurovirulent Picornavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Buenz, Eric J.; Sauer, Brian M.; LaFrance-Corey, Reghann G.; Deb, Chandra; Denic, Aleksandar; German, Christopher L.; Howe, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Many viruses, including picornaviruses, have the potential to infect the central nervous system (CNS) and stimulate a neuroinflammatory immune response, especially in infants and young children. Cognitive deficits associated with CNS picornavirus infection result from injury and death of neurons that may occur due to direct viral infection or during the immune responses to virus in the brain. Previous studies have concluded that apoptosis of hippocampal neurons during picornavirus infection is a cell-autonomous event triggered by direct neuronal infection. However, these studies assessed neuron death at time points late in infection and during infections that lead to either death of the host or persistent viral infection. In contrast, many neurovirulent picornavirus infections are acute and transient, with rapid clearance of virus from the host. We provide evidence of hippocampal pathology in mice acutely infected with the Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis picornavirus. We found that CA1 pyramidal neurons exhibited several hallmarks of apoptotic death, including caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and chromatin condensation within 72 hours of infection. Critically, we also found that many of the CA1 pyramidal neurons undergoing apoptosis were not infected with virus, indicating that neuronal cell death during acute picornavirus infection of the CNS occurs in a non–cell-autonomous manner. These observations suggest that therapeutic strategies other than antiviral interventions may be useful for neuroprotection during acute CNS picornavirus infection. PMID:19608874

  14. Apoptosis of hippocampal pyramidal neurons is virus independent in a mouse model of acute neurovirulent picornavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Buenz, Eric J; Sauer, Brian M; Lafrance-Corey, Reghann G; Deb, Chandra; Denic, Aleksandar; German, Christopher L; Howe, Charles L

    2009-08-01

    Many viruses, including picornaviruses, have the potential to infect the central nervous system (CNS) and stimulate a neuroinflammatory immune response, especially in infants and young children. Cognitive deficits associated with CNS picornavirus infection result from injury and death of neurons that may occur due to direct viral infection or during the immune responses to virus in the brain. Previous studies have concluded that apoptosis of hippocampal neurons during picornavirus infection is a cell-autonomous event triggered by direct neuronal infection. However, these studies assessed neuron death at time points late in infection and during infections that lead to either death of the host or persistent viral infection. In contrast, many neurovirulent picornavirus infections are acute and transient, with rapid clearance of virus from the host. We provide evidence of hippocampal pathology in mice acutely infected with the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis picornavirus. We found that CA1 pyramidal neurons exhibited several hallmarks of apoptotic death, including caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and chromatin condensation within 72 hours of infection. Critically, we also found that many of the CA1 pyramidal neurons undergoing apoptosis were not infected with virus, indicating that neuronal cell death during acute picornavirus infection of the CNS occurs in a non-cell-autonomous manner. These observations suggest that therapeutic strategies other than antiviral interventions may be useful for neuroprotection during acute CNS picornavirus infection. PMID:19608874

  15. The longitudinal study of rat hippocampus influenced by stress: early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fengkui; Li, Lei; Shi, Mei; Li, Zhenzi; Zhou, Jinghua; Chen, Li

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that early adverse experience is related to learning disabilities in adults, but the neurobiological mechanisms have not yet been identified. We used longitudinal animal experiments to test the hypothesis that early life stress enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats. The expression of Synaptophysin (SYN) and apoptosis (Apo) in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions were examined to evaluate the effects of environmental factors on the hippocampus. The working memory errors via radial 8-arm maze were studied to evaluate the long-term effect of early stress on rats' spatial learning ability. Our results indicated that chronic restraint stress in early life and forced cold water swimming stress in adulthood reduced SYN expression and increased Apo levels in rat hippocampus, but the hippocampal damage tended to recover when rats returned to a non-stress environment. In addition, when the rats were exposed to forced cold water swimming stress during adulthood, SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and Apo levels (CA3 region) in rat hippocampus showed statistical difference between early restraint stress group and non-early restraint stress group (rats exposed to stress in adulthood only). One month after the two groups of rats returned to non-stress environment, this difference of SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and working memory deficit between the two groups was still statistically significant. Our study findings suggested that early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats, and reduces structural plasticity of hippocampus.

  16. In Vitro Manganese Exposure Disrupts MAPK Signaling Pathways in Striatal and Hippocampal Slices from Immature Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Tanara Vieira; Pedro, Daniela Zótico; de Cordova, Fabiano Mendes; Lopes, Mark William; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Mendes-de-Aguiar, Cláudia Beatriz Nedel; Walz, Roger; Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms mediating manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity, particularly in the immature central nervous system, have yet to be completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) could represent potential targets of Mn in striatal and hippocampal slices obtained from immature rats (14 days old). The aim of this study was to evaluate if the MAPK pathways are modulated after subtoxic Mn exposure, which do not significantly affect cell viability. The concentrations of manganese chloride (MnCl2; 10–1,000 μM) caused no change in cell viability in slices exposed for 3 or 6 hours. However, Mn exposure significantly increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2/3 phosphorylation at both 3 and 6 hours incubations, in both brain structures. Furthermore, Mn exposure did not change the total content or phosphorylation of TH at the serine 40 site in striatal slices. Thus, Mn at concentrations that do not disrupt cell viability causes activation of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3) in immature hippocampal and striatal slices. These findings suggest that altered intracellular MAPKs signaling pathways may represent an early event concerning the effects of Mn in the immature brain. PMID:24324973

  17. Distinct hippocampal time cell sequences represent odor memories in immobilized rats.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Christopher J; Carrow, Stephen; Place, Ryan; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have revealed the existence of hippocampal "time cells," principal neurons in CA1 that fire at specific moments in temporally organized experiences. However, in all these studies, animals were in motion; and so, temporal modulation might be due, at least in part, to concurrent or planned movement through space or self-generated movement (path integration). Here the activity of hippocampal CA1 neurons was recorded in head-fixed and immobile rats while they remembered odor stimuli across a delay period. Many neurons selectively and reliably activated at brief moments during the delay, as confirmed by several analyses of temporal modulation, during a strong ongoing θ rhythm. Furthermore, each odor memory was represented by a temporally organized ensemble of time cells composed mostly of neurons that were unique to each memory and some that fired at the same or different moments among multiple memories. These results indicate that ongoing or intended movement through space is not necessary for temporal representations in the hippocampus, and highlight the potential role of time cells as a mechanism for representing the flow of time in distinct memories.

  18. Benzodiazepine receptors in the rat hippocampal formation: action of catecholaminergic, serotoninergic and commissural denervation.

    PubMed

    Novas, M L; Medina, J H; De Robertis, E

    1983-03-01

    The problem of benzodiazepine receptor localization in the rat hippocampal formation has been approached using several methods of selective deafferentation, followed by [3H]flunitrazepam binding studies. The intraventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine reduced, after 14 days, the norepinephrine content of the hippocampal formation by 68.4%, and decreased the number of binding sites by 32%, without change in affinity. The intraventricular injection of 5,6 dihydroxytryptamine reduced the serotonin content by 61.5% but did not alter the [3H]flunitrazepam binding. The intraventricular bilateral injection of 0.5 micrograms kainic acid selectively destroyed the pyramidal neurons in area CA3 of both hippocampi and produced an increase of 28% in [3H]flunitrazepam binding, without change in affinity. These results are discussed in relation to our previous observations about benzodiazepine receptor changes after fimbria-fornix transection. The reduction in [3H]flunitrazepam binding after administration of 6-hydroxydopamine suggests the possible localization of the benzodiazepine receptors on adrenergic presynaptic terminals. The increase in binding sites after destruction of CA3 pyramidal cells, which are the site of origin of commissural fibers, is tentatively interpreted as resulting from the sprouting of mossy fibers that replace the associational-commissural projections.

  19. Circadian rhythm modulates long-term potentiation induced at CA1 in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Natsume, Kiyohisa

    2014-03-01

    Circadian rhythm affects neuronal plasticity. Consistent with this, some forms of synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) are modulated by the light/dark cycle (LD cycle). For example, this type of modulation is observed in hippocampal slices. In rodents, which are nocturnal, LTP is usually facilitated in the dark phase, but the rat hippocampal CA1 is an exception. The reason why LTP in the dark phase is suppressed in CA1 remains unknown. Previously, LTP was induced with high-frequency stimulation. In this study, we found that in the dark phase, theta-burst stimulation-induced LTP is indeed facilitated in CA1, similar to other regions in the rodent brain. Population excitatory postsynaptic potentials (pEPSP)-LTP and population spikes (PS)-LTP were recorded at CA1. The magnitude of PS-LTP in dark-phase slices was significantly larger than in light-phase slices, while that of pEPSP-LTP was unchanged. Using antidromic-orthodromic stimulation, we found that recurrent inhibition is suppressed in the dark phase. Local gabazine-application to stratum pyramidale in light-phase slices mimicked this disinhibition and facilitated LTP in dark-phase slices. These results suggest that the disinhibition of a GABAA recurrent inhibitory network can be induced in the dark phase, thereby facilitating LTP.

  20. Medial septal modulation of the ascending brainstem hippocampal synchronizing pathways in the freely moving rat.

    PubMed

    Bland, Brian H; Bird, Jen; Jackson, Jesse; Natsume, Kiyohisa

    2006-01-01

    Rats implanted with hippocampal recording electrodes were tested in a wheel-running apparatus under three conditions: (1) independent electrical stimulation of the medial septal nucleus (MS); (2) independent electrical stimulation of the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PH); and (3) combined electrical stimulation of the MS and PH using pairings of two stimulation conditions, 7 or 10 Hz stimulation of the MS, and a low- or high-intensity PH stimulation. Quantitative measures of running speed were taken, and hippocampal recordings were subjected to fast-Fourier transform analysis. Electrical stimulation of the PH induced wheel-running behavior; running speed and the accompanying hippocampus (HPC) theta frequency increased with increase in stimulation intensity. Electrical stimulation of the MS failed to induce wheel-running behavior despite the fact that HPC theta was induced at the frequency of the applied stimulation (7 and 10 Hz). Electrical stimulation of the MS reset the frequency of HPC theta induced by PH stimulation in both the upward and downward directions and increased theta power, while wheel-running speed was modulated in a downward direction only.

  1. Postischemic Anhedonia Associated with Neurodegenerative Changes in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Jiro; Uchida, Hiroto; Tezuka, Kenta; Oka, Nanae

    2016-01-01

    Poststroke depression is one of the major symptoms observed in the chronic stage of brain stroke such as cerebral ischemia. Its pathophysiological mechanisms, however, are not well understood. Using the transient right middle cerebral artery occlusion- (MCAO-, 90 min) operated rats as an ischemia model in this study, we first observed that aggravation of anhedonia spontaneously occurred especially after 20 weeks of MCAO, and it was prevented by chronic antidepressants treatment (imipramine or fluvoxamine). The anhedonia specifically associated with loss of the granular neurons in the ipsilateral side of hippocampal dentate gyrus and was also prevented by an antidepressant imipramine. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased apoptosis inside the granular cell layer prior to and associated with the neuronal loss, and imipramine seemed to recover the survival signal rather than suppressing the death signal to prevent neurons from apoptosis. Proliferation and development of the neural stem cells were increased transiently in the subgranular zone of both ipsi- and contralateral hippocampus within one week after MCAO and then decreased and almost ceased after 6 weeks of MCAO, while chronic imipramine treatment prevented them partially. Overall, our study suggests new insights for the mechanistic correlation between poststroke depression and the delayed neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus with effective use of antidepressants on them. PMID:27057366

  2. Input-to-output transformation in a model of the rat hippocampal CA1 network.

    PubMed

    Olypher, Andrey V; Lytton, William W; Prinz, Astrid A

    2012-01-01

    Here we use computational modeling to gain new insights into the transformation of inputs in hippocampal field CA1. We considered input-output transformation in CA1 principal cells of the rat hippocampus, with activity synchronized by population gamma oscillations. Prior experiments have shown that such synchronization is especially strong for cells within one millimeter of each other. We therefore simulated a one-millimeter ıt patch of CA1 with 23,500 principal cells. We used morphologically and biophysically detailed neuronal models, each with more than 1000 compartments and thousands of synaptic inputs. Inputs came from binary patterns of spiking neurons from field CA3 and entorhinal cortex (EC). On average, each presynaptic pattern initiated action potentials in the same number of CA1 principal cells in the patch. We considered pairs of similar and pairs of distinct patterns. In all the cases CA1 strongly separated input patterns. However, CA1 cells were considerably more sensitive to small alterations in EC patterns compared to CA3 patterns. Our results can be used for comparison of input-to-output transformations in normal and pathological hippocampal networks.

  3. Effects of chronic cocaine administration on spatial learning and hippocampal spine density in two genetically different strains of rats.

    PubMed

    Fole, Alberto; González-Martín, Carmen; Huarte, Carla; Alguacil, Luis Fernando; Ambrosio, Emilio; Del Olmo, Nuria

    2011-05-01

    Lewis and Fischer-344 rats have been proposed as an addiction model because of their differences in addiction behaviour. It has been suggested that drug addiction is related to learning and memory processes and depends on individual genetic background. We have evaluated learning performance using the eight-arm radial maze (RAM) in Lewis and Fischer-344 adult rats undergoing a chronic treatment with cocaine. In order to study whether morphological alterations were involved in the possible changes in learning after chronic cocaine treatment, we counted the spine density in hippocampal CA1 neurons from animals after the RAM protocol. Our results showed that Fischer-344 rats significantly took more time to carry out test acquisition and made a greater number of errors than Lewis animals. Nevertheless, cocaine treatment did not induce changes in learning and memory processes in both strains of rats. These facts indicate that there are genetic differences in spatial learning and memory that are not modified by the chronic treatment with cocaine. Moreover, hippocampal spine density is cocaine-modulated in both strains of rats. In conclusion, cocaine induces similar changes in hippocampal neurons morphology that are not related to genetic differences in spatial learning in the RAM protocol used here.

  4. Enriched Environment Altered Aberrant Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Improved Long-Term Consequences After Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Liu, Tingting; Zhou, Zhike; Mu, Xiaopeng; Song, Chengguang; Xiao, Ting; Zhao, Mei; Zhao, Chuansheng

    2015-06-01

    Abnormal hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to contribute to cognitive impairments in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its specific receptor CXCR4 play important roles in neurogenesis. We investigated whether enriched environment (EE) might be beneficial for TLE. Adult rats were randomly assigned as control rats, rats subjected to status epilepticus (SE), or post-SE rats treated with EE for 30 days. We used immunofluorescence staining to analyze the hippocampal neurogenesis and Nissl staining to evaluate hippocampal damage. Electroencephalography was used to measure the duration of spontaneous seizures. Cognitive function was evaluated by Morris water maze. Western blot was used to measure the expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in the hippocampus. In the present study, we found the TLE model resulted in aberrant neurogenesis such as reduced proliferation, intensified dendritic development of newborn neurons, as well as spontaneous seizures and cognitive impairments. More importantly, EE treatment significantly increased the cell proliferation and survival, extended the apical dendrites, and delayed the attenuation of the expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4, accompanied by decreased long-term seizure activity and improved cognitive impairments in adult rats after TLE. These results provided morphological evidence that EE might be beneficial for treating TLE. PMID:25946980

  5. Ginsenoside Rb1 improves spatial learning and memory by regulation of cell genesis in the hippocampal subregions of rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Hoang-Gia, Trinh; Wu, Hui; Lee, Mi-Ra; Gu, Lijuan; Wang, Chunyan; Yun, Beom-Sik; Wang, Qijun; Ye, Shengquan; Sung, Chang-Keun

    2011-03-25

    Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) is known to improve learning and memory in hippocampus-dependent tasks. However, the cellular mechanism remains unknown. Cell genesis in hippocampus is involved in spatial learning and memory. In the present study, Rb1 was orally administrated to adult rats for 30days. The behavioral training tests indicated that Rb1 improved spatial cognitive performance of rats in Morris water maze (MWM). Furthermore, we investigated the effects of Rb1 on cell genesis in adult rats' hippocampus, using thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a marker for dividing cells. It has been shown that hippocampal cell genesis can be influenced by several factors such as learning and exercise. In order to avoid the effects of the interfering factors, only the rats treated with Rb1 without training in MWM were used to investigate cell genesis in hippocampus. When BrdU was given to the rats 30days prior to being killed, it was shown that oral administration of Rb1 significantly increased cell survival in dentate gyrus and hippocampal subregion CA3. However, when BrdU was injected 2h prior to sacrifice, the results indicated that Rb1 had no significant influence on cell proliferation in the hippocampal subregions. Thus, an increase of cell survival in hippocampus stimulated by Rb1 may be one of the mechanisms by which ginseng facilitates spatial learning and memory. Our study also indicates that Rb1 may be developed as a therapeutic agent for patients with memory impairment.

  6. Acute nicotine treatment prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced learning and memory impairment in rat.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, A M; Helal, G; Alhaider, I A; Alzoubi, K H; Srivareerat, M; Tran, T T; Al-Rejaie, S S; Alkadhi, K A

    2011-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (SD) is implicated in impairment of spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). An increase in nicotine consumption among habitual smokers and initiation of tobacco use by nonsmokers was observed during SD. Although nicotine treatment was reported to attenuate the impairment of learning and memory and LTP associated with several mental disorders, the effect of nicotine on SD-induced learning and memory impairment has not been studied. Modified multiple platform paradigm was used to induce SD for 24 or 48 h during which rats were injected with saline or nicotine (1 mg kg(-1) s.c.) twice a day. In the radial arm water maze (RAWM) task, 24- or 48-h SD significantly impaired learning and short-term memory. In addition, extracellular recordings from CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus in urethane anesthetized rats showed a significant impairment of LTP after 24- and 48-h SD. Treatment of normal rats with nicotine for 24 or 48 h did not enhance spatial learning and memory or affect magnitude of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. However, concurrent, acute treatment of rats with nicotine significantly attenuated SD-induced impairment of learning and STM and prevented SD-induced impairment of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. These results show that acute nicotine treatment prevented the deleterious effect of sleep loss on cognitive abilities and synaptic plasticity.

  7. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats alters hippocampal neurogenesis and produces deficits in spatial location memory in adulthood.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Thomas, Catherine M; Sheridan, Cheryl S; Nixon, Feather; Flynn, Jennifer A; Mathews, Iva Z

    2012-06-01

    The ongoing development of the hippocampus in adolescence may be vulnerable to stressors. The effects of social instability stress (SS) in adolescence (daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partner postnatal days 30-45) on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adolescence (on days 33 and 46, experiment 1) and in adulthood (experiment 2) was examined in Long Evans male rats and compared to nonstressed controls (CTL). Additionally, in experiment 2, a separate group of SS and CTL rats was tested on either a spatial (hippocampal-dependent) or nonspatial (nonhippocampal dependent) version of an object memory test and also were used to investigate hippocampal expression of markers of synaptic plasticity. No memory impairment was evident until the SS rats were adults, and the impairment was only on the spatial test. SS rats initially (postnatal day 33) had increased cell proliferation based on counts of Ki67 immunoreactive (ir) cells and greater survival of immature neurons based on counts of doublecortin ir cells on day 46 and in adulthood, irrespective of behavioral testing. Counts of microglia in the DG did not differ by stress group, but behavioral testing was associated with reduced microglia counts compared to nontested rats. As adults, SS and CTL rats did not differ in hippocampal expression of synaptophysin, but compared to CTL rats, SS rats had higher expression of basal calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CamKII), and lower expression of the phosphorylated CamKII subunit threonine 286, signaling molecules related to synaptic plasticity. The results are contrasted with those from previous reports of chronic stress in adult rats, and we conclude that adolescent stress alters the ongoing development of the hippocampus leading to impaired spatial memory in adulthood, highlighting the heightened vulnerability to stressors in adolescence.

  8. Effect of Fluoxetine on Neurogenesis in Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus after Global Transient Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khodanovich, M Yu; Kisel', A A; Chernysheva, G A; Smol'yakova, V I; Savchenko, R R; Plotnikov, M B

    2016-07-01

    Changes in cerebral neurogenesis provoked by ischemia and the effect of fluoxetine on this process were studied using a three-vessel occlusion model of global transient cerebral ischemia. The global transient cerebral ischemia was modeled on male Wistar rats by transient occlusion of three major vessels originating from the aortic arch and supplying the brain (brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian artery, and left common carotid artery). The cells expressing doublecortin (DCX, a marker of young neurons) were counted in the hippocampal dentate gyrus on day 31 after ischemia modeling. It was found that ischemia inhibited neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in comparison with sham-operated controls (p<0.05), while fluoxetine (20 mg/kg/day) injected over 10 days after surgery restored neurogenesis to the control level (p<0.001). PMID:27496030

  9. Relationship of rectal & hippocampal temperature profiles to seizure activity in rats prone & resistant to hot water induced epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ullal, G R; Satishchandra, P; Shankar, S K; Dadlani, R; Arshi, I

    1998-12-01

    The present study evaluates the relationship of seizure proneness, to core body and brain temperature following hot water stimulation with water of 55 degrees C in freely ambulant rats. The rectal and hippocampal temperatures were recorded in 40 rats with bathing that included the head, while 10 other rats had similar thermal stimulation, but of the body alone. Bipolar stainless steel electrodes were stereotactically implanted into the dorsal hippocampal regions which served the dual purpose of recording the seizure discharges as well as regional brain temperature. It was observed that in the seizure prone (SP) rats, the mean rate of rise in rectal temperature was 1.5 degrees C/min, whereas in the seizure resistant (SR) animals it was 0.78 degree C/ min. However, there was no noticeable difference in the rate of rise in brain temperatures between the SP and SR groups, the rate of rise being 0.3 degree C/min. In the rats subjected to hot water bath over the body (excluding the head), there was no seizure activity. Further, there was no change in the brain temperature recorded in these rats, despite the rate of rise in rectal temperature being similar to that in the SP rats. These observations indicate that two thermoregulatory factors operate in seizure proneness-viz., a rapid rise in core body temperature; and a rise in local brain temperature. Both should coexist in order to elicit a hyperthermic seizure in rats.

  10. The HDAC Inhibitor Phenylbutyrate Reverses Effects of Neonatal Ventral Hippocampal Lesion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sandner, Guy; Host, Lionel; Angst, Marie-Josée; Guiberteau, Thierry; Guignard, Blandine; Zwiller, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms play a role in psychiatric diseases. In this study, we considered rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL) that are currently used for modeling neurodevelopmental aspects of schizophrenia. Contribution of epigenetic regulation to the effects of the lesion was investigated, using a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Lesioned or sham-operated rats were treated with the general HDAC inhibitor phenylbutyrate, which was injected daily from the day after surgery until adulthood. Changes in the volume of the lesion were monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Anxiety was analyzed in the Plus Maze Test. Hypersensitivity of the dopaminergic system was evaluated by measuring the locomotor response to apomorphine. An associative conditioning test rewarded with food was used to evaluate learning abilities. The volume of the lesions expanded long after surgery, independently of the treatment, as assessed by MRI. Removal of the ventral hippocampus reduced anxiety, and this remained unchanged when animals were treated with phenylbutyrate. In contrast, NVHL rats’ hypersensitivity to apomorphine and deterioration of the associative learning were reduced by the treatment. Global HDAC activity, which was increased in the prefrontal cortex of lesioned non-treated rats, was found to be reversed by HDAC inhibition. The study provides evidence that chromatin remodeling may be useful for limiting behavioral consequences due to lesioning of the ventral hippocampus at an early age. This represents a novel approach for treating disorders resulting from insults occurring during brain development. PMID:21423460

  11. Alterations of hippocampal place cells in foraging rats facing a "predatory" threat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Joo; Park, Mijeong; Kong, Mi-Seon; Park, Sang Geon; Cho, Jeiwon; Kim, Jeansok J

    2015-05-18

    Fear is an adaptive mechanism evolved to influence the primal decisions of foragers in "approach resource-avoid predator" conflicts. To survive and reproduce, animals must attain the basic needs (food, water, shelter, and mate) while avoiding the ultimate cost of predation. Consistent with this view, ecological studies have found that predatory threats cause animals to limit foraging to fewer places in their habitat and/or to restricted times. However, the neurophysiological basis through which animals alter their foraging boundaries when confronted with danger remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated place cells in the hippocampus, implicated in processing spatial information and memory, in male Long-Evans rats foraging for food under risky situations that would be common in nature. Specifically, place cells from dorsal cornu ammonis field 1 (CA1) were recorded while rats searched for food in a semi-naturalistic apparatus (consisting of a nest and a relatively large open area) before, during, and after encountering a "predatory" robot situated remotely from the nest. The looming robot induced remapping of place fields and increased the theta rhythm as the animals advanced toward the vicinity of threat, but not when they were around the safety of the nest. These neurophysiological effects on the hippocampus were prevented by lesioning of the amygdala. Based on these findings, we suggest that the amygdalar signaling of fear influences the stability of hippocampal place cells as a function of threat distance in rats foraging for food.

  12. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure increases depression-like behaviors and reduces hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Lung; Wang, Sabrina

    2014-02-01

    Major depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in the population. In addition to genetic influences, disturbances in fetal nervous system development might be a contributing factor. Maternal infection during pregnancy may affect fetal brain development and consequently lead to neurological and mental disorders. Previously, we used low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on embryonic day 10.5 to mimic mild maternal infection in rats and found that dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons were reduced in the offspring. The offspring also showed more anxiety-like behavior and an enhanced stress response. In the present study we used forced swim test and chronic mild stress challenge to assess depression-like behaviors in the affected offspring and examined their adult hippocampal neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration. Our results showed that prenatally LPS-exposed rats (LPS rats) displayed more depression-like behaviors and had reduced adult neurogenesis and BDNF. The behavioral abnormalities and reduction in adult neurogenesis could be reversed by chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. This study demonstrates that during the critical time of embryonic development LPS exposure can produce long-term behavioral changes and reduction in adult neurogenesis. The findings of enhanced depression-like behaviors, reduced adult neurogenesis, and their responsiveness to chronic antidepressant treatment suggest that prenatal LPS exposure could serve as an animal model of depression.

  13. Effects of Panax ginseng, Turnera diffusa and Heteropterys tomentosa extracts on hippocampal apoptosis of aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Andréia Gomes; Smaili, Soraya Soubhi; Lopes, Guiomar Silva; Carlini, Elisaldo Araújo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To verify if the medicinal plants Panax ginseng C.A. Mey, Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., and Heteropterys tomentosa O. Mach., which are amply used by the population as tonics and cognition enhancers, could have a protective effect on cell death by apoptosis, since this could be one of the mechanisms of action of these substances. Methods: Aged male Wistar rats (n=24) were divided into four groups. Over 30 days, three groups received treatments with hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants, and one group received saline solution. A fifth group with young adult male Wistar rats (n=4) received saline solution during the same period. Using the TUNEL technique, the percentage of apoptosis in the hippocampus of these animals was evaluated. Results: No differences were observed between the percentage of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus of aged animals and of young control animals. The percentage of apoptosis in the hippocampus of aged animals treated chronically with the extracts from the three plants also did not differ from the percentage of apoptosis in the hippocampus of the control group of aged animals. Conclusion: Treatment with the hydroalcoholic extracts of Panax ginseng, Turnera diffusa, and Heteropterys tomentosa did not influence the apoptosis of the hippocampal cells of aged rats. PMID:23843055

  14. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids pretreatment improves amyloid β-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Pallabi; Zaja, Ivan; Bienengraeber, Martin; Rarick, Kevin R; Terashvili, Maia; Canfield, Scott; Falck, John R; Harder, David R

    2014-02-15

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) has long been implicated as a causative protein in Alzheimer's disease. Cellular Aβ accumulation is toxic and causes mitochondrial dysfunction, which precedes clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease pathology. In the present study, we explored the possible use of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), epoxide metabolites of arachidonic acid, as therapeutic target against Aβ-induced mitochondrial impairment using cultured neonatal hippocampal astrocytes. Inhibition of endogenous EET production by a selective epoxygenase inhibitor, MS-PPOH, caused a greater reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential in the presence of Aβ (1, 10 μM) exposure versus absence of Aβ. MS-PPOH preincubation also aggravated Aβ-induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Preincubation of the cells with either 14,15- or 11,12-EET prevented this mitochondrial depolarization and fragmentation. EET pretreatment also further improved the reduction observed in mitochondrial oxygen consumption in the presence of Aβ. Preincubation of the cells with EETs significantly improved cellular respiration under basal condition and in the presence of the protonophore, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP). The uncoupling of ATP synthase from the electron transfer chain that occurred in Aβ-treated cells was also prevented by preincubation with EETs. Lastly, cellular reactive oxygen species production, a hallmark of Aβ toxicity, also showed significant reduction in the presence of EETs. We have previously shown that Aβ reduces EET synthesis in rat brain homogenates and cultured hippocampal astrocytes and neurons (Sarkar P, Narayanan J, Harder DR. Differential effect of amyloid beta on the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase activity in rat brain. Neuroscience 194: 241-249, 2011). We conclude that reduction of endogenous EETs may be one of the mechanisms through which Aβ inflicts toxicity and thus supplementing the cells with exogenous EETs improves mitochondrial dynamics and

  15. Caloric restriction in young rats disturbs hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Armando; Marrana, Francisco; Andrade, José P

    2016-09-01

    It is widely known that caloric restriction (CR) has benefits on several organic systems, including the central nervous system. However, the majority of the CR studies was performed in adult animals and the information about the consequences on young populations is limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of young-onset CR, started at 4weeks of age, in the number of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing neurons and in neurogenesis of the hippocampal formation, using doublecortin (DCX) and Ki67 as markers. Knowing that CR treatment could interfere with exploratory activity, anxiety, learning and memory we have analyzed the performance of the rats in the open-field, elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze tests. Animals aged 4weeks were randomly assigned to control or CR groups. Controls were maintained in the ad libitum regimen during 2months. The adolescent CR rats were fed, during 2months, with 60% of the amount of food consumed by controls. We have found that young-onset CR treatment did not affect the total number of NPY-immunopositive neurons in dentate hilus, CA3 and CA1 hippocampal subfields and did not change the exploratory activity and anxiety levels. Interestingly, we have found that young-onset CR might affect spatial learning process since those animals showed worse performance during the acquisition phase of Morris water maze. Furthermore, young-onset CR induced alterations of neurogenesis in the dentate subgranular layer that seems to underlie the impairment of spatial learning. Our data suggest that adolescent animals are vulnerable to CR treatment and that this diet is not suitable to be applied in this age phase. PMID:27432519

  16. Fetal iron deficiency alters the proteome of adult rat hippocampal synaptosomes

    PubMed Central

    Dakoji, Srikanth; Reise, Kathryn H.; Storey, Kathleen K.; Georgieff, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal iron deficiency results in cognitive impairments in adulthood despite prompt postnatal iron replenishment. To systematically determine whether abnormal expression and localization of proteins that regulate adult synaptic efficacy are involved, we used a quantitative proteomic approach (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation, iTRAQ) and pathway analysis to identify dysregulated proteins in hippocampal synapses of fetal iron deficiency model. Rat pups were made iron deficient (ID) from gestational day 2 through postnatal day (P) 7 by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (4 ppm Fe) after which they were rescued with an iron-sufficient diet (200 ppm Fe). This paradigm resulted in a 40% loss of brain iron at P15 with complete recovery by P56. Synaptosomes were prepared from hippocampi of the formerly iron-deficient (FID) and always iron-sufficient controls rats at P65 using a sucrose gradient method. Six replicates per group that underwent iTRAQ labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis for protein identification and comparison elucidated 331 differentially expressed proteins. Western analysis was used to confirm findings for selected proteins in the glutamate receptor signaling pathway, which regulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity, a cellular process critical for learning and memory. Bioinformatics were performed using knowledge-based Interactive Pathway Analysis. FID synaptosomes show altered expression of synaptic proteins-mediated cellular signalings, supporting persistent impacts of fetal iron deficiency on synaptic efficacy, which likely cause the cognitive dysfunction and neurobehavioral abnormalities. Importantly, the findings uncover previously unsuspected pathways, including neuronal nitric oxide synthase signaling, identifying additional mechanisms that may contribute to the long-term biobehavioral deficits. PMID:24089371

  17. Cellular mechanisms of 4-aminopyridine-induced synchronized after-discharges in the rat hippocampal slice.

    PubMed Central

    Traub, R D; Colling, S B; Jefferys, J G

    1995-01-01

    1. We constructed a model of the in vitro rodent CA3 region with 128 pyramidal neurones and twenty-four inhibitory neurones. The model was used to analyse synchronized firing induced in the rat hippocampal slice by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a problem simultaneously studied in experiments in rat hippocampal slices. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were blocked. 2. Consistent with a known action of 4-AP, unitary EPSCs were assumed to be large and prolonged. With augmented EPSCs, spontaneous synchronized bursts occurred in the model if random ectopic axonal spikes were present. We observed probable antidromic spikes and miniature spikes experimentally. 3. Consistent with experiment, model synchronized bursts were preceded by a period of about 100 ms of increased unit activity and cell depolarization. In the model, this was caused in part by EPSPs consequent to ectopic axonal spikes. 4. After widespread firing had begun, full-blown synchrony in the model required orthodromic EPSPs. A single synchronized burst, once initiated, could proceed without further ectopic activity. 5. A depolarizing change in reversal potential for dendritic GABAA favoured the occurrence of synchronized after-discharges in the model. Consistent with this, bicuculline was found to block after-discharges in slices bathed in 4-AP (70 microM) during NMDA blockade. 6. These data indicate that, even with synaptic inhibition present, ectopic spikes can 'set the stage' for synchronized activity by depolarizing pyramidal cell dendrites, but that recurrent orthodromic EPSPs are required for expression of this synchrony. When synaptic inhibition is present, EPSCs may need to be larger than usual for synchrony to take place. Secondary bursts in 4-AP appear to be driven in part by a depolarizing GABAA-mediated current. PMID:8583397

  18. Misoprostol Reverse Hippocampal Neuron Cyclooxygenase-2 Downstream Signaling Imbalance in Aluminum-Overload Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuanxin; Lei, Wenjuan; Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Xinyue; Wei, Yuling; Ji, Chaonan; Yang, Junqing

    2016-01-01

    Although COX-2 inhibition in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases has shown neuroprotection, recent studies have revealed some serious side effects (ulcers, bleeding, fatal cerebrovascular diseases etc.) and the limited benefits of COX-2 inhibitors. A more focused approach is necessary to explore the therapeutic effect of the COX downstream signaling pathway in neurological research. The aim of this study was to explore the alterations of the PGES-PGE2-EP signal pathway and the effect of misoprostol on neurodegeneration by chronic aluminum-overload in rats. Adult rats were treated by intragastric administration of aluminum gluconate. The PGE2 content and expression of PGES and EPs in the hippocampi of rats were detected using ELISA, q-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the rat hippocampi were also detected. The misoprostol treatment dose-dependently improved spatial learning and memory function as well as healing after hippocampal neuron damage induced by chronic aluminum-overload in rats. Meanwhile, the administration of misoprostol resulted in a decrease in the PGE2 level and down-regulation of the mPGES-1, EP2 and EP4 expression levels, while there was a dose-dependent up-regulation of EP3 expression. These results suggest that misoprostol possesses a neuroprotective property, and the mechanism involves affecting the EP3 level and reducing the endogenous production of PGE2 through a negative feedback mechanism, increasing the EP3 expression level, decreasing the EP2 and EP4 expression levels, and rebuilding the mPGES-1-PGE2-EP1-4 signal pathway balance. In this way, misoprostol has a counteractive effect on oxidant stress and inflammation in the central nervous system. The PGES-PGE2-EPs signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating neurodegeneration in patients. PMID:27033056

  19. Misoprostol Reverse Hippocampal Neuron Cyclooxygenase-2 Downstream Signaling Imbalance in Aluminum-Overload Rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanxin; Lei, Wenjuan; Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Xinyue; Wei, Yuling; Ji, Chaonan; Yang, Junqing

    2016-01-01

    Although COX-2 inhibition in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases has shown neuroprotection, recent studies have revealed some serious side effects (ulcers, bleeding, fatal cerebrovascular diseases etc.) and the limited benefits of COX-2 inhibitors. A more focused approach is necessary to explore the therapeutic effect of the COX downstream signaling pathway in neurological research. The aim of this study was to explore the alterations of the PGES-PGE2-EP signal pathway and the effect of misoprostol on neurodegeneration by chronic aluminum-overload in rats. Adult rats were treated by intragastric administration of aluminum gluconate. The PGE2 content and expression of PGES and EPs in the hippocampi of rats were detected using ELISA, q-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the rat hippocampi were also detected. The misoprostol treatment dose-dependently improved spatial learning and memory function as well as healing after hippocampal neuron damage induced by chronic aluminum-overload in rats. Meanwhile, the administration of misoprostol resulted in a decrease in the PGE2 level and down-regulation of the mPGES-1, EP2 and EP4 expression levels, while there was a dosedependent up-regulation of EP3 expression. These results suggest that misoprostol possesses a neuroprotective property, and the mechanism involves affecting the EP3 level and reducing the endogenous production of PGE2 through a negative feedback mechanism, increasing the EP3 expression level, decreasing the EP2 and EP4 expression levels, and rebuilding the mPGES-1-PGE2-EP1-4 signal pathway balance. In this way, misoprostol has a counteractive effect on oxidant stress and inflammation in the central nervous system. The PGES-PGE2-EPs signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating neurodegeneration in patients. PMID:27033056

  20. Early and sustained exposure to high-sucrose diet triggers hippocampal ER stress in young rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Bruno Araújo Serra; Melo, Thamys Marinho; Flister, Karla Frida Torres; França, Lucas Martins; Kajihara, Daniela; Tanaka, Leonardo Yuji; Laurindo, Francisco Rafael Martins; Paes, Antonio Marcus de Andrade

    2016-08-01

    Early-life environmental insults have been shown to promote long-term development of chronic non-communicable diseases, including metabolic disturbances and mental illnesses. As such, premature consumption of high-sugar foods has been associated to early onset of detrimental outcomes, whereas underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether early and sustained exposure to high-sucrose diet promotes metabolic disturbances that ultimately might anticipate neurological injuries. At postnatal day 21, weaned male rats started to be fed a standard chow (10 % sucrose, CTR) or a high-sucrose diet (25 % sucrose, HSD) for 9 weeks prior to euthanasia at postnatal day 90. HSD did not alter weight gain and feed efficiency between groups, but increased visceral, non-visceral and brown adipose tissue accumulation. HSD rats demonstrated elevated blood glucose levels in both fasting and fed states, which were associated to impaired glucose tolerance. Peripheral insulin sensitivity did not change, whereas hepatic insulin resistance was supported by increased serum triglyceride levels, as well as higher TyG index values. Assessment of hippocampal gene expression showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways were activated in HSD rats, as compared to CTR. HSD rats had overexpression of unfolded protein response sensors, PERK and ATF6; ER chaperone, PDIA2 and apoptosis-related genes, CHOP and Caspase 3; but decreased expression of chaperone GRP78. Finally, HSD rats demonstrated impaired neuromuscular function and anxious behavior, but preserved cognitive parameters. In conclusion, our data indicate that early exposure to HSD promote metabolic disturbances, which disrupt hippocampus homeostasis and might precociously affect its neurobehavioral functions. PMID:27154727

  1. The chemokine CCL2 activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in cultured rat hippocampal cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jungsook; Gruol, Donna L.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that chemokines can regulate both the physiology and biochemistry of CNS neurons and glia. In the current study, Western blot analysis showed that in rat hippocampal neuronal/glial cultures the signal transduction pathway activated by CCL2, a chemokine expressed in the normal brain and at elevated levels during neuroinflammation, involves a G-protein coupled receptor, p38 MAPK as well as its immediate upstream kinase MKK3/6, and the downstream transcription factor CREB. ERK 1/2 and the transcription factors STAT1 and STAT3 do not play a prominent role. CCL2 also altered Ca2+ influx and synaptic network activity in the hippocampal neurons. These results suggest an important role for p38 MAPK and CREB in hippocampal actions of CCL2. PMID:18584881

  2. Alpha2A adrenergic receptor activation inhibits epileptiform activity in the rat hippocampal CA3 region.

    PubMed

    Jurgens, Chris W D; Hammad, Hana M; Lichter, Jessica A; Boese, Sarah J; Nelson, Brian W; Goldenstein, Brianna L; Davis, Kylie L; Xu, Ke; Hillman, Kristin L; Porter, James E; Doze, Van A

    2007-06-01

    Norepinephrine has potent antiepileptic properties, the pharmacology of which is unclear. Under conditions in which GABAergic inhibition is blocked, norepinephrine reduces hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) epileptiform activity through alpha(2) adrenergic receptor (AR) activation on pyramidal cells. In this study, we investigated which alpha(2)AR subtype(s) mediates this effect. First, alpha(2)AR genomic expression patterns of 25 rat CA3 pyramidal cells were determined using real-time single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, demonstrating that 12 cells expressed alpha(2A)AR transcript; 3 of the 12 cells additionally expressed mRNA for alpha(2C)AR subtype and no cells possessing alpha(2B)AR mRNA. Hippocampal CA3 epileptiform activity was then examined using field potential recordings in brain slices. The selective alphaAR agonist 6-fluoronorepinephrine caused a reduction of CA3 epileptiform activity, as measured by decreased frequency of spontaneous epileptiform bursts. In the presence of betaAR blockade, concentration-response curves for AR agonists suggest that an alpha(2)AR mediates this response, as the rank order of potency was 5-bromo-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-6-quinoxalinamine (UK-14304) >or= epinephrine >6-fluoronorepinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine. Finally, equilibrium dissociation constants (K(b)) of selective alphaAR antagonists were functionally determined to confirm the specific alpha(2)AR subtype inhibiting CA3 epileptiform activity. Apparent K(b) values calculated for atipamezole (1.7 nM), MK-912 (4.8 nM), BRL-44408 (15 nM), yohimbine (63 nM), ARC-239 (540 nM), prazosin (4900 nM), and terazosin (5000 nM) correlated best with affinities previously determined for the alpha(2A)AR subtype (r = 0.99, slope = 1.0). These results suggest that, under conditions of impaired GABAergic inhibition, activation of alpha(2A)ARs is primarily responsible for the antiepileptic actions of norepinephrine in the rat hippocampal CA3

  3. Glutamate AMPA receptors in the fascia dentata of human and kainate rat hippocampal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Babb, T L; Mathern, G W; Leite, J P; Pretorius, J K; Yeoman, K M; Kuhlman, P A

    1996-12-01

    The present study examined the relationship between the patterns and densities of glutamate AMPA receptor sub-units GluR1 and GluR2/3 in the molecular layer of the fascia dentata and aberrant mossy fiber neoinnervation in human and kainate rat hippocampal epilepsy. Because AMPA sub-units modulate the fast glutamate synaptic transmission, we hypothesized that the AMPA receptor densities would be related to the glutamate-secreting mossy fibers, which could then contribute to seizure generation. In human hippocampal epilepsy, we found that the immunocytochemical labeling of GluR1 and GluR2/3 dendrites was positively related to the densities and spatial locations of the densest, aberrant neo-Timm stained supragranular mossy fibers. We used quantitative densitometry for the mossy fibers. However, the relatively faint and punctate immunocytochemical staining of the receptors did not allow true quantitative densitometry of the dendritic trees because in human epilepsy granule cell densities were decreased on average 50% of normal. Nevertheless, visual observations did confirm spatial relations between dense fascia dentata inner molecular layer mossy fibers and dense AMPA receptor staining. In the outer molecular layer, the mossy fibers were present only in the lower portion, were not densely-stained, and the AMPA receptors were only faintly-labeled. Nevertheless, outer molecular layer AMPA receptor densities were usually present more distally than were the mossy fibers. Experiments were done using intrahippocampal kainate epileptic rats to test the time courses for the changes in mossy fibers and AMPA receptors. The upregulation of inner and outer molecular layer AMPA receptors occurred maximally within 5 days post-kainate injection, prior to any mossy fiber supragranular ingrowth. One hundred and eighty days after ipsilateral kainate the AMPA receptors were increased bilaterally in the inner and outer molecular layers despite the fact that the contralateral aberrant

  4. The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on affective behaviour and cognition in Brown Norway and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jans, L A W; Korte-Bouws, G A H; Korte, S M; Blokland, A

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies in rats and humans have shown that the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) is depleted after consumption of a gelatin-based protein-carbohydrate mixture, which is lacking L-tryptophan (TRP-). In rats, TRP depletion caused impaired object recognition but only had a modest effect on affective behaviour. Because these studies were preformed with Wistar rats, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate strain differences in behavioural responses to acute TRP depletion between Brown Norway (BN) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were repeatedly treated with TRP- or a balanced control (TRP+) and were tested in tests of anxiety- and depression-related behaviour (open-field test, home cage emergence test, social interaction test, forced swim test) and memory. SD rats, but not BNs, showed more anxiety- and depression-related behaviour and impaired object recognition after TRP- treatment. There was a dissociation between plasma TRP levels, central 5-HT concentrations and 5-HIAA/5-HT turnover. Both strains showed about 60% decrease in plasma TRP/SigmaLNAA levels, whereas hippocampal 5-HT levels were lower after TRP- in BN but not SD rats. Conversely, 5-HIAA/5-HT turnover was lower after TRP- in SD but not BN rats, suggesting a dissociation between 5-HT storage and release in SDs. The present study suggests that acute tryptophan depletion effects are strain dependent on the behavioural and the neurochemical level. PMID:19074537

  5. The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on affective behaviour and cognition in Brown Norway and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jans, L A W; Korte-Bouws, G A H; Korte, S M; Blokland, A

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies in rats and humans have shown that the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) is depleted after consumption of a gelatin-based protein-carbohydrate mixture, which is lacking L-tryptophan (TRP-). In rats, TRP depletion caused impaired object recognition but only had a modest effect on affective behaviour. Because these studies were preformed with Wistar rats, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate strain differences in behavioural responses to acute TRP depletion between Brown Norway (BN) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were repeatedly treated with TRP- or a balanced control (TRP+) and were tested in tests of anxiety- and depression-related behaviour (open-field test, home cage emergence test, social interaction test, forced swim test) and memory. SD rats, but not BNs, showed more anxiety- and depression-related behaviour and impaired object recognition after TRP- treatment. There was a dissociation between plasma TRP levels, central 5-HT concentrations and 5-HIAA/5-HT turnover. Both strains showed about 60% decrease in plasma TRP/SigmaLNAA levels, whereas hippocampal 5-HT levels were lower after TRP- in BN but not SD rats. Conversely, 5-HIAA/5-HT turnover was lower after TRP- in SD but not BN rats, suggesting a dissociation between 5-HT storage and release in SDs. The present study suggests that acute tryptophan depletion effects are strain dependent on the behavioural and the neurochemical level.

  6. Hippocampal-Dependent Antidepressant Action of the H3 Receptor Antagonist Clobenpropit in a Rat Model of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Femenía, Teresa; Magara, Salvatore; DuPont, Caitlin M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Histamine is a modulatory neurotransmitter regulating neuronal activity. Antidepressant drugs target modulatory neurotransmitters, thus ultimately regulating glutamatergic transmission and plasticity. Histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonists have both pro-cognitive and antidepressant effects; however, the mechanism by which they modulate glutamate transmission is not clear. We measured the effects of the H3R antagonist clobenpropit in the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), a rat model of depression with impaired memory and altered glutamatergic transmission. Methods: Behavioral tests included the forced swim test, memory tasks (passive avoidance, novel object recognition tests), and anxiety-related paradigms (novelty suppressed feeding, social interaction, light/dark box tests). Hippocampal protein levels were detected by Western blot. Hippocampal plasticity was studied by in slice field recording of CA3-CA1 long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP), and glutamatergic transmission by whole-cell patch clamp recording of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Results: Clobenpropit, administered systemically or directly into the hippocampus, decreased immobility during the forced swim test; systemic injections reversed memory deficits and increased hippocampal GluN2A protein levels. FSL rats displayed anxiety-related behaviors not affected by clobenpropit treatment. Clobenpropit enhanced hippocampal plasticity, but did not affect EPSCs. H1R and H2R antagonists prevented the clobenpropit-induced increase in LTP and, injected locally into the hippocampus, blocked clobenpropit’s effect in the forced swim test. Conclusions: Clobenpropit’s antidepressant effects and the enhanced synaptic plasticity require hippocampal H1R and H2R activation, suggesting that clobenpropit acts through disinhibition of histamine release. Clobenpropit reverses memory deficits and increases hippocampal GluN2A expression without modifying anxiety

  7. A role for the protein phosphatase 2B in altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the aged rat.

    PubMed

    Jouvenceau, Anne; Dutar, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity following NMDA application on hippocampal slices from young (3-5 months) and aged (24-27 months) rats was compared. In young rats, NMDA (20 microM) induced opposite effects depending on the duration of the application. A short (1 min) or long (5 min) application induced a long-term depression of synaptic activity while a 3 min application induced a potentiation. In aged rats, however, NMDA application always induced depression, regardless of the duration. To identify mechanisms which could explain the difference observed between young and aged rats, we explored changes in NMDA receptor activation and changes in kinase/phosphatase balance. We first demonstrate that the potentiation present in slices from young rats was not restored in aged rats by exogenous application of the co-agonist of NMDA receptor d-serine (which compensates for the changes in NMDAR activation seen in aged rats). This suggested that alterations in synaptic plasticity activation mainly involve intracellular mechanisms. We next showed that the participation of the kinases PKA and CaMKII in the NMDA-induced potentiation in young rats is negligible. Finally, we determined the consequences of phosphatase inhibition in aged rats. Incubation of slices in okadaic acid (a PP1/PP2B antagonist) did not affect the depression induced by a 3min NMDA application in aged rats. The PP2B antagonist FK506 restored potentiation in aged rats (3 min NMDA application). In hippocampal neurons from aged rats, a depression is always observed, suggesting a preferential activation of PP2B by NMDA in these neurons.

  8. The Protective Effects of Insulin and Natural Honey against Hippocampal Cell Death in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Anarkooli, Iraj; Barzegar Ganji, Hossein; Pourheidar, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of insulin and honey as antioxidants to prevent the hippocampal cell death in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We selected sixty Wister rats (5 groups of 12 animals each), including the control group (C), and four diabetic groups (control (D) and 3 groups treated with insulin (I), honey (H), and insulin plus honey (I + H)). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (IP, 60 mg/kg). Six weeks after the induction of diabetes, the group I received insulin (3-4 U/kg/day, SC), group H received honey (5 mg/kg/day, IP), and group I + H received a combination of the above at the same dose. Groups C and D received normal saline. Two weeks after treatment, rats were sacrificed and the hippocampus was extracted. Neuronal cell death in the hippocampal region was examined using trypan blue assay, “H & E” staining, and TUNEL assay. Cell viability assessment showed significantly lower number of living cells in group D than in group C. Besides, the mean number of living cells was significantly higher in group I, H, and I + H compared to group D. Therefore, it can be concluded that the treatment of the diabetic rats with insulin, honey, and a combination of insulin and honey can prevent neuronal cell death in different hippocampal areas of the studied samples. PMID:24745031

  9. The protective effects of insulin and natural honey against hippocampal cell death in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jafari Anarkooli, Iraj; Barzegar Ganji, Hossein; Pourheidar, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of insulin and honey as antioxidants to prevent the hippocampal cell death in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We selected sixty Wister rats (5 groups of 12 animals each), including the control group (C), and four diabetic groups (control (D) and 3 groups treated with insulin (I), honey (H), and insulin plus honey (I + H)). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (IP, 60 mg/kg). Six weeks after the induction of diabetes, the group I received insulin (3-4 U/kg/day, SC), group H received honey (5 mg/kg/day, IP), and group I + H received a combination of the above at the same dose. Groups C and D received normal saline. Two weeks after treatment, rats were sacrificed and the hippocampus was extracted. Neuronal cell death in the hippocampal region was examined using trypan blue assay, "H & E" staining, and TUNEL assay. Cell viability assessment showed significantly lower number of living cells in group D than in group C. Besides, the mean number of living cells was significantly higher in group I, H, and I + H compared to group D. Therefore, it can be concluded that the treatment of the diabetic rats with insulin, honey, and a combination of insulin and honey can prevent neuronal cell death in different hippocampal areas of the studied samples. PMID:24745031

  10. Effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment in adolescent and adult rats on hippocampal shape, functional connectivity and adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    van der Marel, K; Bouet, V; Meerhoff, G F; Freret, T; Boulouard, M; Dauphin, F; Klomp, A; Lucassen, P J; Homberg, J R; Dijkhuizen, R M; Reneman, L

    2015-11-19

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a widely prescribed stimulant drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Its use in this age group raises concerns regarding the potential interference with ongoing neurodevelopmental processes. Particularly the hippocampus is a highly plastic brain region that continues to develop postnatally and is involved in cognition and emotional behavior, functions known to be affected by MPH. In this study, we assessed whether hippocampal structure and function were affected by chronic oral MPH treatment and whether its effects were different in adolescent or adult rats. Using behavioral testing, resting-state functional MRI, post-mortem structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and immunohistochemistry, we assessed MPH's effects on recognition memory, depressive-like behavior, topological features of functional connectivity networks, hippocampal shape and markers for hippocampal neurogenesis and proliferation. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired in adolescent treated rats, while in animals treated during adulthood, increased depressive-like behavior was observed. Neurogenesis was increased in adolescent treated rats, whereas cell proliferation was decreased following adult treatment. Adolescent treated rats showed inward shape deformations adjacent to ventral parahippocampal regions known to be involved in recognition memory, whereas such deformations were not observed in adult treated animals. Irrespective of the age of treatment, MPH affected topological features of ventral hippocampal functional networks. Thus, chronic oral treatment with a therapeutically relevant dose of MPH preferentially affected the ventral part of the hippocampus and induced contrasting effects in adolescent and adult rats. The differences in behavior were paralleled by opposite effects on adult neurogenesis and granule cell proliferation.

  11. Hippocampal neuronal position selectivity remains fixed to room cues only in rats alternating between place navigation and beacon approach tasks.

    PubMed

    Trullier, O; Shibata, R; Mulder, A B; Wiener, S I

    1999-12-01

    To study the relationship between brain representations and behaviour, we recorded hippocampal neuronal activity in rats repeatedly alternating between two different tasks on a circular platform with four reward boxes along the edge. In the beacon approach task, rewards were provided only at the pair of diametrically opposite boxes that was illuminated. In the place navigation task, rewards were available only at the boxes positioned near the north-east and south-west corners of the room. Performance levels were high and rats rapidly reoriented to changes in lamp cues in the beacon approach task. Neuropsychological studies show that rats with hippocampal lesions readily employ beacon approach strategies, while place navigation is severely impaired. Previous studies suggested that the neurons might change their behavioural correlates as the rat performed the respective tasks. However, of 34 hippocampal 'place cells' recorded, all showed position selectivity fixed with respect to room cues, even in the beacon approach task where coding the position of the rat in the room was of no use for locating rewards. Whether or not hippocampal signals are actually employed for ongoing behaviour would then be decided by structures downstream from the hippocampus. If this is the case, then the 'counterproductive' room referred place-related discharges in the beacon approach task would be a background representation. This would provide support for proposals of multiple memory systems underlying different types of information processing and contrasts with the popular notion that local neuronal activity levels are selectively increased to the degree that the brain region is required for the ongoing function.

  12. Penicillin-induced epilepsy model in rats: dose-dependant effect on hippocampal volume and neuron number.

    PubMed

    Akdogan, Ilgaz; Adiguzel, Esat; Yilmaz, Ismail; Ozdemir, M Bulent; Sahiner, Melike; Tufan, A Cevik

    2008-10-22

    This study was designed to evaluate the penicillin-induced epilepsy model in terms of dose-response relationship of penicillin used to induce epilepsy seizure on hippocampal neuron number and hippocampal volume in Sprague-Dawley rats. Seizures were induced with 300, 500, 1500 and 2000IU of penicillin-G injected intracortically in rats divided in four experimental groups, respectively. Control group was injected intracortically with saline. Animals were decapitated on day 7 of treatment and brains were removed. The total neuron number of pyramidal cell layer from rat hippocampus was estimated using the optical fractionator method. The volume of same hippocampal areas was estimated using the Cavalieri method. Dose-dependent decrease in hippocampal neuron number was observed in three experimental groups (300, 500 and 1500IU of penicillin-G), and the effects were statistically significant when compared to the control group (P<0.009). Dose-dependent decrease in hippocampal volume, on the other hand, was observed in all three of these groups; however, the difference compared to the control group was only statistically significant in 1500IU of penicillin-G injected group (P<0.009). At the dose of 2000IU penicillin-G, all animals died due to status seizures. These results suggest that the appropriate dose of penicillin has to be selected for a given experimental epilepsy study in order to demonstrate the relevant epileptic seizure and its effects. Intracortical 1500IU penicillin-induced epilepsy model may be a good choice to practice studies that investigate neuroprotective mechanisms of the anti-epileptic drugs.

  13. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 affects migration of hippocampal neural progenitors following status epilepticus in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a common brain disorder characterized by a chronic predisposition to generate spontaneous seizures. The mechanisms for epilepsy formation remain unknown. A growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of inflammatory processes in epileptogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in aberrant migration of hippocampal progenitors in rats after the insult of status epilepticus (SE). Methods SE was induced with pilocarpine in Sprague–Dawley rats. Transcriptional expression of MCP-1 in the dentate gyrus (DG) was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. From 1 to 28 days after SE, the temporal profiles of MCP-1 protein expression in DG were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) expression in doublecortin-positive neuronal progenitors was examined using double-labeling immunohistochemistry. The involvement of MCP-1/CCR2 signaling in aberrant neuronal progenitor migration in the epileptic hippocampus was assessed in the SE rats using a CCR2 antagonist, RS102895, and the ectopic migration of neuronal progenitors was determined using Prox1/doublecortin double immunostaining. Results After SE, MCP-1 gene was significantly upregulated and its corresponding protein expression in the DG was significantly increased on days 1 and 3. Some hilar ectopic progenitor cells of SE rats expressed the MCP-1 receptor, CCR2. Notably, the ectopic migration of neuronal progenitors into hilus was attenuated by a blockade of the MCP-1/CCR2 interaction with a selective CCR2 inhibitor, RS102895. Conclusions An increase in dentate MCP-1 is associated with seizure-induced aberrant migration of neuronal progenitors through the interaction with CCR2. The upregulation of MCP-1 after an insult of SE may play a role in the generation of epilepsy. PMID:23339567

  14. Proteomic analysis of hippocampal proteins of F344 rats exposed to 1-bromopropane

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenlie; Ichihara, Sahoko; Oikawa, Shinji; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Lingyi; Takahashi, Masahide; Subramanian, Kaviarasan; Mohideen, Sahabudeen Sheik; Wang, Yun; Ichihara, Gaku

    2011-11-15

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is a compound used as an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents and is neurotoxic both in experimental animals and human. However, the molecular mechanisms of the neurotoxic effects of 1-BP are not well known. To identify the molecular mechanisms of 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity, we analyzed quantitatively changes in protein expression in the hippocampus of rats exposed to 1-BP. Male F344 rats were exposed to 1-BP at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 or 4 weeks by inhalation. Two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) were conducted to detect and identify protein modification. Changes in selected proteins were further confirmed by western blot. 2D-DIGE identified 26 proteins with consistently altered model (increase or decrease after both 1- and 4-week 1-BP exposures) and significant changes in their levels (p < 0.05; fold change {>=} {+-} 1.2) at least at one exposure level or more compared with the corresponding controls. Of these proteins, 19 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. Linear regression analysis of 1-BP exposure level identified 8 differentially expressed proteins altered in a dose-dependent manner both in 1- and 4-week exposure experiments. The identified proteins could be categorized into diverse functional classes such as nucleocytoplasmic transport, immunity and defense, energy metabolism, ubiquitination-proteasome pathway, neurotransmitter and purine metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that 1-BP-induced hippocampal damage involves oxidative stress, loss of ATP production, neurotransmitter dysfunction and inhibition of ubiquitination-proteasome system. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-BP modified hippocampal proteome in rat and 19 altered proteins were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Ran, TPI, HSP60, PSMA1, ECH1, TPI, B-CK and DJ-1 was changed by 1-BP. Black

  15. Combining restricted diet with forced or voluntary exercises improves hippocampal BDNF and cognitive function in rats.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Mahmoud A; Khabour, Omar F; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alzubi, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (RDt) and exercise (Ex) enhances cognitive function due, at least in part, levels of neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This study examined changes in BDNF levels and data acquisition and retention following every-other-day RDt alone, and combined with either voluntary wheel (VxRDt) or forced swimming Exs (FxRDt) in rats. Hippocampal BDNF was measured using ELISA while learning and memory formation were assessed with the radial arm water maze (RAWM) paradigm. After 6 weeks, VxRDt and FxRDt enhanced BDNF levels, and short- and long-term memories (p < 0.05). The magnitude of the increase in BDNF was significantly higher in VxRDt group than in other groups (p < 0.05). However, no differences were found in learning and memory formation between the Ex regiments (VxRDt versus FxRDt). Additionally, RDt alone neither modulated BDNF level nor enhanced learning and memory formation (p > 0.05). These results suggest more important role of Ex, as opposed to RDt, in enhancing learning and memory formation. In addition, VxRDt appears to be more potent in enhancing brain BDNF levels than FxRDt, when combined with RDt in rats. PMID:26000806

  16. Involvement of cellular metabolism in age-related LTP modifications in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Drulis-Fajdasz, Dominika; Wójtowicz, Tomasz; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Wlodarczyk, Jakub; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W; Rakus, Dariusz

    2015-06-10

    Recent studies emphasized crucial role of astrocytic glycogen metabolism in regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in young animals. However, the interplay between age-related synaptic plasticity impairments and changes in energetic metabolism remains obscure. To address this issue, we investigated, in hippocampal slices of young (one month) and aged rats (20-22-months), the impact of glycogen degradation inhibition on LTP, mRNA expression for glycogen metabolism enzymes and morphology of dendritic spines. We show that, whereas in young hippocampi, inhibition of glycogen phosphorolysis disrupts the late phase of LTP in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 pathway, in aged rats, blockade of glycogen phosphorylase tends to enhance it. Gene expression for key energy metabolism enzymes, such as glycogen synthase and phosphorylase and glutamine synthetase showed marked differences between young and aged groups and changes in expression of these enzymes preceded plasticity phenomena. Interestingly, in the aged group, a prominent expression of these enzymes was found also in neurons. Concluding, we show that LTP in the considered pathway is differentially modulated by metabolic processes in young and aging animals, indicating a novel venue of studies aiming at preventing cognitive decline during aging. PMID:26101857

  17. The Effect of Chronic Methamphetamine Exposure on the Hippocampal and Olfactory Bulb Neuroproteomes of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rui; Yang, Tianjiao; Kobeissy, Firas; Mouhieddine, Tarek H.; Raad, Mohamad; Nokkari, Amaly; Gold, Mark S.; Wang, Kevin K.; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, drug abuse and addiction are serious public health problems in the USA. Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the most abused drugs and is known to cause brain damage after repeated exposure. In this paper, we conducted a neuroproteomic study to evaluate METH-induced brain protein dynamics, following a two-week chronic regimen of an escalating dose of METH exposure. Proteins were extracted from rat brain hippocampal and olfactory bulb tissues and subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Both shotgun and targeted proteomic analysis were performed. Protein quantification was initially based on comparing the spectral counts between METH exposed animals and their control counterparts. Quantitative differences were further confirmed through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) LC-MS/MS experiments. According to the quantitative results, the expression of 18 proteins (11 in the hippocampus and 7 in the olfactory bulb) underwent a significant alteration as a result of exposing rats to METH. 13 of these proteins were up-regulated after METH exposure while 5 were down-regulated. The altered proteins belonging to different structural and functional families were involved in processes such as cell death, inflammation, oxidation, and apoptosis. PMID:27082425

  18. The Effect of Chronic Methamphetamine Exposure on the Hippocampal and Olfactory Bulb Neuroproteomes of Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rui; Yang, Tianjiao; Kobeissy, Firas; Mouhieddine, Tarek H; Raad, Mohamad; Nokkari, Amaly; Gold, Mark S; Wang, Kevin K; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, drug abuse and addiction are serious public health problems in the USA. Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the most abused drugs and is known to cause brain damage after repeated exposure. In this paper, we conducted a neuroproteomic study to evaluate METH-induced brain protein dynamics, following a two-week chronic regimen of an escalating dose of METH exposure. Proteins were extracted from rat brain hippocampal and olfactory bulb tissues and subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Both shotgun and targeted proteomic analysis were performed. Protein quantification was initially based on comparing the spectral counts between METH exposed animals and their control counterparts. Quantitative differences were further confirmed through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) LC-MS/MS experiments. According to the quantitative results, the expression of 18 proteins (11 in the hippocampus and 7 in the olfactory bulb) underwent a significant alteration as a result of exposing rats to METH. 13 of these proteins were up-regulated after METH exposure while 5 were down-regulated. The altered proteins belonging to different structural and functional families were involved in processes such as cell death, inflammation, oxidation, and apoptosis. PMID:27082425

  19. Short-term environmental enrichment enhances synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices from aged rats.

    PubMed

    Stein, Liana R; O'Dell, Kazuko A; Funatsu, Michiyo; Zorumski, Charles F; Izumi, Yukitoshi

    2016-08-01

    Age-associated changes in cognition are mirrored by impairments in cellular models of memory and learning, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In young rodents, environmental enrichment (EE) can enhance memory, alter LTP and LTD, as well as reverse cognitive deficits induced by aging. Whether short-term EE can benefit cognition and synaptic plasticity in aged rodents is unclear. Here, we tested if short-term EE could overcome age-associated impairments in induction of LTP and LTD. LTP and LTD could not be induced in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices in control, aged rats using standard stimuli that are highly effective in young rats. However, exposure of aged littermates to EE for three weeks enabled successful induction of LTP and LTD. EE-facilitated LTP was dependent upon N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). These alterations in synaptic plasticity occurred with elevated levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein and vascular endothelial growth factor, but in the absence of changes in several other synaptic and cellular markers. Importantly, our study suggests that even a relatively short period of EE is sufficient to alter synaptic plasticity and molecular markers linked to cognitive function in aged animals.

  20. Altered adult hippocampal neuronal maturation in a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Boehme, Fanny; Patten, Anna; Cox, Adrian; Kainer, Leah; Giles, Erica; Brocardo, Patricia S; Christie, Brian R

    2011-04-12

    Exposure to ethanol during pregnancy can be devastating to the developing nervous system, leading to significant central nervous system dysfunction. The hippocampus, one of the two brain regions where neurogenesis persists into adulthood, is particularly sensitive to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present study, we tested a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) with ethanol administered via gavage throughout all three trimester equivalents. Subsequently, we assessed cell proliferation, as well as neuronal survival, and differentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adolescent (35 days old), young adult (60 days old) and adult (90 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats. Using both extrinsic (bromodeoxyuridine) and intrinsic (Ki-67) markers, we observed no significant alterations in cell proliferation and survival in ethanol-exposed animals when compared with their pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, we detected a significant increase in the number of new immature neurons in animals that were exposed to ethanol throughout all three trimester equivalents. This result might reflect a compensatory mechanism to counteract the deleterious effects of prenatal ethanol exposure or an ethanol-induced arrest of the neurogenic process at the early neuronal maturation stages. Taken together these results indicate that exposure to ethanol during the period of brain development causes a long-lasting dysregulation of the neurogenic process, a mechanism that might contribute, at least in part, to the hippocampal deficits that have been reported in rodent models of FAS.

  1. Effects of edible bird's nest on hippocampal and cortical neurodegeneration in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Zhiping, Hou; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Norsharina; Yida, Zhang; Ideris, Aini; Sarega, Nadarajan; Mahmud, Rozi

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate whether edible bird's nest (EBN) attenuates cortical and hippocampal neurodegeneration in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats were randomly divided into seven experimental groups (n = 6): the ovariectomy (OVX) group had their ovaries surgically removed; the sham group underwent surgical procedure similar to OVX group, but ovaries were left intact; estrogen group had OVX and received estrogen therapy (0.2 mg kg(-1) per day); EBN treatment groups received 6%, 3%, and 1.5% EBN, respectively. Control group was not ovariectomized. After 12 weeks of intervention, biochemical assays were performed for markers of neurodegeneration, and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of oxidative stress-related genes in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of the brain were analysed. Caspase 3 (cysteine-aspartic proteases 3) protein levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were also determined using western blotting. The results show that EBNs significantly decreased estrogen deficiency-associated serum elevation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and they changed redox status as evidenced by oxidative damage (malondialdehyde content) and enzymatic antioxidant defense (superoxide dismutase and catalase) markers. Furthermore, genes associated with neurodegeneration and apoptosis were downregulated in the hippocampus and frontal cortex by EBN supplementation. Taken together, the results suggest that EBN has potential for neuroprotection against estrogen deficiency-associated senescence, at least in part via modification of the redox system and attenuation of AGEs. PMID:25920003

  2. Effects of melatonin on cognitive impairment and hippocampal neuronal damage in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    LEE, CHOONG HYUN; PARK, JOON HA; AHN, JI HYEON; WON, MOO-HO

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), which induces oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, has previously been associated with cognitive impairment and neuronal cell damage. Melatonin is a well-known free radical scavenger and antioxidant; therefore, the present study investigated the protective effects of melatonin against CCH-induced cognitive impairment and neuronal cell death in a CCH rat model, which was generated via permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). The rats in the 2VO group exhibited markedly increased escape latencies in a Morris water maze test, as compared with the rats in the sham group. In addition, increased neuronal cell damage was detected in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 2VO rats, as compared with the rats in the sham group. Treatment of the 2VO rats with melatonin significantly reduced the escape latency and neuronal cell damage, and was associated with reduced levels of malondialdehyde, microglial activation, and tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the ischemic hippocampus. The results of the present study suggest that melatonin may attenuate CCH-induced cognitive impairment and hippocampal neuronal cell damage by decreasing oxidative stress, microglial activation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the ischemic hippocampus. PMID:27284307

  3. Hypermethylation of Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity-Related genes is Involved in Neonatal Sevoflurane Exposure-Induced Cognitive Impairments in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ju, Ling-sha; Jia, Min; Sun, Jie; Sun, Xiao-ru; Zhang, Hui; Ji, Mu-huo; Yang, Jian-jun; Wang, Zhong-yun

    2016-02-01

    General anesthetics given to immature rodents cause delayed neurobehavioral abnormalities via incompletely understood mechanisms. DNA methylation, one of the epigenetic modifications, is essential for the modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity through regulating the related genes. Therefore, we investigated whether abnormalities in the hippocampal DNA methylation of synaptic plasticity-related genes are involved in neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced cognitive impairments in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3 % sevoflurane or 30 % oxygen/air for 2 h daily from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P9 and were treated with DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) or vehicle 1 h before the first sevoflurane exposure on P7. The rats were euthanized 1, 6, 24 h, and 30 days after the last sevoflurane exposure, and the brain tissues were harvested for biochemical analysis. Cognitive functions were evaluated by the open field, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze (MWM) tests on P39, P41-43, and P50-57, respectively. In the present study, repeated neonatal sevoflurane exposure resulted in hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairments as assessed by fear conditioning and MWM tests. The cognitive impairments were associated with the increased DNMTs and hypermethylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Reelin genes, and subsequent down-regulation of BDNF and Reelin genes, which finally led to the decrease of dendritic spines in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons in adolescent rats. Notably, pretreatment with 5-AZA reversed these sevoflurane-induced abnormalities. In conclusion, our results suggest that hypermethylation of hippocampal BDNF and Reelin is involved in neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced cognitive impairments.

  4. Synchrotron FTIR micro-spectroscopy study of the rat hippocampal formation after pilocarpine-evoked seizures.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Dulinska, J; Janeczko, K; Dumas, P; Eichert, D; Dudala, J; Setkowicz, Z

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared (SRFTIR) micro-spectroscopy and imaging were used for topographic and semi-quantitative biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue in cases of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. The tissue samples were analyzed with a beam defined by small apertures and spatial resolution steps of 10 microm which allowed us to probe the selected cellular layers of hippocampal formation. Raster scanning of the samples has generated 2D chemical cartographies revealing the distribution of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Spectral analysis has shown changes in the saturation level of phospholipids and relative secondary structure of proteins. Special interest was put in the analysis of two areas of the hippocampal formation (sector 3 of the Ammon's horn, CA3 and dentate gyrus, DG) in which elemental abnormalities were observed during our previous studies. Statistically significant increase in the saturation level of phospholipids (increased ratio of the absorption intensities at around 2921 and 2958 cm(-1)) as well as conformational changes of proteins (beta-type structure discrepancies as shown by the increased ratio of the absorbance intensities at around 1631 and 1657 cm(-1) as well as the ratio of the absorbance at 1548 and 1657 cm(-1)) were detected in pyramidal cells of CA3 area as well as in the multiform and molecular layers of DG. The findings presented here suggest that abnormalities in the protein secondary structure and increases in the level of phospholipid saturation could be involved in mechanisms of neurodegenerative changes following the oxidative stress evoked in brain areas affected by pilocarpine-induced seizures.

  5. Glucocorticoid-Dependent Hippocampal Transcriptome in Male Rats: Pathway-Specific Alterations With Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuey-Chu; Blalock, Eric M.; Curran-Rauhut, Meredith A.; Kadish, Inga; Blalock, Susan J.; Brewer, Lawrence; Porter, Nada M.

    2013-01-01

    Although glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to exert numerous effects in the hippocampus, their chronic regulatory functions remain poorly understood. Moreover, evidence is inconsistent regarding the long-standing hypothesis that chronic GC exposure promotes brain aging/Alzheimer disease. Here, we adrenalectomized male F344 rats at 15 months of age, maintained them for 3 months with implanted corticosterone (CORT) pellets producing low or intermediate (glucocorticoid receptor–activating) blood levels of CORT, and performed microarray/pathway analyses in hippocampal CA1. We defined the chronic GC-dependent transcriptome as 393 genes that exhibited differential expression between intermediate and low CORT groups. Short-term CORT (4 days) did not recapitulate this transcriptome. Functional processes/pathways overrepresented by chronic CORT–up-regulated genes included learning/plasticity, differentiation, glucose metabolism, and cholesterol biosynthesis, whereas processes overrepresented by CORT–down-regulated genes included inflammatory/immune/glial responses and extracellular structure. These profiles indicate that GCs chronically activate neuronal/metabolic processes while coordinately repressing a glial axis of reactivity/inflammation. We then compared the GC transcriptome with a previously defined hippocampal aging transcriptome, revealing a high proportion of common genes. Although CORT and aging moved expression of some common genes in the same direction, the majority were shifted in opposite directions by CORT and aging (eg, glial inflammatory genes down-regulated by CORT are up-regulated with aging). These results contradict the hypothesis that GCs simply promote brain aging and also suggest that the opposite direction shifts during aging reflect resistance to CORT regulation. Therefore, we propose a new model in which aging-related GC resistance develops in some target pathways, whereas GC overstimulation develops in others, together generating much of the

  6. Intrinsic membrane properties determine hippocampal differential firing pattern in vivo in anesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Jian; Jonas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hippocampus plays a key role in learning and memory. Previous studies suggested that the main types of principal neurons, dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs), CA3 pyramidal neurons, and CA1 pyramidal neurons, differ in their activity pattern, with sparse firing in GCs and more frequent firing in CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons. It has been assumed but never shown that such different activity may be caused by differential synaptic excitation. To test this hypothesis, we performed high‐resolution whole‐cell patch‐clamp recordings in anesthetized rats in vivo. In contrast to previous in vitro data, both CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons fired action potentials spontaneously, with a frequency of ∼3–6 Hz, whereas GCs were silent. Furthermore, both CA3 and CA1 cells primarily fired in bursts. To determine the underlying mechanisms, we quantitatively assessed the frequency of spontaneous excitatory synaptic input, the passive membrane properties, and the active membrane characteristics. Surprisingly, GCs showed comparable synaptic excitation to CA3 and CA1 cells and the highest ratio of excitation versus hyperpolarizing inhibition. Thus, differential synaptic excitation is not responsible for differences in firing. Moreover, the three types of hippocampal neurons markedly differed in their passive properties. While GCs showed the most negative membrane potential, CA3 pyramidal neurons had the highest input resistance and the slowest membrane time constant. The three types of neurons also differed in the active membrane characteristics. GCs showed the highest action potential threshold, but displayed the largest gain of the input‐output curves. In conclusion, our results reveal that differential firing of the three main types of hippocampal principal neurons in vivo is not primarily caused by differences in the characteristics of the synaptic input, but by the distinct properties of synaptic integration and input‐output transformation. © 2015 The

  7. Neurotoxicity of coral snake phospholipases A2 in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Nathalia Delazeri; Garcia, Raphael CaioTamborelli; Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Batista, Daniel Rodrigo; Cassola, Antonio Carlos; Maria, Durvanei; Lebrun, Ivo; Carneiro, Sylvia Mendes; Afeche, Solange Castro; Marcourakis, Tania; Sandoval, Maria Regina Lopes

    2014-03-13

    The neurotoxicity of two secreted Phospholipases A2 from Brazilian coral snake venom in rat primary hippocampal cell culture was investigated. Following exposure to Mlx-8 or Mlx-9 toxins, an increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+) and a reduction in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) became evident and occurred prior to the morphological changes and cytotoxicity. Exposure of hippocampal neurons to Mlx-8 or Mlx-9 caused a decrease in the cell viability as assessed by MTT and LDH assays. Inspection using fluorescent images and ultrastructural analysis by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that multiphase injury is characterized by overlapping cell death phenotypes. Shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and the formation of apoptotic bodies were observed. The most striking alteration observed in the electron microscopy was the fragmentation and rarefaction of the neuron processes network. Degenerated terminal synapses, cell debris and apoptotic bodies were observed among the fragmented fibers. Numerous large vacuoles as well as swollen mitochondria and dilated Golgi were noted. Necrotic signs such as a large amount of cellular debris and membrane fragmentation were observed mainly when the cells were exposed to highest concentration of the PLA2-neurotoxins. PLA2s exposed cultures showed cytoplasmic vacuoles filled with cell debris, clusters of mitochondria presented mitophagy-like structures that are in accordance to patterns of programmed cell death by autophagy. Finally, we demonstrated that the sPLA2s, Mlx-8 and Mlx-9, isolated from the Micrurus lemniscatus snake venom induce a hybrid cell death with apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic features. Furthermore, this study suggests that the augment in free cytosolic Ca(2+) and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the neurotoxicity of Elapid coral snake venom sPLA2s.

  8. Intrinsic membrane properties determine hippocampal differential firing pattern in vivo in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Janina; Gan, Jian; Jonas, Peter; Pernía-Andrade, Alejandro J

    2016-05-01

    The hippocampus plays a key role in learning and memory. Previous studies suggested that the main types of principal neurons, dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs), CA3 pyramidal neurons, and CA1 pyramidal neurons, differ in their activity pattern, with sparse firing in GCs and more frequent firing in CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons. It has been assumed but never shown that such different activity may be caused by differential synaptic excitation. To test this hypothesis, we performed high-resolution whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in anesthetized rats in vivo. In contrast to previous in vitro data, both CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons fired action potentials spontaneously, with a frequency of ∼3-6 Hz, whereas GCs were silent. Furthermore, both CA3 and CA1 cells primarily fired in bursts. To determine the underlying mechanisms, we quantitatively assessed the frequency of spontaneous excitatory synaptic input, the passive membrane properties, and the active membrane characteristics. Surprisingly, GCs showed comparable synaptic excitation to CA3 and CA1 cells and the highest ratio of excitation versus hyperpolarizing inhibition. Thus, differential synaptic excitation is not responsible for differences in firing. Moreover, the three types of hippocampal neurons markedly differed in their passive properties. While GCs showed the most negative membrane potential, CA3 pyramidal neurons had the highest input resistance and the slowest membrane time constant. The three types of neurons also differed in the active membrane characteristics. GCs showed the highest action potential threshold, but displayed the largest gain of the input-output curves. In conclusion, our results reveal that differential firing of the three main types of hippocampal principal neurons in vivo is not primarily caused by differences in the characteristics of the synaptic input, but by the distinct properties of synaptic integration and input-output transformation.

  9. Evaluation of Mitochondrial Function in the CNS of Rodent Models of Alzheimer's Disease - High Resolution Respirometry Applied to Acute Hippocampal Slices.

    PubMed

    Dias, Candida; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, Joao; Ledo, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. These hallmark alterations are preceded by synaptic deterioration, changes in neuromolecular plasticity phenomena, mitochondrial dysfunction, increase in oxidative damage to cellular constituents and decreased energy metabolism. The hippocampus is a structure of the temporal medial lobe implicated in specific forms of memory processes. It is also one of the first and most affected regions of the CNS in AD. Here we present a novel approach to the study if mitochondrial function/disfunction in 2 rodent models of AD: an acute rat model obtained by intracerebroventricular injection of the toxin streptozotocin (STZ) and a progressive triple transgenic mouse model (3TgAD) harboring PS1M146V, APPSwe, and tauP301L transgenes. Mitochondrial dysfunction has classically been assessed in such models by isolating mitochondria, synaptossoms or working with cell cultures. Anyone of these approaches destroys the intricate intercellular connectivity and cytoarchitecture of neuronal tissue. We used acute hippocampal slices obtained from the 2 models of AD and evaluated changes in mitochondrial function as a function of disease and/or age. Mitochondrial stress test were performed on the high resolution respirometry (Oroboros 2K Oxymeter). Upon analysis of oxygen consumption rates (OCR) we observed significant decreases in basal OCR, maximal respiratory capacity, ATP turnover and a tendency for decrease in sparing capacity in the STZ rat model compared to shame injected animals. Regarding the 3TgAD model we observed an age-dependent decrease in all parameters evaluated in the mitochondrial stress test, in both 3TgAD and NTg animals. However, although a tendency towards decreased OCR was observed when comparing 3TgAD and age-matched NTg animals, no statistically significant difference was observed. PMID:26461355

  10. Intrinsic excitability changes induced by acute treatment of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with exogenous amyloid β peptide

    PubMed Central

    Scullion, Sarah; Brown, Jon T.; Randall, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulation of beta‐amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the human brain is a canonical pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent work in Aβ‐overexpressing transgenic mice indicates that increased brain Aβ levels can be associated with aberrant epileptiform activity. In line with this, such mice can also exhibit altered intrinsic excitability (IE) of cortical and hippocampal neurons: these observations may relate to the increased prevalence of seizures in AD patients. In this study, we examined what changes in IE are produced in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells after 2–5 h treatment with an oligomeric preparation of synthetic human Aβ 1–42 peptide. Whole cell current clamp recordings were compared between Aβ‐(500 nM) and vehicle‐(DMSO 0.05%) treated hippocampal slices obtained from mice. The soluble Aβ treatment did not produce alterations in sub‐threshold intrinsic properties, including membrane potential, input resistance, and hyperpolarization activated “sag”. Similarly, no changes were noted in the firing profile evoked by 500 ms square current supra‐threshold stimuli. However, Aβ 500 nM treatment resulted in the hyperpolarization of the action potential (AP) threshold. In addition, treatment with Aβ at 500 nM depressed the after‐hyperpolarization that followed both a single AP or 50 Hz trains of a number of APs between 5 and 25. These data suggest that acute exposure to soluble Aβ oligomers affects IE properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons differently from outcomes seen in transgenic models of amyloidopathy. However, in both chronic and acute models, the IE changes are toward hyperexcitability, reinforcing the idea that amyloidopathy and increased incidence in seizures might be causally related in AD patients. © 2014 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25515596

  11. Intrinsic excitability changes induced by acute treatment of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with exogenous amyloid β peptide.

    PubMed

    Tamagnini, Francesco; Scullion, Sarah; Brown, Jon T; Randall, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the human brain is a canonical pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent work in Aβ-overexpressing transgenic mice indicates that increased brain Aβ levels can be associated with aberrant epileptiform activity. In line with this, such mice can also exhibit altered intrinsic excitability (IE) of cortical and hippocampal neurons: these observations may relate to the increased prevalence of seizures in AD patients. In this study, we examined what changes in IE are produced in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells after 2-5 h treatment with an oligomeric preparation of synthetic human Aβ 1-42 peptide. Whole cell current clamp recordings were compared between Aβ-(500 nM) and vehicle-(DMSO 0.05%) treated hippocampal slices obtained from mice. The soluble Aβ treatment did not produce alterations in sub-threshold intrinsic properties, including membrane potential, input resistance, and hyperpolarization activated "sag". Similarly, no changes were noted in the firing profile evoked by 500 ms square current supra-threshold stimuli. However, Aβ 500 nM treatment resulted in the hyperpolarization of the action potential (AP) threshold. In addition, treatment with Aβ at 500 nM depressed the after-hyperpolarization that followed both a single AP or 50 Hz trains of a number of APs between 5 and 25. These data suggest that acute exposure to soluble Aβ oligomers affects IE properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons differently from outcomes seen in transgenic models of amyloidopathy. However, in both chronic and acute models, the IE changes are toward hyperexcitability, reinforcing the idea that amyloidopathy and increased incidence in seizures might be causally related in AD patients.

  12. Neurons in hippocampal afferent zones of rat striatum parse routes into multi-pace segments during maze navigation.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Antonius B; Tabuchi, Eiichi; Wiener, Sidney I

    2004-04-01

    Hippocampal 'place' neurons discharge when rats occupy specific regions within an environment. This finding is a cornerstone of the theory of the hippocampus as a cognitive map of space. But for navigation, representations of current position must be implemented by signals concerning where to go next, and how to get there. In recordings in hippocampal output structures associated with the motor system (nucleus accumbens and ventromedial caudate nucleus) in rats solving a plus-maze, neurons fired continuously from the moment the rat left one location until it arrived at the next goal site, or at an intermediate place, such as the maze centre. While other studies have shown discharges during reward approach behaviours, this is the first demonstration of activity corresponding to the parsing of complex routes into sequences of movements between landmarks, similar to the lists of instructions we often employ to communicate directions to follow between points on a map. As these cells fired during a series of several paces or re-orientation movements, perhaps this is homologous to 'chunking'. The temporal overlaps in the activity profiles of the individual neurons provide a possible substrate to successively trigger movements required to arrive at the goal. These hippocampally informed, and in some cases, spatially selective responses support the view of the ventral striatum as an interface between limbic and motor systems, permitting contextual representations to have an impact on fundamental action sequences for goal-directed behaviour.

  13. Isoflurane enhances the expression of cytochrome C by facilitation of NMDA receptor in developing rat hippocampal neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yilin; Jin, Xiaogao; Wang, Jintao; Tan, Lei; Li, Shiyong; Luo, Ailin

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of clinically relevant concentrations of isoflurane on the amplitude of NMDA receptor current (I(NMDA)) and the expression of cytochrome C in cultured developing rat hippocampal neurons. The hippocampi were dissected from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats. Hippocampal neurons were primarily cultured for 5 days and then treated with different concentrations of isoflurane [(0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC))]. The peak of I(NMDA) was recorded by means of the whole cell patch clamp technique. The cytochrome C level was detected by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed that isoflurane (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 MAC) potentiated the amplitude of I(NMDA) by (116 ± 8.8)%, (122 ± 11.7)%, (135 ± 14.3)% and (132 ± 14.6)%, respectively, and isoflurane increased the mRNA expression of cytochrome C in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytochrome C mRNA expression reached a maximum after 0.5 MAC isoflurane stimulation for 6 h (P<0.05). It was concluded that isoflurane enhances the expression of cytochrome C in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, which may be mediated by facilitation of NMDA receptor.

  14. Electroacupuncture pretreatment ameliorates hypergravity-induced impairment of learning and memory and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shufang; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Huaning; Peng, Ye; Wang, Lei; Lu, Yan; Shi, Tianyao; Xiong, Lize

    2010-07-12

    High-sustained positive acceleration (+Gz) exposures might lead to impairment in cognitive function. Our previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment can attenuate transient focal cerebral ischemic injury in the rats. In this study we aimed to investigate whether EA pretreatment could ameliorate the impairment of learning and memory induced by a sustained +Gz exposure. Using the centrifuge model, rats of experimental groups were exposed to +10 Gz for 5 min. Morris water maze was used for assessing the cognitive ability, and the apoptotic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuronal cells were evaluated by caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining. Our results showed that +Gz exposure significantly caused pyramidal neuronal damage, increased neuronal apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in hippocampal CA1 region, as well as resulted in an impairment of spatial learning and memory, as compared to the sham group animals. Furthermore, the EA pretreatment significantly attenuated the neuronal apoptosis, preserved neuronal morphology and inhibited the caspase-3 activity in hippocampal CA1 region resulted from +Gz exposure. The EA pretreatment also ameliorated the learning and memory function in rats exposed to +Gz. These findings indicate that EA pretreatment provides a novel method to prevent the cognitive damage caused by +Gz, which could significantly protect neuronal damage and impairment of learning and memory.

  15. Ethanol impairs muscarinic receptor-induced neuritogenesis in rat hippocampal slices: Role of astrocytes and extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Gennaro; Guizzetti, Marina; Dao, Khoi; Mattison, Hayley A; Costa, Lucio G

    2011-12-01

    In an in vitro co-culture system of astrocytes and neurons, stimulation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors in astrocytes had been shown to cause neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons, and this effect was inhibited by ethanol. The present study sought to confirm these earlier findings in a more complex system, in vitro rat hippocampal slices in culture. Exposure of hippocampal slices to the cholinergic agonist carbachol (1mM for 24h) induced neurite outgrowth in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which was mediated by activation of muscarinic M3 receptors. Specifically, carbachol induced a >4-fold increase in the length of the longest neurite, and a 4-fold increase in the length of minor neurites and in the number of branches. Co-incubation of carbachol with ethanol (50mM) resulted in significant inhibition of the effects induced by carbachol on all parameters measured. Neurite outgrowth in CNS neurons is dependent on various permissive factors that are produced and released by glial cells. In hippocampal slices carbachol increased the levels of two extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and laminin-1, by 1.6-fold, as measured by Western blot. Co-incubation of carbachol with ethanol significantly inhibited these increases. Carbachol-induced increases in levels of extracellular matrix proteins were antagonized by a M3 muscarinic receptor antagonist. Furthermore, function-blocking fibronectin or laminin-1 antibodies antagonized the effect of carbachol on neurite outgrowth. These results indicate that in hippocampal slices stimulation of muscarinic M3 receptors induces neurite outgrowth, which is mediated by fibronectin and laminin-1, two extracellular matrix proteins released by astrocytes. By decreasing fibronectin and laminin levels ethanol prevents carbachol-induced neuritogenesis. These findings highlight the importance of glial-neuronal interactions as important targets in the developmental neurotoxicity of alcohol.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in restraint stress-induced hippocampal apoptosis and cognitive impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Chunling; Li, Shujin; Cong, Bin

    2014-05-28

    Long-term exposure to stressful stimuli can reduce hippocampal volume and cause cognitive impairments, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is considered an early or initial response of cells under stress and linked to neuronal death in various neurodegenerative diseases. The present study investigated the involvement of ERS in restraint stress (RS)-induced hippocampal apoptosis and cognitive impairments. Using the rat RS model for 21 consecutive days, we found that the hippocampal apoptotic rate was significantly up-regulated as compared with unstressed controls, and salubrinal (ERS inhibitor) pretreatment effectively reduced the increase. As the marker of ERS, the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and the target molecule of the unfolded protein response (UPR), the splice variant of X-box binding protein 1 (sXBP-1) were also markedly increased in RS rats. Furthermore, in the three possible signaling pathways of ERS-induced apoptosis, the protein and mRNA levels of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were significantly up-regulated, and caspase-12 was activated and cleaved, which suggested that these two pathways crucially contributed to hippocampal cell death. However, we found no changes in protein levels of phosphorylated JNK, implying that the JNK pathway was not the primary pathway involved in hippocampal apoptosis. It is more important that the cognitive impairments caused by RS were also effectively alleviated by salubrinal pretreatment. The present results suggested that ERS in hippocampus was excessively activated under stress, and amelioration of ERS could be a novel strategy to prevent and treat impaired cognitive function induced by RS. PMID:24732417

  17. Effects of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF in rat pups: Beneficial effects of exercise.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Seyed Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Hypothyroidism during early development leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in developing brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF levels in both hypothyroid male and female rat pups. To induce hypothyroidism in the mothers, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was added to their drinking water (100mg/L) from their embryonic day 6 to their postnatal day (PND) 21. For 14days, from PNDs 31 to 44, the rat pups were trained with one of the two different exercise protocols, namely the mild treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise. On PNDs 45-52, a water maze was used for testing their learning and memory ability. The rats were sacrificed one day later and their BDNF levels were then measured in the hippocampus. The findings of the present study indicate that hypothyroidism during the fetal period and the early postnatal period is associated with the impairment of spatial learning and memory and reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in both male and female rat offspring. Both the short-term treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise performed during the postnatal period reverse the behavioral and neurochemical deficits induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency in both male and female rat offspring. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a marked reversibility of both behavioral and neurochemical disorders induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency through the performance of exercise. PMID:27181637

  18. Effects of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF in rat pups: Beneficial effects of exercise.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Seyed Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Hypothyroidism during early development leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in developing brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF levels in both hypothyroid male and female rat pups. To induce hypothyroidism in the mothers, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was added to their drinking water (100mg/L) from their embryonic day 6 to their postnatal day (PND) 21. For 14days, from PNDs 31 to 44, the rat pups were trained with one of the two different exercise protocols, namely the mild treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise. On PNDs 45-52, a water maze was used for testing their learning and memory ability. The rats were sacrificed one day later and their BDNF levels were then measured in the hippocampus. The findings of the present study indicate that hypothyroidism during the fetal period and the early postnatal period is associated with the impairment of spatial learning and memory and reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in both male and female rat offspring. Both the short-term treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise performed during the postnatal period reverse the behavioral and neurochemical deficits induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency in both male and female rat offspring. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a marked reversibility of both behavioral and neurochemical disorders induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency through the performance of exercise.

  19. Impaired dodging in food-conflict following fimbria-fornix transection in rats: a novel hippocampal formation deficit.

    PubMed

    Oddie, Scott D; Kirk, Ian J; Gorny, Boguslaw P; Whishaw, Ian Q; Bland, Brian H

    2002-03-15

    It is well known that damage to the hippocampal formation (Ammon's horn, dentate gyrus, fimbria-fornix, and other pathways) produces impairments in spatial navigation and in certain forms of learning. Lesions within these structures have also been reported to produce some motor impairments, but the nature of these impairments is less understood. The present study examined the effects of fimbria-fornix lesions on food wrenching and dodging, social interactions that occur when one rat attempts to steal food from a conspecific, who in turn attempts to protect the food by an evasive movement. Lesion effectiveness was confirmed histologically and electrophysiologically, by the loss of hippocampal rhythmical slow-wave activity (RSA or theta), and by changes in open field behavior (increased open field behavior, less thigmotaxis and more defecation). Analysis of the social interaction indicated when an eating control rat was approached by a conspecific that was attempting to steal its food, it prevented the theft by dodging, a rapid lateral maneuver involving forequarter turning and stepping with the rear limbs. Rats with fimbria-fornix lesions were significantly impaired in dodging and so were more likely to lose their food to the robber. This novel deficit in motor behavior is discussed in relation to contemporary theories of hippocampal function and it is suggested that the deficit may be caused by an inability of the fimbria-fornix damaged animals to disengage attention from eating in order to initiate an evasive movement to protect food. The finding of this novel deficit underscores the importance of considering both loss as well as release phenomena in the analysis of hippocampal formation function.

  20. Hippocampal Synaptic Expansion Induced by Spatial Experience in Rats Correlates with Improved Information Processing in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Carasatorre, Mariana; Ochoa-Alvarez, Adrian; Velázquez-Campos, Giovanna; Lozano-Flores, Carlos; Díaz-Cintra, Sofía Y.; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Spatial water maze (WM) overtraining induces hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) expansion, and it has been suggested that spatial pattern separation depends on the MF pathway. We hypothesized that WM experience inducing MF expansion in rats would improve spatial pattern separation in the hippocampal network. We first tested this by using the the delayed non-matching to place task (DNMP), in animals that had been previously trained on the water maze (WM) and found that these animals, as well as animals treated as swim controls (SC), performed better than home cage control animals the DNMP task. The “catFISH” imaging method provided neurophysiological evidence that hippocampal pattern separation improved in animals treated as SC, and this improvement was even clearer in animals that experienced the WM training. Moreover, these behavioral treatments also enhance network reliability and improve partial pattern separation in CA1 and pattern completion in CA3. By measuring the area occupied by synaptophysin staining in both the stratum oriens and the stratun lucidum of the distal CA3, we found evidence of structural synaptic plasticity that likely includes MF expansion. Finally, the measures of hippocampal network coding obtained with catFISH correlate significantly with the increased density of synaptophysin staining, strongly suggesting that structural synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus induced by the WM and SC experience is related to the improvement of spatial information processing in the hippocampus. PMID:26244549

  1. A role for interleukin-1β in determining the lineage fate of embryonic rat hippocampal neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Holly F; Treacy, Eimear; Keohane, Aoife K; Sullivan, Aideen M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2012-03-01

    Neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus of the developing and adult brain due to the presence of multipotent stem cells and restricted precursor cells at different stages of differentiation. It has been proposed that they may be of potential benefit for use in cell transplantation approaches for neurodegenerative disorders and trauma. Prolonged release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from activated microglia has a deleterious effect on hippocampal neurons and is implicated in the impaired neurogenesis and cognitive dysfunction associated with aging, Alzheimer's disease and depression. This study assessed the effect of IL-1β on the proliferation and differentiation of embryonic rat hippocampal NPCs in vitro. We show that IL-1R1 is expressed on proliferating NPCs and that IL-1β treatment decreases cell proliferation and neurosphere growth. When NPCs were differentiated in the presence of IL-1β, a significant reduction in the percentages of newly-born neurons and post-mitotic neurons and a significant increase in the percentage of astrocytes was observed in these cultures. These effects were attenuated by IL-1 receptor antagonist. These data reveal that IL-1β exerts an anti-proliferative, anti-neurogenic and pro-gliogenic effect on embryonic hippocampal NPCs, which is mediated by IL-1R1. The present results emphasise the consequences of an inflammatory environment during NPC development, and indicate that strategies to inhibit IL-1β signalling may be necessary to facilitate effective cell transplantation approaches or in conditions where endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis is impaired.

  2. Detrimental effect of fast neutrons on cultured immature rat hippocampal cells: relative biological effectiveness of in vitro cell death indices.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Kim, J S; Son, Y; Kim, J; Kim, J Y; Kim, S H; Kim, J C; Shin, T; Moon, C

    2011-09-01

    This in vitro study compared the detrimental effect and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-linear energy transfer (LET) fast neutrons on rat immature hippocampal cultured cells with those of low-LET γ rays. Immature hippocampal cells were exposed to fast neutrons or γ rays. Cytotoxicity and cell viability were analyzed using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-release assay and a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, respectively. The cytotoxicity and cell viability with fast neutrons or γ rays varied in a dose-dependent pattern. In the LDH release and MTT assay indices, the RBEs of fast neutrons were approximately 2.35 and 2.42, respectively. Fast neutrons markedly induced apoptotic changes in immature hippocampal cells with increased expression of active caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Increased cytotoxicity and decreased cell viability in immature hippocampal cells were seen in a dose-dependent pattern after fast-neutron and γ irradiation. Fast neutrons have a higher RBE for cell death indices than γ rays.

  3. Maternal immune activation produces neonatal excitability defects in offspring hippocampal neurons from pregnant rats treated with poly I:C

    PubMed Central

    Patrich, Eti; Piontkewitz, Yael; Peretz, Asher; Weiner, Ina; Attali, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) resulting from prenatal exposure to infectious pathogens or inflammatory stimuli is increasingly recognized to play an important etiological role in neuropsychiatric disorders with neurodevelopmental features. MIA in pregnant rodents induced by injection of the synthetic double-stranded RNA, Poly I:C, a mimic of viral infection, leads to a wide spectrum of behavioral abnormalities as well as structural and functional defects in the brain. Previous MIA studies using poly I:C prenatal treatment suggested that neurophysiological alterations occur in the hippocampus. However, these investigations used only juvenile or adult animals. We postulated that MIA-induced alterations could occur earlier at neonatal/early postnatal stages. Here we examined the neurophysiological properties of cultured pyramidal-like hippocampal neurons prepared from neonatal (P0-P2) offspring of pregnant rats injected with poly I:C. Offspring neurons from poly I:C-treated mothers exhibited significantly lower intrinsic excitability and stronger spike frequency adaptation, compared to saline. A similar lower intrinsic excitability was observed in CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of two weeks-old poly I:C offspring. Cultured hippocampal neurons also displayed lower frequency of spontaneous firing, higher charge transfer of IPSCs and larger amplitude of miniature IPSCs. Thus, maternal immune activation leads to strikingly early neurophysiological abnormalities in hippocampal neurons. PMID:26742695

  4. Potential targets for protecting against hippocampal cell apoptosis after transient cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiangyu; Zhang, Li’na; Liu, Ran; Liu, Yingzhi; Song, Jianfang; Dong, He; Jia, Yanfang; Zhou, Zangong

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria play an important role in neuronal apoptosis caused by cerebral ischemia, and the role is mediated by the expression of mitochondrial proteins. This study investigated the involvement of mitochondrial proteins in hippocampal cell apoptosis after transient cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in aged rats using a comparative proteomics strategy. Our experimental results show that the aged rat brain is sensitive to ischemia-reperfusion injury and that transient ischemia led to cell apoptosis in the hippocampus and changes in memory and cognition of aged rats. Differential proteomics analysis suggested that this phenomenon may be mediated by mitochondrial proteins associated with energy metabolism and apoptosis in aged rats. This study provides potential drug targets for the treatment of transient cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25206771

  5. Effects of Regular Treadmill Exercise on a DNA Oxidative-Damage Marker and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rat Hippocampal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoub, Soleiman; Ghadi, Arezoo; Pourbagher, Roghayeh; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Regular exercise can result in changes in the levels of oxidative stress in the hippocampus; however, little attention has been paid to physical-activity-induced neuronal protection to exposure to lead compounds. This study investigated the effects of regular treadmill exercise on a DNA oxidative-damage marker [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hippocampal tissue in lead-acetate exposed rats. Methods This study investigated the effects of 8 weeks of regular treadmill exercise on 8-OHdG and the TAC of hippocampal tissue in lead-acetate-exposed rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: baseline, sham (control), lead, and exercise+lead. The exercise program involved running on a treadmill with increasing intensity five times a week for 8 weeks. Animals in the lead and exercise+lead groups received lead acetate at 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally three times weekly for 8 weeks. Animals in the sham group received solvent (ethyl oleate) at 30 mg/kg body weight three times weekly for 8 weeks. TAC and 8-OHdG were measured by spectrophotometric and ELISA techniques, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test with a significance cutoff of p≤0.05. Results The level of 8-OHdG and the TAC were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the lead group than in the baseline and sham groups (p<0.01). However, the 8-OHdG level and TAC value in hippocampal tissue were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the exercise+lead group relative to the lead group (p<0.05). Conclusions The TAC of hippocampal tissue may be directly associated with neural protection mechanisms of exercise following lead acetate injection, and the beneficial effects of regular exercise in preventing hippocampal neuronal damage could be due to decreased hippocampal oxidative stress such as reflected by a lower 8-OHdG level and increased TAC.

  6. Effects of selected muscarinic cholinergic antagonists on [3H]acetylcholine release from rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Pohorecki, R; Head, R; Domino, E F

    1988-01-01

    A number of cholinergic muscarinic (M) agonists and antagonists were studied for their ability to enhance tritiated acetylcholine ([3H]ACh) release from electrically field-stimulated rat hippocampal slices. A Ca++-free medium and carbachol, but not nicotine, inhibited [3H]ACh release. Atropine, methylatropine and dexetimide produced concentration-dependent increases in [3H]ACh release to a maximum of about 50% above control. Aprophen and benactyzine produced a maximal response 25 to 35% above control. The selective M1 antagonist pirenzepine had the least effect on [3H]ACh release. Of the nonspecific M1-M2 antagonists studied, benactyzine produced the least amount of [3H]ACh release. The order of potency of the M antagonists in promoting a 15% increase in [3H]ACh release was aprophen greater than benactyzine greater than methylatropine greater than dexetimide greater than pirenzepine greater than atropine. However, the order of promoting maximal release of [3H]ACh was atropine greater than dexetimide greater than methylatropine greater than aprophen greater than benactyzine greater than pirenzepine. PMID:3335998

  7. Effects of adult dysthyroidism on the morphology of hippocampal granular cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Martí-Carbonell, Maria Assumpció; Garau, Adriana; Sala-Roca, Josefina; Balada, Ferran

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development and very important in the normal functioning of the brain. Thyroid hormones action in the adult brain has not been widely studied. The effects of adult hyperthyroidism are not as well understood as adult hypothyroidism, mainly in hippocampal granular cells. The purpose of the present study is to assess the consequences of adult hormone dysthyroidism (excess/deficiency of TH) on the morphology of dentate granule cells in the hippocampus by performing a quantitative study of dendritic arborizations and dendritic spines using Golgi impregnated material. Hypo-and hyperthyroidism were induced in rats by adding 0.02 percent methimazole and 1 percent L-thyroxine, respectively, to drinking water from 40 days of age. At 89 days, the animals' brains were removed and stained by a modified Golgi method and blood samples were collected in order to measure T4 serum levels. Neurons were selected and drawn using a camera lucida. Our results show that both methimazole and thyroxine treatment affect granule cell morphology. Treatments provoke alterations in the same direction, namely, reduction of certain dendritic-branching parameters that are more evident in the methimazole than in the thyroxine group. We also observe a decrease in spine density in both the methimazole and thyroxine groups. PMID:23093010

  8. Effects of memantine on hippocampal long-term potentiation, gamma activity, and sensorimotor gating in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingyi; Mufti, Asfandyar; Stan Leung, L

    2015-09-01

    Memantine, an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, is used for treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The mechanisms of memantine in relieving cognitive and behavioral symptoms are unclear, and this study attempts to elucidate its action on network and synaptic functions of the hippocampus. The effects of memantine on electrographic activity and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) were investigated in freely moving rats. Basal dendritic excitation on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells showed a robust LTP after theta-frequency primed bursts, and the LTP was higher after 5-10 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) memantine pretreatment, as compared with saline pretreatment. Injection of scopolamine (5 mg/kg ip) before memantine failed to block the LTP-enhancing effect of memantine. Memantine as compared with saline pretreatment did not affect the LTP after an afterdischarge induced by high-frequency (200-Hz) train stimulation. Memantine (5 or 10 mg/kg ip) significantly enhanced gamma oscillations in the hippocampal local field potentials of 40-100 Hz during walking and awake immobility. Memantine at 10 mg/kg ip, but not at 5 mg/kg ip, increased prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response, while both 5 and 10 mg/kg ip memantine enhanced the acoustic startle response as compared with saline-injected rats. These electrophysiological and behavioral effects of memantine are unique among N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists but are consistent with memantine's effects in improving cognitive and sensorimotor functions of Alzheimer's patients.

  9. Effects of voluntary exercise on hippocampal long-term potentiation in morphine-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Miladi-Gorji, H; Rashidy-Pour, A; Fathollahi, Y; Semnanian, S; Jadidi, M

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of voluntary exercise on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in morphine-dependent rats. The rats were randomly distributed into the saline-sedentary (Sal/Sed), the dependent-sedentary, the saline-exercise (Sal/Exc), and the dependent-exercise (D/Exc) groups. The Sal/Exc and the D/Exc groups were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 10 days. The Sal/Sed and the morphine-sedentary groups were kept sedentary for the same extent of time. Morphine (10 mg/kg) was injected bi-daily (12 h interval) during 10 days of voluntary exercise. On day 11, 2h after the morphine injection, the in vivo LTP in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was examined. The theta frequency primed bursts were delivered to the perforant path for induction of LTP. Population spike (PS) amplitude and the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) slope were measured as indices of increase in synaptic efficacy. Chronic morphine increased the mean basal EPSP, and augmented PS-LTP. Exercise significantly increased the mean baseline EPSP and PS responses, and augmented PS-LTP in both saline and morphine-treated groups. Moreover, the increase of PS-LTP in the morphine-exercise group was greater (22.5%), but not statistically significant, than that of the Sal/Exc group. These results may imply an additive effect between exercise and morphine on mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. Such an interaction between exercise and chronic morphine may influence cognitive functions in opiate addicts.

  10. Effects of chronic manganese exposure on the learning and memory of rats by observing the changes in the hippocampal cAMP signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guiqiang; Qin, Huiyan; Zhang, Li'e; Ma, Shuyan; Huang, Xiaowei; Lv, Yingnan; Qing, Li; Li, Qin; Xiong, Yuxia; Huang, Yifei; Chen, Kangcheng; Huang, Yuman; Shen, Yuefei; Nong, Jie; Yang, Xiaobo; Zou, Yunfeng

    2015-09-01

    Chronic manganese exposure can produce cognitive deficits; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear; reliable peripheral biomarker of Mn neurotoxicity have not yet been fully developed. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Mn-induced cognitive deficits and the potential biomarker of Mn neurotoxicity in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups; these groups received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg Mn/kg once daily, five days/week for 18 weeks. Learning and memory were assessed via Morris water maze test. Hippocampal and plasma Mn concentrations were measured through graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels of plasma BDNF, hippocampal BDNF, cAMP, protein kinase A, and pCREB were assessed through ELISA or Western blot. Results showed that the Mn concentrations in the hippocampus and plasma of the Mn-treated rats were higher than those of the control rats. Mn exposure impaired the learning and memory of rats. Plasma BDNF levels and hippocampal BDNF, cAMP, protein kinase A, and pCREB levels were significantly lower in the Mn-treated rats than in the control rats. Plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with the escape latency and the hippocampal and plasma Mn concentrations. By contrast, plasma BDNF levels were positively correlated with the number of platform crossings and the hippocampal cAMP and BDNF levels. Therefore, Mn impaired learning and memory probably by inhibiting the hippocampal cAMP signaling pathway in rats. Plasma BDNF levels may also be a potential effect biomarker of Mn neurotoxicity.

  11. Changes in the plastic properties of hippocampal dendritic spines underlie the attenuation of place learning in healthy aged rats.

    PubMed

    González-Ramírez, Myrna M; Velázquez-Zamora, Dulce A; Olvera-Cortés, María Esther; González-Burgos, Ignacio

    2014-03-01

    Normal aging is characterized by slight impairments in spatial memory, and the modification of some electrophysiological parameters that underlie place learning and associated reference memory. However, the morphological mechanisms underlying these impairments remain unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the spine density and the proportion of thin, mushroom, stubby, wide, branched and double spines on pyramidal neuron dendrites in the hippocampal CA1 field of young and aged rats. These parameters were assessed both before and after evaluating place learning and reference memory in the Morris water maze. Aged rats adopted an egocentric strategy to resolve the task, swimming slower and further, and taking longer to locate the sunken platform. While probe trials revealed that aged animals could recall the platform position, these animals spent more time exploring incorrect quadrants than young rats. An increase in spine density was observed after task performance in both young and aged rats, but aging provoked a decrease in the density of thin spines. In addition, there was an increase in the density of mushroom and wide spines in aged animals after task performance as compared with the untested aged counterparts. Moreover, in aged animals there were fewer thin spines and more wide spines after task performance than in the young tested animals. These findings support the view that aging attenuates but does not abolish spatial memory, a process that may be associated with plastic changes in the type of dendritic spines on aged hippocampal CA1 neurons.

  12. Detrimental effects of a high fat/high cholesterol diet on memory and hippocampal markers in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ledreux, Aurélie; Wang, Xiuzhe; Schultzberg, Marianne; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Freeman, Linnea R

    2016-10-01

    High fat diets have detrimental effects on cognitive performance, and can increase oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. The aging brain provides a vulnerable environment to which a high fat diet could cause more damage. We investigated the effects of a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet on cognitive performance, neuroinflammation markers, and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) pathological markers in the hippocampus of Young (4-month old) versus Aged (14-month old) male rats. Young and Aged male Fisher 344 rats were fed a HFHC diet or a normal control diet for 6 months. All animals underwent cognitive testing for 12days in a water radial arm maze to assess spatial and working reference memory. Hippocampal tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for structural changes and inflammation, and Western blot analysis. Young and Aged rats fed the HFHC diet exhibited worse performance on a spatial working memory task. They also exhibited significant reduction of NeuN and calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity as well as an increased activation of microglial cells in the hippocampal formation. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus showed higher levels of p-Tau S202/T205 and T231 in Aged HFHC rats, suggesting abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein following the HFHC diet exposure. This work demonstrates HFHC diet-induced cognitive impairment with aging and a link between high fat diet consumption and pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Detrimental effects of a high fat/high cholesterol diet on memory and hippocampal markers in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ledreux, Aurélie; Wang, Xiuzhe; Schultzberg, Marianne; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Freeman, Linnea R

    2016-10-01

    High fat diets have detrimental effects on cognitive performance, and can increase oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. The aging brain provides a vulnerable environment to which a high fat diet could cause more damage. We investigated the effects of a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet on cognitive performance, neuroinflammation markers, and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) pathological markers in the hippocampus of Young (4-month old) versus Aged (14-month old) male rats. Young and Aged male Fisher 344 rats were fed a HFHC diet or a normal control diet for 6 months. All animals underwent cognitive testing for 12days in a water radial arm maze to assess spatial and working reference memory. Hippocampal tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for structural changes and inflammation, and Western blot analysis. Young and Aged rats fed the HFHC diet exhibited worse performance on a spatial working memory task. They also exhibited significant reduction of NeuN and calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity as well as an increased activation of microglial cells in the hippocampal formation. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus showed higher levels of p-Tau S202/T205 and T231 in Aged HFHC rats, suggesting abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein following the HFHC diet exposure. This work demonstrates HFHC diet-induced cognitive impairment with aging and a link between high fat diet consumption and pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27343935

  14. Voluntary exercise ameliorates cognitive deficits in morphine dependent rats: the role of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Akhavan, Maziar M; Semnanian, Saeed; Safari, Manouchehr

    2011-10-01

    Chronic exposure to opiates impairs spatial learning and memory. Given the well-known beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions, we investigated whether voluntary exercise would ameliorate the cognitive deficits that are induced by morphine dependence. If an effect of exercise was observed, we aimed to investigate the possible role of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory in morphine-dependent rats. The rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10mg/kg, at 12h intervals) of morphine over a period of 10 days of voluntary exercise. Following these injections, a water maze task was performed twice a day for five consecutive days, followed by a probe trial 2 days later. A specific BDNF inhibitor (TrkB-IgG chimera) was used to block the hippocampal BDNF action during the 10 days of voluntary exercise. We found that voluntary exercise blocked the ability of chronic morphine to impair spatial memory retention. A blockade of the BDNF action blunted the exercise-induced improvement of spatial memory in the dependent rats. Moreover, the voluntary exercise diminished the severity of the rats' dependency on morphine. This study demonstrates that voluntary exercise ameliorates, via a TrkB-mediated mechanism, the cognitive deficits that are induced by chronic morphine. Thus, voluntary exercise might be a potential method to ameliorate some of the deleterious behavioral consequences of the abuse of morphine and other opiates.

  15. Histological correlates of N40 auditory evoked potentials in adult rats after neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion: animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pimentel, A L; Vázquez-Roque, R A; Camacho-Abrego, I; Hoffman, K L; Linares, P; Flores, G; Manjarrez, E

    2014-11-01

    The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) is an established neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia. Rats with NVHL exhibit several behavioral, molecular and physiological abnormalities that are similar to those found in schizophrenics. Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness characterized by profound disturbances of mental functions including neurophysiological deficits in brain information processing. These deficits can be assessed by auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), where schizophrenics exhibit abnormalities in amplitude, duration and latency of such AEPs. The aim of the present study was to compare the density of cells in the temporal cerebral cortex and the N40-AEP of adult NVHL rats versus adult sham rats. We found that rats with NVHL exhibit significant lower amplitude of the N40-AEP and a significant lower number of cells in bilateral regions of the temporal cerebral cortex compared to sham rats. Because the AEP recordings were obtained from anesthetized rats, we suggest that NVHL leads to inappropriate innervation in thalamic-cortical pathways in the adult rat, leading to altered function of cortical networks involved in processing of primary auditory information.

  16. Intraperitoneal N-acetylcysteine for acute iron intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, Rachelle; Abu-Kishk, Ibrahim; Kozer, Eran; Ben-Assa, Eyal; Goldstein, Lee H; Youngster, Ilan; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2011-10-01

    Free radical formation and release of oxidant agents have been suggested as possible mechanisms for tissue damage in acute iron intoxication. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione substitute and an antioxidant, is widely used as an antidote for various intoxications. Our aim was to determine whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) NAC would reduce the mortality of rats after acute, toxic oral doses of iron. Male Wistar rats were studied in three phases. In the first phase, animals were assigned to groups 1 (distilled water by gavage) and 2 (i.p. NAC) and observed for survival. In the second phase, rats were assigned to groups 3 (400 mg/kg elemental iron orally) and 4 (400 mg/kg elemental iron, followed by 150 mg/kg i.p. NAC). Survival was observed. Because most rats in Group 3 died within 90 minutes after iron administration, a third phase was conducted in order to allow for comparison of iron and transaminase serum levels after the administration of iron and NAC (group 5: n = 10). Mortality was significantly lower in rats treated with iron and NAC, compared to those treated with iron (P = 0.016). Median serum iron level was significantly lower among rats treated with iron and NAC, compared with rats treated with iron alone (P = 0.002). In a rat model of acute iron intoxication, i.p. administration of NAC may decrease serum iron levels and mortality. PMID:21740343

  17. Effects of Resibufogenin and Cinobufagin on voltage-gated potassium channels in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shuang; Bao, Yong-Ming; An, Li-Jia; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Rong-Guo; Bi, Jing; Wang, He-Shuang; Sun, Chang-Sen; Liu, Ji-Wen; Jiang, Bo

    2011-12-01

    Outward delayed rectifier potassium channel and outward transient potassium channel have multiple important roles in maintaining the excitability of hippocampal neurons. The present study investigated the effects of two bufadienolides, Resibufogenin (RBG) and Cinobufagin (CBG), on the outward delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) and outward transient potassium current (IA) in rat hippocampal neurons. RBG and CBG have similar structures and both were isolated from the venom gland of toad skin. RBG inhibited both IK and IA, whereas CBG inhibited IK without noticeable effect on IA. Moreover, at 1 μM concentration both RBG and CBG could alter some channel kinetics and gating properties of IK, such as steady-state activation and inactivation curves, open probability and time constants. These findings suggested that IK is probably a target of bufadienolides, which may explain the mechanisms of bufadienolides' pathological effects on central nervous system. PMID:21798339

  18. Taurine attenuates hippocampal and corpus callosum damage, and enhances neurological recovery after closed head injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y; Zhao, Y; Qian, K; Sun, M

    2015-04-16

    The protective effects of taurine against closed head injury (CHI) have been reported. This study was designed to investigate whether taurine reduced white matter damage and hippocampal neuronal death through suppressing calpain activation after CHI in rats. Taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 30 min and 4 h again after CHI. It was found that taurine lessened the corpus callosum damage, attenuated the neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields and improved the neurological functions 7 days after CHI. Moreover, it suppressed the over-activation of calpain, enhanced the levels of calpastatin, and reduced the degradation of neurofilament heavy protein, myelin basic protein and αII-spectrin in traumatic tissue 24 h after CHI. These data confirm the protective effects of taurine against gray and white matter damage due to CHI, and suggest that down-regulating calpain activation could be one of the protective mechanisms of taurine against CHI.

  19. Treadmill exercise alleviates prenatal noise stress-induced impairment of spatial learning ability through enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Shin, Mal-Soon; Park, Joon-Ki; Shin, Mi-Ai; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Lee, Sam-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Stress alters brain cell properties and then disturbs cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. In this study, we investigated the effect of postnatal treadmill exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning ability of rat pups following prenatal noise stress. The impact of exercise intensity (mild-intensity exercise vs heavy-intensity exercise) was also compared. The pregnant rats in the stress-applied group were exposed to a 95 dB supersonic machine sound for 1 h once a day from the 15th day after mating until delivery. After birth, the rat pups in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 7 consecutive days, starting 4 weeks after birth. The spatial learning ability was tested using radial-arm maze task and hippocampal neurogenesis was determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry. The rat pups born from the stress-applied maternal rats spent more time for the seeking of water and showed higher number of error in the radial-arm maze task compared to the control group. These rat pups showed suppressed neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In contrast, the rat pups performed postnatal treadmill exercise saved time for seeking of water and showed lower number of error compared to the stress-applied group. Postnatal treadmill exercise also enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The mild-intensity exercise showed more potent impact compared to the heavy-intensity exercise. The present results reveal that postnatal treadmill exercise lessens prenatal stress-induced deterioration of brain function in offspring.

  20. Effects of long-term malnutrition and rehabilitation on the hippocampal formation of the adult rat. A morphometric study.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, J P; Madeira, M D; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1995-01-01

    We have previously shown that the numerical density of dentate granule and CA3 pyramidal cells of adult rats is reduced after lengthy periods of low-protein diet. In this study, the total number of these neurons was estimated, together with those for the hilar and CA1 pyramidal cells in order to obtain a complete and unbiased insight into the effects of malnutrition and rehabilitation from malnutrition on the structure of the hippocampal formation. Groups of 2-month-old rats were fed a low protein diet (8% casein) for 6, 12 and 18 months and compared with age-matched control and recovery rats. The recovery group was fed a low protein diet for 6 months and then switched to normal diet during the same period. Total numbers of neurons of each hippocampal region were calculated from their numerical density, estimated with the physical disector, and from the volume of the respective cell layers, after correction for the tissue shrinkage factor. The total number of granule, hilar, CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells was reduced in all groups of malnourished rats including the recovery group. No differences were found between malnourished and recovery groups. These findings indicate that a prolonged low protein diet, started in adult life, leads to a deficit in neuronal numbers in the hippocampal formation, and that it may also disrupt the normal process of cell acquisition in the dentate gyrus. Moreover, our data support the view that the morphological alterations induced by a low protein intake are irreversible. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7592001

  1. Effects of genistein on cognitive dysfunction and hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairment in an ovariectomized rat kainic acid model of seizure.

    PubMed

    Khodamoradi, Mehdi; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Esmaeilpour, Khadije; Sheibani, Vahid

    2016-09-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the probable effects of genistein (one of the most important soy phytoestrogens-SPEs) on seizure-induced cognitive dysfunction, hippocampal early long-term potentiation (E-LTP) impairment and morphological damage to CA1 neurons in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Three weeks after ovariectomy, cannulae were implanted over the left lateral ventricle. After a 7-day recovery period, animals were injected by genistein (0.5 or 5mg/kg) or vehicle during four consecutive days, each 24h. One h after the last treatment, kainic acid (KA) or vehicle was perfused into the left lateral ventricle to induce generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Finally, 7 days later, spatial learning and memory of animals were examined using the Morris water maze (MWM) task, hippocampal E-LTP was assessed using in-vivo field potential recordings and the morphology of hippocampal CA1 area was examined using Fluoro-Jade C staining. KA-induced generalized seizures resulted in spatial learning and memory impairment, E-LTP deficit and CA1 cell injury. Seizure-induced abnormalities improved partially only by the lower dose of genistein (0.5mg/kg). However, genistein at the higher dose (5mg/kg) did not have any beneficial effects. Also, genistein did not affect seizure activity. It is concluded that genistein may have partially preventive effects against seizure-induced cognitive impairment in OVX rats. Also, it seems that such effects of genistein are correlated with its beneficial effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and morphology. PMID:27235295

  2. Impaired mitochondrial respiration and protein nitration in the rat hippocampus after acute inhalation of combustion smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Heung M.; Reed, Jason; Greeley, George H.; Englander, Ella W.

    2009-03-01

    Survivors of massive inhalation of combustion smoke endure critical injuries, including lasting neurological complications. We have previously reported that acute inhalation of combustion smoke disrupts the nitric oxide homeostasis in the rat brain. In this study, we extend our findings and report that a 30-minute exposure of awake rats to ambient wood combustion smoke induces protein nitration in the rat hippocampus and that mitochondrial proteins are a sensitive nitration target in this setting. Mitochondria are central to energy metabolism and cellular signaling and are critical to proper cell function. Here, analyses of the mitochondrial proteome showed elevated protein nitration in the course of a 24-hour recovery following exposure to smoke. Mass spectrometry identification of several significantly nitrated mitochondrial proteins revealed diverse functions and involvement in central aspects of mitochondrial physiology. The nitrated proteins include the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase, F1-ATP synthase {alpha} subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), succinate dehydrogenase Fp subunit, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein. Furthermore, acute exposure to combustion smoke significantly compromised the respiratory capacity of hippocampal mitochondria. Importantly, elevated protein nitration and reduced mitochondrial respiration in the hippocampus persisted beyond the time required for restoration of normal oxygen and carboxyhemoglobin blood levels after the cessation of exposure to smoke. Thus, the time frame for intensification of the various smoke-induced effects differs between blood and brain tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that nitration of essential mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the reduction in mitochondrial respiratory capacity and underlie, in part, the brain pathophysiology after acute inhalation of combustion smoke.

  3. The effects of intra-dorsal hippocampus infusion of pregnenolone sulfate on memory function and hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression of biliary cirrhosis-induced memory impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Dastgheib, M; Dehpour, A R; Heidari, M; Moezi, L

    2015-10-15

    Learning and memory impairment is one of the most challenging complications of cirrhosis and present treatments are unsatisfactory. The exact mechanism of cirrhosis cognitive dysfunction is unknown. Pregnenolone sulfate (PREGS) is an excitatory neurosteroid that acts as a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist and GABAA receptor antagonist. In this study we evaluated the effect of intra CA1 infusion of PREGS on cirrhotic rats' memory function using the Y-maze test. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression was also evaluated. Three weeks after bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery, rats were under stereotaxic surgery for insertion of two guide cannulas in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. After 1-week of recovery, PREGS was administered through CA1 cannulas in cirrhotic rats, while control or sham groups received vehicle. For evaluation of NMDA receptor role in memory-enhancing effects of PREGS, DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) which is a potent and competitive antagonist of NMDA receptor, co-administered with PREGS and for assessment of hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression, quantitative Real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) was used. Results showed that 28 days after BDL, cirrhotic animals' memory significantly decreased in comparison with control and sham groups, while PREGS infusion could restore memory impairment (P<0.05). PREGS effects on memory of cirrhotic rats were antagonized by DAP5. RT-PCR findings have shown that hippocampal relative BDNF mRNA expression was up-regulated in PREGS-treated groups in comparison with the BDL group (P<0.001). Our findings suggest that PREGS has a memory-enhancing effect in cirrhosis memory deficit in acute therapy and this effect may be through NMDA (glutamate) receptor involvement and BDNF mRNA expression.

  4. Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA and NMDA receptor channels in basket cells of rat hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    PubMed Central

    Koh, D S; Geiger, J R; Jonas, P; Sakmann, B

    1995-01-01

    1. Glutamate receptor (GluR) channels were studied in basket cells in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampal slices. Basket cells were identified by their location, dendritic morphology and high frequency of action potentials generated during sustained current injection. 2. Dual-component currents were activated by fast application of glutamate to outside-out membrane patches isolated from basket cell somata (10 microM glycine, no external Mg2+). The fast component was selectively blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), the slow component by D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5). This suggests that the two components were mediated by alpha-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR)/kainate receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) channels, respectively. The mean ratio of the peak current of the NMDAR component to that of the AMPAR/kainate receptor component was 0.22 (1 ms pulses of 10 mM glutamate). 3. The AMPAR/kainate receptor component, which was studied in isolation in the presence of D-AP5, was identified as AMPAR mediated on the basis of the preferential activation by AMPA as compared with kainate, the weak desensitization of kainate-activated currents, the cross-desensitization between AMPA and kainate, and the reduction of desensitization by cyclothiazide. 4. Deactivation of basket cell AMPARs following 1 ms pulses of glutamate occurred with a time constant (tau) of 1.2 +/- 0.1 ms (mean +/- S.E.M.). During 100 ms glutamate pulses AMPARs desensitized with a tau of 3.7 +/- 0.2ms. 5. The peak current-voltage (I-V) relation of AMPAR-mediated currents in Na(+)-rich extracellular solution showed a reversal potential of -4.0 +/- 2.6 mV and was characterized by a a doubly rectifying shape. The conductance of single AMPAR channels was estimated as 22.6 +/- 1.6 pS using non-stationary fluctuation analysis. AMPARs expressed in hippocampal basket cells were highly Ca2+ permeable (PCa/PK = 1.79). 6. NMDARs in

  5. Long-Term Estrogen Receptor Beta Agonist Treatment Modifies the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sárvári, Miklós; Kalló, Imre; Hrabovszky, Erik; Solymosi, Norbert; Rodolosse, Annie; Liposits, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) robustly activates transcription of a broad array of genes in the hippocampal formation of middle-aged ovariectomized rats via estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled ER). Selective ERβ agonists also influence hippocampal functions, although their downstream molecular targets and mechanisms are not known. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term treatment with ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 0.05 mg/kg/day, sc.) on the hippocampal transcriptome in ovariectomized, middle-aged (13 month) rats. Isolated hippocampal formations were analyzed by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Four hundred ninety-seven genes fulfilled the absolute fold change higher than 2 (FC > 2) selection criterion. Among them 370 genes were activated. Pathway analysis identified terms including glutamatergic and cholinergic synapse, RNA transport, endocytosis, thyroid hormone signaling, RNA degradation, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, and mRNA surveillance. PCR studies showed transcriptional regulation of 58 genes encoding growth factors (Igf2, Igfb2, Igf1r, Fgf1, Mdk, Ntf3, Bdnf), transcription factors (Otx2, Msx1), potassium channels (Kcne2), neuropeptides (Cck, Pdyn), peptide receptors (Crhr2, Oprm1, Gnrhr, Galr2, Sstr1, Sstr3), neurotransmitter receptors (Htr1a, Htr2c, Htr2a, Gria2, Gria3, Grm5, Gabra1, Chrm5, Adrb1), and vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (Slc32a1, Slc17a7). Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed networking of clusters associated with the regulation of growth/troph factor signaling, transcription, translation, neurotransmitter and neurohormone signaling mechanisms and potassium channels. Collectively, the results reveal the contribution of ERβ-mediated processes to the regulation of transcription, translation, neurogenesis, neuromodulation, and neuroprotection in the hippocampal formation of ovariectomized, middle-aged rats and elucidate regulatory channels responsible for

  6. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Keith L; Chapleau, Jeanette D; Pierce, Joseph P; Kelter, David T; Williams, Tanya J; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; McEwen, Bruce S; Waters, Elizabeth M; Milner, Teresa A

    2011-08-19

    Opioids play a critical role in hippocampally dependent behavior and plasticity. In the hippocampal formation, mu opioid receptors (MOR) are prominent in parvalbumin (PARV) containing interneurons. Previously we found that gonadal hormones modulate the trafficking of MORs in PARV interneurons. Although sex differences in response to stress are well documented, the point at which opioids, sex and stress interact to influence hippocampal function remains elusive. Thus, we used quantitative immunocytochemistry in combination with light and electron microscopy for the phosphorylated MOR at the SER375 carboxy-terminal residue (pMOR) in male and female rats to assess these interactions. In both sexes, pMOR-immunoreactivity (ir) was prominent in axons and terminals and in a few neuronal somata and dendrites, some of which contained PARV in the mossy fiber pathway region of the dentate gyrus (DG) hilus and CA3 stratum lucidum. In unstressed rats, the levels of pMOR-ir in the DG or CA3 were not affected by sex or estrous cycle stage. However, immediately following 30 minutes of acute immobilization stress (AIS), males had higher levels of pMOR-ir whereas females at proestrus and estrus (high estrogen stages) had lower levels of pMOR-ir within the DG. In contrast, the number and types of neuronal profiles with pMOR-ir were not altered by AIS in either males or proestrus females. These data demonstrate that although gonadal steroids do not affect pMOR levels at resting conditions, they are differentially activated both pre- and post-synaptic MORs following stress. These interactions may contribute to the reported sex differences in hippocampally dependent behaviors in stressed animals. PMID:22468144

  7. Erythropoietin Ameliorates Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia-Induced Neurobehavioral Deficits, Neuroinflammation, and Hippocampal Injury in the Juvenile Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Kuo-Mao; Tien, Lu-Tai; Cai, Zhengwei; Lin, Shuying; Pang, Yi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Rhodes, Philip G.; Bhatt, Abhay J.; Savich, Renate D.; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be neuroprotective against hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in Postnatal Day 7 (P7)–P10 or adult animal models. The current study was aimed to determine whether EPO also provides long-lasting neuroprotection against HI in P5 rats, which is relevant to immature human infants. Sprague-Dawley rats at P5 were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by an exposure to 6% oxygen with balanced nitrogen for 1.5 h. Human recombinant EPO (rEPO, at a dose of 5 units/g) was administered intraperitoneally one hour before or immediately after insult, followed by additional injections at 24 and 48 h post-insult. The control rats were injected with normal saline following HI. Neurobehavioral tests were performed on P8 and P20, and brain injury was examined on P21. HI insult significantly impaired neurobehavioral performance including sensorimotor, locomotor activity and cognitive ability on the P8 and P20 rats. HI insult also resulted in brain inflammation (as indicated by microglia activation) and neuronal death (as indicated by Jade B positive staining) in the white matter, striatum, cortex, and hippocampal areas of the P21 rat. Both pre- and post-treatment with rEPO significantly improved neurobehavioral performance and protected against the HI-induced neuronal death, microglia activation (OX42+) as well as loss of mature oligodendrocytes (APC-CC1+) and hippocampal neurons (Nissl+). The long-lasting protective effects of rEPO in the neonatal rat HI model suggest that to exert neurotrophic activity in the brain might be an effective approach for therapeutic treatment of neonatal brain injury induced by hypoxia-ischemia. PMID:26927081

  8. Hippocampal proteoglycans brevican and versican are linked to spatial memory of Sprague-Dawley rats in the morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Saroja, Sivaprakasam R; Sase, Ajinkya; Kircher, Susanne G; Wan, Jia; Berger, Johannes; Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2014-09-01

    Proteoglycans (PGs) are major constituents of the extracellular matrix and have recently been proposed to contribute to synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal PGs have not yet been studied or linked to memory. The aim of the study, therefore, was to isolate and characterize rat hippocampal PGs and determine their possible role in spatial memory. PGs were extracted from rat hippocampi by anion-exchange chromatography and analyzed by nano LC-MS/MS. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested in the morris water maze. PGs agrin, amyloid beta A4 protein, brevican, glypican-1, neurocan, phosphacan, syndecan-4, and versican were identified in the hippocampi. Brevican and versican levels in the membrane fraction were higher in the trained group, correlating with the time spent in the target quadrant. α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor GluR1 was co-precipitated with brevican and versican. Levels for a receptor complex containing GluR1 was higher in trained while GluR2 and GluR3-containing complex levels were higher in yoked rats. The findings provide information about the PGs present in the rat hippocampus, demonstrating that versican and brevican are linked to memory retrieval in the morris water maze and that PGs interact with α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor GluR1, which is linked to memory retrieval. Proteoglycans (PGs) are major constituents of the extracellular matrix of the brain and were proposed to contribute to synaptic plasticity. This report addressed PGs in rat hippocampus and suggests that PGs brevican and versican are linked to spatial memory, and form a complex with the GluR1 subunit of the AMPA receptor, a key signaling molecule in memory mechanisms.

  9. Erythropoietin Ameliorates Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia-Induced Neurobehavioral Deficits, Neuroinflammation, and Hippocampal Injury in the Juvenile Rat.

    PubMed

    Lan, Kuo-Mao; Tien, Lu-Tai; Cai, Zhengwei; Lin, Shuying; Pang, Yi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Rhodes, Philip G; Bhatt, Abhay J; Savich, Renate D; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be neuroprotective against hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in Postnatal Day 7 (P7)-P10 or adult animal models. The current study was aimed to determine whether EPO also provides long-lasting neuroprotection against HI in P5 rats, which is relevant to immature human infants. Sprague-Dawley rats at P5 were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by an exposure to 6% oxygen with balanced nitrogen for 1.5 h. Human recombinant EPO (rEPO, at a dose of 5 units/g) was administered intraperitoneally one hour before or immediately after insult, followed by additional injections at 24 and 48 h post-insult. The control rats were injected with normal saline following HI. Neurobehavioral tests were performed on P8 and P20, and brain injury was examined on P21. HI insult significantly impaired neurobehavioral performance including sensorimotor, locomotor activity and cognitive ability on the P8 and P20 rats. HI insult also resulted in brain inflammation (as indicated by microglia activation) and neuronal death (as indicated by Jade B positive staining) in the white matter, striatum, cortex, and hippocampal areas of the P21 rat. Both pre- and post-treatment with rEPO significantly improved neurobehavioral performance and protected against the HI-induced neuronal death, microglia activation (OX42+) as well as loss of mature oligodendrocytes (APC-CC1+) and hippocampal neurons (Nissl+). The long-lasting protective effects of rEPO in the neonatal rat HI model suggest that to exert neurotrophic activity in the brain might be an effective approach for therapeutic treatment of neonatal brain injury induced by hypoxia-ischemia. PMID:26927081

  10. Subregional Expression of Hippocampal Glutamatergic and GABAergic Genes in F344 Rats with Social Isolation after Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hisaya; Yamamuro, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that postweaning social isolation (pwSI) alters various behavioral phenotypes, including hippocampus-dependent tasks. Here, we report the comprehensive analysis of the expression of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission-related genes in the distinct hippocampal subregions of pwSI rats. Male F344 rats (age, 4 wk) experienced either pwSI or group housing (controls). At 7 wk of age, the hippocampus of each rat was removed and laser-microdissected into the CA1 and CA3 layers of pyramidal cells and the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Subsequently, the expression of glutamatergic- and GABAergic-related genes was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. In the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers, 18 of 24 glutamate receptor subunit genes were at least 1.5-fold increased in expression after pwSI. In particular, the expression of several N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptors (for example, Grin2a in CA1, Grik4 in CA3) was significantly increased after pwSI. In contrast, pwSI tended to decrease the expression of GABAA receptor subunit genes, and Gabra1, Gabra2, Gabra4, Gabra5, Gabrb2, Gabrg1, and Gabrg2 were all significantly decreased in expression compared with the levels in the group-housed rats. These results indicate a subregion-specific increase of glutamate receptors and reduction of GABAA receptors, suggesting that the hippocampal circuits of pwSI rats may be in more excitable states than those of group-housed rats. PMID:26884404

  11. Hippocampal AP5 treatment impairs both spatial working and reference memory in radial maze performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuo; Shimizu, Makoto; Kawabe, Kouichi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2015-07-01

    The possible involvement of hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in spatial reference and working memory was investigated. Rats were first trained in a four-baited/four-unbaited version of the eight-arm radial maze task in which only predetermined four arms for each rat were baited with a food pellet. After rats reached the learning criterion, their performance was tested under the treatment of a NMDA antagonist, AP5 (d,l-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, 20-40nmol), or vehicle into the dorsal hippocampus through the bilaterally implanted guide cannulae. AP5 produced dose-dependent increments on both reference and working memory errors, but did not have any effect on the running speed. Additionally, there were significant correlations between the number of trials to criterion in acquisition and the number of reference and working memory errors induced by AP5 treatment. The results suggest that hippocampal NMDA receptors are involved in both spatial reference and working memory.

  12. Alterations in spatial memory and anxiety in the MAM E17 rat model of hippocampal pathology in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gastambide, Francois; Taylor, Amy M; Palmer, Clare; Svard, Heta; Karjalainen, Maija; Janhunen, Sanna K; Tricklebank, Mark; Bannerman, David M

    2015-11-01

    Adult rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at embryonic day 17 (E17) display robust pathological alterations in the hippocampus. However, discrepancies exist in the literature regarding the behavioural effects of this pre-natal manipulation. Therefore, a systematic assessment of MAM E17-induced behavioural alterations was conducted using a battery of dorsal and ventral hippocampus-dependent tests. Compared to saline controls, MAM E17-treated rats displayed deficits in spatial reference memory in both the aversive hidden platform watermaze task and an appetitive Y-maze task. Deficits in the spatial reference memory watermaze task were replicated across three different cohorts and two laboratories. In contrast, there was little, or no, effect on the non-spatial, visible platform watermaze task or an appetitive, non-spatial, visual discrimination task, respectively. MAM rats were also impaired in the spatial novelty preference task which assesses short-term memory, and displayed reduced anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze task. Thus, MAM E17 administration resulted in abnormal spatial information processing and reduced anxiety in a number of hippocampus-dependent behavioural tests, paralleling the effects of dorsal and ventral hippocampal lesions, respectively. These findings corroborate recent pathological and physiological studies, further highlighting the usefulness of MAM E17 as a model of hippocampal dysfunction in at least some aspects of schizophrenia. PMID:25633092

  13. Alterations in spatial memory and anxiety in the MAM E17 rat model of hippocampal pathology in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gastambide, Francois; Taylor, Amy M; Palmer, Clare; Svard, Heta; Karjalainen, Maija; Janhunen, Sanna K; Tricklebank, Mark; Bannerman, David M

    2015-11-01

    Adult rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at embryonic day 17 (E17) display robust pathological alterations in the hippocampus. However, discrepancies exist in the literature regarding the behavioural effects of this pre-natal manipulation. Therefore, a systematic assessment of MAM E17-induced behavioural alterations was conducted using a battery of dorsal and ventral hippocampus-dependent tests. Compared to saline controls, MAM E17-treated rats displayed deficits in spatial reference memory in both the aversive hidden platform watermaze task and an appetitive Y-maze task. Deficits in the spatial reference memory watermaze task were replicated across three different cohorts and two laboratories. In contrast, there was little, or no, effect on the non-spatial, visible platform watermaze task or an appetitive, non-spatial, visual discrimination task, respectively. MAM rats were also impaired in the spatial novelty preference task which assesses short-term memory, and displayed reduced anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze task. Thus, MAM E17 administration resulted in abnormal spatial information processing and reduced anxiety in a number of hippocampus-dependent behavioural tests, paralleling the effects of dorsal and ventral hippocampal lesions, respectively. These findings corroborate recent pathological and physiological studies, further highlighting the usefulness of MAM E17 as a model of hippocampal dysfunction in at least some aspects of schizophrenia.

  14. Enhancement of Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract Treatment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been in clinical use for centuries. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the role of aqueous extract of root of Gg treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis area three (CA3) neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in 1- month- old male Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally in four doses (75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the treatment period, all experimental animals were subjected to spatial learning (Morris water maze, Hebb-William's maze and elevated plus maze) tests. At the end of the spatial memory tests, the rats were deeply anesthetized with Pentobarbitone and killed their brains were removed rapidly and fixed in rapid Golgi fixative. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic arborization and intersections were quantified. These data were compared to those of age-matched control rats. Results: The aqueous root extract of Gg in the dose of 150 and 225 mg/kg/p.o showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of dendritic arborization (dendritic branching points) and dendritic intersections along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in hippocampal (CA3) pyramidal neurons is comparable to control. Conclusion: Based on our results obtained, we conclude that constituents present in aqueous root extract of Gg have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties. PMID:24678192

  15. Effects of exercise intensity on spatial memory performance and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in transient brain ischemic rats.

    PubMed

    Shih, Pei-Cheng; Yang, Yea-Ru; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2013-01-01

    Memory impairment is commonly noted in stroke survivors, and can lead to delay of functional recovery. Exercise has been proved to improve memory in adult healthy subjects. Such beneficial effects are often suggested to relate to hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which is important for memory processing. Previous evidence showed that in normal rats, low intensity exercise can improve synaptic plasticity better than high intensity exercise. However, the effects of exercise intensities on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory after brain ischemia remain unclear. In this study, we investigated such effects in brain ischemic rats. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) procedure was used to induce brain ischemia. After the MCAO procedure, rats were randomly assigned to sedentary (Sed), low-intensity exercise (Low-Ex), or high-intensity exercise (High-Ex) group. Treadmill training began from the second day post MCAO procedure, 30 min/day for 14 consecutive days for the exercise groups. The Low-Ex group was trained at the speed of 8 m/min, while the High-Ex group at the speed of 20 m/min. The spatial memory, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synapsin-I, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and dendritic structures were examined to document the effects. Serum corticosterone level was also quantified as stress marker. Our results showed the Low-Ex group, but not the High-Ex group, demonstrated better spatial memory performance than the Sed group. Dendritic complexity and the levels of BDNF and PSD-95 increased significantly only in the Low-Ex group as compared with the Sed group in bilateral hippocampus. Notably, increased level of corticosterone was found in the High-Ex group, implicating higher stress response. In conclusion, after brain ischemia, low intensity exercise may result in better synaptic plasticity and spatial memory performance than high intensity exercise; therefore, the intensity is suggested to be considered

  16. Postischemic, systemic administration of polyamine-modified superoxide dismutase reduces hippocampal CA1 neurodegeneration in rat global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wengenack, T M; Curran, G L; Poduslo, J F

    1997-04-18

    Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) have shown neuroprotective effects in animal models of cerebral ischemia, but only at very high doses. Modifications to increase the plasma half-life or blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of SOD have resulted in limited neuroprotective effects. No one has demonstrated neuroprotection with postischemic administration. The specific aim of the present study was to administer systemically a polyamine-modified SOD, having increased BBB permeability and preserved enzymatic activity, following global cerebral ischemia in rats and analyze the effects on the selective vulnerability of CA1 hippocampal neurons. Following 12 min of four-vessel occlusion, global cerebral ischemia, male Wistar rats were dosed (i.v.) with either saline, native SOD (5000 U/kg), polyamine-modified SOD (5000 U/kg), or enzymatically inactive, polyamine-modified SOD (2.1 mg/kg) twice daily for 3 days. Neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neurons were assessed using standard histological methods. Saline-treated animals had very few remaining CA1 neurons (1.44 +/- 0.60 neurons/reticle; x +/- S.E.M.) compared to sham rats (58.57 +/- 0.69). Native (10.38 +/- 2.96) or inactive, polyamine-modified SOD (7.32 +/- 2.68) did not show significant neuroprotective effects. Polyamine-modified SOD, however, resulted in the survival of significantly more CA1 neurons (24.61 +/- 5.90; P < 0.01). Postischemic, systemic administration of polyamine-modified SOD, having increased BBB permeability and preserved enzymatic activity, significantly reduced hippocampal CA1 neuron loss following global cerebral ischemia. Similar modification of other antioxidant enzymes and neurotrophic factors with polyamines may provide a useful technique for the systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins across the BBB for the treatment of stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:9134958

  17. Effects of low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, J E; Scott, I R; Wood, S J; Nettell, J J; Bevir, M K; Wang, Z; Somasiri, N P; Chen, X

    2001-06-15

    Slices of rat hippocampus were exposed to 700 MHz continuous wave radiofrequency (RF) fields (25.2-71.0 V m(-1), 5-15 min exposure) in a stripline waveguide. At low field intensities, the predominant effect on the electrically evoked field potential in CA1 was a potentiation of the amplitude of the population spike by up to 20%, but higher intensity fields could produce either increases or decreases of up to 120 and 80%, respectively, in the amplitude of the population spike. To eliminate the possibility of RF-induced artefacts due to the metal stimulating electrode, the effect of RF exposure on spontaneous epileptiform activity induced in CA3 by 4-aminopyridine (50-100 microM) was investigated. Exposure to RF fields (50.0 V m(-1)) reduced or abolished epileptiform bursting in 36% of slices tested. The maximum field intensity used in these experiments, 71.0 V m(-1), was calculated to produce a specific absorption rate (SAR) of between 0.0016 and 0.0044 W kg(-1) in the slices. Measurements with a Luxtron fibreoptic probe confirmed that there was no detectable temperature change (+/- 0.1 degrees C) during a 15 min exposure to this field intensity. Furthermore, imposed temperature changes of up to 1 degrees C failed to mimic the effects of RF exposure. These results suggest that low-intensity RF fields can modulate the excitability of hippocampal tissue in vitro in the absence of gross thermal effects. The changes in excitability may be consistent with reported behavioural effects of RF fields.

  18. Ebselen alters cellular oxidative status and induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Santofimia-Castaño, Patricia; Izquierdo-Alvarez, Alicia; de la Casa-Resino, Irene; Martinez-Ruiz, Antonio; Perez-Lopez, Marcos; Portilla, Juan C; Salido, Gines M; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-05-16

    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) is an organoselenium radical scavenger compound, which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Because of its properties, it may be protective against injury to the nervous tissue. However, evidence suggests that its glutathione peroxidase activity could underlie certain deleterious actions on cell physiology. In this study we have analyzed the effect of ebselen on rat hippocampal astrocytes in culture. Cellular oxidative status, cytosolic free-Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c), setting of endoplasmic reticulum stress and phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein and major mitogen-activated protein kinases were analyzed. Our results show that ebselen induced a concentration-dependent increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria. We observed a concentration-dependent increase in global cysteine oxidation and in the level of malondialdehyde in the presence of ebselen. We also detected increases in catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activity. Ebselen also evoked a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca(2+)]c. Moreover, we observed a concentration-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of the unfolded protein response markers, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and X-box binding protein 1. Finally, ebselen also induced an increase in the phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein, SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. Our results provide strong evidence that implicate endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of crucial mitogen-activated protein kinases in an oxidative damage of cells in the presence of ebselen. The compound thus might exert deleterious actions on astrocyte physiology that could compromise their function. PMID:27282967

  19. Spatio-temporal characterization imaging of Ca2+ oscillations in rat hippocampal neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Lu, Jinling; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Rengang; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    Ca2+ is the most common signal transduction element in cells and plays critical rolls in neuronal development and plasticity. Ca2+ signals encode information in their oscillation frequency or amplitude and response time to regular cellular function. In this study, in order to reveal the spatio-temporal characterization of Ca2+ oscillations in rat hippocampal neurons, two kinds of Ca2+ fluorescent probes, yellow cameleons 2.1 (YC2.1) and Fluo-3, were used to monitor the change of the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration (]Ca2+[i). Spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations and glutamate elicited Ca2+ oscillations were observed with multi-photon excitation laser scan microscope (MPELSM) and confocal laser scan microscope (CLSM). The observation showed that the spatio- temporal characterization of either spontaneous or glutamate provoked Ca2+ oscillations had difference between the neurites and somata in individual nerons, especially in some distal end of neurites. The result indicated that Ca2+ oscillations were most important signal transduction pattern in neuronal development and activation. The spatio-temporal characterization of difference of Ca2+ signals between the distal endo of neurites and the somata might be associated with the distribution of ionotropic receptor and metabotropic glutamate receptors, and Ca2+ response mechanism mediated by two kinds of glutamate receptor. Ca2+ signal elicited by glutamate in the distal end of neurites appeared more complex and generated faster than that in the somata. It was suggested that Ca2+ signal in glutamate stimulated hippacamal neurons first generated from the distal end of neurites and then transduted to the somata. The complicated Ca2+ signal characterization in the distal end of neurites might be associated with neuronal activitation, neurotransmitter releasing, and other functions of neurons.

  20. Block and allosteric modulation of GABAergic currents by oenanthotoxin in rat cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wyrembek, Paulina; Lebida, Katarzyna; Mercik, Katarzyna; Szczuraszek, Katarzyna; Szczot, Marcin; Pollastro, Federica; Appendino, Giovanni; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Oenanthotoxin (OETX), a polyacetylenic alcohol from plants of the genus Oenanthe, has recently been identified as potent inhibitor of GABA-evoked currents. However, the effects of OETX on the inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), as well as the pharmacological mechanism(s) underlying its effects on GABAA receptors, remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of GABAergic currents by OETX. Experimental approach: Effects of OETX on GABAergic currents were studied using the patch clamp technique on rat cultured hippocampal neurons. Miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) were recorded in the whole-cell configuration, while the current responses were elicited by ultrafast GABA applications onto the excised patches. Key results: OETX potently inhibited both mIPSCs and current responses, but its effect was much stronger on synaptic currents. Analysis of the effects of OETX on mIPSCs and evoked currents disclosed a complex mechanism: allosteric modulation of both GABAA receptor binding and gating properties and a non-competitive, probably open channel block mechanism. In particular, OETX reduced the binding rate and nearly abolished receptor desensitization. A combination of rapid clearance of synaptic GABA and OETX-induced slowing of binding kinetics is proposed to underlie the potent action of OETX on mIPSCs. Conclusions and implications: OETX shows a complex blocking mechanism of GABAA receptors, and the impact of this toxin is more potent on mIPSCs than on currents evoked by exogenous GABA. Such effects on GABAergic currents are compatible with the convulsions and epileptic-like activity reported for OETX. PMID:20590622

  1. Multiple mechanisms of picrotoxin block of GABA-induced currents in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, K W; Covey, D F; Rothman, S M

    1993-01-01

    1. We have examined the effect of picrotoxin on GABA-induced currents in dissociated rat hippocampal neurons. In addition, we used the putative picrotoxin receptor antagonist, alpha-isopropyl-alpha-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone (alpha IMGBL), and the picrotoxin agonist, beta-ethyl-beta-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone (beta EMGBL) to explore the mechanisms of picrotoxin's interaction with the GABA-Cl- receptor-ionophore complex. 2. The picrotoxin block of GABA current was use dependent, suggesting that the site of picrotoxin block is exposed by the conformational change initiated by GABA binding to the receptor. 3. The alkyl-substituted butyrolactone antagonist, alpha IMGBL, selectively blocked the use-dependent mechanism of picrotoxin effect. After the apparent complete inhibition of the use-dependent effect, there was a residual picrotoxin effect that was independent of the time or concentration of GABA application. This indicates that the picrotoxin block of the GABA current is mediated by two different mechanisms. alpha IMGBL influences just one of these mechanisms. 4. The picrotoxin receptor agonist, beta EMGBL, exclusively blocked the GABA current in a use-dependent manner. Consistent with a use-dependent mechanism, the rate of onset of block increased with GABA concentration. Surprisingly, the fraction of GABA current block decreased with increasing GABA concentration. 5. These results suggest that the relationship of picrotoxin and gamma-butyrolactones with the GABA-Cl- receptor-ionophore is quite complex. They are consistent with at least two possible models of agonist-antagonist interactions. Both cases require different antagonist affinities for the various kinetic states of the GABA-Cl- receptor-ionophore. However, there is no need to require that either picrotoxin or beta EMGBL acts as an open channel blocker. PMID:8229811

  2. Spatial Organization of NG2 Glial Cells and Astrocytes in Rat Hippocampal CA1 Region

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guangjin; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Min

    2014-01-01

    Similar to astrocytes, NG2 glial cells are uniformly distributed in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the interspatial relationship, nor the functional interactions between these two star-shaped glial subtypes. Confocal morphometric analysis showed that NG2 immunostained cells are spatially organized as domains in rat hippocampal CA1 region and that each NG2 glial domain occupies a spatial volume of ~ 178, 364 μm3. The processes of NG2 glia and astrocytes overlap extensively; each NG2 glial domain interlaces with the processes deriving from 5.8 ± 0.4 neighboring astrocytes, while each astrocytic domain accommodates processes stemming from 4.5 ± 0.3 abutting NG2 glia. In CA1 stratum radiatum, the cell bodies of morphologically identified glial cells often appear to make direct somatic-somata contact, termed as doublets. We used dual patch recording and post-recording NG2/GFAP double staining to determine the glial identities of these doublets. We show that among 44 doublets, 50% were NG2 glia-astrocyte pairs, while another 38.6% and 11.4% were astrocyte-astrocyte and NG2 glia-NG2 glia pairs, respectively. In dual patch recording, neither electrical coupling nor intercellular biocytin transfer was detected in astrocyte-NG2 glia or NG2 glia-NG2 glia doublets. Altogether, although NG2 glia and astrocytes are not gap junction coupled, their cell bodies and processes are interwoven extensively. The anatomical and physiological relationships revealed in this study should facilitate future studies to understand the metabolic coupling and functional communication between NG2 glia and astrocytes. PMID:24339242

  3. Active dendrites regulate the impact of gliotransmission on rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Ashhad, Sufyan; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2016-06-01

    An important consequence of gliotransmission, a signaling mechanism that involves glial release of active transmitter molecules, is its manifestation as N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent slow inward currents in neurons. However, the intraneuronal spatial dynamics of these events or the role of active dendrites in regulating their amplitude and spatial spread have remained unexplored. Here, we used somatic and/or dendritic recordings from rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons and demonstrate that a majority of NMDAR-dependent spontaneous slow excitatory potentials (SEP) originate at dendritic locations and are significantly attenuated through their propagation across the neuronal arbor. We substantiated the astrocytic origin of SEPs through paired neuron-astrocyte recordings, where we found that specific infusion of inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) into either distal or proximal astrocytes enhanced the amplitude and frequency of neuronal SEPs. Importantly, SEPs recorded after InsP3 infusion into distal astrocytes exhibited significantly slower kinetics compared with those recorded after proximal infusion. Furthermore, using neuron-specific infusion of pharmacological agents and morphologically realistic conductance-based computational models, we demonstrate that dendritically expressed hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN) and transient potassium channels play critical roles in regulating the strength, kinetics, and compartmentalization of neuronal SEPs. Finally, through the application of subtype-specific receptor blockers during paired neuron-astrocyte recordings, we provide evidence that GluN2B- and GluN2D-containing NMDARs predominantly mediate perisomatic and dendritic SEPs, respectively. Our results unveil an important role for active dendrites in regulating the impact of gliotransmission on neurons and suggest astrocytes as a source of dendritic plateau potentials that have been implicated in localized plasticity and place cell

  4. The effects of ebselen on cisplatin and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) cytotoxicity in rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hardej, D; Trombetta, L D

    2002-05-28

    Ebselen is a seleno-organic compound with documented cytoprotective properties. Little work has been done, however, demonstrating ebselen's cytoprotective properties in neural cell lines. In order to examine the effects of this compound and its mechanism of action, astrocytes were exposed to two known neurotoxicants, cisplatin and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC). Cells were pretreated with 30 microM ebselen and subsequently treated with either 150 microM DDC for 1 h or 250 and 500 microM cisplatin for 24 h. Results indicate significant increases in viability in cells pretreated with ebselen and exposed to cisplatin. Ebselen pretreatment did not significantly increase viability in cells exposed to DDC. Light and scanning electron microscopy studies confirm the viability studies. Gross morphological damage was seen in cells treated with cisplatin, however, cells pretreated with ebselen and then exposed to cisplatin, appeared similar to controls. No differences were noted in cells pretreated with ebselen and then exposed to DDC or cells treated with DDC alone. In order to examine the mechanism of protection of this compound, glutathione status was examined. Results show that ebselen does not significantly increase reduced or oxidized glutathione (GSH, GSSG). All cell groups treated with cisplatin showed an increase in GSH levels. Ebselen showed protection in glutathione depleted cells at the 250 microM cisplatin dose. DDC treatment showed no significant increase in either reduced or oxidized glutathione. We conclude that ebselen significantly protects against cisplatin, but not DDC toxicity. We further conclude that this protection is not related to changes in glutathione status in the rat hippocampal cell line as has been reported in other cell types.

  5. Acute and oral subchronic toxicity of D-003 in rats.

    PubMed

    Gámez, R; Mas, R; Noa, M; Menéndez, R; Alemán, C; Acosta, P; García, H; Hernández, C; Amor, A; Pérez, J; Goicochea, E

    2000-12-20

    D-003 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax (Saccharum officinarum) with cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet effects experimentally proven. The present work reports the results of two studies investigating the acute and subchronic oral toxicity of D-003 in rats. Oral acute toxicity of D-003 (2000 mg/kg) was investigated according to the Acute Toxic Class (ATC) method (an alternative for the classical LD(50) test), which was performed in Wistar rats. The results obtained in this study defined D-003 oral acute toxicity as unclassified. In the subchronic study, rats of both sexes were orally treated with D-003 at 50, 200 and 1250 mg/kg for 90 days. At this time, animals were sacrificed. No evidence of treatment-related toxicity was detected during the study. Thus, data analysis of body weight gain, food consumption, clinical observations, blood biochemical, haematology, organ weight ratios and histopathological findings did not show significant differences between control and treated groups. It is concluded that D-003 orally administered to rats was safe and that no drug-related toxicity was detected even at the highest doses investigated in both acute (2000 mg/kg) and subchronic (1250 mg/kg) studies.

  6. Locomotion-induced hippocampal theta is independent of visual information in rats during movement through a pipe.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y; Yang, Cheryl C H; Lin, Y Y; Kuo, Terry B J

    2011-01-20

    Behavioural correlates of the hippocampal theta rhythm have been suggested to include voluntary motor behaviours and spatial learning. The involvement of visual information during these processes is still undetermined. Therefore, our aim was to clarify the contribution of locomotion and visual information to the generation of hippocampal theta during locomotion. Forty-one Wistar-Kyoto male rats (8-9 weeks old) were separated into active or passive movement groups that travelled through a pipe, which was either lit or unlit. Animals were implanted with a bipolar electrode in the hippocampus for local field potential recording. Head and leg movements were recorded by accelerometer and leg electromyogram, respectively, and stress levels were assessed by heart rate measurement. Theta power (4-12 Hz) was divided into medium theta (MT, 6-10 Hz) and low theta (LT, 4-6 Hz) power. There was a significant effect of locomotion (p<0.001, two-way ANOVA) on theta power, MT power, and theta mean power frequency. Visual information, however, had no significant effect, nor did the interaction between locomotion and visual information. The lack of visual information effect could not be explained by differences in movement patterns or stress levels, because these two measures did not differ between the lit and unlit conditions. Our results indicate that visual information is not essential for locomotion-induced hippocampal theta, implying that theta oscillation during spatial learning does not reflect sensory processing of visual information.

  7. Changes in hippocampal orexin 1 receptor expression involved in tooth pain-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Raoof, Ramin; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Raoof, Maryam; Sheibani, Vahid; Kooshki, Razieh; Amirkhosravi, Ladan; Rafie, Foroozan

    2015-04-01

    Orexin 1 receptor signaling plays a significant role in pain as well as learning and memory processes. This study was conducted to assess the changes in orexin 1 receptor expression levels in hippocampus following learning and memory impairment induced by tooth inflammatory pulpal pain. Adult male Wistar rats received intradental injection of 100 µg capsaicin to induce pulpal pain. After recording the pain scores, spatial learning and memory were assessed using Morris Water Maze test. The hippocampal levels of orexin 1 receptor mRNA and protein were determined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting respectively. The data showed that capsaicin-induced tooth inflammatory pulpal pain was correlated with learning and memory impairment. Intra-hippocampal injection of orexin A inhibited pain-induced learning and memory impairment. However, orexin 1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867, had no effect on learning and memory impairment. Moreover, capsaicin-induced pain significantly decreased hippocampal orexin 1 receptor mRNA and protein levels. Meanwhile, reversed changes took place in the ibuprofen-pretreated group (p < 0.05). It seems that decrease in orexin 1 receptor density and signaling could be involved in tooth pain-induced learning and memory impairment.

  8. Adolescent olanzapine sensitization is correlated with hippocampal stem cell proliferation in a maternal immune activation rat model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shinnyi; Jones, Sean; Li, Ming

    2015-08-27

    Previous work established that repeated olanzapine (OLZ) administration in normal adolescent rats induces a sensitization effect (i.e. increased behavioral responsiveness to drug re-exposure) in the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) model. However, it is unclear whether the same phenomenon can be detected in animal models of schizophrenia. The present study explored the generalizability of OLZ sensitization from healthy animals to a preclinical neuroinflammatory model of schizophrenia in the CAR. Maternal immune activation (MIA) was induced via polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) administration into pregnant dams. Behavioral assessments of offspring first identified decreased maternal separation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations and increased amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in animals prenatally exposed to PolyI:C. In addition, repeated adolescent OLZ administration confirmed the generalizability of the sensitization phenomenon. Using the CAR test, adolescent MIA animals displayed a similar increase in behavioral responsiveness after repeated OLZ exposure during both the repeated drug test days as well as a subsequent challenge test. Neurobiologically, few studies examining the relationship between hippocampal cell proliferation and survival and either antipsychotic exposure or MIA have incorporated concurrent behavioral changes. Thus, the current study also sought to reveal the correlation between OLZ behavioral sensitization in the CAR and hippocampal cell proliferation and survival. 5'-bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry identified a positive correlation between the magnitude of OLZ sensitization (i.e. change in avoidance suppression induced by OLZ across days) and hippocampal cell proliferation. The implications of the relationship between behavioral and neurobiological results are discussed.

  9. Reduction of rat hippocampal calcium-binding protein following commissural, amygdala, septal, perforant path, and olfactory bulb kindling.

    PubMed

    Baimbridge, K G; Mody, I; Miller, J J

    1985-01-01

    The calcium-binding protein (CaBP) content of the hippocampal formation was determined by radioimmunoassay in control and kindled rats. Kindling of a number of different sites resulted in a reduction in the CaBP content of the hippocampal formation, which was shown immunohistochemically to be restricted to the dentate granule cells and their processes. The maximum decline in CaBP varied with the different kindling sites: perforant path, 33%; commissural path, 32%; septum, 30%; amygdala, 18%; and olfactory bulbs, 15%. There were no changes in the CaBP content of the stimulated areas themselves. In cases where the kindling stimulus was delivered unilaterally (perforant path and amygdala), the maximum decrease in hippocampal CaBP was observed ipsilateral to the site of stimulation when the criterion for full kindling was established (six consecutive stage 5 motor seizures). Further kindling trials were required to produce a similar magnitude decrease in the CaBP content of the contralateral hippocampus. These observations are discussed both in relation to the possible role of CaBP in the establishment of a seizure response to kindling and also as a potential compensatory mechanism that may serve to overcome the epileptogenic effects of kindling.

  10. Effects of monomethylarsonic and monomethylarsonous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of adult and young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Katharina Straub, Heidrun; Hirner, Alfred V.; Hippler, Joerg; Binding, Norbert; Musshoff, Ulrich

    2009-04-01

    Arsenite and its metabolites, dimethylarsinic or dimethylarsinous acid, have previously been shown to disturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats (Krueger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501, Krueger, K., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006b. Effects of arsenite on long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from adult and young rats. Toxicol. Lett. 165, 167-173, Krueger, K., Repges, H., Hippler, J., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2007. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 225, 40-46). The present experiments investigate, whether the important arsenic metabolites monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) also influence the synaptic functions of the hippocampus. In hippocampal slices of young (14-21 days-old) and adult (2-4 months-old) rats, evoked synaptic field potentials from the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were measured under control conditions and during and after 30 and 60 min of application of the arsenic compounds. MMA{sup V} had no effect on the synapse functions neither in slices of adult nor in those from young rats. However, MMA{sup III} strongly influenced the synaptic transmission: it totally depressed the amplitudes of fEPSPs at concentrations of 50 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 25 {mu}mol/l (young rats) and LTP amplitudes at concentrations of 25 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 10 {mu}mol/l (young rats), respectively. In contrast, application of 1 {mu}mol/l MMA{sup III} led to an enhancement of the LTP amplitude in young rats, which is interpretable by an enhancing effect on NMDA receptors and a lack of the blocking effect on AMPA receptors at

  11. Distinct epigenetic and gene expression changes in rat hippocampal neurons after Morris water maze training

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sylvia D.; Mifsud, Karen R.; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Gene transcription and translation in the hippocampus is of critical importance in hippocampus-dependent memory formation, including during Morris water maze (MWM) learning. Previous work using gene deletion models has shown that the immediate-early genes (IEGs) c-Fos, Egr-1, and Arc are crucial for such learning. Recently, we reported that induction of IEGs in sparse dentate gyrus neurons requires ERK MAPK signaling and downstream formation of a distinct epigenetic histone mark (i.e., phospho-acetylated histone H3). Until now, this signaling, epigenetic and gene transcriptional pathway has not been comprehensively studied in the MWM model. Therefore, we conducted a detailed study of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and serine10 in histone H3 (H3S10p) and induction of IEGs in the hippocampus of MWM trained rats and matched controls. MWM training evoked consecutive waves of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and H3S10 phosphorylation, as well as c-Fos, Egr-1, and Arc induction in sparse hippocampal neurons. The observed effects were most pronounced in the dentate gyrus. A positive correlation was found between the average latency to find the platform and the number of H3S10p-positive dentate gyrus neurons. Furthermore, chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP) revealed a significantly increased association of phospho-acetylated histone H3 (H3K9ac-S10p) with the gene promoters of c-Fos and Egr-1, but not Arc, after MWM exposure compared with controls. Surprisingly, however, we found very little difference between IEG responses (regarding both protein and mRNA) in MWM-trained rats compared with matched swim controls. We conclude that exposure to the water maze evokes ERK MAPK activation, distinct epigenetic changes and IEG induction predominantly in sparse dentate gyrus neurons. It appears, however, that a specific role for IEGs in the learning aspect of MWM training may become apparent in downstream AP-1- and Egr-1-regulated (second wave) genes and Arc-dependent effector mechanisms

  12. Age-related changes in rat hippocampal theta rhythms: a difference between type 1 and type 2 theta.

    PubMed

    Abe, Y; Toyosawa, K

    1999-05-01

    The age-related changes in two types of theta rhythms recorded from the hippocampus in young (4 months-old), mature (12-13 months-old) and aged (22-25 months-old) rats were investigated. The type 1 theta rhythm was measured from hippocampal EEG recorded from walking rats and the type 2 theta was measured from the EEG induced by reticular pontin oralis nucleus (PON) stimulation in urethane anesthetized rats. The peak frequency and the peak power were detected from power spectra calculated on each theta sample by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). No age-related alteration was observed on the peak frequency of type 1 theta rhythm. However, on type 2 theta rhythm, the peak frequency was decreased in the aged rats compared with the young and the mature rats. The type 2 theta rhythm is cholinergic, and therefore this result suggests that age-related deterioration can be clearly observed in the cholinergic system including the hippocampus in rats.

  13. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. PMID:27184238

  14. The effects of aqueous extract of Boswellia Serrata on hippocampal region CA1 and learning deficit in kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Jalili, C; Salahshoor, M R; Pourmotabbed, A; Moradi, S; Roshankhah, Sh; Darehdori, A Shabanizadeh; Motaghi, M

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a disorder of the central nervous system in which hippocampus is mostly involved and causes memory impairment. Kindling is a model of inducing epilepsy which is created through pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) administration. This study examines the role of the aqueous extract of Boswellia on the learning and development of brain (formation of dendritic branches and axons) of the PTZ-induced kindled rats. The study is conducted on sixty-four male rats divided into 8 groups. Kindling seizures are induced by three injections of 25 mg/kg of PTZ every 15 min. The aqueous extracts (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 g/kg, i.p) are administrated to all animals for three consecutive days. Passive avoidance learning of animals is examined using shuttle box apparatus and step-through latency (STL) method. Rats are anesthetized and their brains are fixed by transcardial perfusion method and are analyzed by morphometric methods after applying Golgi and Cresyl violet staining methods. PTZ-induced kindling indicates a significant decrease in the number of pyramidal neurons and dendritic spines in hippocampal region cornu ammonis (CA1). The STL of the kindled rats is significantly reduced compared with control ones. Also, Boswellia extract dramatically increased the number of neuronal processes in CA1 region and improves passive-avoidance learning ability in both control and PTZ-kindled animals in 1 g/kg dose administration of Boswellia extract, especially at high doses can eliminate adverse effects of seizures on cognitive function in hippocampal area CA1 in rats. PMID:25657807

  15. Treadmill running frequency on anxiety and hippocampal adenosine receptors density in adult and middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcelo S; Ardais, Ana Paula; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Portela, Luis Valmor; Souza, Diogo O; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2012-01-10

    Physical exercise protocols have varied widely across studies raising the question of whether there is an optimal intensity, duration and frequency that would produce maximal benefits in attenuating symptoms related to anxiety disorders. Although physical exercise causes modifications in neurotransmission systems, the involvement of neuromodulators such as adenosine has not been investigated after chronic exercise training. Anxiety-related behavior was assessed in the elevated plus-maze in adult and middle-aged rats submitted to 8 weeks of treadmill running 1, 3 or 7 days/week. The speed of running was weekly adjusted to maintain moderate intensity. The hippocampal adenosine A1 and A2A receptors densities were also assessed. Treadmill running protocol was efficient in increasing physical exercise capacity in adult and middle-aged rats. All frequencies of treadmill running equally decreased the time spent in the open arms in adult animals. Middle-aged treadmill control rats presented lower time spent in the open arms than adult treadmill control rats. However, treadmill running one day/week reversed this age effect. Adenosine A1 receptor was not changed between groups, but treadmill running counteracted the age-related increase in adenosine A2A receptors. Although treadmill running, independent from frequency, triggered anxiety in adult rats and treadmill running one day/week reversed the age-related anxiety, no consistent relationship was found with hippocampal adenosine receptors densities. Thus, our data suggest that as a complementary therapy in the management of mental disturbances, the frequency and intensity of physical exercise should be taken into account according to age. Besides, this is the first study reporting the modulation of adenosine receptors after chronic physical exercise, which could be important to prevent neurological disorders associated to increase in adenosine A2A receptors.

  16. The effects of aqueous extract of Boswellia Serrata on hippocampal region CA1 and learning deficit in kindled rats

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, C.; Salahshoor, M.R.; Pourmotabbed, A.; Moradi, S.; Roshankhah, SH.; Darehdori, A. Shabanizadeh; Motaghi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a disorder of the central nervous system in which hippocampus is mostly involved and causes memory impairment. Kindling is a model of inducing epilepsy which is created through pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) administration. This study examines the role of the aqueous extract of Boswellia on the learning and development of brain (formation of dendritic branches and axons) of the PTZ-induced kindled rats. The study is conducted on sixty-four male rats divided into 8 groups. Kindling seizures are induced by three injections of 25 mg/kg of PTZ every 15 min. The aqueous extracts (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 g/kg, i.p) are administrated to all animals for three consecutive days. Passive avoidance learning of animals is examined using shuttle box apparatus and step-through latency (STL) method. Rats are anesthetized and their brains are fixed by transcardial perfusion method and are analyzed by morphometric methods after applying Golgi and Cresyl violet staining methods. PTZ-induced kindling indicates a significant decrease in the number of pyramidal neurons and dendritic spines in hippocampal region cornu ammonis (CA1). The STL of the kindled rats is significantly reduced compared with control ones. Also, Boswellia extract dramatically increased the number of neuronal processes in CA1 region and improves passive-avoidance learning ability in both control and PTZ-kindled animals in 1 g/kg dose administration of Boswellia extract, especially at high doses can eliminate adverse effects of seizures on cognitive function in hippocampal area CA1 in rats. PMID:25657807

  17. Hippocampal effects of neuronostatin on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Carlini, V P; Ghersi, M; Gabach, L; Schiöth, H B; Pérez, M F; Ramirez, O A; Fiol de Cuneo, M; de Barioglio, S R

    2011-12-01

    A 13-amino acid peptide named neuronostatin (NST) encoded in the somatostatin pro-hormone has been recently reported. It is produced throughout the body, particularly in brain areas that have significant actions over the metabolic and autonomic regulation. The present study was performed in order to elucidate the functional role of NST on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake and the hippocampal participation in these effects. When the peptide was intra-hippocampally administered at 3.0 nmol/μl, it impaired memory retention in both, object recognition and step-down test. Also, this dose blocked the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) generation. When NST was intra-hippocampally administered at 0.3 nmol/μl and 3.0 nmol/μl, anxiolytic effects were observed. Also, the administration in the third ventricle at the higher dose (3.0 nmol/μl) induced similar effects, and both doses reduced food intake. The main result of the present study is the relevance of the hippocampal formation in the behavioral effects induced by NST, and these effects could be associated to a reduced hippocampal synaptic plasticity. PMID:21978882

  18. Hippocampal effects of neuronostatin on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Carlini, V P; Ghersi, M; Gabach, L; Schiöth, H B; Pérez, M F; Ramirez, O A; Fiol de Cuneo, M; de Barioglio, S R

    2011-12-01

    A 13-amino acid peptide named neuronostatin (NST) encoded in the somatostatin pro-hormone has been recently reported. It is produced throughout the body, particularly in brain areas that have significant actions over the metabolic and autonomic regulation. The present study was performed in order to elucidate the functional role of NST on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake and the hippocampal participation in these effects. When the peptide was intra-hippocampally administered at 3.0 nmol/μl, it impaired memory retention in both, object recognition and step-down test. Also, this dose blocked the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) generation. When NST was intra-hippocampally administered at 0.3 nmol/μl and 3.0 nmol/μl, anxiolytic effects were observed. Also, the administration in the third ventricle at the higher dose (3.0 nmol/μl) induced similar effects, and both doses reduced food intake. The main result of the present study is the relevance of the hippocampal formation in the behavioral effects induced by NST, and these effects could be associated to a reduced hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  19. Effects of Acute and Repeated Administration of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A On Morris Water Maze Learning, Corticosterone and Hippocampal IL-1β and TNFα

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Randall T.; Schorpp, Kristen M.; Lawrenczyk, Agniesczka J.; Chakraborty, Trisha; Kusnecov, Alexander W.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is a bacterial superantigen that induces pronounced T cell expansion and cytokine production. In addition, SEA activates the HPA axis and forebrain regions relevant to cognitive functions. Since learning-related cognitive changes have not been assessed in response to SEA, spatial learning in the morris water maze (MWM) was determined in male C57BL/6J mice subjected to acute or repeated injections of 5 μg SEA or Saline. Injections were given 2 hrs prior to 4–5 days of hidden platform sessions. Animals were then rested for 1 month and given retraining without further injections. In addition, splenic IL-1β, IL-2 and TNFα, plasma corticosterone, and hippocampal IL-1β and TNFα were measured after the regimen of treatment used in the behavioral experiments. The results showed no learning impairment following acute or repeated SEA challenge. Moreover, when retested one month later, and without further injections, the SEA group showed more rapid relearning of the MWM. This suggested that coincidental superantigenic T cell activation and training served to promote long-term improvement in recovery of learning. Furthermore, repeated SEA challenge continued to drive increases in plasma corticosterone, but with a compensatory reduction in hippocampal IL-1β. However, while hippocampal TNFα was reduced after acute and repeated SEA treatment, this was not statistically significant. In view of the importance of modest glucocorticoid elevations and hippocampal IL-1β in promoting contextual learning, the data point to the hypothesis that SEA promotes long-term plasticity by restraining disruptive increases in hippocampal IL-1β, and possibly TNFα, during learning. PMID:20946950

  20. Suppressed proliferation and apoptotic changes in the rat dentate gyrus after acute and chronic stress are reversible.

    PubMed

    Heine, Vivi M; Maslam, Suharti; Zareno, Jessica; Joëls, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J

    2004-01-01

    Acute stress suppresses new cell birth in the hippocampus in several species. Relatively little is known, however, on how chronic stress affects the turnover, i.e. proliferation and apoptosis, of the rat dentate gyrus (DG) cells, and whether the stress effects are lasting. We investigated how 3 weeks of chronic unpredictable stress would influence the structural dynamic plasticity of the rat DG, and studied newborn cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, volume and cell number in 10-week-old animals. To study lasting effects, another group of animals was allowed to recover for 3 weeks. Based on two independent parameters, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki-67 immunocytochemistry, our results show that both chronic and acute stress decrease new cell proliferation rate. The reduced proliferation after acute stress normalized within 24 h. Interestingly, chronically stressed animals showed recovery after 3 weeks, albeit with still fewer proliferating cells than controls. Apoptosis, by contrast, increased after acute but decreased after chronic stress. These results demonstrate that, although chronic stress suppresses proliferation and apoptosis, 3 weeks of recovery again normalized most of these alterations. This may have important implications for our understanding of the reversibility of stress-related hippocampal volume changes, such as occur, for example, in depression.

  1. Stimulation of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through the expression of amidohydrolase for N-terminal asparagine (Ntan1) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons exposed to static magnetism.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Takao; Taniura, Hideo; Goto, Yasuaki; Ogura, Masato; Sng, Judy C G; Yoneda, Yukio

    2006-03-01

    In order to elucidate mechanisms underlying modulation by static magnetism of the cellular functionality and/or integrity in the brain, we screened genes responsive to brief magnetism in cultured rat hippocampal neurons using differential display analysis. We have for the first time cloned and identified Ntan1 (amidohydrolase for N-terminal asparagine) as a magnetism responsive gene in rat brain. Ntan1 is an essential component of a protein degradation signal, which is a destabilizing N-terminal residue of a protein, in the N-end rule. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed abundant expression of Ntan1 mRNA in hippocampal neurons in vivo. Northern blot analysis showed that Ntan1 mRNA was increased about three-fold after 3 h in response to brief magnetism. Brief magnetism also increased the transcriptional activity of Ntan1 promoter by luciferase reporter assay. Brief magnetism induced degradation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) without affecting cell morphology and viability, which was prevented by a selective inhibitor of 26S proteasome in hippocampal neurons. Overexpression of Ntan1 using recombinant Ntan1 adenovirus vector resulted in a marked decrease in the MAP2 protein expression in hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that brief magnetism leads to the induction of Ntan1 responsible for MAP2 protein degradation through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in rat hippocampal neurons.

  2. Montelukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 antagonist protects against hippocampal injury induced by transient global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Saad, M A; Abdelsalam, R M; Kenawy, S A; Attia, A S

    2015-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent pro-inflammatory and immune modulating lipid mediators involved in inflammatory diseases and were boosted in human brain after acute phase of cerebral ischemia. The antagonism of CysLTs receptors may offer protection against ischemic damage. Therefore it seemed interesting to study the possible neuroprotective effect of Montelukast, a CysLTR1 antagonist in global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in rats. Global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion was induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 15 min followed by 60 min reperfusion period. Animals were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 30 per group): Sham operated, I/R control and rats treated with montelukast (0.5 mg/kg, po) daily for 7 days then I/R was induced 1 h after the last dose of montelukast. After reperfusion rats were killed by decapitation, brains were removed and both hippocampi separated and the following biochemical parameters were estimated; lactate dehydrogenase activity, oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and reduced glutathione), inflammatory markers (myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nuclear factor kappa-B, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10), apoptotic biomarkers (caspase 3 and cytochrome C), neurotransmitters (glutamate, gamma aminobutyric acid), Cys-LTs contents and CysLT1 receptor expression; as well as total brain infarct size and histopathological examination of the hippocampus were assessed. Montelukast protected hippocampal tissue by reducing oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Furthermore, it reduced glutamate and lactate dehydrogenase activity as well as infarct size elevated by I/R. These results were consistent with the histopathological findings. Montelukast showed a neuroprotective effects through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic mechanisms. PMID:25403620

  3. Stress and corticosteroids regulate rat hippocampal mitochondrial DNA gene expression via the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Richard G; Seligsohn, Ma'ayan; Rubin, Todd G; Griffiths, Brian B; Ozdemir, Yildirim; Pfaff, Donald W; Datson, Nicole A; McEwen, Bruce S

    2016-08-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are involved in stress and circadian regulation, and produce many actions via the GC receptor (GR), which is classically understood to function as a nuclear transcription factor. However, the nuclear genome is not the only genome in eukaryotic cells. The mitochondria also contain a small circular genome, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), that encodes 13 polypeptides. Recent work has established that, in the brain and other systems, the GR is translocated from the cytosol to the mitochondria and that stress and corticosteroids have a direct influence on mtDNA transcription and mitochondrial physiology. To determine if stress affects mitochondrially transcribed mRNA (mtRNA) expression, we exposed adult male rats to both acute and chronic immobilization stress and examined mtRNA expression using quantitative RT-PCR. We found that acute stress had a main effect on mtRNA expression and that expression of NADH dehydrogenase 1, 3, and 6 (ND-1, ND-3, ND-6) and ATP synthase 6 (ATP-6) genes was significantly down-regulated. Chronic stress induced a significant up-regulation of ND-6 expression. Adrenalectomy abolished acute stress-induced mtRNA regulation, demonstrating GC dependence. ChIP sequencing of GR showed that corticosterone treatment induced a dose-dependent association of the GR with the control region of the mitochondrial genome. These findings demonstrate GR and stress-dependent transcriptional regulation of the mitochondrial genome in vivo and are consistent with previous work linking stress and GCs with changes in the function of brain mitochondria. PMID:27457949

  4. Cognitive Dysfunction and Hippocampal Damage Induced by Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury and Prolonged Febrile Convulsions in Immature Rats

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Jung Hye; Kim, Gun-Ha; Kim, Joo Yeon; Sun, Woong; Kim, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and prolonged febrile seizures (pFS) are common neurologic problems that occur during childhood. However, there is insufficient evidence from experimental studies to conclude that pFS directly induces hippocampal injury. We studied cognitive function and histological changes in a rat model and investigated which among pFS, HIE, or a dual pathologic effect is most detrimental to the health of children. Methods A rat model of HIE at postnatal day (PD) 7 and a pFS model at PD10 were used. Behavioral and cognitive functions were investigated by means of weekly open field tests from postnatal week (PW) 3 to PW7, and by daily testing with the Morris water maze test at PW8. Pathological changes in the hippocampus were observed in the control, pFS, HIE, and HIE+pFS groups at PW9. Results The HIE priming group showed a seizure-prone state. The Morris water maze test revealed a decline in cognitive function in the HIE and HIE+pFS groups compared with the pFS and control groups. Additionally, the HIE and HIE+pFS groups showed significant hippocampal neuronal damage, astrogliosis, and volume loss, after maturation. The pFS alone induced minimal hippocampal neuronal damage without astrogliosis or volume loss. Conclusion Our findings suggest that pFS alone causes no considerable memory or behavioral impairment, or cellular change. In contrast, HIE results in lasting memory impairment and neuronal damage, gliosis, and tissue loss. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the developing brain concerning conditions caused by HIE or pFS. PMID:26279809

  5. Sex-related long-term behavioral and hippocampal cellular alterations after nociceptive stimulation throughout postnatal development in rats.

    PubMed

    Lima, Márcia; Malheiros, Jackeline; Negrigo, Aline; Tescarollo, Fabio; Medeiros, Magda; Suchecki, Deborah; Tannús, Alberto; Guinsburg, Ruth; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-02-01

    Early noxious stimuli may alter the neurogenesis rate in the dentate gyrus and the behavioral repertoire of adult rats. This study evaluated the long-term effects of noxious stimulation, imposed in different phases of development, on nociceptive and anxiety-like behaviors, hippocampal activation, cell proliferation, hippocampal BDNF and plasma corticosterone levels in 40 day-old male and female adolescents. Noxious stimulation was induced by intra-plantar injection of Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), on postnatal days (P) 1 (group P1), 8 (P8) or 21 (P21). Control animals were not stimulated in any way. On P21 a subset of animals from each group received BrdU and was perfused on P40 for identification of proliferating cells in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Another subset of rats was subjected to behavioral testing on P40 and one week later, to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition. Noxious stimulation evoked hypoalgesia in adolescents, mainly in females (P < 0.02), reflected by greater latency to withdraw the paw and less paw lickings in the hot plate test than controls (P < 0.001). It also resulted in more time spent in the open arms, e.g., less anxiety-like behavior than controls (P < 0.01), especially in females (P < 0.01, compared with males). Proliferative cell rate in the dentate gyrus was the highest in P8 males and females (P < 0.001), with males exhibiting more proliferation than females on P1 and P8, which was directly related to the hippocampal levels of BDNF and inversely related to plasma corticosterone. Sex differences were also detected in manganese-enhanced MRI signal, which was more prominent in P1 females than males (P < 0.01). This study represents the first step of investigation on the cellular basis of the sex-dependent long-term consequences of nociceptive stimuli in newborns. PMID:24148811

  6. Grafts of fetal locus coeruleus neurons in rat amygdala-piriform cortex suppress seizure development in hippocampal kindling.

    PubMed

    Barry, D I; Wanscher, B; Kragh, J; Bolwig, T G; Kokaia, M; Brundin, P; Björklund, A; Lindvall, O

    1989-11-01

    Hippocampal kindling was investigated in rats with a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of the forebrain catecholamine system after implantation of neural tissue from the fetal locus coeruleus region either bilaterally into the amygdala-piriform cortex (i.e., distant to the kindling site) or unilaterally into the hippocampus (close to the kindling site). Lesioned animals with either sham grafts or control grafts consisting of fetal striatal tissue showed a kindling rate much faster than that of normal controls. In contrast, in rats with bilateral locus coeruleus grafts in the amygdala-piriform cortex (implanted at three sites) the development of seizures was similar to that of controls and significantly slower than that in lesioned animals with sham grafts. All these animals had bilateral surviving grafts with a mean of 125 noradrenergic cells per implantation site. In the animals with locus coeruleus grafts in the stimulated hippocampus the kindling rate did not differ from that in the lesioned animals with control grafts. Most of these animals had large surviving grafts and showed a dense noradrenergic reinnervation of the implanted hippocampus. The present findings indicate that grafting of fetal pontine tissue (rich in noradrenergic neurons) to a site distant to the stimulation focus, but important for the generalization and spread of seizures, can retard the development of seizures in hippocampal kindling. Together with the data of our previous report this study also indicates that noradrenergic reinnervation of both hippocampi is important for the seizure-suppressant action in hippocampal kindling of locus coeruleus grafts implanted in the hippocampus.

  7. A high-fructose diet induces hippocampal insulin resistance and exacerbates memory deficits in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Wen; Ren, Lai-Feng; Zhou, Xing; Han, De-Wu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a long-term high-fructose diet on the insulin-signaling pathway of the hippocampus. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either on a control (0% fructose solution) or high-fructose diet (10% fructose solution). Food intake and body mass were measured regularly. Eight months later, peripheral insulin sensitivity, the activity of the hippocampal insulin pathway, and memory tasks were assessed. Compared to the control group, the high fructose group exhibited more weight gain, peripheral insulin resistance, metabolic disorders, and memory impairments. In addition, insulin signaling in the hippocampus was attenuated in the high fructose group. These results suggested that a high-fructose diet induced peripheral insulin resistance and an abnormal insulin-signaling pathway in the hippocampus which exacerbated memory deficits in the rats.

  8. Hippocampal and body temperature changes in rats during delayed matching-to-sample performance in a cold environment.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, S T; Thomas, J R; Berkey, D L

    1991-11-01

    In order to study the effects of temperature changes induced by cold stress on working memory, telemetry thermistor probes were implanted into the hippocampal region of the brain and into the peritoneal cavity of rats. Temperatures in these regions were monitored while rats performed on a delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) task at ambient temperatures of 23 degrees C and 2 degrees C. Matching accuracy was significantly decreased during exposure to 2 degrees C, indicating a marked impairment of short-term or working memory. Temperature in the hippocampus increased 2 degrees C during exposure to 23 degrees C, but only 1 degrees C when the environmental temperature was 2 degrees C. Body temperature showed a similar but less pronounced pattern in that cold exposure attenuated the increase in temperature observed when animals performed the DMTS task. These results suggest that cold-induced impairment of working memory may be associated with subtle temperature changes in the brain.

  9. Danaparoid sodium prevents cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Hideo; Uchida, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Akira; Asai, Nobuhiko; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2009-07-01

    Systemic inflammatory mediators, including the protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), play an important role in the development of acute pancreatitis. Anticoagulants such as danaparoid sodium (DA) may be able to inhibit sepsis-induced inflammation, but the mechanism of action is not well understood. We hypothesized that DA would act as an inhibitor of inflammation and prevent cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Male Wistar rats were used as subjects in this study. Each received a bolus of 50 U/kg of DA or saline-injected into the tail vein, followed by 4 injections of 50 mg/kg cerulean (i.p.) at 1-h intervals. Cytokine (IL-6), NO, and HMGB1 levels in serum and pancreatic tissue were measured after the cerulein injection. Pancreas histopathology and wet-dry ratio significantly improved in the DA-injected (50 U/kg) animals compared with saline-injected rats. Serum and pancreatic HMGB1 levels decreased over time in DA-treated animals. Danaparoid sodium also decreased cytokine, NO, and HMGB1 levels during cerulein-induced inflammation. As a result, DA ameliorated pancreas pathology in the rat model of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. This study demonstrates that DA treatment prevents cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in a rat model. This effect may be mediated through inhibition of cytokines, NO, and HMGB1. PMID:18948846

  10. Immunohistochemical evaluation of hippocampal CA1 region astrocytes in 10-day-old rats after monosodium glutamate treatment.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, A; Jaworska-Adamu, J; Rycerz, K

    2015-01-01

    High concentration of glutamate (Glu) is excitotoxic for nervous system structures. This may lead to glial reactivity ie. increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100β protein, and also to hypertrophy and proliferation of cells which are determined by the presence of Ki-67 antigen. The aim of the study was to analyse the immunoreactivity of the GFAP, S100β and Ki-67 proteins in astrocytes of hippocampal CA1 region in young rats after administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) at two doses: 2 g/kg b.w. (I group) and 4 g/kg b.w. (II group). In rats from I and II group morphologically altered astrocytes with the GFAP expression were observed in the SLM of the hippocampal CA1 region. The cells had eccentrically located nuclei and on the opposite site of the nuclei there were single or double, long and weakly branched processes. Moreover, in the SLM the increase of the number of GFAP and S100β immunopositive astrocytes and nuclei with Ki-67 expression, in contrary to control individuals, was observed. These results suggest the increased expression of the proteins in early reactions or hyperplasia which, together with cell hypertrophy, indicate late reactivity of astroglia in response to glutamate noxious effect. PMID:26812818

  11. Pioglitazone and exenatide enhance cognition and downregulate hippocampal beta amyloid oligomer and microglia expression in insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Gad, Enas S; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2016-08-01

    Insulin resistance is known to be a risk factor for cognitive impairment, most likely linked to insulin signaling, microglia overactivation, and beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. Exenatide, a long lasting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, enhances insulin signaling and shows neuroprotective properties. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferated-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, was previously reported to enhance cognition through its effect on Aβ accumulation and clearance. In the present study, insulin resistance was induced in male rats by drinking fructose for 12 weeks. The effect of monotherapy with pioglitazone (10 mg·kg(-1)) and exenatide or their combination on memory dysfunction was determined and some of the probable underlying mechanisms were studied. The current results confirmed that (1) feeding male rats with fructose syrup for 12 weeks resulted in a decline of learning and memory registered in eight-arm radial maze test; (2) treatment with pioglitazone or exenatide enhanced cognition, reduced hippocampal neurodegeneration, and reduced hippocampal microglia expression and beta amyloid oligomer deposition in a manner that is equal to monotherapies. These results may give promise for the use of pioglitazone or exenatide for ameliorating the learning and memory deficits associated with insulin resistance in clinical setting. PMID:27389824

  12. Membrane voltage differently affects mIPSCs and current responses recorded from somatic excised patches in rat hippocampal cultures.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Maria; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2006-01-30

    Recent analysis of current responses to exogenous GABA applications recorded from excised patches indicated that membrane voltage affected the GABAA receptor gating mainly by altering desensitization and binding [M. Pytel, K. Mercik, J.W. Mozrzymas, Membrane voltage modulates the GABAA receptor gating in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, Neuropharmacology, in press]. In order investigate the impact of such voltage effect on GABAA receptors in conditions of synaptic transmission, mIPSCs and current responses to rapid GABA applications were recorded from the same culture of rat hippocampal neurons. We found that I-V relationship for mIPSCs amplitudes showed a clear outward rectification while for current responses an inward rectification was seen, except for very low GABA concentrations. A clear shift in amplitude cumulative distributions indicated that outward rectification resulted from the voltage effect on the majority of mIPSCs. Moreover, the decaying phase of mIPSCs was clearly slowed down at positive voltages and this effect was represented by a shift in cumulative distributions of weighted decaying time constants. In contrast, deactivation of current responses was only slightly affected by membrane depolarization. These data indicate that the mechanisms whereby the membrane voltage modulates synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors are qualitatively different but the mechanism underlying this difference is not clear.

  13. Memory-related deficits following selective hippocampal expression of Swedish mutation amyloid precursor protein in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yan; Meyer, Edwin M; Meyers, Craig A; Klein, Ronald L; King, Michael A; Hughes, Jeffrey A

    2006-08-01

    The gene encoding for the Swedish double mutation (K595N/M596L) of amyloid precursor protein (APP695Swe) was expressed bilaterally in adult rat hippocampus to determine its long-term effects on memory-related behavior as well as amyloid deposition. Recombinant adeno-associated viral serotype 2 (rAAV2) vectors were injected that contained either non-expressing DNA or cDNA encoding for APP695Swe under control of a chicken beta actin/cytomegalovirus promoter/enhancer. Immunolabeling human APP with the antibody 6E10 was observed throughout the cytoplasm of aspiny and, to a lesser extent, spine-bearing hippocampal neurons 6 and 12 months post-injection of the APP695Swe but not control vector. Abeta1-42 immunolabeling was identified in unusual immunoreactive objects within the hilus of the dentate gyrus and in the granule cell layer, proximal to the injection site. At 12 months post-transduction, rats that received the APP695Swe gene also demonstrated significant deficits in the acquisition and probe components of the spatial-memory-related Morris water task compared to control animals. These behavioral deficits occurred in the absence of any amyloid plaques, gliosis, or FluoroJade labeling of dying neurons. In conclusion, prolonged and localized APP695Swe expression in hippocampal neurons is sufficient to produce memory deficits without plaque formation or neuronal loss. PMID:16780838

  14. Dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptors mediate the interactive effects of arachidonylcyclopropylamide and MDMA/ecstasy on memory retrieval in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Marzieh; Rezayof, Ameneh; Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-04-01

    A combination of cannabis and ecstasy may change the cognitive functions more than either drug alone. The present study was designed to investigate the possible involvement of dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptors in the interactive effects of arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) and ecstasy/MDMA on memory retrieval. Adult male Wistar rats were cannulated into the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus (intra-CA1) and memory retrieval was examined using the step-through type of passive avoidance task. Intra-CA1 microinjection of a selective CB1 receptor agonist, ACPA (0.5-4ng/rat) immediately before the testing phase (pre-test), but not after the training phase (post-training), impaired memory retrieval. In addition, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of MDMA (0.5-1μg/rat) dose-dependently decreased step-through latency, indicating an amnesic effect of the drug by itself. Interestingly, pre-test microinjection of a higher dose of MDMA into the CA1 regions significantly improved ACPA-induced memory impairment. Moreover, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of a selective NMDA receptor antagonist, D-AP5 (1 and 2μg/rat) inhibited the reversal effect of MDMA on the impairment of memory retrieval induced by ACPA. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of D-AP5 had no effect on memory retrieval alone. These findings suggest that ACPA or MDMA consumption can induce memory retrieval impairment, while their co-administration improves this amnesic effect through interacting with hippocampal glutamatergic-NMDA receptor mechanism. Thus, it seems that the tendency to abuse cannabis with ecstasy may be for avoiding cognitive dysfunction.

  15. Dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptors mediate the interactive effects of arachidonylcyclopropylamide and MDMA/ecstasy on memory retrieval in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Marzieh; Rezayof, Ameneh; Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-04-01

    A combination of cannabis and ecstasy may change the cognitive functions more than either drug alone. The present study was designed to investigate the possible involvement of dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptors in the interactive effects of arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) and ecstasy/MDMA on memory retrieval. Adult male Wistar rats were cannulated into the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus (intra-CA1) and memory retrieval was examined using the step-through type of passive avoidance task. Intra-CA1 microinjection of a selective CB1 receptor agonist, ACPA (0.5-4ng/rat) immediately before the testing phase (pre-test), but not after the training phase (post-training), impaired memory retrieval. In addition, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of MDMA (0.5-1μg/rat) dose-dependently decreased step-through latency, indicating an amnesic effect of the drug by itself. Interestingly, pre-test microinjection of a higher dose of MDMA into the CA1 regions significantly improved ACPA-induced memory impairment. Moreover, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of a selective NMDA receptor antagonist, D-AP5 (1 and 2μg/rat) inhibited the reversal effect of MDMA on the impairment of memory retrieval induced by ACPA. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of D-AP5 had no effect on memory retrieval alone. These findings suggest that ACPA or MDMA consumption can induce memory retrieval impairment, while their co-administration improves this amnesic effect through interacting with hippocampal glutamatergic-NMDA receptor mechanism. Thus, it seems that the tendency to abuse cannabis with ecstasy may be for avoiding cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26612394

  16. Propofol prevents electroconvulsive-shock-induced memory impairment through regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a rat model of depression

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Min, Su; Wei, Ke; Cao, Jun; Wang, Bin; Li, Ping; Dong, Jun; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a rapid and efficient psychiatric treatment, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) induces memory impairment. Modified ECT requires anesthesia for safety purposes. Although traditionally found to exert amnesic effects in general anesthesia, which is an inherent part of modified ECT, some anesthetics have been found to protect against ECT-induced cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the effects of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) on memory in depressed rats undergoing electroconvulsive shock (ECS), the analog of ECT in animals, under anesthesia as well as its mechanisms. Methods Chronic unpredictable mild stresses were adopted to reproduce depression in a rodent model. Rats underwent ECS (or sham ECS) with anesthesia with propofol or normal saline. Behavior was assessed in sucrose preference, open field and Morris water maze tests. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was measured using electrophysiological techniques. PSD-95, CREB, and p-CREB protein expression was assayed with Western blotting. Results Depression induced memory damage, and downregulated LTP, PSD-95, CREB, and p-CREB; these effects were exacerbated in depressed rats by ECS; propofol did not reverse the depression-induced changes, but when administered in modified ECS, propofol improved memory and reversed the downregulation of LTP and the proteins. Conclusion These findings suggest that propofol prevents ECS-induced memory impairment, and modified ECS under anesthesia with propofol improves memory in depressed rats, possibly by reversing the excessive changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. These observations provide a novel insight into potential targets for optimizing the clinical use of ECT for psychiatric disorders. PMID:25285008

  17. [Peoniflorin activates Nrf2/ARE pathway to alleviate the Abeta(1-42)-induced hippocampal neuron injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shu-Zhi; ma, Shi-Ping; Hong, Zong-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of peoniflorin on the expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream signal molecules in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats for exploring the mechanism of peoniflorin protecting hippocampal neurons. AD model rats were established by bilateral intrahippocampal injection of beta-amyloid(1-42) (Abeta(1-42)) and divided randomly into 3 groups: AD model group, peoniflorin low-dose (15 mg x kg(-1)) group and peoniflorin high-dose (30 mg x kg(-1)) group. The vehicle control rats were given bilateral intrahippocampal injection of solvent with the same volume. After peoniflorin or saline was administered (ip) once daily for 14 days, the hippocampuses of all animals were taken out for measuring the expressions of Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthethase (gamma-GCS) mRNA by reverse transcription PCR, determining the contents of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (CP) using colorimetric method, and for assaying the expressions of neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) and Caspase-3 by immunohistochemical staining method. The results showed that peoniflorin markedly increased the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1 and gamma-GCS mRNA, enhanced the level of GSH and decreased the contents of MDA and CP in the hippocampus, as compared with the model group. Peoniflorin also improved the NAIP expression and reduced the Caspase-3 expression in the hippocampus neurons. In conclusion, peoniflorin protects against the Abeta(1-42)-mediated oxidative stress and hippocampal neuron injury in AD rats by activating the Nrf2/ARE pathway. PMID:24187848

  18. Maturation- and sex-sensitive depression of hippocampal excitatory transmission in a rat schizophrenia model.

    PubMed

    Patrich, Eti; Piontkewitz, Yael; Peretz, Asher; Weiner, Ina; Attali, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with behavioral and brain structural abnormalities, of which the hippocampus appears to be one of the most consistent region affected. Previous studies performed on the poly I:C model of schizophrenia suggest that alterations in hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity take place in the offspring. However, these investigations yielded conflicting results and the neurophysiological alterations responsible for these deficits are still unclear. Here we performed for the first time a longitudinal study examining the impact of prenatal poly I:C treatment and of gender on hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission. In addition, we examined the potential preventive/curative effects of risperidone (RIS) treatment during the peri-adolescence period. Excitatory synaptic transmission was determined by stimulating Schaffer collaterals and monitoring fiber volley amplitude and slope of field-EPSP (fEPSP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons in male and female offspring hippocampal slices from postnatal days (PNDs) 18-20, 34, 70 and 90. Depression of hippocampal excitatory transmission appeared at juvenile age in male offspring of the poly I:C group, while it expressed with a delay in female, manifesting at adulthood. In addition, a reduced hippocampal size was found in both adult male and female offspring of poly I:C treated dams. Treatment with RIS at the peri-adolescence period fully restored in males but partly repaired in females these deficiencies. A maturation- and sex-dependent decrease in hippocampal excitatory transmission occurs in the offspring of poly I:C treated pregnant mothers. Pharmacological intervention with RIS during peri-adolescence can cure in a gender-sensitive fashion early occurring hippocampal synaptic deficits. PMID:26327125

  19. Maturation- and sex-sensitive depression of hippocampal excitatory transmission in a rat schizophrenia model.

    PubMed

    Patrich, Eti; Piontkewitz, Yael; Peretz, Asher; Weiner, Ina; Attali, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with behavioral and brain structural abnormalities, of which the hippocampus appears to be one of the most consistent region affected. Previous studies performed on the poly I:C model of schizophrenia suggest that alterations in hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity take place in the offspring. However, these investigations yielded conflicting results and the neurophysiological alterations responsible for these deficits are still unclear. Here we performed for the first time a longitudinal study examining the impact of prenatal poly I:C treatment and of gender on hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission. In addition, we examined the potential preventive/curative effects of risperidone (RIS) treatment during the peri-adolescence period. Excitatory synaptic transmission was determined by stimulating Schaffer collaterals and monitoring fiber volley amplitude and slope of field-EPSP (fEPSP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons in male and female offspring hippocampal slices from postnatal days (PNDs) 18-20, 34, 70 and 90. Depression of hippocampal excitatory transmission appeared at juvenile age in male offspring of the poly I:C group, while it expressed with a delay in female, manifesting at adulthood. In addition, a reduced hippocampal size was found in both adult male and female offspring of poly I:C treated dams. Treatment with RIS at the peri-adolescence period fully restored in males but partly repaired in females these deficiencies. A maturation- and sex-dependent decrease in hippocampal excitatory transmission occurs in the offspring of poly I:C treated pregnant mothers. Pharmacological intervention with RIS during peri-adolescence can cure in a gender-sensitive fashion early occurring hippocampal synaptic deficits.

  20. Hippocampal angiotensin II receptors play an important role in mediating the effect of voluntary exercise on learning and memory in rat.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Maziar M; Emami-Abarghoie, Mitra; Sadighi-Moghaddam, Bizhan; Safari, Manouchehr; Yousefi, Yasaman; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2008-09-26

    The beneficial effects of physical activity and exercise on brain functions such as improvement in learning and memory are well documented. The aim of this study was to examine the possible role of hippocampal angiotensin II receptors in voluntary exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory in rat. In order to block the hippocampal angiotension II receptors, the animals received a single injection of latex microbeads for delivery of [Sar1 Thr8]-Angiotensin II into the hippocampus. The animals were exposed to five consecutive nights of exercise and then their learning and memory were tested on the Morris water maze (MWM) task using a two-trial-per-day for five consecutive days. A probe trial was performed 2 days after the last training day. Our results showed that hippocampal angiotensin II receptor blockade reversed the exercise-induced improvement in learning and memory in rat.

  1. Differential effects of neonatal handling on anxiety, corticosterone response to stress, and hippocampal glucocorticoid and serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors in Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Durand, M; Sarrieau, A; Aguerre, S; Mormède, P; Chaouloff, F

    1998-05-01

    Neonatal handling (during the first 3 weeks of age) has been reported by others to diminish the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responsivity to stress in adult Long Evans rats, an effect involving a serotonin (5-HT)2A receptor-mediated increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, handled animals may also display enduring reductions in anxiety-related behaviours, including in the elevated plus-maze. We have thus analysed the aforementioned neuroendocrine and behavioural consequences of neonatal stress in male and female adult Lewis rats, a strain characterised by its high anxiety and its hyporesponsive HPA axis. Plasma corticosterone, but not behavioural, responses to an elevated plus-maze test were decreased in handled rats. Besides, hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and GR binding capacities were not different between handled and non-handled Lewis rats, an observation which could be extended to our adult Long Evans rats. Lastly, neither hippocampal nor cortical 5-HT2A receptor binding capacities in adult Lewis rats were affected by prior handling. In keeping with the failure to detect early handling-induced increases in hippocampal GR binding in 3-week old Lewis and Long Evans rats, the present study reinforces past findings indicating that environmental and genetic factors are crucial variables in the neonatal handling paradigm.

  2. Ulinastatin suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with acute paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Shi-Xing; Xing, Bao-Peng; Sun, Ming-Li

    2015-03-01

    Lung injury is the main manifestation of paraquat poisoning. Few studies have addressed brain damage after paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin is a protease inhibitor that can effectively stabilize lysosomal membranes, prevent cell damage, and reduce the production of free radicals. This study assumed that ulinastatin would exert these effects on brain tissues that had been poisoned with paraquat. Rat models of paraquat poisoning were intraperitoneally injected with ulinastatin. Simultaneously, rats in the control group were administered normal saline. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that most hippocampal cells were contracted and nucleoli had disappeared in the paraquat group. Fewer cells in the hippocampus were concentrated and nucleoli had disappeared in the ulinastatin group. Western blot assay showed that expressions of GRP78 and cleaved-caspase-3 were significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Immunohistochemical findings showed that CHOP immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining showed that the number of apoptotic cells was reduced in the paraquat and ulinastatin groups. These data confirmed that endoplasmic reticular stress can be induced by acute paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin can effectively inhibit this stress as well as cell apoptosis, thereby exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  3. Acidosis and blockade of orthodromic responses caused by anoxia in rat hippocampal slices at different temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Krnjević, K; Walz, W

    1990-01-01

    1. Interstitial pH (pHo) and field responses (to stratum radiatum stimulation) were recorded simultaneously with double-barrelled microelectrodes in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from Sprague-Dawley rats. 2. Both the relative acidity and amplitude of field responses increased with depth, reaching a maximum near the centre of the slice. When the temperature was raised from 22 to 37 degrees C, this pHo gradient was greater than 2 times steeper, but the field responses were much diminished. 3. Standard anoxic tests (substituting 95% N2 + 5% CO2 for 95% O2 + 5% CO2, for 2 min) tended to reduce pHo and population spikes, but these effects were highly temperature sensitive: at approximately 22 degrees C the blocking rate was only 12.3 +/- 4.6% and delta pHo -0.018 +/- 0.0157 units, both per minute; corresponding changes at 34-35 degrees C were 67.6 +/- 11.9% and -0.065 +/- 0.0046 units per minute. Highly significant linear correlations between rates of block and delta pHo gave a mean slope of 90.4 +/- 17.6% per 0.1 unit of acid change. 4. Anoxia caused similar temperature-dependent increases in acidity in stratum pyramidale and radiatum, but in the latter field responses (EPSPs) were much less depressed after 2 min of anoxia. 5. When slices were superfused with acid medium (low [HCO3-]), much greater reductions in pHo were needed to depress responses, giving a mean slope of 17.7% per 0.1 pH unit. 6. In glucose-free medium, there was a slow alkaline shift in pHo (0.13 +/- 0.036 units); population spikes and the acid transients evoked by anoxia disappeared. 7. It was concluded that acidosis cannot be the immediate cause of the similar depressions of postsynaptic excitability seen during anoxia and hypoglycaemia. 8. In further tests, DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactic acid, a blocker of lactate transport, failed to diminish acid transients evoked by anoxia, indicating that these are not mediated principally by lactate transport. PMID:2352175

  4. Lithium ions in nanomolar concentration modulate glycine-activated chloride current in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, J V; Kondratenko, R V; Skrebitsky, V G

    2016-03-01

    Lithium salts are successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. At the same time, according to recent data lithium may be considered as a candidate medication for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of therapeutic action of lithium have not been fully elucidated. In particular, in the literature there are no data on the effect of lithium on the glycine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of Li(+) on glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) in rat isolated pyramidal hippocampal neurons using patch-clamp technique. The effects of Li(+) were studied with two glycine concentrations: 100 μM (EC50) and 500 μM (nearly saturating). Li(+) was applied to the cell in two ways: first, by 600 ms co-application with glycine through micropipette (short application), and, second, by addition to an extracellular perfusate for 10 min (longer application). Li(+) was used in the range of concentrations of 1 nM-1 mM. Short application of Li(+) caused two effects: (1) an acceleration of desensitization (a decrease in the time of half-decay, or "τ") of IGly induced by both 100 μM and 500 μM glycine, and (2) a reduction of the peak amplitude of the IGly, induced by 100 μM, but not by 500 μM glycine. Both effects were not voltage-dependent. Dose-response curves for both effects were N-shaped with two maximums at 100 nM and 1 mM of Li(+) and a minimum at 1 μM of Li(+). This complex form of dose-response may indicate that the process activated by high concentrations of lithium inhibits the process that is sensitive to low concentrations of lithium. Longer application of Li(+)caused similar effects, but in this case 1 μM lithium was effective and the dose-effect curves were not N-shaped. The inhibitory effect of lithium ions on glycine-activated current suggests that lithium in low concentrations is able to modulate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus. This important property of lithium should be considered when using this drug as a

  5. Protracted postnatal development of inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal area CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A S; Lin, D D; Coulter, D A

    2000-11-01

    In the CNS, inhibitory synaptic function undergoes profound transformation during early postnatal development. This is due to variations in the subunit composition of subsynaptic GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) at differing developmental stages as well as other factors. These include changes in the driving force for chloride-mediated conductances as well as the quantity and/or cleft lifetime of released neurotransmitter. The present study was undertaken to investigate the nature and time course of developmental maturation of GABAergic synaptic function in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In neonatal [postnatal day (P) 1-7] and immature (P8-14) CA1 neurons, miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were significantly larger, were less frequent, and had slower kinetics compared with mIPSCs recorded in more mature neurons. Adult mIPSC kinetics were achieved by the third postnatal week in CA1 neurons. However, despite this apparent maturation of mIPSC kinetics, significant differences in modulation of mIPSCs by allosteric agonists in adolescent (P15-21) neurons were still evident. Diazepam (1-300 nM) and zolpidem (200 nM) increased the amplitude of mIPSCs in adolescent but not adult neurons. Both drugs increased mIPSC decay times equally at both ages. These differential agonist effects on mIPSC amplitude suggest that in adolescent CA1 neurons, inhibitory synapses operate differently than adult synapses and function as if subsynaptic receptors are not fully occupied by quantal release of GABA. Rapid agonist application experiments on perisomatic patches pulled from adolescent neurons provided additional support for this hypothesis. In GABA(A)R currents recorded in these patches, benzodiazepine amplitude augmentation effects were evident only when nonsaturating GABA concentrations were applied. Furthermore nonstationary noise analysis of mIPSCs in P15-21 neurons revealed that zolpidem-induced mIPSC augmentation was not due to an increase in single

  6. Inhibition of NKCC1 attenuated hippocampal LTP formation and inhibitory avoidance in rat.

    PubMed

    Ko, Meng Chang; Lee, Min Chong; Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Tikhonova, Maria A; Yang, Yi-Ling; Lu, Kwok-Tung

    2014-01-01

    The loop diuretic bumetanide (Bumex) is thought to have antiepileptic properties via modulate GABAA mediated signaling through their antagonism of cation-chloride cotransporters. Given that loop diuretics may act as antiepileptic drugs that modulate GABAergic signaling, we sought to investigate whether they also affect hippocampal function. The current study was performed to evaluate the possible role of NKCC1 on the hippocampal function. Brain slice extracellular recording, inhibitory avoidance, and western blot were applied in this study. Results showed that hippocampal Long-term potentiation was attenuated by suprafusion of NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide, in a dose dependent manner. Sequent experiment result showed that Intravenous injection of bumetanide (15.2 mg/kg) 30 min prior to the training session blocked inhibitory avoidance learning significantly. Subsequent control experiment's results excluded the possible non-specific effect of bumetanide on avoidance learning. We also found the phosphorylation of hippocampal MAPK was attenuated after bumetanide administration. These results suggested that hippocampal NKCC1 may via MAPK signaling cascade to possess its function. PMID:25369049

  7. Hippocampal Acetylcholine Depletion Has No Effect on Anxiety, Spatial Novelty Preference, or Differential Reward for Low Rates of Responding (DRL) Performance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic projection in anxiety, spatial novelty preference, and differential reward for low rates of responding (DRL) performance. Cholinergic neurons of the rat medial septum (MS) and the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (VDB) were lesioned using the selective immunotoxin, 192 IgG-saporin. Rats were then tested on several behavioral tests previously shown to be sensitive to either (a) hippocampal lesions or (b) nonselective MS/VDB lesions which target both cholinergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic projections, or both. Saporin lesions substantially reduced hippocampal cholinergic innervation, resulting in an absence of acetyl cholinesterase staining and markedly reduced choline acetyltransferase activity (mean reduction: 80 ± 5%; range: 50–97%). However, the saporin-lesioned rats did not differ from control rats in any of the behavioral tests. Thus we found no evidence from these lesion studies that the septo-hippocampal cholinergic projection plays an essential role in anxiety, spatial novelty preference, or DRL. PMID:26214215

  8. Involvement of dopamine D1 receptors of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in spatial learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Wan, P; Wang, S; Zhang, Y; Lv, J; Jin, Q H

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the involvement of dopamine (DA) and its D1 receptors of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in spatial learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD) established by permanent bilateral carotid occlusion. Spatial learning and memory abilities of rats were measured by Morris water maze, and extracellular concentrations of DA in the DG were determined by in vivo microdialysis. The DA concentrations in the DG decreased in the VD rats compared with sham-operated group. Microinjection of SFK38393 (D1 receptor agonist) into the DG attenuates spatial learning and memory deficits in the VD rats. PMID:25272945

  9. Activation of the dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves tamoxifen-induced memory retrieval impairment in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Tajik, Azam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra; Sardari, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has frequently been used in the treatment of breast cancer. In view of the fact that cognitive deficits in women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is a common health problem, using female animal models for investigating the cognitive effects of TAM administration may improve our knowledge of TAM therapy. Therefore, the present study assessed the role of dorsal hippocampal cholinergic nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the effect of TAM administration on memory retrieval in ovariectomized (OVX) and non-OVX female rats using a passive avoidance learning task. Our results showed that pre-test administration of TAM (2-6mg/kg) impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.3-0.5μg/rat) reversed TAM-induced memory impairment. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.1-0.3μg/rat) plus 2mg/kg (an ineffective dose) of TAM impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of nicotine and mecamylamine by themselves had no effect on memory retrieval. In OVX rats, the administration of TAM (6mg/kg) produced memory impairment but pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.5μg/rat) had no effect on TAM response. Moreover, the administration of an ineffective dose of TAM (2mg/kg) had no effect on memory retrieval in OVX rats, while pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.3μg/rat) impaired memory retrieval. Taken together, it can be concluded that the impairing effect of TAM on memory formation may be modulated by nAChRs of the CA1 regions. It seems that memory impairment may be considered as an important side effect of TAM. PMID:27072849

  10. Erythropoietin improves synaptic transmission during and following ischemia in rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Weber, Astrid; Maier, Rolf F; Hoffmann, Ulrike; Grips, Martin; Hoppenz, Marc; Aktas, Ayse G; Heinemann, Uwe; Obladen, Michael; Schuchmann, Sebastian

    2002-12-27

    Erythropoietin (EPO) prevents neuronal damage following ischemic, metabolic, and excitotoxic stress. In this study evoked extracellular field potentials (FP) were used to investigate the effect of EPO on synaptic transmission in hippocampal slice cultures. EPO treated cultured slices (40 units/ml for 48 h) showed significantly increased FP during and following oxygen and glucose deprivation compared with untreated control slices. The addition of the Jak2 inhibitor AG490 (50 microM for 48 h) blocked the EPO effect. These data suggest that EPO improves synaptic transmission during and following ischemia in hippocampal slice cultures.

  11. Waxholm Space atlas of the rat brain hippocampal region: three-dimensional delineations based on magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Kjonigsen, Lisa J; Lillehaug, Sveinung; Bjaalie, Jan G; Witter, Menno P; Leergaard, Trygve B

    2015-03-01

    Atlases of the rat brain are widely used as reference for orientation, planning of experiments, and as tools for assigning location to experimental data. Improved quality and use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other tomographical imaging techniques in rats have allowed the development of new three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric brain atlas templates. The rat hippocampal region is a commonly used model for basic research on memory and learning, and for preclinical investigations of brain disease. The region features a complex anatomical organization with multiple subdivisions that can be identified on the basis of specific cytoarchitectonic or chemoarchitectonic criteria. We here investigate the extent to which it is possible to identify boundaries of divisions of the hippocampal region on the basis of high-resolution MRI contrast. We present the boundaries of 13 divisions, identified and delineated based on multiple types of image contrast observed in the recently published Waxholm Space MRI/DTI template for the Sprague Dawley rat brain (Papp et al., Neuroimage 97:374-386, 2014). The new detailed delineations of the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region (Waxholm Space atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain, v2.0) are shared via the INCF Software Center (http://software.incf.org/), where also the MRI/DTI reference template is available. The present update of the Waxholm Space atlas of the rat brain is intended to facilitate interpretation, analysis, and integration of experimental data from this anatomically complex region.

  12. Effects of (+)-8-OH-DPAT on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test and hippocampal cell proliferation in ACTH-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Ayaka; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato; Sendo, Toshiaki

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of ACTH on the immobilization of rats in the forced swim test and hippocampal cell proliferation after administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, R-(+)-8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino tetralin ((+)-8-OH-DPAT). Chronic treatment with (+)-8-OH-DPAT (0.01-0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly decreased the duration of immobility in saline- and ACTH-treated rats. Chronic administration of ACTH caused a significant decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation. However, (+)-8-OH-DPAT significantly normalized cell proliferation in ACTH-treated rats. We then investigated the effects of (+)-8-OH-DPAT on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclin D1 (elements of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB)-BDNF and Wnt signaling pathways, respectively) in the hippocampus of saline- and ACTH-treated rats. ACTH treatment significantly decreased the expression of cyclin D1, while treatment with (+)-8-OH-DPAT normalized the expression of cyclin D1 in ACTH-treated rats. However, the expression of BDNF did not change in either saline- or ACTH-treated rats. These findings suggest that the antidepressant effects of (+)-8-OH-DPAT in treatment-resistant animals may be attributed to an enhancement of hippocampal cell proliferation, at least in part due to an enhancement of cyclin D1 expression.

  13. Serum Metabolomics in Rats after Acute Paraquat Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyi; Ma, Jianshe; Zhang, Meiling; Wen, Congcong; Huang, Xueli; Sun, Fa; Wang, Shuanghu; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Guanyang; Wang, Xianqin

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world and is highly toxic to humans and animals. In this study, we developed a serum metabolomic method based on GC/MS to evaluate the effects of acute paraquat poisoning on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminate analysis revealed that acute paraquat poisoning induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, the level of octadecanoic acid, L-serine, L-threonine, L-valine, and glycerol in the acute paraquat poisoning group (36 mg/kg) increased, while the levels of hexadecanoic acid, D-galactose, and decanoic acid decreased. These findings provide an overview of systematic responses to paraquat exposure and metabolomic insight into the toxicological mechanism of paraquat. Our results indicate that metabolomic methods based on GC/MS may be useful to elucidate the mechanism of acute paraquat poisoning through the exploration of biomarkers. PMID:26133715

  14. Corticosterone mediates the synaptic and behavioral effects of chronic stress at rat hippocampal temporoammonic synapses.

    PubMed

    Kvarta, Mark D; Bradbrook, Keighly E; Dantrassy, Hannah M; Bailey, Aileen M; Thompson, Scott M

    2015-09-01

    Chronic stress is thought to impart risk for depression via alterations in brain structure and function, but contributions of specific mediators in generating these changes remain unclear. We test the hypothesis that stress-induced increases in corticosterone (CORT), the primary rodent glucocorticoid, are the key mediator of stress-induced depressive-like behavioral changes and synaptic dysfunction in the rat hippocampus. In rats, we correlated changes in cognitive and affective behavioral tasks (spatial memory consolidation, anhedonia, and neohypophagia) with impaired excitatory strength at temporoammonic-CA1 (TA-CA1) synapses, an archetypical stress-sensitive excitatory synapse. We tested whether elevated CORT was sufficient and necessary to generate a depressive-like behavioral phenotype and decreased excitatory signaling observed at TA-CA1 after chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Chronic CORT administration induced an anhedonia-like behavioral state and neohypophagic behavior. Like CUS, chronic, but not acute, CORT generated an impaired synaptic phenotype characterized by reduced α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-preferring glutamate receptor-mediated excitation at TA-CA1 synapses, decreased AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit 1 protein expression, and altered serotonin-1B receptor-mediated potentiation. Repeatedly blunting stress-induced increases of CORT during CUS with the CORT synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (MET) prevented these stress-induced neurobehavioral changes. MET also prevented the CUS-induced impairment of spatial memory consolidation. We conclude that corticosterone is sufficient and necessary to mediate glutamatergic dysfunction underlying stress-induced synaptic and behavioral phenotypes. Our results indicate that chronic excessive glucocorticoids cause specific synaptic deficits in the hippocampus, a major center for cognitive and emotional processing, that accompany stress-induced behavioral dysfunction

  15. Corticosterone mediates the synaptic and behavioral effects of chronic stress at rat hippocampal temporoammonic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Kvarta, Mark D.; Bradbrook, Keighly E.; Dantrassy, Hannah M.; Bailey, Aileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is thought to impart risk for depression via alterations in brain structure and function, but contributions of specific mediators in generating these changes remain unclear. We test the hypothesis that stress-induced increases in corticosterone (CORT), the primary rodent glucocorticoid, are the key mediator of stress-induced depressive-like behavioral changes and synaptic dysfunction in the rat hippocampus. In rats, we correlated changes in cognitive and affective behavioral tasks (spatial memory consolidation, anhedonia, and neohypophagia) with impaired excitatory strength at temporoammonic-CA1 (TA-CA1) synapses, an archetypical stress-sensitive excitatory synapse. We tested whether elevated CORT was sufficient and necessary to generate a depressive-like behavioral phenotype and decreased excitatory signaling observed at TA-CA1 after chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Chronic CORT administration induced an anhedonia-like behavioral state and neohypophagic behavior. Like CUS, chronic, but not acute, CORT generated an impaired synaptic phenotype characterized by reduced α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-preferring glutamate receptor-mediated excitation at TA-CA1 synapses, decreased AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit 1 protein expression, and altered serotonin-1B receptor-mediated potentiation. Repeatedly blunting stress-induced increases of CORT during CUS with the CORT synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (MET) prevented these stress-induced neurobehavioral changes. MET also prevented the CUS-induced impairment of spatial memory consolidation. We conclude that corticosterone is sufficient and necessary to mediate glutamatergic dysfunction underlying stress-induced synaptic and behavioral phenotypes. Our results indicate that chronic excessive glucocorticoids cause specific synaptic deficits in the hippocampus, a major center for cognitive and emotional processing, that accompany stress-induced behavioral dysfunction

  16. Improvement of spatial memory disorder and hippocampal damage by exposure to electromagnetic fields in an Alzheimer's disease rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Zuo, Hongyan; Wang, Dewen; Peng, Ruiyun; Song, Tao; Wang, Shuiming; Xu, Xinping; Gao, Yabing; Li, Yang; Wang, Shaoxia; Wang, Lifeng; Zhao, Li

    2015-01-01

    Although some epidemiological investigations showed a potential association between long-term exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), no reasonable mechanism can explain this association, and the related animal experiments are rare. In this study, ELF-EMF exposure (50 Hz 400 µT 60 d) combined with D-galactose intraperitoneal (50 mg/kg, q.d., 42 d) and Aβ25-35 hippocampal (5 μl/unilateral, bilateral, single-dose) injection was implemented to establish a complex rat model. Then the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on AD development was studied by using the Morris water maze, pathological analysis, and comparative proteomics. The results showed that ELF-EMF exposure delayed the weight gain of rats, and partially improved cognitive and clinicopathologic symptoms of AD rats. The differential proteomic analysis results suggest that synaptic transmission, oxidative stress, protein degradation, energy metabolism, Tau aggregation, and inflammation involved in the effects mentioned above. Therefore, our findings indicate that certain conditions of ELF-EMF exposure could delay the development of AD in rats.

  17. Immunological cross-reactivity of cultured rat hippocampal neurons with goldfish brain proteins synthesized during memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R; Löffler, F; Müller, H W; Seifert, W

    1986-10-29

    Ependymins are goldfish brain glycoproteins exhibiting a specifically enhanced rate of synthesis when the animals adopt a new pattern of swimming behavior. With specific antisera against ependymins it has become possible to look for ependymin-like immunoreactivity in other animal species, both qualitatively by immunofluorescence staining and quantitatively by radioimmunoassay. Ependymin-like immunoreactivity was detected not only in other fish but also in rat brain. In the rat radioimmunoassay measurements were highest for the hippocampal formation and for cultured neurons derived from the embryonic hippocampus. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on various cell culture systems derived from rat brain, in order to establish which cell type contains the antigen. Only neuronal cell populations reacted with the anti-ependymin antisera. Cells derived from embryonic rat brain hippocampus which resembled pyramidal neurons stained particularly bright for ependymin-like immunoreactivity. The antigenic material was distributed throughout the cytoplasm including the neuronal extensions. Various neuron-specific antisera have been used to counterstain the cells containing ependymin-like immunoreactivity.

  18. Effects of exposure to an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on hippocampal long-term potentiation in rat.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Alireza; Khalili, Afshin; Salehi, Iraj; Shahidi, Siamak; Sarihi, Abdolrahman

    2014-05-20

    Modern lifestyle exposes nearly all humans to electromagnetic fields, particularly to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs). Prolonged exposure to ELF-EMFs induces persistent changes in neuronal activity. However, the modulation of synaptic efficiency by ELF-EMFs in vivo is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether ELF-EMFs can change induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse ratio (PPR) in the rat hippocampal area. Twenty-nine adult male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (ELF-EMF exposed, sham and control groups). The ELF-EMF group was exposed to a magnetic field for 90 consecutive days (2h/day). ELF-EMFs were produced by a circular coil (50Hz, 100 micro Tesla). The sham-exposed controls were placed in an identical chamber with no electromagnetic field. After this period, rats were deeply anesthetized with urethane (2.0mg/kg) and then a bipolar stimulating and recording electrode was implanted into the perforant pathway (PP) and dentate gyrus (DG), respectively. LTP in hippocampal area was induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS). Prolonged exposure to ELF-EMFs increased LTP induction. There was a significant difference in the slope of EPSP and amplitude of PS between the ELF-EMF group and other groups. In conclusion, our data suggest that exposure to ELF-EMFs produces a marked change in the synaptic plasticity generated in synapses of the PP-DG. No significant difference in PPR of ELF-EMF group before and after HFS suggests a postsynaptic expression site of LTP.

  19. Chronic sleep restriction causes a decrease in hippocampal volume in adolescent rats, which is not explained by changes in glucocorticoid levels or neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Novati, A; Hulshof, H J; Koolhaas, J M; Lucassen, P J; Meerlo, P

    2011-09-01

    Sleep loss strongly affects brain function and may even predispose susceptible individuals to psychiatric disorders. Since a recurrent lack of sleep frequently occurs during adolescence, it has been implicated in the rise in depression incidence during this particular period of life. One mechanism through which sleep loss may contribute to depressive symptomatology is by affecting hippocampal function. In this study, we examined the effects of sleep loss on hippocampal integrity at young age by subjecting adolescent male rats to chronic sleep restriction (SR) for 1 month from postnatal day 30 to 61. They were placed in slowly rotating drums for 20 h per day and were allowed 4 h of rest per day at the beginning of the light phase. Anxiety was measured using an open field and elevated plus maze test, while saccharine preference was used as an indication of anhedonia. All tests were performed after 1 and 4 weeks of SR. We further studied effects of SR on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and at the end of the experiment, brains were collected to measure hippocampal volume and neurogenesis. Behavior of the SR animals was not affected, except for a transient suppression of saccharine preference after 1 week of SR. Hippocampal volume was significantly reduced in SR rats compared to home cage and forced activity controls. This volume reduction was not paralleled by reduced levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and could neither be explained by elevated levels of glucocorticoids. Thus, our results indicate that insufficient sleep may be a causal factor in the reductions of hippocampal volume that have been reported in human sleep disorders and mood disorders. Since changes in HPA activity or neurogenesis are not causally implicated, sleep disturbance may affect hippocampal volume by other, possibly more direct mechanisms.

  20. Acute restraint stress induces specific changes in nitric oxide production and inflammatory markers in the rat hippocampus and striatum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Spiers, Jereme G; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic mild stress has been shown to cause hippocampal neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) overexpression and the resultant nitric oxide (NO) production has been implicated in the etiology of depression. However, the extent of nitrosative changes including NOS enzymatic activity and the overall output of NO production in regions of the brain like the hippocampus and striatum following acute stress has not been characterized. In this study, outbred male Wistar rats aged 6-7 weeks were randomly allocated into 0 (control), 60, 120, or 240 min stress groups and neural regions were cryodissected for measurement of constitutive and inducible NOS enzymatic activity, nitrosative status, and relative gene expression of neuronal and inducible NOS. Hippocampal constitutive NOS activity increased initially but was superseded by the inducible isoform as stress duration was prolonged. Interestingly, hippocampal neuronal NOS and interleukin-1β mRNA expression was downregulated, while the inducible NOS isoform was upregulated in conjunction with other inflammatory markers. This pro-inflammatory phenotype within the hippocampus was further confirmed with an increase in the glucocorticoid-antagonizing macrophage migration inhibitory factor, Mif, and the glial surveillance marker, Ciita. This indicates that despite high levels of glucocorticoids, acute stress sensitizes a neuroinflammatory response within the hippocampus involving both pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible NOS while concurrently modulating the immunophenotype of glia. Furthermore, there was a delayed increase in striatal inducible NOS expression while no change was found in other pro-inflammatory mediators. This suggests that short term stress induces a generalized increase in inducible NOS signaling that coincides with regionally specific increased markers of adaptive immunity and inflammation within the brain.

  1. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation prevents kindling-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, A; Semnanian, S; Janahmadi, M; Moradi-Chameh, H; Firoozabadi, S M; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, J

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying antiepileptic or antiepileptogenic effects of repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of rTMS applied during rapid amygdala kindling on some electrophysiological properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Male Wistar rats were kindled by daily electrical stimulation of the basolateral amygdala in a semi-rapid manner (12 stimulations/day) until they achieved stage-5 seizure. One group (kindled+rTMS (KrTMS)) of animals received rTMS (1Hz for 4min) 5min after termination of daily kindling stimulations. Twenty four hours following the last kindling stimulation electrophysiological properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons were investigated using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Amygdala kindling significantly depolarized the resting membrane potential and increased the input resistance, spontaneous firing activity, number of evoked spikes and half-width of the first evoked spike. Kindling also decreased the first-spike latency and amplitude significantly. Application of rTMS during kindling somehow prevented the development of seizures and protected CA1 pyramidal neurons of hippocampus against deleterious effect of kindling on both passive and active neuronal electrophysiological properties. Interestingly, application of rTMS alone enhanced the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons significantly. Based on the results of our study, it may be suggested that rTMS exerts its anticonvulsant effect, in part, through preventing the amygdala kindling-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. It seems that rTMS exerts protective effects on the neural circuits involved in spreading the seizures from the focus to other parts of the brain.

  2. Galanin and spatial learning in the rat. Evidence for a differential role for galanin in subregions of the hippocampal formation.

    PubMed

    Schött, P A; Hökfelt, T; Ogren, S O

    2000-06-01

    Anatomical, neurochemical and behavioural evidence support a role for galanin in hippocampally mediated functions such as spatial learning and memory. To obtain more precise information on this role, galanin (3 nmol/rat) was infused via bilateral chronic cannulae into different areas of the hippocampal formation which are characterized by different galanin receptor subtypes and also by different galanin innervation patterns. The effects of infused galanin on spatial learning were examined in the Morris swim maze. Infusions of galanin into both the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus, which mainly contain GAL-R2 receptor mRNA and a high degree of galanin-noradrenaline coexistence, significantly retarded spatial acquisition without affecting swim speed or performance in the visible platform test. This spatial learning deficit was fully blocked by pretreatment with the non-selective galanin antagonist M35. Analysis of retention performance suggested that the major effect of intrahippocampal galanin is mediated via a specific disruption of acquisition mechanisms of importance for performance in the probe trial. Galanin infused into the ventral CA1 (a mainly GAL-R1 receptor mRNA expressing region) or into anterior, ventral CA3 regions did not produce any deficits in spatial learning compared to control animals. These results suggest that galanin mediates its action on spatial learning mainly through the GAL-R2 receptor subtype in areas where most of the galanin is present in noradrenergic terminals. A possible role for the GAL-R1 receptor subtype in cognition in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus remains to be defined. The results suggest a differential functional role for galanin and galanin receptor subtypes within subregions of the hippocampal formation.

  3. Developmental Age Differentially Mediates the Calcium-Binding Protein Parvalbumin in the Rat: Evidence for a Selective Decrease in Hippocampal Parvalbumin Cell Counts.

    PubMed

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Keary Iii, Kevin M; Kania, Vanessa M; Chrobak, James J

    2016-01-01

    Local circuit GABAergic neurons, including parvalbumin (PV)-containing basket cells, likely play a key role in the development, physiology, and pathology of neocortical circuits. Regionally selective and well-defined decreases in PV have been described in human postmortem schizophrenic brain tissue in both the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Animal models of schizophreniform dysfunction following acute and/or chronic ketamine treatment have also demonstrated decreases in PV expression. Conflicting reports with respect to PV immunoreactivity following acute and chronic ketamine treatments in rodents question the utility of using PV as a biological marker of pathology-related dysfunction. The current literature lacks sufficient and systematic characterization of normative PV expression in pharmacologically and behaviorally naïve rodent tissue. In order to understand developmental changes in PV and its putative role in neuropathology, we examined the baseline distribution of the number of cells expressing this protein at distinct developmental ages. The present study examined PV cell counts across the septotemporal axis of the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus, as well as within the retrosplenial, somatosensory, and prefrontal cortices, in 1-, 6-, and 12-month-old naïve rats. Our findings suggest that the hippocampal PV+ cell number significantly decreases as a function of age with considerable regional (CA1, CA3, and DG) and septotemporal variation, a finding that was specific to the hippocampus. Additionally, we observed a modest increase in PV cell number within the prefrontal (anterior cingulate) cortex, which is in line with findings indicating a delayed developmental maturation of this region. The present work highlights decreases in PV+ cell counts within the hippocampus across development, and points to the need for a greater understanding of the role of PV and local circuit developmental changes, as well as consideration of

  4. Blockade of Astrocytic Calcineurin/NFAT Signaling Helps to Normalize Hippocampal Synaptic Function and Plasticity in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Jennifer L.; Sompol, Pradoldej; Kraner, Susan D.; Pleiss, Melanie M.; Putman, Esther J.; Dunkerson, Jacob; Mohmmad Abdul, Hafiz; Roberts, Kelly N.; Scheff, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the calcineurin (CN)-dependent transcription factor NFAT (Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells) mediates deleterious effects of astrocytes in progressive neurodegenerative conditions. However, the impact of astrocytic CN/NFAT signaling on neural function/recovery after acute injury has not been investigated extensively. Using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) procedure in rats, we show that traumatic brain injury is associated with an increase in the activities of NFATs 1 and 4 in the hippocampus at 7 d after injury. NFAT4, but not NFAT1, exhibited extensive labeling in astrocytes and was found throughout the axon/dendrite layers of CA1 and the dentate gyrus. Blockade of the astrocytic CN/NFAT pathway in rats using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing the astrocyte-specific promoter Gfa2 and the NFAT-inhibitory peptide VIVIT prevented the injury-related loss of basal CA1 synaptic strength and key synaptic proteins and reduced the susceptibility to induction of long-term depression. In conjunction with these seemingly beneficial effects, VIVIT treatment elicited a marked increase in the expression of the prosynaptogenic factor SPARCL1 (hevin), especially in hippocampal tissue ipsilateral to the CCI injury. However, in contrast to previous work on Alzheimer's mouse models, AAV-Gfa2-VIVIT had no effects on the levels of GFAP and Iba1, suggesting that synaptic benefits of VIVIT were not attributable to a reduction in glial activation per se. Together, the results implicate the astrocytic CN/NFAT4 pathway as a key mechanism for disrupting synaptic remodeling and homeostasis in the hippocampus after acute injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Similar to microglia, astrocytes become strongly “activated” with neural damage and exhibit numerous morphologic/biochemical changes, including an increase in the expression/activity of the protein phosphatase calcineurin. Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to inhibit the calcineurin

  5. Tetanus toxin induces long-term changes in excitation and inhibition in the rat hippocampal CA1 area.

    PubMed

    Vreugdenhil, M; Hack, S P; Draguhn, A; Jefferys, J G R

    2002-01-01

    Intrahippocampal tetanus toxin induces a period of chronic recurrent limbic seizures in adult rats, associated with a failure of inhibition in the hippocampus. The rats normally gain remission from their seizures after 6-8 weeks, but show persistent cognitive impairment. In this study we assessed which changes in cellular and network properties could account for the enduring changes in this model, using intracellular and extracellular field recordings in hippocampal slices from rats injected with tetanus toxin or vehicle, 5 months previously. In CA1 pyramidal neurones from toxin-injected rats, the slope of the action potential upstroke was reduced by 32%, the fast afterhyperpolarisation by 32% and the slow afterhyperpolarisation by 54%, suggesting changes in voltage-dependent conductances. The excitatory postsynaptic potential slope was reduced by 60% and the population synaptic potential slope was reduced at all stimulus intensities, suggesting a reduced afferent input in CA1. Paired-pulse stimulation showed an increase of the excitability ratio and an increase of cellular excitability only for the second pulse, suggesting a reduced inhibition. The polysynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potential was reduced by 34%, whereas neither the inhibitory postsynaptic potential at subthreshold stimulus intensities,nor the pharmacologically isolated monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potential were different in toxin-injected rats, suggesting a reduced synaptic excitation of interneurones. Stratum radiatum stimuli in toxin-injected rats, and not in controls, evoked antidromic activation of CA1 neurones, demonstrating axonal sprouting into areas normally devoid of CA1 pyramidal cell axons.We conclude that this combination of enduring changes in cellular and network properties, both pro-epileptic (increased recurrent excitatory connectivity, reduced recurrent inhibition and reduced afterhyperpolarisations) and anti-epileptic (impaired firing and reduced excitation), reaches a

  6. Single fluoxetine treatment before but not after stress prevents stress-induced hippocampal long-term depression and spatial memory retrieval impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Huili; Dai, Chunfang; Dong, Zhifang

    2015-07-28

    A growing body of evidence has shown that chronic treatment with fluoxetine, a widely prescribed medication for treatment of depression, can affect synaptic plasticity in the adult central nervous system. However, it is not well understood whether acute fluoxetine influences synaptic plasticity, especially on hippocampal CA1 long-term depression (LTD), and if so, whether it subsequently impacts hippocampal-dependent spatial memory. Here, we reported that LTD facilitated by elevated-platform stress in hippocampal slices was completely prevented by fluoxetine administration (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before stress. The LTD was not, however, significantly inhibited by fluoxetine administration immediately after stress. Similarly, fluoxetine incubation (10 μM) during electrophysiological recordings also displayed no influence on the stress-facilitated LTD. In addition, behavioral results showed that a single fluoxetine treatment 30 min before but not after acute stress fully reversed the impairment of spatial memory retrieval in the Morris water maze paradigm. Taken together, these results suggest that acute fluoxetine treatment only before, but not after stress, can prevent hippocampal CA1 LTD and spatial memory retrieval impairment caused by behavioral stress in adult animals.

  7. The Impacts of Swimming Exercise on Hippocampal Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Rui-Li; Zhang, Li-Hong; Xue, Ying; Tang, Mi-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1) and peptides (VGF and NPY) in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY) and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS. PMID:25477997

  8. The impacts of swimming exercise on hippocampal expression of neurotrophic factors in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei; Dang, Rui-Li; Li, Huan-De; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhu, Wen-Ye; Xue, Ying; Tang, Mi-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1) and peptides (VGF and NPY) in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY) and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS. PMID:25477997

  9. Morphological aspects of the ectopic granule-like cellular populations in the albino rat hippocampal formation: a Golgi study.

    PubMed

    Martí-Subirana, A; Soriano, E; García-Verdugo, J M

    1986-02-01

    Rat hippocampal formation was examined by the Golgi impregnation method. Three different ectopic granule-like populations of cells were differentiated: (1) Ectopic granule-like cells of the regio inferior, located in the stratum radiatum; one or two dendrites arose from the cell body and ran towards either the molecular layer of the fascia dentata or the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of the hippocampus, where they branched into secondary and tertiary dendrites. (2) Ectopic granule-like cells of the hilar region; this cell population showed bipolar and monopolar types of dendritic tree. Unipolar cells had dendrites oriented towards the granular layer where they branched profusely. Dendritic arborisation of bipolar cells was confined to the hilus. (3) Ectopic granule-like cells of the molecular layer; they showed several structural appearances depending on their location within the layer. Axonal tracts of ectopic granule-like cells gave rise to numerous collaterals; the main branch ran to the CA4 and CA3 hippocampal subregions. Several 'en passant' and mossy-like boutons were shown along this path.

  10. Morphological aspects of the ectopic granule-like cellular populations in the albino rat hippocampal formation: a Golgi study.

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Subirana, A; Soriano, E; García-Verdugo, J M

    1986-01-01

    Rat hippocampal formation was examined by the Golgi impregnation method. Three different ectopic granule-like populations of cells were differentiated: (1) Ectopic granule-like cells of the regio inferior, located in the stratum radiatum; one or two dendrites arose from the cell body and ran towards either the molecular layer of the fascia dentata or the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of the hippocampus, where they branched into secondary and tertiary dendrites. (2) Ectopic granule-like cells of the hilar region; this cell population showed bipolar and monopolar types of dendritic tree. Unipolar cells had dendrites oriented towards the granular layer where they branched profusely. Dendritic arborisation of bipolar cells was confined to the hilus. (3) Ectopic granule-like cells of the molecular layer; they showed several structural appearances depending on their location within the layer. Axonal tracts of ectopic granule-like cells gave rise to numerous collaterals; the main branch ran to the CA4 and CA3 hippocampal subregions. Several 'en passant' and mossy-like boutons were shown along this path. Images Figs. 2-7 Figs. 9-12 Figs. 14-16 PMID:2447048

  11. Effect of alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin on delayed rectifier potassium currents in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu-Tao; Liu, Zhao-Wei; Yao, Yang; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao

    2009-03-01

    Cypermethrin is a photostable synthetic pyrethroid and the most widely used Type II pyrethroid pesticide. The effects of two different stereoisomers of cypermethrin insecticides, alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin, on the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in hippocampal neurons of rat, were studied using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin decreased the amplitude value of IK, and shifted the steady state activation curve of IK towards negative potential at any concentrations (10(-9) M, 10(-8) M, 10(-7) M). Furthermore, at higher concentration, alpha-cypermethrin (10(-7) M) and theta-cypermethrin (10(-8) M, 10(-7) M) had observable effects of the steady state inactivation of IK. The results suggest that IK is the target of alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin, which may explain the mechanism of toxic effects of both steroeisomers of cypermethrin on mammalian neurons. Cypermethrin-altered properties of voltage gated delayed rectifier K+ channels may contribute to neurotoxicity by eliciting abnormal electrical discharges in hippocampal CA3 neurons.

  12. The protective role of ascorbic acid on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a rat model of maternal lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Sepehri, Hamid; Ganji, Farzaneh

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress is a major pathogenic mechanism of lead neurotoxicity. The antioxidant ascorbic acid protects hippocampal pyramidal neurons against cell death during congenital lead exposure; however, critical functions like synaptic transmission, integration, and plasticity depend on preservation of dendritic and somal morphology. This study was designed to examine if ascorbic acid also protects neuronal morphology during developmental lead exposure. Timed pregnant rats were divided into four treatment groups: (1) control, (2) 100mg/kg ascorbic acid once a day via gavage, (3) 0.05% lead acetate in drinking water, and (4) 0.05% lead+100mg/kg oral ascorbic acid. Brains of eight male pups (P25) per treatment group were processed for Golgi staining. Changes in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons' somal size were estimated by cross-sectional area and changes in dendritic arborization by Sholl's analysis. One-way ANOVA was used to compare results among treatment groups. Lead-exposed pups exhibited a significant decrease in somal size compared to controls (P<0.01) that was reversed by cotreatment with ascorbic acid. Sholl's analysis revealed a significant increase in apical dendritic branch points near cell body (P<0.05) and a decreased total dendritic length in both apical and basal dendritic trees of CA1 neurons (P<0.05). Ascorbic acid significantly but only partially reversed the somal and dendritic damage caused by developmental lead exposure. Oxidative stress thus contributes to lead neurotoxicity but other pathogenic mechanisms are also involved.

  13. Surgery-Induced Hippocampal Angiotensin II Elevation Causes Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption via MMP/TIMP in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengqian; Mo, Na; Li, Lunxu; Cao, Yiyun; Wang, Wenming; Liang, Yaoxian; Deng, Hui; Xing, Rui; Yang, Lin; Ni, Cheng; Chui, Dehua; Guo, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Reversible blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has been uniformly reported in several animal models of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Nevertheless, the precise mechanism underlying this occurrence remains unclear. Using an aged rat model of POCD, we investigated the dynamic changes in expression of molecules involved in BBB disintegration, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9), as well as three of their endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP-1, -2, -3), and tried to establish the correlation between MMP/TIMP balance and surgery-induced hippocampal BBB disruption. We validated the increased hippocampal expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1) after surgery. We also found MMP/TIMP imbalance as early as 6 h after surgery, together with increased BBB permeability and decreased expression of Occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), as well as increased basal lamina protein laminin at 24 h postsurgery. The AT1 antagonist candesartan restored MMP/TIMP equilibrium and modulated expression of Occludin and laminin, but not ZO-1, thereby improving BBB permeability. These events were accompanied by suppression of the surgery-induced canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation cascade. Nevertheless, AT1 antagonism did not affect nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression. Collectively, these findings suggest that surgery-induced Ang II release impairs BBB integrity by activating NF-κB signaling and disrupting downstream MMP/TIMP balance via AT1 receptor. PMID:27199659

  14. Effect of modified Bo-yang-Hwan-o-Tang, a polyherbal medicine on the hippocampal neuronal damage in a rat model of global ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tae Woo; Jung, Hyo Won; Park, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been well-characterized as a common pathological status contributing to vascular dementia (VD). In this study, the neuroprotective effect of modified Bo-yang-Hwan-O Tang (mBHT), a polyherbal medicine for ischemic stroke, was investigated in a rat model for global ischemia. Materials and Methods: Global ischemia model was prepared in Sprague-Dawley rats by the permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO])-induced chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was orally administrated for 4 weeks once a day, 24 h after 2VO. Histopathological change of the hippocampal region was observed by hematoxylin and eosin, Nissl, and Fluoro-Jade B staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti-neuronal nuclei antibodies. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 was investigated in the hippocampus by Western blot. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression was also analyzed in hippocampal CA1 region using immunofluorescence staining. Results: The administration of mBHT at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced neuronal damage and astroglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region in 2VO rats. mBHT increased the NF-κB expression in the CA1 neuronal cells but decreased in activated astrocytes. In addition, mBHT significantly decreased the hippocampal expression of Bax and caspase-3 and increased the Bcl-2 expression in 2VO rats. Conclusions: Our data indicate that mBHT has a neuroprotective property in VD induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through inhibiting the hippocampal neuronal damage and astrogliosis. PMID:26246747

  15. [Uncaria tomentosa and acute ischemic kidney injury in rats].

    PubMed

    de Fátima Fernandes Vattimo, Maria; da Silva, Natalia Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the renoprotective effects of Uncaria Tomentosa (cat's claw) on ischemic acute kidney injury induced by renal clamping in rats. The hypoxia and hypoperfusion increase the production of reactive species already present in the inflammatory process. Results showed that the renal function evaluated by creatinine clearance, the urinary excretion of peroxides and malondealdehyde indexes demonstrated that UT induced renoprotection, probably related to its antioxidant activities.

  16. Protective mechanism of quercetin on acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Yang, M; Liu, J W; Yin, G T

    2016-03-11

    To investigate the protective mechanism of quercetin on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rats, an AMI rat model was established by ligating the left coronary anterior descending branch. The rats were randomly divided into the model group and low- and high-dose quercetin groups. The control group comprised sham-operated rats. The rats in the low- and high-dose quercetin groups were administered 100 and 400 mg/kg quercetin, respectively, by gavage. The rats in the control and model groups were administered isometric normal saline once daily for one week. The mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the myocardial tissue of rats were detected in each group by real time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the myocardial tissue and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were detected using a colorimetric method. The level of apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Compared with those in the control group, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA content in the model, low-, and high-dose groups significantly increased. SOD and CAT activities decreased significantly. The cell apoptosis index increased significantly  (P < 0.05). Compared with those in the model group, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and IL-1β and MDA content in myocardial tissue of rats in the low-dose and high-dose groups decreased significantly. SOD and CAT activities increased significantly. The cell apoptosis index significantly reduced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, quercetin has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects on AMI rats and can effectively protect against myocardium damage.

  17. Acute and fractionated exposure to high-LET (56)Fe HZE-particle radiation both result in similar long-term deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Phillip D; Shih, Hung-Ying; Leblanc, Junie A; Cole, Mara G; Amaral, Wellington Z; Mukherjee, Shibani; Zhang, Shichuan; Lucero, Melanie J; Decarolis, Nathan A; Chen, Benjamin P C; Eisch, Amelia J

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts on multi-year interplanetary missions will be exposed to a low, chronic dose of high-energy, high-charge particles. Studies in rodents show acute, nonfractionated exposure to these particles causes brain changes such as fewer adult-generated hippocampal neurons and stem cells that may be detrimental to cognition and mood regulation and thus compromise mission success. However, the influence of a low, chronic dose of these particles on neurogenesis and stem cells is unknown. To examine the influence of galactic cosmic radiation on neurogenesis, adult-generated stem and progenitor cells in Nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP transgenic mice were inducibly labeled to allow fate tracking. Mice were then sham exposed or given one acute 100 cGy (56)Fe-particle exposure or five fractionated 20 cGy (56)Fe-particle exposures. Adult-generated hippocampal neurons and stem cells were quantified 24 h or 3 months later. Both acute and fractionated exposure decreased the amount of proliferating cells and immature neurons relative to sham exposure. Unexpectedly, neither acute nor fractionated exposure decreased the number of adult neural stem cells relative to sham expsoure. Our findings show that single and fractionated exposures of (56)Fe-particle irradiation are similarly detrimental to adult-generated neurons. Implications for future missions and ground-based studies in space radiation are discussed. PMID:24320054

  18. Acute and Fractionated Exposure to High-LET 56Fe HZE-Particle Radiation Both Result in Similar Long-Term Deficits in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Phillip D.; Shih, Hung-Ying; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Cole, Mara G.; Amaral, Wellington Z.; Mukherjee, Shibani; Zhang, Shichuan; Lucero, Melanie J.; DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts on multi-year interplanetary missions will be exposed to a low, chronic dose of high-energy, high-charge particles. Studies in rodents show acute, nonfractionated exposure to these particles causes brain changes such as fewer adult-generated hippocampal neurons and stem cells that may be detrimental to cognition and mood regulation and thus compromise mission success. However, the influence of a low, chronic dose of these particles on neurogenesis and stem cells is unknown. To examine the influence of galactic cosmic radiation on neurogenesis, adult-generated stem and progenitor cells in Nestin-CreERT2/R26R-YFP transgenic mice were inducibly labeled to allow fate tracking. Mice were then sham exposed or given one acute 100 cGy 56Fe-particle exposure or five fractionated 20 cGy 56Fe-particle exposures. Adult-generated hippocampal neurons and stem cells were quantified 24 h or 3 months later. Both acute and fractionated exposure decreased the amount of proliferating cells and immature neurons relative to sham exposure. Unexpectedly, neither acute nor fractionated exposure decreased the number of adult neural stem cells relative to sham expsoure. Our findings show that single and fractionated exposures of 56Fe-particle irradiation are similarly detrimental to adult-generated neurons. Implications for future missions and ground-based studies in space radiation are discussed. PMID:24320054

  19. Differential responses of Trans-Resveratrol on proliferation of neural progenitor cells and aged rat hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek; Pandey, Ankita; Jahan, Sadaf; Shukla, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, Dipak; Srivastava, Akriti; Singh, Shripriya; Rajpurohit, Chetan Singh; Yadav, Sanjay; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Pant, Aditya Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    The plethora of literature has supported the potential benefits of Resveratrol (RV) as a life-extending as well as an anticancer compound. However, these two functional discrepancies resulted at different concentration ranges. Likewise, the role of Resveratrol on adult neurogenesis still remains controversial and less understood despite its well documented health benefits. To gather insight into the biological effects of RV on neurogenesis, we evaluated the possible effects of the compound on the proliferation and survival of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture, and in the hippocampus of aged rats. Resveratrol exerted biphasic effects on NPCs; low concentrations (10 μM) stimulated cell proliferation mediated by increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 kinases, whereas high concentrations (>20 μM) exhibited inhibitory effects. Administration of Resveratrol (20 mg/kg body weight) to adult rats significantly increased the number of newly generated cells in the hippocampus, with upregulation of p-CREB and SIRT1 proteins implicated in neuronal survival and lifespan extension respectively. We have successfully demonstrated that Resveratrol exhibits dose dependent discrepancies and at a lower concentration can have a positive impact on the proliferation, survival of NPCs and aged rat hippocampal neurogenesis implicating its potential as a candidate for restorative therapies against age related disorders. PMID:27334554

  20. Exposure to oral methylphenidate from adolescence through young adulthood produces transient effects on hippocampal-sensitive memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Bethancourt, José A; Camarena, Zurislay Z; Britton, Gabrielle B

    2009-08-24

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly prescribed medication used to treat the symptoms associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The increase in ADHD diagnosis and MPH use has raised concerns regarding the long-term consequences of early exposure to psychostimulants. Animals studies indicate that early developmental MPH treatment produces enduring changes in hippocampal-sensitive tasks, including novel object recognition (NOR) and long-term retention of contextual fear. We administered oral MPH to male Wistar rats at a therapeutically relevant dose (2 or 5 mg/kg) twice daily for 7 weeks beginning on post-natal day (PN) 27 through PN 71 (i.e., periadolescence through young adulthood). Behavioral tests began 18 days following the last MPH administration. MPH (5 mg/kg) produced an increase in the latency to reach criterion for sample object exploration during the first of two NOR tests, but did not produce memory deficits at either dose. MPH (5 mg/kg) enhanced freezing during the 24 h retention test, but did not affect responding at 48 h. Taken together, the results of both tasks suggest that treatment with MPH in a manner that approximates clinical exposure patterns transiently modifies hippocampal-sensitive learning in rats but does not produce cognitive impairments. We suggest that the effects of prolonged exposure to MPH treatment on cognitive processes vary as a function of the duration and pattern of drug administration, as well as task complexity, which may account for differences among studies regarding its long-term behavioral effects. Future preclinical studies examining the effects of early psychostimulant treatment should include different periods of exposure and assessment, as well as clinically relevant doses and routes of drug administration, in order to better understand the impact of pediatric medications on adult cognition.

  1. The impact of fornix lesions in rats on spatial learning tasks sensitive to anterior thalamic and hippocampal damage

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Julie R.; Amin, Eman; Wright, Nicholas F.; Dillingham, Christopher M.; Aggleton, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to understand how the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nuclei are conjointly required for spatial learning by examining the impact of cutting a major tract (the fornix) that interconnects these two sites. The initial experiments examined the consequences of fornix lesions in rats on spatial biconditional discrimination learning. The rationale arose from previous findings showing that fornix lesions spare the learning of spatial biconditional tasks, despite the same task being highly sensitive to both hippocampal and anterior thalamic nuclei lesions. In the present study, fornix lesions only delayed acquisition of the spatial biconditional task, pointing to additional contributions from non-fornical routes linking the hippocampus with the anterior thalamic nuclei. The same fornix lesions spared the learning of an analogous nonspatial biconditional task that used local contextual cues. Subsequent tests, including T-maze place alternation, place learning in a cross-maze, and a go/no-go place discrimination, highlighted the impact of fornix lesions when distal spatial information is used flexibly to guide behaviour. The final experiment examined the ability to learn incidentally the spatial features of a square water-maze that had differently patterned walls. Fornix lesions disrupted performance but did not stop the rats from distinguishing the various corners of the maze. Overall, the results indicate that interconnections between the hippocampus and anterior thalamus, via the fornix, help to resolve problems with flexible spatial and temporal cues, but the results also signal the importance of additional, non-fornical contributions to hippocampal-anterior thalamic spatial processing, particularly for problems with more stable spatial solutions. PMID:25453745

  2. Impaired ILK Function Is Associated with Deficits in Hippocampal Based Memory and Synaptic Plasticity in a FASD Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, D.; Dunaway, E. P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bloemer, J.; Buabeid, M.; Escobar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term that encompasses a wide range of anatomical and behavioral problems in children who are exposed to alcohol during the prenatal period. There is no effective treatment for FASD, because of lack of complete characterization of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this condition. Alcohol has been previously characterized to affect integrins and growth factor signaling receptors. Integrin Linked Kinase (ILK) is an effector of integrin and growth-factor signaling which regulates various signaling processes. In FASD, a downstream effector of ILK, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β (GSK3β) remains highly active (reduced Ser9 phosphorylation). GSK3β has been known to modulate glutamate receptor trafficking and channel properties. Therefore, we hypothesize that the cognitive deficits accompanying FASD are associated with impairments in the ILK signaling pathway. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats consumed a “moderate” amount of alcohol throughout gestation, or a calorie-equivalent sucrose solution. Contextual fear conditioning was used to evaluate memory performance in 32–33-day-old pups. Synaptic plasticity was assessed in the Schaffer Collateral pathway, and hippocampal protein lysates were used to evaluate ILK signaling. Alcohol exposed pups showed impaired contextual fear conditioning, as compared to control pups. This reduced memory performance was consistent with decrease in LTP as compared to controls. Hippocampal ILK activity and GSK3β Ser21/9 phosphorylation were significantly lower in alcohol-exposed pups than controls. Increased synaptic expression of GluR2 AMPA receptors was observed with immunoprecipitation of post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95). Furthermore, immunoprecipitation of ILK revealed a decreased interaction with GluR2. The ILK pathway appears to play a significant role in memory and synaptic plasticity impairments in FASD rats. These impairments appear to be mediated by reduced

  3. Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ted M; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Taing, Lilly; Usui, Ryan; Kayser, Brandon D; Goran, Michael I; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-02-01

    Excessive consumption of added sugars negatively impacts metabolic systems; however, effects on cognitive function are poorly understood. Also unknown is whether negative outcomes associated with consumption of different sugars are exacerbated during critical periods of development (e.g., adolescence). Here we examined the effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) intake during adolescence or adulthood on cognitive and metabolic outcomes. Adolescent or adult male rats were given 30-day access to chow, water, and either (1) 11% sucrose solution, (2) 11% HFCS-55 solution, or (3) an extra bottle of water (control). In adolescent rats, HFCS-55 intake impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in a Barne's maze, with moderate learning impairment also observed for the sucrose group. The learning and memory impairment is unlikely based on nonspecific behavioral effects as adolescent HFCS-55 consumption did not impact anxiety in the zero maze or performance in a non-spatial response learning task using the same mildly aversive stimuli as the Barne's maze. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, interleukin 1β) was increased in the dorsal hippocampus for the adolescent HFCS-55 group relative to controls with no significant effect in the sucrose group, whereas liver interleukin 1β and plasma insulin levels were elevated for both adolescent-exposed sugar groups. In contrast, intake of HFCS-55 or sucrose in adults did not impact spatial learning, glucose tolerance, anxiety, or neuroinflammatory markers. These data show that consumption of added sugars, particularly HFCS-55, negatively impacts hippocampal function, metabolic outcomes, and neuroinflammation when consumed in excess during the adolescent period of development. PMID:25242636

  4. Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ted M; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Taing, Lilly; Usui, Ryan; Kayser, Brandon D; Goran, Michael I; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-02-01

    Excessive consumption of added sugars negatively impacts metabolic systems; however, effects on cognitive function are poorly understood. Also unknown is whether negative outcomes associated with consumption of different sugars are exacerbated during critical periods of development (e.g., adolescence). Here we examined the effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) intake during adolescence or adulthood on cognitive and metabolic outcomes. Adolescent or adult male rats were given 30-day access to chow, water, and either (1) 11% sucrose solution, (2) 11% HFCS-55 solution, or (3) an extra bottle of water (control). In adolescent rats, HFCS-55 intake impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in a Barne's maze, with moderate learning impairment also observed for the sucrose group. The learning and memory impairment is unlikely based on nonspecific behavioral effects as adolescent HFCS-55 consumption did not impact anxiety in the zero maze or performance in a non-spatial response learning task using the same mildly aversive stimuli as the Barne's maze. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, interleukin 1β) was increased in the dorsal hippocampus for the adolescent HFCS-55 group relative to controls with no significant effect in the sucrose group, whereas liver interleukin 1β and plasma insulin levels were elevated for both adolescent-exposed sugar groups. In contrast, intake of HFCS-55 or sucrose in adults did not impact spatial learning, glucose tolerance, anxiety, or neuroinflammatory markers. These data show that consumption of added sugars, particularly HFCS-55, negatively impacts hippocampal function, metabolic outcomes, and neuroinflammation when consumed in excess during the adolescent period of development.

  5. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts hippocampal neuroplasticity and neurogenesis in trained, but not untrained adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Steel, Ryan W J; Miller, John H; Sim, Dalice A; Day, Darren J

    2014-02-22

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, and disruption of learning and memory are commonly reported consequences of cannabis use. We have previously demonstrated a spatial learning impairment by ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (Steel et al., 2011). The molecular mechanisms underlying behavioural impairment by cannabis remain poorly understood, although the importance of adaptive changes in neuroplasticity (synaptic number and strength) and neurogenesis during learning are accepted. Here we aimed to identify any effects of THC on the early induction of these adaptive processes supporting learning, so we conducted our analyses at the mid-training point of our previous study. Both untrained and trained (15 days of training) adolescent (P28-P42) Sprague-Dawley rats were treated daily with THC (6 mg/kg i.p.) or its vehicle, and changes in the levels of markers of hippocampal neuroplasticity (CB1R, PSD95, synapsin-I, synapsin-III) and neurogenesis (Ki67, DCX, PSA-NCAM, BrdU labelling) by training were measured. Training of control animals, but not THC-treated animals increased neuroplasticity marker levels. However training of THC-treated animals, but not control animals reduced immature neuronal marker levels. Levels of hippocampal proliferation, and survival of the BrdU-labelled progeny of these divisions were unaffected by THC in trained and untrained animals. These data show a smaller neuroplastic response, and a reduction of new-born neuronal levels not attributable to effects on proliferation or survival by THC-treatment during training. Importantly no effects of THC were seen in the absence of training, indicating that these effects represent specific impairments by THC on training-induced responses.

  6. Male adolescent rats display blunted cytokine responses in the CNS after acute ethanol or lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Gano, Anny; Paniccia, Jacqueline E; Deak, Terrence

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol induces widespread changes in cytokine expression, with recent data from our laboratory having demonstrated that, during acute ethanol intoxication, adult rats exhibit consistent increases in interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA expression in several brain regions, while showing reductions in IL-1 and TNFα expression. Given evidence indicating that adolescence may be an ontogenetic period in which some neuroimmune processes and cells may not yet have fully matured, the purpose of the current experiments was to examine potential age differences in the central cytokine response of adolescent (P31-33days of age) and adult (69-71days of age) rats to either an acute immune (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) or non-immune challenge (ethanol). In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either sterile saline, LPS (250μg/kg), or ethanol (4-g/kg), and then trunk blood and brain tissue were collected 3h later for measurement of blood ethanol concentrations (BECs), plasma endotoxin, and central mRNA expression of several immune-related gene targets. In Experiment 2, the response to intragastrically (i.g.) administered ethanol was examined and compared to animals given tap water (i.g.). Results showed that LPS stimulated robust increases in expression of IL-1, IL-6, TNFα, and IκBα in the hippocampus, PVN, and amygdala, and that these increases were generally less pronounced in adolescents relative to adults. Following an i.p. ethanol challenge, IL-6 and IκBα expression was significantly increased in both ages in the PVN and amygdala, and adults exhibited even greater increases in IκBα than adolescents. I.g. administration of ethanol also increased IL-6 and IκBα expression in all three brain regions, with hippocampal IL-6 elevated even more so in adults compared to adolescents. Furthermore, assessment of plasma endotoxin concentrations revealed (i) whereas robust increases in plasma endotoxin were observed in adults injected with LPS

  7. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Katharina Repges, Hendrik; Hippler, Joerg; Hartmann, Louise M.; Hirner, Alfred V.; Straub, Heidrun; Binding, Norbert; Musshoff, Ulrich

    2007-11-15

    In this study, the effects of pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}AsO(OH); DMA{sup V}) and trivalent dimethylarsinous acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}As(OH); DMA{sup III}) on synaptic transmission generated by the excitatory Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were tested in hippocampal slices of young (14-21 day-old) and adult (2-4 month-old) rats. Both compounds were applied in concentrations of 1 to 100 {mu}mol/l. DMA{sup V} had no effect on the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs or the induction of LTP recorded from the CA1 dendritic region either in adult or in young rats. However, application of DMA{sup III} significantly reduced the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs in a concentration-dependent manner with a total depression following application of 100 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in adult and 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in young rats. Moreover, DMA{sup III} significantly affected the LTP-induction. Application of 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} resulted in a complete failure of the postsynaptic potentiation of the fEPSP amplitudes in slices taken both from adult and young rats. The depressant effect was not reversible after a 30-min washout of the DMA{sup III}. In slices of young rats, the depressant effects of DMA{sup III} were more pronounced than in those taken from adult ones. Compared to the (absent) effect of DMA{sup V} on synaptic transmission, the trivalent compound possesses a considerably higher neurotoxic potential.

  8. Long Term Hippocampal and Cortical Changes Induced by Maternal Deprivation and Neonatal Leptin Treatment in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Borcel, Erika; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2015-01-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life has diverse long-term behavioral effects and alters the development of the hippocampus and frontal cortex, with several of these effects being sexually dimorphic. MD animals show a marked reduction in their circulating leptin levels, not only during the MD period, but also several days later (PND 13). A neonatal leptin surge occurs in rodents (beginning around PND 5 and peaking between PND 9 and 10) that has an important neurotrophic role. We hypothesized that the deficient neonatal leptin signaling of MD rats could be involved in the altered development of their hippocampus and frontal cortex. Accordingly, a neonatal leptin treatment in MD rats would at least in part counteract their neurobehavioural alterations. MD was carried out in Wistar rats for 24 h on PND 9. Male and female MD and control rats were treated from PND 9 to 13 with rat leptin (3 mg/kg/day sc) or vehicle. In adulthood, the animals were submitted to the open field, novel object memory test and the elevated plus maze test of anxiety. Neuronal and glial population markers, components of the glutamatergic and cannabinoid systems and diverse synaptic plasticity markers were evaluated by PCR and/or western blotting. Main results include: 1) In some of the parameters analyzed, neonatal leptin treatment reversed the effects of MD (eg., mRNA expression of hippocampal IGF1 and protein expression of GFAP and vimentin) partially confirming our hypothesis; 2) The neonatal leptin treatment, per se, exerted a number of behavioral (increased anxiety) and neural effects (eg., expression of the following proteins: NG2, NeuN, PSD95, NCAM, synaptophysin). Most of these effects were sex dependent. An adequate neonatal leptin level (avoiding excess and deficiency) appears to be necessary for its correct neuro-programing effect. PMID:26382238

  9. Long Term Hippocampal and Cortical Changes Induced by Maternal Deprivation and Neonatal Leptin Treatment in Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Borcel, Erika; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2015-01-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life has diverse long-term behavioral effects and alters the development of the hippocampus and frontal cortex, with several of these effects being sexually dimorphic. MD animals show a marked reduction in their circulating leptin levels, not only during the MD period, but also several days later (PND 13). A neonatal leptin surge occurs in rodents (beginning around PND 5 and peaking between PND 9 and 10) that has an important neurotrophic role. We hypothesized that the deficient neonatal leptin signaling of MD rats could be involved in the altered development of their hippocampus and frontal cortex. Accordingly, a neonatal leptin treatment in MD rats would at least in part counteract their neurobehavioural alterations. MD was carried out in Wistar rats for 24 h on PND 9. Male and female MD and control rats were treated from PND 9 to 13 with rat leptin (3 mg/kg/day sc) or vehicle. In adulthood, the animals were submitted to the open field, novel object memory test and the elevated plus maze test of anxiety. Neuronal and glial population markers, components of the glutamatergic and cannabinoid systems and diverse synaptic plasticity markers were evaluated by PCR and/or western blotting. Main results include: 1) In some of the parameters analyzed, neonatal leptin treatment reversed the effects of MD (eg., mRNA expression of hippocampal IGF1 and protein expression of GFAP and vimentin) partially confirming our hypothesis; 2) The neonatal leptin treatment, per se, exerted a number of behavioral (increased anxiety) and neural effects (eg., expression of the following proteins: NG2, NeuN, PSD95, NCAM, synaptophysin). Most of these effects were sex dependent. An adequate neonatal leptin level (avoiding excess and deficiency) appears to be necessary for its correct neuro-programing effect.

  10. Long Term Hippocampal and Cortical Changes Induced by Maternal Deprivation and Neonatal Leptin Treatment in Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Borcel, Erika; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2015-01-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life has diverse long-term behavioral effects and alters the development of the hippocampus and frontal cortex, with several of these effects being sexually dimorphic. MD animals show a marked reduction in their circulating leptin levels, not only during the MD period, but also several days later (PND 13). A neonatal leptin surge occurs in rodents (beginning around PND 5 and peaking between PND 9 and 10) that has an important neurotrophic role. We hypothesized that the deficient neonatal leptin signaling of MD rats could be involved in the altered development of their hippocampus and frontal cortex. Accordingly, a neonatal leptin treatment in MD rats would at least in part counteract their neurobehavioural alterations. MD was carried out in Wistar rats for 24 h on PND 9. Male and female MD and control rats were treated from PND 9 to 13 with rat leptin (3 mg/kg/day sc) or vehicle. In adulthood, the animals were submitted to the open field, novel object memory test and the elevated plus maze test of anxiety. Neuronal and glial population markers, components of the glutamatergic and cannabinoid systems and diverse synaptic plasticity markers were evaluated by PCR and/or western blotting. Main results include: 1) In some of the parameters analyzed, neonatal leptin treatment reversed the effects of MD (eg., mRNA expression of hippocampal IGF1 and protein expression of GFAP and vimentin) partially confirming our hypothesis; 2) The neonatal leptin treatment, per se, exerted a number of behavioral (increased anxiety) and neural effects (eg., expression of the following proteins: NG2, NeuN, PSD95, NCAM, synaptophysin). Most of these effects were sex dependent. An adequate neonatal leptin level (avoiding excess and deficiency) appears to be necessary for its correct neuro-programing effect. PMID:26382238

  11. Levetiracetam attenuates hippocampal expression of synaptic plasticity-related immediate early and late response genes in amygdala-kindled rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The amygdala-kindled rat is a model for human temporal lobe epilepsy and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal RNA isolated from amygdala-kindled rats at different kindling stages was analyzed to identify kindling-induced genes. Furthermore, effects of the anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam on kindling-induced gene expression were examined. Results Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), Protocadherin-8 (Pcdh8) and TGF-beta-inducible early response gene-1 (TIEG1) were identified and verified as differentially expressed transcripts in the hippocampus of kindled rats by in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, we identified a panel of 16 additional transcripts which included Arc, Egr3/Pilot, Homer1a, Ania-3, MMP9, Narp, c-fos, NGF, BDNF, NT-3, Synaptopodin, Pim1 kinase, TNF-α, RGS2, Egr2/krox-20 and β-A activin that were differentially expressed in the hippocampus of amygdala-kindled rats. The list consists of many synaptic plasticity-related immediate early genes (IEGs) as well as some late response genes encoding transcription factors, neurotrophic factors and proteins that are known to regulate synaptic remodelling. In the hippocampus, induction of IEG expression was dependent on the afterdischarge (AD) duration. Levetiracetam, 40 mg/kg, suppressed the development of kindling measured as severity of seizures and AD duration. In addition, single animal profiling also showed that levetiracetam attenuated the observed kindling-induced IEG expression; an effect that paralleled the anti-epileptic effect of the drug on AD duration. Conclusions The present study provides mRNA expression data that suggest that levetiracetam attenuates expression of genes known to regulate synaptic remodelling. In the kindled rat, levetiracetam does so by shortening the AD duration thereby reducing the seizure-induced changes in mRNA expression in the hippocampus. PMID:20105316

  12. Brain perfusion in acute and chronic hyperglycemia in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kikano, G.E.; LaManna, J.C.; Harik, S.I. )

    1989-08-01

    Recent studies show that acute and chronic hyperglycemia cause a diffuse decrease in regional cerebral blood flow and that chronic hyperglycemia decreases the brain L-glucose space. Since these changes can be caused by a decreased density of perfused brain capillaries, we used 30 adult male Wistar rats to study the effect of acute and chronic hyperglycemia on (1) the brain intravascular space using radioiodinated albumin, (2) the anatomic density of brain capillaries using alkaline phosphatase histochemistry, and (3) the fraction of brain capillaries that are perfused using the fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran method. Our results indicate that acute and chronic hyperglycemia do not affect the brain intravascular space nor the anatomic density of brain capillaries. Also, there were no differences in capillary recruitment among normoglycemic, acutely hyperglycemic, and chronically hyperglycemic rats. These results suggest that the shrinkage of the brain L-glucose space in chronic hyperglycemia is more likely due to changes in the blood-brain barrier permeability to L-glucose.

  13. Deferoxamine attenuates acute hydrocephalus after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinbing; Chen, Zhi; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Hua, Ya

    2014-10-01

    Acute post-traumatic ventricular dilation and hydrocephalus are relatively frequent consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Several recent studies have indicated that high iron levels in brain may relate to hydrocephalus development after intracranial hemorrhage. However, the role of iron in the development of post-traumatic hydrocephalus is still unclear. This study was to determine whether or not iron has a role in hydrocephalus development after TBI. TBI was induced by lateral fluid-percussion in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Some rats had intraventricular injection of iron. Acute hydrocephalus was measured by magnetic resonance T2-weighted imaging and brain hemorrhage was determined by T2* gradient-echo sequence imaging and brain hemoglobin levels. The effect of deferoxamine on TBI-induced hydrocephalus was examined. TBI resulted in acute hydrocephalus at 24 h (lateral ventricle volume: 24.1 ± 3.0 vs. 9.9 ± 0.2 mm(3) in sham group). Intraventricular injection of iron also caused hydrocephalus (25.7 ± 3.4 vs. 9.0 ± 0.6 mm(3) in saline group). Deferoxamine treatment attenuated TBI-induced hydrocephalus and heme oxygenase-1 upregulation. In conclusion, iron may contribute to acute hydrocephalus after TBI.

  14. Caspase-1 inhibition alleviates acute renal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Li, Min-Li; Wang, Bin; Guo, Mei-Xia; Zhu, Ren-Min

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of inhibition of caspase-1 on acute renal injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: healthy controls (HC, n = 6), SAP rats treated with saline (SAP-S, n = 18), or SAP rats treated with a caspase-1/interleukin (IL)-1β-converting-enzyme (ICE) inhibitor (SAP-I-ICE, n = 18). SAP was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct. HC rats were subjected to identical treatment and surgical procedures without sodium taurocholate. Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of isotonic saline (SAP-S) or the inhibitor (SAP-ICE-I) at 2 and 12 h after induction of acute pancreatitis. Surviving rats were sacrificed at different time points after SAP induction; all samples were obtained and stored for subsequent analyses. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were measured using automatic methods, and serum IL-1β concentrations were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intrarenal expression of IL-1β, IL-18 and caspase-1 mRNAs was detected by RT-PCR. IL-1β protein expression and the pathologic changes in kidney tissues were observed by microscopy after immunohistochemical or hematoxylin and eosin staining, respectively. RESULTS: The serum levels of BUN and Cr in the SAP-S group were 12.48 ± 2.30 mmol/L and 82.83 ± 13.89 μmol/L at 6 h, 23.53 ± 2.58 mmol/L and 123.67 ± 17.67 μmol/L at 12 h, and 23.60 ± 3.33 mmol/L and 125.33 ± 21.09 μmol/L at 18 h, respectively. All were significantly increased compared to HC rats (P < 0.01 for all). Levels in SAP-ICE-I rats were significantly decreased compared to SAP-S rats both at 12 and 18 h (P < 0.01 for all). Serum IL-1β levels in the SAP-S group were 276.77 ± 44.92 pg/mL at 6 h, 308.99 ± 34.95 pg/mL at 12 h, and 311.60 ± 46.51 pg/mL at 18 h; all significantly higher than those in the HC and SAP-ICE-I groups (P < 0.01 for all

  15. Acute effects of ethanol on renal folate clearance in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.; McMartin, K.E.

    1986-03-05

    Studies of the renal clearance of folic acid in primates demonstrate net reabsorption of folate by a saturable system. The acute administration of ethanol to rats causes a significant increase in urinary folate excretion. The mechanism for this effect is unknown and thus the effect of acute administration of ethanol on the renal absorption and urinary clearance of folate was studied in rats. Folic acid was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via continuous intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 3-75 micromoles/kg and renal clearance relative to inulin was determined. The effects of various dose levels of ethanol on these parameters were then determined. At a dose of 15 micromoles/kg, the renal clearance of folate relative to that of inulin was about 0.65 mg/min. At a plasma ethanol level about 100 mg/dl, the renal clearance of folate was not markedly altered. These results suggests that there is net reabsorption of folate in the rat kidney and that moderate doses of ethanol have little effect on renal effect on renal folate reabsorption.

  16. Sleep restriction acutely impairs glucose tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pawan K; Foppen, Ewout; Kalsbeek, Andries; Challet, Etienne

    2016-06-01

    Chronic sleep curtailment in humans has been related to impairment of glucose metabolism. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute sleep deprivation on glucose tolerance in rats. A group of rats was challenged by 4-h sleep deprivation in the early rest period, leading to prolonged (16 h) wakefulness. Another group of rats was allowed to sleep during the first 4 h of the light period and sleep deprived in the next 4 h. During treatment, food was withdrawn to avoid a postmeal rise in plasma glucose. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed immediately after the sleep deprivation period. Sleep deprivation at both times of the day similarly impaired glucose tolerance and reduced the early-phase insulin responses to a glucose challenge. Basal concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, and corticosterone remained unchanged after sleep deprivation. Throughout IVGTTs, plasma corticosterone concentrations were not different between the control and sleep-deprived group. Together, these results demonstrate that independent of time of day and sleep pressure, short sleep deprivation during the resting phase favors glucose intolerance in rats by attenuating the first-phase insulin response to a glucose load. In conclusion, this study highlights the acute adverse effects of only a short sleep restriction on glucose homeostasis. PMID:27354542

  17. Purinergic modulation of [(3)H]GABA release from rat hippocampal nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Cunha, R A; Ribeiro, J A

    2000-04-27

    The hippocampal GABAergic system is assumed not to be a target for purine modulation. We have now confirmed that neither adenosine A(1) and A(3) receptor nor nucleotide P(2) or P(4) receptor activation modified the K(+)-evoked [(3)H]GABA release from hippocampal synaptosomes. However, activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors with CGS 21680 (10 nM) or HENECA (30 nM) facilitated GABA release by 32% and 21%, respectively. These effects were prevented by the A(2A) antagonist, ZM 241385 (20 nM). A(2A) receptors may activate adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A since CGS 21680 (10 nM) facilitation was partially prevented by 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM), forskolin (10 microM) and HA-1004 (10 microM). Protein kinase C may also be recruited, since chelerythrine (6 microM) and phorbol-12, 13-didecanoate (250 nM) attenuated CGS 21680 (10 nM) facilitation of [(3)H]GABA release. Omega-agatoxin-IVA (200 nM) occluded CGS 21680 facilitation suggesting the involvement of P-type calcium channels. Thus, the adenosine A(2A) receptor system appears to be one of the first presynaptic neuromodulatory systems able to enhance the evoked release of GABA from hippocampal nerve terminals.

  18. The effect of propofol postconditioning on the expression of K(+)-Cl(-)-co-transporter 2 in GABAergic inhibitory interneurons of acute ischemia/reperfusion injury rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbai; Liu, Shuying; Wang, Haiyun; Wang, Guolin; Zhu, Ai

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown in our previous study that propofol postconditioning enhanced the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and prevented the internalization of GluR2 subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, thus provided neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Regarding inhibitory system in CNS, K(+)-Cl(-)-co-transporter 2 (KCC2), a Cl(-) extruder, plays a critical role in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory effect in mature central neurons. However, the effect of propofol postconditioning on the expression of KCC2 in GABAergic interneurons is unclear. Therefore, in this article we describe the role of KCC2 in GABAergic interneurons in the ipsilateral hippocampal CA1 region of adult rats and the effects of propofol postconditioning on this region. Herein we demonstrate that propofol postconditioning (20mg/kg/h, 2h) improved rats' neurobehavioral abilities, increased the number of survival neurons, and up-regulated neuronal KCC2 expression in glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expressing GABAergic interneurons in hippocampal CA1 region at 24h after I/R. In contrast, when rats were injected with the KCC2 antagonist, [(dihydroindenyl)oxy] alkanoic acid (DIOA), the neuroprotective effects induced by propofol postconditioning were reversed. Our study indicated that propofol postconditioning increased the expression of KCC2 in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, thus providing acute neuroprotection to rats who had undergone cerebral I/R injury.

  19. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in large doses attenuate seizures, cognitive impairment, and hippocampal oxidative DNA damage in young kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Basel A; Al-Qahtani, Jobran M; El-Safty, Samy A

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 (OM3) dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids have promising seizure-protective effects, as well as enhancing effects of cognitive development and memory-related learning. This study aimed to explore the effect of large doses of OM3 on cognitive impairment and hippocampal oxidative DNA damage produced by seizures in epileptic children using a PTZ-kindled young rat model. Cognitive functions, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and DNA damage were assessed in PTZ-kindled young rats (30 mg/kg, i.p. once every other day for 13 injections) pretreated with OM3 (200-500 mg/kg, p.o.). Pretreatment with OM3 at the tested doses significantly attenuated PTZ-induced seizures and decreased cognitive impairment in both passive avoidance and elevated plus maze tests in the PTZ-kindled rats. Moreover, OM3 significantly attenuated the increase in hippocampal malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, as well as the decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and GSH-peroxidase activity induced by PTZ kindling, in a dose-related manner. Relatively large dose levels of OM3 (200-500 mg/kg) effectively attenuated seizures and their associated cognitive deficits, and reduced oxidative stress and hippocampal DNA damage in PTZ-kindled young rats.

  20. Long term exposure to combination paradigm of environmental enrichment, physical exercise and diet reverses the spatial memory deficits and restores hippocampal neurogenesis in ventral subicular lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Kapgal, Vijayakumar; Prem, Neethi; Hegde, Preethi; Laxmi, T R; Kutty, Bindu M

    2016-04-01

    Subiculum is an important structure of the hippocampal formation and plays an imperative role in spatial learning and memory functions. We have demonstrated earlier the cognitive impairment following bilateral ventral subicular lesion (VSL) in rats. We found that short term exposure to enriched environment (EE) did not help to reverse the spatial memory deficits in water maze task suggesting the need for an appropriate enriched paradigm towards the recovery of spatial memory. In the present study, the efficacy of long term exposure of VSL rats to combination paradigm of environmental enrichment (EE), physical exercise and 18 C.W. diet (Combination Therapy - CT) in reversing the spatial memory deficits in Morris water maze task has been studied. Ibotenate lesioning of ventral subiculum produced significant impairment of performance in the Morris water maze and reduced the hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Post lesion exposure to C.T. restored the hippocampal neurogenesis and improved the spatial memory functions in VSL rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the combination paradigm is critical towards the development of an enhanced behavioral and cognitive experience especially in conditions of CNS insults and the associated cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:26851129

  1. Long term exposure to combination paradigm of environmental enrichment, physical exercise and diet reverses the spatial memory deficits and restores hippocampal neurogenesis in ventral subicular lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Kapgal, Vijayakumar; Prem, Neethi; Hegde, Preethi; Laxmi, T R; Kutty, Bindu M

    2016-04-01

    Subiculum is an important structure of the hippocampal formation and plays an imperative role in spatial learning and memory functions. We have demonstrated earlier the cognitive impairment following bilateral ventral subicular lesion (VSL) in rats. We found that short term exposure to enriched environment (EE) did not help to reverse the spatial memory deficits in water maze task suggesting the need for an appropriate enriched paradigm towards the recovery of spatial memory. In the present study, the efficacy of long term exposure of VSL rats to combination paradigm of environmental enrichment (EE), physical exercise and 18 C.W. diet (Combination Therapy - CT) in reversing the spatial memory deficits in Morris water maze task has been studied. Ibotenate lesioning of ventral subiculum produced significant impairment of performance in the Morris water maze and reduced the hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Post lesion exposure to C.T. restored the hippocampal neurogenesis and improved the spatial memory functions in VSL rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the combination paradigm is critical towards the development of an enhanced behavioral and cognitive experience especially in conditions of CNS insults and the associated cognitive dysfunctions.

  2. Impacts of thyroxine combined with donepezil on hippocampal ultrastructures and expressions of synaptotagmin-1 and SNAP-25 in adult rats with hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hao; Zha, Xiaoxue; Cai, Yaojun; Wang, Fen; Wu, Zhangbi; Wu, Bo; Jia, Xuemei; Zhu, Defa

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to observe the impacts of thyroxine (T4) combined with donepezil (DON) on hippocampal ultrastructures and expressions of synaptotagmin-1 and SNAP-25 in adult rats with hypothyroidism. All rats were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control group (CON), the hypothyroidism group (Hypo), the T4 treatment group (T4), the DON treatment group (DON) and the T4+DON combined treatment group (T4+DON). Technique of Electron Microscope (TEM) was used to observe the hippocampal ultrastructures of each group, Western blot and real-time RT-PCR were performed to analyze the protein and mRNA expressions of syt-1 and SNAP-25 in the hippocampus of each group. TEM revealed that the Hypo group exhibited the significant vacuolar degeneration of mitochondria in the hippocampal neurons, the free ribosomes were sparse, the synaptic structures were damaged, and the number of synaptic vesicles was reduced, the above injuries in the T4 or DON group were improved, and the performance of the T4+DON group was the most close to the CON group. From the protein and mRNA levels, the dorsal hippocampal syt-1 expression of the Hypo group was significantly reduced, while SNAP-25 was significantly increased, the expressions were partially recovered after the T4 treatment, and the T4+DON combined treatment made the expression return to normal. The adult hypothyroid rats exhibited pathological damages in the hippocampal ultrastructures, the expression of syt-1 was downregulated, while that of SNAP-25 was upregulated, the T4+DON combined therapy could repair the above injuries, and the roles were better than the single drug treatment. PMID:26770386

  3. Impacts of thyroxine combined with donepezil on hippocampal ultrastructures and expressions of synaptotagmin-1 and SNAP-25 in adult rats with hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Zha, Xiaoxue; Cai, Yaojun; Wang, Fen; Wu, Zhangbi; Wu, Bo; Jia, Xuemei; Zhu, Defa

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to observe the impacts of thyroxine (T4) combined with donepezil (DON) on hippocampal ultrastructures and expressions of synaptotagmin-1 and SNAP-25 in adult rats with hypothyroidism. All rats were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control group (CON), the hypothyroidism group (Hypo), the T4 treatment group (T4), the DON treatment group (DON) and the T4+DON combined treatment group (T4+DON). Technique of Electron Microscope (TEM) was used to observe the hippocampal ultrastructures of each group, Western blot and real-time RT-PCR were performed to analyze the protein and mRNA expressions of syt-1 and SNAP-25 in the hippocampus of each group. TEM revealed that the Hypo group exhibited the significant vacuolar degeneration of mitochondria in the hippocampal neurons, the free ribosomes were sparse, the synaptic structures were damaged, and the number of synaptic vesicles was reduced, the above injuries in the T4 or DON group were improved, and the performance of the T4+DON group was the most close to the CON group. From the protein and mRNA levels, the dorsal hippocampal syt-1 expression of the Hypo group was significantly reduced, while SNAP-25 was significantly increased, the expressions were partially recovered after the T4 treatment, and the T4+DON combined treatment made the expression return to normal. The adult hypothyroid rats exhibited pathological damages in the hippocampal ultrastructures, the expression of syt-1 was downregulated, while that of SNAP-25 was upregulated, the T4+DON combined therapy could repair the above injuries, and the roles were better than the single drug treatment.

  4. Gene expression profiling of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in an adult toxicity study captures a variety of neurodevelopmental dysfunctions in rat models of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Ayako; Saito, Fumiyo; Akane, Hirotoshi; Akahori, Yumi; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Itahashi, Megu; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We previously found that developmental hypothyroidism changed the expression of genes in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus, a brain region where adult neurogenesis is known to occur. In the present study, we performed brain region-specific global gene expression profiling in an adult rat hypothyroidism model to see if it reflected the developmental neurotoxicity we saw in the developmental hypothyroidism model. Starting when male rats were 5 weeks old, we administered 6-propyl-2-thiouracil at a doses of 0, 0.1 and 10 mg kg(-1) body weight by gavage for 28 days. We selected four brain regions to represent both cerebral and cerebellar tissues: hippocampal dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. We observed significant alterations in the expression of genes related to neural development (Eph family genes and Robo3) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus and in the expression of genes related to myelination (Plp1 and Mbp) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We observed only minor changes in the expression of these genes in the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. We used real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to confirm Chrdl1, Hes5, Mbp, Plp1, Slit1, Robo3 and the Eph family transcript expression changes. The most significant changes in gene expression were found in the dentate gyrus. Considering that the gene expression profile of the adult dentate gyrus closely related to neurogenesis, 28-day toxicity studies looking at gene expression changes in adult hippocampal dentate gyrus may also detect possible developmental neurotoxic effects.

  5. Learning and memory alterations are associated with hippocampal N-acetylaspartate in a rat model of depression as measured by 1H-MRS.

    PubMed

    Xi, Guangjun; Hui, Jiaojie; Zhang, Zhijun; Liu, Shanshan; Zhang, Xiangrong; Teng, Gaojun; Chan, Kevin C; Wu, Ed X; Nie, Binbin; Shan, Baoci; Li, Lingjiang; Reynolds, Gavin P

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are affected in depression. The present study used a rat model of depression, chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), to determine whether hippocampal volume and neurochemical changes were involved in learning and memory alterations. A further aim was to determine whether these effects could be ameliorated by escitalopram treatment, as assessed with the non-invasive techniques of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Our results demonstrated that CUMS had a dramatic influence on spatial cognitive performance in the Morris water maze task, and CUMS reduced the concentration of neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the hippocampus. These effects could be significantly reversed by repeated administration of escitalopram. However, neither chronic stress nor escitalopram treatment influenced hippocampal volume. Of note, the learning and memory alterations of the rats were associated with right hippocampal NAA concentration. Our results indicate that in depression, NAA may be a more sensitive measure of cognitive function than hippocampal volume.

  6. Understanding alterations in serotonin connectivity in a rat model of depression within the monoamine-deficiency and the hippocampal-neurogenesis frameworks.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Noam; Goelman, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    The monoamine-deficiency and the hippocampal-neurogenesis hypotheses of depression propose that alterations in the serotonin system and of hippocampal functionality are critical in the pathogenesis of depression. We measured the alterations in the connectivity level of the raphe nucleus in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rat model of depression using the manganese enhanced MRI method (MEMRI). Manganese ions were injected into the median raphe and their anterograde intracellular propagation was followed. Depression-like behavior was demonstrated using the sucrose preference tests. We show that the raphe's connectivity is differentially altered through chronic stress. In line with the monoamine-deficiency hypothesis, the connectivity of the raphe with the basal ganglia (BG) output nuclei, the hippocampus, the habenula and the entorhinal and insular cortices was reduced in CMS rats, suggesting an overall reduction in raphe excitability. Connectivity reductions were predominantly found in the right hemisphere, strengthening previous evidence pointing at a-symmetric hemispheric involvement in depression. Despite the general reduction in raphe connectivity, enhanced connectivity was found between the raphe and the septum, suggesting that alterations are connection-specific. On the basis of our results - while yet equivocal - we further discuss the possible coupling between the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems and two distinct mechanisms (direct and indirect) in which alterations in raphe connectivity may affect hippocampal dysfunction in chronic stress, thus linking the monoamine-deficiency and the hippocampal-neurogenesis hypotheses.

  7. Hippocampal-dependent Pavlovian conditioning in adult rats exposed to binge-like doses of ethanol as neonates.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Derick H

    2013-04-01

    Binge-like postnatal ethanol exposure produces significant damage throughout the brain in rats, including the cerebellum and hippocampus. In the current study, cue- and context-mediated Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult rats exposed to moderately low (3E; 3g/kg/day) or high (5E; 5g/kg/day) doses of ethanol across postnatal days 4-9. Ethanol-exposed and control groups were presented with 8 sessions of trace eyeblink conditioning followed by another 8 sessions of delay eyeblink conditioning, with an altered context presented over the last two sessions. Both forms of conditioning rely on the brainstem and cerebellum, while the more difficult trace conditioning also requires the hippocampus. The hippocampus is also needed to gate or modulate expression of the eyeblink conditioned response (CR) based on contextual cues. Results indicate that the ethanol-exposed rats were not significantly impaired in trace EBC relative to control subjects. In terms of CR topography, peak amplitude was significantly reduced by both doses of alcohol, whereas onset latency but not peak latency was significantly lengthened in the 5E rats across the latter half of delay EBC in the original training context. Neither dosage resulted in significant impairment in the contextual gating of the behavioral response, as revealed by similar decreases in CR production across all four treatment groups following introduction of the novel context. Results suggest ethanol-induced brainstem-cerebellar damage can account for the present results, independent of the putative disruption in hippocampal development and function proposed to occur following postnatal ethanol exposure.

  8. Electroacupuncture pretreatment exhibits anti-depressive effects by regulating hippocampal proteomics in rats with chronic restraint stress

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhuo; Tu, Ya; Guo, Tian-wei; Wu, Yun-chu; Yang, Xue-qin; Sun, Lan; Yang, Xin-jing; Zhang, Wen-yue; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xu-hui

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effect of electroacupuncture on depression is widely recognized. However, the signal transduction pathways and target proteins involved remain unclear. In the present study, rat models of chronic restraint stress were used to explore the mechanism by which electroacupuncture alleviates depression. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, and electroacupuncture groups. Chronic restraint stress was induced in the model and electroacupuncture groups by restraining rats for 28 days. In the electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture pretreatment at Baihui (GV20) and Yintang (GV29) acupoints was performed daily (1 mA, 2 Hz, discontinuous wave, 20 minutes) prior to restraint for 28 days. Open field tests and body weight measurements were carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at specific time points. On day 28, the crossing number, rearing number, and body weights of the model group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Behavior test results indicated that rat models of depressive-like symptoms were successfully established by chronic restraint stress combined with solitary raising. On day 28, an isobaric tag for a relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in hippocampal samples obtained from the model and electroacupuncture groups. The potential function of these differential proteins was predicted through the use of the Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) database. Twenty-seven differential proteins (uncharacteristic proteins expected) were selected from the model and electroacupuncture groups. In addition to unknown protein functions, COG are mainly concentrated in general prediction function, mechanism of signal transduction, amino acid transport and metabolism groups. This suggests that electroacupuncture improved depressive-like symptoms by regulating differential proteins, and most of these related proteins exist

  9. Transcriptome analysis of the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell region after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Laurén, Hanna B; Lopez-Picon, Francisco R; Brandt, Annika M; Rios-Rojas, Clarissa J; Holopainen, Irma E

    2010-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms involved in epileptogenesis in the developing brain remain poorly understood. The gene array approach could reveal some of the factors involved by allowing the identification of a broad scale of genes altered by seizures. In this study we used microarray analysis to reveal the gene expression profile of the laser microdissected hippocampal CA1 subregion one week after kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) in 21-day-old rats, which are developmentally roughly comparable to juvenile children. The gene expression analysis with the Chipster software generated a total of 1592 differently expressed genes in the CA1 subregion of KA-treated rats compared to control rats. The KEGG database revealed that the identified genes were involved in pathways such as oxidative phosporylation (26 genes changed), and long-term potentiation (LTP; 18 genes changed). Also genes involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis, gliosis, inflammation, and GABAergic transmission were altered. To validate the microarray results we further examined the protein expression for a subset of selected genes, glial fibrillary protein (GFAP), apolipoprotein E (apo E), cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1), Purkinje cell protein 4 (PEP-19), and interleukin 8 receptor (CXCR1), with immunohistochemistry, which confirmed the transcriptome results. Our results showed that SE resulted in no obvious CA1 neuronal loss, and alterations in the expression pattern of several genes during the early epileptogenic phase were comparable to previous gene expression studies of the adult hippocampus of both experimental epileptic animals and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, some changes seem to occur after SE specifically in the juvenile rat hippocampus. Insight of the SE-induced alterations in gene expression and their related pathways could give us hints for the development of new target-specific antiepileptic drugs that interfere with the progression of the disease in the juvenile age

  10. Electroacupuncture pretreatment exhibits anti-depressive effects by regulating hippocampal proteomics in rats with chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhuo; Tu, Ya; Guo, Tian-Wei; Wu, Yun-Chu; Yang, Xue-Qin; Sun, Lan; Yang, Xin-Jing; Zhang, Wen-Yue; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xu-Hui

    2015-08-01

    The clinical effect of electroacupuncture on depression is widely recognized. However, the signal transduction pathways and target proteins involved remain unclear. In the present study, rat models of chronic restraint stress were used to explore the mechanism by which electroacupuncture alleviates depression. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, and electroacupuncture groups. Chronic restraint stress was induced in the model and electroacupuncture groups by restraining rats for 28 days. In the electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture pretreatment at Baihui (GV20) and Yintang (GV29) acupoints was performed daily (1 mA, 2 Hz, discontinuous wave, 20 minutes) prior to restraint for 28 days. Open field tests and body weight measurements were carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at specific time points. On day 28, the crossing number, rearing number, and body weights of the model group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Behavior test results indicated that rat models of depressive-like symptoms were successfully established by chronic restraint stress combined with solitary raising. On day 28, an isobaric tag for a relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in hippocampal samples obtained from the model and electroacupuncture groups. The potential function of these differential proteins was predicted through the use of the Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) database. Twenty-seven differential proteins (uncharacteristic proteins expected) were selected from the model and electroacupuncture groups. In addition to unknown protein functions, COG are mainly concentrated in general prediction function, mechanism of signal transduction, amino acid transport and metabolism groups. This suggests that electroacupuncture improved depressive-like symptoms by regulating differential proteins, and most of these related proteins exist

  11. Elimination Half-Lives of Acute Phase Proteins in Rats and Beagle Dogs During Acute Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Seita, Tetsuro; Momotani, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Hagimori, Kohei; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2015-08-01

    The half-lives of typical acute phase proteins in rats and beagle dogs during acute inflammation were investigated. Acute inflammation was induced by injection of turpentine oil in rats and administration of indomethacin in beagle dogs. Serum concentrations of α2-macroglobulin (α2M) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) was measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Half-life was calculated as 0.693/elimination rate constant (K). The mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of α2M and AAG were 68.1 and 164.8 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of α2M. Mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of CRP and AAG were 161.9 and 304.4 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of CRP in beagle dogs. No significant differences in the half-life of AAG were observed between rats and beagle dogs. Furthermore, serum concentrations in the terminal elimination phase could be simulated with the K data acquired in this study.

  12. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve motor functions and are neuroprotective in the 6-hydroxydopamine-rat model for Parkinson's disease when cultured in monolayer cultures but suppress hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal memory function when cultured in spheroids.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jürgen; Roch, Manfred; Altschüler, Jennifer; Winter, Christine; Schwerk, Anne; Kurtz, Andreas; Steiner, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    Adult human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been reported to induce neuroprotective effects in models for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, these effects strongly depend on the most optimal application of the transplant. In the present study we compared monolayer-cultured (aMSC) and spheroid (sMSC) MSC following transplantation into the substantia nigra (SN) of 6-OHDA lesioned rats regarding effects on the local microenvironment, degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG as well as motor and memory function in the 6-OHDA-rat model for PD. aMSC transplantation significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the SN, increased the levels of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and improved motor functions compared to untreated and sMSC treated animals. In contrast, sMSC grafting induced an increased local microgliosis, decreased TH levels in the SN and reduced numbers of newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) without yet affecting hippocampal learning and memory function. We conclude that the neuroprotective potential of adipose-derived MSC in the rat model of PD crucially depends on the applied cellular phenotype.

  13. Concentration of carbon dioxide, interstitial pH and synaptic transmission in hippocampal formation of the rat.

    PubMed

    Balestrino, M; Somjen, G G

    1988-02-01

    1. Interstitial pH (pHo) was measured with ion-selective microelectrodes in the fascia dentata of rats anaesthetized with urethane, while CO2 levels were controlled by varying pulmonary ventilation and CO2 content of inspired air. In the CA1 sector of hippocampal tissue slices in vitro pHo was similarly measured and altered by varying CO2 in the gas phase, or by adding HCl or NaOH to the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) of the bath, or by changing the concentration of HCO3-. 2. Orthodromically evoked compound action potentials ('population spikes') were depressed in hypercapnia and increased in hypocapnia. In the fascia dentata of intact brains the population spike of the granule cells varied on average by more than 40% of control amplitude for each 0.1 change of pHo. In the CA1 zone of tissue slices in vitro, the change of population spike amplitude was approximately 30% per pH change of 0.1 caused by altered CO2 or HCO3- concentration, but only about 15% per pH change of 0.1 when HCl or NaOH were administered. 3. In anaesthetized rats the focal synaptic potential (FEPSP) evoked by a given stimulus intensity was weakly influenced by varying [CO2]; in tissue slices weak effects on FEPSP were inconsistent. In hippocampus both in situ and in vitro the population spike triggered by a given magnitude of FEPSP increased in hypocapnia and decreased in hypercapnia. This suggests that the main effect of CO2 is on the electric excitability of postsynaptic cells, with minor or no effect on transmitter release and on the interaction of the transmitter with its receptors. 4. Hypercapnia of anaesthetized rats was usually associated with a slight increase of [K+]o in the fascia dentata. Tissue [Ca2+]o changed little and not consistently. Neither of these two ions, nor concomitant changes of blood pressure or tissue partial pressure of oxygen, (Pt, O2), could account for the effects of pH on neuronal excitability. 5. The results show that increasing the extracellular

  14. Housing under the pyramid reduces susceptibility of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons to prenatal stress in the developing rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Krishna Dilip; George, Mitchel Constance; Ramasamy, Perumal; Mustapha, Zainal Arifin

    2013-12-01

    Mother-offspring interaction begins before birth. The foetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental insults and stress. The body responds by releasing excess of the stress hormone cortisol, which acts on glucocorticoid receptors. Hippocampus in the brain is rich in glucocorticoid receptors and therefore susceptible to stress. The stress effects are reduced when the animals are placed under a model wooden pyramid. The present study was to first explore the effects of prenatal restraint-stress on the plasma corticosterone levels and the dendritic arborisation of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the offspring. Further, to test whether the pyramid environment would alter these effects, as housing under a pyramid is known to reduce the stress effects, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were restrained for 9 h per day from gestation day 7 until parturition in a wire-mesh restrainer. Plasma corticosterone levels were found to be significantly increased. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the apical and the basal total dendritic branching points and intersections of the CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The results thus suggest that, housing in the pyramid dramatically reduces prenatal stress effects in rats.

  15. Effects of Maternal Marginal Iodine Deficiency on Dendritic Morphology in the Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons in Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Min, Hui; Wang, Yi; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Ye; Shan, Zhongyan; Xi, Qi; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Although the salt iodization programmes are taken to control iodine deficiency (ID), some regions are still suffering from marginal ID. During pregnancy, marginal ID frequently leads to subtle insufficiency of thyroid hormones, characterized as low serum T4 levels. Therefore, the present research was to explore the effects of maternal marginal ID exposure on dendritic arbor growth in the hippocampal CA1 region and the underlying mechanisms. We established Wistar rat models with ID diet during pregnancy and lactation. The overall daily iodine intakes of the rats were estimated as 7.0, 5.0 and 1.5 μg/day in the control, marginal ID and severe ID groups, respectively. To study the morphological alterations of pyramidal neurons, Golgi-Cox procedure was conducted in the hippocampus. Sholl analyses demonstrated a slight decrease in the total length and branching numbers of basal dendrites on postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14 and PN21 in marginal ID group relative to the controls. However, there was no overt morphological change observed in apical dendrites. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis indicated that phosphorylation of MAP2, stathmin and JNK1 was down-regulated in marginal ID group. We speculate that the pups treated with maternal marginal ID subjected to subtle changes in dendritic growth of CA1 pyramidal neurons, which may be associated with the dysregulation of MAP2 and stathmin in a JNK1-dependent manner. PMID:27017219

  16. Role of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Rat Hippocampal Neuronal Death After Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Xie, Nanchang; Wang, Yunlong; Li, Yulin; Ge, Xinjie; Wang, Menglu

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is reportedly involved in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and many neurological diseases. However, the role of the MCU in epilepsy remains unknown. In this study, we found that the MCU inhibitor Ru360 significantly attenuated neuronal death and exerted an anti-apoptotic effect on rat hippocampal neurons after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), while the MCU activator spermine increased seizure-induced neuronal death and apoptosis. In addition, Ru360 decreased the level of seizure-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria isolated from rat hippocampi. Moreover, Ru360 restored the altered mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c (CytC) release in epileptic hippocampi. However, spermine treatment exerted an opposite effect on seizure-induced ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential alteration and CytC release compared with Ru360 treatment. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that MCU inhibition exerts a neuroprotective effect on seizure-induced brain injury possibly through the mitochondria/ROS/CytC pathway.

  17. Reduced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neonatal rats after prenatal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU).

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Magagna-Poveda, Alejandra; Parratt, Carolyn; Umans, Jason G; MacLusky, Neil J; Scharfman, Helen E

    2012-03-01

    Thyroid hormone is critical for central nervous system development. Fetal hypothyroidism leads to reduced cognitive performance in offspring as well as other effects on neural development in both humans and experimental animals. The nature of these impairments suggests that thyroid hormone may exert its effects via dysregulation of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is critical to normal development of the central nervous system and has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. The only evidence of BDNF dysregulation in early development, however, comes from experimental models in which severe prenatal hypothyroidism occurred. By contrast, milder prenatal hypothyroidism has been shown to alter BDNF levels and BDNF-dependent functions only much later in life. We hypothesized that mild experimental prenatal hypothyroidism might lead to dysregulation of BDNF in the early postnatal period. BDNF levels were measured by ELISA at 3 or 7 d after birth in different regions of the brains of rats exposed to propylthiouracil (PTU) in the drinking water. The dose of PTU that was used induced mild maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency. Pups, but not the parents, exhibited alterations in tissue BDNF levels. Hippocampal BDNF levels were reduced at both d 3 and 7, but no significant reductions were observed in either the cerebellum or brain stem. Unexpectedly, more males than females were born to PTU-treated dams, suggesting an effect of PTU on sex determination. These results support the hypothesis that reduced hippocampal BDNF levels during early development may contribute to the adverse neurodevelopmental effects of mild thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy.

  18. Propofol, but not etomidate, increases corticosterone levels and induces long-term alteration in hippocampal synaptic activity in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Seubert, Christoph N; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Martynyuk, Anatoly E

    2016-04-01

    Animal studies provide strong evidence that general anesthetics (GAs), administered during the early postnatal period, induce long-term cognitive and neurological abnormalities. Because the brain growth spurt in rodents is delayed compared to that in humans, a fundamental question is whether the postnatal human brain is similarly vulnerable. Sevoflurane and propofol, GAs that share positive modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) function cause marked increase in corticosterone levels and induce long-term developmental alterations in synaptic activity in rodents. If synaptogenesis is affected, investigation of mechanisms of the synaptic effects of GAs is of high interest because synaptogenesis in humans continues for several years after birth. Here, we compared long-term synaptic effects of etomidate with those of propofol. Etomidate and propofol both positively modulate GABAAR activity, but in contrast to propofol, etomidate inhibits the adrenal synthesis of corticosterone. Postnatal day (P) 4, 5, or 6 rats received five injections of etomidate, propofol, or vehicle control during 5h of maternal separation. Endocrine effects of the anesthetics were evaluated by measuring serum levels of corticosterone immediately after anesthesia or maternal separation. The frequency and amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons were measured at P24-40 and P≥80. Only propofol caused a significant increase in serum corticosterone levels (F(4.26)=17.739, P<0.001). In contrast to increased frequency of mIPSCs in the propofol group (F(4.23)=8.731, p<0.001), mIPSC activity in the etomidate group was not different from that in the vehicle groups. The results of this study together with previously published data suggest that anesthetic-caused increase in corticosterone levels is required for GABAergic GAs to induce synaptic effects in the form of a long-term increase in the frequency of hippocampal mIPSCs.

  19. Reduced Hippocampal Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Neonatal Rats after Prenatal Exposure to Propylthiouracil (PTU)

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Magagna-Poveda, Alejandra; Parratt, Carolyn; Umans, Jason G.; MacLusky, Neil J.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is critical for central nervous system development. Fetal hypothyroidism leads to reduced cognitive performance in offspring as well as other effects on neural development in both humans and experimental animals. The nature of these impairments suggests that thyroid hormone may exert its effects via dysregulation of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is critical to normal development of the central nervous system and has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. The only evidence of BDNF dysregulation in early development, however, comes from experimental models in which severe prenatal hypothyroidism occurred. By contrast, milder prenatal hypothyroidism has been shown to alter BDNF levels and BDNF-dependent functions only much later in life. We hypothesized that mild experimental prenatal hypothyroidism might lead to dysregulation of BDNF in the early postnatal period. BDNF levels were measured by ELISA at 3 or 7 d after birth in different regions of the brains of rats exposed to propylthiouracil (PTU) in the drinking water. The dose of PTU that was used induced mild maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency. Pups, but not the parents, exhibited alterations in tissue BDNF levels. Hippocampal BDNF levels were reduced at both d 3 and 7, but no significant reductions were observed in either the cerebellum or brain stem. Unexpectedly, more males than females were born to PTU-treated dams, suggesting an effect of PTU on sex determination. These results support the hypothesis that reduced hippocampal BDNF levels during early development may contribute to the adverse neurodevelopmental effects of mild thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy. PMID:22253429

  20. Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia of Place Discrimination in Retrosplenial Cortex and Hippocampal Lesioned Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haijima, Asahi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Retrograde and anterograde amnesic effects of excitotoxic lesions of the rat retrosplenial cortex (RS) and hippocampus (HPC) were investigated. To test retrograde amnesia, rats were trained with two-arm place discrimination in a radial maze 4 wk and 1 d before surgery with a different arm pair, respectively. In the retention test 1 wk after…

  1. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  2. Maternal exposure to hexachlorophene targets intermediate-stage progenitor cells of the hippocampal neurogenesis in rat offspring via dysfunction of cholinergic inputs by myelin vacuolation.

    PubMed

    Itahashi, Megu; Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Kimura, Masayuki; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    Hexachlorophene (HCP) is known to induce myelin vacuolation corresponding to intramyelinic edema of nerve fibers in the central and peripheral nervous system in animals. This study investigated the effect of maternal exposure to HCP on hippocampal neurogenesis in rat offspring using pregnant rats supplemented with 0 (controls), 100, or 300 ppm HCP in the diet from gestational day 6 to day 21 after delivery. On postnatal day (PND) 21, the numbers of T box brain 2(+) progenitor cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling(+) apoptotic cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) decreased in female offspring at 300 ppm, which was accompanied by myelin vacuolation and punctate tubulin beta-3 chain staining of nerve fibers in the hippocampal fimbria. In addition, transcript levels of the cholinergic receptor, nicotinic beta 2 (Chrnb2) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) decreased in the dentate gyrus. HCP-exposure did not alter the numbers of SGZ proliferating cells and reelin- or calcium-binding protein-expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneuron subpopulations in the dentate hilus on PND 21 and PND 77. Although some myelin vacuolation remained, all other changes observed in HCP-exposed offspring on PND 21 disappeared on PND 77. These results suggest that maternal HCP exposure reversibly decreases type-2b intermediate-stage progenitor cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in offspring hippocampal neurogenesis at 300 ppm HCP. Neurogenesis may be affected by dysfunction of cholinergic inputs into granule cell lineages and/or GABAergic interneurons as indicated by decreased transcript levels of Chrnb2 and numbers of Chrnb2(+) interneurons caused by myelin vacuolation in the septal-hippocampal pathway.

  3. Long-term moderate dose exogenous erythropoietin treatment protects from intermittent hypoxia-induced spatial learning deficits and hippocampal oxidative stress in young rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Jobran M; Abdel-Wahab, Basel A; Abd El-Aziz, Samy M

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) is associated with cognitive impairments and oxidative stress in brain regions involved in learning and memory. In earlier studies, erythropoietin (EPO) showed a neuroprotective effect in large doses. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of smaller doses of EPO, such as those used in the treatment of anemia, on IH-induced cognitive deficits and hippocampal oxidative stress in young rats. The effect of concurrent EPO treatment (500 and 1,000 IU/kg/day ip) on spatial learning and memory deficits induced by long-term exposure to IH for 6 weeks was tested using the Morris water maze (MWM) test and the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Moreover, the effect on hippocampal glutamate and oxidative stress were assessed. Exposure to IH induced a significant impairment of spatial learning and cognition of animals in both MWM and EPM performance parameters. Moreover, hippocampal glutamate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased while antioxidant defenses (GSH and GSH-Px) decreased. EPO in the tested doses significantly reduced the IH-induced spatial learning deficits in both MWM and EPM tests and dose-dependently antagonized the effects of IH on hippocampal glutamate, TBARS, GSH levels, and GSH-Px activity. Treatment with EPO in moderate doses that used for anemia, concurrently with IH exposure can antagonize IH-induced spatial learning deficits and protect hippocampal neurons from IH-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress-induced damage in young rats, possibly through multiple mechanisms involving a potential antioxidative effect.

  4. Characterization of acute rat parvovirus infection by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, D J; Jacoby, R O; Johnson, E A; Paturzo, F X; Smith, A L; Brandsma, J L

    1993-04-01

    In situ hybridization and virus titration were used to characterize early stages of rat virus (RV) infection of rat pups after oronasal inoculation. Results suggest that virus enters through the lung and that early viremia leads rapidly to pantropic infection. Cells derived from all three germ layers were infected with RV, but those of endodermal and mesodermal origin were the predominant targets. Infection of vascular endothelium was widespread and was associated with hemorrhage and infarction in the brain. Convalescence from acute infection was accompanied by mononuclear cell infiltrates at sites containing RV DNA. Viral DNA was also detected in endothelium, fibroblasts and smooth muscle myofibers four weeks after inoculation. Further examination of these cells as potential sites of persistent infection is warranted.

  5. [Acute liver injury in rats by praseodymium nitrate (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schriewer, H; Gebauer, B; Rauen, H M

    1976-01-01

    After acute intoxication with praseodymium nitrate (10 mg/kg body weight i.v.), time functions of enzyme activities of GOT, GPT, ChE, AP and of free fatty acids concentration in rat serum were analysed and the results subjected to significance and correlation analysis. Time functions of free fatty acids concentration corresponded with those of enzyme activities of GOT and GPT. In the early state of intoxication serum concentrations of palmitoleinic and oleic acid were more increased than those of stearinic acid. There seems to be an alteration in the correlations of analysed measures with regard to their temporal changes parallel to the progress of intoxication.

  6. Rhythms of the hippocampal network.

    PubMed

    Colgin, Laura Lee

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampal local field potential (LFP) shows three major types of rhythms: theta, sharp wave-ripples and gamma. These rhythms are defined by their frequencies, they have behavioural correlates in several species including rats and humans, and they have been proposed to carry out distinct functions in hippocampal memory processing. However, recent findings have challenged traditional views on these behavioural functions. In this Review, I discuss our current understanding of the origins and the mnemonic functions of hippocampal theta, sharp wave-ripples and gamma rhythms on the basis of findings from rodent studies. In addition, I present an updated synthesis of their roles and interactions within the hippocampal network. PMID:26961163

  7. The signaling mechanisms of hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress affecting neuronal plasticity-related protein levels in high fat diet-induced obese rats and the regulation of aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ming; Wang, Hong; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Yun-Li; Xin, Lei; Li, Feng; Lou, Shu-Jie

    2016-10-01

    High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been shown to reduce the levels of neuronal plasticity-related proteins, specifically brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synaptophysin (SYN), in the hippocampus. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully clear. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) has been reported to play a key role in regulating gene expression and protein production by affecting stress signaling pathways and ER functions of protein folding and post-translational modification in peripheral tissues of obese rodent models. Additionally, HFD that is associated with hyperglycemia could induce hippocampal ERS, thus impairing insulin signaling and cognitive health in HFD mice. One goal of this study was to determine whether hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia could cause hippocampal ERS in HFD-induced obese SD rats, and explore t