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Sample records for acute recovery phase

  1. Supervised Phase II Cardiac Exercise Therapy Shortens the Recovery of Exercise Capacity in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Wei; Wang, Ji-Hung; Hsieh, Jen-Che; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Wu, Yu-Zu; Chen, Tung-Wei; Huang, Chien-Hui

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of Phase II cardiac exercise therapy (CET) on exercise capacity and changes in coronary risk factors (CRFs) of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). [Subjects] Thirty male subjects with AMI were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). Another 30 age-matched subjects with patent coronary arteries served as a normal-control group (NCG). [Methods] Subjects in EG (n=20) trained using a stationary bicycle for 30 min at their target heart rate twice a week for 8 weeks. Exercise capacity was defined as the maximal metabolic equivalents (METs) that subjects reached during the symptom-limited maximal exercise test. HR, BP and RPP were recorded. Subjects in EG and CG received exercise tests and screening for CRFs at the beginning of, end of, and 3 months after Phase II CET, while subjects in NCG participated only in the 1st test. [Results] METs of CG did not improve until the 3rd test, while RPP at the 2nd test showed a significant increase. However, EG showed increased METs at the 2nd test without increase of RPP, and increased their high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) during the follow-up period between the 2nd and 3rd tests. [Conclusion] Phase II CET shortens the recovery time of exercise capacity, helps to maintain the gained exercise capacity and increases HDL-C in phase III. PMID:25276046

  2. Increase in Th17 and T-reg lymphocytes and decrease of IL22 correlate with the recovery phase of acute EAE in rat.

    PubMed

    Almolda, Beatriz; Costa, Manuela; Montoya, Maria; González, Berta; Castellano, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a well-established model of multiple sclerosis, is characterised by microglial activation and lymphocyte infiltration. Induction of EAE in Lewis rats produces an acute monophasic disease characterised by a single peak of disability followed by a spontaneous and complete recovery and a subsequent tolerance to further immunizations. In the current study we have performed a detailed analysis of the dynamics of different lymphocyte populations and cytokine profile along the induction, peak, recovery and post-recovery phases in this paradigm. MBP-injected rats were sacrificed attending exclusively to their clinical score, and the different populations of T-lymphocytes as well as the dynamics of different pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were analysed in the spinal cord by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Our results revealed that, during the induction and peak phases, in parallel to an increase in symptomatology, the number of CD3+ and CD4+ cells increased progressively, showing a Th1 phenotype, but unexpectedly during recovery, although clinical signs progressively decreased, the number and proportion of CD3+ and CD4+ populations remained unaltered. Interestingly, during this recovery phase, we observed a marked decrease of Th1 and an important increase in Th17 and T-reg cells. Moreover, our results indicate a specific cytokine expression profile along the EAE course characterized by no changes of IL10 and IL17 levels, decrease of IL21 on the peak, and high IL22 levels during the induction and peak phases that markedly decrease during recovery. In summary, these results revealed the existence of a specific pattern of lymphocyte infiltration and cytokine secretion along the different phases of the acute EAE model in Lewis rat that differs from those already described in chronic or relapsing-remitting mouse models, where Th17-cells were found mostly during the peak, suggesting a specific role of these

  3. Increase in Th17 and T-reg Lymphocytes and Decrease of IL22 Correlate with the Recovery Phase of Acute EAE IN Rat

    PubMed Central

    Almolda, Beatriz; Costa, Manuela; Montoya, Maria; González, Berta; Castellano, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a well-established model of multiple sclerosis, is characterised by microglial activation and lymphocyte infiltration. Induction of EAE in Lewis rats produces an acute monophasic disease characterised by a single peak of disability followed by a spontaneous and complete recovery and a subsequent tolerance to further immunizations. In the current study we have performed a detailed analysis of the dynamics of different lymphocyte populations and cytokine profile along the induction, peak, recovery and post-recovery phases in this paradigm. MBP-injected rats were sacrificed attending exclusively to their clinical score, and the different populations of T-lymphocytes as well as the dynamics of different pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were analysed in the spinal cord by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Our results revealed that, during the induction and peak phases, in parallel to an increase in symptomatology, the number of CD3+ and CD4+ cells increased progressively, showing a Th1 phenotype, but unexpectedly during recovery, although clinical signs progressively decreased, the number and proportion of CD3+ and CD4+ populations remained unaltered. Interestingly, during this recovery phase, we observed a marked decrease of Th1 and an important increase in Th17 and T-reg cells. Moreover, our results indicate a specific cytokine expression profile along the EAE course characterized by no changes of IL10 and IL17 levels, decrease of IL21 on the peak, and high IL22 levels during the induction and peak phases that markedly decrease during recovery. In summary, these results revealed the existence of a specific pattern of lymphocyte infiltration and cytokine secretion along the different phases of the acute EAE model in Lewis rat that differs from those already described in chronic or relapsing-remitting mouse models, where Th17-cells were found mostly during the peak, suggesting a specific role of these

  4. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  5. Recovery Potential After Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Rüdiger J.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    In acute stroke, the major factor for recovery is the early use of thrombolysis aimed at arterial recanalization and reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue. Subsequently, neurorehabilitative training critically improves clinical recovery due to augmention of postlesional plasticity. Neuroimaging and electrophysiology studies have revealed that the location and volume of the stroke lesion, the affection of nerve fiber tracts, as well as functional and structural changes in the perilesional tissue and in large-scale bihemispheric networks are relevant biomarkers of post-stroke recovery. However, associated disorders, such as mood disorders, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases, may induce secondary cerebral changes or aggravate the functional deficits and, thereby, compromise the potential for recovery. PMID:26617568

  6. Neuro-mechanical adjustments to shod versus barefoot treadmill runs in the acute and delayed stretch-shortening cycle recovery phases.

    PubMed

    Morio, Cedric; Sevrez, Violaine; Chavet, Pascale; Berton, Eric; Nicol, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In habitually shod recreational runners, we studied the combined influence of footwear and stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) fatigue on treadmill running pattern, paying special attention to neuro-mechanical adjustments in the acute and 2-day delayed recovery periods. The SSC exercise consisted of a series of 25 sub-maximal rebounds on a sledge apparatus repeated until exhaustion. The acute and delayed functional fatigue effects were quantified in a maximal drop jump test. The neuro-mechanical adjustments to fatigue were examined during two submaximal treadmill run tests of 3 min performed either barefoot or with shoes on. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activities, tibial accelerations and kinematics of the right lower limb were recorded during the first and last 15 s of each run. The main result was that neuro-mechanical differences between the shod and barefoot running patterns, classically reported in the absence of fatigue, persisted in the fatigued state. However, in the delayed recovery phase, rearfoot eversion was found to significantly increase in the shod condition. This specific footwear effect is considered as a potential risk factor of overuse injuries in longer runs. Therefore, specific care should be addressed in the delayed recovery phase of SSC fatigue and the use of motion control shoes could be of interest.

  7. Recovery from an acute infection in C. elegans requires the GATA transcription factor ELT-2.

    PubMed

    Head, Brian; Aballay, Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    The mechanisms involved in the recognition of microbial pathogens and activation of the immune system have been extensively studied. However, the mechanisms involved in the recovery phase of an infection are incompletely characterized at both the cellular and physiological levels. Here, we establish a Caenorhabditis elegans-Salmonella enterica model of acute infection and antibiotic treatment for studying biological changes during the resolution phase of an infection. Using whole genome expression profiles of acutely infected animals, we found that genes that are markers of innate immunity are down-regulated upon recovery, while genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification, redox regulation, and cellular homeostasis are up-regulated. In silico analyses demonstrated that genes altered during recovery from infection were transcriptionally regulated by conserved transcription factors, including GATA/ELT-2, FOXO/DAF-16, and Nrf/SKN-1. Finally, we found that recovery from an acute bacterial infection is dependent on ELT-2 activity.

  8. The Neuroprotection with Statin Therapy for Acute Recovery Trial (NeuSTART): an adaptive design phase I dose-escalation study of high-dose lovastatin in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Sacco, Ralph L.; MacArthur, Robert B.; Fink, Daniel J.; Peerschke, Ellinor; Andrews, Howard; Neils, Greg; Stillman, Josh; Corporan, Tania; Leifer, Dana; Cheung, Ken

    2014-01-01

    There is growing experimental and clinical evidence that by reducing downstream products of the mevalonate pathway other than cholesterol, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (‘statins’) have beneficial effects on endothelial function, coronary and cerebral blood flow, inflammation, and hemostasis. Statins have been shown in rodent models of acute ischemic stroke to reduce neuronal injury and infarct size in a dose-dependent fashion. The objective of this early phase trial will be to determine the maximal-tolerated dose of lovastatin for short-term acute stroke therapy. In this multicenter phase 1B dose-escalation and dose-finding study, 33 patients with acute ischemic stroke will be administered lovastatin in increasing doses from one to 10 mg/kg daily for 3 days beginning within 24 hours after symptom onset. The primary safety outcomewill be occurrence of myotoxicity or hepatotoxicity, defined by clinical and laboratory criteria, and the study is designed to determine the highest dose of lovastatin that can be administered with <10% risk of myotoxicity or hepatotoxicity. The statistical design of the study utilizes an adaptive design, the Continual Reassessment Method, which is novel to stroke trials, to find the optimal dosage. The dose–toxicity model is calibrated such that the method will eventually select a dose that causes 7–13% dose-limiting toxicity (within 3% of target). A sample size of 33 will ensure that estimates of any binary variables will have a 95% confidence interval of width ≤0·34, and enable us to detect any unexpected toxicity that occurs at 5% rate (in a non-dose-dependent fashion) with probability 0·82. The probability of choosing a dose for further trials with 25% or higher likelihood of toxicity is no more than 23%. The presently described trial represents a new approach for treatment of acute ischemic stroke, as well as a novel way of conducting a phase I trial, evaluating safety and determining an optimal dose of a potential

  9. Functional up-regulation of endopeptidase neurolysin during post-acute and early recovery phases of experimental stroke in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Wangler, Naomi J; Yang, Li; Shah, Kaushik; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Abbruscato, Thomas J; Karamyan, Vardan T

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we provide evidence for the first time that membrane-bound endopeptidase neurolysin is up-regulated in different parts of mouse brain affected by focal ischemia-reperfusion in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. Radioligand binding, enzymatic and immunoblotting experiments in membrane preparations of frontoparietal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus isolated from the ischemic hemisphere of mouse brain 24 h after reperfusion revealed statistically significant increase (≥ twofold) in quantity and activity of neurolysin compared with sham-operated controls. Cerebellar membranes isolated from the ischemic hemisphere served as negative control supporting the observations that up-regulation of neurolysin occurs in post-ischemic brain regions. This study also documents sustained functional up-regulation of neurolysin in frontoparietal cortical membranes for at least 7 days after stroke, which appears not to be transcriptionally or translationally regulated, but rather depends on translocation of cytosolic neurolysin to the membranes and mitochondria. Considering diversity of endogenous neurolysin substrates (neurotensin, bradykinin, angiotensins I/II, substance P, hemopressin, dynorphin A(1-8), metorphamide, somatostatin) and the well-documented role of these peptidergic systems in pathogenesis of stroke, resistance to ischemic injury and/or post-stroke brain recovery, our findings suggest that neurolysin may play a role in processes modulating the brain's response to stroke and its recovery after stroke.

  10. Menstrual cycle, race and task effects on blood pressure recovery from acute stress.

    PubMed

    Mills, P J; Berry, C C

    1999-05-01

    This study examined cardiovascular recovery from two standardized laboratory stressors in 68 healthy black and white normotensive women and men (mean age 33 years). Women were studied in a randomized order at the same time of day on two separate occasions, once during the follicular phase (days 7 to 10 following menses) and once during the luteal phase (days 7 to 10 following the leutenizing-hormone surge) of the menstrual cycle. Men were studied twice approximately 6 weeks apart. There were differential effects of the tasks on blood pressure recovery (change scores) with a mirror star task yielding poorer diastolic blood pressure recovery (p = 0.004) and an interpersonal speaking task yielding poorer systolic blood pressure recovery (p = 0.003). Across both tasks, blacks evidenced greater diastolic blood pressure recovery as compared to whites (p = 0.02). Black women showed greater diastolic blood pressure recovery in the luteal as compared to the follicular phase (p = 0.01), whereas white women evidenced no such change across the menstrual cycle. Correlation analysis across testing sessions generally revealed comparable temporal stability values for recovery as compared to reactivity measures. The findings support prior studies indicating racial differences in recovery from acute stress and extend these findings by suggesting that the menstrual cycle may differentially affect recovery in black versus white women.

  11. Poleward leaping auroras, the substorm expansive and recovery phases and the recovery of the plasma sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Hones, E.W.

    1992-05-01

    The auroral motions and geomagnetic changes the characterize the substorm`s expansive phase, maximum epoch, and recovery phase are discussed in the context of their possible associations with the dropout and, especially, the recovery of the magnetotail plasma sheet. The evidence that there may be an inordinately sudden large poleward excursion or displacement (a poleward leap) of the electrojet and the auroras at the expansive phase-recovery phase transition is described. The close temporal association of these signatures with the recovery of the plasma sheet, observed on many occasions, suggests a causal relationship between substorm maximum epoch and recovery phase on the one hand and plasma sheet recovery on the other.

  12. Poleward leaping auroras, the substorm expansive and recovery phases and the recovery of the plasma sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Hones, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    The auroral motions and geomagnetic changes the characterize the substorm's expansive phase, maximum epoch, and recovery phase are discussed in the context of their possible associations with the dropout and, especially, the recovery of the magnetotail plasma sheet. The evidence that there may be an inordinately sudden large poleward excursion or displacement (a poleward leap) of the electrojet and the auroras at the expansive phase-recovery phase transition is described. The close temporal association of these signatures with the recovery of the plasma sheet, observed on many occasions, suggests a causal relationship between substorm maximum epoch and recovery phase on the one hand and plasma sheet recovery on the other.

  13. Continuation-Phase Cognitive Therapy's Effects on Remission and Recovery from Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested the effects of continuation-phase cognitive therapy (C-CT) on remission and recovery from recurrent major depressive disorder, defined as 6 weeks and 8 months, respectively, of continuously absent or minimal symptoms. Responders to acute-phase cognitive therapy were randomized to 8 months of C-CT (n = 41) or assessment control…

  14. Mental health nurses' views of recovery within an acute setting.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Hunt, Glenn E

    2013-06-01

    How the principles of a recovery-oriented mental health service are incorporated in the day-to-day nursing practice of mental health nurses in inpatient settings is unclear. In this study, we interviewed 21 mental health nurses working in acute inpatient mental health units about a range of recovery-focused topics. Three overlapping themes were identified: (i) the perception of recovery; (ii) congruent humanistic approaches; and (iii) practical realities. Only four interviewees had some formal training about recovery. Most respondents recognize that positive attitudes, person-centred care, hope, education about mental illness, medication and side-effects, and the acknowledgement of individual recovery pathways are necessary to prevent readmission, and are central to a better life for people who live with a mental illness. This research supports the view that ideas and practices associated with the recovery movement have been adopted to some degree by nurses working at the acute end of the services continuum. However, most saw the recovery orientation as rhetoric rather than as an appropriately resourced, coordinated, and integrated program. These nurses, however, speak of much more detailed aspects of working with patients and being required to prepare them for the exigencies of living in the community post-discharge.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of hexobarbital in acute hepatitis and after apparent recovery.

    PubMed

    Breimer, D D; Zilly, W; Richter, E

    1975-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of hexobarbital were studied in 13 patients with acute hepatitis. Hexobarbital sodium was administered by zero order intravenous (iv) infusion, and plasma concentrations were determined regularly by gas chromatography. For each patient the data were fitted according to 2-compartment kinetics. The results were compared to those obtained for 14 healthy volunteers. The elimination half-life of hexobarbital was 490 +/- 186 min in the hepatitis patients and 261 +/- 69 min in the control group. Clearance was significantly reduced in the hepatitis group, whereas the volume of distribution at steady state was not significantly altered. For some patients the initial distribution volume was reduced. In 6 patients the experiment with hexobarbital was repeated after apparent recovery from hepatitis as judged by normal transaminase and bilirubin levels. Generally the half-life of hexobarbital was shorter and the clearance value was higher than during the acute illness, but the values had not yet returned to normal. Clinical recovery from liver disease is not accompanied by corresponding recovery of drug-metabolizing capability.

  16. Predictors of Longitudinal Outcomes after Unstable Response to Acute Phase Cognitive Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    After patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond to acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT), continuation-phase treatments may be applied to improve long-term outcomes. We clarified which CT responders experience remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence by testing baseline demographic, clinical, and personality variables. The sample of CT responders at higher risk of relapse (N = 241) was randomized to 8 months of continuation-phase CT (C-CT), double-blinded fluoxetine or pill placebo, and followed 24 months (Jarrett & Thase, 2010). Patients with lower positive emotionality and behavioral activation at the end of acute-phase CT showed increased risk for relapse/recurrence of MDD. In addition, patients with lower positive emotionality and behavioral activation, as well as higher residual depression (including emotional, cognitive, and social facets), showed decreased probability of remission (≥6 continuous weeks of minimal or absent symptoms) after acute-phase CT. Finally, patients with greater residual depression, as well as younger age and earlier MDD onset, showed decreased probability of recovery (≥35 continuous weeks of minimal or absent symptoms) after acute-phase CT. Moderator analyses did not reveal differential prediction across the continuation phase treatment arms. These results may help clinicians gauge the prognoses and need for continuation treatment among MDD patients who respond to acute-phase CT. PMID:25985046

  17. Functional brain organization in bipolar affective patients during manic phase and after recovery: a digit dichotic listening study.

    PubMed

    Kaprinis, G; Nimatoudis, J; Karavatos, A; Kandylis, D; Kaprinis, S

    1995-06-01

    To study the functional organization of the cerebral hemispheres in patients with bipolar psychosis using a verbal dichotic listening test for pairs of digits 26 patients were tested twice, during the acute expression of manic phase and after recovery. The patient group during the manic phase did not support the expected right-ear advantage of normal subjects on verbal dichotic tests but showed a statistically significant left-ear advantage, which shifted after recovery toward the typical normal asymmetry. Comparing patients during the manic phase and after recovery showed that the left-ear advantage as well as the shift in right-ear advantage after recovery was due to the reduction of left-ear performance. From the over-all neuropsychological findings for these patients mania may be hypothesized to be characterized by overactivation of the right hemisphere. This phaenomenon seems associated with acuteness of the symptoms of the psychotic disorder.

  18. Spontaneous acute spinal subdural hematoma: spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis--case report and review.

    PubMed

    Payer, Michael; Agosti, Reto

    2010-11-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic acute spinal subdural hematomas are highly exceptional. Neurological symptoms are usually severe, and rapid diagnosis with MRI is mandatory. Surgical evacuation has frequently been used therapeutically; however, spontaneous recovery in mild cases has also been reported. We present a case of spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis after spontaneous acute SSDH, and review the English-speaking literature.

  19. Copolymer-1 promotes neurogenesis and improves functional recovery after acute ischemic stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Yolanda; Lorea, Jonathan; Mestre, Humberto; Kim-Lee, Jennifer Hyuna; Herrera, Judith; Mellado, Raúl; Gálvez, Vanesa; Cuellar, Leopoldo; Musri, Carolina; Ibarra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Stroke triggers a systemic inflammatory response that exacerbates the initial injury. Immunizing with peptides derived from CNS proteins can stimulate protective autoimmunity (PA). The most renowned of these peptides is copolymer-1 (Cop-1) also known as glatiramer acetate. This peptide has been approved for use in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Cop-1-specific T cells cross the blood-brain barrier and secrete neurotrophins and anti-inflammatory cytokines that could stimulate proliferation of neural precursor cells and recruit them to the injury site; making it an ideal therapy for acute ischemic stroke. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Cop-1 on neurogenesis and neurological recovery during the acute phase (7 days) and the chronic phase of stroke (60 days) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). BDNF and NT-3 were quantified and infarct volumes were measured. We demonstrated that Cop-1 improves neurological deficit, enhances neurogenesis (at 7 and 60 days) in the SVZ, SGZ, and cerebral cortex through an increase in NT-3 production. It also decreased infarct volume even at the chronic phase of tMCAo. The present manuscript fortifies the support for the use of Cop-1 in acute ischemic stroke.

  20. Hydraulic waste energy recovery, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The energy required for booster station operation is supplied by the electrical utility company and has an associated cost. Energy removed by pressure reducing valves in the system is lost or wasted. The objective of this project is to capture the wasted hydraulic energy with in-line turbines. In this application, the in-line turbines act as pressure reducing valves while removing energy from the water distribution system and converting it to electrical energy. The North Service Center pumping station was selected for the pilot program due to the availability of a wide range in pressure drop and flow, which are necessary for hydraulic energy recovery. The research performed during this project resulted in documentation of technical, economic, installation, and operational information necessary for local government officials to make an informed judgement as it relates to in-line turbine generation.

  1. Joint carrier phase and symbol timing recovery for PAM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, M. H.; Franks, L. E.

    1980-08-01

    The theory of maximum likelihood (ML) estimation as applied to PAM timing and phase recovery is considered. Data-aided (DA) and nondata-aided (NDA) strategies used for the joint estimation of both phase and timing parameters are evaluated on the basis of their error variances. The comparisons of the effects of excess bandwidth, different modulation schemes, DA versus NDA recovery, and joint estimation versus estimation of only one parameter are presented. A practical implementation of a proposed ML estimator, named a pseudo-maximum likelihood (PML) estimator, exhibits a noise-independent, data dependent jitter that dominates in many cases of practical interest.

  2. Regulation of the acute phase and immune responses

    SciTech Connect

    Sehgal, P.B.; Grieninger, G.; Tosato, G.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the conference entitled Regulation of the acute phase and immune responses: Interleukin-L. Topics covered include: Interferon-B{sub 2}/26kDa Protein, Regulation of acute phase liver gene expression, and Genetics and regulation of expression of IL-6.

  3. Reduced Acute Recovery from Alcohol Impairment in Adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Walter; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Prior research has found that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show increased sensitivity to the impairing effects of alcohol (Weafer et al. 2009). However, these studies have focused exclusively on the ascending limb of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve, and it is unclear whether these adults continue to show increased sensitivity during the later phase of the dose as BAC is declining. Objective This study tested the hypothesis that those with ADHD would display increased response to alcohol during the ascending limb of the BAC curve and less recovery from the impairing effects during the descending limb. Methods Adult social drinkers with ADHD and control adults completed measures of motor coordination, reaction time, and subjective intoxication twice following 0.64 g/kg alcohol and placebo. The measures were administered during the ascending limb of the BAC curve and again during the descending limb. Results During the ascending limb, alcohol reduced motor coordination, slowed reaction time (RT), and increased self-reports of subjective intoxication. Those with ADHD displayed greater impairment of motor coordination compared with controls. During the descending limb, controls reported diminished subjective intoxication and showed recovery from the impairing effects of alcohol on both their motor coordination and their RT. Those with ADHD showed reduced subjective intoxication and faster RT during this time, but they did not recover motor control. Conclusions The protracted time course of motor impairment in adults with ADHD despite reductions in subjective intoxication may contribute to poor decision making and diminished behavioral control in this group. PMID:23430161

  4. Banded ion morphology - Main and recovery storm phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, R. A.; Reiff, P. H.; Winningham, J. D.; Burch, J. L.

    The occurrence of bands in ion spectra obtained with the high-altitude and low-altitude plasma instruments on DE-1 and DE-2, respectively, during main and recovery storm phases from the period September 1981 - January 1982 is analyzed statistically. Typical spectra are shown; diagrams and graphs of storm morphology are provided; and two theoretical models (one based on time-of-flight effects and another based on convective dispersion) are discussed. It is found that bands occur more often in the main phase than in the recovery phase, and more often and at higher latitudes in the evening than before noon. From the stability of the bands and the dependence of energy on latitude it is inferred that convective dispersion plays a more important role than time-of-flight effects in the motion of heavy ions in the magnetosphere.

  5. Single-Phase Boost Rectifier with Snubber Energy Recovery Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neba, Yasuhiko; Ishizaka, Kouichi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Itoh, Ryozo

    Single-phase boost rectifier with snubber energy recovery feature operating under the current-mode control with a turn-on at constant clock time is studied. In this rectifier, the resonant circuit consisting of small inductor and capacitor is added in DC circuit. The snubber energy is transferred to an additional resonant capacitor and can next be transferred to the load circuit when an insulated-gate bipolar transistor as the active power device is turned off. The experimental prototype is implemented to investigate the operation. The experimental results confirm that the proposed snubber energy recovery scheme has the feasibility.

  6. Factors Affecting Recovery Time of Pulmonary Function in Hospitalized Patients With Acute Asthma Exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Jaemoon; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Park, So-Young; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged recovery time of pulmonary function after an asthma exacerbation is a significant burden on asthmatics, and management of these patients needs to be improved. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with a longer recovery time of pulmonary function among asthmatic patients hospitalized due to a severe asthma exacerbation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 89 patients who were admitted for the management of acute asthma exacerbations. The recovery time of pulmonary function was defined as the time from the date each patient initially received treatment for asthma exacerbations to the date the patient reached his or her previous best FEV1% value. We investigated the influence of various clinical and laboratory factors on the recovery time. Results The median recovery time of the patients was 1.7 weeks. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that using regular inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) before an acute exacerbation of asthma and concurrent with viral infection at admission were associated with the prolonged recovery time of pulmonary function. Conclusions The prolonged recovery time of pulmonary function after a severe asthma exacerbation was not shown to be directly associated with poor adherence to ICS. Therefore the results indicate that an unknown subtype of asthma may be associated with the prolonged recovery of pulmonary function time after an acute exacerbation of asthma despite regular ICS use. Further prospective studies to investigate factors affecting the recovery time of pulmonary function after an asthma exacerbation are warranted. PMID:27582400

  7. Acute Phase Reactants as Novel Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M. S.; Jadhav, A. B.; Hassan, A.; Meng, Qing H.

    2012-01-01

    Acute phase reaction is a systemic response which usually follows a physiological condition that takes place in the beginning of an inflammatory process. This physiological change usually lasts 1-2 days. However, the systemic acute phase response usually lasts longer. The aim of this systemic response is to restore homeostasis. These events are accompanied by upregulation of some proteins (positive acute phase reactants) and downregulation of others (negative acute phase reactants) during inflammatory reactions. Cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by the elevation of several positive acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell count, secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase 2-II (sPLA2-II), ferritin, and ceruloplasmin. Cardiovascular disease is also accompanied by the reduction of negative acute phase reactants such as albumin, transferrin, transthyretin, retinol-binding protein, antithrombin, and transcortin. In this paper, we will be discussing the biological activity and diagnostic and prognostic values of acute phase reactants with cardiovascular importance. The potential therapeutic targets of these reactants will be also discussed. PMID:24049653

  8. Chemical systems for improved oil recovery: Phase behavior, oil recovery, and mobility control studies

    SciTech Connect

    Llave, F.; Gall, B.; Gao, H., Scott, L., Cook, I.

    1995-09-01

    Selected surfactant systems containing a series of ethoxylated nonionic surfactants in combination with an anionic surfactant system have been studied to evaluate phase behavior as well as oil recovery potential. These experiments were conducted to evaluate possible improved phase behavior and overall oil recovery potential of mixed surfactant systems over a broad range of conditions. Both polyacrylamide polymers and Xanthan biopolymers were evaluated. Studies were initiated to use a chemical flooding simulation program, UTCHEM, to simulate oil recovery for laboratory and field applications and evaluate its use to simulate oil saturation distributions obtained in CT-monitoring of oil recovery experiments. The phase behavior studies focused on evaluating the effect of anionic-nonionic surfactant proportion on overall phase behavior. Two distinct transition behaviors were observed, depending on the dominant surfactant in the overall system. The first type of transition corresponded to more conventional behavior attributed to nonionic-dominant surfactant systems. This behavior is manifested by an oil-water-surfactant system that inverts from a water-external (highly conducting) microemulsion to an oil-external (nonconducting) one, as a function of temperature. The latter type which inverts in an opposite manner can be attributed to the separation of the anionic-nonionic mixtures into water- and oil-soluble surfactants. Both types of transition behavior can still be used to identify relative proximity to optimal areas. Determining these transition ranges provided more insight on how the behavior of these surfactant mixtures was affected by altering component proportions. Efforts to optimize the chemical system for oil displacement experiments were also undertaken. Phase behavior studies with systems formulated with biopolymer in solution were conducted.

  9. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Wilkins, D.W.; Keltch, B.; Saradji, B.; Salamy, S.P.

    1988-04-01

    This report is the second volume of the Recovery Efficiency Test Phase I Report of Activities. Volume 1 covered selection, well planning, drilling, coring, logging and completion operations. This volume reports on well testing activities, reclamation activities on the drilling site and access roads, and the results of physical and mechanical properties tests on the oriented core material obtained from a horizontal section of the well. 3 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. [Acute-phase proteins in inflammation].

    PubMed

    Engler, R

    1995-01-01

    The acute phase proteins (APPs) have been empirically defined as those whose plasma concentration changes following inflammatory reaction. Those proteins whose concentrations increase are referred to as positive APP, while those whose levels decline are termed negative APP. In man, positive APP are: alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha 1 protease inhibitor, alpha 1 antichymotrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A. Great variability in the APP response between different species is observed. The principal functions of APP, result from the interaction of these proteins with ligands of various origins which give "protein-ligands" complexes. These complexes are cleared by the RES or by the hepatocyte. The results are protease inhibition, neutralization of toxic molecules such as hemoglobin or the superoxide anion, clearance of cell membranes and chromatin. The drop of the plasma concentration of negative APP during an inflammatory reaction carries a rise of free ligands (fatty acids, hormones, vitamins, trace elements). IL6 has been recognized as the principal regulator of most APP genes. The response of the hepatic cell to IL6 is characterized by the enhanced production of type 2 or IL6 specific APPs. The biochemical process of signal transduction is IL6--JAK2--APRF The set of APP genes regulated by IL1 type cytokines (type 1 APPs) is distinct from that regulated by IL6 type cytokine. IL1 and TNF alpha mediated stimulation of type 1 APP genes is synergistically enhanced by IL6 type cytokines. The biochemical process of signal transduction is IL1, IL6--Ras--MAP kinase--NFIL6 The targeted inflammatory proteic profile including the assay of C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and alpha 1 acid glycoprotein produces a "biological tool" to the clinician in order to manage an inflammatory response. IL6, a proteic marker for the future, connected with CRP, will be assayed during early inflammatory reaction.

  11. Motor recovery after acute ischaemic stroke: a metabolic study.

    PubMed Central

    Di Piero, V; Chollet, F M; MacCarthy, P; Lenzi, G L; Frackowiak, R S

    1992-01-01

    The metabolic changes occurring after ischaemic stroke were measured to investigate the functional anatomy of clinical motor recovery. Positron emission tomography (PET) and the steady-state 15O technique was used to compare resting relative metabolic distributions at the onset of functional deficit with those following recovery. Ten patients were studied with repeat scans. Motor recovery was associated in some patients with an increase of relative oxygen metabolism in anatomical structures normally involved in motor function in the affected hemisphere, particularly in the cortical motor areas. In those patients without such metabolic changes in the cortex of the diseased hemisphere, relative increases in cortical metabolism in the contralateral hemisphere were associated with better motor recovery than in patients with no relative cortical metabolic increase in either hemisphere. There was no correlation between the degree of improvement in motor function and the severity of motor deficit at onset, the size and site of the lesion and the metabolic changes in the infarcted zone. No particular pattern of global metabolic changes was observed after recovery. Thus different relative patterns of metabolic recovery were seen in patients with different lesions and evidence was found for the participation of contralateral structures in the recovery process in some patients. Images PMID:1469418

  12. Immunological alterations during the clinical and recovery phases of experimental swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Robert; Andersson, Märit; Råsbäck, Therese; Johannisson, Anders; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in the systemic immune response during the incubation period and following the onset of clinical swine dysentery, including the recovery period. Ten healthy conventional pigs were inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Blood was sampled at pre-inoculation, at days 4 and 14 post-inoculation, during the first 4 days with clinical signs of dysentery and at days 1, 3, 7, 11 and 15 of the recovery period. Eight pigs developed haemorrhagic diarrhoea. Flow-cytometric analyses of lymphocyte subpopulations showed that all animals, including the two that remained healthy, had an increase in CD8alpha+ CD4- cells and gammadelta T cells at days 4 and 14 post-inoculation. In addition, an increase in CD4+ CD8alpha+ cells and CD8alpha+ CD8beta+ cells was observed at days 4 and 14 post-inoculation in animals that developed dysentery. During clinical signs of dysentery, the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A was increased. There was a two- to threefold increase in both neutrophils and monocytes during signs of dysentery and at the beginning of the recovery period. The numbers of CD8alpha+ CD8beta- CD4-, CD45RA- lymphocytes also increased during the dysentery period. Circulating CD21+ cells and CD21+ CD45RA- cells decreased at the end of the incubation period, during signs of dysentery and at the beginning of the recovery period. The dysentery-affected animals developed antibodies to B. hyodysenteriae-specific antigens (approximately 16 kDa and approximately 30 kDa) from the first day of recovery, and gammadelta T cells showed an increase during the recovery period. In comparison with pre-inoculation, increased numbers of monocytes, neutrophils, CD8alpha+ CD8beta- CD4- lymphocytes and CD45RA- lymphocytes were observed during clinical dysentery. Increased numbers of neutrophils, gammadelta T cells and specific antibodies were seen during the recovery period.

  13. Race and sex differences in cardiovascular recovery from acute stress.

    PubMed

    Gillin, J L; Mills, P J; Nelesen, R A; Dillon, E; Ziegler, M G; Dimsdale, J E

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of race and gender on recovery, i.e. the relative return to baseline after a stress challenge, cardiovascular and catecholamine measures were examined before, during and after two standardized laboratory stressors (a speaking and a mirror tracing task) in a group of 85 Black and White men and women (mean age 35.6 years, range 20 to 52). For the speech task, White men showed the least systolic (p < 0.025) and diastolic (p < 0.05) blood pressure recovery as compared to Black men and women. For the mirror star tracing task, total peripheral resistance (p < 0.03) recovery was least for Whites as compared to Blacks and heart rate (p < 0.04) recovery was least for White women as compared to Black women and men. There were no significant group effects in terms of catecholamine recovery from either task. The findings extend prior studies on race and gender by suggesting that these same characteristics affect recovery from stressors.

  14. More Daytime Sleeping Predicts Less Functional Recovery Among Older People Undergoing Inpatient Post-Acute Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Alessi, Cathy A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Webber, Adam P.; Alam, Tarannum; Littner, Michael R.; Harker, Judith O.; Josephson, Karen R.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To study the association between sleep/wake patterns among older adults during inpatient post-acute rehabilitation and their immediate and long-term functional recovery Design: Prospective, observational cohort study Setting: Two inpatient post-acute rehabilitation sites (one community and one Veterans Administration) Participants: Older patients (aged ≥ 65 years, N = 245) admitted for inpatient post-acute rehabilitation Interventions: None Measurements and Results: Based on 7-day wrist actigraphy during the rehabilitation stay, mean nighttime percent sleep was only 52.2% and mean daytime percent sleep was 15.8% (16.3% based on structured behavioral observations). Using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), participants reported their sleep was worse during rehabilitation compared to their premorbid sleep. Functional recovery between admission and discharge from rehabilitation (measured by the motor component of the Functional Independence Measure) was not significantly associated with reported sleep quality (PSQI scores) or actigraphically measured nighttime sleep. However, more daytime percent sleep (estimated by actigraphy and observations) during the rehabilitation stay was associated with less functional recovery from admission to discharge, even after adjusting for other significant predictors of functional recovery (mental status, hours of rehabilitation therapy received, rehospitalization, and reason for admission; adjusted R2 = 0.267, P < 0.0001). More daytime sleeping during rehabilitation remained a significant predictor of less functional recovery in adjusted analyses at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions: Sleep disturbance is common among older people undergoing inpatient post-acute rehabilitation. These data suggest that more daytime sleeping during the rehabilitation stay is associated with less functional recovery for up to three months after admission for rehabilitation. Citation: Alessi CA; Martin JL; Webber AP; Alam T

  15. Banded ion morphology: Main and recovery storm phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, R. A.; Reiff, P. H.; Winningham, J. D.; Burch, J. L.

    Ion bands appear in a spectrogram display as a continuous line of enhanced ion energy flux, whose median energy increases as the satellite travels poleward in the low and mid-altitude magnetosphere. These ion bands occur with highest energy flux at zero degrees pitch angle. Ion bands similar to those described previously have been investigated using data from the Low Altitude Plasma Instrument (LAPI) and High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI) flown on the Dynamics Explorer (DE) satellites. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a statistical study of band occurrence and to present and describe the current models for band formation. The morphology of ion bands has been examined for main and recovery storm phases covering the period from September 1981 to December 1981. Bands are more likely to be seen during the main phase of magnetic storms than during recovery phase. Bands are more prevalent in the evening sector and occur at higher invariant latitudes (˜5°) than those in the pre-noon sector. Two current models have been proposed to describe bands or band-like signatures in ion spectrograms. The first is a time-of-flight effect as in the bouncing ion clusters (seen at geosynchronous orbit). The second is convective dispersion, where ions from the opposite hemisphere's ionosphere experience significant motion perpendicular to magnetic field lines and become dispersed in latitude as they travel parallel to a magnetic field line. The data tend to favor convective dispersion, although time-of-flight effects can also be seen.

  16. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Tipifarnib and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Blast Phase

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-14

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Blastic Phase; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Disease; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Recovery Efficiency Test Project Phase 2 activity report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of Phase II operations of the Recovery Efficiency Test Project is to enhance the natural production of the well and evaluate the relative improvement as a function of the type of stimulation conducted. Another purpose is to compare the stimulated production performance of the horizontal well with vertical wells in the field. The objectives considered for Phase II operations and plans were: (1) Develop a rationale for a systematic approach to designing stimulations for the well. (2) Conduct a series of stimulations designed to optimize the fluids, injection rates, proppant volumes and general approach to stimulating a horizontal well with similar geologic conditions. (3) Develop and test a method or methods for determining the geometry of stimulation-induced fractures. (4) Conduct tests and analyze the results to determine the efficiency of stimulation operations. The technical approach pursued in developing plans to accomplish three objectives was to: (1) Review the data needs for all objectives and obtain that data first. (2) Identify the operating geologic, geomechanical, and reservoir parameters that need additional clarification or definition. (3) Investigate existing models which could be used to plan or evaluate stimulation on the well and the reservoir. (4) Plan for analysis and verification of models and approaches.

  19. Renal functional reserve and renal recovery after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aashish; Mucino, Marìa Jimena; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Renal functional reserve (RFR) represents the capacity of the kidney to increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in response to certain physiological or pathological stimuli or conditions. Once baseline GFR is determined, RFR can be assessed clinically after an oral protein load or intravenous amino acid infusion. In clinical practice, baseline GFR displays variable levels due to diet or other factors. RFR is the difference between peak 'stress' GFR induced by the test (p.o. or i.v.) and the baseline GFR. In clinical scenarios where hyperfiltration is present (high baseline GFR due to pregnancy, hypertension or diabetic nephropathy, in solitary kidney or kidney donors), RFR may be fully or partially used to achieve normal or supranormal renal function. Since commonly used renal function markers, such as GFR, may remain within normal ranges until 50% of nephrons are lost or in patients with a single remnant kidney, the RFR test may represent a sensitive and early way to assess the functional decline in the kidney. RFR assessment may become an important tool to evaluate the ability of the kidney to recover completely or partially after a kidney attack. In case of healing with a defect and progressive fibrosis, recovery may appear complete clinically, but a reduced RFR may be a sign of a maladaptive repair or subclinical loss of renal mass. Thus, a reduction in RFR may represent the equivalent of renal frailty or susceptibility to insults. The main aim of this article is to review the concept of RFR, its utility in different clinical scenarios, and future perspective for its use.

  20. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leighton; Tiller, Nicholas B; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (Mage=20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min(-1)) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (p<0.01, ηp(2)=0.38). There were significant differences in HR during initial recovery periods (p<0.05, ηp(2)=0.16), but no other music-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant.

  1. MHD seed recovery and regeneration, Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed by the Space and Technology Division of the TRW Space and Electronics Group for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for the Econoseed process. This process involves the economical recovery and regeneration of potassium seed used in the MHD channel. The contract period of performance extended from 1987 through 1994 and was divided into two phases. The Phase II test results are the subject of this Final Report. However, the Phase I test results are presented in summary form in Section 2.3 of this Final Report. The Econoseed process involves the treatment of the potassium sulfate in spent MHD seed with an aqueous calcium formate solution in a continuously stirred reactor system to solubilize, as potassium formate, the potassium content of the seed and to precipitate and recover the sulfate as calcium sulfate. The slurry product from this reaction is centrifuged to separate the calcium sulfate and insoluble seed constituents from the potassium formate solution. The dilute solids-free potassium formate solution is then concentrated in an evaporator. The concentrated potassium formate product is a liquid which can be recycled as a spray into the MHD channel. Calcium formate is the seed regenerant used in the Econoseed process. Since calcium formate is produced in the United States in relatively small quantities, a new route to the continuous production of large quantities of calcium formate needed to support an MHD power industry was investigated. This route involves the reaction of carbon monoxide gas with lime solids in an aqueous medium.

  2. Acute, but not chronic, exposure to d-cycloserine facilitates extinction and modulates spontaneous recovery of a conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Mickley, G Andrew; Remus, Jennifer L; Ramos, Linnet; Wilson, Gina N; Biesan, Orion R; Ketchesin, Kyle D

    2012-01-18

    D-cycloserine, the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor partial agonist, has been reported to facilitate the extinction of learned fears acquired in both naturalistic and laboratory settings. The current study extended this literature by evaluating the ability of either chronic or acute administrations of DCS to modulate the extinction and spontaneous recovery of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Twenty-three hour fluid-deprived Sprague-Dawley rats acquired a strong CTA following 3 pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS; 0.3% oral saccharin)+unconditioned stimulus [US; 81 mg/kg (i.p.) lithium chloride (LiCl)]. In separate groups of rats, we then employed 2 different extinction paradigms: (1) CS-only (CSO-EXT) in which saccharin was presented every-other day, or (2) Explicitly Unpaired (EU-EXT) in which both saccharin and LiCl were presented but on alternate days. Previous studies have indicated that the EU-EXT procedure speeds up the extinction process. Further, spontaneous recovery of a CTA emerges following CSO-EXT but the EU-EXT paradigm causes a suppression of spontaneous recovery. DCS (15 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered immediately after daily liquid presentations (saccharin or water, alternate days) during the extinction period. In an acute drug manipulation, DCS (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline control injections were administered for 4 days only. This was done during one of 3 different phases of extinction [i.e., static (2-5%), early dynamic (8-16%), or middle dynamic (20-40%) saccharin reacceptance]. Other animals assigned to the chronic DCS condition received daily DCS (15 mg/kg, i.p.) throughout extinction. Changes in saccharin drinking in these animals were compared to the data from rats that received no drug (saline controls). Once rats met our criterion for asymptotic extinction (90% reacceptance of the CS) they entered a 30-day latency period during which they received water for 1 h/day. The day after the completion of the latency period, a final

  3. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete's anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation.

  4. Acute Low Back Pain and Primary Care: How to Define Recovery and Chronification?

    PubMed Central

    Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Acree, Michael; Pressman, Alice; Carey, Tim; Goldberg, Harley; Hecht, Frederick; Avins, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study Objective to establish outcome measures for recovery and chronic pain for studies with patients that present with recent-onset acute low back pain in primary care Summary of Background Data Among back pain researchers, no consensus exists about outcome definitions or how to identify primary-care patients as not-recovered from an episode of low back pain. Cut points for outcome scales have mostly been arbitrarily chosen. Theoretical models for establishing minimal important change (MIC) values in studies of patients with low back pain have been proposed and need to be applied to real data. Methods In a sample of 521 patients which presented with acute low back pain (<4 weeks) in primary care clinics and were followed for 6 months, scores for pain and disability were compared with ratings on a global perceived effect scale. Using multiple potential “gold standards” as anchors (reference standards), the receiver operating characteristics method was used to determine optimal cut points for different ways of defining non-recovery from acute low back pain. Results MIC values and upper limits for pain and disability scores as well as minimal important percent changes are presented for five different definitions of recovery. A previously suggested 30% change from baseline scores does not accurately discriminate between recovered and not recovered patients in patients presenting with acute low back pain in primary care. Conclusions Outcome definitions that combine ratings from perceived recovery scales with pain and disability measures provide the highest accuracy in discriminating recovered from non-recovered patients. PMID:21311400

  5. Energization of outer radiation belt electrons during storm recovery phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Asif; Waters, C. L.; Sciffer, M. D.; Menk, F. W.

    2016-11-01

    We use test particle simulations incorporating an MHD model of ULF wave propagation in the magnetosphere with realistic ionosphere boundary conditions to study electron energization in the dayside outer Van Allen radiation belt, referenced to in situ particle and wave observations. On 7 January 2011 the THEMIS spacecraft detected 3 and 4-5 mHz waves simultaneous with flux enhancement of >10 keV electrons during the early recovery phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm. We find that internal energization of equatorially mirroring electrons via nonresonant ULF wave-particle interactions can explain these observations. The wave poloidal components cause radial drift of electrons, increasing (decreasing) their kinetic energy as they move inward (outward). Electrons with initial kinetic energies of a few keV can be energized to double these values within an hour by interaction with the 3 mHz waves. The energization rate is somewhat less for the 4-5 mHz waves. An increase in the ionospheric conductance decreases the power of the fast mode wave, reducing radial drift velocities and hence decreasing the rate of energization. The fast mode poloidal field varies with radial distance and longitude, and this also affects energization. Electrons which drift outward encounter a region where the toroidal field due to the field line resonance becomes dominant and produces strong azimuthal drift. These electrons become trapped in an L-shell range just outward of the resonance region and are not energized.

  6. Continuous internal counterpulsation as a bridge to recovery in acute and chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Kontogiannis, Christos D; Malliaras, Konstantinos; Kapelios, Chris J; Mason, Jay W; Nanas, John N

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac recovery from cardiogenic shock (CS) and end-stage chronic heart failure (HF) remains an often insurmountable therapeutic challenge. The counterpulsation technique exerts numerous beneficial effects on systemic hemodynamics and left ventricular mechanoenergetics, rendering it attractive for promoting myocardial recovery in both acute and chronic HF. Although a recent clinical trial has questioned the clinical effectiveness of short-term hemodynamic support with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP, the main representative of the counterpulsation technique) in CS complicating myocardial infarction, the issue remains open to further investigation. Moreover, preliminary data suggest that long-term IABP support in patients with end-stage HF is safe and may mediate recovery of left- or/and right-sided cardiac function, facilitating long-term weaning from mechanical support or enabling the application of other permanent, life-saving solutions. The potential of long-term counterpulsation could possibly be enhanced by implementation of novel, fully implantable counterpulsation devices. PMID:27011909

  7. Recovery and outcome of patients with stroke treated in an acute care hospital.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, R W; Kloter, K; Cooper, J

    1991-01-01

    This retrospective study of patients with stroke was performed to describe the patients' functional independence on admission to and discharge from physical therapy treatment, determine whether significant functional recovery occurred during the treatment period, and identify independent variables correlating with recovery and outcome at discharge. The Functional Independence Measurement (FIM) system was used to score performance in bed mobility, transfers, locomotion, and stairs. Outcome was indicated by the discharge FIM scores and discharge habitat. The 105 patients whose acute care records were reviewed demonstrated significant improvements between admission and discharge in all functions. Among the variables that correlated significantly with recovery were number of treatments and admission FIM scores. Age and number of treatments correlated significantly with discharge habitat. All FIM scores (admission and discharge) correlated significantly with discharge habitat. Results suggest that FIM scores can be used to document the functional status of patients with stroke in an acute care setting and that the scores have value as predictors of recovery and outcome.

  8. Normal Caloric Responses during Acute Phase of Vestibular Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Uk; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Koo, Ja-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We report a novel finding of caloric conversion from normal responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase of vestibular neuritis (VN). Methods We recruited 893 patients with a diagnosis of VN at Dizziness Clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2003 to 2014 after excluding 28 patients with isolated inferior divisional VN (n=14) and those without follow-up tests despite normal caloric responses initially (n=14). We retrospectively analyzed the neurotological findings in four (0.5%) of the patients who showed a conversion from initially normal caloric responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase. Results In those four patients, the initial caloric tests were performed within 2 days of symptom onset, and conversion into unilateral caloric paresis was documented 1–4 days later. The clinical and laboratory findings during the initial evaluation were consistent with VN in all four patients except for normal findings in bedside head impulse tests in one of them. Conclusions Normal findings in caloric tests should be interpreted with caution during the acute phase of suspected VN. Follow-up evaluation should be considered when the findings of the initial caloric test are normal, but VN remains the most plausible diagnosis. PMID:26932259

  9. Acute phase protein response in the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    PubMed

    Bernal, Luis; Feser, Mariane; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; García-Martínez, Juan D; Cerón, José J; Tecles, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated the acute phase protein response in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). Three animal groups were used: 1) healthy animals (n=30), 2) a group in which experimental inflammation with turpentine was induced (n=6), and 3) a group affected with sarcoptic scabies (n=14) in which 10 animals were treated with ivermectin. Haptoglobin (Hp), acid-soluble glycoprotein (ASG) and albumin were analyzed in all animals. In those treated with turpentine, Hp reached its maximum value at 2 wk with a 2.7-fold increase, whereas ASG increased 1.75-fold and albumin decreased 0.87-fold 1 wk after the induction of inflammation. Capybaras affected with sarcoptic scabies presented increases in Hp and ASG of 4.98- and 3.18-fold, respectively, and a 0.87-fold decrease in albumin, compared with healthy animals. Haptoglobin and ASG can be considered as moderate, positive acute phase proteins in capybaras because they showed less than 10-fold increases after an inflammatory process and reached their peak concentrations 1 wk after the induction of inflammation. Conversely, albumin can be considered a negative acute phase protein in capybaras because it showed a reduction in concentration after inflammatory stimulus.

  10. Elimination Half-Lives of Acute Phase Proteins in Rats and Beagle Dogs During Acute Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Seita, Tetsuro; Momotani, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Hagimori, Kohei; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2015-08-01

    The half-lives of typical acute phase proteins in rats and beagle dogs during acute inflammation were investigated. Acute inflammation was induced by injection of turpentine oil in rats and administration of indomethacin in beagle dogs. Serum concentrations of α2-macroglobulin (α2M) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) was measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Half-life was calculated as 0.693/elimination rate constant (K). The mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of α2M and AAG were 68.1 and 164.8 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of α2M. Mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of CRP and AAG were 161.9 and 304.4 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of CRP in beagle dogs. No significant differences in the half-life of AAG were observed between rats and beagle dogs. Furthermore, serum concentrations in the terminal elimination phase could be simulated with the K data acquired in this study.

  11. EEG recovery enhanced by acute aerobic exercise after performing mental task with listening to unpleasant sound.

    PubMed

    Nishifuji, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    The present paper investigated response of electroencephalogram (EEG) to aerobic exercise with low intensity after performing mental task with listening to acoustic stimuli in order to measure a recovery effect of the acute exercise on the EEG. The mean amplitude of the alpha wave (8-13 Hz) was significantly reduced during performing mental arithmetic and/or listening to 5 KHz unpleasant tone. In particular, the mean reduction rate of the amplitude was more than 20 % in the low-frequency range of the alpha wave (8-10 Hz) under both stressors. On the other hand, the alpha wave was fixed after an acute exercise of 20 min; the mean amplitude of the alpha wave exceeded 30 % of spontaneous level prior to stressed conditions in the low-frequency range but unchanged in the high-frequency range. Response of the theta wave was similar to the low-alpha wave, while beta and gamma waves showed no significant change in response to the stressors and exercise. The observation indicates that the acute exercise with low intensity may be responsible for the rapid recovery and enhancement of the alpha wave in the low-frequency range and theta wave.

  12. Multiparametric, Longitudinal Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Reveals Acute Injury and Chronic Recovery in Experimental Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Can, Anil; Blasi, Francesco; Climov, Mihail; Daneshmand, Ali; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, Esther; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Lo, Eng H.; Sakadžić, Sava; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Ayata, Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Progress in experimental stroke and translational medicine could be accelerated by high-resolution in vivo imaging of disease progression in the mouse cortex. Here, we introduce optical microscopic methods that monitor brain injury progression using intrinsic optical scattering properties of cortical tissue. A multi-parametric Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) platform for longitudinal imaging of ischemic stroke in mice, through thinned-skull, reinforced cranial window surgical preparations, is described. In the acute stages, the spatiotemporal interplay between hemodynamics and cell viability, a key determinant of pathogenesis, was imaged. In acute stroke, microscopic biomarkers for eventual infarction, including capillary non-perfusion, cerebral blood flow deficiency, altered cellular scattering, and impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow, were quantified and correlated with histology. Additionally, longitudinal microscopy revealed remodeling and flow recovery after one week of chronic stroke. Intrinsic scattering properties serve as reporters of acute cellular and vascular injury and recovery in experimental stroke. Multi-parametric OCT represents a robust in vivo imaging platform to comprehensively investigate these properties. PMID:23940761

  13. Multiparametric, longitudinal optical coherence tomography imaging reveals acute injury and chronic recovery in experimental ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Vivek J; Mandeville, Emiri T; Can, Anil; Blasi, Francesco; Climov, Mihail; Daneshmand, Ali; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, Esther; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Lo, Eng H; Sakadžić, Sava; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Ayata, Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Progress in experimental stroke and translational medicine could be accelerated by high-resolution in vivo imaging of disease progression in the mouse cortex. Here, we introduce optical microscopic methods that monitor brain injury progression using intrinsic optical scattering properties of cortical tissue. A multi-parametric Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) platform for longitudinal imaging of ischemic stroke in mice, through thinned-skull, reinforced cranial window surgical preparations, is described. In the acute stages, the spatiotemporal interplay between hemodynamics and cell viability, a key determinant of pathogenesis, was imaged. In acute stroke, microscopic biomarkers for eventual infarction, including capillary non-perfusion, cerebral blood flow deficiency, altered cellular scattering, and impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow, were quantified and correlated with histology. Additionally, longitudinal microscopy revealed remodeling and flow recovery after one week of chronic stroke. Intrinsic scattering properties serve as reporters of acute cellular and vascular injury and recovery in experimental stroke. Multi-parametric OCT represents a robust in vivo imaging platform to comprehensively investigate these properties.

  14. Effect of early supervised physiotherapy on recovery from acute ankle sprain: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Day, Andrew G; Pelland, Lucie; Pickett, William; Johnson, Ana P; Aiken, Alice; Pichora, David R; Brouwer, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of a programme of supervised physiotherapy on the recovery of simple grade 1 and 2 ankle sprains. Design A randomised controlled trial of 503 participants followed for six months. Setting Participants were recruited from two tertiary acute care settings in Kingston, ON, Canada. Participants The broad inclusion criteria were patients aged ≥16 presenting for acute medical assessment and treatment of a simple grade 1 or 2 ankle sprain. Exclusions were patients with multiple injuries, other conditions limiting mobility, and ankle injuries that required immobilisation and those unable to accommodate the time intensive study protocol. Intervention Participants received either usual care, consisting of written instructions regarding protection, rest, cryotherapy, compression, elevation, and graduated weight bearing activities, or usual care enhanced with a supervised programme of physiotherapy. Main outcome measures The primary outcome of efficacy was the proportion of participants reporting excellent recovery assessed with the foot and ankle outcome score (FAOS). Excellent recovery was defined as a score ≥450/500 at three months. A difference of at least 15% increase in the absolute proportion of participants with excellent recovery was deemed clinically important. Secondary analyses included the assessment of excellent recovery at one and six months; change from baseline using continuous scores at one, three, and six months; and clinical and biomechanical measures of ankle function, assessed at one, three, and six months. Results The absolute proportion of patients achieving excellent recovery at three months was not significantly different between the physiotherapy (98/229, 43%) and usual care (79/214, 37%) arms (absolute difference 6%, 95% confidence interval −3% to 15%). The observed trend towards benefit with physiotherapy did not increase in the per protocol analysis and was in the opposite direction by six months

  15. Proximal tubule-derived Colony Stimulating Factor-1 mediates polarization of renal macrophages and dendritic cells, and recovery in acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinqiu; Chang, Jian; Yao, Bing; Niu, Aolei; Kelly, Emily; Breeggemann, Matthew C.; Abboud Werner, Sherry L.; Harris, Raymond C.; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Infiltrating cells play an important role in both the development of and recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). Macrophages and renal dendritic cells are of particular interest because they can exhibit distinctly different functional phenotypes, broadly characterized as proinflammatory (M1) or tissue reparative (M2). Resident renal macrophages and dendritic cells participate in recovery from AKI in response to either ischemia/reperfusion or a model of selective proximal tubule injury induced by diphtheria toxin-induced apoptosis in transgenic mice expressing the human diphtheria toxin receptor on proximal tubule cells. Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) is an important factor mediating the recovery from AKI, and CSF-1 can stimulate macrophage and dendritic cell proliferation and polarization during the recovery phase of AKI. The kidney, and specifically the proximal tubule, is a major source of intrarenal CSF-1 production in response to AKI. We induced selective deletion of proximal tubule CSF-1 to determine its role in expansion and proliferation of renal macrophages and dendritic cells and in recovery from AKI. In both models of AKI, there was decreased M2 polarization, delayed functional and structural recovery and increased tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Thus, intrarenal CSF-1 is an important mediator of macrophage/dendritic cell polarization and recovery from AKI. PMID:26422503

  16. Microbial enhanced oil recovery: Entering the log phase

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology has advanced internationally since 1980 from a laboratory-based evaluation of microbial processes to field applications. In order to adequately support the decline in oil production in certain areas, research on cost-effective technologies such as microbial enhanced oil recovery processes must focus on both near-term and long-term applications. Many marginal wells are desperately in need of an inexpensive improved oil recovery technology today that can assist producers in order to prevent their abandonment. Microbial enhanced waterflooding technology has also been shown to be an economically feasible technology in the United States. Complementary environmental research and development will also be required to address any potential environmental impacts of microbial processes. In 1995 at this conference, the goal is to further document and promote microbial processes for improved oil recovery and related technology for solving environmental problems.

  17. Predicting acute recovery of physical function following total knee joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Shawn M; Rastogi, Ravi; McLaughlin, Terry-Lyne

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to explore predictors of physical function during acute in-patient rehabilitation within a few days after TKA. Physical function status of participants (n = 72) three days after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was measured using the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) and the function subscale of the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis (WOMAC-function). Potential predictors of physical function were measured day one post-TKA. Their relationship with physical function was examined using backward elimination, multiple regression analyses. Older age and increased comorbidity were associated (R(2) = 0.20) with worse TUG times. Increased pain severity was associated (R(2) = 0.08) with worse WOMAC-function scores. Age, comorbidity, and pain severity should be considered when predicting which patients will struggle with acute recovery post-TKA.

  18. Early phase of acute pancreatitis: Assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Phillip, Veit; Steiner, Jörg M; Algül, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a potentially life-threatening disease with a wide spectrum of severity. The overall mortality of AP is approximately 5%. According to the revised Atlanta classification system, AP can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Severe AP often takes a clinical course with two phases, an early and a late phase, which should both be considered separately. In this review article, we first discuss general aspects of AP, including incidence, pathophysiology, etiology, and grading of severity, then focus on the assessment of patients with suspected AP, including diagnosis and risk stratification, followed by the management of AP during the early phase, with special emphasis on fluid therapy, pain management, nutrition, and antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:25133018

  19. Case study: In-situ methods for the recovery of dissolved and free-phase TCE

    SciTech Connect

    Lindhult, E.C.; Edelman, M.J.; Buggey, T.R.; Hart, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    Two-phase vacuum extraction (VE) technology, which simultaneously removes groundwater and soil vapor from the subsurface, has been applied at a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) site with promising results. The two-phase VE (a.k.a. dual-phase VE) has been used to enhance groundwater recovery to attain a zone of capture by enhancing groundwater yields from groundwater recovery wells not attainable from pumping alone. Operation of the two-phase VE system has resulted in the recovery of significant quantities of DNAPL, consisting primarily of trichloroethylene (TCE). Controlled pumping has been applied to recover the free-phase TCE. This paper presents a summary of site conditions, description of the two-phase VE and groundwater remediation system, and conclusions from the site remediation.

  20. Explicit and Implicit Emotional Expression in Bulimia Nervosa in the Acute State and after Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Forcano, Laura; Sánchez, Isabel; Santamaría, Juan José; Ben-Moussa, Maher; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Konstantas, Dimitri; Lucas, Mikkel; Nielsen, Jeppe; Bults, Richard G. A.; Lam, Tony; Kostoulas, Theodoros; Fakotakis, Nikos; Riesco, Nadine; Wolz, Ines; Comín-Colet, Josep; Cardi, Valentina; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Formoso, José Antonio; Menchón, José Manuel; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Expression of emotional state is considered to be a core facet of an individual's emotional competence. Emotional processing in BN has not been often studied and has not been considered from a broad perspective. This study aimed at examining the implicit and explicit emotional expression in BN patients, in the acute state and after recovery. Sixty-three female participants were included: 22 BN, 22 recovered BN (R-BN), and 19 healthy controls (HC). The clinical cases were drawn from consecutive admissions and diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. Self reported (explicit) emotional expression was measured with State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Symptom Check List-90 items-Revised. Emotional facial expression (implicit) was recorded by means of an integrated camera (by detecting Facial Feature Tracking), during a 20 minutes therapeutic video game. In the acute illness explicit emotional expression [anxiety (p<0.001) and anger (p<0.05)] was increased. In the recovered group this was decreased to an intermediate level between the acute illness and healthy controls [anxiety (p<0.001) and anger (p<0.05)]. In the implicit measurement of emotional expression patients with acute BN expressed more joy (p<0.001) and less anger (p<0.001) than both healthy controls and those in the recovered group. These findings suggest that there are differences in the implicit and explicit emotional processing in BN, which is significantly reduced after recovery, suggesting an improvement in emotional regulation. PMID:24987853

  1. [Plasmapheresis in acute phase of multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    In acute phase of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO), plasmapheresis (PP) should be considered as the 2nd choice treatment when corticosteroid pulse therapy results in unsuccessful. It is believed that the beneficial effects of PP occur through the elimination of pathogenic humoral and plasma factors, including autoantibodies, complement components, and cytokines. In MS, several clinical trials have shown the efficacy. However, there have been no randomized controlled trials that demonstrated the efficacy of PP in NMO. There are three methods of PP, plasma exchange, double filtration plasmapheresis and immunoadsorption plasmapheresis, available in Japan. But the difference of efficacy among these 3 methods has not been fully evaluated.

  2. Obestatin Accelerates the Recovery in the Course of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bukowczan, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Tomaszewska, Romana

    2015-01-01

    intake and pancreatic exocrine secretion. Administration of obestatin at doses used was without significant effect with regard to daily food intake or pancreatic exocrine secretion in sham-operated rats, as well as in rats with acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, obestatin abolished a statistical significance of difference in food intake between animals with AP and control animals without pancreatic fistula and induction of AP. Conclusion Treatment with the exogenous obestatin reduces severity of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis and accelerates recovery in this disease. The involved mechanisms are likely to be multifactorial, and are mediated, at least in part, by anti-inflammatory properties of obestatin. PMID:26226277

  3. Acute phase response in cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale.

    PubMed

    Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kaviani, F; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2012-03-23

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the acute phase responses via the assessment of the concentration of serum sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound), inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and acute phase proteins (Hp and SAA) in 20 adult crossbred cattle naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale. The infected animals were divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of parasitemia rate (<20% and >20%). Also, as a control group, 10 clinically healthy cattle from the same farms were sampled. Our data revealed significant decreases in red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrite (PCV) and hemoglobine (Hb) in infected cattle compared to healthy ones. Conversely, the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, serum sialic acids and the circulatory IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the diseased cattle (P<0.05). In addition, it was evident that the progression of parasitemia in infected cattle did not induce any significant alterations in the hematological indices (RBCs, PCV and Hb) and the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin and fibrinogen. SAA was the most sensitive factor to change in the diseased cattle. Therefore, increase in SAA concentration may be a good indicator of inflammatory process in cattle naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale.

  4. Long-Standing Motor and Sensory Recovery following Acute Fibrin Sealant Based Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Junior, Rui Seabra

    2016-01-01

    Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study evaluated neuroprotection and regeneration after neonatal peripheral nerve coaptation with fibrin sealant. Thus, P2 neonatal Lewis rats were divided into three groups: AX: sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA) without treatment; AX+FS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom; AX+CFS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with commercial fibrin sealant. Results were analyzed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after lesion. Astrogliosis, microglial reaction, and synapse preservation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and ultrastructural changes at ventral spinal cord were also investigated. Sensory-motor recovery was behaviorally studied. Coaptation preserved synaptic covering on lesioned motoneurons and led to neuronal survival. Reactive gliosis and microglial reaction decreased in the same groups (AX+FS, AX+CFS) at 4 weeks. Regarding axonal regeneration, coaptation allowed recovery of greater number of myelinated fibers, with improved morphometric parameters. Preservation of inhibitory synaptic terminals was accompanied by significant improvement in the motor as well as in the nociceptive recovery. Overall, the present data suggest that acute repair of neonatal peripheral nerves with fibrin sealant results in neuroprotection and regeneration of motor and sensory axons. PMID:27446617

  5. Relationship between Acute Phase of Chronic Periodontitis and Meteorological Factors in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Noriko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodontal therapy. Patients who were diagnosed with acute phase of chronic periodontitis under supportive periodontal therapy during 2011–2013 were selected for this study. We performed oral examinations and collected questionnaires and meteorological data. Of 369 patients who experienced acute phase of chronic periodontitis, 153 had acute phase of chronic periodontitis without direct-triggered episodes. When using the autoregressive integrated moving average model of time-series analysis, the independent covariant of maximum hourly range of barometric pressure, maximum hourly range of temperature, and maximum daily wind speed were significantly associated with occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis (p < 0.05), and 3.1% of the variations in these occurrence over the study period were explained by these factors. Meteorological variables may predict occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. PMID:26251916

  6. Relationship between Acute Phase of Chronic Periodontitis and Meteorological Factors in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Noriko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-08-05

    The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodontal therapy. Patients who were diagnosed with acute phase of chronic periodontitis under supportive periodontal therapy during 2011-2013 were selected for this study. We performed oral examinations and collected questionnaires and meteorological data. Of 369 patients who experienced acute phase of chronic periodontitis, 153 had acute phase of chronic periodontitis without direct-triggered episodes. When using the autoregressive integrated moving average model of time-series analysis, the independent covariant of maximum hourly range of barometric pressure, maximum hourly range of temperature, and maximum daily wind speed were significantly associated with occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis (p < 0.05), and 3.1% of the variations in these occurrence over the study period were explained by these factors. Meteorological variables may predict occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis.

  7. Tubular Peroxiredoxin 3 as a Predictor of Renal Recovery from Acute Tubular Necrosis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Chu; Kor, Chew-Teng; Chang, Chung-Ho; Yang, Tao-Hsiang; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2017-02-27

    Peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) is a mitochondrial antioxidant that regulates apoptosis in various cancers. However, whether tubular PRX3 predicts recovery of renal function following acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. This retrospective cohort study included 54 hospitalized patients who had AKI with biopsy-proven acute tubular necrosis (ATN). The study endpoint was renal function recovery within 6 months. Of the 54 enrolled patients, 25 (46.3%) had pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 33 (61%) recovered renal function. Tubular PRX3 expression was higher in patients with ATN than in those without renal function recovery. The level of tubular but not glomerular PRX3 expression predicted renal function recovery from AKI (AUROC = 0.76). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, high PRX3 expression was independently associated with a higher probability of renal function recovery (adjusted hazard ratio = 8.99; 95% CI 1.13-71.52, P = 0.04). Furthermore, the discriminative ability of the clinical model for AKI recovery was improved by adding tubular PRX3. High tubular PRX3 expression was associated with a higher probability of renal function recovery from ATN. Therefore, tubular PRX3 in combination with conventional predictors can further improve recovery prediction and may help with risk stratification in AKI patients with pre-existing CKD.

  8. Tubular Peroxiredoxin 3 as a Predictor of Renal Recovery from Acute Tubular Necrosis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Chu; Kor, Chew-Teng; Chang, Chung-Ho; Yang, Tao-Hsiang; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2017-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) is a mitochondrial antioxidant that regulates apoptosis in various cancers. However, whether tubular PRX3 predicts recovery of renal function following acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. This retrospective cohort study included 54 hospitalized patients who had AKI with biopsy-proven acute tubular necrosis (ATN). The study endpoint was renal function recovery within 6 months. Of the 54 enrolled patients, 25 (46.3%) had pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 33 (61%) recovered renal function. Tubular PRX3 expression was higher in patients with ATN than in those without renal function recovery. The level of tubular but not glomerular PRX3 expression predicted renal function recovery from AKI (AUROC = 0.76). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, high PRX3 expression was independently associated with a higher probability of renal function recovery (adjusted hazard ratio = 8.99; 95% CI 1.13–71.52, P = 0.04). Furthermore, the discriminative ability of the clinical model for AKI recovery was improved by adding tubular PRX3. High tubular PRX3 expression was associated with a higher probability of renal function recovery from ATN. Therefore, tubular PRX3 in combination with conventional predictors can further improve recovery prediction and may help with risk stratification in AKI patients with pre-existing CKD. PMID:28240739

  9. Energy recovery from textile dryer operations. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    McCrosson, F.J.; Jenkins, J.D.; Yngve, P.W.

    1981-08-01

    A two-step approach to conserving energy in the textile industry by decreasing gas consumption in dryer operations involves 1) the automatic control of dryer dampers to minimize the flow of exhaust heat and 2) the recovery and use of the exhaust heat to preheat incoming air. These measures could reduce natural gas consumption by 45-65%. Decreasing the exhaust flow rates entails increasing the dryer humidity to a maximum level (about 0.1 lb water/lb dry air) and controlling it by the stack dampers. Three types of air-to-air heat exchangers appear suitable for preheating the dryer air by the sensible exhaust heat.

  10. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Alzate, Oscar; Winnik, Witold M.; Andrews, Debora; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2012-04-15

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  11. Recovery efficiency test project, Phase 2 activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency of gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. This volume contains appendices for: (1) supporting material and procedures for data frac'' stimulation of zone 6 using nitrogen and nitrogen foam; (2) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 1 nitrogen gas frac on zone no. 1; (3) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 2 in zone no. 1 using liquid CO{sub 2}; (4) supporting material and procedures for frac no. 3 on zone no.1 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (5) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 4 in zones 2--3 and 4 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (6) supporting materials and procedures for stimulation no. 5 in zones 5 and 8; and (7) fracture diagnostics reports and supporting materials.

  12. Tyrosine requirement during the rapid catch-up growth phase of recovery from severe childhood undernutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The requirement for aromatic amino acids, during the rapid catch-up in weight phase of recovery from severe childhood under nutrition (SCU) is not clearly established. As a first step, the present study aimed to estimate the tyrosine requirement of children with SCU during the catch-up growth phase ...

  13. Partially coherent phase imaging with simultaneous source recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jingshan, Zhong; Tian, Lei; Dauwels, Justin; Waller, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new method for phase retrieval that uses partially coherent illumination created by any arbitrary source shape in Köhler geometry. Using a stack of defocused intensity images, we recover not only the phase and amplitude of the sample, but also an estimate of the unknown source shape, which describes the spatial coherence of the illumination. Our algorithm uses a Kalman filtering approach which is fast, accurate and robust to noise. The method is experimentally simple and flexible, so should find use in optical, electron, X-ray and other phase imaging systems which employ partially coherent light. We provide an experimental demonstration in an optical microscope with various condenser apertures. PMID:25657890

  14. Hydraulic waste energy recovery, Phase 2. A technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The energy required for booster station operation is supplied by the electrical utility company and has an associated cost. Energy removed by pressure reducing valves in the system is lost or wasted. The objective of this project is to capture the wasted hydraulic energy with in-line turbines. In this application, the in-line turbines act as pressure reducing valves while removing energy from the water distribution system and converting it to electrical energy. The North Service Center pumping station was selected for the pilot program due to the availability of a wide range in pressure drop and flow, which are necessary for hydraulic energy recovery. The research performed during this project resulted in documentation of technical, economic, installation, and operational information necessary for local government officials to make an informed judgement as it relates to in-line turbine generation.

  15. Ground-Based Observations of Recovery Phase Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    This analysis focuses on spatial and temporal forms occurring after substorm breakup. The observations show irregular shapes and nonuniform drifts with respect to relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the 'off' phase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  16. Recovery of ionic liquids with aqueous two-phase systems induced by carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dazhen; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Jianji

    2012-11-01

    Recovery is a very important factor for the industrial application of ionic liquids (ILs). In this work, a novel method is presented for the recovery of ILs by using carbon dioxide (CO₂-induced formation of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs). It was found that, in the presence of amines, introduction of CO₂ into aqueous IL solutions leads to the formation of ATPSs at 25 °C and atmospheric pressure, in which the upper phase is ammonium-salt-rich and the lower phase is IL-rich. Thus, the ILs in aqueous solutions can be significantly enriched, and the amines can be regenerated by heating and bubbling Ar or N₂ in the salt-rich phase. To better understand the recovery of ILs, the phase diagrams of the ATPSs were measured at 25 °C, and the effects of the molecular structure of the ILs and the amines and temperature of the systems on the recovery efficiency of the ILs were investigated. It was shown that the single-step recovery efficiency of the ILs could be as high as 99 % in the presence of primary or secondary amines. Therefore, this new method could potentially be sustainable, efficient, and attractive to industry.

  17. Acute phase response in lame crossbred dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, A.; Randhawa, Swaran Singh; Sharma, S.; Bansal, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to study acute phase response based on acute phase proteins (APPs) such as C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and fibrinogen in lame crossbred dairy cattle. Materials and Methods: Lame animals (n=30) were selected within 3-7 days of being noticed as lame by the farm veterinarian, from a local dairy farm in southeast Ludhiana over a period of 6 months, stratified proportionately with respect to stage of lactation with non-lame healthy cows (n=10). All the cows were otherwise healthy and did not have any other inflammatory problems such as pneumonia, enteritis, mastitis, or any kind of acute uterine inflammation. Blood samples were collected from all the animals; serum and plasma samples were separated and stored at −20°C. The levels of CRP, Hp, and SAA were estimated using Sandwich ELISA, whereas fibrinogen was estimated by heat precipitation method. Results: SAA levels in lame cows were significantly higher (22.19±0.85 µg/ml), approximately 3 times as compared to non-lame cows (8.89±0.72 µg/ml), whereas serum Hp concentration was approximately 20 times higher in the lame cattle (21.71±3.32 mg/dl) as compared to non-lame cows (1.17±0.07 mg/dl). Fibrinogen also increased in the lame cattle (3.97±0.22 g/L) as compared to non-lame group (1.40±0.17 g/L). Serum CRP levels analyzed in the lame cattle for the first time in the present study, and significant high concentration was appreciated in lame cattle (4.41±0.33 mg/L) as compared to non-lame cattle (0.61±0.14 mg/L). Lame cattle were having more of sole hemorrhages, sole ulcers, and white line lesions as compared to non-lame cattle. Conclusion: It can be concluded that lame cattle exhibit high levels of APPs including CRP, Hp, SAA, and fibrinogen as compared to non-lame cattle. PMID:27956769

  18. Pressor recovery after acute stress is impaired in high fructose-fed Lean Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jennifer A; D'Angelo, Gerard; Mintz, James D; Fulton, David J; Stepp, David W

    2016-06-01

    Insulin resistance is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease; however, the mechanistic link remains unclear. This study aims to determine if early cardiovascular changes associated with short-term fructose feeding in the absence of obesity manifest as abnormal blood pressure control. Metabolic dysfunction was induced in Lean Zucker rats by short-term high-fructose feeding. Rats were implanted with telemetry devices for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and subjected to air jet stress at 5 and 8 weeks after feeding. Additional animals were catheterized under anesthesia for the determination of MAP and blood flow responses in the hind limb and mesenteric vascular beds to intravenous injection of isoproterenol (0.001-0.5 μm), a β-adrenergic agonist. Metabolic dysfunction in high-fructose rats was not accompanied by changes in 24-h MAP Yet, animals fed a high-fructose diet for 8 weeks exhibited a marked impairment in blood pressure recovery after air-jet stress. Dose-dependent decreases in MAP and peripheral blood flow in response to isoproterenol treatment were significantly attenuated in high-fructose rats. These data suggest that impaired blood pressure recovery to acute mental stress precedes the onset of hypertension in the early stages of insulin resistance. Further, blunted responses to isoproterenol implicate β2-adrenergic sensitivity as a possible mechanism responsible for altered blood pressure control after short-term high-fructose feeding.

  19. Recovery and outcomes after the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients and their family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Herridge, Margaret S; Moss, Marc; Hough, Catherine L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Rice, Todd W; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Azoulay, Elie

    2016-05-01

    Outcomes after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are similar to those of other survivors of critical illness and largely affect the nerve, muscle, and central nervous system but also include a constellation of varied physical devastations ranging from contractures and frozen joints to tooth loss and cosmesis. Compromised quality of life is related to a spectrum of impairment of physical, social, emotional, and neurocognitive function and to a much lesser extent discrete pulmonary disability. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is ubiquitous and includes contributions from both critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy, and recovery from these lesions may be incomplete at 5 years after ICU discharge. Cognitive impairment in ARDS survivors ranges from 70 to 100 % at hospital discharge, 46 to 80 % at 1 year, and 20 % at 5 years, and mood disorders including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also sustained and prevalent. Robust multidisciplinary and longitudinal interventions that improve these outcomes are still uncertain and data in our literature are conflicting. Studies are needed in family members of ARDS survivors to better understand long-term outcomes of the post-ICU family syndrome and to evaluate how it affects patient recovery.

  20. Critical phase shifts slow down circadian clock recovery: implications for jet lag.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Jean-Christophe; Goldbeter, Albert

    2013-09-21

    Advancing or delaying the light-dark (LD) cycle perturbs the circadian clock, which eventually recovers its original phase with respect to the new LD cycle. Readjustment of the clock occurs by shifting its phase in the same (orthodromic re-entrainment) or opposite direction (antidromic re-entrainment) as the shift in the LD cycle. To investigate circadian clock recovery after phase shifts of the LD cycle we use a detailed computational model previously proposed for the cellular regulatory network underlying the mammalian circadian clock. The model predicts the existence of a sharp threshold separating orthodromic from antidromic re-entrainment. In the vicinity of this threshold, resynchronization of the clock after a phase shift markedly slows down. The type of re-entrainment, the position of the threshold and the time required for resynchronization depend on multiple factors such as the autonomous period of the clock, the direction and magnitude of the phase shift, the clock biochemical kinetic parameters, and light intensity. Partitioning the phase shift into a series of smaller phases shifts decreases the impact on the recovery of the circadian clock. We use the phase response curve to predict the location of the threshold separating orthodromic and antidromic re-entrainment after advanced or delayed phase shifts of the LD cycle. The marked increase in recovery times predicted near the threshold could be responsible for the most severe disturbances of the human circadian clock associated with jet lag.

  1. Fast gain and phase recovery of semiconductor optical amplifiers based on submonolayer quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, Bastian Owschimikow, Nina; Kaptan, Yücel; Kolarczik, Mirco; Switaiski, Thomas; Woggon, Ulrike; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Rosales, Ricardo; Strittmatter, André; Bimberg, Dieter; Pohl, Udo W.

    2015-11-16

    Submonolayer quantum dots as active medium in opto-electronic devices promise to combine the high density of states of quantum wells with the fast recovery dynamics of self-assembled quantum dots. We investigate the gain and phase recovery dynamics of a semiconductor optical amplifier based on InAs submonolayer quantum dots in the regime of linear operation by one- and two-color heterodyne pump-probe spectroscopy. We find an as fast recovery dynamics as for quantum dot-in-a-well structures, reaching 2 ps at moderate injection currents. The effective quantum well embedding the submonolayer quantum dots acts as a fast and efficient carrier reservoir.

  2. Phase relation recovery for scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alveringh, D.; Sanders, R. G. P.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lötters, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    Laser Doppler vibrometers are able to measure the velocity of a single point compared to a reference point by analyzing the Doppler shift of the laser beams. In many commercially available laser Doppler vibrometers, the laser point can be scanned to obtain an out-of-plane velocity profile of a surface. It is essential that the phase information of the velocities between points is measured as well to be able to fully reproduce the velocity profile of the surface. If this cannot be done by triggering on the actuation signal, the proposed two stage method can be used. This method measures the surface in two stages: one scan with the reference beam at a fixed point and one scan with the reference beam on a moving point. The algorithm in this article calculates the phase and reconstructs the velocity of each point. This is experimentally verified on three different micro structures. The postprocessing algorithm is not intensive in computing power.

  3. Differential carrier phase recovery for QPSK optical coherent systems with integrated tunable lasers.

    PubMed

    Fatadin, Irshaad; Ives, David; Savory, Seb J

    2013-04-22

    The performance of a differential carrier phase recovery algorithm is investigated for the quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation format with an integrated tunable laser. The phase noise of the widely-tunable laser measured using a digital coherent receiver is shown to exhibit significant drift compared to a standard distributed feedback (DFB) laser due to enhanced low frequency noise component. The simulated performance of the differential algorithm is compared to the Viterbi-Viterbi phase estimation at different baud rates using the measured phase noise for the integrated tunable laser.

  4. Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  5. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  6. Acute Fulminant Myocarditis Successfully Bridged to Recovery with Left Ventricular Assist Device and Complicated by Flail Mitral Valve

    PubMed Central

    Duyuler, Pınar Türker; Duyuler, Serkan; Şahan, Ekrem; Küçüker, Şeref Alp

    2016-01-01

    Acute fulminant myocarditis is a life-threatening inflammatory disease of the myocardium characterized by the rapid deterioration of the hemodynamic status of the affected individual. With prompt recognition and appropriate management, complete recovery of ventricular function is likely within a few weeks. We introduce a 28-year-old man with acute fulminant myocarditis, who experienced circulatory collapse following acute angina and dyspnea. The patient had high troponin levels with low ejection fraction and normal coronary arteries. He was successfully bridged to recovery with a left ventricular assist device but was complicated by flail mitral valve. Perioperative myocardial biopsy was also compatible with myocarditis. At 4 months’ follow-up, the patient was stable with functional capacity I according to the New York Heart Association’s classification. A possible mechanism for this very rare complication is the rupture of the chordal structure secondary to the fragility of an inflamed subvalvular apparatus stretched by a recovered ventricle. PMID:27403189

  7. Accelerated recovery from acute brain injuries: clinical efficacy of neurotrophic treatment in stroke and traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, N; Poon, W S

    2012-04-01

    Stroke is one of the most devastating vascular diseases in the world as it is responsible for almost five million deaths per year. Almost 90% of all strokes are ischemic and mainly due to atherosclerosis, cardiac embolism and small-vessel disease. Intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage can lead to hemorrhagic stroke, which usually has the poorest prognosis. Cerebrolysin is a peptide preparation which mimics the action of a neurotrophic factor, protecting stroke-injured neurons and promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis. Cerebrolysin has been widely studied as a therapeutic tool for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, as well as traumatic brain injury. In ischemic stroke, Cerebrolysin given as an adjuvant therapy to antiplatelet and rheologically active medication resulted in accelerated improvement in global, neurological and motor functions, cognitive performance and activities of daily living. Cerebrolysin was also safe and well tolerated when administered in patients suffering from hemorrhagic stroke. Traumatic brain injury leads to transient or chronic impairments in physical, cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions. This is associated with deficits in the recognition of basic emotions, the capacity to interpret the mental states of others, and executive functioning. Pilot clinical studies with adjuvant Cerebrolysin in the acute and postacute phases of the injury have shown faster recovery, which translates into an earlier onset of rehabilitation and shortened hospitalization time.

  8. Changes in metabolic profiles during acute kidney injury and recovery following ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingqing; Xiao, Xiao; Fogle, Paul; Dong, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Changes of metabolism have been implicated in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). However, a global analysis of the metabolic changes in renal IRI is lacking and the association of the changes with ischemic kidney injury and subsequent recovery are unclear. In this study, mice were subjected to 25 minutes of bilateral renal IRI followed by 2 hours to 7 days of reperfusion. Kidney injury and subsequent recovery was verified by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen measurements. The metabolome of plasma, kidney cortex, and medulla were profiled by the newly developed global metabolomics analysis. Renal IRI induced overall changes of the metabolome in plasma and kidney tissues. The changes started in renal cortex, followed by medulla and plasma. In addition, we identified specific metabolites that may contribute to early renal injury response, perturbed energy metabolism, impaired purine metabolism, impacted osmotic regulation and the induction of inflammation. Some metabolites, such as 3-indoxyl sulfate, were induced at the earliest time point of renal IRI, suggesting the potential of being used as diagnostic biomarkers. There was a notable switch of energy source from glucose to lipids, implicating the importance of appropriate nutrition supply during treatment. In addition, we detected the depressed polyols for osmotic regulation which may contribute to the loss of kidney function. Several pathways involved in inflammation regulation were also induced. Finally, there was a late induction of prostaglandins, suggesting their possible involvement in kidney recovery. In conclusion, this study demonstrates significant changes of metabolome kidney tissues and plasma in renal IRI. The changes in specific metabolites are associated with and may contribute to early injury, shift of energy source, inflammation, and late phase kidney recovery.

  9. Stress and recovery balance in amateur basketball players: differences by gender and preparation phase.

    PubMed

    di Fronso, Selenia; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Bortoli, Laura; Robazza, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in stress and recovery across gender and time (preseason and play-offs) in a sample of amateur basketball players of the Italian league (C division). Fifty amateur basketball players (33 men and 17 women) age 17-30 y (23.5 ± 9.19 y) participated in the study. Twenty-eight athletes (16 men and 12 women) completed the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Sport (RESTQ-Sport) in the preseason phase, after a training period of 21 days, and in the competition phase during the play-off period. Repeated-measures MANOVA showed significant differences by gender and preparation phase. Univariate follow-up ANOVA highlighted differences by gender on physical recovery, sleep quality, and self-efficacy, with higher scores in men. Moreover, differences between preseason and competition phases were shown on emotional stress and fatigue, with higher scores on emotional stress and lower scores on fatigue in the competition phase. These findings suggest that RESTQ-Sport could be a useful tool for coaches to monitor stress/recovery balance in male and female team-sport athletes during different periods of the season.

  10. Vertical blind phase search for low-complexity carrier phase recovery of offset-QAM Nyquist WDM transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianing; Fu, Songnian; Tang, Haoyuan; Xiang, Meng; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming

    2017-01-01

    Low complexity carrier phase recovery (CPR) scheme based on vertical blind phase search (V-BPS) for M-ary offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OQAM) is proposed and numerically verified. After investigating the constellations of both even and odd samples with respect to the phase noise, we identify that the CPR can be realized by measuring the verticality of constellation with respect to different test phase angles. Then measurement without multiplication in the complex plane is found with low complexity. Furthermore, a two-stage configuration is put forward to further reduce the computational complexity (CC). Compared with our recently proposed modified blind phase search (M-BPS) algorithm, the proposed algorithm shows comparable tolerance of phase noise, but reduces the CC by a factor of 3.81 (or 3.05) in the form of multipliers (or adders), taking the CPR of 16-OQAM into account.

  11. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Shannahan, Jonathan H; Alzate, Oscar; Winnik, Witold M; Andrews, Debora; Schladweiler, Mette C; Ghio, Andrew J; Gavett, Stephen H; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2012-04-15

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA.

  12. Effects of acute versus post-acute systemic delivery of neural progenitor cells on neurological recovery and brain remodeling after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Doeppner, T R; Kaltwasser, B; Teli, M K; Bretschneider, E; Bähr, M; Hermann, D M

    2014-08-21

    Intravenous transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) induces functional recovery after stroke, albeit grafted cells are not integrated into residing neural networks. However, a systematic analysis of intravenous NPC delivery at acute and post-acute time points and their long-term consequences does not exist. Male C57BL6 mice were exposed to cerebral ischemia, and NPCs were intravenously grafted on day 0, on day 1 or on day 28. Animals were allowed to survive for up to 84 days. Mice and tissues were used for immunohistochemical analysis, flow cytometry, ELISA and behavioral tests. Density of grafted NPCs within the ischemic hemisphere was increased when cells were transplanted on day 28 as compared with transplantation on days 0 or 1. Likewise, transplantation on day 28 yielded enhanced neuronal differentiation rates of grafted cells. Post-ischemic brain injury, however, was only reduced when NPCs were grafted at acute time points. On the contrary, reduced post-ischemic functional deficits due to NPC delivery were independent of transplantation paradigms. NPC-induced neuroprotection after acute cell delivery was due to stabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reduction in microglial activation and modulation of both peripheral and central immune responses. On the other hand, post-acute NPC transplantation stimulated post-ischemic regeneration via enhanced angioneurogenesis and increased axonal plasticity. Acute NPC delivery yields long-term neuroprotection via enhanced BBB integrity and modulation of post-ischemic immune responses, whereas post-acute NPC delivery increases post-ischemic angioneurogenesis and axonal plasticity. Post-ischemic functional recovery, however, is independent of NPC delivery timing, which offers a broad therapeutic time window for stroke treatment.

  13. Novel Process for Removal and Recovery of Vapor Phase Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwell, Collin; Roberts, Daryl L; Albiston, Jason; Stewart, Robin; Broderick, Tom

    1998-03-09

    We demonstrated in the Phase I program all key attributes of a new technology for removing mercury from flue gases, namely, a) removal of greater than 95% of both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury, both in the laboratory and in the field b) regenerability of the sorbent c) ability to scale up, and d) favorable economics. The Phase I program consisted of four tasks other than project reporting: Task I-1 Screen Sorbent Configurations in the Laboratory Task I-2 Design and Fabricate Bench-Scale Equipment Task I-3 Test Bench-Scale Equipment on Pilot Combustor Task I-4 Evaluate Economics Based on Bench-Scale Results In Task I-1, we demonstrated that the sorbents are thermally durable and are regenerable through at least 55 cycles of mercury uptake and desorption. We also demonstrated two low-pressure- drop configurations of the sorbent, namely, a particulate form and a monolithic form. We showed that the particulate form of the sorbent would take up 100% of the mercury so long as the residence time in a bed of the sorbent exceeded 0.1 seconds. In principle, the particulate form of the sorbent could be imbedded in the back side of a higher temperature bag filter in a full-scale application. With typical bag face velocities of four feet per minute, the thickness of the particulate layer would need to be about 2000 microns to accomplish the uptake of the mercury. For heat transfer efficiency, however, we believed the monolithic form of the sorbent would be the more practical in a full scale application. Therefore, we purchased commercially-available metallic monoliths and applied the sorbent to the inside of the flow channels of the monoliths. At face velocities we tested (up to 1.5 ft/sec), these monoliths had less than 0.05 inches of water pressure drop. We tested the monolithic form of the sorbent through 21 cycles of mercury sorption and desorption in the laboratory and included a test of simultaneous uptake of both mercury and mercuric chloride. Overall, in Task

  14. Phase and Pupil Amplitude Recovery for JWST Space-Optics Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, B. H.; Zielinski, T. P.; Smith, J. S.; Bolcar, M. R.; Aronstein, D. L.; Fienup, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the phase and pupil amplitude recovery for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam). It includes views of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the NIRCam, examples of Phase Retrieval Data, Ghost Irradiance, Pupil Amplitude Estimation, Amplitude Retrieval, Initial Plate Scale Estimation using the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs lambda, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs. number of Images, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs Rotation (clocking), and Typical Phase Retrieval Results Also included is information about the phase retrieval approach, Non-Linear Optimization (NLO) Optimized Diversity Functions, and Least Square Error vs. Starting Pupil Amplitude.

  15. Magnetic Field Observations of Partial Ring Current during Storm Recovery Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Guan; Russell, C. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Lucek, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present results of an extensive survey of the magnetic field observations in the inner magnetosphere using 30 years of magnetospheric magnetic field data from Polar, Cluster, ISEE, and AMPTE/CCE missions. The purpose of this study is to understand the magnetic field evolution during the recovery phase of geomagnetic storms, and its implication to the ring current recovery and loss mechanisms of ring current particles. Our previous work on global ring current distribution [Le et al., 2004] has shown that a significant partial ring current is always present at all Dst levels (regardless of storm phases) even for quiet time ring current. The total current carried by the partial ring current is much stronger than (during stormtime) or at least comparable to (during quiet time) the symmetric ring current. It is now commonly believed that a strong partial ring current is formed during the storm main phase due to the enhanced earthward convection of energetic ions from nightside plasma sheet. But the presence of a strong partial ring current throughout the recovery phase remains controversial. The magnetic field generated by the ring current inflates the inner magnetosphere and causes magnetic field depressions in the equatorial magnetosphere. During the storm recovery phase, we find that the distribution of the equatorial magnetic field depression exhibits similar local time dependence as the ring current distribution obtained from the combined dataset in the earlier study. It shows that a strong partial ring current is a permanent feature throughout the recovery phase. In the early recovery phase, the partial ring current peaks near the dusk terminator as indicated by the peak of the magnetic field depression. As the recovery phase progresses, the partial ring current decays most quickly near the dusk and results in a dusk-to-midnight moving of the peak of the partial ring current. Thus the loss mechanisms work most effectively near the dusk. The magnetic field

  16. Phase Recovery Acceleration of Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers by Optical Pumping to Quantum-Well Wetting Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2013-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) by means of the optical pump injection to the quantum-well (QW) wetting layer (WL). We compare the ultrafast gain and phase recovery responses of QD SOAs in either the electrical or the optical pumping scheme by numerically solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The ultrafast gain recovery responses on the order of sub-picosecond are nearly the same for the two pumping schemes. The ultrafast phase recovery is not significantly accelerated by increasing the electrical current density, but greatly improved by increasing the optical pumping power to the QW WL. Because the phase recovery time of QD SOAs with the optical pumping scheme can be reduced down to several picoseconds, the complete phase recovery can be achieved when consecutive pulse signals with a repetition rate of 100 GHz is injected.

  17. The influence of psychosocial factors on recovery following acute whiplash trauma.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Tina Birgitte Wisbech

    2012-12-01

    Persistent pain and disability after whiplash trauma has become an increasingly significant problem in many industrialized countries entailing comprehensive individual as well as social costs. The dissertation includes two areas of research within whiplash trauma. The first part contains two empirical articles focusing on risk factors for poor recovery. The second part contains a systematic review and an empirical article and concerns the influence of coping strategies on recovery with a special emphasis on possible gender differences. All empirical articles in the dissertation are based on self-reported questionnaire data on a patient cohort of whiplash-exposed. Patients are consecutively included in the study within the first ten days of collision recruited from emergency departments and general practitioners in four counties in Denmark from April 2001 to June 2003. One of the empirical articles in the dissertation is supplemented with data from a social register of transfer benefits on the patient cohort as well as on a matched register control cohort in the general population. In this dissertation we wish to answer the following questions: 1) Do self-reported pre-collision health-related and socio-demographic factors affect self-reported work capability and neck pain one year after acute whiplash trauma? 2) Do transfer benefits before the accident predict negative change in future health-related provisional situation and future neck pain? 3) Do persons with acute whiplash trauma experience more negative change in future health-related provisional situation compared to a matched register control group? 4) Does research in the use of coping strategies after whiplash trauma show that these predict poor restitution and is there any research on gender differences in the use of coping strategies in whiplash-exposed? 5) Do gender and coping strategies interact in the prediction of future neck pain following acute whiplash trauma? Self-reported unspecified pain, female

  18. Glutathione Depletion and Recovery After Acute Ethanol Administration in the Aging Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Barbara L.; Richie, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in the detoxification of ethanol (EtOH) and acute EtOH administration leads to GSH depletion in the liver and other tissues. Aging is also associated with a progressive decline in GSH levels and impairment in GSH biosynthesis in many tissues. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the effects of aging on EtOH-induced depletion and recovery of GSH in different tissues of the C57Bl/6NNIA mouse. EtOH (2-5 g/kg) or saline was administered i.p. to mice of ages 6 mo (young), 12 mo (mature), and 24 mo (old); and GSH and cyst(e)ine concentrations were measured 0-24 hours thereafter. EtOH administration (5g/kg) depleted hepatic GSH levels >50% by 6 hr in all animals. By 24 hr, levels remained low in both young and old mice, but recovered to baseline levels in mature mice. At 6 hr, the decrease in hepatic GSH was dose-dependent up to 3 g/kg EtOH, but not at higher doses. The extent of depletion at the 3 g/kg dose was dependent upon age, with old mice demonstrating significantly lower GSH levels than mature mice (P<0.001). Altogether these results indicate that aging was associated with a greater degree of EtOH and fasting-induced GSH depletion and subsequent impaired recovery in liver. An impaired ability to recover was also observed in young animals. Further studies are required to determine if an inability to recover from GSH depletion by EtOH is associated with enhanced toxicity. PMID:17343832

  19. cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and promote recovery from acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Ryan M; Wills, Lauren P; Stallons, L Jay; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction is a mediator of acute kidney injury (AKI). Consequently, restoration of mitochondrial function after AKI may be key to the recovery of renal function. Mitochondrial function can be restored through the generation of new, functional mitochondria in a process called mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). Despite its potential therapeutic significance, very few pharmacological agents have been identified to induce MB. To examine the efficacy of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors (PDE3: cAMP and cGMP activity; and PDE4: cAMP activity) in stimulating MB, primary cultures of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) were treated with a panel of inhibitors for 24 hours. PDE3, but not PDE4, inhibitors increased the FCCP-uncoupled oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a marker of MB. Exposure of RPTCs to the PDE3 inhibitors, cilostamide and trequinsin, for 24 hours increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and multiple mitochondrial electron transport chain genes. Cilostamide and trequinsin also increased mRNA expression of mitochondrial genes and mitochondrial DNA copy number in mice renal cortex. Consistent with these experiments, 8-Br-cGMP increased FCCP-uncoupled OCR and mitochondrial gene expression, whereas 8-Br-cAMP had no effect. The cGMP-specific PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil also induced MB in RPTCs and in vivo in mouse renal cortex. Treatment of mice with sildenafil after folic acid-induced AKI promoted restoration of MB and renal recovery. These data provide strong evidence that specific PDE inhibitors that increase cGMP are inducers of MB in vitro and in vivo, and suggest their potential efficacy in AKI and other diseases characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction and suppressed MB.

  20. Stochastic BER estimation for coherent QPSK transmission systems with digital carrier phase recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Gao, Yan; Luo, Yazhi; Chen, Zhangyuan; Xu, Anshi

    2010-04-26

    We propose a stochastic bit error ratio estimation approach based on a statistical analysis of the retrieved signal phase for coherent optical QPSK systems with digital carrier phase recovery. A family of the generalized exponential function is applied to fit the probability density function of the signal samples. The method provides reasonable performance estimation in presence of both linear and nonlinear transmission impairments while reduces the computational intensity greatly compared to Monte Carlo simulation.

  1. Peripheral Inflammatory Markers and Antioxidant Response during the Post-Acute and Chronic Phase after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Licastro, Federico; Hrelia, Silvana; Porcellini, Elisa; Malaguti, Marco; Di Stefano, Cristina; Angeloni, Cristina; Carbone, Ilaria; Simoncini, Laura; Piperno, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a mechanical insult to the brain caused by external forces and associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. The patients may show different profiles of neurological recovery and a combination of oxidative damage and inflammatory processes can affect their courses. It is known that an overexpression of cytokines can be seen in peripheral blood in the early hours/days after the injury, but little is known about the weeks and months encompassing the post-acute and chronic phases. In addition, no information is available about the antioxidant responses mediated by the major enzymes that regulate reactive oxygen species levels: superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases, and GSH-related enzymes. This study investigates the 6-month trends of inflammatory markers and antioxidant responses in 22 severe TBI patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness, consecutively recruited in a dedicated neurorehabilitation facility. Patients with a high degree of neurological impairment often show an uncertain outcome. In addition, the profiles of plasma activities were related to the neurological recovery after 12 months. Venous peripheral blood samples were taken blindly as soon as clinical signs and laboratory markers confirmed the absence of infections, 3 and 6 months later. The clinical and neuropsychological assessment continued up to 12 months. Nineteen patients completed the follow-up. In the chronic phase, persistent high plasma levels of cytokines can interfere with cognitive functioning and higher post-acute levels of cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL1b, IL6] are associated with poorer cognitive recoveries 12 months later. Moreover, higher IFN-γ, higher TNF-α, and lower glutathione peroxidase activity are associated with greater disability. The results add evidence of persistent inflammatory response, provide information about long-term imbalance of antioxidant activity, and suggest that

  2. Peripheral Inflammatory Markers and Antioxidant Response during the Post-Acute and Chronic Phase after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Licastro, Federico; Hrelia, Silvana; Porcellini, Elisa; Malaguti, Marco; Di Stefano, Cristina; Angeloni, Cristina; Carbone, Ilaria; Simoncini, Laura; Piperno, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a mechanical insult to the brain caused by external forces and associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. The patients may show different profiles of neurological recovery and a combination of oxidative damage and inflammatory processes can affect their courses. It is known that an overexpression of cytokines can be seen in peripheral blood in the early hours/days after the injury, but little is known about the weeks and months encompassing the post-acute and chronic phases. In addition, no information is available about the antioxidant responses mediated by the major enzymes that regulate reactive oxygen species levels: superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases, and GSH-related enzymes. This study investigates the 6-month trends of inflammatory markers and antioxidant responses in 22 severe TBI patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness, consecutively recruited in a dedicated neurorehabilitation facility. Patients with a high degree of neurological impairment often show an uncertain outcome. In addition, the profiles of plasma activities were related to the neurological recovery after 12 months. Venous peripheral blood samples were taken blindly as soon as clinical signs and laboratory markers confirmed the absence of infections, 3 and 6 months later. The clinical and neuropsychological assessment continued up to 12 months. Nineteen patients completed the follow-up. In the chronic phase, persistent high plasma levels of cytokines can interfere with cognitive functioning and higher post-acute levels of cytokines [interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL1b, IL6] are associated with poorer cognitive recoveries 12 months later. Moreover, higher IFN-γ, higher TNF-α, and lower glutathione peroxidase activity are associated with greater disability. The results add evidence of persistent inflammatory response, provide information about long-term imbalance of antioxidant activity, and suggest that

  3. Cost and Performance Report for LNAPL Recovery: Multi-Phase Extraction and Dual-Pump Recovery of LNAPL at the BP Former Amoco Refinery, Sugar Creek, MO

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This case study was prepared to summarize the recovery of light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) at two locations at the BP Products of North America, Inc. Former Amoco Refinery (former refinery) in Sugar Creek, Missouri.

  4. [Acute phase reaction and immunocompetence in sepsis and SIRS].

    PubMed

    Burdon, Dan; Zabel, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of sepsis and SIRS, respectively is still rising. Mortality is 40 to 70% and, thus, remains very high in spite of major advances in intensive care medicine. Numerous experimental data have helped to explain isolated aspects of the pathophysiology of these disease states but the complex patho-mechanism remains to be elucidated. The discovery of the toll-like receptors and of the endotoxin-binding proteins LBP and BPI have substantially contributed to the understanding of the bacterial toxin-host interactions and may stimulate the development of new therapeutic strategies in the future. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a central role in disease evolution, however the concept of organ-derived and organ-specific damage is gaining importance. Both inflammation and counter-regulation can occur at the same time in the circulation thus, making the evaluation of the patients' immunological status difficult. Additionally, several gene polymorphisms have been detected for example within the toll-like receptor genes and TNF genes. These polymorphisms document the existence of pre-disposing factors, which influence acute phase reaction as well as immuno-competence in sepsis. Both genes and gender will play an important role in the future to identify patients at risk and potentially, to design a specific and individualized immuno-therapies.

  5. [Occurrence of acute infectious diarrhea during the lunar phases].

    PubMed

    Mikulecký, M; Schréter, I

    1993-08-23

    A chronobiometric analysis of 753 cases of acute infectious diarrhoea in adults in 1981-1990 in Kosice confirmed to a surprising extent recently reached conclusions of an investigation made by authors from Bratislava. The Kosice group comprised 352 cases of bacillary dysentery, 305 patients with salmonellosis, 72 with campylobacteriosis and 24 with yersiniosis. Statistically significantly fewer patients (p < 0.0001) were hospitalized during full moon, moon quarterly and new moon. In the intervals there were periods with a short-term increase of the daily admissions by cca 25%. This 7.38-day periodicity cannot be explained by the influence of the social 7-day week, as during observations extending over several years this rhythm is eliminated by a gradual shift across different phases of the moon. The authors did not find similar reports in the literature. For explanation, not only the organism of the host (variable immunity?) but also the infectious agent must be taken into account. More profound understanding of the mechanism may open the road to practical application of the described lunar relationship. Its knowledge can help already now to improve the organization of the health service.

  6. Effects of competition on acute phase proteins and lymphocyte subpopulations - oxidative stress markers in eventing horses.

    PubMed

    Valle, E; Zanatta, R; Odetti, P; Traverso, N; Furfaro, A; Bergero, D; Badino, P; Girardi, C; Miniscalco, B; Bergagna, S; Tarantola, M; Intorre, L; Odore, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate markers of the acute phase response (APR) in eventing horses by measuring acute phase proteins (APP) (haptoglobin, Hp, and serum amyloid A, SAA), lysozyme, protein adducts such as pentosidine-like adducts (PENT), malondialdehyde adducts (MDA), hydroxynonenal adducts (HNE) and total advanced glycation/glycoxidation end products (AGEs), complete blood count and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4+, CD8+ and CD21+) both at rest and at the end of an eventing competition. Blood samples were collected from eight Warmblood horses (medium age 10 ± 3) during an official national 2-day event competition at rest (R) and 10 min after the arrival of the cross-country test on the second day. Exercise caused a significant increase in red blood cell number, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, neutrophils, white blood cell and lymphocyte number; however, these values remained within the normal range. The CD4+ and CD8+ cells significantly increased, whereas the CD21+ lymphocytes decreased; a significant increase in serum SAA, lysozyme and protein carbonyl derivates was also observed. Two-day event causes significant changes in APR markers such as lysozyme, protein carbonyl derivates (HNE, AGEs, PENT) and lymphocyte subpopulations. The data support the hypothesis that 2-day event may alter significantly APR markers. Limitations of the study were the relatively small sample size and sampling time conditioned by the official regulations of the event. Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate the time required for recovery to basal values in order to define the possible effects on the immune function of the athlete horse.

  7. Phase I/II study of the hypoxia-activated prodrug PR104 in refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Konopleva, Marina; Thall, Peter F; Yi, Cecilia Arana; Borthakur, Gautam; Coveler, Andrew; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Benito, Juliana; Konoplev, Sergej; Gu, Yongchuan; Ravandi, Farhad; Jabbour, Elias; Faderl, Stefan; Thomas, Deborah; Cortes, Jorge; Kadia, Tapan; Kornblau, Steven; Daver, Naval; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Nguyen, Hoang Q; Feliu, Jennie; Lu, Hongbo; Wei, Caimiao; Wilson, William R; Melink, Teresa J; Gutheil, John C; Andreeff, Michael; Estey, Elihu H; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2015-07-01

    We previously demonstrated vast expansion of hypoxic areas in the leukemic microenvironment and provided a rationale for using hypoxia-activated prodrugs. PR104 is a phosphate ester that is rapidly hydrolyzed in vivo to the corresponding alcohol PR-104A and further reduced to the amine and hydroxyl-amine nitrogen mustards that induce DNA cross-linking in hypoxic cells under low oxygen concentrations. In this phase I/II study, patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (n=40) after 1 or 2 prior treatments or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=10) after any number of prior treatments received PR104; dose ranged from 1.1 to 4 g/m(2). The most common treatment-related grade 3/4 adverse events were myelosuppression (anemia 62%, neutropenia 50%, thrombocytopenia 46%), febrile neutropenia (40%), infection (24%), and enterocolitis (14%). Ten of 31 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (32%) and 2 of 10 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (20%) who received 3 g/m(2) or 4 g/m(2) had a response (complete response, n=1; complete response without platelet recovery, n=5; morphological leukemia-free state, n=6). The extent of hypoxia was evaluated by the hypoxia tracer pimonidazole administered prior to a bone marrow biopsy and by immunohistochemical assessments of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha and carbonic anhydrase IX. A high fraction of leukemic cells expressed these markers, and PR104 administration resulted in measurable decrease of the proportions of hypoxic cells. These findings indicate that hypoxia is a prevalent feature of the leukemic microenvironment and that targeting hypoxia with hypoxia-activated prodrugs warrants further evaluation in acute leukemia. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01037556.

  8. Phase recovery from a single fringe pattern using an orientational vector-field-regularized estimator.

    PubMed

    Villa, Jesús; De la Rosa, Ismael; Miramontes, Gerardo; Quiroga, Juan Antonio

    2005-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the phase recovery from a single fringe pattern with closed fringes can be properly performed if the modulo 2pi fringe orientation is estimated. For example, the fringe pattern in quadrature can be efficiently obtained in terms of the orientational phase spatial operator using fast Fourier transformations and a spiral phase spectral operator in the Fourier space. The computation of the modulo 2pi fringe orientation, however, is by far the most difficult task in the global process of phase recovery. For this reason we propose the demodulation of fringe patterns with closed fringes through the computation of the modulo 2pi fringe orientation using an orientational vector-field-regularized estimator. As we will show, the phase recovery from a single pattern can be performed in an efficient manner using this estimator, provided that it requires one to solve locally in the fringe pattern a simple linear system to optimize a regularized cost function. We present simulated and real experiments applying the proposed methodology.

  9. Characterization of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention, and Oil Recovery for Novel Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate Surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Moeti, Lebone T.; Sampath, Ramanathan

    2002-03-13

    Electrical conductivity measurements for middle, bottom, and top phases, as well as bottom/middle, and middle/bottom conjugate pair phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system were continued from the previous reporting period. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. Following this, more emulsion studies at various temperatures were progresses. A theoretical model to predict the conductivity measurements using Maxwell equations was developed and sensitivity analyses to test the performance of the model was completed. Surtek, Golden, CO, our industrial partner in this project, investigated the suitability of the surfactant for enhanced oil recovery employing coreflooding techniques and observed lower surfactant and hydrocarbon recovery for NEODOX 23-4.

  10. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  11. Induction of acute phase gene expression by brain irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Ji-Hong |; Sun, Ji-Rong; Withers, H.R.

    1995-10-15

    To investigate the in vivo acute phase molecular response of the brain to ionizing radiation, C3Hf/Sed/Kam mice were given midbrain or whole-body irradiation. Cerebral expression of interleukins (IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6), interferon (IFN-{gamma}), tumor necrosis factors (TNF-{alpha} and TNF-{beta}), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), von Willebrand factor (vWF), {alpha}1-antichymotrypsin (EB22/5.3), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was measured at various times after various radiation doses by ribonuclease (RNase) protection assay. The effects of dexamethasone or pentoxifylline treatment of mice on radiation-induced gene expression were also examined. Levels of TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, ICAM-1, EB22/5.3, and to a lesser extent IL-1{alpha} and GFAP, messenger RNA were increased in the brain after irradiation, whether the dose was delivered to the whole body or only to the midbrain. Responses were radiation dose dependent, but were not found below 7 Gy; the exception being ICAM-1, which was increased by doses as low as 2 Gy. Most responses were rapid, peaking within 4-8 h, but antichymotrypsin and GFAP responses were delayed and still elevated at 24 h, by which time the others had subsided. Pretreatment of mice with dexamethasone or pentoxifylline suppressed radiation-induced gene expression, either partially or completely. Dexamethasone was more inhibitory than pentoxifylline at the doses chosen. The initial response of the brain to irradiation involves expression of inflammatory gene products, which are probably responsible for clinically observed early symptoms of brain radiotherapy. This mechanism explains the beneficial effects of the clinical use of steroids in such circumstances. 64 refs., 4 figs.

  12. [Management of coronary artery disease at the acute phase].

    PubMed

    Chatot, Marion; Schiele, François

    2015-03-01

    In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), early management is of prime importance. However, the median time taken by the patient to call the emergency services is often very long, up to 2 hours. The presence of a physician as first responder ensures good quality resuscitation in case of cardiac arrest, and allows recording of a first ECG, which can be very informative, especially in ACS without ST segment elevation. Treatment at this stage is limited to sublingual nitroglycerin and aspirin. If the first ECG shows ST segment elevation, the patient should be immediately oriented for reperfusion, usually by percutaneous coronary intervention. in the absence of ST segment elevation, the diagnosis of ACS remains unconfirmed. This does not imply that the risk is lesser, but rather that the risk cannot be evaluated accurately in the pre-hospital setting. The use of risk scores can guide the choice of management towards an invasive strategy, including coronary angiography (immediately, or within 24-72 hours). Low-risk patients are candidates for an invasive strategy, provided non-invasive tests demonstrate the presence of ischemia. During the hospital phase, antiplatelet treatment should be initiated and must be adapted to the patient bleeding and thrombotic risk. Clopidogrel is recommended only in patients who are not amenable to prasugrel or ticagrelor. Statin therapy should be initiated from day one, regardless of the initial cholesterol level, preferably with 80 mg atorvastatin. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers should also be prescribed to complete the medical prescription both in-hospital and in the long term.

  13. Topographic Phase Recovery from Stacked ERS Interferometry and a Low-Resolution Digital Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Sichoix, Lydie; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid approach to topographic recovery from ERS interferometry is developed and assessed. Tropospheric/ionospheric artifacts, imprecise orbital information, and layover are key issues in recovering topography and surface deformation from repeat-pass interferometry. Previously, we developed a phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms to reduce these errors and also to reduce the short-wavelength phase noise (see Sandwell arid Price [1998] and Appendix A). Here the method is extended to use a low-resolution digital elevation model to constrain long-wavelength phase errors and an iteration scheme to minimize errors in the computation of phase gradient. We demonstrate the topographic phase recovery on 16-m postings using 25 ERS synthetic aperture radar images from an area of southern California containing 2700 m of relief. On the basis of a comparison with 81 GPS monuments, the ERS derived topography has a typical absolute accuracy of better than 10 m except in areas of layover. The resulting topographic phase enables accurate two-pass, real-time interferometry even in mountainous areas where traditional phase unwrapping schemes fail. As an example, we form a topography-free (127-m perpendicular baseline) interferogram spanning 7.5 years; fringes from two major earthquakes and a seismic slip on the San Andreas Fault are clearly isolated.

  14. Factors associated with the recovery of activities of daily living after hospitalization for acute medical illness: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Ryohei; Watanabe, Hiroki; Tsutsumi, Madoka; Kanamori, Takeshige; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Yanagi, Hisako

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the factors associated with the recovery rate of activities of daily living of elderly patients hospitalized for acute medical illness. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 238 elderly patients were enrolled in this study. The main outcome measure was the functional independence measure score which was used as an assessment of activities of daily living. The participants were divided into 2 groups based on their activities of daily living before onset: the independent group and the partially dependent group. The participants of each group were further divided into 2 subgroups based on recovery rates of activities of daily living: the high-recovery group (80%) and the low-recovery group (<80%). The factors associated with the recovery rate were examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. [Results] The factors associated with the recovery rate were: days of inactivity and cognitive status at the start of rehabilitation for the independent group, and days of inactivity and nutritional status at the start of rehabilitation for the partially dependent group. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the important factors for return to normal activities of daily living are: days of inactivity and cognitive status for the independent group; and days of inactivity and management of nutrition for the partially dependent group. PMID:27821931

  15. Robust interferometric imaging via prior-less phase recovery: redundant spacing calibration with generalized-closure phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurien, Binoy G.; Ashcom, Jonathan B.; Shah, Vinay N.; Rachlin, Yaron; Tarokh, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence presents a fundamental challenge to Fourier phase recovery in optical interferometry. Typical reconstruction algorithms employ Bayesian inference techniques which rely on prior knowledge of the scene under observation. In contrast, redundant spacing calibration (RSC) algorithms employ redundancy in the baselines of the interferometric array to directly expose the contribution of turbulence, thereby enabling phase recovery for targets of arbitrary and unknown complexity. Traditionally RSC algorithms have been applied directly to single-exposure measurements, which are reliable only at high photon flux in general. In scenarios of low photon flux, such as those arising in the observation of dim objects in space, one must instead rely on time-averaged, atmosphere-invariant quantities such as the bispectrum. In this paper, we develop a novel RSC-based algorithm for prior-less phase recovery in which we generalize the bispectrum to higher order atmosphere-invariants (n-spectra) for improved sensitivity. We provide a strategy for selection of a high-signal-to-noise ratio set of n-spectra using the graph-theoretic notion of the minimum cycle basis. We also discuss a key property of this set (wrap-invariance), which then enables reliable application of standard linear estimation techniques to recover the Fourier phases from the 2π-wrapped n-spectra phases. For validation, we analyse the expected shot-noise-limited performance of our algorithm for both pairwise and Fizeau interferometric architectures, and corroborate this analysis with simulation results showing performance near an atmosphere-oracle Cramer-Rao bound. Lastly, we apply techniques from the field of compressed sensing to perform image reconstruction from the estimated complex visibilities.

  16. Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rivenson, Yair; Wu, Yichen; Wang, Hongda; Zhang, Yibo; Feizi, Alborz; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution imaging of densely connected samples such as pathology slides using digital in-line holographic microscopy requires the acquisition of several holograms, e.g., at >6–8 different sample-to-sensor distances, to achieve robust phase recovery and coherent imaging of specimen. Reducing the number of these holographic measurements would normally result in reconstruction artifacts and loss of image quality, which would be detrimental especially for biomedical and diagnostics-related applications. Inspired by the fact that most natural images are sparse in some domain, here we introduce a sparsity-based phase reconstruction technique implemented in wavelet domain to achieve at least 2-fold reduction in the number of holographic measurements for coherent imaging of densely connected samples with minimal impact on the reconstructed image quality, quantified using a structural similarity index. We demonstrated the success of this approach by imaging Papanicolaou smears and breast cancer tissue slides over a large field-of-view of ~20 mm2 using 2 in-line holograms that are acquired at different sample-to-sensor distances and processed using sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery. This new phase recovery approach that makes use of sparsity can also be extended to other coherent imaging schemes, involving e.g., multiple illumination angles or wavelengths to increase the throughput and speed of coherent imaging. PMID:27901048

  17. Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivenson, Yair; Wu, Yichen; Wang, Hongda; Zhang, Yibo; Feizi, Alborz; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-11-01

    High-resolution imaging of densely connected samples such as pathology slides using digital in-line holographic microscopy requires the acquisition of several holograms, e.g., at >6–8 different sample-to-sensor distances, to achieve robust phase recovery and coherent imaging of specimen. Reducing the number of these holographic measurements would normally result in reconstruction artifacts and loss of image quality, which would be detrimental especially for biomedical and diagnostics-related applications. Inspired by the fact that most natural images are sparse in some domain, here we introduce a sparsity-based phase reconstruction technique implemented in wavelet domain to achieve at least 2-fold reduction in the number of holographic measurements for coherent imaging of densely connected samples with minimal impact on the reconstructed image quality, quantified using a structural similarity index. We demonstrated the success of this approach by imaging Papanicolaou smears and breast cancer tissue slides over a large field-of-view of ~20 mm2 using 2 in-line holograms that are acquired at different sample-to-sensor distances and processed using sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery. This new phase recovery approach that makes use of sparsity can also be extended to other coherent imaging schemes, involving e.g., multiple illumination angles or wavelengths to increase the throughput and speed of coherent imaging.

  18. Immunoadsorption therapy for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders long after the acute phase.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masatake; Nanri, Kazunori; Taguchi, Takeshi; Ishiko, Tomoko; Yoshida, Masaharu; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Sugisaki, Kentaro; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease with exacerbations involving recurrent or bilateral optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Pulse steroid therapy is recommended as the initial, acute-phase treatment for NMO. If ineffective, treatment with plasma exchange (PE) should commence. However, no evidence exists to support the effectiveness of PE long after the acute phase. Immunoadsorption therapy (IA) eliminates pathogenic antibodies while sparing other plasma proteins. With IA, side effects of PE resulting from protein substitution can be avoided. However, whether IA is effective for NMO remains unclear. We describe a patient with anti-aquaporin-4-positive myelitis who responded to IA using a tryptophan polyvinyl alcohol gel column that was begun 52 days after disease onset following the acute phase. Even long after the acute phase when symptoms appear to be stable, IA may be effective and should not be excluded as a treatment choice.

  19. Acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease: current concepts and future implications.

    PubMed

    Archana, Vilasan; Ambili, Ranjith; Nisha, Krishnavilasam Jayakumary; Seba, Abraham; Preeja, Chandran

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal disease has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events by unknown mechanisms. C-reactive protein is a systemic marker released during the acute phase of an inflammatory response and is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular disease, with elevated serum levels being reported during periodontal disease. Studies also reported elevated levels of various other acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease. It has been reported extensively in the literature that treatment of periodontal infections can significantly lower serum levels of C-reactive protein. Therefore, an understanding of the relationship between acute-phase response and the progression of periodontal disease and other systemic health complications would have a profound effect on the periodontal treatment strategies. In view of this fact, the present review highlights an overview of acute-phase reactants and their role in periodontal disease.

  20. Enhanced recovery of alkaline protease from fish viscera by phase partitioning and its application

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Too many different protein and enzyme purification techniques have been reported, especially, chromatographic techniques. Apart from low recovery, these multi-step methods are complicated, time consuming, high operating cost. So, alternative beneficially methods are still required. Since, the outstanding advantages of aqueous two phase system (ATPS) such as simple, low cost, high recovery and scalable, ATPS have been used to purify various enzymes. To improve purification efficiency, parameters affected to enzyme recovery or purity was investigated. The objectives of the present study were to optimize of alkaline protease recovery from giant catfish fish viscera by using ATPS and to study of hydrolytic patterns against gelatin. Results Using 70% (w/w) crude enzyme extract (CE) in system (15% PEG2000-15% sodium citrate) provided the highest recovery, PF and KE. At unmodified pH (8.5) gave the best recovery and PF with compare to other pHs of the system. The addition of 1% (w/w) NaCl showed the recovery (64.18%), 3.33-fold and 15.09 of KE compared to the system without NaCl. After addition of 10% (w/w) sodium citrate in the second ATPS cycle, the highest protease recovery (365.53%) and PF (11.60-fold) were obtained. Thus, the top phase from the system was subjected to further studied. The protein bands with molecular weights (MWs) of 20, 24, 27, 36, 94 and 130 kDa appeared on the protein stained gel and also exhibited clear zone on casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The β, α1, α2 of skin gelatin extensively degraded into small molecules when treated with 10 units of the extracted alkaline protease compared to those of the level of 0.21 units of Flavourzyme. Conclusions Repetitive ATPS is the alternative strategy to increase both recovery and purity of the alkaline protease from farmed giant catfish viscera. Extracted alkaline protease exposed very high effectiveness in gelatin hydrolysis. It is suggested that the alkaline protease from this fish

  1. The Acute Effect of Local Vibration As a Recovery Modality from Exercise-Induced Increased Muscle Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Pournot, Hervé; Tindel, Jérémy; Testa, Rodolphe; Mathevon, Laure; Lapole, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions is known to decrease range of motion and increase passive muscle stiffness. This study aimed at using ultrasound shear wave elastography to investigate acute changes in biceps brachii passive stiffness following intense barbell curl exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions. The effect of local vibration (LV) as a recovery modality from exercise-induced increased stiffness was further investigated. Eleven subjects performed 4 bouts of 10 bilateral barbell curl movements at 70% of the one-rep maximal flexion force. An arm-to-arm comparison model was then used with one arm randomly assigned to the passive recovery condition and the other arm assigned to the LV recovery condition (10 min of 55-Hz vibration frequency and 0.9-mm amplitude). Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus measurements were performed prior to exercise (PRE), immediately after exercise (POST-EX) and 5 min after the recovery period (POST-REC). Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus was significantly increased at POST-EX (+53 ± 48%; p < 0.001) and POST-REC (+31 ± 46%; p = 0.025) when compared to PRE. No differences were found between passive and LV recovery (p = 0.210). LV as a recovery strategy from exercise-induced increased muscle stiffness was not beneficial, probably due to an insufficient mechanical action of vibrations. Key points Bouts of barbell curl exercise induce an immediate increased passive stiffness of the biceps brachii muscle, as evidenced by greater shear elastic modulus measured by supersonic shear imaging. The administration of a vibratory massage did not reduce this acute exercise-induced increased stiffness. PMID:26957937

  2. Neonatal acute kidney injury - Severity and recovery prediction and the role of serum and urinary biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Deirdre U

    2017-02-01

    Neonatal acute kidney injury is common, in part due to incomplete renal maturation and also due to frequent exposure to risk factors for acute kidney injury such as perinatal asphyxia, extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation, cardiac surgery, sepsis, prematurity and nephrotoxicity. However the current method by which acute kidney injury is diagnosed is sub-optimal and not universally accepted which impairs the accurate estimation of the true incidence of neonatal acute kidney injury. Serum Cystatin-C, urinary NGAL, KIM-1 and IL-18 are promising neonatal acute kidney injury biomarkers however the diagnosis of acute kidney injury remains serum creatinine/urine output-based in many studies. Emerging biomarkers which require further study in the neonatal population include netrin-1 and EGF. Increased awareness amongst clinicians of nephrotoxic medications being a modifiable risk factor for the development of neonatal acute kidney injury is imperative. The burden of chronic kidney failure following neonatal acute kidney injury is unclear and requires further study.

  3. Boosting recovery rather than buffering reactivity: Higher stress-induced oxytocin secretion is associated with increased cortisol reactivity and faster vagal recovery after acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Engert, Veronika; Koester, Anna M; Riepenhausen, Antje; Singer, Tania

    2016-12-01

    Animal models and human studies using paradigms designed to stimulate endogenous oxytocin release suggest a stress-buffering role of oxytocin. We here examined the involvement of stress-induced peripheral oxytocin secretion in reactivity and recovery phases of the human psychosocial stress response. Healthy male and female participants (N=114) were subjected to a standardized laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. In addition to plasma oxytocin, cortisol was assessed as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity, alpha-amylase and heart rate as markers of sympathetic activity, high frequency heart rate variability as a marker of vagal tone and self-rated anxiety as an indicator of subjective stress experience. On average, oxytocin levels increased by 51% following psychosocial stress. The stress-induced oxytocin secretion, however, did not reduce stress reactivity. To the contrary, higher oxytocin secretion was associated with greater cortisol reactivity and peak cortisol levels in both sexes. In the second phase of the stress response the opposite pattern was observed, with higher oxytocin secretion associated with faster vagal recovery. We suggest that after an early stage of oxytocin and HPA-axis co-activation, the stress-reducing action of oxytocin unfolds. Due to the time lag it manifests as a recovery-boosting rather than a reactivity-buffering effect. By reinforcing parasympathetic autonomic activity, specifically during stress recovery, oxytocin may provide an important protective function against the health-compromising effects of sustained stress.

  4. Prolonged QT interval at onset of acute myocardial infarction in predicting early phase ventricular tachycardia

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.J.; Crampton, R.S.; Gibson, R.S.; Stebbins, P.T.; Waldman, M.T.; Beller, G.A.

    1981-07-01

    The prospectively assessed time course of changes in ventricular repolarization during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is reported in 32 patients admitted 2.0 +/- 1.8 (SD) hours after AMI onset. The initial corrected QT interval (QTc) upon hospitalization was longer in the 14 patients developing ventricular tachycardia (VT) within the first 48 hours as compared to QTc in the eight patients with frequent ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and to QTc in the 10 patients with infrequent VPBs. By the fifth day after AMI onset, the QTc shortened significantly only in the VT group, suggesting a greater initial abnormality of repolarization in these patients. All 32 patients had coronary angiography, radionuclide ventriculography, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy before hospital discharge. Significant discriminating factors related to early phase VT in AMI included initially longer QT and QTc intervals, faster heart rate, higher peak serum levels of creatine kinase, acute anterior infarction, angiographically documented proximal stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and scintigraphic evidence of hypoperfusion of the interventricular septum. Prior infarction, angina pectoris, hypertension, multivessel coronary artery disease, and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction did not provide discrimination among the three different ventricular arrhythmia AMI groups. Researchers conclude that (1) the QT interval is frequently prolonged early in AMI, (2) the initial transiently prolonged ventricular repolarization facilitates and predicts complex ventricular tachyarrhythmias within the first 48 hours of AMI, (3) jeopardized blood supply to the interventricular septum frequently coexists, and (4) therapeutic enhancement of rapid recovery of the ventricular repolarization process merits investigation for prevention of VT in AMI.

  5. Phase-Sensitive Inversion Recovery for Detecting Myocardial Infarction Using Gadolinium-Delayed Hyperenhancement

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Peter; Arai, Andrew E.; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Aletras, Anthony H.

    2007-01-01

    After administration of gadolinium, infarcted myocardium exhibits delayed hyperenhancement and can be imaged using an inversion recovery (IR) sequence. The performance of such a method when using magnitude-reconstructed images is highly sensitive to the inversion recovery time (TI) selected. Using phase-sensitive reconstruction, it is possible to use a nominal value of TI, eliminate several breath-holds otherwise needed to find the precise null time for normal myocardium, and achieve a consistent contrast. Phase-sensitive detection is used to remove the background phase while preserving the sign of the desired magnetization during IR. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the benefits of both phase-sensitive IR image reconstruction and surface coil intensity normalization for detecting myocardial infarction (MI). The phase-sensitive reconstruction method reduces the variation in apparent infarct size that is observed in the magnitude images as TI is changed. Phase-sensitive detection also has the advantage of decreasing the sensitivity to changes in tissue T1 with increasing delay from contrast agent injection. PMID:11810682

  6. Acute protease supplementation effects on muscle damage and recovery across consecutive days of cycle racing.

    PubMed

    Shing, Cecilia M; Chong, Suzzen; Driller, Matthew W; Fell, James W

    2016-01-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of proteases obtained from pineapples, has been demonstrated to reduce exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation, enhancing recovery. This investigation aimed to establish if markers of muscle damage and testosterone were influenced by acute bromelain supplementation in competitive cyclists taking part in a six-day cycle stage race. Fifteen highly trained cyclists [age: 22, [Formula: see text] = 1.2 years, height: 1.79, [Formula: see text] = 0.01 m, body mass: 68.69, [Formula: see text] = 1.97 kg] were supplemented with either bromelain (1000 mg·day(-1)) (n = 8) or a placebo (n = 7) across six days of competitive racing in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Blood was collected from each cyclist on days one, three and six of racing and analysed for creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and testosterone. CK activity (P < 0.001, d = 17.4-18.8), LDH activity (P < 0.004, d = 0.5-2.5) and myoglobin concentration (P < 0.007, d = 3.4-4.8) were elevated from pre-race on days three and six of racing in both groups. Testosterone concentrations were significantly lower on the final day of racing (P = 0.03, d = 1.3) and there was a trend for bromelain to maintain testosterone concentrations across the race period (P = 0.05, d = 1.04-1.70) when compared to placebo. Fatigue rating was lower in the bromelain group on day four of racing (P = 0.01). Consecutive days of competitive cycling were associated with increased markers of muscle damage and a reduction in circulating testosterone across the race period. Bromelain supplementation reduced subjective feelings of fatigue and was associated with a trend to maintain testosterone concentration.

  7. Delayed Imatinib Treatment for Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Recovery and Serum Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Anja; Hao, Jingxia; Wellfelt, Katrin; Josephson, Anna; Svensson, Camilla I.; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Eriksson, Ulf; Abrams, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With no currently available drug treatment for spinal cord injury, there is a need for additional therapeutic candidates. We took the approach of repositioning existing pharmacological agents to serve as acute treatments for spinal cord injury and previously found imatinib to have positive effects on locomotor and bladder function in experimental spinal cord injury when administered immediately after the injury. However, for imatinib to have translational value, it needs to have sustained beneficial effects with delayed initiation of treatment, as well. Here, we show that imatinib improves hind limb locomotion and bladder recovery when initiation of treatment was delayed until 4 h after injury and that bladder function was improved with a delay of up to 24 h. The treatment did not induce hypersensitivity. Instead, imatinib-treated animals were generally less hypersensitive to either thermal or mechanical stimuli, compared with controls. In an effort to provide potential biomarkers, we found serum levels of three cytokines/chemokines—monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene (interleukin 8)—to increase over time with imatinib treatment and to be significantly higher in injured imatinib-treated animals than in controls during the early treatment period. This correlated to macrophage activation and autofluorescence in lymphoid organs. At the site of injury in the spinal cord, macrophage activation was instead reduced by imatinib treatment. Our data strengthen the case for clinical trials of imatinib by showing that initiation of treatment can be delayed and by identifying serum cytokines that may serve as candidate markers of effective imatinib doses. PMID:25914996

  8. Silencing Mist1 Gene Expression Is Essential for Recovery from Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Anju; Humphrey, Sean E.; Steele, Rebecca E.; Hess, David A.; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J.; Konieczny, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are tasked with synthesizing, packaging and secreting vast quantities of pro-digestive enzymes to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis for the organism. Because the synthesis of high levels of hydrolases is potentially dangerous, the pancreas is prone to acute pancreatitis (AP), a disease that targets acinar cells, leading to acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), inflammation and fibrosis—events that can transition into the earliest stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Despite a wealth of information concerning the broad phenotype associated with pancreatitis, little is understood regarding specific transcriptional regulatory networks that are susceptible to AP and the role these networks play in acinar cell and exocrine pancreas responses. In this study, we examined the importance of the acinar-specific maturation transcription factor MIST1 to AP damage and organ recovery. Analysis of wild-type and Mist1 conditional null mice revealed that Mist1 gene transcription and protein accumulation were dramatically reduced as acinar cells underwent ADM alterations during AP episodes. To test if loss of MIST1 function was primarily responsible for the damaged status of the organ, mice harboring a Cre-inducible Mist1 transgene (iMist1) were utilized to determine if sustained MIST1 activity could alleviate AP damage responses. Unexpectedly, constitutive iMist1 expression during AP led to a dramatic increase in organ damage followed by acinar cell death. We conclude that the transient silencing of Mist1 expression is critical for acinar cells to survive an AP episode, providing cells an opportunity to suppress their secretory function and regenerate damaged cells. The importance of MIST1 to these events suggests that modulating key pancreas transcription networks could ease clinical symptoms in patients diagnosed with pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26717480

  9. A chronic and latent lymphatic insufficiency follows recovery from acute lymphedema in the rat foreleg

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Uziel; Stroup, Emily M.; Lynch, Laura L.; Waller, Anna B.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary lymphedema in humans is a common consequence of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) to treat breast cancer. Remarkably, secondary lymphedema generally first appears following a delay of over a year and can be triggered suddenly by an inflammatory insult. However, it remains unclear why the apparently functional lymphatic system is unable to accommodate an inflammatory trigger. To provide mechanistic insight into the delayed and rapid secondary lymphedema initiation, we compared the ability of the ALND-recovered rat foreleg lymphatic system to prevent edema during an inflammatory challenge with that of the uninjured lymphatic system. At 73 days postsurgery, the forelegs of ALND−- and ALND+-sensitized rats were exposed to the proinflammatory agent oxazolone, which was found to reduce fluid drainage and increase skin thickness in both ALND− and ALND+ forelegs (P < 0.05). However, drainage in the ALND-recovered forelegs was more severely impaired than ALND− forelegs, as visualized by indocyanine green lymphography and quantified by interstitial transport of fluid marker (P < 0.05). Although both ALND+ and ALND− forelegs experienced significant inflammation-induced edema with the oxazolone exposure (P < 0.05), the peak tissue swelling in the ALND+ group was significantly greater than that of the ALND− forelegs (arm area peaked at ∼13.4 vs. ∼5.7% swelling, respectively, P < 0.005; wrist diameter peaked at 9.7 vs. 2.2% swelling, respectively, P < 0.005). The findings demonstrate that outward recovery from ALND in the rat foreleg masks an ensuing chronic and latent lymphatic insufficiency, which reduces the ability of the foreleg lymphatic system to prevent edema during an acute inflammatory process. PMID:22942182

  10. The recovery phase in Guillain-Barré syndrome: moving from dependency to independence.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Janet Fay; Orb, Angelica

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we examined the perspectives of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome during their recovery phase. We used a grounded theory approach. Five patients discharged from a major teaching hospital were interviewed; the format was semi-structured. Data were analyzed through a constant comparative method. We describe the central theme of moving from dependency to independence. There are five phases in the recovery process: experiencing dependency, encountering helplessness, wanting to know more about GBS, discovering inner strength, and regaining independence. Moving from dependency to independence was facilitated by the patients' discovery of their inner strengths. Regaining their independence was facilitated by their strong desire to walk out of the hospital. Patients realized that they had little knowledge about their illness and prognosis; further research in this area would be beneficial.

  11. Acute phase response induced following tumor treatment by photodynamic therapy: relevance for the therapy outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush; Stott, Brandon; Cecic, Ivana; Payne, Peter; Sun, Jinghai

    2006-02-01

    Acute phase response is an effector process orchestrated by the innate immune system for the optimal mobilization of the resources of the organism distant from the local insult site needed in the execution of a host-protecting reaction. Our research has shown that mice bearing tumors treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) exhibit the three major hallmarks of acute phase response: release of acute phase reactants, neutrophilia, and pituitary/adrenal axis activation. Of particular interest in this study were acute phase proteins that have a pivotal role in the clearance of dead cells, since the occurrence of this process in PDT-treated tumors emerges as a critical event in the course of PDT-associated host response. It is shown that this type of acute phase reactants, including complement proteins (C3, C5, C9, mannose-binding lectin, and ficolin A) and related pentraxins (serum amyloid P component and PTX3), are upregulated following tumor PDT and accumulate in the targeted lesions. Based on the recently accumulated experimental evidence it is definitely established that the acute phase response is manifested in the hosts bearing PDT-treated tumors and it is becoming clear that this effector process is an important element of PDT-associated host response bearing in impact on the eventual outcome of this therapy.

  12. Lower thermospheric wind variations in auroral patches during the substorm recovery phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Shin-ichiro; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Watkins, Brenton J.; Kurihara, Junichi; Tsuda, Takuo T.; Fallen, Christopher T.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of the lower thermospheric wind with a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at Tromsø, Norway, found the largest wind variations in a night during the appearance of auroral patches at the substorm recovery phase. Taking into account magnetospheric substorm evolution of plasma energy accumulation and release, the largest wind amplitude at the recovery phase is a fascinating result. The results are the first detailed investigation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupled system at the substorm recovery phase using comprehensive data sets of solar wind, geomagnetic field, auroral pattern, and FPI-derived wind. This study used three events in November 2010 and January 2012, particularly focusing on the wind signatures associated with the auroral morphology, and found three specific features: (1) wind fluctuations that were isolated at the edge and/or in the darker area of an auroral patch with the largest vertical amplitude up to about 20 m/s and with the longest oscillation period about 10 min, (2) when the convection electric field was smaller than 15 mV/m, and (3) wind fluctuations that were accompanied by pulsating aurora. This approach suggests that the energy dissipation to produce the wind fluctuations is localized in the auroral pattern. Effects of the altitudinal variation in the volume emission rate were investigated to evaluate the instrumental artifact due to vertical wind shear. The small electric field values suggest weak contributions of the Joule heating and Lorentz force processes in wind fluctuations. Other unknown mechanisms may play a principal role at the recovery phase.

  13. Acute effects of chocolate milk and a commercial recovery beverage on postexercise recovery indices and endurance cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Kelly; Bishop, Philip; Pritchett, Robert; Green, Matt; Katica, Charlie

    2009-12-01

    To maximize training quality, athletes have sought nutritional supplements that optimize recovery. This study compared chocolate milk (CHOC) with a carbohydrate replacement beverage (CRB) as a recovery aid after intense exercise, regarding performance and muscle damage markers in trained cyclists. Ten regional-level cyclists and triathletes (maximal oxygen uptake 55.2 +/- 7.2 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) completed a high-intensity intermittent exercise protocol, then 15-18 h later performed a performance trial at 85% of maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion. Participants consumed 1.0 g carbohydrate.kg-1.h-1 of a randomly assigned isocaloric beverage (CHOC or CRB) after the first high-intensity intermittent exercise session. The same protocol was repeated 1 week later with the other beverage. A 1-way repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant difference (p = 0.91) between trials for time to exhaustion at 85% of maximal oxygen uptake (CHOC 13 +/- 10.2 min, CRB 13.5 +/- 8.9 min). The change in creatine kinase (CK) was significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the CRB trial than in the CHOC trial (increase CHOC 27.9 +/- 134.8 U.L(-1), CRB 211.9 +/- 192.5 U.L(-1)), with differences not significant for CK levels before the second exercise session (CHOC 394.8 +/- 166.1 U.L(-1), CRB 489.1 +/- 264.4 U.L(-1)) between the 2 trials. These findings indicate no difference between CHOC and this commercial beverage as potential recovery aids for cyclists between intense workouts.

  14. Pilot-aided carrier phase recovery for M-QAM using superscalar parallelization based PLL.

    PubMed

    Zhuge, Qunbi; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Xu, Xian; Mousa-Pasandi, Mohammad E; Chagnon, Mathieu; El-Sahn, Ziad A; Plant, David V

    2012-08-13

    In this paper, we present a carrier phase recovery (CPR) algorithm using a modified superscalar parallelization based phase locked loop (M-SSP-PLL) combined with a maximum-likelihood (ML) phase estimation. Compared to the original SSP-PLL, M-SSP-PLL + ML reduces the required buffer size using a novel superscalar structure. In addition, by removing the differential coding/decoding and employing ML phase recovery it also improves the performance. In simulation, we show that the laser linewidth tolerance of M-SSP-PLL + ML is comparable to blind phase search (BPS) algorithm, which is known to be one of the best CPR algorithms in terms of performance for arbitrary QAM formats. In 28 Gbaud QPSK (112 Gb/s) and 16-QAM (224 Gb/s), and 7 Gbaud 64-QAM (84 Gb/s) experiments, it is also demonstrated that M-SSP-PLL + ML can increase the transmission distance by at least 12% compared to BPS for each of them. Finally, the computational complexity is discussed and a significant reduction is shown for our algorithm with respect to BPS.

  15. PS-341 in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Blast Phase, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-22

    Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FOR NOVEL ALCOHOL ETHOXYCARBOXYLATE SURFACTANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lebone T. Moeti; Ramanathan Sampath

    2001-09-28

    This final technical report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to August 31, 2001 which covers the total performance period of the project. During this period, detailed information on optimal salinity, temperature, emulsion morphologies, effectiveness for surfactant retention and oil recovery was obtained for an Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate (AEC) surfactant to evaluate its performance in flooding processes. Tests were conducted on several AEC surfactants and NEODOX (23-4) was identified as the most suitable hybrid surfactant that yielded the best proportion in volume for top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. Following the selection of this surfactant, temperature and salinity scans were performed to identify the optimal salinity and temperature, and the temperature and salinity intervals in which all three phases coexisted. NEODOX 23-4 formed three phases between 4 and 52.5 C. It formed an aqueous rich microemulsion phase at high temperatures and an oleic rich microemulsion phase at low temperatures--a characteristic of the ionic part of the surfactant. The morphology measurement system was set-up successfully at CAU. The best oil/water/surfactant system defined by the above phase work was then studied for emulsion morphologies. Electrical conductivities were measured for middle and bottom phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system and by mixing measured volumes of the middle phase into a fixed volume of the bottom phase and vice versa at room temperature. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. These experiments were then repeated for bottom/middle (B/M) and middle/bottom (M/B) conjugate pair phases at 10, 15, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 C. Electrical conductivity measurements were then compared with the predictions of the conductivity model developed in

  17. The effect of oculo-acupuncture on recovery from ethylene glycol-induced acute renal injury in dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzhu; Song, Kun-Ho; You, Myung-Jo; Son, Dong-Soo; Cho, Sung-Whan; Kim, Duck-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    The potential recovery effect by oculo-acupuncture (OA) on ethylene glycol-induced acute renal injury in dogs was investigated. Acute renal damage was induced by ingestion of ethylene glycol in six mongrel dogs. The dogs were assigned to control (three dogs) and experimental (three dogs) groups. The control group did not receive any treatment, while the experimental group was treated with oculo-acupuncture at kidney/urinary bladder region plus zhong jiao region of the eyes after the induction of renal damage. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) were measured in both control and experimental groups. The blood RBC and Hb were also examined. The serum BUN and creatinine activities in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group, the serum Na and Cl had the irregular change in both groups, and the blood Hb in the control and experimental group showed decreasing tendency. Significant differences were observed on the 3rd and 7th day in BUN, 7th day in creatinine, 2nd day in Na and Cl, and 7th day in Hb when compared to the control group. Whereas, serum K concentration and RBC in the experimental group did not change significantly. The recovery findings of the renal injury were also observed in the experimental group histopathologically. In conclusion, OA therapy (kidney/urinary bladder region plus zhong jiao region) was effective for recovery of the renal injury induced by ethylene glycol in dogs.

  18. Auditing the needs of recovery room staff providing care for the child in an acute hospital.

    PubMed

    Nicholas-Holley, J

    2016-05-01

    This article examines the results of an audit into recovery nurse knowledge and understanding of paediatric care standards. It will critically analyse the availability of current standards for children's services in the recovery room and discuss the need for a national document specifically dedicated to standards of practise for the care of the child in the recovery room providing immediate post operative care. The article will also look at the development of such a document.

  19. THE ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE INDUCED BY BRONCHOSCOPY WITH LAVAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bronchoscopy has been used to evaluate the inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. The procedure may affect acute inflammation in the lower respiratory tract. We reviewed consecutive bronchoscopies done in normal healthy non-smokers between April, 1998 and April, 2004. The...

  20. Validity of Sudden Gains in Acute Phase Treatment of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the validity of sudden gains identified with T. Z. Tang and R. J. DeRubeis's (1999) method in 2 clinical data sets that involved treatment of major depressive disorder (N=227). Sudden gains replicated among self- and clinician reports of depressive symptoms and predicted better psychosocial functioning at the acute phase…

  1. Containment and recovery of a light non-aqueous phase liquid plume at a woodtreating facility

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, D.; Powell, G.; Hawthorn, S.; Weinstock, S.

    1997-12-31

    A woodtreating site in Montana used a formulation (product) of 5 percent pentachlorophenol and 95 percent diesel fuel as a carrier liquid to pressure treat lumber. Through years of operations approximately 378,500 liters of this light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) product spilled onto the ground and soaked into the groundwater. A plume of this LNAPL product flowed in a northerly direction toward a stream located approximately 410 meters from the pressure treatment building. A 271-meter long high density polyethylene (HDPE) containment cutoff barrier wall was installed 15 meters from the stream to capture, contain, and prevent the product from migrating off site. This barrier was extended to a depth of 3.7 meters below ground surface and allowed the groundwater to flow beneath it. Ten product recovery wells, each with a dual-phase pumping system, were installed within the plume, and a groundwater model was completed to indicate how the plume would be contained by generating a cone of influence at each recovery well. The model indicated that the recovery wells and cutoff barrier wall would contain the plume and prevent further migration. To date, nearly 3{1/2} year`s later, approximately 106,000 liters of product have been recovered.

  2. Effects of age and muscle action type on acute strength and power recovery following fatigue of the leg flexors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Brennan J; Conchola, Eric C; Stock, Matt S

    2015-12-01

    Short-term strength and power recovery patterns following fatigue have received little research attention, particularly as they pertain to age-specific responses, and the leg flexors (i.e., hamstrings) muscle group. Thus, research is warranted addressing these issues because both age-related alterations in the neuromuscular system and mode of muscle action (e.g., eccentric, concentric, isometric) may differentially influence recovery responses from fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate the strength and power recovery responses for eccentric, concentric, and isometric muscle actions of the leg flexors in young and older men following an isometric, intermittent fatigue-inducing protocol. Nineteen young (age = 25 ± 3 years) and nineteen older (71 ± 4) men performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) for eccentric, concentric, and isometric muscle actions followed by a fatigue protocol of intermittent (0.6 duty cycle) isometric contractions of the leg flexors at 60% of isometric MVC. MVCs of each muscle action were performed at 0, 7, 15, and 30 min following fatigue. Peak torque (PT) and mean power values were calculated from the MVCs and the eccentric/concentric ratio (ECR) was derived. For PT and mean power, young men showed incomplete recovery at all time phases, whereas the older men had recovered by 7 min. Eccentric and isometric muscle actions showed incomplete recovery at all time phases, but concentric recovered by 7 min, independent of age. The ECR was depressed for up to 30 min following fatigue. More rapid and pronounced recovery in older men and concentric contractions may be related to physiological differences specific to aging and muscle action motor unit patterns. Individuals and clinicians may use these time course responses as a guide for recovery following activity-induced fatigue.

  3. Development of a water recovery subsystem based on Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Rasouli, F.; Wydeven, T.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated engineering breadboard subsystem for the recovery of potable water from untreated urine was designed, fabricated and tested. It was fabricated from commercially available components without emphasis on weight, volume and power requirement optimization. Optimizing these parameters would make this process competitive with other spacecraft water recovery systems. Unlike other phase change systems, this process is based on the catalytic oxidation at elevated temperatures of ammonia and volatile hydrocarbons to innocuous products; therefore, no urine pretreatment is required. The testing program consisted of parametric tests, one month of daily tests, and a continuous run of 165 hours. The recovered water is low in ammonia, hydrocarbons and conductivity and requires only adjustment of its pH to meet drinking water standards.

  4. Close-form expression of one-tap normalized LMS carrier phase recovery in optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianhua; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-10-01

    The performance of long-haul high speed coherent optical fiber communication systems is significantly degraded by the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN). In this paper, the analysis of the one-tap normalized least-mean-square (LMS) carrier phase recovery (CPR) is carried out and the close-form expression is investigated for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) coherent optical fiber communication systems, in compensating both laser phase noise and equalization enhanced phase noise. Numerical simulations have also been implemented to verify the theoretical analysis. It is found that the one-tap normalized least-mean-square algorithm gives the same analytical expression for predicting CPR bit-error-rate (BER) floors as the traditional differential carrier phase recovery, when both the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise are taken into account.

  5. Bcl-2 associated with positive symptoms of schizophrenic patients in an acute phase.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Chang; Liou, Chia-Wei; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Lin, I-Mei; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2013-12-30

    B cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2) may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of Bcl-2 in schizophrenic patients in an acute phase, and evaluate Bcl-2 level changes after antipsychotic treatment. We consecutively enrolled 41 schizophrenia patients in an acute phase; 28 were followed up with a 4-week antipsychotic treatment. Serum Bcl-2 levels were measured with assay kits. All patients were evaluated by examining the correlation between Bcl-2 levels and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores, using Pearson correlation coefficients. In schizophrenic patients in an acute phase, positive PANSS subscores were significantly negatively correlated with Bcl-2 levels. In addition, we found Bcl-2 levels had a significantly negative correlation with PANSS total scores and positive subscores in male patients in an acute phase. Using the paired t-test, we found no significant changes in Bcl-2 levels in schizophrenia patients who had received the 4-week treatment with antipsychotic drugs (n=28). In conclusion, our results suggest that Bcl-2 might be an indicator of schizophrenia severity in the acute phase. In addition, Bcl-2 levels might be associated with positive symptoms in male patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Passive Recovery Promotes Superior Performance and Reduced Physiological Stress Across Different Phases of Short-Distance Repeated Sprints.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Madueno, Maria C

    2016-09-01

    Scanlan, AT and Madueno, MC. Passive recovery promotes superior performance and reduced physiological stress across different phases of short-distance repeated sprints. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2540-2549, 2016-Limited research has examined the influence of recovery modalities on run-based repeated-sprint (RS) performance with no data available relative to the sprint phase. This study compared run-based RS performance across various sprint phases and underlying physiological responses between active and passive recoveries. Nine students (21.8 ± 3.6 years; 171.3 ± 6.4 cm; 72.8 ± 12.2 kg) completed 2 bouts (active and passive recoveries) of 10 × 20 m sprints interspersed with 30 s recoveries in a randomized crossover fashion. Sprint times and decrements were calculated for each split (0-5, 5-15, 15-20, and 0-20 m) across each sprint. Blood lactate concentration ([BLa]), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at various time-points. Passive recovery promoted improved performance times (p ≤ 0.005) and decrements (p ≤ 0.045) across all splits, and lower post-test [BLa] (p ≤ 0.005), HR (bout 3 onwards) (p ≤ 0.014), and RPE (bout 4 onwards) when compared with active recovery. Performance differences between recoveries were less pronounced across the 0-5 m split. Temporal analyses showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in sprint times and decrements primarily with active recovery. The present data indicate that passive recovery promoted superior performance across run-based RS, with earlier performance deterioration and greater physiological load evident during active recovery. These findings can aid the manipulation of interbout activity across RS drills to promote physiological overload and adaptation during training. Further, coaches may develop tactical strategies to overcome the detrimental effects of active recovery and optimize sprint performance in athletes during game-play.

  7. An efficient pipeline wavefront phase recovery for the CAFADIS camera for extremely large telescopes.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations.

  8. Planning phase for the New Mexico Improved Oil Recovery Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.; Weiss, W.W.

    1991-06-01

    This project is a collaborative effort with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and a number of universities throughout the country. Field and laboratory tests were proposed to investigate advanced technologies in reservoir characterization, reservoir simulation, and recovery enhancement. Basically, the approach was to acquire an oilfield property for experimental purposes where interdisciplinary testing could be performed. Several researchers, especially in the academic area, would like to have access to field data and have expressed interest in participating in the project. A standardized dataset from a well-characterized site could be made available to anyone who is developing and validating new simulators. The data-gathering phase should be coordinated fully with the principal users of the data, and all data should be stored in an easily accessible form. A database for the New Mexico Improved Oil Recovery Project (NMIORP) could be established which would be designed for access by various computer networks. Initially, this project provided for a planning phase for the NMIORP. A field site, the Sulimar Queen Unit, has been acquired by New Mexico Tech, and the activities specified in the planning phase have been completed. A data acquisition well was drilled, logged, and cored. Geological and reservoir studies for the Sulimar Queen Unit were conducted. Results of these studies indicate that the Sulimar Queen Unit is a suitable field site for the NMIORP. This report describes the results of the studies that were conducted and outlines possible future tests that could be performed at the field site.

  9. An Efficient Pipeline Wavefront Phase Recovery for the CAFADIS Camera for Extremely Large Telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations. PMID:22315523

  10. Decision making for late-phase recovery from nuclear or radiological incidents.

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y

    2015-02-01

    Much of the effort on radiological emergency preparedness has focused on the initial responses to an event (e.g., rescuing or triaging missions), while guidance on the more complex issues (e.g., radiological remediation or population resettlement) of long-term recovery has been lacking. The recent major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in 1986 and Fukushima, Japan, in 2011 have clearly shown that radiological effects can spread over extended areas and last for a long period of time, thus making planning for long-term recovery an essential extension to the overall response. Similar challenges may be encountered in the aftermath of malicious acts involving devices such as radiological dispersal devices or improvised nuclear devices. Given the potentially unprecedented nature of the impact, the affected communities would have to face a series of daunting tasks in attempting to return to normality. To achieve this objective, a top priority is to conduct an effective and timely remediation of the contaminated areas. In contrast to emergency responses, the late-stage recovery effort is necessarily community focused and therefore will be driven by stakeholders. However, given the nature of the contamination and the widespread impact, cleanup in the aftermath of a major incident could involve a rather complex decision-making process for which the requisite experiences may not be readily available. To this end, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established a scientific committee to prepare a comprehensive study that develops a framework and recommends an approach to optimizing decision making in late-phase recovery in the wake of major nuclear or radiological incidents. This study, published as NCRP Report No. 175, addresses all relevant dimensions in decision making for long-term recovery. The report describes optimization as a flexible, graded, and iterative process that consists of a series of steps, all of which involve

  11. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-27

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Blastic Phase; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  12. Radio signal anomalies detected with MEXART in 2012 during the recovery phase of geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Vargas, Armando; Pérez-Enríquez, Román; López-Montes, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Martínez, Mario; Ugalde-Calvillo, Luis Gerardo

    2016-11-01

    In this work we present MEXART observations in 2012 from 17 radio sources in which we detected anomalies in the radio signal of these sources occurring during the recovery phase of some geomagnetic storms. We performed FFT and wavelet analysis of the radio signals during these periods and found that rather than IPS the anomalies seem to originate in the ionosphere, especially because of the frequencies at which they are observed. We discuss this results under the view that the source of the geomagnetic storm is no longer in the interplanetary medium.

  13. Impact of mobile phase temperature on recovery and stability of monoclonal antibodies using recent reversed-phase stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Rudaz, Serge; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2012-11-01

    Recent reversed-phase wide-pore stationary phases were evaluated for the separation of intact monoclonal antibodies and their fragments. Two types of stationary phases were tested: Phenomenex Aeris Widepore, with 3.6 μm core-shell particles and Waters Acquity BEH300 with 1.7 μm fully porous particles. A systematic investigation was carried out using model IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies, namely rituximab, panitumumab, and bevacizumab. It appeared that adsorption of these antibodies on the stationary phase was significantly higher compared to proteins of equivalent size. The adsorption was particularly important for the intact antibodies of 150 kDa and for the largest fragments of 50 to 100 kDa (i.e., heavy chain, -fraction of antigene-binding). The present study demonstrated an obvious relationship between adsorption phenomenon and the unwanted strong secondary interactions (ionic and hydrogen bond) of the stationary phase. Thus, adsorption was more pronounced on the Aeris column because of the stronger ion exchange contribution of this stationary phase. Using C4 phase instead of C18 at 50-70°C, there is a slight reduction (5-20%) in adsorption. Two solutions were proposed to decrease the strength of secondary interactions and thus resolve (or at least diminish) adsorption issue. First, increasing mobile phase temperature up to 80-90°C appeared as a promising solution. However, temperature should be used with caution as it can partially damage large biomolecules. A compromise between residence time and temperature should be found. Second, it is recommended to add a small amount of an ancillary solvent, such as n-butanol to the mobile phase. Indeed, the hydroxyl group of n-butanol probably interacts with water adsorbed on the residual silanol groups "to shield" silanols.

  14. Presence of acute phase changes in zinc, iron, and copper metabolism in turkey embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Klasing, K.C.; Richards, M.P.; Darcey, S.E.; Laurin, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Acute phase changes in trace mineral metabolism were examined in turkey embryos. An endotoxin injection resulted in increased concentrations of serum copper and liver zinc and decreased concentrations of serum zinc in embryos incubated either in ovo or ex ovo. Changes in zinc and copper metabolism occurred when endotoxin either was injected intramuscularly, into the amnionic fluid, or administered onto the chorioallantoic membrane. Unlike poults, embryos did not respond to an inflammatory challenge with decreased serum iron concentrations. Acute phase changes in embryo serum zinc and copper as well as liver zinc concentrations were similar to those in poults. Increased liver zinc concentrations were associated with increased zinc in metallothionein (MT). An injection of a crude interleukin 1 preparation into embryos resulted in similar increases in hepatic zinc and MT concentrations as an endotoxin injection, suggesting a role for this cytokine in mediating the acute phase changes in embryonic zinc metabolism.

  15. Gas phase recovery of hydrogen sulfide contaminated polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakati, Biraj Kumar; Kucernak, Anthony R. J.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the anode of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the gas phase recovery of the contaminated PEMFC using ozone (O3) were studied. Experiments were performed on fuel cell electrodes both in an aqueous electrolyte and within an operating fuel cell. The ex-situ analyses of a fresh electrode; a H2S contaminated electrode (23 μmolH2S cm-2); and the contaminated electrode cleaned with O3 shows that all sulfide can be removed within 900 s at room temperature. Online gas analysis of the recovery process confirms the recovery time required as around 720 s. Similarly, performance studies of an H2S contaminated PEMFC shows that complete rejuvenation occurs following 600-900 s O3 treatment at room temperature. The cleaning process involves both electrochemical oxidation (facilitated by the high equilibrium potential of the O3 reduction process) and direct chemical oxidation of the contaminant. The O3 cleaning process is more efficient than the external polarization of the single cell at 1.6 V. Application of O3 at room temperature limits the amount of carbon corrosion. Room temperature O3 treatment of poisoned fuel cell stacks may offer an efficient and quick remediation method to recover otherwise inoperable systems.

  16. Poliomyelitis: immunoglobulin-containing cells in the central nervous system in acute and convalescent phases of the human disease.

    PubMed Central

    Esiri, M M

    1980-01-01

    The immunoperoxidase method has been used to demonstrate the presence of immunoglobulin-containing cells in the central nervous system in acute and convalescent phases of poliomyelitis. These cells were found in considerable numbers in the areas of damage during the acute phase, and persisted at the same sites, though in smaller numbers, during the convalescent phase for at least 8 months. Most of the positively stained cells were plasma cells. IgA was the commonest heavy chain type demonstrated, with lesser amounts also of IgG and, during the acute phase, IgM. In the acute phase more lambda than kappa light chain was demonstrated but in the convalescent phase this ratio was reversed. More light chain than heavy chain was demonstrable during the acute phase. The significance of these results is briefly discussed. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6771081

  17. Valorization of BOF Steel Slag by Reduction and Phase Modification: Metal Recovery and Slag Valorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunwei; Huang, Shuigen; Wollants, Patrick; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2017-03-01

    Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag is a main byproduct in steelmaking, and its valorization is therefore of considerable interest, from a metal-recovery perspective and from a residue-utilization perspective. In the present study, the carbothermic reduction of BOF slag was investigated systematically. The reductions of Fe- and P-containing phases (i.e., oxide and compounds) are discussed. Effects of Al2O3 and SiO2 additions on the solidification microstructure and mineralogy associated with the reduction processes were also investigated. The formation and growth of the extracted metallic phase are discussed, and the mineralogy of the residue slag is determined. We conclude that by controlling the additions under a rapid cooling condition, it is possible to extract metallic iron as high-grade metal and simultaneously to utilize the remaining slag for construction applications.

  18. Quantitation of Binding, Recovery and Desalting Efficiency in Solid Phase Extraction Micropipette Tips

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M N; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Micropipette-tip solid phase extraction systems are common in proteomic analyses for desalting and concentrating samples for mass spectrometry, removing interferences, and increasing sensitivity. These systems are inexpensive, disposable, and highly efficient. Here we show micropipette-tip solid phase extraction is a direct sample preparation method for {sup 14}C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), removing salts or reagent from labeled macromolecules. We compared loading, recovery and desalting efficiency in commercially available SPE micro-tips using {sup 14}C-labeled peptides and proteins, AMS, and alpha spectrometry ion energy loss quantitation. The polypropylene in the tips was nearly {sup 14}C-free and simultaneously provided low-background carrier for AMS. The silica material did not interfere with the analysis. Alpha spectrometry provided an absolute measurement of desalting efficiency.

  19. Recovery of crocins from saffron stigmas (Crocus sativus) in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Montalvo-Hernández, Bertha; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Benavides, Jorge

    2012-05-04

    Crocins are carotenoid derivates that have recently attracted the interest of the scientific community due to their nutraceutical properties. Saffron (dry Crocus sativus stigmas) is one of the main known sources of crocins. In this study the potential use of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for the extraction of crocins from C. sativus stigmas was evaluated. The partitioning behavior of crocins in different types of ATPS (polymer-polymer, polymer-salt, alcohol-salt and ionic liquid-salt) was evaluated. Ethanol-potassium phosphate ATPS were selected based on their high top phase recovery yield and low cost of system constituents. The evaluation and optimization of system parameters rendered conditions (V(R)=3.2, ethanol 19.8% (w/w), potassium phosphate 16.5% (w/w), TLL of 25% (w/w), 0.1M NaCl and 2% (w/w) of sample load) under which more than 75% of total crocins were recovered in the top (ethanol rich) phase, whereas the wasted stigmas accumulated in the bottom phase. Lastly, a comparison between an optimized solid-liquid extraction using ethanol:water as solvent and ATPS was conducted demonstrating that similar yields are achieved with both strategies (76.89 ± 18% and 79.27 ± 1.6%, respectively). However, ATPS rendered a higher extraction selectivity of 1.3 ± 0.04 mg of crocins for each mg of phenolic compound, whereas ethanolic extraction showed a selectivity of 0.87 ± 0.01. The results reported herein demonstrate the potential application of ATPS, particularly ethanol-potassium phosphate systems, for the recovery of crocins from C. sativus stigmas.

  20. Role of GATA transcription factor ELT-2 and p38 MAPK PMK-1 in recovery from acute P. aeruginosa infection in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Head, Brian P; Olaitan, Abiola O; Aballay, Alejandro

    2016-08-11

    Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens reduce the fitness of their associated host but are generally limited in duration. In order for the diseased host to regain any lost fitness upon recovery, a variety of molecular, cellular, and physiological processes must be employed. To better understand mechanisms underlying the recovery process, we have modeled an acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in C. elegans using brief exposures to this pathogen and subsequent antibiotic treatment. To identify host genes altered during recovery from P. aeruginosa infection, we performed whole genome expression profiling. The analysis of this dataset indicated that the activity of the host immune system is down-regulated upon recovery and revealed shared and pathogen-specific host responses during recovery. We determined that the GATA transcription factor ELT-2 and the p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 are necessary for animals to successfully recover from an acute P. aeruginosa infection. In addition, we found that ELT-2 plays a more prominent and earlier role than PMK-1 during recovery. Our data sheds further light on the molecular mechanisms and transcriptional programs involved in recovery from an acute bacterial infection, which provides a better understanding of the entire infectious disease process.

  1. Catheter-Directed Therapy in Acute Pulmonary Embolism with Right Ventricular Dysfunction: A Promising Modality to Provide Early Hemodynamic Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Dilektasli, Asli Gorek; Cetinoglu, Ezgi Demirdogen; Acet, Nilufer Aylin; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Ursavas, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Guven; Coskun, Funda; Karadag, Mehmet; Ege, Ercument

    2016-01-01

    Background Catheter-directed therapy (CDT) for pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered as an alternative to systemic thrombolysis (ST) in patients with hemodynamically unstable acute PE who are considered at high bleeding risk for ST. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CDT in the management of acute PE with right ventricular dysfunction (RVD). The primary outcomes were mortality, clinical success, and complications. Secondary outcomes were change in hemodynamic parameters in the first 24 hours following the procedure. Material/Methods Medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed as having acute massive or submassive PE with accompanying RVD treated by immediate CDT at our institution from January 2007 to January 2014 were reviewed. Patient characteristics, mortality, achievement of clinical success, and minor and major bleeding complications were analyzed in the overall study group, as well as massive vs. submassive PE subgroups. Change in hemodynamic parameters in the second, eighth, and 24th hours after the CDT procedure were also analyzed. Results The study included 15 consecutive patients (M/F=10/5) with a mean age of 54.2±16.6 years who underwent immediate CDT. Nine of the patients had submassive PE, and 6 had massive PE. In-hospital mortality rate was 13.3% (95% CI, 0.04–0.38). One major, but not life-threatening, bleeding episode was evident in the whole group. Hemodynamic parameters were stabilized and clinical success was achieved in 14/15 (93.3%; 95% CI, 70.2–98.8) of the patients in the first 24 hours. Notably, the hemodynamic recovery was significantly evident in the first 8 hours after the procedure. Conclusions CDT is a promising treatment option for patients with acute PE with RVD with no fatal bleeding complication. In experienced centers, CDT should be considered as a first-line treatment for patients with acute PE and RVD and contraindications for ST, with the advantage of providing early hemodynamic recovery. PMID:27081754

  2. Phase I and Phase II Therapies for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Update on Currently Studied Drugs in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Cesar; Akyol, Onat; Ho, Wing Mann; Araujo, Camila; Huang, Lei; Applegate II, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a devastating cause of death and disability, consequences of which depend on the time from ischemia onset to treatment, the affected brain region, and its size. The main targets of ischemic stroke therapy aim to restore tissue perfusion in the ischemic penumbra in order to decrease the total infarct area by maintaining blood flow. Advances in research of pathological process and pathways during acute ischemia have resulted in improvement of new treatment strategies apart from restoring perfusion. Additionally, limiting the injury severity by manipulating the molecular mechanisms during ischemia has become a promising approach, especially in animal research. The purpose of this article is to review completed and ongoing phases I and II trials for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, reviewing studies on antithrombotic, thrombolytic, neuroprotective, and antineuroinflammatory drugs that may translate into more effective treatments. PMID:28286764

  3. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity recovery following acute methyl parathion intoxication in two feral rodent species: comparison to laboratory rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.K.; Silvey, N.J.; Bailey, E.M. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    Widespread use of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) has produced both acute and chronic intoxication among nontarget organisms. Most such studies have included fish and birds as opposed to mammals. However, numerous OP toxicity studies have been conducted on laboratory rodents creating a temptation to apply this data to feral rodents. Chronic OP exposure has been reported to produce cholinergic adaptation which in turn lowers mortality rates following a subsequent acute anticholinesterase exposure. The relevance that these laboratory rodent studies have on feral rodents is subject to debate. Field studies involving OP exposure among nontarget feral mammals have produced contradictory results. Increased mortality as a result of repeated OP application has been reported. This observation may be of considerable importance to nontarget feral rodent populations due to the repetitive nature of OP application protocols. The ability of feral rodents to recover brain AChE activity (BAA) between OP application intervals undoubtedly promotes their survival. This study investigated and compared BAA recovery following acute oral methyl parathion intoxication among 2 feral rodent species and among 2 common laboratory rodent species.

  4. Intensified fractionation of brewery yeast waste for the recovery of invertase using aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    De León-González, Grecia; González-Valdez, José; Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2016-11-01

    The potential recovery of high-value products from brewery yeast waste confers value to this industrial residue. Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) have demonstrated to be an attractive alternative for the primary recovery of biological products and are therefore suitable for the recovery of invertase from this residue. Sixteen different polyethylene glycol (PEG)-potassium phosphate ATPS were tested to evaluate the effects of PEG molecular weight (MW) and tie-line length (TLL) upon the partition behavior of invertase. Concentrations of crude extract from brewery yeast waste were then varied in the systems that presented the best behaviors to intensify the potential recovery of the enzyme. Results show that the use of a PEG MW 400 g mol(-1) system with a TLL of 45.0% (w/w) resulted in an invertase bottom phase recovery with a purification factor of 29.5 and a recovery yield of up to 66.2% after scaling the system to a total weight of 15.0 g. This represents 15.1 mg of invertase per mL of processed bottom phase. With these results, a single-stage ATPS process for the recovery of invertase is proposed.

  5. Carrier phase recovery performance for PN-spread TDRSS link with radio-frequency interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, T. M.; Braun, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    The carrier-phase recovery performance of a Costas loop for a nonlinear satellite channel with uplink and downlink noise is analyzed, and the extension of these results to the case where uplink radio-frequency interference (RFI) is present is considered. The signal format here is binary phase-shift-keyed (BPSK) or unbalanced quaternary phase-shift-keyed (UQPSK), the signals being either the non-return-to-zero (NRZ) or biphase (Manchester) type. With UQPSK, at least one data stream must be PN-spread. The channel comprises additive white Gaussian noise (WGN), a wideband filter, a bandpass nonlinearity and more additive WGN. The RFI being considered is pulsed continuous-wave, pulsed WGN, or a combination of the two. It is noted that the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) will be subjected to RFI from certain locations, especially in the S-band of frequencies. The characteristics of this link are generalized to form the assumptions underlying this analysis. The analytical results given include the S-curve of the equivalent loop and the phase-error variance of the linearized loop.

  6. Feed-forward carrier phase recovery for offset-QAM Nyquist WDM transmission.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haoyuan; Xiang, Meng; Fu, Songnian; Tang, Ming; Shum, Perry; Liu, Deming

    2015-03-09

    Due to the half symbol delay between in-phase and quadrature components for offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OQAM) signal, phase noise cannot only lead to constellation rotation but also introduce additional crosstalk. Therefore, OQAM signal has very poor tolerance to the laser linewidth. Here, we carry out a semi-analytical investigation of phase noise induced crosstalk during OQAM Nyquist WDM transmission, and find that the carrier phase recovery (CPR) has to be implemented prior to the inter-symbol-interference (ISI) equalization. Then, after a function separation of polarization de-multiplexing and ISI equalization, we propose a new DSP flow with a linewidth-tolerant blind feed-forward CPR scheme for OQAM signal. Its effectiveness is verified under the scenario of 5-channel 28-Gbaud polarization multiplexing (PM) OQAM Nyquist WDM systems. A tolerance of linewidth and symbol duration products of 6.5×10(-4) and 1.1×10(-4) is secured for 4-OQAM and 16-OQAM, respectively, given 1-dB required-OSNR penalty at BER = 10(-3).

  7. New phase and frequency detectors for carrier recovery in PSK and QAM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Hikmet; Moridi, Said

    1988-09-01

    Phase and frequency detectors (PFDs) are presented that considerably extend the acquisition range of carrier-recovery loops in digital communication systems. Based on a simple modification of conventional phase detectors (PDs), the proposed detectors are applicable to a large variety of modulation schemes, including the popular PSK and QAM signal formats. Their application to QPSK and 16- and 64-QAM is extensively discussed, and simulated frequency-detector (FD) characteristics, as well as acquisition behavior of several PFDs, are reported for QPSK and 16 QAM. The results of an experimental evaluation using a 16-QAM laboratory modem are also reported which show that the detectors increase the acquisition range achievable by conventional PDs by more than one order of magnitude. In PSK, the improved acquisition performance is obtained with no penalty in steady-state phase jitter. In combined amplitude- and phase-shift keying, it generally leads to increased jitter, but this is easily avoided by incorporating a lock indicator and switching back to the original PD after lock is acquired.

  8. Acute and chronic toxicity of buprofezin on Daphnia magna and the recovery evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Qi, Suzhen; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xuefeng; Qiu, Lihong; Wang, Chengju

    2012-11-01

    The toxic effects of buprofezin on Daphnia magna after both chronic and acute exposures were evaluated according to OECD guidelines. A 48-h acute exposure of buprofezin resulted in daphnid immobility at an EC(50) of 0.44 mg/L. In a 14 days chronic exposure of buprofezin (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mg/L), the development and reproduction of daphnids were all significantly affected and the body length was more sensitive than other observed parameters. However, the adverse effects of buprofezin on parental daphnids can be passed on to their offspring and cannot be recovered in a short time.

  9. MELCOR Simulation of the TMI-2 Severe Accident and Initial Recovery Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Haste, T.; Birchley, J.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.

    2006-07-01

    MELCOR has become the preferred code package within the Swiss nuclear community for severe accident analysis of nuclear power plants, on account of its integrated systems-level approach and validation against experiments and more detailed codes. The present work extends previous MELCOR analysis at PSI from when a site emergency was declared, 18000 s, through to 70000 s, a point where recovery actions were initiated that eventually proved sufficient to restore the reactor to a safe and stable state. It arises out of a programme to assess MELCOR independently using empirical data consistent with the recommendations of the OECD/CSNI validation matrix for core degradation codes. It is the first successful attempt to simulate the whole plant sequence through to the recovery phase. The calculations were performed with code version 1.8.5RD, starting with the model for phases 1 to 4 reported at ICAPP-05. This was extended with a representation of the fission product release and transport pathways, and of the containment, as well as for the extended time period analysed, the so-called phase 5. Reference was made to original sources to obtain the appropriate time-dependent boundary conditions. This paper compares the results of the calculations with observed and deduced data for major accident signatures such as primary system pressure, hot leg temperatures; liquid levels in the vessel and in the pressurizer, and fission product release. The results show that the code can give a credible account of the accident, when reasonable assumptions are made regarding the input where uncertainties exist. The analysis therefore supports the use of the MELCOR-based strategy for severe accident plant transient analysis in Switzerland. Finally, observations are made regarding recent improvements in the code, on which further assessment will concentrate. (authors)

  10. [The clinico-neurophysiological study of the effect of cerebrolysin on brain function in the acute and early recovery periods of hemispheric ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Burd, G S; Gekht, A B; Skvortsova, V I; Bogomolova, M A; Selikhova, M V; Fidler, S M

    1994-01-01

    Thirty patients with acute ischemic stroke and at early terms of postapoplectic recovery received cerebrolysin in daily doses 10, 20 and 30 ml for 5 days or 10 ml, i. v. for 10 days, respectively. The patients were examined for neurological status and cerebral function. In acute stroke the highest effect occurred in the affection of moderate severity. In severe stroke the drug stimulated recovery of impaired functions which tended to restore more quickly than in control subjects. In early convalescents cerebrolysin improved motor functions. Details of the results of the combined neurophysiological examination in the course of the treatment are discussed.

  11. GTI-2040 in Treating Patients With Relapsed, Refractory, or High-Risk Acute Leukemia, High-Grade Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Refractory or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-03

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  12. The electrophysiological examination in acute optic neuritis and during their recovery.

    PubMed

    Salu, P; Daniel, Y

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the electrophysiological methods will be given. We use this method to diagnose an optic neuritis and to evaluate it during its acute stage as well as during its recuperation. The importance of the contrast as stimulation parameter of the pattern VEP will be described, and its clinical relevance will be illustrated by a few clinical cases.

  13. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  14. Effects of various acute hypoxic conditions on the hemorheological response during exercise and recovery1.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hwang-Woon; Shin, Se-Hyun; Lee, Chul-Hyun; Park, Hun-Young; Sunoo, Sub; Nam, Sang-Seok

    2016-10-05

    Even though exercise hemorheology at hypoxic condition has been considered as a good tool to understand clinical hemorheology, there have been limited studies reported. Previous researches showed that hemorheological variables are closely correlated with oxygen delivery capacity during exercise. The present study investigated hypoxic responses including RBC deformability and aggregation, metabolic parameters and complete blood cell counts at various hypoxic conditions during cycling exercise and recovery. Eleven Korean healthy male subjects performed submaximal bike exercise at sea level (20.9% O2) and under various hypoxic conditions (16.5% O2, 14.5% O2, 12.8% O2, and 11.2% O2) in a random order. The submaximal bike exercise intensity of the subjects was 70% maximum heart rate at sea level. All variables were measured at rest, during exercise and recovery 30-minute, respectively. As oxygen partial pressure decreased, arterial blood oxygen saturation decreased but oxygen uptake did not change much. Heart rate and lactate concentration during exercise increased when oxygen partial pressure is less than or equal to 14.5% O2 condition. Red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin counts, and hematocrit level were not apparently altered with hypoxic conditions. RBC deformability showed significant alterations at 11.2% O2 conditions compared with other hypoxic conditions during exercise or recovery, except at 10 minutes recovery. However, decreases in oxygen partial pressure did not affect red blood cell aggregation. Therefore, we conclude that alterations in RBC deformability may reduce aerobic capabilities at hypoxic condition.

  15. Roles of STAT3 in Protein Secretion Pathways during the Acute-Phase Response

    PubMed Central

    Ahyi, Ayele-Nati N.; Quinton, Lee J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Ferrari, Joseph D.; Pepper-Cunningham, Zachary A.; Mella, Juan R.; Remick, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    The acute-phase response is characteristic of perhaps all infections, including bacterial pneumonia. In conjunction with the acute-phase response, additional biological pathways are induced in the liver and are dependent on the transcription factors STAT3 and NF-κB, but these responses are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that pneumococcal pneumonia and other severe infections increase expression of multiple components of the cellular secretory machinery in the mouse liver, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocon complex, which mediates protein translation into the ER, and the coat protein complexes (COPI and COPII), which mediate vesicular transport of proteins to and from the ER. Hepatocyte-specific mutation of STAT3 prevented the induction of these secretory pathways during pneumonia, with similar results observed following pharmacological activation of ER stress by using tunicamycin. These findings implicate STAT3 in the unfolded protein response and suggest that STAT3-dependent optimization of secretion may apply broadly. Pneumonia also stimulated the binding of phosphorylated STAT3 to promoter regions of secretion-related genes in the liver, supporting a direct role for STAT3 in their transcription. Altogether, these results identify a novel function of STAT3 during the acute-phase response, namely, the induction of secretory machinery in hepatocytes. This may facilitate the processing and delivery of newly synthesized loads of acute-phase proteins, enhancing innate immunity and preventing liver injury during infection. PMID:23460517

  16. Feasibility and safety of acute phase rehabilitation after stroke using the hybrid assistive limb robot suit.

    PubMed

    Ueba, Tetsuya; Hamada, Omi; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Inoue, Tooru; Shiota, Etsuji; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Acute phase rehabilitation is an important treatment for improving the functional outcome of patients after stroke. The present cohort study analyzed the feasibility and safety of acute phase rehabilitation using the hybrid assistive limb robot suit in 22 patients, 7 males and 15 females (mean age 66.6 ± 17.7 years). Neurological deterioration, mortality, or other accidents were recorded as adverse events. Baseline characteristics of each patient were recorded at the first hybrid assistive limb rehabilitation. Hybrid assistive limb rehabilitation was conducted for 12.1 ± 7.0 days with the patients in stable condition. Acute phase hybrid assistive limb rehabilitation was performed a total of 84 times with no adverse events recorded except for orthostatic hypotension. Good functional outcomes were obtained in 14 patients. Orthostatic hypotension was observed during the first hybrid assistive limb rehabilitation in four patients, and was significantly associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (p = 0.007) and lower Brunnstrom stage (p = 0.033). Acute phase rehabilitation using the hybrid assistive limb suit is feasible and safe. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and lower Brunnstrom stage should be carefully monitored for orthostatic hypotension.

  17. Natural variations in the stress and acute phase responses of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The initial response of the innate immune system upon activation has been defined as the acute phase response (APR). Activation of the APR results in several responses that include fever, metabolic adaptations, and changes in behavior. The APR can be modulated by many factors, with stress being th...

  18. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  19. Changes in the Neuropsychological Correlates of Clinical Dimensions between the Acute and Stable Phase of Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillem, F.; Ganeva, E.; Pampoulova, T.; Stip, E.; Lalonde, P.; Sasseville, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the neuropsychological correlates of the symptom dimensions of schizophrenia vary with the clinical state in patients followed from the acute to stable the phase of the illness. Fifteen patients were assessed for symptoms (SAPS-SANS) and undergone a complete neuropsychological assessment at two…

  20. In Utero Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Alters the Postnatal Acute Phase Response in Beef Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the potential effect of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on the postnatal acute phase response (APR) to an LPS challenge in heifers. Pregnant crossbred cows (n = 50) were separated into prenatal immune stimulation (PIS; n = 25; administered 0.1 microgr...

  1. C-reactive protein and the acute phase reaction in geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Thomas; Triebel, Jakob; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Christ, Michael; Sieber, Cornel; Fassbender, Klaus; Heppner, Hans Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    The C-reactive protein (CRP), first described as a serum component capable of precipitating the C-polysaccharide of pneumococci, is one of the most important proteins because the serum concentration rises in the acute phase reaction. The acute phase reaction is the nonspecific reaction of the body to noxious stimuli of the most varied kinds, such as infections, burns, neoplasms and tissue trauma. The CRP is synthesized in liver parenchymal cells by cytokines which are derived from stimulated leucocytes and released into the circulation. Because of its molecular structure and in synergy with the complement system, it is able to precipitate and/or lyse microorganisms, thereby rendering them harmless. Measurement of the serum CRP concentration can provide important information with respect to the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Due to immunosenescence in geriatric patients the synthesis of CRP appears to be limited to inflammatory stimuli; however, this phenomenon does not appear to be of major clinical relevance. Despite the introduction of new parameters of the acute phase reaction, sometimes with better performance, such as interleukin-6, procalcitonin and the soluble endotoxin receptor sCD14, measurement of CRP for diagnosis and treatment monitoring is still justified even in geriatric patients as testing is rapid, economic and nearly ubiquitously available round the clock. Biochemical markers of the acute phase reaction should always be interpreted together with the clinical picture and their specific limitations.

  2. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  3. The diagnostic accuracy of acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis

    PubMed Central

    Elmoslemany, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Blood samples were collected from 56 sheep (36 naturally infected with Pasteurella multocida and 20 healthy controls) belonging to one farm in Eastern region, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples were evaluated for acute phase proteins (Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen (Fb)), and the proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (IFN-ϒ)). Additionally, nasopharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavages were collected from all animals for bacteriological examinations. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of each parameter. All parameters showed moderate to high degree of positive correlation with case-control status. There was no significant difference in the area under the curve (AUC) among acute phase proteins; however, both Hp and SAA showed better sensitivity and specificity than Fb. The proinflammatory cytokines (IL1-α, IL1-β, and IL6) showed similar and highly accurate diagnostic performance (AUC > 0.9), whereas IFN-ϒ was moderately accurate (AUC = 0.79). In conclusion, this study confirms the value of acute phase proteins and cytokines as diagnostic biomarkers of naturally occuring pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep. PMID:27547520

  4. Monitoring the acute phase response to vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, J; Stone, P C; Akinola, N O; Gallimore, J R; Pepys, M B

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To identify suitable acute phase proteins as objective markers of tissue ischaemia during painful vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell disease. METHODS--The prodromal and established phases of 14 vaso-occlusive crises were studied longitudinally in 10 patients with sickle cell anaemia. Automated solid phase enzyme immunoassays were used to measure the fast responding acute phase proteins C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein. Slower responding glycoproteins (fibrinogen, orosomucoid, sialic acid and concanavalin-A binding) were measured in parallel. RESULTS--C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein increased early in crisis, sometimes within the early (prodromal) phase. Crises that resolved within 24 hours in hospital showed a minor and transient rise compared with crises that required treatment for four days or more. In eight crises treated by patients at home the acute phase response ranged from minor to a level consistent with extensive tissue ischaemia. CONCLUSIONS--Sensitive enzyme immunoassays for C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein are of potential value for monitoring the onset of tissue ischaemia in sickle cell crisis and for confirming subsequent resolution. PMID:7510726

  5. Efficacy and Biological Correlates of Response in a Phase II Study of Venetoclax Monotherapy in Patients with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Konopleva, Marina; Pollyea, Daniel A; Potluri, Jalaja; Chyla, Brenda; Hogdal, Leah; Busman, Todd; McKeegan, Evelyn; Salem, Ahmed Hamed; Zhu, Ming; Ricker, Justin L; Blum, William; DiNardo, Courtney D; Kadia, Tapan; Dunbar, Martin; Kirby, Rachel; Falotico, Nancy; Leverson, Joel; Humerickhouse, Rod; Mabry, Mack; Stone, Richard; Kantarjian, Hagop; Letai, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    We present a phase II, single-arm study evaluating 800 mg daily venetoclax, a highly selective, oral small-molecule B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL2) inhibitor in patients with high-risk relapsed/refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or unfit for intensive chemotherapy. Responses were evaluated following revised International Working Group (IWG) criteria. The overall response rate was 19%; an additional 19% of patients demonstrated antileukemic activity not meeting IWG criteria (partial bone marrow response and incomplete hematologic recovery). Twelve (38%) patients had isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutations, of whom 4 (33%) achieved complete response or complete response with incomplete blood count recovery. Six (19%) patients had BCL2-sensitive protein index at screening, which correlated with time on study. BH3 profiling was consistent with on-target BCL2 inhibition and identified potential resistance mechanisms. Common adverse events included nausea, diarrhea and vomiting (all grades), and febrile neutropenia and hypokalemia (grade 3/4). Venetoclax demonstrated activity and acceptable tolerability in patients with AML and adverse features.

  6. Phase I-II study of high-dose busulfan and cyclophosphamide followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies: toxicities and hematopoietic recovery.

    PubMed

    Ballester, O F; Agaliotis, D P; Hiemenz, J W; Janssen, W E; Fields, K K; Zorksy, P E; Goldstein, S C; Perkins, J B; Elfenbein, G J

    1996-07-01

    In a phase I-II study, we evaluated toxicities, tolerability, pace of engraftment, and tumor responses to high-dose bulsulfan and cyclophosphamide followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with hematological malignancies. We treated 51 patients with various hematological malignancies involving the bone marrow with busulfan (16 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) followed by reinfusion of autologous peripheral blood stem cells. Stem cells were previously collected during hematopoietic recovery after cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg) and etoposide (600 mg/m2) followed by G-CSF (5 micrograms/kg/day). Neutrophil recovery (>0.5 x 10(9)/I) was rapid in the majority of patients (median 10 days after transplant, range 7-91 days), resulting in a low number of days with severe neutropenia (median 7 days, range 5-85 days) and with fever (median 5 days, range 1-13 days). Platelet recovery, however, was delayed in 60% of patients. There was one acute transplant-related death (2%). Four patients died of late, presumed infections, pulmonary complications (interstitial pneumonia). Tumor responses were documented in a significant proportion of these patients with high-risk hematological malignancies. We conclude that peripheral blood stem cell transplantation results in rapid recovery of neutrophils but variable recovery of platelets after high-dose busulfan and cyclophosphamide, when stem cells are harvested following priming with cyclophosphamide/etoposide and G-CSF. The regimen is well-tolerated with limited non-hematological toxicities and transplant-related mortality. While significant tumor responses were documented in this trial, the ultimate efficacy of the regimen needs to be further defined.

  7. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  8. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-03-29

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress.

  9. Nilotinib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-29

    B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  10. Adsorption and recovery issues of recombinant monoclonal antibodies in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain; Wagner, Elsa; Vuignier, Karine; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-01-01

    The poor recovery of large biomolecules is a well-known issue in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Several papers have reported this problem, but the reasons behind this behavior are not yet fully understood. In the present study, state-of-the-art reversed-phase wide-pore stationary phases were used to evaluate the adsorption of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. These biomolecules possess molar mass of approximately 150,000 g/mol and isoelectric points between 6.6 and 9.3. Two types of stationary phases were tested, the Phenomenex Aeris Widepore (silica based), with 3.6 μm superficially porous particles, and the Waters Acquity BEH300 (ethylene-bridged hybrid), with 1.7 μm fully porous particles. A systematic investigation was carried out using 11 immunoglobulin G1, G2, and G4 antibodies, namely, panitumumab, natalizumab, cetuximab, bevacizumab, trastuzumab, rituximab, palivizumab, belimumab, adalimumab, denosumab, and ofatumumab. All are approved by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency in various therapeutic indications and are considered as reference antibodies. Several test proteins, such as human serum albumin, transferrin, apoferritin, ovalbumin, and others, possessing a molar mass between 42,000 and 443,000 g/mol were also evaluated to draw reliable conclusions. The purpose of this study was to find a correlation between the adsorption of monoclonal antibodies and their physicochemical properties. Therefore, the impact of isoelectric point, molar mass, protein glycosylation, and hydrophobicity was investigated. The adsorption of intact antibodies on the stationary phase was significantly higher than that of proteins of similar size, isoelectric point, or hydrophobicity. The present study also demonstrates the unique behavior of monoclonal antibodies, contributing some unwanted and unpredictable strong secondary interactions.

  11. Phase Transition for the Large-Dimensional Contact Process with Random Recovery Rates on Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaofeng

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the contact process with random recovery rates on open clusters of bond percolation on Z^d. Let ξ be a random variable such that P(ξ ≥ 1)=1, which ensures E1/ξ <+∞, then we assign i. i. d. copies of ξ on the vertices as the random recovery rates. Assuming that each edge is open with probability p and the infection can only spread through the open edges, then we obtain that limsup _{d→ +∞}λ _d≤ λ _c=1/pE{1}/{ξ}, where λ _d is the critical value of the process on Z^d, i.e., the maximum of the infection rates with which the infection dies out with probability one when only the origin is infected at t=0. To prove the above main result, we show that the following phase transition occurs. Assuming that lceil log drceil vertices are infected at t=0, where these vertices can be located anywhere, then when the infection rate λ >λ _c, the process survives with high probability as d→ +∞ while when λ <λ _c, the process dies out at time O(log d) with high probability.

  12. Inhibitory and Excitatory Motor Cortex Dysfunction Persists in the Chronic Post-Stroke Recovery Phase

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, M.P.; Vaughn, H.N.; Greene, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Establish differences in intracortical facilitation (ICF) and inhibition (ICI) between survivors of stroke and healthy individuals. Methods Fourteen chronic stroke survivors and 19 healthy subjects were investigated using single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS was applied over the motor cortex in thelesioned (stroke survivors) or left (healthy subjects) hemisphere. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were collected from the contra lateral first dorsal interosseus. Subjects received 40 pseudo-randomized trials consisting of 10 trials for each: conditioning stimulus, test stimulus (TS), ICF, and ICI. Between the groups, we compared MEP amplitudes for TS, ICF, and ICI, motor threshold (MT), and ICF/ICI ratio. Results Compared to healthy individuals, the stroke group exhibited higher MT and lower ICI; the difference ICF neared significance. The ICF/ICI ratio was significantly lower in the stroke group and close to 1, indicating little difference between ICF and ICI responses. These differences demonstrate that motor cortex excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms are impaired for individuals in the chronic post-stroke recovery phase. Conclusions Compared to healthy individuals, both global and intracortical TMS measures reveal reduced motor cortex excitability in survivors of stroke. Interventions that normalize motor cortex excitability may promote better neurophysiological conditions for motor recovery to occur. PMID:25350636

  13. Recovery of bromine from waste gas-phase hydrogen bromide streams using an electrolytic membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Wauters, C.N; Winnick, J.

    1996-09-01

    An electrochemical cell is used to demonstrate a significant improvement in the recovery of bromine (Br{sub 2}) from waste gas-phase hydrogen bromide (HBr) streams. The continuous process operates at 300 C and utilizes reticulated vitreous carbon gas-diffusion electrodes, a molten (Li{sub 0.575}K{sub 0.133}Cs{sub 0.292})Br electrolyte, and borosilicate glass fiber membrane. HBr is simultaneously electrolytically decomposed and separated into a hydrogen enriched waste stream and pure anhydrous Br{sub 2} product stream. Simulated industrial waste streams containing HBr, nitrogen, water vapor, and organic compounds have been tested. These results include removals of greater than 90% and current densities approaching 1.0 A/cm{sup 2}.

  14. Flow in porous media, phase and ultralow interfacial tensions: Mechanisms of enhanced petroleum recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.

    1991-07-01

    A major program of university research, longer-ranged and more fundamental in approach than industrial research, into basic mechanisms of enhancing petroleum recovery and into underlying physics, chemistry, geology, applied mathematics, computation, and engineering science has been built at Minnesota. The original focus was surfactant-based chemical flooding, but the approach taken was sufficiently fundamental that the research, longer-ranged than industrial efforts, has become quite multidirectional. Topics discussed are volume controlled porosimetry; fluid distribution and transport in porous media at low wetting phase saturation; molecular dynamics of fluids in ultranarrow pores; molecular dynamics and molecular theory of wetting and adsorption; new numerical methods to handle initial and boundary conditions in immiscible displacement; electron microscopy of surfactant fluid microstructure; low cost system for animating liquid crystallites viewed with polarized light; surfaces of constant mean curvature with prescribed contact angle.

  15. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission: Status at the Initiation of the Science Mapping Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Asmar, Sami W.; Alomon; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips. Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watkins, Michael M.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Williams, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, a component of NASA's Discovery Program, launched successfully from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 10, 2011. The dual spacecraft traversed independent, low-energy trajectories to the Moon via the EL-1 Lagrange point and inserted into elliptical, 11.5-hour polar orbits around the Moon on December 31, 2011, and January 1, 2012. The spacecraft are currently executing a series of maneuvers to circularize their orbits at 55-km mean altitude. Once the mapping orbit is achieved, the spacecraft will undergo additional maneuvers to align them into mapping configuration. The mission is on track to initiate the Science Phase on March 8, 2012.

  16. Does the duration of the magnetic storm recovery phase depend on the development rate in its main phase? 2. A new method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolaev, Yu. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Nikolaeva, N. S.; Yermolaev, M. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to our previous work (Yermolaev et al., 2015), in which we used the magnetic storm recovery phase duration, the exponential time of the recovery phase of magnetic storms generated by three interplanetary driver types (CIR, Sheath, and ICME) is introduced in the present work. The dependence of these times on the storm development rate | Dst min|/Δ T (where Δ T is the storm main phase duration) is studied. A similar physical result has been achieved despite the different data analysis method used: the times of the storm recovery and development rates correlate for storms induced by CIR and Sheath compression regions, and any relation between these parameters is absent for storms induced by ICME.

  17. The acute effects of flotation restricted environmental stimulation technique on recovery from maximal eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul M; Salacinski, Amanda J; Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A

    2013-12-01

    Flotation restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) involves compromising senses of sound, sight, and touch by creating a quiet dark environment. The individual lies supine in a tank of Epsom salt and water heated to roughly skin temperature (34-35° C). This study was performed to determine if a 1-hour flotation REST session would aid in the recovery process after maximal eccentric knee extensions and flexions. Twenty-four untrained male students (23.29 ± 2.1 years, 184.17 ± 6.85 cm, 85.16 ± 11.54 kg) participated in a randomized, repeated measures crossover study. The participants completed 2 exercise and recovery protocols: a 1-hour flotation REST session and a 1-hour seated control (passive recovery). After isometric muscle strength testing, participants were fatigued with eccentric isokinetic muscle contractions (50 repetitions at 60°·s) of the nondominant knee extensors and flexors. Blood lactate, blood glucose, heart rate, OMNI-rating of perceived exertion for resistance exercise (OMNI-RPE), perceived pain, muscle soreness, and isometric strength were collected before exercise, after treatment, and 24 and 48 hours later. A multivariate analysis of covariance found that treatment had a significant main effect on blood lactate, whereas subsequent univariate analyses of variance found statistical significance with the immediate posttreatment blood lactate measures. The results indicate that flotation REST appears to have a significant impact on blood lactate and perceived pain compared with a 1-hour passive recovery session in untrained healthy men. No difference was found between conditions for muscle strength, blood glucose, muscle soreness, heart rate, or OMNI-RPE. Flotation REST may be used for recreational and professional athletes to help reduce blood lactate levels after eccentric exercise.

  18. Effect of active recovery on acute strength deficits induced by passive stretching.

    PubMed

    Viale, Fabrice; Nana-Ibrahim, Salim; Martin, Ronan Jean François

    2007-11-01

    We herein examined whether immediate muscular activity (active recovery) after stretching decreased stretch-induced strength deficits in human muscles. Our within-subject study included 8 subjects who were used as their own controls. For each subject, both legs were subjected to the same warm-up and stretching treatments, and then one leg was exposed to active recovery (experimental treatment) while the other was allowed to recover passively (control). Unilateral maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extensors was measured at baseline, poststretching, and postrecovery to monitor strength evolution. Our results revealed that the MVC strength at the baseline time point for control (590.8 +/- 104.2) and treated (602.2 +/- 112.7) legs decreased poststretching by 8.0 and 8.9%, respectively, and further decreased postrecovery by 1.3 and 1.2%, respectively. Maximal voluntary contraction strength tests demonstrated very good reliability, having intraclass coefficients of correlation ranging from 0.92-0.98. Mixed analysis of variance showed that the stretching program yielded significantly increased flexibility (p < 0.01) and significantly decreased MVC (p < 0.001) in both legs. The over-time variability between legs was marginal (1%), and no significant between-leg differences were observed. Indeed, the improvement in strength restoration due to active vs. passive recovery was -0.5 +/- 15 N, which was significantly lower (p < 0.01; 1-tailed t-test) than the amount of strength inhibition (32.6 N), estimated as 60% of the overall strength deficit (54.3 +/- 29.7 N). These results confirm that significant strength is lost poststretching but fail to show greater improvement in strength following active vs. passive recovery. Collectively, the present findings indicate that, contrary to the belief of many coaches, muscular exercises during the poststretching period are unlikely to minimize stretch-induced strength deficits.

  19. Influence of optical pumping wavelength on the ultrafast gain and phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2013-10-01

    We numerically investigate the influence of the optical pumping wavelength on the ultrafast gain and phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) by solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The temporal variations of the gain and phase recovery response at the ground state (GS) of QDs are calculated at various signal wavelengths when the optical pumping wavelengths at the excited state (ES) of QDs are varied. The phase recovery response is fastest when the wavelength of the signal and pumping beams corresponds to the respective emission wavelength of the GS and the ES in the same size of QDs. The absorption efficiency of the optical pumping beam at the ES is determined by the Lorentzian line shape function of the homogeneous broadening.

  20. Protective effect of resveratrol in endotoxemia-induced acute phase response in rats.

    PubMed

    Sebai, Hichem; Ben-Attia, Mossadok; Sani, Mamane; Aouani, Ezzedine; Ghanem-Boughanmi, Néziha

    2009-04-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria can elicit a systemic inflammatory process leading to septic shock and death. Acute phase response is characterized by fever, leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia, altered metabolic responses and redox balance by inducing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4' trihydroxystilbene) is a natural polyphenol exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the protective effect of resveratrol on endotoxemia-induced acute phase response in rats. When acutely administered by i.p. route, resveratrol (40 mg/kg b.w.) counteracted the effect of a single injection of LPS (4 mg/kg b.w.) which induced fever, a decrease in white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT) counts. When i.p. administered during 7 days at 20 mg/kg per day (subacute treatment), resveratrol abrogated LPS-induced erythrocytes lipoperoxidation and catalase (CAT) activity depression to control levels. In the plasma compartment, LPS increased malondialdehyde (MDA) via nitric monoxide (NO) elevation and decreased iron level. All these deleterious LPS effects were reversed by a subacute resveratrol pre-treatment via a NO independent way. Resveratrol exhibited potent protective effect on LPS-induced acute phase response in rats.

  1. ACUTE ETHANOL DISRUPTS PHOTIC AND SEROTONERGIC CIRCADIAN CLOCK PHASE-RESETTING IN THE MOUSE

    PubMed Central

    Brager, Allison J.; Ruby, Christina L.; Prosser, Rebecca A.; Glass, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol abuse is associated with impaired circadian rhythms and sleep. Ethanol administration disrupts circadian clock phase-resetting, suggesting a mode for the disruptive effect of alcohol abuse on the circadian timing system. In this study, we extend previous work in C57BL/6J mice to: 1) characterize the SCN pharmacokinetics of acute systemic ethanol administration; 2) explore the effects of acute ethanol on photic and non-photic phase-resetting; and 2) determine if the SCN is a direct target for photic effects. Methods First, microdialysis was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of acute i.p. injections of 3 doses of ethanol (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg) in the mouse suprachiasmatic (SCN) circadian clock. Second, the effects of acute i.p. ethanol administration on photic phase-delays and serotonergic ([+]8-OH-DPAT-induced) phase-advances of the circadian activity rhythm were assessed. Third, the effects of reverse-microdialysis ethanol perfusion of the SCN on photic phase-resetting were characterized. Results Peak ethanol levels from the 3 doses of ethanol in the SCN occurred within 20–40 min post-injection with half-lives for clearance ranging from 0.6–1.8 hr. Systemic ethanol treatment dose-dependently attenuated photic and serotonergic phase-resetting. This treatment also did not affect basal SCN neuronal activity as assessed by Fos expression. Intra-SCN perfusion with ethanol markedly reduced photic phase-delays. Conclusions These results confirm that acute ethanol attenuates photic phase-delay shifts and serotonergic phase-advance shifts in the mouse. This dual effect could disrupt photic and non-photic entrainment mechanisms governing circadian clock timing. It is also significant that the SCN clock is a direct target for disruptive effects of ethanol on photic shifting. Such actions by ethanol could underlie the disruptive effects of alcohol abuse on behavioral, physiological, and endocrine rhythms associated with alcoholism. PMID:21463340

  2. Major ozonated autohemotherapy promotes the recovery of upper limb motor function in patients with acute cerebral infarction★

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaona; Li, Zhensheng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Peng, Haiyan; Huang, Yongjun; Luo, Gaoquan; Peng, Kairun

    2013-01-01

    Major ozonated autohemotherapy is classically used in treating ischemic disorder of the lower limbs. In the present study, we performed major ozonated autohemotherapy treatment in patients with acute cerebral infarction, and assessed outcomes according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health Stroke Score, Modified Rankin Scale, and transcranial magnetic stimulation motor-evoked potential. Compared with the control group, the clinical total effective rate and the cortical potential rise rate of the upper limbs were significantly higher, the central motor conduction time of upper limb was significantly shorter, and the upper limb motor-evoked potential amplitude was significantly increased, in the ozone group. In the ozone group, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Score was positively correlated with the central motor conduction time and the motor-evoked potential amplitude of the upper limb. Central motor conduction time and motor-evoked potential amplitude of the upper limb may be effective indicators of motor-evoked potentials to assess upper limb motor function in cerebral infarct patients. Furthermore, major ozonated autohemotherapy may promote motor function recovery of the upper limb in patients with acute cerebral infarction. PMID:25206688

  3. Problems with diagnosis by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Masami; Hoshikawa, Kaori; Shiramizu, Hideki; Oda, Shinri; Matsumae, Mitsunori

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic efficacy of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) for acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were compared and the problems with diagnosis were investigated in 81 patients with aneurysmal SAH within 24 hours after onset who underwent FLAIR imaging and CT on admission. The number of hematomas in the cisterns and ventricles were evaluated by clot scores. In addition, the frequency of undetected hematomas was calculated for the cisterns and ventricles. Clot scores were significantly higher for FLAIR imaging than for CT in the lateral sylvian, quadrigeminal, and convexity cisterns. On the other hand, clot scores were significantly higher for CT than for FLAIR imaging in the interhemispheric and medial sylvian cisterns. The overall frequency of undetected SAH was 2% for FLAIR imaging and 14% for CT. With the exception of the interhemispheric and medial sylvian cisterns, the frequency of undetected SAH was higher for CT than for FLAIR imaging. In this study, FLAIR imaging was more sensitive than CT for the detection of acute SAH within 24 hours after onset. However, the diagnostic efficacy of FLAIR imaging was reduced in comparatively tight cisterns.

  4. Mixing in three-phase systems: Implications for enhanced oil recovery and unconventional gas extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Porter, M. L.; Hyman, J.; Carey, J. W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although the mixing of fluids within a porous media is a common process in natural and industrial systems, how the degree of mixing depends on the miscibility of multiple phases is poorly characterized. Often, the direct consequence of miscible mixing is the modification of the resident fluid (brine and hydrocarbons) rheological properties. We investigate supercritical (sc)CO2 displacement and mixing processes in a three-phase system (scCO2, oil, and H2O) using a microfluidics experimental system that accommodates the high pressures and temperatures encountered in fossil fuel extraction operations. The miscibility of scCO2 with the resident fluids, low with aqueous solutions and high with hydrocarbons, impacts the mixing processes that control sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the unlocking of the system in unconventional oil and gas extraction. Using standard volume-averaging techniques we upscale the aqueous phase saturation to the field-scale (i.e., Darcy scale) and interpret the results as a simpler two-phase system. This process allows us to perform a statistical analysis to quantify i) the degree of heterogeneity in the system resulting from the immiscible H2O and ii) how that heterogeneity impacts mixing between scCO2 and oil and their displacement. Our results show that when scCO2 is used for miscible displacement, the presence of an aqueous solution, which is common in secondary and tertiary EOR and unconventional oil and gas extraction, strongly impacts the mixing of scCO2 with the hydrocarbons due to low scCO2-H2O miscibility. H2O, which must be displaced advectively by the injected scCO2, introduces spatio-temporal variability into the system that acts as a barrier between the two miscibile fluids. This coupled with the effect of viscosity contrast, i.e., viscous fingering, has an impact on the mixing of the more miscible pair.

  5. Recovery of image distorted by turbulent atmosphere using phase-conjugate image generated by difference frequency generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Xingquan; Hong, Pengda; Ding, Yujie J.

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate dynamic recovery of blurred images caused by atmospheric turbulence. In particular, using a phase-conjugate wave generated by a second-order nonlinear crystal or composite, we restore the original quality of the image after the optical radiation forming the image propagates through the turbulent atmosphere. One of the key elements for our experiment is a rotating phase plate being placed in the beam path for simulating turbulent atmosphere. Using the nonlinear composite, we demonstrate that the image recovery is insensitive to the polarization of the optical radiation forming the image.

  6. Endocrine, metabolic, and behavioral effects of and recovery from acute stress in a free-ranging bird.

    PubMed

    Deviche, Pierre; Bittner, Stephanie; Davies, Scott; Valle, Shelley; Gao, Sisi; Carpentier, Elodie

    2016-08-01

    Acute stress in vertebrates generally stimulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often associated with multiple metabolic changes, such as increased gluconeogenesis, and with behavioral alterations. Little information is available, especially in free-ranging organisms, on the duration of these reversible effects once animals are no longer exposed to the stressor. To investigate this question, we exposed free-ranging adult male Rufous-winged Sparrows, Peucaea carpalis, in breeding condition to a standard protocol consisting of a social challenge (conspecific song playback) followed with capture and restraint for 30min, after which birds were released on site. Capture and restraint increased plasma corticosterone (CORT) and decreased plasma testosterone (T), glucose (GLU), and uric acid (UA). In birds that we recaptured the next day after exposure to conspecific song playback, plasma CORT and UA levels no longer differed from levels immediately after capture the preceding day. However, plasma T was similar to that measured after stress exposure the preceding day, and plasma GLU was markedly elevated. Thus, exposure to social challenge and acute stress resulted in persistent (⩾24h) parameter-specific effects. In recaptured sparrows, the territorial aggressive response to conspecific song playback, as measured by song rate and the number of flights over the song-broadcasting speakers, did not, however, differ between the first capture and the recapture, suggesting no proximate functional association between plasma T and conspecific territorial aggression. The study is the first in free-ranging birds to report the endocrine, metabolic, and behavioral recovery from the effects of combined social challenge and acute stress.

  7. Effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the gain and the phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2014-02-01

    The effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the ultrafast gain and the phase recovery dynamics of electrically-driven quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers is numerically investigated by solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The ultrafast gain and the phase recovery responses are calculated with respect to the additional optical pumping power. Increasing the additional optical pumping power can significantly accelerate the ultrafast phase recovery, which cannot be done by increasing the injection current density.

  8. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Qerama, Erisela; Kasch, Helge; Bach, Flemming W; Korsholm, Lars; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-05-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury predicted long-term sequelae. Participants with acute whiplash-associated symptoms after a motor vehicle accident were recruited from emergency units and general practitioners. The predictor variable was the sum score of the impact of event scale (IES) completed within 10 days after the accident. The main outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress response was obtained by 13% of the participants. This was associated with increased risk of considerable persistent pain (OR=3.3; 1.8-5.9), neck disability (OR=3.2; 1.7-6.0), reduced working ability (OR=2.8; 1.6-4.9), and lowered self-reported general health one year after the accident. These associations were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may be important to consider in the early management of whiplash injury. However, the emotional response did not predict chronicity in individuals.

  9. Does adherence to treatment mediate the relationship between patients' treatment outcome expectancies and the outcomes of pain intensity and recovery from acute low back pain?

    PubMed

    Haanstra, Tsjitske M; Kamper, Steven J; Williams, Christopher M; Spriensma, Alette S; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G; de Vet, Henrica C W; Ostelo, Raymond W J G

    2015-08-01

    It is believed that patients' expectancies about the effectiveness of treatment influence their treatment outcomes, but the working mechanism is rarely studied in patients with low back pain. Theoretical models suggest that adherence to treatment may be an important pathway. The aim of this study was to assess the mediating role of adherence to treatment in the relationship between expectancies and the outcomes of recovery and pain intensity in patients with acute low back pain. This study used data from a randomized placebo-controlled trial of paracetamol for acute low back pain. Expectancies were measured with the Credibility Expectancy Questionnaire. Adherence was measured with a medication diary. Pain intensity was recorded daily in a diary on a 0 to 10 pain scale, and recovery was defined as the first of 7 consecutive days scoring 0 or 1 on a 6-point pain scale. Cox regression (dependent variable: recovery) and linear mixed-model analyses (dependent variable: daily pain intensity scores) were performed. The "difference in coefficients" approach was used to establish mediation. A total of 1573 participants were included in current analyses. There was a small but highly significant relationship between expectancies and outcomes; 3.3% of the relationship between expectancies and recovery and 14.2% of the relationship between expectancies and pain intensity were mediated by adherence to treatment. This study does not convincingly support the theory that adherence is a key pathway in the relationship between treatment outcome expectancies and recovery and pain intensity in this acute low back pain population.

  10. IL-4/IL-13-mediated polarization of renal macrophages/dendritic cells to an M2a phenotype is essential for recovery from acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yinqiu; Niu, Aolei; Wang, Suwan; Zou, Chenhang; Harris, Raymond C

    2017-02-01

    Cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 play important roles in polarization of macrophages/dendritic cells to an M2 phenotype, which is important for recovery from acute kidney injury. Both IL-4 and IL-13 activate JAK3/STAT6 signaling. In mice with diphtheria toxin receptor expression in proximal tubules (selective injury model), a relatively selective JAK3 inhibitor, tofacitinib, led to more severe kidney injury, delayed recovery from acute kidney injury, increased inflammatory M1 phenotype markers and decreased reparative M2 phenotype markers of macrophages/dendritic cells, and development of more severe renal fibrosis after diphtheria toxin administration. Similarly, there was delayed recovery and increased tubulointerstitial fibrosis in these diphtheria toxin-treated mice following tamoxifen-induced deletion of both IL-4 and IL-13, with increased levels of M1 and decreased levels of M2 markers in the macrophages/dendritic cells. Furthermore, deletion of IL-4 and IL-13 led to a decrease of tissue reparative M2a phenotype markers but had no effect on anti-inflammatory M2c phenotype markers. Deletion of IL-4 and IL-13 also inhibited recovery from ischemia-reperfusion injury in association with increased M1 and decreased M2 markers and promoted subsequent tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Thus, IL-4 and IL-13 are required to effectively polarize macrophages/dendritic cells to an M2a phenotype and to promote recovery from acute kidney injury.

  11. Successful recovery from an acute kidney injury due to amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Katsuhito; Naito, Shotaro; Okado, Tomokazu; Rai, Tatemitu; Mori, Yutaro; Toda, Takayuki; Uchida, Shinichi; Sasaki, Sei; Matsui, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old Japanese woman at 40 weeks gestation visited the maternity hospital after imminent labor had begun. After the delivery, persistent bleeding developed resulting in hemorrhagic shock. Although the hemorrhage was eventually controlled, hepatic and renal dysfunction occurred, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). The patient's clinical presentation was suggestive of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). We subsequently initiated continuous renal replacement therapy (RRT) for AKI. The patient's condition improved, she discontinued RRT, and her renal function recovered. We herein report a patient who successfully recovered from AKI caused by AFE.

  12. Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2004-03-31

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period October 01, 2003 to March 31, 2004 which covers the third six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number is used as the model condensate. During this reporting period, temperature scans were performed mixing equal volumes of ethylbenzene and 10mM NaCl water with various concentrations of ethanol ranging from 2 to 70 vol%. For the range of temperatures tested (2 to 70 C), results indicate that temperature is invariant and produced a single phase for ethanol concentrations greater than 60 vol%. For ethanol concentrations less than 60 vol%, only two phases were obtained with aqueous rich bottom phase more in volume than that of the ethylbenzene rich top phase. Linear coreflooding experiments were completed by our industrial partner in this project, Surtek, CO, to measure the condensate recovery in flooding processes. It was found about 30% ethylbenzene recovery was obtained by the waterflooding, however, 2wt% ethanol flooding did not produce incremental recovery of the ethylbenzene. Radial coreflooding with ethanol injection prior to water injection is in progress to assess the effectiveness of the surfactant flooding in the recovery of condensate.

  13. An efficient phase-selective gelator for aromatic solvents recovery based on a cyanostilbene amide derivative.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Ma, Yao; Deng, Mengyu; Shang, Hongxing; Liang, Chunshuang; Jiang, Shimei

    2015-07-07

    Two novel low molecular weight organogelators (LMOGs) 1 and 2 composed of a cholesteryl group, an amide group and various terminal cyanostilbene moieties were synthesized. They could form stable gels in p-xylene. In particular, 2 with more extended π-conjugation length showed remarkable gelation ability in many aromatic solvents, chloroform and chloroform-containing mixed solvents at a relatively low concentration. FT-IR and XRD spectra indicated that the difference between 1 and 2 in the gelation properties may result from the deviation of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding and π–π stacking as driving forces for the formation of the gels. Significantly, 2 can function as an efficient room-temperature phase-selective gelator (PSG) for potential application in the separation and recovery of various aromatic solvents from its mixture with water. Meanwhile, the gelator can be easily recovered and reused several times. Furthermore, the phase-selective gelation properties of 2 can provide a simple and feasible approach for the removal of the rhodamine B (RhB) dye from water.

  14. Performance of carrier phase recovery for electronically dispersion compensated coherent systems.

    PubMed

    Farhoudi, Ramtin; Ghazisaeidi, Amirhossein; Rusch, Leslie Ann

    2012-11-19

    An analytical approach taking into account carrier phase estimation (CPE) is presented to predict performance of quadrature phase shift-keying (QPSK) systems using coherent detection. Using this approach, system performance is found as a function of symbol rate, local oscillator (LO) linewidth, chromatic dispersion (CD) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A new expression is derived for the covariance matrix of the conditional probability density function (pdf) of the decision statistic. This pdf is used to find bit error rate (BER) semi-analytically. Our analytical derivation assumes perfect removal of data modulation which corresponds to an ideal decision feedback (DF) carrier recovery. The validity of the analytical pdf for predicting BER is verified for a wide range of system parameters of interest in long haul systems. In addition, our semi-analytical BER provides a lower bound for the Viterbi-Viterbi (VV) BER, while showing the analytical BER previously proposed in the literature shows an overly pessimistic prediction of VV BER performance. We show that inaccuracy in previous analysis stems from overly simple model for the CPE when compensating large accumulated dispersion electronically. Finally, we study extension of our results to quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Preliminary simulation results are promising but the accuracy of our semi-analytical approach for predicting BER should be investigated further.

  15. Bayesian motion recovery framework for myocardial phase-contrast velocity MRI.

    PubMed

    Huntbatch, Andrew; Lee, Su-Lin; Firmin, David; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Detailed assessment of myocardial motion provides a key indicator of ventricular function, enabling the early detection and assessment of a range of cardiac abnormalities. Existing techniques for myocardial contractility analysis are complicated by a combination of factors including resolution, acquisition time, and consistency of quantification results. Phase-contrast velocity MRI is a technique that provides instantaneous, in vivo measurement of tissue velocity on a per-voxel basis. It allows for the direct derivation of contractile indices with minimal post-processing. For this method to be clinically useful, SNR and image artifacts need to be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to present a Maximum a posteriori (MAP) restoration technique for high quality myocardial motion recovery. It employs an accurate noise modeling scheme and a generalized Gaussian Markov random field prior tailored for the myocardial morphology. The quality of the proposed method is evaluated with both simulated myocardial velocity data with known ground truth and in vivo phase-contrast MR velocity acquisitions from a group of normal subjects.

  16. Recovery Efficiency Test Project Phase 2 activity report, Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of Phase II operations of the Recovery Efficiency Test Project is to enhance the natural production of the well and evaluate the relative improvement as a function of the type of stimulation conducted. Another purpose is to compare the stimulated production performance of the horizontal well with vertical wells in the field. The objectives considered for Phase II operations and plans were: (1) Develop a rationale for a systematic approach to designing stimulations for the well. (2) Conduct a series of stimulations designed to optimize the fluids, injection rates, proppant volumes and general approach to stimulating a horizontal well with similar geologic conditions. (3) Develop and test a method or methods for determining the geometry of stimulation-induced fractures. (4) Conduct tests and analyze the results to determine the efficiency of stimulation operations. The technical approach pursued in developing plans to accomplish three objectives was to: (1) Review the data needs for all objectives and obtain that data first. (2) Identify the operating geologic, geomechanical, and reservoir parameters that need additional clarification or definition. (3) Investigate existing models which could be used to plan or evaluate stimulation on the well and the reservoir. (4) Plan for analysis and verification of models and approaches.

  17. Glycogen Supercompensation in the Rat Brain After Acute Hypoglycemia is Independent of Glucose Levels During Recovery.

    PubMed

    Duarte, João M N; Morgenthaler, Florence D; Gruetter, Rolf

    2017-01-12

    Patients with diabetes display a progressive decay in the physiological counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia, resulting in hypoglycemia unawareness. The mechanism through which the brain adapts to hypoglycemia may involve brain glycogen. We tested the hypothesis that brain glycogen supercompensation following hypoglycemia depends on blood glucose levels during recovery. Conscious rats were submitted to hypoglycemia of 2 mmol/L for 90 min and allowed to recover at different glycemia, controlled by means of i.v. glucose infusion. Brain glycogen concentration was elevated above control levels after 24 h of recovery in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. This glycogen supercompensation was independent of blood glucose levels in the post-hypoglycemia period. In the absence of a preceding hypoglycemia insult, brain glycogen concentrations were unaltered after 24 h under hyperglycemia. In the hypothalamus, which controls peripheral glucose homeostasis, glycogen levels were unaltered. Overall, we conclude that post-hypoglycemia glycogen supercompensation occurs in several brain areas and its magnitude is independent of plasma glucose levels. By supporting brain metabolism during recurrent hypoglycemia periods, glycogen may have a role in the development of hypoglycemia unawareness.

  18. Immunomodulatory properties of gamithromycin and ketoprofen in lipopolysaccharide-challenged calves with emphasis on the acute-phase response.

    PubMed

    Plessers, Elke; Wyns, Heidi; Watteyn, Anneleen; Pardon, Bart; De Baere, Siegrid; Sys, Stanislas U; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-01

    Macrolide antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to be modulators of the innate immune response, irrespectively of their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore, it was our objective to evaluate whether the macrolide gamithromycin (GAM) and the NSAID ketoprofen (KETO) attenuate the acute-phase response in calves, and whether their combined administration is beneficial due to synergistic and/or additive effects. To this end, both drugs, as well as their combination, were studied in a previously developed inflammation model, i.e., the induction of an acute-phase response by an intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (0.5 μg/kg body weight). Sixteen 4-week-old Holstein-Friesian calves were randomized into 4 groups: a positive control (+CONTR) group, receiving LPS but no pharmacological treatment (n=4) and a GAM (n=4), a KETO (n=4) and a GAM-KETO (n=4) group, receiving the respective drugs 1h prior to LPS administration. Clinical scoring and blood collection were performed at regular time points until 72 h post LPS challenge. Plasma concentrations of the selected cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), acute-phase protein (serum amyloid A (SAA)) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were subsequently quantified. Pre-treatment with GAM had no effect in the inflammation model compared to the +CONTR group. KETO, on the other hand, completely inhibited depression, anorexia and fever. This remarkable influence was associated with a significant reduction of PGE2 synthesis by KETO, while the effect on TNF-α, IL-6 and SAA was not straightforward. The combined administration of GAM and KETO provided no synergistic or additive effects in this model, neither clinically nor regarding the studied inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, KETO entirely inhibited PGE2 synthesis, fever development and depression, while GAM did not exert any effect in this model. These results promote the concomitant

  19. Complete recovery from acute encephalopathy of late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in a 3-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mak, C M; Siu, T-S; Lam, C-W; Chan, G C-F; Poon, G W-K; Wong, K-Y; Low, L C-K; Tang, N L; Li, S K; Lau, K-Y; Kwong, N-S; Tam, S

    2007-11-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is the commonest urea cycle disorder which is transmitted in X-linked inheritance. It is mainly characterized in males by acute encephalopathy and hyperammonaemia with fatal outcomes in both classical neonatal and late-onset types. We report a 3-year-old healthy Hong Kong Chinese boy who presented with acute encephalopathy and coma after three days of gastroenteritis. He had no focal neurological deficit and brain CT imaging was normal. His plasma ammonia (54 micromol/L) and glutamine (747 micromol/L) concentrations were normal. The only biochemical abnormalities detected were marked orotic aciduria (700 micromol/mmol creatinine) and elevated urinary uracil. He regained consciousness spontaneously after three days under intensive care with parenteral fluid therapy. He recovered completely without any neurological deficits. Five months after discharge, urinary uracil concentration remained elevated despite normalized orotic acid concentration. Finally, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency was diagnosed by DNA analysis. A missense mutation of arginine-to-glutamine substitution on amino acid 277 (p.R277Q) was revealed to be a late-onset mutant. Our case strengthens the argument that in any child with coma or acute encephalopathy of undetermined cause, genetic analysis of the OTC gene and the measurement of urinary uracil concentration remain the most reliable indicators of late-onset OTCD during acute and even quiescent phases. Existing neonatal screening programmes for inheritable metabolic disorders fail to detect late-onset variants. Therefore, a high clinical suspicion is a key to correct and timely diagnosis, especially in those patients with atypical presentations.

  20. Acrolein-Induced Dyslipidemia and Acute Phase Response Independenly of HMG-CoA Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Prough, Russell A.; Juvan, Peter; Rezen, Tadeja; Rozman, Damjana; Haberzettl, Petra; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2012-01-01

    Scope Aldehydes are ubiquitous natural constituents of foods, water and beverages. Dietary intake represents the greatest source of exposure to acrolein and related aldehydes. Oral acrolein induces dyslipidemia acutely and chronically increases atherosclerosis in mice, yet the mechanisms are unknown. Because lipid synthesis and trafficking are largely under hepatic control, we examined hepatic genes in murine models of acute and chronic oral acrolein exposure. Methods and results Changes in hepatic gene expression were examined using a Steroltalk microarray. Acute acrolein feeding modified plasma and hepatic proteins and increased plasma triglycerides within 15 min. By 6h, acrolein altered hepatic gene expression including Insig1, Insig2 and Hmgcr genes and stimulated an acute phase response (APR) with up-regulation of serum amyloid A genes (Saa) and systemic hypoalbuminemia. To test if decreased HMG-CoA reductase activity could modify acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or the APR, mice were pretreated with simvastatin. Statin treatment, however, did not alter acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or hypoalbuminemia associated with an APR. Few hepatic genes were dysregulated by chronic acrolein feeding in apoE-null mice. These studies confirmed that acute acrolein exposure altered expression of hepatic genes involved with lipid synthesis and trafficking and APR, and thus, indicated a hepatic locus of acrolein-induced dyslipidemia and APR that was independent of HMG CoA-reductase. Conclusion Dietary intake of acrolein could contribute to cardiovascular disease risk by disturbing hepatic function. PMID:21812109

  1. Compromised recovery of natural interferon-alpha/beta-producing cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation complicated by acute graft-versus-host disease and glucocorticoid administration.

    PubMed

    Kitawaki, T; Kadowaki, N; Ishikawa, T; Ichinohe, T; Uchiyama, T

    2003-07-01

    Delayed recovery of the immune system is a major cause of post-transplant infection. Natural interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta-producing cells (IPC) appear to play a critical role in inducing effective immune responses to a variety of microbial pathogens by producing an enormous amount of IFN-alpha/beta and thereafter by differentiating into dendritic cells. Here, we examined the recovery of IPC as well as other immune cells in 28 patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in order to investigate the role of IPC in post-transplant immune reconstitution. In uncomplicated cases, IPC frequency recovered to the lower range of normal values within 30 days after transplantation, resembling the prompt recovery of other cell types in innate immunity. In contrast, the recovery of IPC was profoundly suppressed in the cases with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and glucocorticoid administration. The patients with lower numbers of IPC were significantly more susceptible to viral infection. The prompt recovery of IPC in uncomplicated cases may contribute to establishing a first line of host defense at the early stage after allogeneic HSCT, whereas the marked suppression of IPC recovery accompanying acute GVHD and glucocorticoid administration may increase the risk of opportunistic infections.

  2. Enhanced ion outflows measured by the DE 1 high altitude plasma instrument in the dayside plasmasphere during the recovery phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Winningham, J. D.; Burch, J. L.; Peterson, W. K.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Weimer, D. R.

    1985-02-01

    Ion flow velocities both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, and including the effects of spacecraft charging and spacecraft velocity, have been measured during the recovery phase of two large magnetic storms on October 14 and 21 of 1981. These measurements were made both inside and outside the plasmasphere and indicate unreported yet substantial outflows of ions within the dayside plasmasphere (October 14). Combined data from instruments on board the Dynamics Explorer satellite, including the high altitude plasma instrument, the energetic ion composition spectrometer, the retarding ion mass spectrometer, and the plasma wave instrument, indicate that these ions are most likely dominantly O(+) at energies at least as low as 5 eV. The nightside pass (October 21), which occurred during the recovery phase of a similar storm, showed no plasmaspheric outflows. The results indicate that a large contribution to the outflux into the dayside plasmasphere during the recovery period is due to E greater than 5 eV ions.

  3. Enhanced ion outflows measured by the DE 1 high altitude plasma instrument in the dayside plasmasphere during the recovery phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Winningham, J. D.; Burch, J. L.; Peterson, W. K.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Weimer, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Ion flow velocities both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, and including the effects of spacecraft charging and spacecraft velocity, have been measured during the recovery phase of two large magnetic storms on October 14 and 21 of 1981. These measurements were made both inside and outside the plasmasphere and indicate unreported yet substantial outflows of ions within the dayside plasmasphere (October 14). Combined data from instruments on board the Dynamics Explorer satellite, including the high altitude plasma instrument, the energetic ion composition spectrometer, the retarding ion mass spectrometer, and the plasma wave instrument, indicate that these ions are most likely dominantly O(+) at energies at least as low as 5 eV. The nightside pass (October 21), which occurred during the recovery phase of a similar storm, showed no plasmaspheric outflows. The results indicate that a large contribution to the outflux into the dayside plasmasphere during the recovery period is due to E greater than 5 eV ions.

  4. Early downregulation of acute phase proteins after doxorubicin exposition in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Panis, Carolina; Pizzatti, Luciana; Bufalo, Aedra Carla; Herrera, Ana Cristina; Victorino, Vanessa Jacob; Cecchini, Rubens; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy remains the first-choice option for adjuvant therapy in breast cancer. Here, we investigated the impact of the first chemotherapic cycle of doxorubicin on the plasmatic-proteomic profiling of women diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 87). Blood samples were obtained from the same patient before and after doxorubicin infusion (1 h, 60 mg/m(2)) and processed for label-free LC-MS proteomic screening. A total of 80 proteins were downregulated after chemotherapy. In silico analysis revealed that the main biological process enrolled was inflammation and canonical pathways involving acute phase proteins. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, TGF-β1, clusterin, and gelsolin were chosen as relevant for further validation. All selected targets presented reduced plasmatic levels after treatment. Our results indicate that doxorubicin downregulated acute phase proteins immediately after its infusion. Since such proteins are cancer promoting, its downregulation could support the effectiveness of doxorubicin along treatment.

  5. Levels of complement components, immunoglobulins and acute phase proteins in plasma during aging in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyeyinka, G O; Salimonu, L S

    1999-01-01

    Plasma samples from Nigerians aged 6-95 years were examined for their content of complement components (C3, C4, factor B-Bf), immuloglobins (IgG, IgA, IgM IgD) and acute phase proteins (transferrin, albumin, C-reactive protein--CRP, alpha-2-macroglobulin). Albumin, was estimated colorimetrically and the other components by the single radial immunodiffusion techniques. No significant age-related changes in mean values of the four immunobulins and the four acute phase proteins could be demonstrated. Also, the mean values for C3 and Bf did not change significantly with age but C4 values rose significantly with increasing age (r -0.232: P < 0.01).

  6. Social support resources and post-acute recovery for older adults with major depression.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola; Rubin, Eugene

    2013-08-01

    This study assessed the relationships between older patients' social support resources and depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning at 6 months following a psychiatric hospital discharge. The data used in this study were extracted from a prospective study titled "Service Use of Depressed Elders after Acute Care" (National Institute of Mental Health-56208). This sample included 148 older patients who participated in the initial and the 6-month follow-up assessment. Ordinary Least Squares regression (OLS) was used to examine important social support resources in relation to older patients' depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning. A vast majority of patients were embedded in a social support network that consisted of acquaintances and confidants. Patients' depressive symptoms were related to availability of a confidant and the extent to which they spent time with others. However, patients' psychosocial functioning was not related to social support resources assessed in this study.

  7. Extracellular and cellular Hsp72 differ as biomarkers in acute exercise/environmental stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Lee, E C-H; Muñoz, C X; McDermott, B P; Beasley, K N; Yamamoto, L M; Hom, L L; Casa, D J; Armstrong, L E; Kraemer, W J; Anderson, J M; Maresh, C M

    2017-01-01

    Stress-inducible Hsp72 is a potential biomarker to track risk of exertional heat illness during exercise/environmental stress. Characterization of extracellular (eHsp72) vs cellular Hsp72 (iHsp72) responses is required to define the appropriate use of Hsp72 as a reliable biomarker. In each of four repeat visits, participants (n = 6 men, 4 trials; total n = 24): (a) passively dehydrated overnight, (b) exercised (2 h) with no fluid in a hot, humid environmental chamber, (c) rested and rehydrated (1 h), (d) maximally exercised for 0.5 h, and (e) returned after 24 h of at-home recovery and rehydration. We measured rectal temperature, hydration status (% body mass loss, urine markers, serum osmolality), and Hsp72 (ELISA, flow cytometry. eHsp72 (circulating) and iHsp72 (CD3(+) PBMCs) correlated (P < 0.05) with markers of heat, exercise, and dehydration stresses. eHsp72 immediately post-exercise (>15% above baseline, P < 0.05) decreased back to baseline levels by 1 h post-exercise, but iHsp72 expression continued to rise and remained elevated 24 h post-exercise (~2.5-fold baseline, P < 0.05). These data suggest that in addition to the classic physiological biomarkers of exercise heat stress, using cellular Hsp72 as an indicator of lasting effects of stress into recovery may be most appropriate for determining long-term effects of stress on risk for exertional heat illness.

  8. An alternative analysis of low- and high-altitude observations of ring current ions during a storm recovery phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    Explorer 45 equatorial observations of ring current ions during a storm recovery phase have shown pitch angle distributions and decay rates inconsistent with proton charge exchange with neutral hydrogen. This inconsistency has led to the suggestion that recovery phase ring current ions at L less than or equal to 4 and energies not greater than 50 keV are dominated by He(+) rather than protons. The absence of He(+) on flux tubes from which H(+) and O(+) were precipitating in ion mass spectrometer measurements made during the same period by the low-altitude polar-orbiting satellite 1971-089A led Sharp et al. to suggest a source of H(+) and O(+) to L = 3 during this period. An alternative explanation, in which the magnetic field lines labeled L = 3 at the earth's surface near local midnight were mapped to about 3.7 earth radii in the equatorial plane during the storm recovery phase and during the period of enhanced activity, is proposed. If the proposed explanation is correct, the observations of Sharp et al. are not incompatible with the conclusion that the recovery phase ions at less than 50 keV were dominated by He(+) for L not greater than 3.7.

  9. Aqueous two-phase flotation for primary recovery of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10.

    PubMed

    Md Sidek, Nurul Lyana; Tan, Joo Shun; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Wong, Fadzlie Wong Faizal; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2016-08-01

    An aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) system based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sodium citrate (NaNO3C6H5O7·2H2O) was considered for primary recovery of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10. The effects of ATPF parameters namely phase composition, tie-line length (TLL), volume ratio between the two phases (VR), amount of crude load (CL), pH, nitrogen gas flow rate (FR) and flotation time (FT) on the performance of recovery were evaluated. BLIS was mainly concentrated into the upper PEG-rich phase in all systems tested so far. The optimum conditions for BLIS purification, which composed of PEG 8000/sodium citrate, were: TLL of 42.6, VR of 0.4, CL of 22% (w/w), pH 7, average FT of 30min and FR of 20mL/min. BLIS was partially purified up to 5.9-fold with a separation efficiency of 99% under this optimal conditions. A maximum yield of BLIS activity of about 70.3% was recovered in the PEG phase. The BLIS from the top phase was successfully recovered with a single band in SDS-gel with molecular weight of about 10-15kDa. ATPF was found to be an effective technique for the recovery of BLIS from the fermentation broth of P. acidilactici Kp10.

  10. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry Kraft recovery boilers. Final report, Phase 1, Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The objectives are to develop a preliminary design of a recovery furnace simulator; evaluate the economics of high-solids; and delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies to improve chemical recovery.

  11. Understanding the Phases of Recovery from Serious Mental Illness: The Roles of Referent and Expert Power in a Mutual-Help Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeble, Marisa L.; Salem, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored an approach to studying recovery that is sensitive to the multiphase and contextual nature of the recovery process. The authors focused on the experience of recovery in a mutual-help group, Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA). Prior qualitative research conducted with SA revealed that SA participants experience four phases of…

  12. Circulating Microbial Products and Acute Phase Proteins as Markers of Pathogenesis in Lymphatic Filarial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, R.; George, P. Jovvian; Pavan Kumar, N.; Fay, Michael P.; Kumaraswami, V.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Dysregulated host inflammatory responses leading to systemic immune activation are thought to play a central role in filarial disease pathogenesis. We measured the plasma levels of microbial translocation markers, acute phase proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+) or without (CP Ag−) active infection; with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF); and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]). Comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF) and those without active infection (CP Ag− compared to EN) were used preliminarily to identify markers of pathogenesis. Thereafter, we tested for group effects among all the four groups using linear models on the log transformed responses of the markers. Our data suggest that circulating levels of microbial translocation products (lipopolysaccharide and LPS-binding protein), acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid protein-A), and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α) are associated with pathogenesis of disease in lymphatic filarial infection and implicate an important role for circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins. PMID:22685406

  13. Presence of an acute phase response in sheep with clinical classical scrapie

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Work with experimental scrapie in sheep has been performed on-site for many years including studies on PrPSc dissemination and histopathology of organs and tissues both at preclinical and clinical stages. In this work serum was sampled at regular intervals from lambs which were infected immediately after birth and from parallel healthy controls, and examined for acute phase proteins. In contrast to earlier experiments, which extensively studied PrPSc dissemination and histopathology in peripheral tissues and brain, this experiment is focusing on examination of serum for non-PrPSc markers that discriminates the two groups, and give insight into other on-going processes detectable in serum samples. Results There was clear evidence of an acute phase response in sheep with clinical scrapie, both experimental and natural. All the three proteins, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, were increased at the clinical stage of scrapie. Conclusion There was evidence of a systemic measurable acute phase response at the clinical terminal end-stage of classical scrapie. PMID:22805457

  14. A phase 3 randomized trial comparing inolimomab vs usual care in steroid-resistant acute GVHD.

    PubMed

    Socié, Gérard; Vigouroux, Stéphane; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Fürst, Sabine; Bilger, Karin; Suarez, Felipe; Michallet, Mauricette; Bron, Dominique; Gard, Philippe; Medeghri, Zakaria; Lehert, Philippe; Lai, Chinglin; Corn, Tim; Vernant, Jean-Paul

    2017-02-02

    Treatment of steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains an unmet clinical need. Inolimomab, a monoclonal antibody to CD25, has shown encouraging results in phase 2 trials. This phase 3 randomized, open-label, multicenter trial compared inolimomab vs usual care in adult patients with steroid-refractory acute GVHD. Patients were randomly selected to receive treatment with inolimomab or usual care (the control group was treated with antithymocyte globulin [ATG]). The primary objective was to evaluate overall survival at 1 year without changing baseline allocated therapy. A total of 100 patients were randomly placed: 49 patients in the inolimomab arm and 51 patients in the ATG arm. The primary criteria were reached by 14 patients (28.5%) in the inolimomab and 11 patients (21.5%) in the ATG arms, with a hazard ratio of 0.874 (P = .28). With a minimum follow-up of 1 year, 26 (53%) and 31 (60%) patients died in the inolimomab and ATG arms, respectively. Adverse events were similar in the 2 arms, with fewer viral infections in the inolimomab arm compared with the ATG arm. The primary end point of this randomized phase 3 trial was not achieved. The lack of a statistically significant effect confirms the need for development of more effective treatments for acute GVHD. This trial is registered to https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search as EUDRACT 2007-005009-24.

  15. The Kynurenine Pathway in the Acute and Chronic Phases of Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Cuartero, María Isabel; de la Parra, Juan; García-Culebras, Alicia; Ballesteros, Iván; Lizasoain, Ignacio; Moro, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Kynurenines are a wide range of catabolites which derive from tryptophan through the “Kynurenine Pathway” (KP). In addition to its peripheral role, increasing evidence shows a role of the KP in the central nervous system (CNS), mediating both physiological and pathological functions. Indeed, an imbalance in this route has been associated with several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases. Altered KP catabolism has also been described during both acute and chronic phases of stroke; however the contribution of the KP to the pathophysiology of acute ischemic damage and of post-stroke disorders during the chronic phase including depression and vascular dementia, and the exact mechanisms implicated in the regulation of the KP after stroke are not well established yet. A better understanding of the regulation and activity of the KP after stroke could provide new pharmacological tools in both acute and chronic phases of stroke. In this review, we will make an overview of CNS modulation by the KP. We will detail the KP contribution in the ischemic damage, how the unbalance of the KP might trigger an alteration of the cognitive function after stroke as well as potential targets for the development of new drugs. PMID:25248805

  16. The effect of lunar phases on the occurrence of acute cardiovascular diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertoprud, V. E.; Gurfinkel', Yu. I.; Goncharova, E. E.; Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. S.; Kanonidi, H. D.; Mitrofanova, T. A.; Trubina, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    This paper analyzes the possible impact of lunar phases on the dynamics of acute cardiovascular diseases: acute myocardial infarctions (MIs) and acute brain strokes (BSs) at different levels of heliogeomagnetic activity. The superposed epoch analysis (SEA) has been applied with dates of the new moon and full moon used as reference days. A statistical analysis of a 14-year-long (1992 to 2005) series of everyday medical data from the Central Clinical Hospital no. 1 of Russian Railways (Moscow) and the parameters of heliogeomagnetic activity was carried out. It was found that daily occurrences of MIs and BSs vary with the phase of the moon. These variations are significant; they continue at different levels of heliogeomagnetic activity and are not related to the variations in geomagnetic activity identified by the same method. The effect of lunar phases on MIs and BSs is quite different. New moons and full moons have qualitatively the same effect on MIs; however, there are significant differences in the incidence of BSs during new moons and full moons.

  17. Manifestation of Latent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in the Acute Phase of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Kazuyuki; Okubo, Takeshi; Tanaka, Komei; Hosaka, Yukio; Tsuchida, Keiichi; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Oda, Hirotaka; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Objective Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is a complication in 15-25% of patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and sometimes leads to catastrophic outcomes, such as cardiogenic shock or cardiac rupture. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. Methods and Results We experienced 22 cases of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy during 3 years, and 4 of these 22 cases were complicated with LVOT obstruction in the acute phase (mean age 79±5 years, 1 man, 21 women). The LVOT pressure gradient in the acute phase was 100±17 mmHg. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in one case and sigmoid-shaped septum without LVH in three cases. The complete resolution of the LVOT obstruction was achieved in a few days with normalization of the left ventricular wall motion following administration of beta-blockers. A dobutamine provocation test after normalization of the left ventricular wall motion reproduced the LVOT obstruction in all cases and revealed the presence of latent LVOT obstruction. Conclusion The manifestation of latent LVOT obstruction in the acute phase of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is one potential reason for the complication of LVOT obstruction with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:27904102

  18. Insufficient secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide at acute phase of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Maeda, K; Tsutamoto, T; Wada, A; Mabuchi, N; Hayashi, M; Hisanaga, T; Kamijo, T; Kinoshita, M

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the secretion of the plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we evaluated the relationship between plasma levels of ANP and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in 45 consecutive patients during the acute phase of AMI ( approximately 12 h after the attack) (group 1) and compared data with those obtained after 1 mo (group 2). In both groups 1 and 2, plasma ANP levels significantly correlated with PCWP. The slope of the linear regression line between the PCWP and ANP in group 1 was significantly lower, by about one-third, than that in group 2. In addition, we examined changes in ANP levels and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) over 180 min after AMI induced by injection of microspheres into the left coronary arteries of three dogs. The LVEDP and ANP levels 30 min after AMI were significantly higher than those before; however, despite the persistent high LVEDP during the 180 min after AMI, ANP levels decreased gradually and significantly to 63% of the peak level at 150 min. These findings suggest that the secretion of ANP during the acute phase of myocardial infarction may be insufficient relative to the chronic phase.

  19. Serial profile of vitamins and trace elements during the acute phase of allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nannya, Yasuhito; Shinohara, Akihito; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2014-03-01

    Currently, we utilize vitamins and trace elements formulations that are not prepared specifically for patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and adequacy of this strategy has not been evaluated. We prospectively measured blood level of vitamins and trace elements in 15 patients once per week at 6 time points around the acute phase of allogeneic HSCT. We provided standard nutrition support, including administration of parenteral nutrition with vitamin and trace elements formulation in case of impairment of oral intake. Most patients had vitamin B1 deficiency from the start of preparative regimens. Vitamin C deficiency was prominent throughout the acute phase of HSCT and this was significantly associated with high inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein and ferritin. Remarkable vitamin K overload associated with administration of parenteral supplementation and ferritin overload caused by repeated transfusions was observed. Moderate deficiency of zinc was at least partially linked to gastrointestinal loss by diarrhea. We revealed several features of vitamin and trace element status in the acute phase of HSCT and provided a basis for attempts to improve the nutritional condition in HSCT recipients.

  20. Placental thrombosis in acute phase abortions during experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    After oral administration of ewes during mid gestation with 2000 freshly prepared sporulated oocysts of T. gondii isolate M4, abortions occurred between days 7 and 11 in 91.6% of pregnant and infected ewes. Afterwards, a further infection was carried out at late gestation in another group of sheep with 500 sporulated oocysts. Abortions happened again between days 9 and 11 post infection (pi) in 58.3% of the infected ewes. Classically, abortions in natural and experimental ovine toxoplasmosis usually occur one month after infection. Few experimental studies have reported the so-called acute phase abortions as early as 7 to 14 days after oral inoculation of oocysts, and pyrexia was proposed to be responsible for abortion, although the underline mechanism was not elucidated. In the present study, all placentas analysed from ewes suffering acute phase abortions showed infarcts and thrombosis in the caruncullar villi of the placentomes and ischemic lesions (periventricular leukomalacia) in the brain of some foetuses. The parasite was identified by PCR in samples from some placentomes of only one sheep, and no antigen was detected by immunohistochemical labelling. These findings suggest that the vascular lesions found in the placenta, and the consequent hypoxic damage to the foetus, could be associated to the occurrence of acute phase abortions. Although the pathogenesis of these lesions remains to be determined, the infectious dose or virulence of the isolate may play a role in their development. PMID:24475786

  1. The recovery phase of the superstrong magnetic storm of July 15-17, 2000: Substorms and ULF pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleimenova, N. G.; Kozyreva, O. V.

    2009-06-01

    The geomagnetic observations, performed at the global network of ground-based observatories during the recovery phase of the superstrong magnetic storm of July 15-17, 2000 (Bastille Day Event, Dst = -301 nT), have been analyzed. It has been indicated that magnetic activity did not cease at the beginning of the storm recovery phase but abruptly shifted to polar latitudes. Polar cap substorms were accompanied by the development of intense geomagnetic pulsations in the morning sector of auroral latitudes. In this case oscillations at frequencies of 1-2 and 3-4 mHz were observed at geomagnetic latitudes higher and lower than ˜62°, respectively. It has been detected that the spectra of variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure and the amplitude spectra of geomagnetic pulsations on the Earth’s surface were similar. Wave activity unexpectedly appeared in the evening sector of auroral latitudes after the development of near-midnight polar substorms. It has been established that the generation of Pc5 pulsations (in this case at frequencies of 3-4 mHz) was spatially asymmetric about noon during the late stage of the recovery phase of the discussed storm as took place during the recovery phase of the superstrong storms of October and November 2003. Intense oscillations were generated in the morning sector at the auroral latitudes and in the postnoon sector at the subauroral and middle latitudes. The cause of such an asymmetry, typical of the recovery phase of superstrong magnetic storms, remains unknown.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study of the Triple Stimulation Technique in the Assessment of Electroacupuncture for Motor Function Recovery in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Feng; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Hui-qin; Lu, Lin; Li, Ming; Li, Ji-huang; Fang, Meifeng; Meng, Di

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to objectively assess electroacupuncture for motor function recovery in patients with acute ischemic stroke using the triple-stimulation technique (TST). The patients received either electroacupuncture plus western conventional medication (WCM) (n = 32) or single WCM (n = 31) for 14 days. The total clinical effective rate was statistically significantly superior in electroacupuncture group to that in WCM group (P < 0.01). Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale (FMA) score, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and TSTratio were statistically more significant in electroacupuncture group than those in WCM group (P < 0.01). There was positive correlation between TSTratio and NIHS score both before and after treatment (P < 0.01) and negative correlation between TSTratio and FAM score both before treatment and after treatment (P < 0.01). Comparing between the two groups or between pretreatment and posttreatment, adverse events, electrocardiogram, liver function, and kidney function showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). In conclusion, electroacupuncture was beneficial for the motor function recovery of patients with acute ischemic stroke and was generally safe. TST can be used for quantitative evaluation of electroacupuncture for motor function recovery in patients with acute ischemic stroke because it can objectively analyze the injury and recovery of corticospinal tract impairments. PMID:23840255

  3. Acute cardiac support with intravenous milrinone promotes recovery from early brain injury in a murine model of severe subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Tomoko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yukiko; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Taki, Yasuyuki

    2016-12-23

    Early brain injury/ischemia (EBI) is a serious complication early after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that contributes to development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). This study aimed to determine the role of inotropic cardiac support using milrinone (MIL) on restoring acute cerebral hypoperfusion attributable to EBI and improving outcomes after experimental SAH. Forty-three male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either sham surgery (SAH-sham), SAH induced by endovascular perforation plus postconditioning with 2% isoflurane (Control), or SAH plus isoflurane combined with MIL with and without hypoxia-inducible factor inhibitor (HIF-I) pretreatment. Cardiac output (CO) during intravenous MIL infusion (0.25-0.75 μg/kg/min) between 1.5 and 2.5h after SAH induction was monitored with Doppler-echocardiography. MRI-continuous arterial spin labeling was used for quantitative CBF measurements. Neurobehavioral function was assessed daily by neurological score and open field test. DCI was analyzed 3 days later by determining infarction on MRI. Mild reduction of cardiac output (CO) and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) depression were notable early after SAH. MIL increased CO in a dose-dependent manner (P <0.001), which was accompanied by improved hypoperfusion, incidence of DCI and functional recovery than Control (P <0.05). The neuroprotective effects afforded by MIL or Control were attenuated by HIF inhibition (P <0.05). These results suggest that MIL improves acute hypoperfusion by its inotropic effect, leading to neurobehavioral improvement in mice after severe SAH, in which HIF may be acting as a critical mediator. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. The desmosomal protein Desmoglein 1 aids recovery of epidermal differentiation after acute ultraviolet light exposure

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jodi L.; Koetsier, Jennifer L.; Sirico, Anna; Agidi, Ada T.; Antonini, Dario; Missero, Caterina; Green, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal structure is damaged by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light but the molecular mechanisms governing structural repair are largely unknown. UVB (290-320 nm wavelengths) exposure prior to induction of differentiation reduced expression of differentiation-associated proteins, including Desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), Desmocollin 1 (Dsc1) and Keratins 1 and 10 (K1/K10) in a dose-dependent manner in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). The UVB- induced reduction in both Dsg1 transcript and protein was associated with reduced binding of the p63 transcription factor to previously unreported enhancer regulatory regions of the Dsg1 gene. Since Dsg1 promotes epidermal differentiation in addition to participating in cell-cell adhesion, the role of Dsg1 in aiding differentiation after UVB damage was tested. Compared to controls, depleting Dsg1 via shRNA resulted in further reduction of Dsc1 and K1/K10 expression in monolayer NHEK cultures and in abnormal epidermal architecture in organotypic skin models recovering from UVB exposure. Ectopic expression of Dsg1 in keratinocyte monolayers rescued the UVB-induced differentiation defect. Treatment of UVB-exposed monolayer or organotypic cultures with Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, partially restored differentiation marker expression, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for reversing UV-induced impairment of epidermal differentiation after acute sun exposure. PMID:24594668

  5. The desmosomal protein desmoglein 1 aids recovery of epidermal differentiation after acute UV light exposure.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jodi L; Koetsier, Jennifer L; Sirico, Anna; Agidi, Ada T; Antonini, Dario; Missero, Caterina; Green, Kathleen J

    2014-08-01

    Epidermal structure is damaged by exposure to UV light, but the molecular mechanisms governing structural repair are largely unknown. UVB (290-320 nm wavelengths) exposure before induction of differentiation reduced expression of differentiation-associated proteins, including desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), desmocollin 1 (Dsc1), and keratins 1 and 10 (K1/K10), in a dose-dependent manner in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). The UVB-induced reduction in both Dsg1 transcript and protein was associated with reduced binding of the p63 transcription factor to previously unreported enhancer regulatory regions of the Dsg1 gene. As Dsg1 promotes epidermal differentiation in addition to participating in cell-cell adhesion, the role of Dsg1 in aiding differentiation after UVB damage was tested. Compared with controls, depleting Dsg1 via short hairpin RNA resulted in further reduction of Dsc1 and K1/K10 expression in monolayer NHEK cultures and in abnormal epidermal architecture in organotypic skin models recovering from UVB exposure. Ectopic expression of Dsg1 in keratinocyte monolayers rescued the UVB-induced differentiation defect. Treatment of UVB-exposed monolayer or organotypic cultures with trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, partially restored differentiation marker expression, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for reversing UV-induced impairment of epidermal differentiation after acute sun exposure.

  6. Pathogens present in acute mangled extremities from Afghanistan and subsequent pathogen recovery.

    PubMed

    Wallum, Timothy E; Yun, Heather C; Rini, Elizabeth A; Carter, Kristina; Guymon, Charles H; Akers, Kevin S; Tyner, Stuart D; White, Christopher E; Murray, Clinton K

    2015-01-01

    Given the changing epidemiology of infecting pathogens in combat casualties, we evaluated bacteria and fungi in acute traumatic wounds from Afghanistan. From January 2013 to February 2014, 14 mangled lower extremities from 10 explosive-device injured casualties were swabbed for culture at Role 3 facilities. Bacteria were recovered from all patients on the date of injury. Pathogens recovered during routine patient care were recorded. The median injury severity score was 29, median initial Role 3/4 blood product support was 32 units, and median evacuation time was 42 minutes to first surgical care. Gram-positive bacteria were found in some wounds but not methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Most wounds were colonized with low-virulence, environmental gram-negative bacteria, and not recovered again during therapy, reflecting wound contamination. Only one wound had the same bacteria (E. cloacae) throughout care at the Role 3, 4, and 5 facilities. Three cultures from two patients had multidrug-resistant bacteria (E. cloacae, E. coli), all detected at Role 5 facilities. Molds were not detected at Role 3, whereas one patient had a mold at Role 4 and 5. Mangled lower extremity injuries have a high contamination rate with environmental organisms, which are not typically associated with infections during the course of the patient's care.

  7. Cannabidiol reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery after acute hypoxia-ischemia in newborn pigs.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, Hector; Alvarez, Francisco J; Pazos, M Ruth; Alvarez, Antonia; Rey-Santano, M Carmen; Mielgo, Victoria; Murgia-Esteve, Xabier; Hilario, Enrique; Martinez-Orgado, José

    2011-09-01

    Newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia-ischemia (HI) received i.v. cannabidiol (HI + CBD) or vehicle (HI + VEH). In HI + VEH, 72 h post-HI brain activity as assessed by amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) had only recovered to 42 ± 9% of baseline, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) parameters remained lower than normal, and neurobehavioral performance was abnormal (27.8 ± 2.3 points, normal 36). In the brain, there were fewer normal and more pyknotic neurons, while astrocytes were less numerous and swollen. Cerebrospinal fluid concentration of neuronal-specific enolase (NSE) and S100β protein and brain tissue percentage of TNFα(+) cells were all higher. In contrast, in HI + CBD, aEEG had recovered to 86 ± 5%, NIRS parameters increased, and the neurobehavioral score normalized (34.3 ± 1.4 points). HI induced histological changes, and NSE and S100β concentration and TNFα(+) cell increases were suppressed by CBD. In conclusion, post-HI administration of CBD protects neurons and astrocytes, leading to histological, functional, biochemical, and neurobehavioral improvements.

  8. Recovery of energy and nutrient resources from cattle paunch waste using temperature phased anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Paul D; Mehta, Chirag M; Carney, Chris; Batstone, D J

    2016-05-01

    Cattle paunch is comprised of partially digested cattle feed, containing mainly grass and grain and is a major waste produced at cattle slaughterhouses contributing 20-30% of organic matter and 40-50% of P waste produced on-site. In this work, Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (TPAD) and struvite crystallization processes were developed at pilot-scale to recover methane energy and nutrients from paunch solid waste. The TPAD plant achieved a maximum sustainable organic loading rate of 1-1.5kgCODm(-3)day(-1) using a feed solids concentration of approximately 3%; this loading rate was limited by plant engineering and not the biology of the process. Organic solids destruction (60%) and methane production (230LCH4kg(-1) VSfed) achieved in the plant were similar to levels predicted from laboratory biochemical methane potential (BMP) testing. Model based analysis identified no significant difference in batch laboratory parameters vs pilot-scale continuous parameters, and no change in speed or extent of degradation. However the TPAD process did result in a degree of process intensification with a high level of solids destruction at an average treatment time of 21days. Results from the pilot plant show that an integrated process enabled resource recovery at 7.8GJ/dry tonne paunch, 1.8kgP/dry tonne paunch and 1.0kgN/dry tonne paunch.

  9. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:27774084

  10. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  11. Fibrinogen-like protein 1, a hepatocyte derived protein is an acute phase reactant

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhilin; Ukomadu, Chinweike

    2008-01-25

    Fibrinogen-like protein 1 (FGL1) is a hepatocyte derived protein that is upregulated in regenerating rodent livers following partial hepatectomy. It has been implicated as a mitogen for liver cell proliferation. In this study, we show that recombinant human IL-6 induces FGL1 expression in Hep G2 cells in a pattern similar to those of acute phase reactants. Following induction of acute inflammation in rats by subcutaneous injection of turpentine oil, serum FGL1 levels are also enhanced. Although, a recent report suggests that FGL1 associates almost exclusively with the fibrin matrix, we report here that approximately 20% of the total plasma FGL1 remains free. The enhancement of FGL1 levels in vitro by IL-6 and its induction after turpentine oil injection suggest that it is an acute phase reactant. Its presence in bound and free forms in the blood also implies biological roles that extend beyond the proposed autocrine effect it has on hepatocytes during regeneration.

  12. Pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia in maintenance phase of chemotherapy☆

    PubMed Central

    de Macêdo, Thalita Medeiros Fernandes; Campos, Tania Fernandes; Mendes, Raquel Emanuele de França; França, Danielle Corrêa; Chaves, Gabriela Suéllen da Silva; de Mendonça, Karla Morganna Pereira Pinto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the pulmonary function of children with acute leukemia. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational analytical study that enrolled 34 children divided into groups A (17 with acute leukemia in the maintenance phase of chemotherapy) and B (17 healthy children). The groups were matched for sex, age and height. Spirometry was measured using a spirometer Microloop Viasys(r) in accordance with American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society guidelines. Maximal respiratory pressures were measured with an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed(r)). Maximal inspiratory pressures and maximal expiratory pressures were measured from residual volume and total lung capacity, respectively. RESULTS: Group A showed a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressures when compared to group B. No significant difference was found between the spirometric values of the two groups, nor was there any difference between maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values in group A compared to the lower limit values proposed as reference. CONCLUSION: Children with acute leukemia, myeloid or lymphoid, during the maintenance phase of chemotherapy exhibited unchanged spirometric variables and maximal expiratory pressure; However, there was a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength. PMID:25510995

  13. A phase 2 study of high-dose lenalidomide as initial therapy for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fehniger, Todd A; Uy, Geoffrey L; Trinkaus, Kathryn; Nelson, Alissa D; Demland, Jeffery; Abboud, Camille N; Cashen, Amanda F; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith E; Westervelt, Peter; DiPersio, John F; Vij, Ravi

    2011-02-10

    Older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have limited treatment options and a poor prognosis, thereby warranting novel therapeutic strategies. We evaluated the efficacy of lenalidomide as front-line therapy for older AML patients. In this phase 2 study, patients 60 years of age or older with untreated AML received high-dose (HD) lenalidomide at 50 mg daily for up to 2 28-day cycles. If patients achieved a complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi) or did not progress after 2 cycles of HD lenalidomide, they received low-dose lenalidomide (10 mg daily) until disease progression, an unacceptable adverse event, or completion of 12 cycles. Thirty-three AML patients (median age, 71 years) were enrolled with intermediate (55%), unfavorable (39%), or unknown (6%) cytogenetic risk. Overall CR/CRi rate was 30%, and 53% in patients completing HD lenalidomide. The CR/CRi rate was significantly higher in patients presenting with a low (< 1000/μL) circulating blast count (50%, P = .01). The median time to CR/CRi was 30 days, and duration of CR/CRi was 10 months (range, 1- ≥ 17 months). The most common grades ≥ 3 toxicities were thrombocytopenia, anemia, infection, and neutropenia. HD lenalidomide has evidence of clinical activity as initial therapy for older AML patients, and further study of lenalidomide in AML and MDS is warranted. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00546897.

  14. Phase 2 study of the JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib in patients with refractory leukemias, including postmyeloproliferative neoplasm acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Verstovsek, Srdan; Estrov, Zeev; Burger, Jan; Cortes, Jorge; Bivins, Carol; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Borthakur, Gautam; George, Solly; Scherle, Peggy A.; Newton, Robert C.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemias. Patients with acceptable performance status (0-2), adequate organ function, and no active infection, received ruxolitinib 25 mg orally twice a day for 4 weeks (1 cycle). Response was assessed after every 2 cycles of treatment, and patients who completed 2 cycles were allowed to continue treatment until disease progression. Dose escalation to 50 mg twice daily was permitted in patients demonstrating a benefit. Thirty-eight patients, with a median age of 69 years (range, 45-88), were treated. The median number of prior therapies was 2 (range, 1-6). Twelve patients had JAK2V617F mutation. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy (range, 1-22). Three of 18 patients with postmyeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showed a significant response; 2 achieved complete remission (CR) and one achieved a CR with insufficient recovery of blood counts (CRi). The responding patients with palpable spleens also had significant reductions in spleen size. Overall, ruxolitinib was very well tolerated with only 4 patients having grade 3 or higher toxicity. Ruxolitinib has modest antileukemic activity as a single agent, particularly in patients with post-MPN AML. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00674479. PMID:22422826

  15. A phase 2 study of high-dose lenalidomide as initial therapy for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Fehniger, Todd A.; Uy, Geoffrey L.; Trinkaus, Kathryn; Nelson, Alissa D.; Demland, Jeffery; Abboud, Camille N.; Cashen, Amanda F.; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith E.; Westervelt, Peter; DiPersio, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have limited treatment options and a poor prognosis, thereby warranting novel therapeutic strategies. We evaluated the efficacy of lenalidomide as front-line therapy for older AML patients. In this phase 2 study, patients 60 years of age or older with untreated AML received high-dose (HD) lenalidomide at 50 mg daily for up to 2 28-day cycles. If patients achieved a complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi) or did not progress after 2 cycles of HD lenalidomide, they received low-dose lenalidomide (10 mg daily) until disease progression, an unacceptable adverse event, or completion of 12 cycles. Thirty-three AML patients (median age, 71 years) were enrolled with intermediate (55%), unfavorable (39%), or unknown (6%) cytogenetic risk. Overall CR/CRi rate was 30%, and 53% in patients completing HD lenalidomide. The CR/CRi rate was significantly higher in patients presenting with a low (< 1000/μL) circulating blast count (50%, P = .01). The median time to CR/CRi was 30 days, and duration of CR/CRi was 10 months (range, 1- ≥ 17 months). The most common grades ≥ 3 toxicities were thrombocytopenia, anemia, infection, and neutropenia. HD lenalidomide has evidence of clinical activity as initial therapy for older AML patients, and further study of lenalidomide in AML and MDS is warranted. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00546897. PMID:21051557

  16. A phase 2 study of the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in patients with refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Lancet, Jeffrey E; Reiffers, Josy; Lowenberg, Bob; Thomas, Xavier; Huguet, Francoise; Fenaux, Pierre; Zhang, Steven; Rackoff, Wayne; De Porre, Peter; Stone, Richard

    2007-06-15

    This phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in adults with refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients (n=252) received tipifarnib 600 mg twice a day for 21 days in 28-day cycles. Median age was 62 years; 99 (39%) patients were 65 years or older. Eleven (4%) of 252 patients achieved complete remission (CR) or complete remission with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp; 9 CR and 2 CRp). Nineteen patients (8%), including those who achieved CR/CRp, achieved a reduction in bone marrow blasts to less than 5% blasts. Bone marrow blasts were reduced more than 50% in an additional 8 patients (total = 27; 11%). Median survival was 369 days for patients who achieved CR/CRp. Myelosuppression was the most common adverse event. The most common nonhematologic toxicities were fever, nausea, and hypokalemia. Single-agent treatment with tipifarnib induced durable CR/CRp, which was associated with prolonged survival, in some patients with refractory or relapsed AML. The response rate observed in this heavily pretreated group of patients suggests the requirement to enhance the response rate either by combining tipifarnib with other active agents or determining factors that are predictive of response.

  17. Phase I clinical study of RG7356, an anti-CD44 humanized antibody, in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Vey, Norbert; Delaunay, Jacques; Martinelli, Giovanni; Fiedler, Walter; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Prebet, Thomas; Gomez-Roca, Carlos; Papayannidis, Cristina; Kebenko, Maxim; Paschka, Peter; Christen, Randolph; Guarin, Ernesto; Bröske, Ann-Marie; Baehner, Monika; Brewster, Michael; Walz, Antje-Christine; Michielin, Francesca; Runza, Valeria; Meresse, Valerie; Recher, Christian

    2016-01-01

    RG7356, a recombinant anti-CD44 immunoglobulin G1 humanized monoclonal antibody, inhibits cell adhesion and has been associated with macrophage activation in preclinical models. We report results of a phase I dose-escalation study of RG7356 in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Eligible patients with refractory AML, relapsed AML after induction chemotherapy, or previously untreated AML not eligible for intensive chemotherapy were enrolled and received intravenous RG7356 at dosages ≤ 2400 mg every other week or ≤ 1200 mg weekly or twice weekly; dose escalation started at 300 mg. Forty-four patients (median age, 69 years) were enrolled. One dose-limiting toxicity occurred (grade 3 hemolysis exacerbation) after one 1200 mg dose (twice-weekly cohort). The majority of adverse events were mild/moderate. Infusion-related reactions occurred in 64% of patients mainly during cycle 1. Two patients experienced grade 3 drug-induced aseptic meningitis. Pharmacokinetics increased supraproportionally, suggesting a target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) at ≥ 1200 mg. Two patients achieved complete response with incomplete platelet recovery or partial response, respectively. One patient had stable disease with hematologic improvement. RG7356 was generally safe and well tolerated. Maximum tolerated dose was not reached, but saturation of TMDD was achieved. The recommended dose for future AML evaluations is 2400 mg every other week. PMID:27081038

  18. Phase 2 study of the JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib in patients with refractory leukemias, including postmyeloproliferative neoplasm acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Verstovsek, Srdan; Estrov, Zeev; Burger, Jan; Cortes, Jorge; Bivins, Carol; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Borthakur, Gautam; George, Solly; Scherle, Peggy A; Newton, Robert C; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Ravandi, Farhad

    2012-05-17

    We conducted a phase 2 study of ruxolitinib in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemias. Patients with acceptable performance status (0-2), adequate organ function, and no active infection, received ruxolitinib 25 mg orally twice a day for 4 weeks (1 cycle). Response was assessed after every 2 cycles of treatment, and patients who completed 2 cycles were allowed to continue treatment until disease progression. Dose escalation to 50 mg twice daily was permitted in patients demonstrating a benefit. Thirty-eight patients, with a median age of 69 years (range, 45-88), were treated. The median number of prior therapies was 2 (range, 1-6). Twelve patients had JAK2V617F mutation. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy (range, 1-22). Three of 18 patients with postmyeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) showed a significant response; 2 achieved complete remission (CR) and one achieved a CR with insufficient recovery of blood counts (CRi). The responding patients with palpable spleens also had significant reductions in spleen size. Overall, ruxolitinib was very well tolerated with only 4 patients having grade 3 or higher toxicity. Ruxolitinib has modest antileukemic activity as a single agent, particularly in patients with post-MPN AML. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00674479.

  19. An accurate two-phase approximate solution to the acute viral infection model

    SciTech Connect

    Perelson, Alan S

    2009-01-01

    During an acute viral infection, virus levels rise, reach a peak and then decline. Data and numerical solutions suggest the growth and decay phases are linear on a log scale. While viral dynamic models are typically nonlinear with analytical solutions difficult to obtain, the exponential nature of the solutions suggests approximations can be found. We derive a two-phase approximate solution to the target cell limited influenza model and illustrate the accuracy using data and previously established parameter values of six patients infected with influenza A. For one patient, the subsequent fall in virus concentration was not consistent with our predictions during the decay phase and an alternate approximation is derived. We find expressions for the rate and length of initial viral growth in terms of the parameters, the extent each parameter is involved in viral peaks, and the single parameter responsible for virus decay. We discuss applications of this analysis in antiviral treatments and investigating host and virus heterogeneities.

  20. [Dynamics of interferon production during different phases of the pathological process in children with acute pneumonia and relapsing bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, O L

    2001-01-01

    With the purpose of gaining further insight into regularities of changes that take place in indices for the interferon status in children with acute pneumonia and current bronchitis depending on the phase of the pathological process, 112 children were examined in whom the level of serum interferon was measured together with production of alpha- and gamma-interferon by leucocytes of the peripheral blood in vitro. It is shown that in the examined patients with acute pneumonia and relapsing bronchitis in the acute period and during the phase of reparation there are differences in functioning of indices for the system of interferon.

  1. Prognostic implications of cardiac scintigraphic parameters obtained in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, A.; Matsushima, H.; Satoh, A.; Hayashi, H.; Sotobata, I.

    1988-06-01

    A cohort of 76 patients with acute myocardial infarction was studied with infarct-avid scan, radionuclide ventriculography, and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Infarct area, left ventricular ejection fraction, and defect score were calculated as radionuclide indices of the extent of myocardial infarction. The correlation was studied between these indices and cardiac events (death, congestive heart failure, postinfarction angina, and recurrence of myocardial infarction) in the first postinfarction year. High-risk patients (nonsurvivors and patients who developed heart failure) had a larger infarct area, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and a larger defect score than the others. Univariate linear discriminant analysis was done to determine the optimal threshold of these parameters for distinguishing high-risk patients from others. Radionuclide parameters obtained in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction were useful for detecting both patients with grave complications and those with poor late prognosis during a mean follow-up period of 2.6 years.

  2. Phase I Trial of AZD1775 and Belinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Myeloid Malignancies or Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-03

    Blast Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  3. Are the unenhanced and excretory CT phases necessary for the evaluation of acute pyelonephritis?

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Lincoln S; Torres, Ulysses S; Souza, Saulo M; Torres, Lucas R; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    Background The most widely accepted computed tomography (CT) protocol for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) includes at least a pre- and post-contrast scan, which may expose patients to higher doses of ionizing radiation. Purpose To establish the accuracy, reproducibility, and degree of confidence in CT diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) and urolithiasis using only images obtained during the nephrographic phase. Material and Methods A retrospective study of 100 consecutive patients (88 women; age range, 19-70 years) with clinical and laboratory suspicion of APN and who underwent triphasic abdominal CT scans (non-contrast, nephrographic, and excretory phases) was performed. Two readers first evaluated independently only the nephrographic phase of scans, and, in a second session, the entire study. The diagnostic reference standard was settled by a third experienced radiologist who reviewed all triphasic scans and clinical data. Results The accuracy of only nephrographic phase for diagnosis of APN and urolithiasis was in the range of 90.3-91.78% and 96.27-99.25%, respectively. There was no significant difference in comparison with the triphasic reading (z: -0.4 - 0.2; P = 0.34-0.83). The average degree of confidence for APN also showed no significant variation for both readers ( P = 0.4 and 0.08). Almost perfect inter-observer agreements for the diagnosis of APN (k = 0.86, P < 0.001) and for urolithiasis (k = 0.84, P < 0.001) were observed when considering only the nephrographic phase. Conclusion CT assessment of APN and urolithiasis can be accurately performed using only the late nephrographic phase, with consequent dose reduction.

  4. Restoration of energy level in the early phase of acute pediatric pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mosztbacher, Dóra; Farkas, Nelli; Solymár, Margit; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Márta, Katalin; Mikó, Alexandra; Rumbus, Zoltán; Varjú, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Párniczky, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious inflammatory disease with rising incidence both in the adult and pediatric populations. It has been shown that mitochondrial injury and energy depletion are the earliest intracellular events in the early phase of AP. Moreover, it has been revealed that restoration of intracellular ATP level restores cellular functions and defends the cells from death. We have recently shown in a systematic review and meta-analysis that early enteral feeding is beneficial in adults; however, no reviews are available concerning the effect of early enteral feeding in pediatric AP. In this minireview, our aim was to systematically analyse the literature on the treatment of acute pediatric pancreatitis. The preferred reporting items for systematic review (PRISMA-P) were followed, and the question was drafted based on participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes: P: patients under the age of twenty-one suffering from acute pancreatitis; I: early enteral nutrition (per os and nasogastric- or nasojejunal tube started within 48 h); C: nil per os therapy; O: length of hospitalization, need for treatment at an intensive care unit, development of severe AP, lung injury (including lung oedema and pleural effusion), white blood cell count and pain score on admission. Altogether, 632 articles (PubMed: 131; EMBASE: 501) were found. After detailed screening of eligible papers, five of them met inclusion criteria. Only retrospective clinical trials were available. Due to insufficient information from the authors, it was only possible to address length of hospitalization as an outcome of the study. Our mini-meta-analysis showed that early enteral nutrition significantly (SD = 0.806, P = 0.034) decreases length of hospitalization compared with nil per os diet in acute pediatric pancreatitis. In this minireview, we clearly show that early enteral nutrition, started within 24-48 h, is beneficial in acute pediatric pancreatitis. Prospective studies and better

  5. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  6. Evidence of high densities and ion outflows in the polar cap during the recovery phase

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.L.; Menietti, J.D.; Burch, J.L.; Persoon, A.M.; Waite J.H. Jr.; Chappell, C.R.

    1986-03-01

    During the recovery phase of a large storm on October 14, 1981, instruments on board Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS), the High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI), and the Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI) detected unusually high plasma densities and ion flows in the polar cap. At the time of detection, DE 1 was located at a radial distance of about 3.5 earth radii, a magnetic local time near midnight, and between 70/sup 0/ and 80/sup 0/ invariant latitude. Total plasma density was found to be about 50 cm/sup -3/, an order of magnitude above median polar cap densities at the altitude of observation. In addition, highly collimated flows of hydrogen and oxygen are found flowing through a background hydrogen plasma. The O/sup +/ component of the plasma discussed is not directly identified but is inferred to be O/sup +/ through the combined analysis of data from three instruments. Results of the combined instrument analysis indicate that the detected plasma was composed of outflowing H/sup +/ with a density of 6-10 cm/sup -3/ with a temperature of about 0.15 eV; isotropic H/sup +/ with a density of about 15-20 cm/sup -3/; and outflowing and strongly convecting O/sup +/ with an average density of about 20 cm/sup -3/ and a temperature of about 0.26 eV. The flux of outflowing H/sup +/ and O/sup +/ are both about 10/sup 7/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/. The data indicate that the O/sup +/ detected by HAPI seems to originate in the dayside ionosphere, while the H/sup +/ detected by RIMS has a source in the nightside polar cap.

  7. Stress-induced phase transformation and pseudo-elastic/pseudo-plastic recovery in intermetallic Ni-Al nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sutrakar, Vijay Kumar; Mahapatra, D Roy

    2009-07-22

    Extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed in a B2-NiAl nanowire using an embedded atom method (EAM) potential. We show a stress induced [Formula: see text]-centered-tetragonal (BCT) phase transformation and a novel temperature and cross-section dependent pseudo-elastic/pseudo-plastic recovery from such an unstable BCT phase with a recoverable strain of approximately 30% as compared to 5-8% in polycrystalline materials. Such a temperature and cross-section dependent pseudo-elastic/pseudo-plastic strain recovery can be useful in various interesting applications of shape memory and strain sensing in nanoscale devices. Effects of size, temperature, and strain rate on the structural and mechanical properties have also been analyzed in detail. For a given size of the nanowire the yield stress of both the B2 and the BCT phases is found to decrease with increasing temperature, whereas for a given temperature and strain rate the yield stress of both the B2 and the BCT phase is found to increase with increase in the cross-sectional dimensions of the nanowire. A constant elastic modulus of approximately 80 GPa of the B2 phase is observed in the temperature range of 200-500 K for nanowires of cross-sectional dimensions in the range of 17.22-28.712 A, whereas the elastic modulus of the BCT phase shows a decreasing trend with an increase in the temperature.

  8. Scintigraphic evaluation of digital circulation during the developmental and acute phases of equine laminitis

    SciTech Connect

    Trout, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Using nuclear isotopic imaging, digital circulation was sequentially evaluated at 24-hour intervals in 11 control horses and in 9 horses affected with acute laminitis, created by administration of a high-starch ration. Following intra-arterial injection of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin into the brachiocephalic trunk, a gamma camera and dedicated nuclear medicine computer were used to acquire static images of the right front foot. Dynamic vascular-phase and static interstitial-phase images were also obtained after jugular vein injection of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. These procedures were performed on standing horses, using either minimal or no tranquilization. The images were quantitatively analyzed for parameters indicative of circulation to the foot as a whole and to specific regions of interest within the foot. There was no evidence of reduced total blood flow to the lamellae during either the developmental or acute phases of laminitis. Although total flow tended to increase throughout the peripheral/external regions of the foot, statistically significant elevations were consistently present only within the lamellae. Changes indicative of decreased total blood flow were noted in the central/internal regions of the foot. These alterations usually occurred coincident with or after the onset of clinical lameness.

  9. Thromboembolism in the Sub-Acute Phase of Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Belci, Maurizio; Van Middendorp, Joost J; Al Halabi, Ahmed; Meagher, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    To review the evidence of thromboembolism incidence and prophylaxis in the sub-acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI) 3–6 months post injury. All observational and experimental studies with any length of follow-up and no limitations on language or publication status published up to March 2015 were included. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. Outcomes studied were incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the sub-acute phase of SCI. The secondary outcome was type of thromboprophylaxis. Our search identified 4305 references and seven articles that met the inclusion criteria. Five papers reported PE events and three papers reported DVT events in the sub-acute phase of SCI. Studies were heterogeneous in populations, design and outcome reporting, therefore a meta-analysis was not performed. The included studies report a PE incidence of 0.5%–6.0% and DVT incidence of 2.0%–8.0% in the sub-acute phase of SCI. Thromboprophylaxis was poorly reported. Spinal patients continue to have a significant risk of PE and DVT after the acute period of their injury. Clinicians are advised to have a low threshold for suspecting venous thromboembolism in the sub-acute phase of SCI and to continue prophylactic anticoagulation therapy for a longer period of time. PMID:27790330

  10. Glutamate transporter type 3 mediates isoflurane preconditioning-induced acute phase of neuroprotection in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Liaoliao; Deng, Jiao; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-09-01

    A pre-exposure to isoflurane reduces ischemic brain injury in rodents (isoflurane preconditioning). This neuroprotection has acute and delayed phases. Our previous in vitro studies suggest that the acute phase may involve excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). We determine whether this protection involves EAAT3, the major neuronal EAAT. Adult male EAAT3 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates were exposed or were not exposed to 1.5% isoflurane for 30 min. Sixty minutes later, they were subjected to a 90- or 60-min middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO). Their neurological outcomes were evaluated 24h after the MCAO. In another experiment, cerebral cortex was harvested for Western blotting at 30 min after animals were exposed to 1.5% isoflurane for 30 min. Here, we showed that isoflurane reduced brain infarct volumes and improved neurological functions of wild-type mice after a 90-min MCAO. However, isoflurane pre-exposure did not change the neurological outcome of EAAT3 knockout mice no matter whether the MCAO was for 90 min or 60 min. Isoflurane increased phospho-Akt, a survival-promoting protein, in the wild-type mice but not in the EAAT3 knockout mice. The isoflurane-induced neuroprotection in the wild-type mice was abolished by LY294004, an Akt activation inhibitor. LY294004 alone did not affect the neurological outcome of the wild-type or EAAT3 knockout mice after focal brain ischemia. These results suggest that the isoflurane preconditioning-induced acute phase of neuroprotection involves EAAT3. The downstream event includes Akt activation.

  11. [Mechanism of thiol-dependence of acute phase proteins and serology of monospecific antisera in vitro].

    PubMed

    Kostiushov, V V; Kostiushova, N V; Pavlovich, S I; Sakhno, Iu P; Tymchyshyn, O L

    2001-01-01

    For the donors and for the patients with inflammatory processes is thiol-dependent the gear of immune responses in vitro an antigen--antibody on dynamics(changes) of change (+/- delta) of the contents SH- and S-S-group reaction mixtures. Thus, is conducted the analysis of interplay of proteins of an acute phase (CRP, orosomucoid and transferin) serums of a blood of the donors and patients with serology by related diagnostic (complementary) monospecific serums (MSS) against CRP (Anti-CRP), against Oroso (Anti-Oroso) i against Transf (Anti-Transf). Is established, that as against the donors, for the patients with inflammatory processes these reacting are accompanied by a phenomenon of a liberation of energy of Ag(+)-sensing non proteins SH-groups and they occur in supernatants of deprotheinized of reaction mixtures. At the same time, both for the donors, and for the patients, these reacting are accompanied modification by changes kept in repair (+/- delta) proteins SH- and S-S-rpy[symbol: see text], in integral reaction mixtures (in which one protein did not deposit). Such data testify, that the inflammatory process, apparently, can be accompanied by such rearrangement of a structurally functional condition of proteins of an acute phase, that under operating MSS in reaction mixtures descends labelised blended disulfide of communications between them and low molecular weight thiols. As a result of it there is a liberation of energy of Ag(+)-sensing non proteins SH-groups. This parameter can be used for an estimation of functional activity of proteins of an acute phase.

  12. Characterizing dynamic interactions between ultradian glucocorticoid rhythmicity and acute stress using the phase response curve.

    PubMed

    Rankin, James; Walker, Jamie J; Windle, Richard; Lightman, Stafford L; Terry, John R

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a dynamic oscillatory hormone signalling system that regulates the pulsatile secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands. In addition to regulation of basal levels of glucocorticoids, the HPA axis provides a rapid hormonal response to stress that is vitally important for homeostasis. Recently it has become clear that glucocorticoid pulses encode an important biological signal that regulates receptor signalling both in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. It is therefore important to understand how stressful stimuli disrupt the pulsatile dynamics of this system. Using a computational model that incorporates the crucial feed-forward and feedback components of the axis, we provide novel insight into experimental observations that the size of the stress-induced hormonal response is critically dependent on the timing of the stress. Further, we employ the theory of Phase Response Curves to show that an acute stressor acts as a phase-resetting mechanism for the ultradian rhythm of glucocorticoid secretion. Using our model, we demonstrate that the magnitude of an acute stress is a critical factor in determining whether the system resets via a Type 1 or Type 0 mechanism. By fitting our model to our in vivo stress-response data, we show that the glucocorticoid response to an acute noise stress in rats is governed by a Type 0 phase-resetting curve. Our results provide additional evidence for the concept of a deterministic sub-hypothalamic oscillator regulating the ultradian glucocorticoid rhythm, which constitutes a highly responsive peripheral hormone system that interacts dynamically with hypothalamic inputs to regulate the overall hormonal response to stress.

  13. Mild sensory stimulation re-establishes cortical function during the acute phase of ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Christopher C.; Davis, Melissa F.; Chen-Bee, Cynthia H.; Frostig, Ron D.

    2011-01-01

    When delivered within 1 and in most cases 2 hours of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), mild sensory stimulation (intermittent single whisker stimulation) was shown to be completely neuroprotective according to assessment with multiple techniques 24 hours after pMCAO in a rodent model of ischemic stroke (Lay et al., 2010). The acute effect of stimulation treatment on the ischemic cortex however, had yet to be reported. Here we characterize cortical function and perfusion during the 120 minute whisker stimulation period in four experimental groups with treatment initiated 0, 1, 2 hours (protected groups) or 3 hours post-pMCAO (unprotected group) using multiple techniques. According to functional imaging, a gradual return of evoked whisker functional representation to baseline levels was initiated with treatment onset and completed within the treatment period. Evoked neuronal activity and reperfusion to the ischemic area also showed a gradual recovery in protected animals. Surprisingly, a similar recovery profile was observed in response to treatment in all protected animals, irrespective of treatment onset time. Non-stimulated pMCAO control group data demonstrate that reperfusion is not spontaneous. This makes the complete protection observed in the majority of animals stimulated at 2 hours post-pMCAO even more surprising as these animals recovered despite having been in this severely ischemic state for two full hours. In summary, when delivered within a 2 hour window post- pMCAO, whisker stimulation treatment initiated reperfusion and a gradual recovery of cortical function that was completed or nearly completed within the treatment period. PMID:21832179

  14. Effect of wetting-layer density of states on the gain and phase recovery dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho; Yu, Bong-Ahn

    2015-03-01

    We numerically investigate the effect of the wetting-layer (WL) density of states on the gain and phase recovery dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in both electrical and optical pumping schemes by solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The temporal variations of the ultrafast gain and phase recovery responses at the ground state (GS) are calculated as a function of the WL density of states. The ultrafast gain recovery responses do not significantly depend on the WL density of states in the electrical pumping scheme and the three optical pumping schemes such as the optical pumping to the WL, the optical pumping to the excited state ensemble, and the optical pumping to the GS ensemble. The ultrafast phase recovery responses are also not significantly affected by the WL density of states except the optical pumping to the WL, where the phase recovery component caused by the WL becomes slowed down as the WL density of states increases.

  15. Clock recovery from 40 Gbps optical signal with optical phase-locked loop based on a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhon, Young Min; Ki, Ho Jin; Kim, Sun Ho

    2003-05-01

    10 GHz clock recovery from 40 Gbps optical time-division-multiplexed (OTDM) signal pulses is experimentally demonstrated using optical phase lock loop based on a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) with a local-reference-oscillator-free electronic feedback circuit. The clock pulse that was used as the control pulse had energy of 800 fJ and the SNR of the time-extracted 10 GHz RF signal to the side components was larger than 40 dB.

  16. Association of Interleukin 8 and Myocardial Recovery in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Husebye, Trygve; Eritsland, Jan; Arnesen, Harald; Bjørnerheim, Reidar; Mangschau, Arild; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Andersen, Geir Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Background No data from controlled trials exists regarding the inflammatory response in patients with de novo heart failure (HF) complicating ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and a possible role in the recovery of contractile function. We therefore explored the time course and possible associations between levels of inflammatory markers and recovery of impaired left ventricular function as well as levosimendan treatment in STEMI patients in a substudy of the LEvosimendan in Acute heart Failure following myocardial infarction (LEAF) trial. Methods A total of 61 patients developing HF within 48 hours after a primary PCI-treated STEMI were randomised double-blind to a 25 hours infusion of levosimendan or placebo. Levels of IL-6, CRP, sIL-6R, sgp130, MCP-1, IL-8, MMP-9, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and TNF-α were measured at inclusion (median 22 h, interquartile range (IQR) 14, 29 after PCI), on day 1, day 2, day 5 and 6 weeks. Improvement in left ventricular function was evaluated as change in wall motion score index (WMSI) by echocardiography. Results Only circulating levels of IL-8 at inclusion were associated with change in WMSI from baseline to 6 weeks, r = ÷0.41 (p = 0.002). No association, however, was found between IL-8 and WMSI at inclusion or peak troponin T. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in change in WMSI from inclusion to 6 weeks between patients with IL-8 levels below, compared to above median value, ÷0.44 (IQR÷0.57, ÷0.19) vs. ÷0.07 (IQR÷0.27, 0.07), respectively (p<0.0001). Levosimendan did not affect the levels of inflammary markers compared to control. Conclusion High levels of IL-8 in STEMI patients complicated with HF were associated with less improvement in left ventricular function during the first 6 weeks after PCI, suggesting a possible role of IL-8 in the reperfusion-related injury of post-ischemic myocardium. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00324766

  17. The influence of time from injury to surgery on motor recovery and length of hospital stay in acute traumatic spinal cord injury: an observational Canadian cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Marcel F; Noonan, Vanessa K; Fallah, Nader; Fisher, Charles G; Finkelstein, Joel; Kwon, Brian K; Rivers, Carly S; Ahn, Henry; Paquet, Jérôme; Tsai, Eve C; Townson, Andrea; Attabib, Najmedden; Bailey, Christopher S; Christie, Sean D; Drew, Brian; Fourney, Daryl R; Fox, Richard; Hurlbert, R John; Johnson, Michael G; Linassi, A G; Parent, Stefan; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-05-01

    To determine the influence of time from injury to surgery on neurological recovery and length of stay (LOS) in an observational cohort of individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI), we analyzed the baseline and follow-up motor scores of participants in the Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry to specifically assess the effect of an early (less than 24 h from injury) surgical procedure on motor recovery and on LOS. One thousand four hundred and ten patients who sustained acute tSCIs with baseline American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grades A, B, C, or D and were treated surgically were analyzed to determine the effect of the timing of surgery (24, 48, or 72 h from injury) on motor recovery and LOS. Depending on the distribution of data, we used different types of generalized linear models, including multiple linear regression, gamma regression, and negative binomial regression. Persons with incomplete AIS B, C, and D injuries from C2 to L2 demonstrated motor recovery improvement of an additional 6.3 motor points (SE=2.8 p<0.03) when they underwent surgical treatment within 24 h from the time of injury, compared with those who had surgery later than 24 h post-injury. This beneficial effect of early surgery on motor recovery was not seen in the patients with AIS A complete SCI. AIS A and B patients who received early surgery experienced shorter hospital LOS. While the issues of when to perform surgery and what specific operation to perform remain controversial, this work provides evidence that for an incomplete acute tSCI in the cervical, thoracic, or thoracolumbar spine, surgery performed within 24 h from injury improves motor neurological recovery. Early surgery also reduces LOS.

  18. Post-Exercise Heart Rate Recovery Independently Predicts Clinical Outcome in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hye Sun; Choi, Suk-Won; Han, Seong-Woo; Ryu, Kyu-Hyung; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Kang, Seok-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is an index of parasympathetic function associated with clinical outcome in patients with chronic heart failure. However, its relationship with the pro-inflammatory response and prognostic value in consecutive patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) has not been investigated. Methods We measured HRR and pro-inflammatory markers in 107 prospectively and consecutively enrolled, recovered ADHF patients (71 male, 59 ± 15 years, mean ejection fraction 28.9 ± 14.2%) during the pre-discharge period. The primary endpoint included cardiovascular (CV) events defined as CV mortality, cardiac transplantation, or rehospitalization due to HF aggravation. Results The CV events occurred in 30 (28.0%) patients (5 cardiovascular deaths and 7 cardiac transplantations) during the follow-up period (median 214 days, 11–812 days). When the patients with ADHF were grouped by HRR according to the Contal and O’Quigley’s method, low HRR was shown to be associated with significantly higher levels of serum monokine-induced by gamma interferon (MIG) and poor clinical outcome. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that low HRR was an independent predictor of CV events in both enter method and stepwise method. The addition of HRR to a model significantly increased predictability for CV events across the entire follow-up period. Conclusion Impaired post-exercise HRR is associated with a pro-inflammatory response and independently predicts clinical outcome in patients with ADHF. These findings may explain the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and clinical outcome in terms of the inflammatory response in these patients. PMID:27135610

  19. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells enhance recovery after acute ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Brenneman, Miranda; Sharma, Sushil; Harting, Matthew; Strong, Roger; Cox, Charles S; Aronowski, Jarek; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I

    2010-01-01

    We investigated intra-arterially administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNCs) in rats with acute ischemic stroke. Long Evans rats (2 to 3 months or 12 months old) underwent tandem reversible common carotid artery (CCA)/middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (CCAo/MCAo) for 3 h and then 24 h later underwent tibial bone marrow harvest. Ten million or 4 million cells were re-injected by an intra-carotid infusion. Control animals underwent marrow needle insertion and then saline injection into the carotid artery. Animals were assessed on a battery of neurological tests. MNCs in the ischemic brain were tracked using Q-dot nanocrystal labeling. Infarct volume and cytokines in the ischemia-affected brain were analyzed. Cell-treated animals in the younger and older groups showed improvement from 7 to 30 days after stroke compared with vehicle-treated animals. MNCs significantly reduced infarct volume compared with saline. There was a significant reduction in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-β, IL-6, and a significant increase in IL-10 in injured brains harvested from the cell-treated groups compared with saline controls. Labeled MNCs were found in the peri-infarcted area at 1 h and exponentially decreased over the ensuing week after injection. Autologous bone marrow MNCs can be safely harvested from rodents after stroke, migrate to the peri-infarct area, enhance recovery, and modulate the post-ischemic inflammatory response. PMID:19773802

  20. Hyperintense vessels on acute stroke Fluid-attenuated Inversion Recovery imaging: Associations with clinical and other MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bastian; Ebinger, Martin; Kufner, Anna; Köhrmann, Martin; Wu, Ona; Kang, Dong-Wha; Liebeskind, David; Tourdias, Thomas; Singer, Oliver C.; Christensen, Soren; Warach, Steve; Luby, Marie; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fiehler, Jens; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hyperintense vessels (HV) have been observed in Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) imaging of patients with acute ischemic stroke and been linked to slow flow in collateral arterial circulation. Given the potential importance of HV, we used a large, multicentre dataset of stroke patients to clarify which clinical and imaging factors play a role in HV. Methods We analyzed data of 516 patients from the previously published PRE-FLAIR study. Patients were studied by MRI within 12 hours of symptom onset. HV were defined as hyperintensities in FLAIR corresponding to the typical course of a blood vessel that was not considered the proximal, occluded main artery ipsilateral to the diffusion restriction. Presence of HV was rated by two observers and related to clinical and imaging findings. Results Presence of HV was identified in 240 of all 516 patients (47%). Patients with HV showed larger initial ischemic lesion volumes (median 12.3 vs. 4.9 ml; p<0.001) and a more severe clinical impairment (median NIHSS 10.5 vs. 6; p<0.001). In 198 patients with MR-angiography, HV were found in 80% of patients with vessel occlusion and in 17% without vessel occlusion. In a multivariable logistic regression model, vessel occlusion was associated with HV (OR 21.7%; 95% CI 9.6–49.9, p < 0.001). HV detected vessel occlusion with a specificity of 0.86 (95% CI 0.80–0.90) and sensitivity of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69–0.83). Conclusions HV are a common finding associated with proximal arterial occlusions and more severe strokes. HV predict arterial occlusion with high diagnostic accuracy. PMID:22933582

  1. Recovery of phosphonate surface contaminants from glass using a simple vacuum extractor with a solid-phase microextraction fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold; Jill R. Scott; Cathy Rae

    2011-07-01

    Recovery of chemical contaminants from fixed surfaces for analysis can be challenging particularly if it is not possible to acquire a solid sample. A simple device is described that collects semivolatile organic compounds from fixed surfaces by creating an enclosed volume over the surface, then generating a modest vacuum. A solid-phase microextraction fiber is then inserted into the evacuated volume where it functions to sorb volatilized organic contaminants. The device is based on a syringe modified with a seal that is used to create the vacuum, with a perforable plunger through which the SPME fiber is inserted. The vacuum speeds partitioning of the semivolatile compounds into the gas phase, and reduces the boundary layer around the SPME fiber, which enables a fraction of the volatilized organics to partition into the SPME fiber. After sample collection the SPME fiber is analyzed using conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The methodology has been used to collect organophosphorus compounds from glass surfaces, to provide a simple test for the functionality of the devices. Thirty minute sampling times (deltaTvac) resulted in fractional recovery efficiencies ranged from 10(-3) to > 10(-1), and in absolute terms collection of low nanograms was demonstrated. Fractional recovery values were correlated to the vapor pressure of the compounds being sampled. Fractional recovery increased with increasing deltaTvac, and displayed a roughly logarithmic profile indicating that an operational equilibrium is being approached. Fractional recovery decreased with increasing time between exposure and sampling, however recordable quantities of the phosphonates could be collected three weeks after exposure.

  2. Cytokine kinetics of Zika virus-infected patients from acute to reconvalescent phase.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Pérez-Girón, José Vicente; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Rissland, Jürgen; Ferreira, Davis F; Jaenisch, Thomas; Gómez-Medina, Sergio; Günther, Stephan; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus currently causing large epidemics in the Pacific Ocean region and Brazil. Clinically, Zika fever resembles dengue fever, but is less severe. Whereas the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been described, little attention was paid to the immunology of the disease and its possible use for clinical follow-up of patients. Here, we investigate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of Zika fever in travelers returning from Asia, the Pacific, and Brazil. Polyfunctional T cell activation (Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 response) was seen during the acute phase characterized by respective cytokine level increases, followed by a decrease in the reconvalescent phase.

  3. Sex differences in acute hormonal and subjective response to naltrexone: The impact of menstrual cycle phase.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel J O; King, Andrea C

    2015-02-01

    Women often exhibit larger hormonal and subjective responses to opioid receptor antagonists than men, but the biological mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. Among women, fluctuations in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) across the menstrual cycle (MC) affect the endogenous opioid system. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to compare acute naltrexone response between women in the early follicular phase of the MC (low E2 and P4), women in the luteal phase of the MC (high E2 and P4), and men. Seventy healthy controls (n=46 women) participated in two morning sessions in which they received 50mg naltrexone or placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Women were randomized to complete both sessions in either the early follicular (n=23) or luteal phase of the MC. Serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), and subjective response were assessed upon arrival to the laboratory and at regular intervals after pill administration. In luteal and early follicular women but not men, naltrexone (vs. placebo) increased serum cortisol and prolactin levels from baseline; however, the naltrexone-induced increases in these hormones were significantly greater in luteal women than early follicular women. Additionally, only luteal women demonstrated an increase from baseline in salivary cortisol levels and the severity of adverse drug effects in response to naltrexone. In sum, the results indicate that luteal phase women are more sensitive to acute hormonal and subjective effects of naltrexone than early follicular women and men. These findings may have important implications for the use of naltrexone in women.

  4. Undernutrition, the Acute Phase Response to Infection, and Its Effects on Micronutrient Status Indicators12

    PubMed Central

    Bresnahan, Kara A.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Infection and undernutrition are prevalent in developing countries and demonstrate a synergistic relation. Undernutrition increases infection-related morbidity and mortality. The acute phase response (APR) is an innate, systemic inflammatory reaction to a wide array of disruptions in a host’s homeostasis, including infection. Released from immune cells in response to deleterious stimuli, proinflammatory cytokines act on distant tissues to induce behavioral (e.g., anorexia, weakness, and fatigue) and systemic effects of the APR. Cytokines act to increase energy and protein requirements to manifest fever and support hepatic acute phase protein (APP) production. Blood concentrations of glucose and lipid are augmented to provide energy to immune cells in response to cytokines. Additionally, infection decreases intestinal absorption of nutrients and can cause direct loss of micronutrients. Traditional indicators of iron, zinc, and vitamin A status are altered during the APR, leading to inaccurate estimations of deficiency in populations with a high or unknown prevalence of infection. Blood concentrations of APPs can be measured in nutrition interventions to assess the time stage and severity of infection and correct for the APR; however, standardized cutoffs for nutrition applications are needed. Protein-energy malnutrition leads to increased gut permeability to pathogens, abnormal immune cell populations, and impaired APP response. Micronutrient deficiencies cause specific immune impairments that affect both innate and adaptive responses. This review describes the antagonistic interaction between the APR and nutritional status and emphasizes the need for integrated interventions to address undernutrition and to reduce disease burden in developing countries. PMID:25398733

  5. T Helper Subsets, Peripheral Plasticity, and the Acute Phase Protein, α1-Antitrypsin

    PubMed Central

    Baranovski, Boris M.; Freixo-Lima, Gabriella S.; Lewis, Eli C.; Rider, Peleg

    2015-01-01

    The traditional model of T helper differentiation describes the naïve T cell as choosing one of several subsets upon stimulation and an added reciprocal inhibition aimed at maintaining the chosen subset. However, to date, evidence is mounting to support the presence of subset plasticity. This is, presumably, aimed at fine-tuning adaptive immune responses according to local signals. Reprograming of cell phenotype is made possible by changes in activation of master transcription factors, employing epigenetic modifications that preserve a flexible mode, permitting a shift between activation and silencing of genes. The acute phase response represents an example of peripheral changes that are critical in modulating T cell responses. α1-antitrypsin (AAT) belongs to the acute phase responses and has recently surfaced as a tolerogenic agent in the context of adaptive immune responses. Nonetheless, AAT does not inhibit T cell responses, nor does it shutdown inflammation per se; rather, it appears that AAT targets non-T cell immunocytes towards changing the cytokine environment of T cells, thus promoting a regulatory T cell profile. The present review focuses on this intriguing two-way communication between innate and adaptive entities, a crosstalk that holds important implications on potential therapies for a multitude of immune disorders. PMID:26583093

  6. Acute phase protein concentrations after limited distance and long distance endurance rides in horses.

    PubMed

    Cywińska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Górecka, Renata; Witkowski, Lucjan; Hecold, Mateusz; Bereznowski, Andrzej; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2012-12-01

    Acute phase proteins (APP) have been described as useful for assessing health in human and animal patients, as they closely reflect the acute phase reaction (APR). In humans and dogs a reaction analogous to APR has also been described after prolonged or strenuous exercise. The aim of this study was to determine, if similar reactions occur in endurance horses after limited and long distance rides. Seventeen horses that successfully completed various distance competitions were tested. Routine haematological and biochemical tests were performed and the concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin were measured. Typical endurance exercise-induced haematological and biochemical changes were observed in all horses, regardless the distance. After long distance rides, the level of SAA markedly increased, but CRP and haptoglobin concentrations remained unchanged. After limited distance rides no changes in the levels of APPs were noted. Exercise-induced APR in horses occurred only after prolonged, strenuous exertion, and differed from APR in inflammation in that only SAA concentration was increased.

  7. Relationship between production of acute-phase proteins and strength of inflammatory stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Tomizawa, Misaki; Seita, Tetsurou; Tagata, Kazutoshi; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between intensity of inflammatory stimulation and production of α(2)-macroglobulin (α2M) and α(1)-acid glycoprotein (AAG) in rats was investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with turpentine oil at doses of 0.05, 0.2 or 0.4 mL/rat. Serum levels of α2M, interleukin (IL)-6 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and AAG was measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Peak serum levels of α2M and AAG in rats injected at 0.05 mL/rat were significantly lower than those at 0.2 or 0.4 mL/rat. However, no significant differences were observed for peak serum levels of these acute-phase proteins between 0.2 and 0.4 mL/rat. Furthermore, peak serum levels of IL-6 and CINC-1 in rats injected at 0.05 mL/rat were significantly lower than those at 0.2 or 0.4 mL/rat. Thus, the production of these acute-phase proteins has upper limits, even under increased strength of inflammatory stimulation in rats injected with turpentine oil.

  8. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN AND ELECTROPHORESIS PROTEIN FRACTION VALUES FOR CAPTIVE AMERICAN FLAMINGOS (PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER).

    PubMed

    Delk, Katie W; Wack, Raymund F; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Kass, Philip H; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Protein electrophoresis has recognized applications in determining the health status of various species. While reference intervals for electrophoresis have been determined for psittacine and raptor species, there are none reported for Phoenicopteriformes species. Reference intervals for haptoglobin and protein fractions obtained by electrophoresis were determined for the American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) based on plasma samples from 39 captive birds. The reference intervals were as follows: haptoglobin, 0.17-0.8 mg/ml; total protein, 3.65-6.38 g/dl; prealbumin, 0.26-1.9 g/dl; albumin, 1.51-3.12 g/dl; α-1 globulin, 0.06-0.38 g/dl; α-2 globulin, 0.17-0.67 g/dl; β globulin, 0.38-1.33 g/dl; γ globulin, 0.26-0.68 g/dl; albumin : globulin ratio, 0.93-2.17. As captive flamingos often suffer from pododermatitis, feet of all flamingos were scored to determine if pododermatitis would be reflected in the acute phase proteins. Spearman rank correlation was performed on each of the protein fractions and pododermatitis scores, and only albumin had a significant correlation. This indicates that albumin, as a negative acute phase protein, may be a marker for this disease process.

  9. Acute-phase responses vary with pathogen identity in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Coon, Courtney A C; Warne, Robin W; Martin, Lynn B

    2011-06-01

    Pathogens may induce different immune responses in hosts contingent on pathogen characteristics, host characteristics, or interactions between the two. We investigated whether the broadly effective acute-phase response (APR), a whole body immune response that occurs in response to constitutive immune receptor activation and includes fever, secretion of immune peptides, and sickness behaviors such as anorexia and lethargy, varies with pathogen identity in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Birds were challenged with a subcutaneous injection of either a glucan at 0.7 mg/kg (to simulate fungal infection), a synthetic double-stranded RNA at 25 mg/kg (to simulate viral infection), or LPS at 1 mg/kg (to simulate a gram-negative bacterial infection), and then body mass, core body temperature changes, sickness behaviors, and secretion of an acute-phase protein, haptoglobin, were compared. Despite using what are moderate-to-high pyrogen doses for other vertebrates, only house sparrows challenged with LPS showed measurable APRs. Febrile, behavioral, and physiological responses to fungal and viral mimetics had minimal effects.

  10. The acute phase response of cod (Gadus morhua L.): expression of immune response genes.

    PubMed

    Audunsdottir, Sigridur S; Magnadottir, Bergljot; Gisladottir, Berglind; Jonsson, Zophonias O; Bragason, Birkir Th

    2012-02-01

    An acute phase response (APR) was experimentally induced in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) by intramuscular injection of turpentine oil. The change in the expression of immune related genes was monitored in the anterior kidney and the spleen over a period of 7 days. The genes examined were two types of pentraxins, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-I), the complement component C3, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), transferrin, cathelicidin, and hepcidin. All genes were constitutively expressed in both organs and their expression amplified by the turpentine injection. A pattern of response was observed both with respect to the organ preference and to the timing of a maximum response. The increased gene expression of the pentraxins, ApoA-I and C3 was restricted to the anterior kidney, the gene expression of IL-1β, cathelicidin, and transferrin increased in both organs, while hepcidin gene expression was only significantly increased in the spleen. The pentraxins and ApoA-I appear to be early mediators of APR in cod, possibly stimulating C3 and IL-1β response, while the antimicrobial peptides may play a minor role. The increase in transferrin gene expression in both organs, and apparent indifference to cortisol release associated with the turpentine injection, suggests that this could be a typical acute phase protein in cod.

  11. Neurohormonal activation in ischemic stroke: effects of acute phase disturbances on long-term mortality.

    PubMed

    Anne, Mäkikallio; Juha, Korpelainen; Timo, Mäkikallio; Mikko, Tulppo; Olli, Vuolteenaho; Kyösti, Sotaniemi; Heikki, Huikuri; Vilho, Myllylä

    2007-08-01

    A stress response consisting of elevated levels of cortisol and catecholamines is common after acute stroke. The plasma levels of natriuretic peptides are known to be elevated after ischemic stroke, but the relations of these neurohormonal systems in the acute phase of stroke and their impact on long-term prognosis have not been studied previously. A series of 51 consecutive patients (mean age 68+/-11 years) with an ischemic first-ever stroke underwent a comprehensive clinical investigation, scoring of their neurologic deficit by Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS), Barthel Index (BI) and Modified Ranking Scale (MRS) as well as measurements of plasma cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine, ACTH and atrial (N-ANP) and brain (N-BNP) natriuretic peptides on the 2nd and 7th days after ischemic stroke. The patients were followed up for 44+/-21 months. Higher levels of cortisol, ACTH and natriuretic peptides were observed in the stroke patients who died (n=22) during the follow-up than in the stroke survivors. Cortisol levels associated significantly with the 2nd and 7th day N-ANP and N-BNP levels, catecholamine levels (r= 0.55 - 0.94, p<0.01 for all) and measures of neurologic deficit (r= 0.36 - -0.44, p<0.05). High acute phase cortisol levels assessed either in the morning (RR=5.4, p<0.05) or in the evening (RR=5.8, p<0.05) predicted long-term mortality after stroke in multivariate analysis. Activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in ischemic stroke is associated with elevated levels of natriuretic peptides. High cortisol and natriuretic peptide values predict long-term mortality after ischemic stroke, suggesting that this profound neurohumoral disturbance is prognostically unfavourable.

  12. Two-phase bioconversion product recovery by microfiltration I. Steady state studies.

    PubMed

    Conrad, P B; Lee, S S

    1998-03-20

    Recovery of an aqueous bioconversion product from complex, two-phase Pseudomonas putida broths containing 20% (v/v) soybean oil presents a significant challenge for downstream processing. Although not used before in multiple-phase separation for complex biotech products, crossflow filtration employing ceramic filters is one of the most attractive options which allow the design of integrated, continuous bioconversion processes. As a first attempt, we studied multichannel, monolithic ceramic membranes of different nominal pore sizes and lumen diameters under steady-state conditions. The best performance was obtained with 0.2-microm-pore/3-mm-lumen membrane, which completely rejected both cells and oil droplets from the permeate, creating a clear aqueous product stream. Although the same separation was achieved, the 50K molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafilter showed greater irreversible but similar reversible resistance, in addition to an order-of-magnitude higher membrane resistance. Larger nominal pore microfilters, such as 0.45 and 1.0 microm, experienced both cell and oil leakage even at low transmembrane pressure (10 psig). Attributed to greater shear at the same recirculation rate, smaller lumen filters did provide greater permeate flux. However, for practical purposes, the 0. 2-microm-pore/4-mm-lumen ceramic membrane was chosen for further evaluation. Transmembrane pressures up to 50 psig provided only marginal gains in filtration performance, whereas increasing shear rate resulted in linear increases in steady-state flux, presumably due to formation of shear-sensitive, complex gel/oil/cell layer near the membrane surface. A nominal shear rate of 9200 s-1 and 20 psig transmembrane pressure were chosen as optimal operating conditions. Additional studies in a clean system revealed that as low as 5% (v/v) soybean oil in deionized (DI) water resulted in an order-of-magnitude decline in steady-state permeate flux. Breakthrough of oil droplets occurred at 35 psig

  13. Acute-phase proteins in relation to neuropsychiatric symptoms and use of psychotropic medication in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bouwens, J A; Hubers, A A M; van Duijn, E; Cobbaert, C M; Roos, R A C; van der Mast, R C; Giltay, E J

    2014-08-01

    Activation of the innate immune system has been postulated in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). We studied serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and low albumin as positive and negative acute-phase proteins in HD. Multivariate linear and logistic regression was used to study the association between acute-phase protein levels in relation to clinical, neuropsychiatric, cognitive, and psychotropic use characteristics in a cohort consisting of 122 HD mutation carriers and 42 controls at first biomarker measurement, and 85 HD mutation carriers and 32 controls at second biomarker measurement. Significant associations were found between acute-phase protein levels and Total Functioning Capacity (TFC) score, severity of apathy, cognitive impairment, and the use of antipsychotics. Interestingly, all significant results with neuropsychiatric symptoms disappeared after additional adjusting for antipsychotic use. High sensitivity CRP levels were highest and albumin levels were lowest in mutation carriers who continuously used antipsychotics during follow-up versus those that had never used antipsychotics (mean difference for CRP 1.4 SE mg/L; P=0.04; mean difference for albumin 3 SE g/L; P<0.001). The associations found between acute-phase proteins and TFC score, apathy, and cognitive impairment could mainly be attributed to the use of antipsychotics. This study provides evidence that HD mutation carriers who use antipsychotics are prone to develop an acute-phase response.

  14. Sesame oil improves functional recovery by attenuating nerve oxidative stress in a mouse model of acute peripheral nerve injury: role of Nrf-2.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Che-Chia; Huang, Hui-Cheng; Wu, Po-Ting; Tai, Ta-Wei; Jou, I-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Peripheral nervous injury (PNI) is a common form of trauma in modern society, especially in sport players. Despite the advance of therapy for PNI, the recovery of function can never reach the preinjury level after treatments. Recently, inhibiting neural oxidative stress shows a beneficial effect in improving functional recovery after PNI. In addition, sesame oil has been reported to possess the excellent antioxidative properties. However, whether sesame oil can improve the functional recovery after PNI by its antioxidative effect has never been investigated. Thirty mice were randomly divided into five groups of six: group I mice received sham operation; group II mice received sciatic nerve crush; and groups III-V mice daily ingested 0.5, 1 and 2 ml/kg of sesame oil for 6 days, respectively, after sciatic nerve crush. Oxidative stress, GAP43 and nuclear Nrf2 levels as well as spinal somatosensory evoked potentials were assessed on day 6, while paw withdrawal latency and sciatic function index were assessed on days 0, 3, and 6. Sesame oil significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and GAP43 expression in sciatic nerve. Furthermore, sesame oil improved electrophysiological and functional assessments in mice with sciatic nerve crush. In conclusion, sesame oil may improve nerve functional recovery by attenuating nerve oxidative stress in mouse acute peripheral nerve injury. Further, application of natural product sesame oil may be an alternative approach for improving nerve functional recovery in the clinical setting.

  15. Enhanced ion outflows measured by the DE 1 high altitude plasma instrument in the dayside plasmasphere during the recovery phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Winningham, J. D.; Burch, J. L.; Peterson, W. K.; Waite, J. H.; Weimer, D. R.

    1985-02-01

    Ion flow velocities both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field and including the effects of spacecraft charging and spacecraft velocity have been measured during the recovery phase of two large magnetic storms on October 14 and 21 of 1981. These measurements were made both inside and outside the plasmasphere and indicate unreported yet substantial outflows of ions within the dayside plasmasphere (October 14). Combined data from instruments on board the Dynamics Explorer satellite, including the high altitude plasma instrument (HAPI), the energetic ion composition spectrometer (EICS), the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) and the plasma wave instrument (PWI), indicate that these ions are most likely dominantly O+ at energies at least as low as 5 eV. The nightside pass (October 21), which occurred during the recovery phase of a similar storm, showed no plasmaspheric outflows. the results indicate that a large contribution to the outflux into the dayside plasmasphere during the recovery period is due to E>5 eV ions.

  16. Enhanced ion outflows measured by the DE 1 high altitude plasma instrument in the dayside plasmasphere during the recovery phase

    SciTech Connect

    Menietti, J.D.; Winningham, J.D.; Burch, J.L.; Peterson, W.K.; Waite J.H. Jr.; Weimer, D.R.

    1985-02-01

    Ion flow velocities both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field and including the effects of spacecraft charging and spacecraft velocity have been measured during the recovery phase of two large magnetic storms on October 14 and 21 of 1981. These measurements were made both inside and outside the plasmasphere and indicate unreported yet substantial outflows of ions within the dayside plasmasphere (October 14). Combined data from instruments on board the Dynamics Explorer satellite, including the high altitude plasma instrument (HAPI), the energetic ion composition spectrometer (EICS), the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) and the plasma wave instrument (PWI), indicate that these ions are most likely dominantly O/sup +/ at energies at least as low as 5 eV. The nightside pass (October 21), which occurred during the recovery phase of a similar storm, showed no plasmaspheric outflows. the results indicate that a large contribution to the outflux into the dayside plasmasphere during the recovery period is due to E>5 eV ions.

  17. Recovery of laccase from processed Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr) Pers. fruiting bodies in aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalu, Devamalini; Show, Pau Loke; Tan, Yee Shin; Muniandy, Sekaran; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2016-09-01

    The feasible use of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to establish a viable protocol for the recovery of laccase from processed Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. fruiting bodies was evaluated. Cold-stored (4.00±1.00°C) H. erinaceus recorded the highest laccase activities of 2.02±0.04 U/mL among all the processed techniques. The evaluation was carried out in twenty-five ATPSs, which composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with various molecular weights and potassium phosphate salt solution to purify the protein from H. erinaceus. Optimum recovery condition was observed in the ATPS which contained 17% (w/w) PEG with a molecular weight of 8000 and 12.2% (w/w) potassium phosphate solution, at a volume ratio (VR) of 1.0. The use of ATPS resulted in one-single primary recovery stage process that produced an overall yield of 99% with a purification factor of 8.03±0.46. The molecular mass of laccases purified from the bottom phase was in the range of 55-66 kDa. The purity of the partitioned laccase was confirmed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).

  18. Four-wave mixing for clock recovery of phase modulated optical OFDM superchannel.

    PubMed

    Power, Mark J; Jia, Wei; Webb, Roderick P; Manning, Robert J; Gunning, Fatima C Garcia

    2014-03-24

    We simulate and experimentally demonstrate a novel all-optical clock recovery technique for a BPSK OFDM superchannel. Four-wave mixing in SOAs is used to strip the modulation from the superchannel sub-carriers, two of which are filtered and beat together in a photodiode to recover the clock.

  19. Acute Recovery of Physiological and Cognitive Function in U.S. Army Ranger Students in a Multistressor Field Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    followed through two recovery periods, during and after , a prolonged exhaustive military activity, the U.S. Army Ranger course. Within the course, with a...course. Five weeks after the course, all of these parameters demonstrated recovery, or even overshoot. These data illustrate the remarkable...soldiers to duty after an intensive mission. This report describes the pattern of recovery of measures that reflect these two critical capabilities

  20. Early-Phase Recovery of Cardiorespiratory Measurements after Maximal Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bellefleur, Marie; Debeaumont, David; Boutry, Alain; Netchitailo, Marie; Cuvelier, Antoine; Muir, Jean-François; Tardif, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study investigated respiratory gas exchanges and heart rate (HR) kinetics during early-phase recovery after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) grouped according to airflow limitation. Methods. Thirty control individuals (control group: CG) and 81 COPD patients (45 with “mild” or “moderate” airflow limitation, COPDI-II, versus 36 with “severe” or “very severe” COPD, COPDIII-IV) performed a maximal CPET. The first 3 min of recovery kinetics was investigated for oxygen uptake (V˙O2), minute ventilation (V˙E), respiratory equivalence, and HR. The time for V˙O2 to reach 25% (T1/4V˙O2) of peak value was also determined and compared. Results. The V˙O2, V˙E, and HR recovery kinetics were significantly slower in both COPD groups than CG (p < 0.05). Moreover, COPDIII-IV group had significantly higher V˙O2 and V˙E during recovery than COPDI-II group (p < 0.05). T1/4V˙O2 significantly differed between groups (p < 0.01; 58 ± 18 s in CG, 79 ± 26 s in COPDI-II group, and 121 ± 34 s in COPDIII-IV) and was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in one second in COPD patients (p < 0.001, r = 0.53) and with peak power output (p < 0.001, r = 0.59). Conclusion. The COPD groups showed slower kinetics in the early recovery period than CG, and the kinetics varied with severity of airflow obstruction. PMID:28018674

  1. Early-Phase Recovery of Cardiorespiratory Measurements after Maximal Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Bellefleur, Marie; Debeaumont, David; Boutry, Alain; Netchitailo, Marie; Cuvelier, Antoine; Muir, Jean-François; Tardif, Catherine; Coquart, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study investigated respiratory gas exchanges and heart rate (HR) kinetics during early-phase recovery after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) grouped according to airflow limitation. Methods. Thirty control individuals (control group: CG) and 81 COPD patients (45 with "mild" or "moderate" airflow limitation, COPDI-II, versus 36 with "severe" or "very severe" COPD, COPDIII-IV) performed a maximal CPET. The first 3 min of recovery kinetics was investigated for oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2), minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]), respiratory equivalence, and HR. The time for [Formula: see text]O2 to reach 25% (T1/4[Formula: see text]O2) of peak value was also determined and compared. Results. The [Formula: see text]O2, [Formula: see text], and HR recovery kinetics were significantly slower in both COPD groups than CG (p < 0.05). Moreover, COPDIII-IV group had significantly higher [Formula: see text]O2 and [Formula: see text] during recovery than COPDI-II group (p < 0.05). T1/4[Formula: see text]O2 significantly differed between groups (p < 0.01; 58 ± 18 s in CG, 79 ± 26 s in COPDI-II group, and 121 ± 34 s in COPDIII-IV) and was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in one second in COPD patients (p < 0.001, r = 0.53) and with peak power output (p < 0.001, r = 0.59). Conclusion. The COPD groups showed slower kinetics in the early recovery period than CG, and the kinetics varied with severity of airflow obstruction.

  2. Factors affecting the blood concentration of ionized magnesium in patients in the acute phase of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Kenji; Tachibana, Hideaki; Suzuki, Tomomi; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    2004-11-01

    Magnesium is physiologically active in its free state (Mg2+). In the present study, we attempted to clarify factors affecting blood concentrations of Mg2+ in the acute phase of myocardial infarction (AMI). Subjects were 84 consecutive patients with AMI. Blood samples were collected at the time of admission, 24h after admission, and 1 week after admission, to measure blood concentration of Mg2+ and noradrenaline (NA). Furthermore, to assess daily Mg intake the hardness of local drinking water was determined, and a survey was conducted regarding dietary preferences and habits. Based on the results of this survey, the patients were defined as having a low Mg intake (L Group) or not. In addition, based on chronological shifts in blood Mg2+ concentrations, subjects were divided into the following four groups: Normal group, blood concentration of Mg2+ within normal range at all measurement points; Early recovery group, low at time of admission, but normalized on the next day; Delayed recovery group, low at time of admission, but normalized 1 week after admission; and Unrecovered group, below normal range at all measurement points. The mean blood Mg2+ concentration on admission was 0.52 +/- 0.06 mmol/l, significantly lower than the normal range (P < 0.05). A negative correlation between blood Mg2+ and NA concentrations on admission was observed (r = 0.49, P < 0.005). As a result, blood Mg2+ concentrations were normalized in 94% of subjects by 1 week after admission. Mean blood Mg2+ concentration on admission in the L Group was 0.47 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, significantly lower than that found in other subjects (0.52 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, P < 0.01). Eighty percent of the patients classified into the Unrecovered group belonged to the L Group. These findings suggest that lower blood concentrations of Mg2+ and higher plasma NA levels may be a result of serious AMI. However, chronic Mg intake deficiency may play a partial role in patients whose blood concentrations of Mg2+ remain low for

  3. White matter microstructure in chronic moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury: Impact of acute-phase injury-related variables and associations with outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Håberg, A K; Olsen, A; Moen, K G; Schirmer-Mikalsen, K; Visser, E; Finnanger, T G; Evensen, K A I; Skandsen, T; Vik, A; Eikenes, L

    2015-07-01

    This study examines how injury mechanisms and early neuroimaging and clinical measures impact white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volumes in the chronic phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and how WM integrity in the chronic phase is associated with different outcome measures obtained at the same time. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T was acquired more than 1 year after TBI in 49 moderate-to-severe-TBI survivors and 50 matched controls. DTI data were analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics and automated tractography. Moderate-to-severe TBI led to widespread FA decreases, MD increases, and tract volume reductions. In severe TBI and in acceleration/deceleration injuries, a specific FA loss was detected. A particular loss of FA was also present in the thalamus and the brainstem in all grades of diffuse axonal injury. Acute-phase Glasgow Coma Scale scores, number of microhemorrhages on T2*, lesion volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and duration of posttraumatic amnesia were associated with more widespread FA loss and MD increases in chronic TBI. Episodes of cerebral perfusion pressure <70 mmHg were specifically associated with reduced MD. Neither episodes of intracranial pressure >20 mmHg nor acute-phase Rotterdam CT scores were associated with WM changes. Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended scores and performance-based cognitive control functioning were associated with FA and MD changes, but self-reported cognitive control functioning was not. In conclusion, FA loss specifically reflects the primary injury severity and mechanism, whereas FA and MD changes are associated with objective measures of general and cognitive control functioning.

  4. [Acute-phase proteins in the saliva of workers engaged in processing natural gas and condensate high in hydrogen sulfide].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, V I; Dotsenko, Iu I; Boĭko, O V

    2011-06-01

    The paper considers current methods for assessing the workers' health status. It shows it possible to identify increased quantities of acute-phase serum proteins upon exposure to the negative factors characteristic of the Astrakhan gas processing plant. A wider range of tests for acute-phase tissue and serum proteins is proposed to be included in order to gain a fuller insight into the influence of unfavorable industrial factors on man and to make monitoring that enables the existing health risks and the efficiency of preventive measures to be controlled.

  5. A multicomponent, two-phase-flow model for CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced coalbed-methane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, C.J.; Jessen, K.; Orr, F.M.

    2009-03-15

    Injection of CO{sub 2} into deep unminable coal seams is an option for geological storage of CO{sub 2} and may enhance the recovery of CH{sub 4} in these systems, making coal reservoirs interesting candidates for sequestration. New analytical solutions are presented for two-phase, three- and four-component flow with volume change on mixing in adsorbing systems. We analyze the simultaneous flow of water and gas containing multiple adsorbing components. The displacement problem is solved by the method of characteristics. Mixtures of N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O are used to represent enhanced coalbed-methane (ECBM) recovery processes. The displacement behavior is demonstrated to be strongly dependent on the relative adsorption strength of the gas components. In ternary systems, two types of solutions result. When a gas rich in CO{sub 2} displaces a less strongly adsorbing gas (such as CH{sub 4}), a shock solution is obtained. As the injected gas propagates through the system, CO{sub 2} is removed from the mobile phase by adsorption, while desorbed gas propagates ahead of the CO{sub 2} front. The adsorption of CO{sub 2} reduces the flow velocity of the injected gas, delaying breakthrough and allowing for more CO{sub 2} to be sequestered per volume of CH{sub 4} produced. For injection gases rich in N{sub 2}, a decrease in partial pressure is required to displace the preferentially adsorbed CH{sub 4} and a rarefaction solution results. In quaternary displacements with injection-gas mixtures of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, the relative adsorption strength of the components results in solutions that exhibit features of both the N{sub 2}-rich and CO{sub 2}-rich ternary displacements. Analytical solutions for ECBM recovery processes provide insight into the complex interplay of adsorption, phase behavior, and convection.

  6. Effective factors on linguistic disorder during acute phase following traumatic brain injury in adults.

    PubMed

    Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Kapourchali, Sara Ramezani; Leili, Ehsan Kazemnezhad; Saberi, Alia; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been known to be the leading cause of breakdown and long-term disability in people under 45 years of age. This study highlights the effective factors on post-traumatic (PT) linguistic disorder and relations between linguistic and cognitive function after trauma in adults with acute TBI. A cross-sectional design was employed to study 60 post-TBI hospitalized adults aged 18-65 years. Post-traumatic (PT) linguistic disorder and cognitive deficit after TBI were respectively diagnosed using the Persian Aphasia Test (PAT) and Persian version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at discharge. Primary post-resuscitation consciousness level was determined using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Paracilinical data was obtained by CT scan technique. Multiple logistic regression analysis illustrated that brain injury severity was the first powerful significant predictor of PT linguistic disorder after TBI and frontotemporal lesion was the second. It was also revealed that cognitive function score was significantly correlated with score of each language skill except repetition. Subsequences of TBI are more commonly language dysfunctions that demand cognitive flexibility. Moderate, severe and fronto-temporal lesion can increase the risk of processing deficit in linguistic macrostructure production and comprehension. The dissociation risk of cortical and subcortical pathways related to cognitive-linguistic processing due to intracranial lesions can augment possibility of lexical-semantic processing deficit in acute phase which probably contributes to later cognitive-communication disorder.

  7. The cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity during the acute phase of brain injury.

    PubMed

    Cold, G E; Jensen, F T; Malmros, R

    1977-01-01

    Using the intra-arterial 133xenon (133Xe) method, the cerebrovascular response to acute Paco2 reduction was studied in 26 unconscious, brain-injured patients subjected to controlled ventilation. The CO2 reactivity was calculated as delta in CBF/delta Paco2. The perfusion pressure was defined as the difference between mean arterial pressure and mean intraventricular pressure. Although the CO2 reactivities did not differ significantly from that in awake, normocapnic subjects, it was low in the acute phase of injury, especially in those patients with severe outcome in whom the brain-stem reflexes were often affected. An increase of the CO2 reactivity with time was observed, indicating normal response after 1-2 weeks. Chronic hypocapnia in six unconscious patients resulted in sustained CSF pH adaptation. The question whether a delay in CSF pH adapation exerts an influence on the CO2 reactivity, and the influence of cerebral lactacidosis on the CO2 response are discussed.

  8. Two genes controlling acute phase responses by the antitumor polysacch aride, lentinan.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y Y; Takahama, S; Kohara, Y; Yonekawa, H

    1996-01-01

    Lentinan, a beta-1,6;1,3-glucan, is tumor-specific for transplantable mouse solid-type tumors and it also stimulates the production of acute phase proteins (APPs). The APP response to lentinan is of the delayed type (DT-APR) and differs from that to lipopolysaccharide, which is acute. We found that the responses were genetically controlled in mice and that low responsiveness is dominant (Maeda et al. 1991). Using 123 segregants of crosses between SWR/J (a high responder) and Mus spretus (a low responder), we analyzed the linkage between DT-APR responsiveness and the DNA polymerase chain reaction-simple sequence length polymorphism (PCR-SSLP) phenotype using 80 chromosome-specific microsatellite markers. We identified two loci (ltn1.1 and ltn1.2) responsible for DT-APR. ltn1.1 is closely linked to D3Mit11 on chromosome 3 and ltn1.2 to D11Nds9 on chromosome 11 (P <0.001). The linkage analysis also suggested that ltn1.2 is the major determinant for DT-APR. Correlation between lentinan-specific IL-6 mRNA expression (the late expression) controlled recessively and DT-APR induction suggests that the ltn1 loci control some process(es) of IL-6 expression in the regulation step before NF-IL6.

  9. [Acute phase reaction of different macromolecule vascular grafts healing in rat muscle].

    PubMed

    Wang, Weici; Jin, Bi; Ouyang, Chenxi; Li, Yiqing; Xu, Weilin; Yang, Hongjun; Xu, Haiye

    2010-01-01

    To find out which biomaterial had the best biocompatibility, we compared the acute phase reaction of common biomaterials preparing for vascular grafts with the material of polyurethane modified by silk fibroin (SF-PU(1:1)). After transplanted the materials of dacron, polyterafluoroethylene (e-PTFE), polyurethane (PU), SF-PU(1:1) in rat muscle for one week, we studied the influence of different biomaterials on the histocompatibility by using rat acute toxicity test, test of local reaction in muscle, tissue section staining, WBC and PLT count. As a result, dacron had the worst histocompatibility. The other biomaterials had slight local inflammatory reaction. The WBC and PLT was nearly the same with the blank except dacron. e-PTFE, pure PU and SF-PU(1:1) had the better histocompatibility than traditional dacron. Especially SF-PU(1:1) had the best histocompatibility. Because of the better physical properties and histocompatibility of SF-PU( 1:1), the prospect of preparing small-diameter vascular grafts with SF-PU was cheerful.

  10. Telemedicine in Acute-Phase Injury Management: A Review of Practice and Advancements

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Erin R.; Thomas, Carlos A.; Mbarika, Victor W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To offer a systematic review of the body of literature in the emerging field of telemedicine in the management of acute-phase injuries. Materials and Methods: We conducted a literature review. Results: Telemedicine has only recently been applied to the specialties of trauma, emergency care, and surgery. The potential benefits of telemedicine include a decrease in travel expenses, enhanced continuity of care, and increased access to specialized consultants in medically underserved and rural areas. Conclusions: There still exist barriers to the use of teletechnologies in medicine that limit their wider adoption. Poor infrastructure, limited equipment availability, and insufficient access to training and education for medical personnel have prevented wider use. PMID:22694296

  11. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  12. Acupuncture as a primary and independent treatment in the acute phases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuanyuan; Lu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is an otological emergency defined as a rapid hearing loss, seriously affects patient's social life. To data, no study has reported the treatment by acupuncture alone in the acute phase. In this report, Acupuncture and Moxibustion therapy of excitation-focus transfer is outlined. The patient was a 26-year-old young woman who had an SSHL coupled with ear fullness. The patient had no past medical history, but she had undergone variable emotions and had a history of excessive noise exposure. The patient refused to receive any medicine especially steroids and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. She just only received acupuncture treatment. Her symptoms and outcome measurements were improved every week and completely recovered after the last week. Even though the article presents a single case and is based on self-reports, there are very clear trends on how patients with SSHL responded to acupuncture treatments. PMID:27368045

  13. Dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Saito, Akatsuki; Katakai, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yuki; Kurosawa, Terue; Hamano, Masataka; Higashino, Atsunori; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Kurane, Ichiro; Akari, Hirofumi

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we examined the dynamics of cellular immune responses in the acute phase of dengue virus (DENV) infection in a marmoset model. Here, we found that DENV infection in marmosets greatly induced responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. Interestingly, the strength of the immune response was greater in animals infected with a dengue fever strain than in those infected with a dengue hemorrhagic fever strain of DENV. In contrast, when animals were re-challenged with the same DENV strain used for primary infection, the neutralizing antibody induced appeared to play a critical role in sterilizing inhibition against viral replication, resulting in strong but delayed responses of CD4/CD8 central memory T and NKT cells. The results in this study may help to better understand the dynamics of cellular and humoral immune responses in the control of DENV infection.

  14. Phase behavior and oil recovery investigations using mixed and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; French, T.R.; Noll, L.A.; Munden, S.A.

    1992-03-01

    The results of an evaluation of different mixed surfactant and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several mixed surfactant systems have been studies to evaluate their oil recovery potential as well as improved adaptability to different ranges of salinity, divalent ion concentrations, and temperature. Several combinations of screening methods were used to help identify potential chemical formulations and determine conditions where particular chemical systems can be applied. The effects of different parameters on the behavior of the overall surfactant system were also studied. Several commercially available surfactants were tested as primary components in the mixtures used in the study. These surfactants were formulated with different secondary as well as tertiary components, including ethoxylated and non-ethoxylated sulfonates and sulfates. Improved salinity and hardness tolerance was achieved for some of these chemical systems. The salinity tolerance of these systems were found to be dependent on the molecular weight, surfactant type, and concentration of the surfactant components.

  15. Pituitary dysfunction in traumatic brain injury: Is evaluation in the acute phase worthwhile?

    PubMed Central

    Dalwadi, Pradip P.; Bhagwat, Nikhil M.; Tayde, Parimal S.; Joshi, Ameya S.; Varthakavi, Premlata K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an under-recognized cause of hypopituitarism. According to recent data, it could be more frequent than previously known. However, there is a scarcity of data in Indian population. Aims: The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pituitary hormone deficiencies in the acute phase of TBI. The secondary objectives were to correlate the severity of trauma with basal hormone levels and to determine whether initial hormone deficiencies predict mortality. Subjects and Methods: Forty-nine TBI patients (41 men and 8 women) were included in this study. Pituitary functions were evaluated within 24 h of admission. Results: Gonadotropin deficiency was found in 65.3% patient while 46.9% had low insulin-like growth factor-1, 12.24% had cortisol level <7 mcg/dl. Cortisol and prolactin level were positively correlated with the severity of TBI suggestive of stress response. Free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine were significantly lower in patients with increasing severity of tuberculosis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mortality after TBI was unrelated to the basal pituitary hormone levels except low T3 level, which was found to be positively related to mortality. Conclusions: Pituitary dysfunction is common after TBI and the most commonly affected axes are growth hormone and gonadotropin axis. Low fT3 correlates best with mortality. During the acute phase of TBI, at least an assessment of cortisol is vital as undetected cortisol deficiency can be life-threatening PMID:28217503

  16. Complete recovery of acute monocular visual loss following endoscopic resection of anterior clinoid mucocele: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nundkumar, Neelesh; Mittal, Monika; Kupsky, William J; Folbe, Adam; Mittal, Sandeep

    2012-01-15

    Mucoceles are chronic non-neoplastic cystic lesions lined by mucus-secreting respiratory epithelium in the paranasal sinuses. Mucocele of the anterior clinoid process is a particularly rare entity most often presenting with rapidly progressive monocular blindness. The authors describe the case of a 32 year-old man who presented with acute painless visual loss in the left eye. Workup revealed an expansile lesion of the left anterior clinoid process with associated optic nerve compression. The patient underwent emergent endoscopic-assisted transnasal decompression of the optic nerve with full recovery of visual function. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention optimizes the chances of functional regain of visual acuity.

  17. Relationship between Barthel Index scores during the acute phase of rehabilitation and subsequent ADL in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Shigetaka; Takata, Shinjiro; Uemura, Hirokazu; Kashihara, Michiharu; Osawa, Toshifumi; Komatsu, Koji; Masuda, Yuki; Okahisa, Tetsuya; Nishikawa, Koji; Kondo, Shin; Yamada, Megumi; Takahara, Risa; Ogata, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Yuka; Nagahiro, Shinji; Kaji, Ryuji; Yasui, Natsuo

    2010-02-01

    The Barthel Index (BI) cannot be used to measure initial stroke severity or by extension, to stratify patients by severity in acute stroke trials because most patients are bedbound in the first few hours after stroke, either by their deficit or by medical directive. Our objectives were to clarify the threshold of acute BI for use in the prediction of subsequent independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and to assist in the definition of acute stroke rehabilitation goals. Subjects comprised 78 patients out of 191 inpatients admitted with acute stroke at our hospital during 2006-2007. The BI ADL score was divided into 2 ranges (BI> or =60 and < or =40), in a process similar to previous studies. During the acute period (from onset to approximately 3 weeks), all patients with a BI> or =40 could improve their ADL in 6 months. Patients with a BI< or =40 exhibited two ADL recovery outcomes (improved and no change) at 6 months. We also found that the skill level of basic activities related to standing was significant indicator of BI improvement (P<0.001). BI scores determined at approximately 3 weeks were reliable predictors of ADL disabilities at 6 months.

  18. Recovery of phase inconsistencies in continuously moving table extended field of view magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Kruger, David G; Riederer, Stephen J; Rossman, Phillip J; Mostardi, Petrice M; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Hu, Houchun H

    2005-09-01

    MR images formed using extended FOV continuously moving table data acquisition can have signal falloff and loss of lateral spatial resolution at localized, periodic positions along the direction of table motion. In this work we identify the origin of these artifacts and provide a means for correction. The artifacts are due to a mismatch of the phase of signals acquired from contiguous sampling fields of view and are most pronounced when the central k-space views are being sampled. Correction can be performed using the phase information from a periodically sampled central view to adjust the phase of all other views of that view cycle, making the net phase uniform across each axial plane. Results from experimental phantom and contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA studies show that the correction technique substantially eliminates the artifact for a variety of phase encode orders.

  19. Benefits of napping and an extended duration of recovery sleep on alertness and immune cells after acute sleep restriction.

    PubMed

    Faraut, Brice; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Dyzma, Michal; Rousseau, Alexandre; David, Elodie; Stenuit, Patricia; Franck, Thierry; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Kerkhofs, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between sleep and the immune system may offer insight into why short sleep duration has been linked to negative health outcomes. We, therefore, investigated the effects of napping and extended recovery sleep after sleep restriction on the immune and inflammatory systems and sleepiness. After a baseline night, healthy young men slept for a 2-h night followed by either a standard 8-h recovery night (n=12), a 30-min nap (at 1 p.m.) in addition to an 8-h recovery night (n=10), or a 10-h extended recovery night (n=9). A control group slept 3 consecutive 8-h nights (n=9). Subjects underwent continuous electroencephalogram polysomnography and blood was sampled every day at 7 a.m. Leukocytes, inflammatory and atherogenesis biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-8, myeloperoxidase, fibrinogen and apolipoproteins ApoB/ApoA), sleep patterns and sleepiness were investigated. All parameters remained unchanged in the control group. After sleep restriction, leukocyte and - among leukocyte subsets - neutrophil counts were increased, an effect that persisted after the 8-h recovery sleep, but, in subjects who had a nap or a 10-h recovery sleep, these values returned nearly to baseline. Inflammatory and atherogenesis biomarkers were unchanged except for higher myeloperoxidase levels after sleep restriction. The increased sleepiness after sleep restriction was reversed better in the nap and extended sleep recovery conditions. Saliva cortisol decreased immediately after the nap. Our results indicate that additional recovery sleep after sleep restriction provided by a midday nap prior to recovery sleep or a sleep extended night can improve alertness and return leukocyte counts to baseline values.

  20. ST/HR hysteresis: exercise and recovery phase ST depression/heart rate analysis of the exercise ECG.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, R

    1999-01-01

    ST segment depression/heart rate (ST/HR) hysteresis is a recently introduced novel computer method for integrating the exercise and recovery phase ST/HR analysis for improved detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). It is a continuous diagnostic variable that extracts the prevailing direction and average magnitude of the hysteresis in ST depression against HR during the first 3 consecutive minutes of postexercise recovery. This article reviews the development and evaluation of this new method in a clinical population of 347 patients referred for a routine bicycle exercise electrocardiographic (ECG) test at Tampere University Hospital, Finland. Of these patients, 127 had angiographically proven CAD, whereas 13 had no CAD according to angiography, 18 had no perfusion defect according to Tc-99m-sestamibi myocardial imaging and single photon emission computed tomography, and 189 were clinically normal with respect to cardiac diseases. For each patient, the values for ST/HR hysteresis, ST/HR index, end-exercise ST depression, and recovery ST depression were determined for each lead of the Mason-Likar modification of the standard 12-lead exercise ECG and maximum value from the lead system (aVL, aVR, and V1 excluded). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (ie, the discriminative capacity) of the ST/HR hysteresis was 89%, which was significantly larger than that of the end-exercise ST depression (76%, P < .0001), recovery ST depression (84%, P = .0063) or ST/HR index (83%, P = .0023), indicating the best diagnostic performance of the ST/HR hysteresis in detection of CAD regardless of the partition value selection. Furthermore, the superior diagnostic performance of the method was relatively insensitive to the ST segment measurement point or to the ECG lead selection. These results suggest that the ST/HR hysteresis improves the clinical utility of the exercise ECG test in detection of CAD.

  1. Pupil plane interferometry in the near infrared. II - Phase recovery and image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monin, J.-L.; Mariotti, J.-M.; Ghez, P.; Perrier, C.; Desbat, L.

    1992-07-01

    We describe a 2D method to extract the phase of turbulence-blurred near-IR interferograms in the plane of the telescope pupil. The instrument and its principle have been described by Mariotti et al. (1992). The phase data are obtained from near-IR interference fringes produced by a Michelson interferometer in the image of the telescope pupil. We have developed an equivalent of the Knox-Thompson algorithm, using the spatial correlation of the phase over the pupil to recover the actual 2D phase of the complex visibility function. We compute and average the spatial gradients of the instantaneous phase, and a minimal norm least squares method is then used to recover the actual phase over the pupil. The modulus and the phase can be used to recover diffraction-limited images. We present an application of the method on a simulated binary system, together with first results on some astronomical data recently obtained at the 4.20-m William Herschel Telescope of the Royal Greenwich Observatory at La Palma. Tentative deconvolutions are presented.

  2. Molecular Diagnosis of Chagas Disease in Colombia: Parasitic Loads and Discrete Typing Units in Patients from Acute and Chronic Phases

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Carolina; Cucunubá, Zulma; Flórez, Carolina; Olivera, Mario; Valencia, Carlos; Zambrano, Pilar; León, Cielo; Ramírez, Juan David

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of Chagas disease is complex due to the dynamics of parasitemia in the clinical phases of the disease. The molecular tests have been considered promissory because they detect the parasite in all clinical phases. Trypanosoma cruzi presents significant genetic variability and is classified into six Discrete Typing Units TcI-TcVI (DTUs) with the emergence of foreseen genotypes within TcI as TcIDom and TcI Sylvatic. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics of molecular tests (conventional and Real Time PCR) for the detection of T. cruzi DNA, parasitic loads and DTUs in a large cohort of Colombian patients from acute and chronic phases. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples were obtained from 708 patients in all clinical phases. Standard diagnosis (direct and serological tests) and molecular tests (conventional PCR and quantitative PCR) targeting the nuclear satellite DNA region. The genotyping was performed by PCR using the intergenic region of the mini-exon gene, the 24Sa, 18S and A10 regions. The operating capabilities showed that performance of qPCR was higher compared to cPCR. Likewise, the performance of qPCR was significantly higher in acute phase compared with chronic phase. The median parasitic loads detected were 4.69 and 1.33 parasite equivalents/mL for acute and chronic phases. The main DTU identified was TcI (74.2%). TcIDom genotype was significantly more frequent in chronic phase compared to acute phase (82.1% vs 16.6%). The median parasitic load for TcIDom was significantly higher compared with TcI Sylvatic in chronic phase (2.58 vs.0.75 parasite equivalents/ml). Conclusions/Significance The molecular tests are a precise tool to complement the standard diagnosis of Chagas disease, specifically in acute phase showing high discriminative power. However, it is necessary to improve the sensitivity of molecular tests in chronic phase. The frequency and parasitemia of TcIDom genotype in chronic

  3. Feasibility study on energy recovery and cogeneration from an existing municipal incinerator, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    A feasibility study of recovering and converting incinerator waste heat energy into steam and electricity for use in the facility with excess electricity being sold to the local utility was made. Energy recovery would be accomplished by retrofitting each furnace with a waste heat boiler and producing steam for heating and for driving steam turbine electric generators. Preliminary designs economic analyses, and financial plans were prepared. The quantity of municipal refuse was identified and the electric revenues needed for project justification were calculated. For the purpose of obtaining accurate design data, field tests were carried out on the actual refuse and combustion process.

  4. DO ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS REFLECT SEVERITY OF INFLAMMATION IN RAT MODELS OF POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG INJURY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: DO ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS REFLECT THE SEVERITY OF INFLAMMATION IN RAT MODELS OF POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG INJURY?

    M. C. Schladweiler, BS 1, P. S. Gilmour, PhD 2, D. L. Andrews, BS 1, D. L. Costa, ScD 1, A. D. Ledbetter, BS 1, K. E. Pinkerton, PhD 3 and U. P. Kodavanti, ...

  5. Acute-phase protein concentration and metabolic status affect the outcome of treatment in cows with clinical and subclinical endometritis.

    PubMed

    Heidarpour, M; Mohri, M; Fallah-Rad, A H; Dehghan Shahreza, F; Mohammadi, M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of acute-phase protein concentration and metabolic status in the establishment and resistance of clinical endometritis (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SE) in dairy cows. We also characterised the treatment-related changes in the concentration of acute-phase proteins and metabolic variables in dairy cows affected by CE and SE. Cows of the SE and CE groups presented a significantly higher β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), haptoglobin and total sialic acid (TSA) concentrations compared with a healthy group of animals. A significantly lower serum calcium concentration, and a significantly higher serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the CE group, were observed when compared with SE and healthy groups. The comparison of parameters before treatment indicated that cows suffering from CE or SE with lower concentrations of hepatic and inflammatory markers showed a better response to further treatment, and endometritis was not detected in the second examination. Moreover, decreased concentrations of BHB, acute-phase proteins and hepatic markers were observed after successful treatment for endometritis in CE and SE cows. The results obtained in this study suggest that improved liver function and a decrease in the acute-phase protein concentration might favour the resolution of endometritis after treatment.

  6. The acute phase inflammatory response to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Liem, Robert I; Onyejekwe, Kasiemobi; Olszewski, Marie; Nchekwube, Chisalu; Zaldivar, Frank P; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Rodeghier, Mark J; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-12-01

    Although individuals with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) have elevated baseline inflammation and endothelial activation, the acute phase response to maximal exercise has not been evaluated among children with SCA. We measured the acute phase response to maximal exercise testing for soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM) as well as interleukin 6 (IL6), total white blood cell (WBC) count, C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer in a cohort of children with SCA and matched controls at baseline, immediately after, and 30, 60 and 120 min following exercise. Despite higher baseline levels of all biomarkers except CRP, the acute phase response from baseline to immediately after exercise was significantly greater in subjects versus controls for CRP (2·1 vs. 0·2 mg/l, P = 0·02) and D-dimer (160 vs. 10 μg/l, P < 0·01) only. Similar between-group trends were observed over time for all biomarkers, including sVCAM, IL6, total WBC, CRP and D-dimer. Lower fitness, defined by peak oxygen consumption (VO2 ), was independently associated with greater acute phase responses to exercise for sVCAM. Our results suggest maximal exercise may not be associated with any greater escalation of endothelial activation or inflammation in SCA and provide preliminary biomarker evidence for the safety of brief, high-intensity physical exertion in children with SCA.

  7. Prenatal transportation alters the acute phase response (APR) of bull calves exposed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if prenatal transportation influences the acute phase response (APR) to a postnatal Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pregnant Brahman cows (n=96) matched by age and parity were separated into transported (TRANS; n=48; transported for 2 hours on gestational day...

  8. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  9. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to an endotoxin challenge. Heifers (n = 24; 219 ± 2.4 kg) were separated into treatment groups receiving a Control diet (n = 8), ...

  10. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9+/-2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and tra...

  11. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  12. Dried citrus pulp modulates the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding dried citrus pulp (CP) pellets on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-received crossbred heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.3±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported...

  13. Acute exposure to 2G phase shifts the rat circadian timing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Murakami, D. M.; Tandon, T.; Fuller, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    The circadian timing system (CTS) provides internal and external temporal coordination of an animal's physiology and behavior. In mammals, the generation and coordination of these circadian rhythms is controlled by a neural pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), located within the hypothalamus. The pacemaker is synchronized to the 24 hour day by time cures (zeitgebers) such as the light/dark cycle. When an animal is exposed to an environment without time cues, the circadian rhythms maintain internal temporal coordination, but exhibit a 'free-running' condition in which the period length is determined by the internal pacemaker. Maintenance of internal and external temporal coordination are critical for normal physiological and psychological function in human and non-human primates. Exposure to altered gravitational environments has been shown to affect the amplitude, mean, and timing of circadian rhythms in species ranging from unicellular organisms to man. However, it has not been determined whether altered gravitational fields have a direct effect on the neural pacemaker, or affect peripheral parameters. In previous studies, the ability of a stimulus to phase shift circadian rhythms was used to determine whether a stimulus has a direct effect on the neural pacemaker. The present experiment was performed in order to determine whether acute exposure to a hyperdynamic field could phase shift circadian rhythms.

  14. Changes in electromyographic activity of trunk muscles within the sub-acute phase for individuals deemed recovered from a low back injury.

    PubMed

    Butler, Heather L; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Kozey, John W

    2013-04-01

    Evidence indicates that previous low back injury (LBI) is a strong predictor for re-injury. The purpose of this study was to examine whether neuromuscular patterns remain altered in a LBI group who were deemed recovered. Surface electromyograms from 12-abdominal and 12-back extensors sites and motion variables were recorded from 33 LBI individuals (sub-acute phase) and 54 asymptomatic controls. Pain-related variables were recorded and a clinical assessment performed for LBI participants. Subjects performed a symmetrical lift and replace task in two reaches. Pattern recognition techniques were applied to normalized activation amplitude patterns to extract key recruitment strategies. Mixed model ANOVAs tested for effects (p < 0.05). Despite similar task performance, significantly (p < 0.05) different recruitment strategies were observed for the LBI group. There were higher activation amplitudes for LBI subjects in all muscles (except posterior external oblique) and greater co-activation between abdominal and back extensor sites compared to controls. Local abdominal and back extensor sites showed altered responses to increased physical demands in the LBI group. Despite outcomes indicating recovery, the LBI group had altered neuromuscular patterns compared to asymptomatic controls supporting that residual alterations remain following recovery.

  15. Increases in the serum acute phase proteins after ozone exposure are associated with induction of genes in the lung but not liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute Phase Response (APR), a systemic reaction to infection, trauma, and inflammation, is characterized by increases and decreases in plasma levels of positive and negative acute phase proteins (APP), respectively. Although the liver has been shown to contribute to APR in variou...

  16. Phase recovery for electron holography using Gerchberg-Papoulis iterative algorithm.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takeshi; McCartney, M R

    2005-03-01

    The Gerchberg-Papoulis (GP) iterative algorithm is applied to electron holographic reconstruction to supplement the Fourier-transform method. The GP algorithm can recover the phase to high accuracy using simulated holograms. This method is useful when a region of known amplitude is present, such as a region of vacuum or uniform thickness. Modulations of the phase on the order of 0.1 rad can be corrected significantly using this algorithm.

  17. Mimicking acute and chronic stress exposure in naive beef steers alters the acute phase response (APR) associated with vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of an acute versus chronic stress model on the APR associated with vaccination in naïve beef steers. Steers (n=32; 209 +/- 8 kg) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) Chronic stress (CHR), 0.5 mg/kg body weight dexamethasone...

  18. Recovery efficiency test project, Phase 2 activity report. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency of gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. This volume contains appendices for: (1) supporting material and procedures for ``data frac`` stimulation of zone 6 using nitrogen and nitrogen foam; (2) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 1 nitrogen gas frac on zone no. 1; (3) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 2 in zone no. 1 using liquid CO{sub 2}; (4) supporting material and procedures for frac no. 3 on zone no.1 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (5) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 4 in zones 2--3 and 4 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (6) supporting materials and procedures for stimulation no. 5 in zones 5 and 8; and (7) fracture diagnostics reports and supporting materials.

  19. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    SciTech Connect

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  20. Enhanced recovery of breathing capacity from combined adenosine 2A receptor inhibition and daily acute intermittent hypoxia after chronic cervical spinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Opazo, A.; Dougherty, B.J.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2016-01-01

    Daily acute intermittent hypoxia (dAIH) improves breathing capacity after C2 spinal hemisection (C2HS) in rats. Since C2HS disrupts spinal serotonergic innervation below the injury, adenosine-dependent mechanisms underlie dAIH-induced functional recovery 2 weeks post-injury. We hypothesized that dAIH-induced functional recovery converts from an adenosine-dependent to a serotonin-dependent, adenosine-constrained mechanism with chronic injury. Eight weeks post-C2HS, rats began dAIH (10, 5-min episodes, 10.5% O2; 5-min intervals; 7 days) followed by AIH 3× per week (3×wAIH) for 8 additional weeks with/without systemic A2A receptor inhibition (KW6002) on each AIH exposure day. Tidal volume (VT) and bilateral diaphragm (Dia) and T2 external intercostal motor activity were assessed in unanesthetized rats breathing air and during maximum chemoreflex stimulation (MCS: 7% CO2, 10.5% O2). Nine weeks post-C2HS, dAIH increased VT versus time controls (p < 0.05), an effect enhanced by KW6002 (p < 0.05). dAIH increased bilateral Dia activity (p < 0.05), and KW6002 enhanced this effect in contralateral (p < 0.05) and ipsilateral Dia activity (p < 0.001), but not T2 inspiratory activity. Functional benefits of combined AIH plus systemic A2A receptor inhibition were maintained for 4 weeks. Thus, in rats with chronic injuries: 1) dAIH improves VT and bilateral diaphragm activity; 2) VT recovery is enhanced by A2A receptor inhibition; and 3) functional recovery with A2A receptor inhibition and AIH “reminders” last 4 weeks. Combined dAIH and A2A receptor inhibition may be a simple, safe, and effective strategy to accelerate/enhance functional recovery of breathing capacity in patients with respiratory impairment from chronic spinal injury. PMID:27079999

  1. Post-treatment effects of erythropoietin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid on recovery from cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Won; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Lee, Soo Bong; Song, Sang Heon; Seong, Eun Young; Yang, Byeong Yun; Lee, Min Young; Sol, Mee Young

    2009-01-01

    5-lipoxygenase inhibitor and human recombinant erythropoietin might accelerate renal recovery in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: 1) normal controls; 2) Cisplatin group-cisplatin induced acute renal failure (ARF) plus vehicle treatment; 3) Cisplatin+nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) group-cisplatin induced ARF plus 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor treatment; 4) Cisplatin+erythropoietin (EPO) group-cisplatin induced ARF plus erythropoietin treatment. On day 10 (after 7 daily injections of NDGA or EPO), urea nitrogen and serum Cr concentrations were significantly lower in the Cisplatin+NDGA and Cisplatin+EPO groups than in the Cisplatin group, and 24 hr urine Cr clearances were significantly higher in the Cisplatin+EPO group than in the Cisplatin group. Semi-quantitative assessments of histological lesions did not produce any significant differences between the three treatment groups. Numbers of PCNA(+) cells were significantly higher in Cisplatin, Cisplatin+NDGA, and Cisplatin+EPO groups than in normal controls. Those PCNA(+) cells were significantly increased in Cisplatin+NDGA group. These results suggest that EPO and also NDGA accelerate renal function recovery by stimulating tubular epithelial cell regeneration.

  2. The acute phase reactant, fibrinogen, as a guide to plasma exchange therapy for acute Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Rashmi; Flanagan, Janice; Sodano, Donata; Gorson, Kenneth C; Ropper, Allan H; Weinstein, Robert

    2006-07-01

    The Guillian Barré syndrome is an acute inflammatory disorder for which plasma exchange is effective treatment. Up to 10% relapse after plasma exchange suggesting that treatment sometimes finishes before disease activity has resolved. We studied whether plasma fibrinogen, an inflammatory marker, might be used to determine when to discontinue plasma exchange in patients with acute Guillain-Barré syndrome. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of apheresis database and hospital records of patients treated with plasma exchange for acute Guillain-Barré syndrome during 1999-2004. Data were analyzed from 28 patients who underwent a total of 29 courses of plasma exchange for acute Guillain-Barré syndrome. The mean (+/-SD) plasma fibrinogen concentration was 422.5 (+/-96.4) mg/dl at the time of presentation and, in 17 of the 29, it was above 400 mg/dl (reference range 200-400). Twenty of the 21 patients whose fibrinogen fell by more than 30% from baseline by the time of the final plasma exchange treatment had neurological improvement. There was improvement in only 3 of the 8 instances where fibrinogen decreased by less than 30% by the end of plasma exchange therapy. A > or =30% decrease in fibrinogen by the conclusion of plasma exchange was significantly associated with sustained neurological improvement (P = 0.0025). The plasma fibrinogen level appears to reflect disease activity in acute Guillain-Barré syndrome. A <30% fall in fibrinogen level despite plasma exchange may indicate the need to continue plasma exchange to maximize the benefit of treatment or minimize the risk of relapse. Therapeutic plasma exchange need not be extended when plasma fibrinogen remains > or =30% below its level at presentation by the time of the final planned plasma exchange procedure.

  3. Preventive effect of the microalga Chlamydomonas debaryana on the acute phase of experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Avila-Román, Javier; Talero, Elena; Alcaide, Antonio; Reyes, Carolina de Los; Zubía, Eva; García-Mauriño, Sofía; Motilva, Virginia

    2014-10-14

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterised by chronic uncontrolled inflammation of intestinal mucosa. Diet and nutritional factors have emerged as possible interventions for IBD. Microalgae are rich sources of n-3 PUFA and derived oxylipins. Oxylipins are lipid mediators involved in the resolution of many inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the oxylipin-containing biomass of the microalga Chlamydomonas debaryana and its major oxylipin constituent, (9Z,11E,13S,15Z)-13-hydroxyoctadeca-9,11,15-trienoic acid ((13S)-HOTE), on acute 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Lyophilised microalgal biomass and (13S)-HOTE were administered by oral route 48, 24 and 1 h before the induction of colitis and 24 h later, and the rats were killed after 48 h. The treatment with the lyophilised microalga and (13S)-HOTE improved body-weight loss and colon shortening, as well as attenuated the extent of colonic damage and increased mucus production. Cellular neutrophil infiltration, with the subsequent increase in myeloperoxidase levels induced by TNBS, were also reduced after the administration of the lyophilised microalga or (13S)-HOTE. The anti-inflammatory effects of these treatments were confirmed by the inhibition of colonic TNF-α production. Moreover, lyophilised microalga or (13S)-HOTE down-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The present study was the first to show the prophylactic effects of a lyophilised biomass sample of the microalga C. debaryana and the oxylipin (13S)-HOTE on TNBS-induced acute colitis in rats. Our findings suggest that the microalga C. debaryana or derived oxylipins could be used as nutraceuticals in the treatment of the active phase of IBD.

  4. Fasa Registry on Acute Myocardial Infarction (FaRMI): Feasibility Study and Pilot Phase Results

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Alireza; Zakeri, Habib; Farjam, Mojtaba; Dehghan, Azizallah; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of death in Iran. Every attempt to improve treatment patterns and patient outcomes needs a surveillance system to both consider the efficacy and safety measures. Fasa Registry on Myocardial Infarction (FaRMI) is the first population-based registry for acute MI in Iran targeted to provide meticulous description of patients’ characteristics, to explore the management patterns of these patients, to discover the degree of adherence to the practice guidelines, and to investigate the determinants of poor in-hospital and later outcomes. Methods A diagnosis of acute MI (type I, II and III) was made upon the accepted criteria by the attending cardiologists and types IV and V MI were excluded. Two registrar nurses gathered data on demographics, place of residence and ethnicity, past medical history, risk factors, and the clinical course. Management patterns in the pre-hospital setting, during the hospital stay and at the discharge time were recorded. Routine laboratory results and cardiac biomarkers on three consecutive days were registered. Results pilot phase included the first 95 patients, 63.5% of whom were men and 31.5% were women. With a mean age of 62.89±13.75 years among participants, the rate of premature MI was 31.8%. ST segment elevation MI accounted for 68.2% cases and inferior wall was the most prevalent region involved followed by anterior and posterior walls. Discussion Obtained data on the characteristics of patients suffering an MI event revealed the major determinants of delay in initiation of therapies and contributors of poor outcome. Completeness of data was guaranteed upon involvement of multiple checkpoints and data quality was secured by means of automatic validation processes in addition to weekly physicians’ roundups. Conclusion Execution of FaRMI in the form presented is feasible and it will build up a comprehensive population-based registry for MI in the region. PMID:27907128

  5. Acute Phase Proteins in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Dogs with Naturally-Occurring Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kimberly M.; Welsh, C. Jane; Young, Colin; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Kerwin, Sharon C.; Boudreau, C. Elizabeth; Reyes, Ismael; Mondragon, Armando; Griffin, John F.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects thousands of people each year and there are no treatments that dramatically improve clinical outcome. Canine intervertebral disc herniation is a naturally-occurring SCI that has similarities to human injury and can be used as a translational model for evaluating therapeutic interventions. Here, we characterized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acute phase proteins (APPs) that have altered expression across a spectrum of neurological disorders, using this canine model system. The concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), alpha-1-glycoprotein, and serum amyloid A were determined in the CSF of 42 acutely injured dogs, compared with 21 healthy control dogs. Concentrations of APPs also were examined with respect to initial injury severity and motor outcome 42 d post-injury. Hp concentration was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in the CSF of affected dogs, compared with healthy control dogs. Additionally, the concentrations of CRP and Hp were significantly (p=0.0001 and p=0.0079, respectively) and positively associated with CSF total protein concentration. The concentrations of CRP and Hp were significantly higher (p=0.0071 and p=0.0197, respectively) in dogs with severe injury, compared with those with mild-to-moderate SCI, but there was no significant correlation between assessed CSF APP concentrations and 42 d motor outcome. This study demonstrated that CSF APPs were dysregulated in dogs with naturally-occurring SCI and could be used as markers for SCI severity. As Hp was increased following severe SCI and is neuroprotective across a number of model systems, it may represent a viable therapeutic target. PMID:26186466

  6. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Palac, Hannah L.; Yogev, Ram; Ernst, Linda M.; Mestan, Karen K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Early onset sepsis (EOS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR) biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection. Methods In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7–32.2) were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12); presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30); and no sepsis (controls, n = 30). Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™). In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results. Results cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01). SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01) and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants. Conclusion This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and

  7. Critical assessment of the transport of intensity equation as a phase recovery technique in optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, Aamod; Sczyrba, Martin; Connolly, Brid; Kalk, Franklin; Neureuther, Andy; Waller, Laura

    2014-03-01

    Photomasks are expected to have phase effects near edges due to their 3D topography, which can be modeled as imaginary boundary layers in thin mask simulations. We apply a modified transport of intensity (TIE) phase imaging technique to through-focus aerial images of photomasks in order to recover polarization-dependent edge effects. We use AIMS measurements with 193nm light to study the dependence of recovered phase on mask type and geometry. The TIE is an intensity conservation equation that quantitatively relates phase in the wafer plane to intensity through-focus. Here, we develop a modified version of the TIE for strongly absorbing objects, and apply it to recover wafer plane phase of attenuating masks. The projection printer blurs the fields at the wafer plane by its point spread function, hence an effective deconvolution is used to predict the boundary layers at the mask that best approximate the measured thick mask edge effects. Computation required for the inverse problem is fast and independent of mask geometry, unlike FDTD computations.

  8. Advanced heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds, Phase III - demonstration of BCSRHP mobile regenerator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    Under Phase I of the subject contract, feasibility studies and basic engineering studies were performed for a Brayton Cycle Solvent Recovery Heat Pump (BCSRBP) system to prevent pollution from small source emitters. It was determined that the cost of a complete system, including adsorbers and regeneration process, would be far too much for the small emission source in most cases. This {open_quotes}integrated{close_quotes} approach was therefore not feasible. However, it was concluded that the expensive portion of the Brayton cycle process, the regenerator, could be shared by mounting it on a trailer that could be transported to different sites to regenerate an adsorber. Under Phase II of the project a mobile regenerator (BCSRI-IP) was designed and built to serve a large number of sites. Adsorbers were designed to control emissions for a week or more between regenerations. The purpose of phase III was to demonstrate the cost effectiveness and efficiency of the shared (decoupled) BRAYSORB{reg_sign} solvent recovery system in energy use and emission control compared to other control technologies through a performance testing program at representative industrial and commercial host sites in Southern California. NUCON was the prime contractor for the demonstration portion of this project. Support and funding were received from Southern California Edison Company, South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the U.S. Department of Energy in addition to the contribution by NUCON. Contractual arrangements were completed with each of the host sites and permits for both the stationary and mobile equipment were acquired. The adsorbers were installed at each host site and the appropriate interface connections were made. The mobile regenerator was transported to Southern California for the demonstration.

  9. Virtual sensor for failure detection, identification and recovery in the transition phase of a morphing aircraft.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Guillermo; Ollero, Aníbal

    2010-01-01

    The Helicopter Adaptive Aircraft (HADA) is a morphing aircraft which is able to take-off as a helicopter and, when in forward flight, unfold the wings that are hidden under the fuselage, and transfer the power from the main rotor to a propeller, thus morphing from a helicopter to an airplane. In this process, the reliable folding and unfolding of the wings is critical, since a failure may determine the ability to perform a mission, and may even be catastrophic. This paper proposes a virtual sensor based Fault Detection, Identification and Recovery (FDIR) system to increase the reliability of the HADA aircraft. The virtual sensor is able to capture the nonlinear interaction between the folding/unfolding wings aerodynamics and the HADA airframe using the navigation sensor measurements. The proposed FDIR system has been validated using a simulation model of the HADA aircraft, which includes real phenomena as sensor noise and sampling characteristics and turbulence and wind perturbations.

  10. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Krug, E. K.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported on the development of an evaporator for vacuum distillation/vapor filtration VD/VF water reclamation system for use on manned space flights. The design, fabrication, and tests of a six-man evaporator are described. It is concluded that: (1) A condenser with an internal rotating impeller and coolant surfaces directly opposite the condensing surfaces is an effective condenser. (2) The VD/VF evaporator, catalyst unit and condenser function satisfactorily based on thermal, mechanical and recovery performance during a 145-hour evaluation test. (3) The quality of recovered water, as measured by analyses for total organic carbon, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and viable bacteria density was within established limits for potability.

  11. Virtual Sensor for Failure Detection, Identification and Recovery in the Transition Phase of a Morphing Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Guillermo; Ollero, Aníbal

    2010-01-01

    The Helicopter Adaptive Aircraft (HADA) is a morphing aircraft which is able to take-off as a helicopter and, when in forward flight, unfold the wings that are hidden under the fuselage, and transfer the power from the main rotor to a propeller, thus morphing from a helicopter to an airplane. In this process, the reliable folding and unfolding of the wings is critical, since a failure may determine the ability to perform a mission, and may even be catastrophic. This paper proposes a virtual sensor based Fault Detection, Identification and Recovery (FDIR) system to increase the reliability of the HADA aircraft. The virtual sensor is able to capture the nonlinear interaction between the folding/unfolding wings aerodynamics and the HADA airframe using the navigation sensor measurements. The proposed FDIR system has been validated using a simulation model of the HADA aircraft, which includes real phenomena as sensor noise and sampling characteristics and turbulence and wind perturbations. PMID:22294922

  12. Phase recovery and lensless imaging by iterative methods in optical, X-ray and electron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Spence, J C H; Weierstall, U; Howells, M

    2002-05-15

    Thomas Young's quantitative analysis of interference effects provided the confidence needed to revive the wave theory of light, and firmly established the concept of phase in optics. Phase plays a similarly fundamental role in matter-wave interferometry, for which the field-emission electron microscope provides ideal instrumentation. The wave-particle duality is vividly demonstrated by experimental 'Young's fringes' using coherent electron beams under conditions in which the flight time is less than the time between particle emission. A brief historical review is given of electron interferometry and holography, including the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the electron Sagnac interferometer. The simultaneous development of phase-contrast imaging at subnanometre spatial resolution has greatly deepened our understanding of atomic processes in biology, materials science and condensed-matter physics, while electron holography has become a routine tool for the mapping of electrostatic and magnetic fields in materials on a nanometre scale. The encoding of phase information in scattered farfield intensities is discussed, and non-interferometric, non-crystallographic methods for phase retrieval are reviewed in relationship to electron holography. Examples of phase measurement and diffraction-limited imaging using the hybrid input-output iterative algorithm are given, including simulations for soft X-ray imaging, and new experimental results for coherent electron and visible-light scattering. Image reconstruction is demonstrated from experimental electron and visible-light Fraunhofer diffraction patterns. The prospects this provides for lensless imaging using particles for which no lenses exist (such as neutrons, condensates, coherent atom beams and X-rays) are discussed. These new interactions can be expected to provide new information, perhaps, for example, in biology, with the advantage of less damage to samples.

  13. OCCIDENTAL VERTICAL MODIFIED IN SITU PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM OIL SHALE. PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Reid M.

    1980-09-01

    The progress presented in this report covers the period June 1, 1980 through August 31, 1980 under the work scope for.Phase II of the DOE/Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) Cooperative Agreement. The major activities at OOSI 1s Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7, 8 and 8x; completing Mini-Retort (MR) construction; continuing surface facility construction; tracer testing the MR 1 s; conducting Retorts 7 & 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests; setting up and debugging the Sandia B-61 trailer; and preparing the Phase II instrumentation plan.

  14. Comparison of phase recovery methods in spiral speckle pattern interferometry correlation fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadnjal, Ana Laura; Etchepareborda, Pablo; Bianchetti, Arturo; Veiras, Francisco E.; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2016-05-01

    Spiral interferometry can be used as a solution to the problem of sign ambiguity presented in the conventional speckle pattern interferometric technique when the optical phase needs to be reconstructed from a single closed fringe system. Depressions and elevations of the topography corresponding to the object deformation are distinguished by the direction of rotation of the local spiral fringe pattern. In this work, we implement and compare several methods for optical phase reconstruction by analyzing a single image composed of spiral speckle pattern interferometry correlation fringes. The implemented methods are based on contour line demodulation, center line demodulation, Spiral Phase Quadrature Transform and the 2D Riesz transform with multivector structure. Contour line and center line demodulation approaches are exclusively dedicated to images containing a fringe system with spiral structure. The others are based on the 2D Riesz transform, these being well known approaches in conventional interferometry. We examine simulated experiments and analyze some of the emerging drawbacks for solving the phase reconstruction problem by using different mean values of speckle size and background noise levels. We also discuss several numerical procedures that may well improve the efficiency and robustness of the presented numerical implementations. The performance of the implemented demodulation methods is evaluated by using a universal image quality index and therefore a quantitative comparison is also presented.

  15. Membrane vapor recovery systems; Phase 1, Final report, 29 September 1990--29 April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the work performed at Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR). The period covered is from September 29, 1990 to April 29, 1991, representing Phase 1 of the project. The overall objective of the project is the design, construct and demonstrate in the field a 50 scfm condensation/membrane separation system able to recover volatile organic compounds from effluent air streams. In the first phase of the program, a number of the high-pressure membranes modules to be installed in the system were constructed and evaluated. The results were satisfactory and no further module development work is required. The Field Demonstration Unit has also been designed. All of the major components have been selected and costed. The system can be constructed within the proposed budget. As a result of a visit to the host demonstration site (Great Lakes Chemical (GLC), El Dorado, Arkansas Plant), the Phase 2 program has been modified to include construction of small, high-pressure Field Module Evaluation Unit to be installed at GLC during the Phase 2 program. The host site engineers are prepared to install and monitor this unit. This additional work can be accomplished within the current budget and will provide valuable data prior to installation of the large Field Demonstration Unit. 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. NOVEL PROCESS FOR REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF VAPOR-PHASE MERCURY

    SciTech Connect

    Craig S. Turchi

    2000-09-29

    The goal of this project is to investigate the use of a regenerable sorbent for removing and recovering mercury from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The process is based on the sorption of mercury by noble metals and the thermal regeneration of the sorbent, recovering the desorbed mercury in a small volume for recycling or disposal. The project was carried out in two phases, covering five years. Phase I ran from September 1995 through September 1997 and involved development and testing of sorbent materials and field tests at a pilot coal-combustor. Phase II began in January 1998 and ended September 2000. Phase II culminated with pilot-scale testing at a coal-fired power plant. The use of regenerable sorbents holds the promise of capturing mercury in a small volume, suitable for either stable disposal or recycling. Unlike single-use injected sorbents such as activated carbon, there is no impact on the quality of the fly ash. During Phase II, tests were run with a 20-acfm pilot unit on coal-combustion flue gas at a 100 lb/hr pilot combustor and a utility boiler for four months and six months respectively. These studies, and subsequent laboratory comparisons, indicated that the sorbent capacity and life were detrimentally affected by the flue gas constituents. Sorbent capacity dropped by a factor of 20 to 35 during operations in flue gas versus air. Thus, a sorbent designed to last 24 hours between recycling lasted less than one hour. The effect resulted from an interaction between SO{sub 2} and either NO{sub 2} or HCl. When SO{sub 2} was combined with either of these two gases, total breakthrough was seen within one hour in flue gas. This behavior is similar to that reported by others with carbon adsorbents (Miller et al., 1998).

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FOR NOVEL ALCOHOL ETHOXYCARBOXYLATE SURFACTANTS

    SciTech Connect

    LEBONE MOETI; RAMANATHAN SAMPATH

    1998-11-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Clark Atlanta University under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period April 01, 1998 to October 01, 1998 which covers the second six months of the project. Presently work is in progress at the EOR Laboratory, Clark Atlanta University (CAU), to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for a novel, hybrid (ionic/non-ionic), alcohol ethoxycarboxylate surfactant (NEODOX 23-4 from Shell Chemical Company). During this reporting period, salinity scans were completed for 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, and 6000 mM salt concentrations at 20, 25, and 30 °C to identify optimal salinity intervals in which all three phases coexist for this surfactant. Temperature scans were also performed at 20 mM salt concentration for various surfactant concentrations ranging from 0 to 60 weight percent at temperatures ranging from 5 to 50 °C to identify optimal surfactant concentration and temperature intervals in which all three phases coexist. This resulted in an "alpha" curve with an interval of temperature in which all three phases coexisted. Presently, temperature scans are being repeated at 100, 250, 500, 1000, and 5000 mM salt concentrations to see whether increase in salt concentration has any effect on the temperature interval. This will provide us better understanding and experimental control of the many variables involved in this research in the future. Following completion of the temperature scans, phase studies will be conducted at CAU, and coreflooding experiments at the facility of our industrial partner, Surtek, Golden, CO.

  18. 810 NM Light Treatment of Acute Spinal Cord Injury Alters the Immune Response and Improves Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    2001; Diaz- Ruiz et al., 2002) and promote functional recovery (Nash et al., 2002). Blockage of iNOS activity after SCI promoted locomotor recovery...PJ, Roitt IM (2000) The immune system. First of two parts. N Engl J Med 343:37-49. Diaz- Ruiz A, Rios C, Segovia J, Perez-Severiano F, Guizar-Sahagun... Castel JC, Dwyer RM (1986) Laser stimulation of collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblast cultures. Lasers Life Sci 1:61-77. Lee SM, Yune TY, Kim

  19. INVESTIGATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND CONDENSATE RECOVERY FOR CONDENSATE/WATER/ETHANOL MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2003-10-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period April 01, 2003 to September 30, 2003 which covers the second six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. During this reporting period, salinity scans were completed for 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mM salt concentrations at room temperature to identify optimal salinity intervals in which all three phases coexist for this system. Temperature scans are in progress at Morehouse College to identify the optimal temperature, and the temperature intervals in which all three phases coexist for this system. Coreflooding experiments are being conducted by our industrial partner in this project, Surtek, CO, to measure the effectiveness for surfactant retention and condensate recovery in flooding processes. Review of the current literature in the subject area, and modeling efforts that were established in our previous studies to predict electrical conductivities and inversion phenomena was continued from the previous reporting period. Based on the review a computer model to predict electrical conductivities of the ethylbenzene (that has the equivalent carbon number of the condensate)/water/ethanol system is being developed.

  20. Study of Interpolated Timing Recovery Phase-Locked Loop with Linearly Constrained Adaptive Prefilter for Higher-Density Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shiraishi, Junya; Kobayashi, Shoei; Yamagami, Tamotsu

    2009-03-01

    A digital phase-locked loop (PLL) with a linearly constrained adaptive filter (LCAF) has been studied for higher-linear-density optical discs. LCAF has been implemented before an interpolated timing recovery (ITR) PLL unit in order to improve the quality of phase error calculation by using an adaptively equalized partial response (PR) signal. Coefficient update of an asynchronous sampled adaptive FIR filter with a least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm has been constrained by a projection matrix in order to suppress the phase shift of the tap coefficients of the adaptive filter. We have developed projection matrices that are suitable for Blu-ray disc (BD) drive systems by numerical simulation. Results have shown the properties of the projection matrices. Then, we have designed the read channel system of the ITR PLL with an LCAF model on the FPGA board for experiments. Results have shown that the LCAF improves the tilt margins of 30 gigabytes (GB) recordable BD (BD-R) and 33 GB BD read-only memory (BD-ROM) with a sufficient LMS adaptation stability.

  1. Automatic recovery of missing amplitudes and phases in tilt-limited electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gipson, Bryant R.; Masiel, Daniel J.; Browning, Nigel D.; Spence, John; Mitsuoka, Kaoru; Stahlberg, Henning

    2011-07-01

    Electron crystallography of 2D protein crystals provides a powerful tool for the determination of membrane protein structure. In this method, data is acquired in the Fourier domain as randomly sampled, uncoupled, amplitudes and phases. Due to physical constraints on specimen tilting, those Fourier data show a vast un-sampled “missing cone” of information, producing resolution loss in the direction perpendicular to the membrane plane. Based on the flexible language of projection onto sets, we provide a full solution for these problems with a projective constraint optimization algorithm that, for sufficiently oversampled data, produces complete recovery of unmeasured data in the missing cone. We apply this method to an experimental data set of Bacteriorhodopsin and show that, in addition to producing superior results compared to traditional reconstruction methods, full, reproducible, recovery of the missing cone from noisy data is possible. Finally, we present an automatic implementation of the refinement routine as open source, freely distributed, software that will be included in our 2dx software package.

  2. Automatic recovery of missing amplitudes and phases in tilt-limited electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gipson, Bryant R.; Stahlberg, Henning; Masiel, Daniel J.; Browning, Nigel D.; Spence, John; Mitsuoka, Kaoru

    2011-07-15

    Electron crystallography of 2D protein crystals provides a powerful tool for the determination of membrane protein structure. In this method, data is acquired in the Fourier domain as randomly sampled, uncoupled, amplitudes and phases. Due to physical constraints on specimen tilting, those Fourier data show a vast un-sampled ''missing cone'' of information, producing resolution loss in the direction perpendicular to the membrane plane. Based on the flexible language of projection onto sets, we provide a full solution for these problems with a projective constraint optimization algorithm that, for sufficiently oversampled data, produces complete recovery of unmeasured data in the missing cone. We apply this method to an experimental data set of Bacteriorhodopsin and show that, in addition to producing superior results compared to traditional reconstruction methods, full, reproducible, recovery of the missing cone from noisy data is possible. Finally, we present an automatic implementation of the refinement routine as open source, freely distributed, software that will be included in our 2dx software package.

  3. Word timing recovery in direct detection optical PPM communication systems with avalanche photodiodes using a phase lock loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for word timing recovery in a direct-detection optical PPM communication system is described. It tracks on back-to-back pulse pairs in the received random PPM data sequences with the use of a phase locked loop. The experimental system consisted of an 833-nm AlGaAs laser diode transmitter and a silicon avalanche photodiode photodetector, and it used Q = 4 PPM signaling at source data rate 25 Mb/s. The mathematical model developed to describe system performance is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Use of this recovered PPM word clock with a slot clock recovery system caused no measurable penalty in receiver sensitivity. The completely self-synchronized receiver was capable of acquiring and maintaining both slot and word synchronizations for input optical signal levels as low as 20 average detected photons per information bit. The receiver achieved a bit error probability of 10 to the -6th at less than 60 average detected photons per information bit.

  4. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Energy metabolism during endurance flight and the post-flight recovery phase.

    PubMed

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne

    2017-02-21

    Migrating birds are known to fly non-stop for thousands of kilometres without food or water intake and at a high metabolic rate thereby relying on energy stores which were built up preceding a flight bout. Hence, from a physiological point of view the metabolism of a migrant has to switch between an active fasting phase during flight and a fuelling phase during stopover. To meet the energetic and water requirements of endurance flight, migratory birds have to store an optimal fuel composition and they have to be able to quickly mobilize and deliver sufficient energy to the working flight muscles. After flight, birds have to recover from a strenuous exercise and sleeplessness, but, at the same time, they have to be alert to escape from predators and to prepare the next flight bout. In this overview, metabolic adaptations of free-ranging migrants to both phases will be presented and compared with results from windtunnel studies. The questions whether migratory strategy (long distance versus short distance) and diet composition influence the metabolic pathways will be discussed.

  6. Membrane vapor recovery systems. Phase 2, Progress report, 1 October 1991--29 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.; Davidson, J.E.; Helm, V.D.; Hofmann, T.R.; Kamaruddin, H.D.; Kaschemekat, J.; Olsen, R.P.; Rose, M.E.; Wijmans, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes Phase II of a project to design, construct, and demonstrate in the membrane separation system able to recover volatile organic compounds field a condensation/membrane separation system able to recover volatile organic compounds from effluent air streams. In the first phase of the program, a number of the high-pressure membrane modules to be installed in the system were constructed and evaluated, and the Field Demonstration Unit was designed. In the second phase, the Field Demonstration System was constructed and operated at MTR`s laboratories with perchloroethylene, trichlorotrifluoroethane, and hexane, representative of chlorinated hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons and fuel hydrocarbons, respectively. VOC removal from the feed stram was between 80% and 99.8%. Removal increased with increasing VOC content and with decreasing VOC volatility. A Module Field Evaluation Unit was also constructed for testing at the El Dorado plant of Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. The system, consisting of one membrane module housing containing one module insert, is installed on the pressurized vent from a condenser.

  7. Energy recovery from textile dryer operations. Phase I final report, June 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    McCrosson, F.J.; Jenkins, J.D.; Yngve, P.W.

    1981-08-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of implementing a two-step approach for improving use of natural gas in textile dryer operations is presented. The first step involves automatic control of the dryer dampers to minimize the flow of exhaust heat without diminishing dryer performance. The second step involves recovery and use of a portion of the remaining exhaust heat. These two steps have the potential for reducing natural gas consumption in the dryers by 45 to 65%. Exhaust flow rates are minimized by increasing dryer humidity to the maximum practical limit. This maximum humidity, which is about 0.1 lb water/lb dry air, is maintained by automated adjustments of the damper. Three commercially available devices for measuring the stack humidity and controlling the dampers are discussed and program for further evaluation presented. Several approaches for recovering some of the residual exhaust energy after the dampers have been adjusted are evaluated. Based on these evaluations, three commercially avaialable air-to-air heat exhcangers are identified as being particularly suitable for using the sensible exhaust heat to pre-heat dryer make-up air. A program to further evaluate these air-to-air heat exchangers at operating textile mills is presented.

  8. Influence of transportation on serum concentrations of acute phase proteins in horse.

    PubMed

    Casella, S; Fazio, F; Giannetto, C; Giudice, E; Piccione, G

    2012-10-01

    The modifications of Haptoglobin (Hp), Serum Amyloid A (SAA), Fibrinogen (Fbg) and White Blood Cells (WBCs) were evaluated in 15 Saddle Italian horses. Ten horses were transported covering a distance of about 320 km within 4 h with an average speed of 80 km/h (experimental group) and five horses were not subject to transportation (control group). Blood was collected via jugular venipuncture before the transportation (T0), immediately after the transportation (T1), 12 (T12), 24 (T24) and 48 (T48)hours after the transportation in experimental group and at the same time point in control group. For each parameter statistical analysis of different groups and sampling time was performed using a two-way analysis of covariance, with the data before the transportation (T0) as the covariate, by the GLM procedure of SAS. For all parameters the interaction (Group × Time) was tested and it was resulted no significant. The application of statistical analysis showed significant differences between the control group and horses subjected to transportation (P<0.01), and the influence of sampling time (P<0.05) on Hp, SAA and WBCs. These modifications appeared to be innovative showing that equine Hp, generally considered as moderate acute phase protein, increases more rapidly than the SAA after transportation-induced stress.

  9. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Teodori, Rosana Macher; Betini, Joice; de Oliveira, Larissa Salgado; Sobral, Luciane Lobato; Takeda, Sibele Yoko Mattozo; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1), those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14), injured rats not submitted to swimming (C), and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S). After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P < 0.01). The diameter of axons and nerve fibers was larger in CS1 (P < 0.01) and CS14 (P < 0.05) than in C, and myelin sheath thickness was lower in all crushed groups (P < 0.05). There was no functional difference between CS1 and CS14 (P > 0.05). Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury. PMID:21876821

  10. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    PubMed Central

    Okino, Alessandra M.; Bürger, Cristiani; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Lavado, Edson L.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Campa, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S) was 0.10 ± 0.13. For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration (r = 0.764;p < 0.0001). The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5 g/mL). SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates. PMID:16864904

  11. NRF2 and the Phase II Response in Acute Stress Resistance Induced by Dietary Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Christopher M.; Mitchell, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) as a means to increase longevity is well-established in a number of model organisms from yeast to primates. DR also improves metabolic fitness and increases resistance to acute oxidative, carcinogenic and toxicological stressors - benefits with more immediate potential for clinical translation than increased lifespan. While the detailed mechanism of DR action remains unclear, a conceptual framework involving an adaptive, or hormetic response to the stress of nutrient/energy deprivation has been proposed. A key prediction of the hormesis hypothesis of DR is that beneficial adaptations occur in response to an increase in reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS). These ROS may be derived either from increased mitochondrial respiration or increased xenobiotic metabolism in the case of some DR mimetics. This review will focus on the potential role of the redox-sensing transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its control of the evolutionarily conserved antioxidant/redox cycling and detoxification systems, collectively known as the Phase II response, in the adaptive response to DR. PMID:23505614

  12. [The measurement of CoQ10 in the acute phase of a myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Puletti, M; Trappolini, M; Di Palma, A; Curione, M; Schiavone, R A; Matteoli, S; Borgia, C

    1991-05-01

    The authors have studied the behaviour of ubidecorenone (Co Q10) in the acute phase of myocardial infarction in 24 patients, 19 male and 5 female, mean age 56.8 +/- 3.3. Ubidecorenone level was determined on admittance, after 48 hours and on the 7th and 30th days. A significant decrease was observed from the first to the 3rd day (mean values 0.90 +/- 0.18 microgram/ml vs 0.72 +/- 0.22, p less than 0.01). Thereafter a progressive rise was observed, but at the 30th day mean values were still below the basal ones. No significant differences were observed between patients treated with fibrinolytic agents and those not so treated, nor between those in whom reperfusion was obtained and the others. Nor was there a proven correlation with changes in creatinkinase. The behaviour of ubidecorenone may be associated with increased consumption for metabolic needs and increased destruction in scavenger action, and also to a lesser extent to decreased production due to lower food intake.

  13. Intestinal pathogens, diarrhoea and acute phase proteins in naturally infected dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Seppä-Lassila, Leena; Orro, Toomas; Lassen, Brian; Lasonen, Riikka; Autio, Tiina; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Soveri, Timo

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the association between Eimeria spp. related signs and innate immune response in dairy calves was examined. Calves (n=100) aged 15-60 days were clinically examined and faecal samples, blood samples and deep nasopharyngeal swabs obtained. The samples were analysed for intestinal pathogens, acute phase proteins and WBC count, and respiratory tract pathogens, respectively. Diarrhoea was diagnosed in 32.6% (23.3-43.0%, 95% CI) of calves. An association between the pathogenic Eimeria spp. and diarrhoea was detected by multiple correspondence analysis. Eimeria related signs (diarrhoea, presence of pathogenic species and total oocyst count) were combined resulting a four level variable. Calves with weak signs of eimeriosis had decreased haptoglobin concentrations (p=0.02) and increased fibrinogen concentrations (p=0.048) compared to no signs. Increased haptoglobin and fibrinogen concentrations were associated with respiratory tract infection and umbilical infection. Serum amyloid A and WBC counts showed no association with signs of eimeriosis or clinical diagnoses.

  14. Oxidative Status and Acute Phase Reactants in Patients with Environmental Asbestos Exposure and Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Sezgi, Cengizhan; Taylan, Mahsuk; Selimoglu Sen, Hadice; Evliyaoğlu, Osman; Kaya, Halide; Abakay, Ozlem; Abakay, Abdurrahman; Tanrıkulu, Abdullah Cetin; Senyiğit, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate inflammatory indicators and oxidative status in patients with asbestos exposure with and without mesothelioma and to compare results with data from healthy subjects. Methods. Eighty people with exposure to environmental asbestos and without any disease, 46 mesothelioma patients, and a control group of 50 people without exposure to environmental asbestos were enrolled in this prospective study. Serum total oxidant level (TOL), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), CRP, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, α-1 antitrypsin, ferritin, and copper levels were measured. Results. Mesothelioma group exhibited higher TOL, OSI, α1-antitrypsin, ferritin and copper levels as compared to the other groups (P < 0.001, P = 0.007, P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, resp.). Transferrin was lower in the mesothelioma group than in the other two groups (P < 0.001). The asbestos group had higher TOL, TAC, α1-antitrypsin, and transferrin levels (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, resp.), as well as lower OSI and ferritin levels as compared to the control group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). Conclusions. We believe that elevated acute phase reactants and oxidative stress markers (TOL and OSI) in the mesothelioma group can be used as predictive markers for the development of asbestos-related malignancy. PMID:24592197

  15. Transport proteins and acute phase reactant proteins in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, R. P.; Kuvibidila, S.; Gordon, L.; Humbert, J.

    1994-01-01

    Transport proteins, acute-phase reactant proteins (APRP), hematology, and anthropometry were studied in 34 sickle cell disease (SCD) children (20 boys, 14 girls) and 27 controls without growth deficits (13 boys, 14 girls) [corrected]. The age range was 1/2 to 16 1/2 years. Weight deficits (< 80%) by Waterlow's classification were observed in 41% of SCD boys and 25% of SCD girls, and height deficits (< 90%) were observed in 25% SCD boys and 25% girls. Mean white blood cell counts were significantly higher (P < .001) and hematocrit and hemoglobin (Hb) lower (P < .005) in SCD children than in controls. Although both groups had similar mean levels of albumin, transferrin, and APRP, SCD children had significantly lower mean levels of retinol-binding protein (RBP) (P < .001) and retinol-prealbumin (P < .001). Retinol-binding protein levels were abnormal in 18 (53%) SCD children and in only 23% controls (chi 2 = 14.06; P < 0.005); transferrin levels were abnormal in 20% of SCD children and in none of the controls. Children with SC and SF Hb phenotype had normal mean levels of RBP, whereas those with S beta thal and SS phenotype had levels below normal. Growth-retarded children by weight and height had reduced mean levels of RBP and prealbumin compared with growth-normal SCD children. The implication of primary protein-energy malnutrition on growth retardation in SCD children is under study. PMID:7512147

  16. Acute-phase protein behavior in dairy cattle herd naturally infected with Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Paulo Henrique; Fidelis Junior, Otavio Luiz; Marques, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Barnabé, Patrícia de Athayde; André, Marcos Rogério; Balbuena, Tiago Santana; Cadioli, Fabiano Antonio

    2015-07-30

    Trypanosoma vivax is a hemoprotozoon that causes disease in cattle and is difficult to diagnose. The host-parasite relationship in cattle that are infected by T. vivax has only been poorly studied. In the present study, a total of 429 serum proteinograms were produced from naturally infected animals (NIF) and were compared with 50 samples from control animals (C). The total protein, IgA band, complement C3 β chain band, albumin band, antitrypsin band, IgG band, haptoglobin band, complement C3c α chain band and protein HP-20 band presented higher levels in the serum proteinograms of the NIF group. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, α2-macroglobulin, complement C6, ceruloplasmin, transferrin band and apolipoprotein A1 band presented lower levels in this group. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in acid glycoprotein serum concentration between the NIF and C groups. Acute phase proteins may be useful for understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the antitrypsin band was only present in the NIF group. This can be used as an indicator for infection in cattle that are naturally infected by T. vivax.

  17. Determination of ceruloplasmin, some other acute phase proteins, and biochemical parameters in cows with endometritis

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, S.; Merhan, O.; Kacar, C.; Colak, A.; Bozukluhan, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine serum ceruloplasmin levels in cows with endometritis of varying degrees of severity and to establish whether or not there is a correlation between acute phase protein (APP) levels and biochemical parameters. Material and Methods: The study was conducted with 100 Brown Swiss cows (3-8 years of age) on days 28-32 postpartum. Cows were divided into endometritis (mild, moderate, and severe endometriosis) and healthy groups based on ultrasonography, vaginoscopy, and cytological examination. Blood samples were collected from all cows. Levels of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), ceruloplasmin, albumin, and some biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results: Hp, SAA, and ceruloplasmin levels were higher in cows with endometritis than in healthy cows (p=0.001), and the levels of these APPs increased as endometritis became more severe (p=0.001). Some significant correlations were found between APPs and the biochemical parameters that were analyzed. In conclusion, it was determined that ceruloplasmin levels increase significantly in the presence of endometritis and proportionate to the severity of endometritis. A significant correlation was found between ceruloplasmin levels and Hp and SAA levels. Conclusion: It was concluded that ceruloplasmin levels can be used in the diagnosis of endometritis as an alternative to Hp and SAA levels. PMID:27847413

  18. Controversial results of therapy with mesenchymal stem cells in the acute phase of canine distemper disease.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, A O; Cardoso, M T; Vidane, A S; Casals, J B; Passarelli, D; Alencar, A L F; Sousa, R L M; Fantinato-Neto, P; Oliveira, V C; Lara, V M; Ambrósio, C E

    2016-05-23

    Distemper disease is an infectious disease reported in several species of domestic and wild carnivores. The high mortality rate of animals infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) treated with currently available therapies has driven the study of new efficacious treatments. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many degenerative, hereditary, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize stem cells derived from the canine fetal olfactory epithelium and to assess the systemic response of animals infected with CDV to symptomatic therapy and treatment with MSCs. Eight domestic mongrel dogs (N = 8) were divided into two groups: support group (SG) (N = 5) and support group + cell therapy (SGCT) (N = 3), which were monitored over 15 days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 6, 9, 12, and 15 to assess blood count and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total protein, albumin, and globulin), and urine samples were obtained on days 0 and 15 for urinary evaluation (urine I). The results showed a high mortality rate (SG = 4 and SGCT = 2), providing inadequate data on the clinical course of CDV infection. MSC therapy resulted in no significant improvement when administered during the acute phase of canine distemper disease, and a prevalence of animals with high mortality rate was found in both groups due to the severity of symptoms.

  19. The cytohesin guanosine exchange factors (GEFs) are required to promote HGF-mediated renal recovery after acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice.

    PubMed

    Reviriego-Mendoza, Marta M; Santy, Lorraine C

    2015-06-01

    The lack of current treatment and preventable measures for acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients results in an increased mortality rate of up to 80% and elevated health costs. Additionally, if not properly repaired, those who survive AKI may develop fibrosis and long-term kidney damage. The molecular aspects of kidney injury and repair are still uncertain. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes recovery of the injured kidney by inducing survival and migration of tubular epithelial cells to repopulate bare tubule areas. HGF-stimulated kidney epithelial cell migration requires the activation of ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) and Rac1 via the cytohesin family of Arf-guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), in vitro. We used an ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) mouse model to analyze the effects of modulating this signaling pathway on kidney recovery. We treated IRI mice with either HGF, the cytohesin inhibitor SecinH3, or a combination of both. As previously reported, HGF treatment promoted rapid improvement of kidney function as evidenced by creatinine (Cre) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. In contrast, simultaneous treatment with SecinH3 and HGF blocks the ability of HGF to promote kidney recovery. Immunohistochemistry showed that HGF treatment promoted recovery of tubule structure, and had enhanced levels of active, GTP-bound Arf6 and GTP-Rac1. SecinH3 treatment, however, caused a dramatic decrease in GTP-Arf6 and GTP-Rac1 levels when compared to kidney sections from HGF-treated IRI mice. Additionally, SecinH3 counteracted the renal reparative effects of HGF. Our results support the conclusion that cytohesin function is required for HGF-stimulated renal IRI repair.

  20. Hepatic cytochrome P450 3A drug metabolism is reduced in cancer patients who have an acute-phase response

    PubMed Central

    Rivory, L P; Slaviero, K A; Clarke, S J

    2002-01-01

    Inflammatory disease states (infection, arthritis) are associated with reduced drug oxidation by the cytochrome P450 3A system. Many chemotherapy agents are metabolised through this pathway, and disease may therefore influence inter-individual differences in drug pharmacokinetics. The purpose of this study was to assess cytochrome P450 3A function in patients with advanced cancer, and its relation to the acute-phase response. We evaluated hepatic cytochrome P450 3A function in 40 patients with advanced cancer using the erythromycin breath test. Both the traditional C20min measure and the recently proposed 1/TMAX values were estimated. The marker of acute-phase response, C-reactive protein and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, TNFα and IL-8 were measured in serum or plasma at baseline. Cancer patients with an acute phase response (C-reactive protein >10 mg l−1, n=26) had reduced metabolism as measured with the erythromycin breath test 1/TMAX (Kruskal–Wallis Anova, P=0.0062) as compared to controls (C-reactive protein ⩽10 mg l−1, n=14). Indeed, metabolism was significantly associated with C-reactive protein over the whole concentration range of this acute-phase marker (r=−0.64, Spearman Rank Correlation, P<0.00001). C-reactive protein serum levels were significantly correlated with those of IL-6 (Spearman coefficient=0.58, P<0.0003). The reduction in cytochrome P450 3A function with acute-phase reaction was independent of the tumour type and C-reactive protein elevation was associated with poor performance status. This indicates that the sub-group of cancer patients with significant acute-phase response have compromised drug metabolism, which may have implications for the safety of chemotherapy in this population. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 277–280. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600448 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12177794

  1. Children successfully treated for moderate acute malnutrition remain at risk for malnutrition and death in the subsequent year after recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) affects 11% of children <5 y old worldwide and increases their risk for morbidity and mortality. It is assumed that successful treatment of MAM reduces these risks. A total of 1967 children aged 6-59 mo successfully treated for MAM in rural Malawi following randomiz...

  2. Remission and Recovery in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Acute and Long-Term Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Silva, Susan G.; Tonev, Simon; Rohde, Paul; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Curry, John F.; Emslie, Graham J.; Reinecke, Mark; March, John

    2009-01-01

    The remission and recovery rates of adolescent patients with depression who were treated with fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and placebos were examined through a multisite clinical trial. It is concluded that most depressed adolescents who received such therapies achieved remission at the end of nine months.

  3. Preoperative Preparation for Cardiac Surgery Facilitates Recovery, Reduces Psychological Distress, and Reduces the Incidence of Acute Postoperative Hypertension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Erling A.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiac surgery patients were assigned to information-only, information-plus-coping, or control preoperative preparation groups. Preoperatively, both experimental groups were significantly less anxious than were controls. Both experimental groups increased patients' belief in control over recovery. Postoperatively, experimental patients were less…

  4. A phase I trial of the aurora kinase inhibitor, ENMD-2076, in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yee, Karen W L; Chen, Hsiao-Wei T; Hedley, David W; Chow, Sue; Brandwein, Joseph; Schuh, Andre C; Schimmer, Aaron D; Gupta, Vikas; Sanfelice, Deborah; Johnson, Tara; Le, Lisa W; Arnott, Jamie; Bray, Mark R; Sidor, Carolyn; Minden, Mark D

    2016-10-01

    ENMD-2076 is a novel, orally-active molecule that inhibits Aurora A kinase, as well as c-Kit, FLT3 and VEGFR2. A phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) and toxicities of ENMD-2076 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Patients received escalating doses of ENMD-2076 administered orally daily [225 mg (n = 7), 375 mg (n = 6), 325 mg (n = 9), or 275 mg (n = 5)]. Twenty-seven patients were treated (26 AML; 1 CMML-2). The most common non-hematological toxicities of any grade, regardless of association with drug, were fatigue, diarrhea, dysphonia, dyspnea, hypertension, constipation, and abdominal pain. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) consisted of grade 3 fatigue, grade 3 typhilitis, grade 3 syncope and grade 3 QTc prolongation). Of the 16 evaluable patients, one patient achieved a complete remission with incomplete count recovery (CRi), three experienced a morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS) with a major hematologic improvement in platelets (HI-P), and 5 other patients had a reduction in marrow blast percentage (i.e. 11-65 %). The RP2D in this patient population is 225 mg orally once daily.

  5. Iterative Transform Phase Diversity: An Image-Based Object and Wavefront Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The Iterative Transform Phase Diversity algorithm is designed to solve the problem of recovering the wavefront in the exit pupil of an optical system and the object being imaged. This algorithm builds upon the robust convergence capability of Variable Sampling Mapping (VSM), in combination with the known success of various deconvolution algorithms. VSM is an alternative method for enforcing the amplitude constraints of a Misell-Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm. When provided the object and additional optical parameters, VSM can accurately recover the exit pupil wavefront. By combining VSM and deconvolution, one is able to simultaneously recover the wavefront and the object.

  6. Acute and chronic nociceptive phases observed in a rat hind paw ischemia/reperfusion model depend on different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Rossato, M F; de Prá, S Dal Toé; Rigo, F K; Walker, C I B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Ferreira, J; Trevisan, G

    2016-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) may be evoked by ischemia/reperfusion, eliciting acute and chronic pain that is difficult to treat. Despite this, the underlying mechanism of CRPS1 has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a chemosensor of inflammation and oxidative substances, in an animal model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Wistar rats were subjected to 3 h hind paw ischemia/reperfusion (CPIP model). Different parameters of nociception, inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative stress were evaluated at 1 (acute) and 14 (chronic) days after CPIP. The effect of a TRPA1 antagonist and the TRPA1 immunoreactivity were also observed after CPIP. In the CPIP acute phase, we observed mechanical and cold allodynia; increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (hind paw), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), lactate (serum), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, hind paw and spinal cord); and higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities (hind paw). In the CPIP chronic phase, we detected mechanical and cold allodynia and increased levels of IMA (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), and 4-HNE (hind paw and spinal cord). TRPA1 antagonism reduced mechanical and cold allodynia 1 and 14 days after CPIP, but no change in TRPA1 immunoreactivity was observed. Different mechanisms underlie acute (inflammation and oxidative stress) and chronic (oxidative stress) phases of CPIP. TRPA1 activation may be relevant for CRPS1/CPIP-induced acute and chronic pain.

  7. Effects of repetitive stress during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection on chronic Chagas' disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Leony Cristina; Brazão, Vânia; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Caetano, Luana Naiara; Toldo, Miriam Paula Alonso; Caldeira, Jerri C; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2009-03-01

    The effect of repetitive stress during acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) on the chronic phase of ensuing Chagas' disease was the focus of this investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate in Wistar rats the influence of repetitive stress during the acute phase of infection (7 days) with the Y strain of T. cruzi on the chronic phase of the infection (at 180 days). Exposure to ether vapor for 1 min twice a day was used as a stressor. Repetitive stress enhanced the number of circulating parasites and cardiac tissue disorganization, from a moderate to a severe diffuse mononuclear inflammatory process and the presence of amastigote burden in the cardiac fibers. Immunological parameters revealed that repetitive stress triggered a reduced concanavalin A induced splenocyte proliferation in vitro with major effects on the late chronic phase. Serum interleukin-12 concentration decreased in both stressed and infected rats in the early phase of infection although it was higher on 180 days post-infection. These results suggest that repetitive stress can markedly impair the host's immune system and enhance the pathological process during the chronic phase of Chagas' disease.

  8. Thermoelectric generators incorporating phase-change materials for waste heat recovery from engine exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, Gregory P; Yang, Jihui

    2014-02-11

    Thermoelectric devices, intended for placement in the exhaust of a hydrocarbon fuelled combustion device and particularly suited for use in the exhaust gas stream of an internal combustion engine propelling a vehicle, are described. Exhaust gas passing through the device is in thermal communication with one side of a thermoelectric module while the other side of the thermoelectric module is in thermal communication with a lower temperature environment. The heat extracted from the exhaust gasses is converted to electrical energy by the thermoelectric module. The performance of the generator is enhanced by thermally coupling the hot and cold junctions of the thermoelectric modules to phase-change materials which transform at a temperature compatible with the preferred operating temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. In a second embodiment, a plurality of thermoelectric modules, each with a preferred operating temperature and each with a uniquely-matched phase-change material may be used to compensate for the progressive lowering of the exhaust gas temperature as it traverses the length of the exhaust pipe.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND CONDENSATE RECOVERY FOR CONDENSATE/WATER/ETHANOL MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2005-12-01

    This final technical report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period October 01, 2002 to September 30, 2005, which covers the total performance period of the project. During this period, work was conducted to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number was used as the model condensate. Salinity scans were performed for 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mM salt concentrations at room temperature to identify the optimal salinity and salinity intervals in which all phases coexisted. It was found that only two phases formed, and salinity has no significant effect in the volumes of the phases formed. Experiments were repeated at 30 C and observed salinity has no effect at higher temperatures as well. Following the salinity experiments, measurements were made with 10mM NaCl water for surfactant concentrations from 2 to 70 volume percent at room temperature. It was found that only two phases were formed upto 60 vol% concentration of the surfactant. Above 60 vol% surfactant, the mixture produced only a single phase. Experiments were repeated from 2 to 70 C and observed that temperature has no significant effect on the number of phases formed. At the temperatures and surfactant concentration tested, volume fraction of the aqueous bottom phase was found to be larger than that of the top phase. Electrical conductivity measurements were then conducted for bottom/top, and top/bottom conjugate pair phases of the ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system formed by mixing ethanol at various volume percentages including 2,10,33,and 56% while keeping the volumes of ethylbenzene and water the same in the mixture. Electrical conductivity of the bottom phase decreased as ethanol volume fraction in the mixture increased. Conductivity of the top phase was found small and remained almost the same for variations in ethanol volume fraction in

  10. Diminished acute phase response and increased hepatic inflammation of aged rats in response to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Christian R; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Pérez, Claudio; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Riquelme, Denise M; Ordenes, Gamaliel; Oshima, Kiyoko; Aravena, Mauricio; Pérez, Viviana I; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Sabaj, Valeria; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Aging is associated with a deterioration of the acute phase response to inflammatory challenges. However, the nature of these defects remains poorly defined. We analyzed the hepatic inflammatory response after intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) given to Fisher 344 rats aged 6, 15, and 22-23 months. Induction of the acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, and T-kininogen was reduced and/or retarded with aging. Initial induction of interleukin-6 in aged rats was normal, but the later response was increased relative to younger counterparts. An exacerbated hepatic injury was observed in aged rats receiving LPS, as evidenced by the presence of multiple microabscesses in portal tracts, confluent necrosis, higher neutrophil accumulation, and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, relative to younger animals. Our results suggest that aged rats displayed a reduced expression of APPs and increased hepatic injury in response to the inflammatory insult.

  11. Plasma-exchange as a "rescue therapy" for dermato/polymyositis in acute phase. Experience in three young patients.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Franco; Marson, Piero; Pigatto, Erika; Tison, Tiziana; Polito, Pamela; Galozzi, Paola; De Silvestro, Giustina; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    There are few data in the literature supporting the efficacy of plasma-exchange in dermato/polymyositis. The authors report three cases of patients with acute disease phase showing severe pharyngo-esophageal muscle weakness unresponsive to conventional therapy (corticosteroids and immunosuppressant agents) who were treated with plasma-exchange. As the patients were at high risk of "aspiration pneumonia", tracheostomy and PEG tubes were placed. The patients underwent a series of plasma-exchange for a mean of 15 weeks, during which time they progressively recovered muscle strength, their serum muscle enzyme values returned to normal levels, and MRI showed resolution of muscle edema. The tracheostomy and PEG tubes could be removed. Our findings suggest that plasma-exchange in association with immunosuppressant agents could play a relevant role in the management of dermato/polymyositis in acute phase.

  12. Magnetite recovery from copper tailings increases arsenic distribution in solution phase and uptake in native grass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunjia; Huang, Longbin

    2017-01-15

    Reprocessing magnetite-rich copper (Cu) tailings prompted a concern about arsenic (As) risks in seepage water and revegetated plants at Ernest Henry Cu Mine (EHM) in North Queensland, Australia, due to the closely coupled relationship between iron (Fe) minerals and As mobility. The magnetite removal alone significantly decreased the content of crystalline Fe minerals and the maximum arsenate (As(V)) sorption capacity of the resultant tailings. A glasshouse experiment with native grass Red Flinders (Iseilema Vaginiflorum) was conducted with the reprocessed (low magnetite (LM)) and original (high magnetite (HM)) tailings, which were amended with 5% sugarcane residue (SR) as a basal treatment in combination with 0, 1 and 5% pine-biochar (BC). The organic matter treatments and plant growth stimulated the formation of secondary Fe minerals. The amount of extractable amorphous Fe in the amended and revegetated HM tailings was significantly higher than those in the LM. Arsenic forms in the specifically sorbed and the sorbed by amorphous Fe oxides were significantly increased by the SR amendment in the LM tailings, but which were decreased in the HM, compared to the unamended tailings. Soluble As levels in the porewater of the LM under revegetation were significantly higher (300-1150 μg As L(-1)) than those (up to 45-90 μg As L(-1)) in HM tailings in the same treatment, which led to the higher As concentrations in the plants grown in the LM tailings. In particular, root As concentration (62-146 mg kg(-1)) in the LM tailings was almost a magnitude higher than those (8-17 mg kg(-1)) in the HM. The present results confirmed the initial expectation that the recovery of magnetite from the Cu tailings significantly elevated the risk of As solubility in the tailings by decreasing As sorption capacity and increasing soluble As levels. Thus, it would be beneficial to retain high contents of magnetite in the top layer (e.g., root zone) of the Cu tailings for managing As

  13. Direct recovery of cyclodextringlycosyltransferase from Bacillus cereus using aqueous two-phase flotation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu Kiat; Show, Pau Loke; Yap, Yee Jiun; Tan, Chin Ping; Ng, Eng-Poh; Ariff, Arbakariya B; Mohamad Annuar, Mohamad Suffian B; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Purification of cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase (CGTase) from Bacillus cereus using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-potassium phosphates aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) system was studied in this paper. The effects of varying PEG molecular weight, tie-line length (TLL) value, volume ratio (VR), pH value, crude concentration and gas nitrogen flotation time were investigated. The optimal condition for purification of CGTase was attained at 18.0% (w/w) PEG 8000, 7.0% (w/w) potassium phosphates, VR of 3.0, 20% (w/w) crude load at pH 7, and 80 min nitrogen flotation time at a flow rate of 5 L/min. With this optimal condition, purification factor (PFT) of 21.8 and a yield (YT) of 97.1% were attained. CGTase was successfully purified in a single downstream processing step using the ATPF.

  14. Absolute phase recovery in structured light illumination systems: Sinusoidal vs. intensity discrete patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos

    2016-09-01

    Structured light illumination is a well-established technology for noncontact 3D surface measurements. A common challenge in those systems is to obtain the absolute surface information using few measurement frames. This work discusses techniques based on the projection of multiple sinusoidal fringe patterns with different fringe period, as well as the projection of intensity discrete Gray Code and grey-level coded patterns. The use of sinusoidal multi-frequency techniques has been since years an on-going area of research, where various algorithms have been developed based on beats, look-up tables, or number-theoretical approaches. This work shows that a related technique, the so-called algebraic reconstruction technique that is borrowed from the area of multi-wavelength interferometry can be used for this purpose. This approach provides a robust analytical solution to the phase-unwrapping problem. However, this work argues that despite these advances, the acquisition of additional phase maps obtained with different fringe periods requires too many measurement frames, and hence is inefficient. Motivated by that, this work proposes a new grey level coding scheme that uses only few measurement frames, overcomes typical defocus errors, and has an error detecting feature. The latter feature makes the need of separate error detecting algorithms obsolete. This so-called closed-loop space filling curve can be implemented with an arbitrary number of N grey-levels enabling to code up to (2N) code-words. The performance of this so-called closed-loop space filling curve is demonstrated using experimental data.

  15. Paediatric Dengue Fever diagnosed through parents' epidemiologic report and preventive strategy during the acute phase of infection.

    PubMed

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Bonomelli, Irene; Giardinetti, Silvia; Nedbal, Marco; Bruni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, Dengue Fever is one of the most frequent imported diseases and also autochthonous cases occurred in areas where the insect vector is present. Here, we describe a child returning from Philippines and diagnosed with Dengue Fever, through the information provided by parents about an ongoing outbreak in their municipality. An appropriate clinical management in the hospital was established to monitor the occurrence of complications and to cancel the risk of dengue virus transmission in the acute phase of infection.

  16. Induction of several acute-phase protein genes by heavy metals: A new class of metal-responsive genes

    SciTech Connect

    Yiangou, Minas; Ge, Xin; Carter, K.C.; Papaconstantinou, J. Shriners Burns Institute, Galveston, TX )

    1991-04-16

    Acute-phase reactants, metallothioneins, and heat-shock proteins are the products of three families of genes that respond to glucocorticoids and cytokines. Metallothioneins and heat-shock proteins, however, are also stimulated by heavy metals whereas very little is known about the effect of heavy metals on acute-phase-reactant genes. The authors have studied the effect of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Zn) and Mg on the acute-phase reactants {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin and {alpha}{sub 1}-antichymotrypsin. {alpha}{sub 1}-Acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein mRNA levels were increased severalfold in livers of heavy-metal-treated Balb/c mice. The strongest induction was mediated by Hg, followed in order of response by Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Zn > Mg. None of the metals affected the mRNA levels of albumin, {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin, and {alpha}{sub 1}-antichymotrypsin. Furthermore, failure to repress albumin, a negative acute-phase reactant, indicated that the induction of these genes was not due to a metal-mediated inflammatory response. The metals also induced {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein in adrenalectomized animals, indicating that induction by the heavy metals is not mediated by the glucocorticoid induction pathway. Sequence analysis has revealed a region of homology to metal-responsive elements in the {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein promoters. The studies indicate that the induction of {alpha}{sub 1}-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein by heavy metals may be regulated by these metal-responsive elements at the level of transcription.

  17. The Concentration of Apolipoprotein A-I Decreases during Experimentally Induced Acute-Phase Processes in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Carpintero, R.; Piñeiro, M.; Andrés, M.; Iturralde, M.; Alava, M. A.; Heegaard, P. M. H.; Jobert, J. L.; Madec, F.; Lampreave, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) was purified from pig sera. The responses of this protein after sterile inflammation and in animals infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Streptococcus suis were investigated. Decreases in the concentrations of ApoA-I, two to five times lower than the initial values, were observed at 2 to 4 days. It is concluded that ApoA-I is a negative acute-phase protein in pigs. PMID:15845530

  18. Serum protein capillary electrophoresis and measurement of acute phase proteins in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population.

    PubMed

    Depauw, Sarah; Delanghe, Joris; Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Christensen, Michelle; Hesta, Myriam; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Budd, Jane; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert P J

    2014-09-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal pathologies are widespread in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population but are often diagnosed at a late stage, because diagnostic tools are limited to the evaluation of clinical signs or general blood examination. Presently, no data are available on serum proteins and acute-phase proteins in cheetahs during health or disease, although they might be important to improve health monitoring. This study aimed to quantify serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis in 80 serum samples from captive cheetahs, categorized according to health status and disease type. Moreover, serum amyloid A concentrations were measured via a turbidimetric immunoassay validated in domestic cats, whereas haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were determined by non-species-specific functional tests. Cheetahs classified as healthy had serum protein and acute phase protein concentrations within reference ranges for healthy domestic cats. In contrast, unhealthy cheetahs had higher (P < 0.001) serum amyloid A, alpha2-globulin, and haptoglobin concentrations compared with the healthy subgroup. Moreover, serum amyloid A (P = 0.020), alpha2-globulin (P < 0.001) and haptoglobin (P = 0.001) concentrations in cheetahs suffering from chronic kidney disease were significantly greater compared to the reportedly healthy cheetahs. Our study indicates that serum proteins in the cheetah can be analyzed by routine capillary electrophoresis, whereas acute-phase proteins can be measured using available immunoassays or non-species-specific techniques, which are also likely to be applicable in other exotic felids. Moreover, results suggest that serum amyloid A and haptoglobin are important acute-phase proteins in the diseased cheetah and highlight the need to evaluate their role as early-onset markers for disease.

  19. Change in cognitive performance is associated with functional recovery during post-acute stroke rehabilitation: a multi-centric study from intermediate care geriatric rehabilitation units of Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Laura Mónica; Inzitari, Marco; Roqué, Marta; Duarte, Esther; Vallés, Elisabeth; Rodó, Montserrat; Gallofré, Miquel

    2015-10-01

    Recovery after a stroke is determined by a broad range of neurological, functional and psychosocial factors. Evidence regarding these factors is not well established, in particular influence of cognition changes during rehabilitation. We aimed to investigate whether selective characteristics, including cognitive performance and its change over time, modulate functional recovery with home discharge in stroke survivors admitted to post-acute rehabilitation units. We undertook a multicenter cohort study, including all patients discharged from acute wards to any geriatric rehabilitation unit in Catalonia-Spain during 2008. Patients were assessed for demographics, clinical and functional variables using Conjunt Mínim Bàsic de Dades dels Recursos Sociosanitaris (CMBD-RSS), which adapts the Minimum Data Set tool used in America's nursing homes. Baseline-to-discharge change in cognition was calculated on repeated assessments using the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS, range 0-6, best-worst cognition). The multivariable effect of these factors was analyzed in relation to the outcome. 879 post-stroke patients were included (mean age 77.48 ± 10.18 years, 52.6% women). A worse initial CPS [OR (95% CI) = 0.851 (0.774-0.935)] and prevalent fecal incontinence [OR (95% CI) = 0.560 (0.454-0.691)] reduced the likelihood of returning home with functional improvement; whereas improvement of CPS, baseline to discharge, [OR (95% CI) = 1.348 (1.144-1.588)], more rehabilitation days within the first 2 weeks [OR (95% CI) = 1.011 (1.006-1.015)] and a longer hospital stay [OR (95% CI) = 1.011 (1.006-1.015)] were associated with the outcome. In our sample, different clinical characteristics, including cognitive function and its improvement over time, are associated with functional improvement in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. Our results might provide information to further studies aimed at exploring the influence of cognition changes during rehabilitation.

  20. Acute sleep deprivation: the effects of the AMPAKINE compound CX717 on human cognitive performance, alertness and recovery sleep.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Julia; Stanley, Neil; James, Lynette M; Wright, Nicola; Johnsen, Sigurd; Arbon, Emma L; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2012-08-01

    AMPA receptor modulation is a potential novel approach to enhance cognitive performance. CX717 is a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor that has shown efficacy in rodent and primate cognition models. CX717 (100 mg, 300 mg and 1000 mg) and placebo were studied in 16 healthy male volunteers (18-45 years) in a randomized, crossover study. Cognitive function, arousal and recovery sleep (by polysomnography) were assessed during the extended wakefulness protocol. Placebo condition was associated with significant decrements in cognition, particularly at the circadian nadir (between 03:00 and 05:00). Pre-specified primary and secondary analyses (general linear mixed modelling, GLMM) at each separate time point did not reveal consistent improvements in performance or objective alertness with any dose of CX717. Exploratory repeated measures analysis, a method used to take into account the influence of individual differences, demonstrated an improvement in attention-based task performance following the 1000 mg dose. Analysis of the recovery sleep showed that CX717 1000 mg significantly reduced stage 4 and slow-wave sleep (p ≤ 0.05) with evidence of reduced electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave and spindle activity. The study suggests that CX717 only at the 1000 mg dose may counteract effects of sleep deprivation on attention-based tasks and that it may interfere with subsequent recovery sleep.

  1. Recovery rate and associated factors of children age 6 to 59 months admitted with severe acute malnutrition at inpatient unit of Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral hospital therapeutic feeding unite, northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desyibelew, Hanna Demelash; Fekadu, Abel; Woldie, Haile

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite numerous advances made in improving child health and the clinical management protocols for treating severe acute malnutrition at treatment centers, evidences concerning the treatment outcomes are scarce. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the recovery rate and associated factors of severely acute malnourished children of age 6 to 59 months admitted to inpatient therapeutic feeding unit at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. Methods We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study including 401 severely malnourished children who were admitted from September 2012 to January 2016. Bivariable and a Multivariable logistic regression model were fitted to identify factors associated with recovery rate. Adjusted Odds ratio with its 95% CI was reported and P-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results Fifty eight percent (58.4%) (95%CI: 53.1–64.1) of admitted children were recovered with a mean recovery time of 18 (±6.3) days. Being female, children who were fully and partially vaccinated, who had better MUAC measurement, who stayed longer in the hospital, and children who took routine vitamin-A supplementation had better recovery rate. However, children who had co-morbidity at admission, had human immune virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB) infection, and who had edema were less likely to recover. Interpretation Recovery rate was low as compared to international SPHERE cutoff points (> 75% recovery rate). Interventions that could address the outlined factors would be helpful to improve treatment recovery rate of admitted children. PMID:28166247

  2. Modulation of C4b-binding protein isoforms during the acute phase response caused by orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Criado-García, O; González-Rubio, C; López-Trascasa, M; Pascual-Salcedo, D; Munuera, L; Rodríguez de Córdoba, S

    1997-01-01

    Orthopedic surgery is described as an event with a high risk of thromboembolic diseases. This is probably a consequence of a synergistic combination of different risk factors in the patients subjected to this type of surgery, including age, immobilization, anesthesia and different hypercoagulable states. After surgery patients develop an acute-phase response that leads to changes in several plasma proteins. One of these proteins is the complement regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP). We have recently shown that in some acute-phase patients C4BP is incorrectly controlled (with elevation of the C4BP beta-containing isoforms), leading to a potential hypercoagulable state by decreasing the plasma levels of free (active) protein S. Here we have studied whether patients subjected to orthopedic surgery have an appropriate modulation of the C4BP isoforms during their postoperative acute-phase responses. We have analyzed the evolution of the C4BP isoforms in serial samples from 11 patients who have undergone knee (or hip) prosthesis surgery (mean age 70 years), or scoliosis surgery (mean age 18 years). Our data suggest a similar evolution of C4BP isoforms in all these patients, with an almost exclusive increase of C4BP isoforms lacking C4BP beta polypeptides and steady levels of free protein S.

  3. PLASMA PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS AND SELECT ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS IN HEALTHY BONNETHEAD SHARKS (SPHYRNA TIBURO) UNDER MANAGED CARE.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Michael W; Field, Cara L; Clauss, Tonya M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2016-12-01

    Preventative health care of elasmobranchs is an important but understudied field of aquatic veterinary medicine. Evaluation of inflammation through the acute phase response is a valuable tool in health assessments. To better assess the health of bonnethead sharks ( Sphyrna tiburo ) under managed care, normal reference intervals of protein electrophoresis (EPH) and the acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin (HP), were established. Blood was collected from wild caught, captive raised bonnethead sharks housed at public aquaria. Lithium heparinized plasma was either submitted fresh or stored at -80°C prior to submission. Electrophoresis identified protein fractions with migration characteristics similar to other animals with albumin, α-1 globulin, α-2 globulin, β globulin, and γ globulin. These fractions were classified as fractions 1-5 as fractional contents are unknown in this species. Commercial reagents for CRP and HP were validated for use in bonnethead sharks. Reference intervals were established using the robust method recommended by the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology for the calculation of 90% reference intervals. Once established, the diagnostic and clinical applicability of these reference intervals was used to assess blood from individuals with known infectious diseases that resulted in systemic inflammation and eventual death. Unhealthy bonnethead sharks had significantly decreased fraction 2, fraction 3, and fraction 3:4 ratio and significantly increased fraction 5, CRP, and HP. These findings advance our understanding of elasmobranch acute phase inflammatory response and health and aid clinicians in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease in bonnethead sharks.

  4. Heart rate recovery improvement in patients following acute myocardial infarction: exercise training, β-blocker therapy or both.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Wladimir M; de Luca, Fabio A; de Figueredo Júnior, Alcides R; Mendes, Felipe A R; Gun, Carlos

    2017-04-12

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) is a strong mortality predictor. Exercise training (ET) and β-blocker therapy have significant impact on the HRR of patients following myocardial infarction (MI). However, the combination of ET and β-blocker therapy, as well as its effectiveness in patients with a more compromised HRR (≤12 bpm), has been under-studied. Male patients (n = 64) post-MI were divided: Training + β-blocker (n = 19), Training (n = 15), β-blocker (n = 11) and Control (n = 19). Participants performed an ergometric test before and after 3 months of intervention. HRR was obtained during 5 min of recovery and corrected by the cardiac reserve (HRRcorrCR ). Compared to pre-intervention, HRRcorrCR was significantly increased during the 1st and 2nd minutes of recovery in the Training + β-blocker group (70·5% and 37·5%, respectively; P<0·05). A significant improvement, lasting from the 1st to the 4th minute of recovery, was also observed in the Training group (47%, 50%, 25% and 8·7%, respectively; P<0·05). In contrast, the β-blocker group showed a reduction in HRRcorrCR during the 2nd and 3rd minutes of recovery (-21·2% and -16·3%, respectively; P<0·05). In addition, interventions involving ET (Training + βb, Training) were significantly more effective in patients with a pre-intervention HRR ≤ 12 bpm than for patients with HRR > 12 bpm. Combination of β-blocker therapy with ET does not compromise the effect of training and instead promotes HRR and aerobic capacity improvement. In addition, this combination is particularly beneficial for individuals presenting with a more compromised HRR. However, chronic administration of β-blocker therapy alone did not promote improvement in HRR or aerobic capacity.

  5. Metabolizable protein supply modulated the acute-phase response following vaccination of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Arthington, J D

    2013-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of MP supply, through RUP supplementation, on the acute-phase response of beef steers following vaccination. On d 0, Brangus-crossbred steers (n = 24; 173 ± 31 kg; 175 ± 16 d of age) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 isocaloric diets formulated to provide 85, 100, and 115% of the daily MP requirements of a beef steer gaining 0.66 kg of BW daily. Diets were limit-fed at 1.8% of BW (DM basis) and individually provided to steers once daily (0800 h) from d 0 to 29. Steers were weighed on d 0 and 29, following a 12-h period of feed and water withdrawal. On d 7, steers were vaccinated against Mannheimia haemolytica (OneShot, Pfizer), and blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 8, 10, 14, 21, and 30. Plasma metabolites were analyzed as repeated measures using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Final BW and ADG were similar (P ≥ 0.50) among treatments (mean = 184 ± 9 kg and 0.5 ± 0.08 kg/d, respectively). Effects of time were detected (P < 0.01) for plasma concentrations of all acute-phase proteins, which peaked between d 7 to 14, returning to baseline concentrations by d 29. Treatment effects were not detected (P ≥ 0.19) for plasma concentrations of acid-soluble protein, albumin, fibrinogen, IGF-1 and serum amyloid-A. Plasma concentrations of total protein (TP) and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) increased (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing supply of MP (87.1, 89.6, and 90.1 ± 1.09 mg TP/mL and 6.1, 8.3, and 10.3 ± 0.41 mg PUN/dL for 85, 100, and 115% MP steers, respectively). From d 10 to 29, steers provided 115% MP had less (P < 0.001) plasma concentrations of ceruloplasmin than steers fed 85 and 100% MP, which had similar plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations. On d 14, plasma concentrations of haptoglobin were greatest (P ≤ 0.06) for steers fed 115% MP, intermediate for 100% MP, and least for 85% MP (0.98, 0.71 and 0.44 ± 0.099 mg/mL, respectively). On d 10, plasma concentrations of creatinine were greater (P = 0.01) for steers

  6. The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) modulates the LPS induced acute phase reaction in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, Sven; Brosig, Bianca; Kersten, Susanne; Kluess, Jeannette; Kahlert, Stefan; Panther, Patricia; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef

    2013-07-04

    The systemic effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) and of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were studied in male castrated pigs (40.4 ± 3.7 kg) infused intravenously with either DON or LPS alone (100 μg DON/kg/h, 7.5 μg/LPS/kg/h), or together (100 μg DON plus 7.5 μg/LPS/kg/h). The Control group received a saline infusion (n=6/treatment, 24h observation period). An additional DON infusion did not exacerbate the clinical signs observed in LPS-infused pigs. For example, rectal temperature climaxed after 4h (40.4 ± 0.2°C) and 5h (40.1 ± 0.3°C), in the LPS and LPS+DON group, respectively. Saline and DON alone did not induce an acute phase reaction as indicated by unaltered plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) while LPS caused a significant rise of both cytokines. TNF-alpha plasma peak concentrations were significantly higher in the LPS compared to the DON+LPS group (94.3 ± 17.2 ng/mL vs. 79.2 ± 15.7 ng/mL) while IL-6 climaxed earlier in the latter group (3h p.i. vs. 2h p.i.). From the tested clinical-chemical plasma characteristics the total bilirubin concentration and the ASAT activity were strongly elevated by the LPS infusion and additionally increased and decreased by DON, respectively. In conclusion, the LPS-induced effects were only marginally modified by DON.

  7. Influence of induction of parturition on the neonatal acute phase response in foals.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Vivienne E; Holyoak, G Reed; MaCallister, Charles G; Confer, Anthony W

    2007-01-15

    The objectives of the present study were to determine whether induction of parturition in mares at term with low doses of oxytocin (2.5 i.u. i.v. every 20 min) affected the incidence of peri-partum complications or inflammatory responses in the neonatal foal. Parturition was induced in 11 of 26 mares and the remainder foaled spontaneously. Serum concentrations of amyloid A (AA; an acute phase protein) were measured (with a commercial ELISA) from 0 to 72 h postpartum in 18 of the neonatal foals. The incidence of dystocia and premature placental separation was higher in induced mares (2 of 11 and 1 of 11 versus 0 of 15 and 0 of 15, respectively), whereas retained fetal membranes were more common in spontaneous foalings (2 of 15 versus 0 of 11). When abnormal foals were excluded (to decrease the influence of endogenous serum AA elevations), serum concentrations of AA increased to the same extent over time in foals with induced versus spontaneous parturition; foals with spontaneous parturition had a mean serum AA concentration of 7.8 microg/mL at birth that increased to a maximum of 58.9 microg/mL at 36 h; foals with induced parturition had a mean serum AA concentration of 5.4 microg/mL at birth that increased to a maximum of 41.4 microg/mL at 48 h. Baseline serum AA concentrations were lower in induced foals. We concluded that inducing parturition with low doses of oxytocin in mares at term did not affect (relative to spontaneous parturition) the temporal dynamics of serum AA concentrations in the normal foal in the first 72 h of life. However, the induction procedure may lead to complications during parturition that, if not detected early, could result in the development of an inflammatory response in the neonate.

  8. Estimating mortality risk in preoperative patients using immunologic, nutritional, and acute-phase response variables.

    PubMed Central

    Christou, N V; Tellado-Rodriguez, J; Chartrand, L; Giannas, B; Kapadia, B; Meakins, J; Rode, H; Gordon, J

    1989-01-01

    We measured the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test response, along with additional variables of host immunocompetence in 245 preoperative patients to determine which variables are associated with septic-related deaths following operation. Of the 14 deaths (5.7%), 12 were related to sepsis and in 2 sepsis was contributory. The DTH response (p less than 0.00001), age (p less than 0.0002), serum albumin (p less than 0.003), hemoglobin (p less than 0.02), and total hemolytic complement (p less than 0.03), were significantly different between those who died and those who lived. By logistic regression analysis, only the DTH skin test response (log likelihood = 41.7, improvement X2 = 6.24, p less than 0.012) and the serum albumin (log likelihood = 44.8, improvement X2 = 17.7, p less than 0.001) were significantly and independently associated with the deaths. The resultant probability of mortality calculation equation was tested in a separate validation group of 519 patients (mortality = 5%) and yielded a good predictive capability as assessed by (1) X2 = 0.08 between observed and expected deaths, NS; (2) Goodman-Kruskall G statistic = 0.673) Receiver-Operating-Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with an area under the ROC curve, Az = 0.79 +/- 0.05. We conclude that a reduced immune response (DTH skin test anergy) plus a nutritional deficit and/or acute-phase response change are both associated with increased septic-related deaths in elective surgical patients. PMID:2472781

  9. Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-phase Retinopathy of Prematurity: Study Design

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Detecting sight-threatening retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) relies on a diagnostic examination (DE) performed by an experienced ophthalmologist. An alternative may be a telemedicine system where retinal images of at-risk infants are graded by readers to determine features of ROP indicating the need for a DE. Methods The multicenter “Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-phase ROP” (e-ROP) Study is a cohort study of 2,000 infants with birth weights <1251g. At each visit, ophthalmologists perform DEs and non-physician imagers obtain iris and five retinal images with the disc positioned in the center, right, left, up anddown. Images are uploaded to a secure server for grading by non-physician readers for the detection of plus disease, stage 3 ROP and/or zone I disease, any of which indicates “referral-warranted ROP (RW-ROP).” Images from all infants with RW-ROP and a random sample of infants without RW-ROP (based on DEs) are selected for grading. Gradings are compared to DEs to determine the validity and evaluate reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost-effectiveness of the telemedicine system. Results e-ROP is conducted in 12 Clinical Centers in the US and Canada with Study Headquarters, the Data Coordinating Center and the Image Reading Center in Philadelphia and the ROP Data Center in Oklahoma City. 27 Study Center Coordinators, 34 ophthalmologists; 26 imagers, and 4 readers have been certified. All study data are submitted using a secure web-based system. Conclusion The design and findings of this study will be useful to conduct other ROP studies or evaluate telemedicine for other diseases. PMID:24955738

  10. The developmental and acute phases of insulin-induced laminitis involve minimal metalloproteinase activity.

    PubMed

    de Laat, M A; Kyaw-Tanner, M T; Nourian, A R; McGowan, C M; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2011-04-15

    Metalloproteinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of equine laminitis and other inflammatory conditions, through their role in the degradation and remodelling of the extracellular matrix environment. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors are present in normal equine lamellae, with increased secretion and activation of some metalloproteinases reported in horses with laminitis associated with systemic inflammation. It is unknown whether these enzymes are involved in insulin-induced laminitis, which occurs without overt systemic inflammation. In this study, gene expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, ADAMTS-4 and TIMP-3 was determined in the lamellar tissue of normal control horses (n=4) and horses that developed laminitis after 48 h of induced hyperinsulinaemia (n=4), using quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Protein concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also examined using gelatin zymography in horses subject to prolonged hyperinsulinaemia for 6h (n=4), 12h (n=4), 24h (n=4) and 48 h (n=4), and in normal control horses (n=4). The only change in gene expression observed was an upregulation of MMP-9 (p<0.05) in horses that developed insulin-induced laminitis (48 h). Zymographical analysis showed an increase (p<0.05) in pro MMP-9 during the acute phase of laminitis (48 h), whereas pro MMP-2 was present in similar concentration in the tissue of all horses. Thus, MMP-2, MT1-MMP, TIMP-3 and ADAMTS-4 do not appear to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of insulin-induced laminitis. The increased expression of MMP-9 may be associated with the infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes, or may be a direct result of hyperinsulinaemia. The exact role of MMP-9 in basement membrane degradation in laminitis is uncertain as it appears to be present largely in the inactive form.

  11. Multi-frame blind image deconvolution through split frequency - phase recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauci, Adam; Abela, John; Cachia, Ernest; Hirsch, Michael; ZarbAdami, Kristian

    2017-02-01

    Accurate information extraction from images can only be realised if the data is blur free and contains no artificial artefacts. In astronomical images, apart from hardware limitations, biases are introduced by phenomena beyond control such as atmospheric turbulence. The induced blur function does vary in both time and space depending on the astronomical "seeing" conditions as well as the wavelengths being recorded. Multi-frame blind image deconvolution attempts to recover a sharp latent image from an image sequence of blurry and noisy observations without knowledge of the blur applied to each image within the recorded sequence. Finding a solution to this inverse problem that estimates the original scene from convolved data is a heavily ill-posed problem. In this paper we describe a novel multi-frame blind deconvolution algorithm, that performs image restoration by recovering the frequency and phase information of the latent sharp image in two separate steps. For every given image in the sequence a point-spread function (PSF) is estimated that allows iterative refinement of our latent sharp image estimate. The datasets generated for testing purposes assume Moffat or complex Kolmogorov blur kernels. The results from our implemented prototype are promising and encourage further research.

  12. Characterization of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention, and Oil Recovery for Novel Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate Surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Lebone T. Moeti; Ramanathan Sampath

    1998-05-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Clark Atlanta University under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to April 01, 1998 which covers the first six months of the project. During this reporting period, laboratory space to set up the surfactant characterization measurement system in the Research Science Center was made available. A Ph.D. student in Chemistry was identified and is supported as a Graduate Research Assistant in this project. Her contribution towards this project will form her Ph.D. thesis. The test matrix to perform salinity and temperature scans was established. Supply requests to obtain refined hydrocarbon, surfactant, and crude were processed and supplies obtained. A temperature bath with a control unit to perform temperature scans was obtained on loan from Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV. The setting up of the temperature control unit, and associated chiller with water circulation lines is in progress. Tests were conducted on several hybrid surfactants to identify the best surfactants for future experimental work that yield almost equal volumes of top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. The student reviewed the current literature in the subject area, and modeling efforts that were established in previous studies to predict electrical conductivities and inversion phenomena. These activities resulted in one published conference paper, and one student poster paper during this reporting period.

  13. Early lymphocyte recovery predicts superior overall survival after unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplant for myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia evolving from myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying-Jun; Zhao, Xiang-Yu; Xu, Lan-Ping; Liu, Dai-Hong; Liu, Kai-Yan; Chen, Yu-Hong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhao, Xiao-Su; Han, Wei; Chen, Huan; Wang, Feng-Rong; Lv, Meng; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2013-12-01

    We investigated whether early lymphocyte recovery, after unmanipulated, haploidentical, blood and marrow transplant (HBMT), affected clinical outcomes in 78 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia evolving from MDS. Lymphocyte recovery was based on the absolute lymphocyte count on day 30 (ALC-30). Patients with high ALC-30 (≥ 300 cells/μL) had lower relapse rates (13.8% vs. 35.5%, p = 0.049) and lower incidence of bacterial infections (3.4% vs. 25.8%, p = 0.015) than those with low ALC-30 values. Multivariate analysis showed that a high ALC-30 was associated with improved overall survival (OS, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.099, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.029-0.337; p < 0.0001), improved leukemia-free survival (HR: 0.245, 95% CI: 0.112-0.539; p < 0.0001), lower relapse rate (HR: 0.096, 95% CI: 0.011-0.827; p = 0.033) and lower transplant-related mortality (TRM, HR: 0.073, 95% CI: 0.016-0.324; p = 0.001). Combinations of three mismatches in the human leukocyte antigen loci were associated with a higher TRM (HR: 5.026, 95% CI: 1.392-18.173; p = 0.014). Our results suggest that the ALC-30 can predict a favorable OS after unmanipulated HBMT.

  14. Innovative method for increased methane recovery from two-phase anaerobic digestion of food waste through reutilization of acidogenic off-gas in methanogenic reactor.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing Hua; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the performance of a two-phase anaerobic digestion reactor treating food waste with the reutilization of acidogenic off-gas was investigated with the objective to improve the hydrogen availability for the methanogenic reactor. As a comparison a treatment without off-gas reutilization was also set up. Results showed that acidogenic off-gas utilization in the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor increased the methane recovery up to 38.6%. In addition, a 27% increase in the production of cumulative chemical oxygen demand (COD) together with an improved soluble microbial products recovery dominated by butyrate was observed in the acidogenic leach bed reactor (LBR) with off-gas reutilization. Of the increased methane recovery, ∼8% was contributed by the utilization of acidogenic off-gas in UASB. Results indicated that utilization of acidogenic off-gas in methanogenic reactor is a viable technique for improving overall methane recovery.

  15. Improvement in identification of multivessel disease after acute myocardial infarction following stress-recovery analysis of ST depression in the heart rate domain during exercise.

    PubMed

    Bigi, R; Maffi, M; Occhi, G; Bolognese, L; Pozzoni, L

    1994-09-01

    The demonstration of extensive coronary artery disease (CAD) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has important prognostic implications. Exercise-induced ST segment depression is commonly used for detecting the presence of CAD and evaluating its extension. However, even though there have been many attempts to increase its diagnostic yield, the accuracy of the electrocardiographic signal for identifying multivessel disease (MVD) is relatively low, particularly in post-MI patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a simple index, combining information on the amount and kinetics of ST depression in the heart rate domain during exercise and recovery, to identify MVD after AMI. Seventy patients (mean age 53.4 years) underwent a bicycle, symptom-limited exercise stress test and coronary angiography 2-3 weeks and 6 weeks respectively, after uncomplicated AMI while cardioactive therapy was discontinued. After obtaining a computer-derived measurement of ST levels based on incremental averaging of normal complexes, the area subtended to baseline and limited by the ST trend against heart rate during both exercise (A1) and recovery (A2) was calculated. The difference (A1-A2) was defined as the 'Stress-Recovery Index' (SRI) and dichotomized, by means of receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis, at 5 mm x beats.min-1 to define an increased risk of MVD. The SRI of patients with MVD was significantly lower than that of patients with single vessel disease. The sensitivity of SRI < -5 mm x beats.min-1 (65%) for predicting MVD was significantly higher than that obtained by other conventional parameters, without appreciable loss of specificity (81%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Modulation of the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs supplemented with an all-natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce the stress and acute phase responses (APR) following an acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n = 20; 6.4 +/- 0.2 kg body weight) were obtained and transported to an ...

  17. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Sarah S; Knudsen, Kristina B; Jackson, Petra; Weydahl, Ingrid E K; Saber, Anne T; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step towards designing

  18. Serial Tc-99m MAG3 renography evaluating the recovery of acute kidney injury associated with minimal change nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Hidenori; Kotoda, Atsushi; Akimoto, Tetsu; Shinozaki, Takeshi; Inoue, Makoto; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Kusano, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-recognized complication of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). Previous reports support the concept that AKI associated with MCNS is reversible; however, information regarding the hemodynamic basis of AKI in MCNS is insufficient. We herein describe a case of AKI in a man with MCNS. In this case, monitoring the longitudinal changes in renal perfusion using serial Tc-99m-MAG3 renal scanning was beneficial for evaluating the pathophysiological background associated with the development of AKI. The potential impact of serial renal scanning in MCNS patients with AKI will also be discussed.

  19. Decreased nonrelapse mortality after unrelated cord blood transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia using reduced-intensity conditioning: a prospective phase II multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Rio, Bernard; Chevret, Sylvie; Vigouroux, Stéphane; Chevallier, Patrice; Fürst, Sabine; Sirvent, Anne; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Socié, Gérard; Ceballos, Patrice; Huynh, Anne; Cornillon, Jérôme; Françoise, Sylvie; Legrand, Faezeh; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Michel, Gérard; Maillard, Natacha; Margueritte, Geneviève; Maury, Sébastien; Uzunov, Madalina; Bulabois, Claude Eric; Michallet, Mauricette; Clement, Laurence; Dauriac, Charles; Bilger, Karin; Gluckman, Eliane; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Buzyn, Agnès; Nguyen, Stéphanie; Simon, Tabassome; Milpied, Nöel; Rocha, Vanderson

    2015-03-01

    A prospective phase II multicenter trial was performed with the aim to obtain less than 25% nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) for adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen (RIC) consisting of total body irradiation (2 Gy), cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg), and fludarabine (200 mg/m(2)). From 2007 to 2009, 79 UCBT recipients were enrolled. Patients who underwent transplantation in first complete remission (CR1) (n = 48) had a higher frequency of unfavorable cytogenetics and secondary AML and required more induction courses of chemotherapy to achieve CR1 compared with the others. The median infused total nucleated cells (TNC) was 3.4 × 10(7)/kg, 60% received double UCBT, 77% were HLA mismatched (4/6), and 40% had major ABO incompatibility. Cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery at day 60 was 87% and the cumulative incidence of 100-day acute graft-versus-host disease (II to IV) was 50%. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of NRM and relapse was 20% and 46%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, major ABO incompatibility (P = .001) and TNC (<3.4 × 10(7)/kg; P = .001) were associated with increased NRM, and use of 2 or more induction courses to obtain CR1 was associated with increased relapse incidence (P = .04). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) at 2 years was 35%, and the only factor associated with decreased LFS was secondary AML (P = .04). In conclusion, despite the decreased NRM observed, other RIC regimens with higher myelosuppression should be evaluated to decrease relapse in high-risk AML. (EUDRACT 2006-005901-67).

  20. Thrombin induces ischemic LTP (iLTP): implications for synaptic plasticity in the acute phase of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Efrat Shavit; Itsekson-Hayosh, Zeev; Aronovich, Anna; Reisner, Yair; Bushi, Doron; Pick, Chaim G.; Tanne, David; Chapman, Joab; Vlachos, Andreas; Maggio, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Acute brain ischemia modifies synaptic plasticity by inducing ischemic long-term potentiation (iLTP) of synaptic transmission through the activation of N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR). Thrombin, a blood coagulation factor, affects synaptic plasticity in an NMDAR dependent manner. Since its activity and concentration is increased in brain tissue upon acute stroke, we sought to clarify whether thrombin could mediate iLTP through the activation of its receptor Protease-Activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Extracellular recordings were obtained in CA1 region of hippocampal slices from C57BL/6 mice. In vitro ischemia was induced by acute (3 minutes) oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). A specific ex vivo enzymatic assay was employed to assess thrombin activity in hippocampal slices, while OGD-induced changes in prothrombin mRNA levels were assessed by (RT)qPCR. Upon OGD, thrombin activity increased in hippocampal slices. A robust potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength was detected, which occluded the ability to induce further LTP. Inhibition of either thrombin or its receptor PAR1 blocked iLTP and restored the physiological, stimulus induced LTP. Our study provides important insights on the early changes occurring at excitatory synapses after ischemia and indicates the thrombin/PAR1 pathway as a novel target for developing therapeutic strategies to restore synaptic function in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. PMID:25604482

  1. Hepatic acute phase proteins--regulation by IL-6- and IL-1-type cytokines involving STAT3 and its crosstalk with NF-κB-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Bode, Johannes G; Albrecht, Ute; Häussinger, Dieter; Heinrich, Peter C; Schaper, Fred

    2012-01-01

    The function of the liver as an important constituent of the immune system involved in innate as well as adaptive immunity is warranted by different highly specialized cell populations. As the major source of acute phase proteins, including secreted pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), short pentraxins, components of the complement system or regulators of iron metabolism, hepatocytes are essential constituents of innate immunity and largely contribute to the control of a systemic inflammatory response. The production of acute phase proteins in hepatocytes is controlled by a variety of different cytokines released during the inflammatory process with IL-1- and IL-6-type cytokines as the leading regulators operating both as a cascade and as a network having additive, inhibitory, or synergistic regulatory effects on acute phase protein expression. Hence, IL-1β substantially modifies IL-6-induced acute phase protein production as it almost completely abrogates production of acute phase proteins such as γ-fibrinogen, α(2)-macroglobulin or α(1)-antichymotrypsin, whereas production of for example hepcidin, C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A is strongly up-regulated. This switch-like regulation of IL-6-induced acute phase protein production by IL-1β is due to a complex processing of the intracellular signaling events activated in response to IL-6 and/or IL-1β, with the crosstalk between STAT3- and NF-κB-mediated signal transduction being of particular importance. Recent data suggest that in this context complex formation between STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB might be of key importance. The present review summarizes the regulation of acute phase protein production focusing on the role of the crosstalk of STAT3- and NF-κB-driven pathways for transcriptional control of acute phase gene expression.

  2. Effects of Combined Phase III and Phase II Cardiac Exercise Therapy for Middle-aged Male Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Wei; Wang, Ji-Hung; Hsieh, Jen-Che; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Hui

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of cardiac exercise therapy (CET) on exercise capacity and coronary risk factors (CRFs) of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). [Methods] Patients who participated in an 8-week supervised, hospital-based phase II and 6-month home-based phase III CET with monthly telephone and/or home visits were defined as the exercise group (EG) (n=20), while those who did not receive phase II or phase III CET were defined as the no-exercise group (NEG) (n=10). CRFs were evaluated pre- and post-phase II and eight months after discharge. One and two-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to perform intra- and inter-group comparisons. [Results] Thirty men with AMI aged 49.3 ± 8.3 years were studied. EG increased their exercise capacity (METs) (6.8 ± 1.6 vs.10.0 ± 1.9) after phase II CET and was able to maintain it at 8-month follow-up. Both groups had significantly fewer persons who kept on smoking compared to the first examination. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased from 38.1 ± 11.0 to 43.7 ± 8.7 mg/dl at follow-up in EG while no significant difference was noted in NEG. [Conclusion] After phase III CET subjects had maintained the therapeutic effects of smoking cessation, and increasing exercise capacity obtained in phase II CET. HDL-C in EG continued to improve during phase III CET.

  3. Evidence for a protective role of tumor necrosis factor in the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lima, E C; Garcia, I; Vicentelli, M H; Vassalli, P; Minoprio, P

    1997-01-01

    A possible role for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha during Trypanosoma cruzi infection was explored by using transgenic mice expressing in blood high levels of a soluble TNFR1-FcIgG3 fusion protein, which neutralizes the effects of TNF in vivo. Nontransgenic littermates were used as controls. The transgenic mice showed high susceptibility to T. cruzi infection. Inocula sublethal for control mice resulted in over 80% mortality associated with higher levels of parasites in the blood. In histological sections of the hearts of transgenic mice, large parasitic clusters without inflammatory cell infiltrates around the parasites were seen, while smaller parasitic clusters associated with leukocytes were seen in control mice. No difference in specific antibody response or lymphocyte composition of the spleen was found between transgenic and control mice, although the unresponsiveness of spleen cells to concanavalin A stimulation in vitro, typical of the acute phase of T. cruzi infection, was less pronounced in transgenic mice. Infected transgenic mice produced higher levels of gamma interferon than did control mice. These results confirm that TNF is involved in mechanisms leading to parasite clearance and protection from death in the acute phase of T. cruzi infection. More importantly, the data reveal that TNF is necessary for the establishment of effective tissue inflammation and parasite load control in acute experimental Chagas' disease myocarditis. PMID:9009297

  4. Investigation of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention and Condensate Recovery for Condensate/Water/Ethanol Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2004-09-30

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-02NT15447 during the period April 01, 2004 to September 30, 2004 which covers the fourth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize phase and emulsion behavior for ethylbenzene/water/ethanol system. Ethylbenzene that has the equivalent carbon number is used as the model condensate. During this reporting period, work was under way and the electrical conductivity experimental system was set up at the Atlanta University Center. Following the set-up of the emulsion measurement system, the electronic instruments and data acquisition modules involved were tested for proper operation of the system. Then, the conductivity output was normalized with that obtained for 10mM NaCl water. Radial coreflooding experiments with ethanol injection prior to and after water injection were completed to assess the effectiveness of the surfactant flooding in the recovery of condensate by our industrial partner, Surtek, CO, in this reporting period. In Run 1, 10 mM NaCl without ethanol injection recovered 31.5% of the initial ethyl benzene saturation. Injection of ethanol following 10 mM NaCl produced a tertiary ethyl benzene bank with maximum ethyl benzene cuts of 32%. In Run 2, 50 vol% of pure (100%) ethanol was injected and flowed through the Berea sandstone after Ethyl Benzene Saturation. 69% of the initial ethyl benzene was recovered. Results of the radial corefloods are very encouraging. Emulsion conductivity measurements for conjugate pair phases are in progress at Morehouse.

  5. Effect of acute sleep deprivation and recovery on Insulin-like Growth Factor-I responses and inflammatory gene expression in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Scofield, Denis E; Nindl, Bradley C

    2014-01-01

    Acute sleep deprivation in humans has been found to increase inflammatory markers and signaling pathways in the periphery through a possible Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). In addition, short duration sleep has been associated with low circulating total Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations. We aimed to determine whether a total sleep deprivation (TSD) protocol with recovery altered whole-blood gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, as well as TLR-4 expression, and to examine the relationship with circulating concentrations of the IGF-I system. Twelve healthy men participated in a five-day TSD (two control nights followed by one night of sleep deprivation and one night of recovery). Blood was sampled at 0800, before and after sleep deprivation (D2 and D4), and after recovery (D5). It is shown that 25 h of sleep deprivation (D4) induced significant increases in mRNA levels of TNF-α and its soluble receptor R1 (P<0.01 respectively), as well as TLR-4 (P<0.05), while IL-6 mRNA levels remained unchanged. Circulating concentrations of free IGF-I were decreased at D4 (P<0.001). One night of recovery was sufficient to restore basal expression levels for TNF-α, sTNF-R1, TLR-4 and circulating IGF-I. Changes in TLR-4 mRNA levels during the protocol correlated positively with those of TNF-α and sTNF-R1 (r=0.393 and r=0.490 respectively), and negatively with circulating free IGF-I (r=-0.494). In conclusion, 25 h of sleep deprivation in healthy subjects is sufficient to induce transient and reversible genomic expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and its R1 receptor, and its mediator TLR-4, with a possible link to IGF-I axis inhibition.

  6. Fluoxetine for motor recovery after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (FMRICH): study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spontaneous, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke that causes a great amount of disability and economic and social burden. This is particularly true in developing countries where it accounts for between 20% and 50% of all strokes. Pharmacological and surgical interventions have been attempted to reduce the mortality and disability caused by ICH, with unsuccessful results. Recently, the use of fluoxetine in addition to physical rehabilitation has been proven useful to improve motor recovery following cerebral infarct. The purpose of this study is to test whether a 3-month treatment with fluoxetine enhances motor recovery in nondepressed patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods/design Our study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. We will recruit 86 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage of both sexes, aged >18 years, from four Mexican hospitals. The patients will receive either 20 mg of fluoxetine or a placebo once daily for 90 days. The primary outcome is the mean change in the Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale score between inclusion (day 0) and day 90. The secondary outcomes will be changes in the Barthel Index, the Modified Rankin scale and the National Institutes of Health stroke scale. The outcomes will be measured at day 42 ± 7days and at day 90, for a total of four visits with each subject (at screening and at 0, 42 and 90 days). Discussion Current guidelines recommend early supported hospital discharge and home-based rehabilitation programs as the only cost-effective intervention to aid the recovery of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Nevertheless, such interventions are dependent on available resources and funding, which make them very difficult to implement in developing countries. We believe that the identification of a helpful pharmacological intervention to aid the motor recovery of these patients will constitute a breakthrough that will have a major impact in

  7. Maintenance therapy with decitabine in younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission: a phase 2 Cancer and Leukemia Group B study (CALGB 10503)

    PubMed Central

    Blum, William; Sanford, Ben L.; Klisovic, Rebecca; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Uy, Geoffrey; Powell, Bayard L.; Stock, Wendy; Baer, Maria R.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Wang, Eunice S.; Hoke, Eva; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Geyer, Susan; Marcucci, Guido; Stone, Richard M.; Larson, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In this prospective phase 2 clinical trial conducted by Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB, now the Alliance), we studied decitabine as maintenance therapy for younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who remained in first complete remission (CR1) following intensive induction and consolidation. Given that decitabine is clinically active in AML and with hypomethylating activity distinct from cytotoxic chemotherapy, we hypothesized that one year of maintenance therapy would improve disease-free survival (DFS) for AML patients <60 years who did not receive allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) in CR1. After blood count recovery from final consolidation, patients received decitabine at 20mg/m2 IV daily for 4–5 days, every 6 weeks for 8 cycles. One-hundred-thirty-four patients received decitabine, 85 (63%) had favorable risk AML. The median number of cycles received was 7 (range, 1–8), and the primary reason for discontinuation was relapse. DFS at 1-year and 3-years was 79% and 54%, respectively. These results are similar to the outcomes in the historical control comprised of similar patients treated on recent CALGB trials. Thus, maintenance with decitabine provided no benefit overall. Standard use of decitabine maintenance in younger AML patients in CR1 is not warranted. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00416598. PMID:27624549

  8. Maintenance therapy with decitabine in younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission: a phase 2 Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study (CALGB 10503).

    PubMed

    Blum, W; Sanford, B L; Klisovic, R; DeAngelo, D J; Uy, G; Powell, B L; Stock, W; Baer, M R; Kolitz, J E; Wang, E S; Hoke, E; Mrózek, K; Kohlschmidt, J; Bloomfield, C D; Geyer, S; Marcucci, G; Stone, R M; Larson, R A

    2017-01-01

    In this prospective phase 2 clinical trial conducted by Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB, now the Alliance), we studied decitabine as maintenance therapy for younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who remained in first complete remission (CR1) following intensive induction and consolidation. Given that decitabine is clinically active in AML and with hypomethylating activity distinct from cytotoxic chemotherapy, we hypothesized that 1 year of maintenance therapy would improve disease-free survival (DFS) for AML patients <60 years, who did not receive allogeneic stem cell transplantation in CR1. After blood count recovery from final consolidation, patients received decitabine at 20 mg/m(2) intravenously daily for 4-5 days, every 6 weeks for eight cycles. One hundred and thirty-four patients received decitabine and 85 (63%) had favorable risk AML. The median number of cycles received was 7 (range: 1-8) and the primary reason for discontinuation was relapse. DFS at 1 year and 3 years was 79% and 54%, respectively. These results are similar to the outcomes in the historical control comprising similar patients treated on recent CALGB trials. Thus, maintenance with decitabine provided no benefit overall. Standard use of decitabine maintenance in younger AML patients in CR1 is not warranted. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00416598.

  9. Elevation of Intact and Proteolytic Fragments of Acute Phase Proteins Constitutes the Earliest Systemic Antiviral Response in HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Holger B.; Lavender, Kerry J.; Qin, Li; Stacey, Andrea R.; Liu, Michael K. P.; di Gleria, Katalin; Simmons, Alison; Gasper-Smith, Nancy; Haynes, Barton F.; McMichael, Andrew J.; Borrow, Persephone; Kessler, Benedikt M.

    2010-01-01

    The earliest immune responses activated in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (AHI) exert a critical influence on subsequent virus spread or containment. During this time frame, components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and DCs, NK cells, β-defensins, complement and other anti-microbial factors, which have all been implicated in modulating HIV infection, may play particularly important roles. A proteomics-based screen was performed on a cohort from whom samples were available at time points prior to the earliest positive HIV detection. The ability of selected factors found to be elevated in the plasma during AHI to inhibit HIV-1 replication was analyzed using in vitro PBMC and DC infection models. Analysis of unique plasma donor panels spanning the eclipse and viral expansion phases revealed very early alterations in plasma proteins in AHI. Induction of acute phase protein serum amyloid A (A-SAA) occurred as early as 5–7 days prior to the first detection of plasma viral RNA, considerably prior to any elevation in systemic cytokine levels. Furthermore, a proteolytic fragment of alpha–1-antitrypsin (AAT), termed virus inhibitory peptide (VIRIP), was observed in plasma coincident with viremia. Both A-SAA and VIRIP have anti-viral activity in vitro and quantitation of their plasma levels indicated that circulating concentrations are likely to be within the range of their inhibitory activity. Our results provide evidence for a first wave of host anti-viral defense occurring in the eclipse phase of AHI prior to systemic activation of other immune responses. Insights gained into the mechanism of action of acute-phase reactants and other innate molecules against HIV and how they are induced could be exploited for the future development of more efficient prophylactic vaccine strategies. PMID:20463814

  10. Dendritic BDNF synthesis is required for late-phase spine maturation and recovery of cortical responses following sensory deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Megumi; Xie, Yuxiang; An, Juan Ji; Stryker, Michael P; Xu, Baoji

    2012-04-04

    Sensory experience in early postnatal life shapes neuronal connections in the brain. Here we report that the local synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in dendrites plays an important role in this process. We found that dendritic spines of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of the visual cortex in mutant mice lacking dendritic Bdnf mRNA and thus local BDNF synthesis were normal at 3 weeks of age, but thinner, longer, and more closely spaced (morphological features of immaturity) at 4 months of age than in wild-type (WT) littermates. Layer 2/3 of the visual cortex in these mutant animals also had fewer GABAergic presynaptic terminals at both ages. The overall size and shape of dendritic arbors were, however, similar in mutant and WT mice at both ages. By using optical imaging of intrinsic signals and single-unit recordings, we found that mutant animals failed to recover cortical responsiveness following monocular deprivation (MD) during the critical period, although they displayed normally the competitive loss of responsiveness to an eye briefly deprived of vision. Furthermore, MD still induced a loss of responsiveness to the closed eye in adult mutant mice, but not in adult WT mice. These results indicate that dendritic BDNF synthesis is required for spine pruning, late-phase spine maturation, and recovery of cortical responsiveness following sensory deprivation. They also suggest that maturation of dendritic spines is required for the maintenance of cortical responsiveness following sensory deprivation in adulthood.

  11. Systemic acute phase proteins response in calves experimentally infected with Eimeria zuernii.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Bangoura, Berit; Lepik, Triin; Orro, Toomas

    2015-09-15

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) have been demonstrated to be useful in evaluating general health stress and diseases in cattle. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) are APPs that are produced during inflammation, and likely play a role in host immunological defence against Eimeria infection and the associated intestinal tissue damage. We investigated the involvement of SAA and HP in an experimental study, including three groups of calves: a control group (group 0, n=11), and two groups infected with either 150,000 or 250,000 Eimeria zuernii oocysts (group 1 (n=11) and group 2 (n=12), respectively). The calves were monitored for 28 days and data was collected on oocyst excretion, faecal score, animal weight, and SAA and Hp serum concentrations. Generalized linear mixed models showed that the clinical symptoms, indicated by an increase in the number of oocysts in the faeces and severe diarrhoea, manifested at patency for group 1 and 2. Serum Hp and SAA levels also increased during this period. Hp appeared to be a more sensitive marker than SAA, and differences between groups 1 and 2 were observed only for Hp. Linear regression models showed a negative association between weight gain and Hp concentrations, calculated as the area under the curve (AUC) during the overall experimental period and the patency period. A similar result was seen for SAA only during the patency period. This result supports the assumption that reduced weight gain due to E. zuernii infection is an immunologically driven process that involves an increase in APPs. A random intercept regression model of oocyst shedding groups showed that calves shedding 1-500 oocysts had reduced concentrations of Hp, indicating that a different immunological reaction occurs during mild shedding of E. zuernii oocysts than during more intensive shedding. A similar model was used to examine associations between faecal scores and Hp concentrations for each group. Group 2 calves with haemorrhagic diarrhoea displayed

  12. Sphingolipids are required for mammalian epidermal barrier function. Inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis delays barrier recovery after acute perturbation.

    PubMed Central

    Holleran, W M; Man, M Q; Gao, W N; Menon, G K; Elias, P M; Feingold, K R

    1991-01-01

    Stratum corneum lipids comprise an approximately equimolar mixture of sphingolipids, cholesterol, and free fatty acids, arranged as intercellular membrane bilayers that are presumed to mediate the epidermal permeability barrier. Prior studies have shown that alterations in epidermal barrier function lead to a rapid increase in cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis which parallels the early stages of the repair process. Despite an abundance of indirect evidence for their role in the barrier, the importance of sphingolipids has yet to be demonstrated directly. Whereas sphingolipid synthesis also increases during barrier repair, this response is delayed in comparison to cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis (Holleran, W.M., et al. 1991. J. Lipid Res. 32:1151-1158). To further delineate the role of sphingolipids in barrier homeostasis, we assessed the impact of inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis on epidermal barrier recovery. A single topical application of beta-chloro-L-alanine (beta-CA), an irreversible inhibitor of serine-palmitoyl transferase (SPT), applied to acetone-treated skin of hairless mice resulted in: (a) greater than 75% inhibition of SPT activity at 30 min (P less than 0.001); (b) a global decrease in sphingolipid synthesis between 1 and 3 h (P less than 0.02); (c) reduction of epidermal sphingolipid content at 18 h (P less than 0.01); (d) delayed reaccumulation of histochemical staining for sphingolipids in the stratum corneum; and (e) reduced numbers and contents of lamellar bodies in the stratum granulosum. Finally, despite its immediate, marked diminution of sphingolipid synthesis, beta-CA slowed barrier recovery only at late time points (greater than 6 h) after acetone treatment. This inhibition was overridden by coapplications of ceramides (the distal SPT product), indicating that the delay in repair was not due to non-specific toxicity. These studies demonstrate a distinctive role for epidermal sphingolipids in permeability barrier homeostasis

  13. Long-duration depletion in the topside ionospheric total electron content during the recovery phase of the March 2015 strong storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jiahao; Wang, Wenbin; Yue, Xinan; Burns, Alan G.; Dou, Xiankang; Lei, Jiuhou

    2016-05-01

    Topside ionospheric total electron content (TEC) observations from multiple low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites have been used to investigate the local time, altitudinal, and longitudinal dependence of the topside ionospheric storm effect during both the main and recovery phases of the March 2015 geomagnetic storm. The results of this study show, for the first time, that there was a persistent topside TEC depletion that lasted for more than 3 days after the storm main phase at most longitudes, except in the Pacific Ocean region, where the topside TECs during the storm recovery phase were comparable to the quiet time ones. The observed depletion in the topside ionospheric TEC was relatively larger at higher altitudes in the evening sector and greater at local times closer to midnight. Moreover, the topside TEC patterns observed by MetOp-A (832 km) were different from those seen by other LEO satellites with lower orbital altitudes during the storm main phase and at the beginning of the recovery phase, especially in the evening sector. This suggests that the physical processes that control the storm time behavior of topside ionospheric response to storms are altitude-dependent.

  14. Subcarrier phase recovery performance in bent-pipe mode of Shuttle data transmission. [on Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System Ku-band return link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, T. M.; Braun, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    The subcarrier phase recovery is analyzed for the bent-pipe mode of Space Shuttle detached-payload data transmission on the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Ku-band return link. The high-power component of the subcarrier modulation is unrestored payload data, either at baseband or modulating another subcarrier. At the receiver a Costas loop recovers the subcarrier phase. To analyze its performance in the baseband case, we obtain the loop S-curve, the power spectral density of the equivalent noise process, and the loop phase error variance.

  15. Recovery evaluation of organophosphorus pesticides from bee pollen by matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction using sorbents based on silica and titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Perea, C.; Muñoz-Rodríguez, D.; Medina-Peralta, S.; Carrera-Figueiras, C.; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y. B.

    2013-06-01

    This work focused on the evaluation of the recovery of organophosphorus pesticides from bee pollen after matrix solid phase-dispersion extraction (MSPD). Materials based on silica, titania and titania modified with polivylnylimidazole or polyestirene were used as adsorbents for the extraction of pesticides. Small amounts of fortified pollen (0.1 g, at 1 micro-g/g of pesticides), adsorbent (0.4 g) and solvent elution (1 mL de acetonitrile - ACN) were used in the extractions. For recovery evaluation, pollen extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

  16. The role and importance of glycosylation of acute phase proteins with focus on alpha-1 antitrypsin in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Cormac; Saldova, Radka; Wormald, Mark R; Rudd, Pauline M; McElvaney, Noel G; Reeves, Emer P

    2014-07-03

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) are a group of circulating plasma proteins which undergo changes quantitatively or qualitatively at the time of inflammation. Many of these APPs are glycosylated, and it has been shown that alterations in glycosylation may occur in inflammatory and malignant conditions. Changes in glycosylation have been studied as potential biomarkers in cancer and also in chronic inflammatory conditions and have been shown to correlate with disease severity in certain conditions. Serine protease inhibitors (serpins), many of which are also APPs, are proteins involved in the control of proteases in numerous pathways. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) is the most abundant serpin within the circulation and is an APP which has been shown to increase in response to inflammation. The primary role of AAT is maintaining the protease/antiprotease balance in the lung, but it also possesses important anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Several glycoforms of AAT exist, and they possess differing properties in regard to plasma half-life and stability. Glycosylation may also be important in determining the immune modulatory properties of AAT. The review will focus on the role and importance of glycosylation in acute phase proteins with particular attention to AAT and its use as a biomarker of disease. The review describes the processes involved in glycosylation, how glycosylation changes in differing disease states, and the alterations that occur to glycans of APPs with disease and inflammation. Finally, the review explores the importance of changes in glycosylation of AAT at times of inflammation and in malignant conditions and how this may impact upon the functions of AAT.

  17. Evaluation of the prevalence of stress and its phases in acute myocardial infarction in patients active in the labor market

    PubMed Central

    Lucinda, Luciane Boreki; Prosdócimo, Ana Claudia Merchan Giaxa; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Francisco, Julio Cesar; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; do Amaral, Vivian Ferreira; Faria, José Rocha; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute myocardial infarction is a social health problem of epidemiological relevance, with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Stress is one of the modifiable risk factors that triggers acute myocardial infarction. Stress is a result of a set of physiological reactions, which when exaggerated in intensity or duration can lead to imbalances in one's organism, resulting in vulnerability to diseases. Objective To identify the presence of stress and its phases in hospitalized and active labor market patients with unstable myocardial infarction and observe its correlation with the life of this population with stress. Methods The methodology used was a quantitative, descriptive and transversal research approach conducted with a total of 43 patients, who were still active in the labor market, presenting or not morbidities. Data collection occurred on the fourth day of their hospitalization and patients responded to Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory for adults. Results Thirty-one patients (72.1%) presented stress and twelve (27.8%) did not. In patients with stress, the identified phases were: alert - one patient (3.2%); resistance -twenty-two patients (71.0%); quasi-exhaustion - six patients (19.4%) and exhaustion - two patients (6.5%). All women researched presented stress. Conclusion The results suggest a high level of stress, especially in the resistance phase, in the male infarcted population, hospitalized and active in the labor market. PMID:25859863

  18. Neutrophil elastase mediates acute pathogenesis and is a determinant of long-term behavioral recovery after traumatic injury to the immature brain

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Bridgette D; Trivedi, Alpa; Gimlin, Kayleen; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    , WT mice treated acutely with the NE inhibitor showed no long-term behavioral or structural improvements. Together, these findings validate the central role of NE in both acute pathogenesis and chronic functional recovery, and support future exploration of the therapeutic window, taking into account the prolonged period of neutrophil trafficking into the injured immature brain. PMID:25497734

  19. Evaluation of plasma leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prealbumin as prognostic biomarkers during clinical recovery from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Anant; Arora, Sneh; Uniyal, Arvind; Poulose, Rosemary; Luthra, Kalpana; Pandey, RM; Guleria, Randeep

    2017-01-01

    Background: Inflammatory and nutritional biomarkers have an important bearing on outcomes of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), but the temporal profile of these compounds during an acute episode is unclear. Patients and Methods: Plasma leptin, prealbumin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were estimated at baseline and before hospital discharge in patients with AECOPD. Results: A total of 82 patients were evaluated (66 males; mean (standard deviation) age, 61.6 (10.1) years. Of these, 74 subjects (90.2%) were current or former smokers, with median (range) pack-years of 15 (0–96), duration of COPD of 8 years (range, 2–25 years) and duration of current symptoms being 5 days (range, 1–30 days). Majority (41.5%) had type I (severe) exacerbation. During the current episode, 46 patients (58.9%) required mechanical ventilation for a median of 6 days (range, 1–34). The median duration of hospital stay was 13 days, (range, 1–110). At discharge, significant reduction was observed in dyspnea, total leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), partial pressure of carbon dioxide, hemoglobin, urea, creatinine, potassium, aspartate transferase, and TNF-α levels compared to baseline, whereas arterial pH, PO2, serum albumin, prealbumin, and leptin significantly improved. No difference was seen in leptin, prealbumin, and TNF-α between patients with mild/moderate and severe exacerbation, or between patients who required or did not require mechanical ventilation. Change in leptin correlated with body mass index and change in ESR; no associations were observed between leptin, prealbumin, and TNF-α with other clinico-laboratory variables. Conclusion: Plasma levels of novel inflammatory and nutritional biomarkers, i.e., leptin, TNF-α, and prealbumin are altered in AECOPD episodes and lag behind other parameters during recovery. These biomarkers are not reliable predictors of clinical outcomes in these patients. PMID

  20. Complete clinical recovery of a central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis delayed onset in a child with acute myeloblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, D; Karapinar, B; Balkan, C; Ay, Y; Kavakli, K

    2011-02-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a demyelinating disease of the pons often associated with the demyelination of extrapontine areas of the central nervous system. It typically occurs 0.5-7 days after a rapid increment in serum Na level in hyponatremic patients and may lead to death. A 2.5-year-old child with a diagnosis of acute myeloblastic leukemia developed febril neutropenia, diarrhea, gastrointestinal hemorrhage followed by pulmonary aspergillosis. He could not tolerate enteral nutrition. He was given broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungal treatment. Laboratory tests showed electrolyte abnormalities including hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia in a chronic course. Twenty three days after a rapid correction of hyponatremia (16 mEq/L/24 h) he revealed flask quadriparesis, disphagia, mutism, irregular respiratory pattern and loss of cough and gag reflex. Cranial magnetic resonance showed central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis. He required mechanical ventilation and then he regained his neurologic functions. He completed chemotherapy protocol and underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. After 2.5 years of the occurrence of CPM he is in completely normal physical and neurological status. CPM is a very severe but rare disorder in children with underlying disease. In the presence of multiple etiologic factors it may reveal a delayed onset and optimum outcome can be seen even in the severe clinical presentation with adequate intensive support.

  1. Acute-phase protein α1-antitrypsin--a novel regulator of angiopoietin-like protein 4 transcription and secretion.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Eileen; Wrenger, Sabine; Immenschuh, Stephan; Koczulla, Rembert; Mahadeva, Ravi; Deeg, H Joachim; Dinarello, Charles A; Welte, Tobias; Marcondes, A Mario Q; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2014-06-01

    The angiopoietin-like protein 4 (angptl4, also known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [PPAR]γ-induced angiopoietin-related protein) is a multifunctional protein associated with acute-phase response. The mechanisms accounting for the increase in angptl4 expression are largely unknown. This study shows that human α1-antitrypsin (A1AT) upregulates expression and release of angplt4 in human blood adherent mononuclear cells and in primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Mononuclear cells treated for 1 h with A1AT (from 0.1 to 4 mg/ml) increased mRNA of angptl4 from 2- to 174-fold, respectively, relative to controls. In endothelial cells, the maximal effect on angptl4 expression was achieved at 8 h with 2 mg/ml A1AT (11-fold induction versus controls). In 10 emphysema patients receiving A1AT therapy (Prolastin), plasma angptl4 levels were higher relative to patients without therapy (nanograms per milliliter, mean [95% confidence interval] 127.1 [99.5-154.6] versus 76.8 [54.8-98.8], respectively, p = 0.045) and correlated with A1AT levels. The effect of A1AT on angptl4 expression was significantly diminished in cells pretreated with a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 activation (UO126), irreversible and selective PPARγ antagonist (GW9662), or genistein, a ligand for PPARγ. GW9662 did not alter the ability of A1AT to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that PPARγ is a critical mediator in the A1AT-driven angptl4 expression. In contrast, the forced accumulation of HIF-1α, an upregulator of angptl4 expression, enhanced the effect of A1AT. Thus, acute-phase protein A1AT is a physiological regulator of angptl4, another acute-phase protein.

  2. Complement-dependent acute-phase expression of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P-component.

    PubMed

    Szalai, A J; van Ginkel, F W; Wang, Y; McGhee, J R; Volanakis, J E

    2000-07-15

    The acute-phase response (APR) is regulated by TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 acting alone, in combination, or in concert with hormones. The anaphylotoxin C5a, generated during complement activation, induces in vitro the synthesis of these cytokines by leukocytes and of acute-phase proteins by HepG2 cells. However, there is no clear evidence for a role of C5a or any other complement activation product in regulation of the APR in vivo. In this study, using human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mice deficient in C3 or C5, we investigated whether complement activation contributes to induction of the acute-phase proteins CRP and serum amyloid P-component (SAP). Absence of C3 or C5 resulted in decreased LPS-induced up-regulation of the CRP transgene and the mouse SAP gene. Also, LPS induced both the IL-1beta and IL-6 genes in normocomplementemic mice, but in complement-deficient mice it significantly induced only IL-6. Like LPS injection, activation of complement by cobra venom factor led to significant elevation of serum CRP and SAP in normocomplementemic mice but not in complement-deficient mice. Injection of recombinant human C5a into human CRP transgenic mice induced the IL-1beta gene and caused significant elevation of both serum CRP and SAP. However, in human CRP transgenic IL-6-deficient mice, recombinant human C5a did not induce the CRP nor the SAP gene. Based on these data, we conclude that during the APR, C5a generated as a consequence of complement activation acts in concert with IL-6 and/or IL-1beta to promote up-regulation of the CRP and SAP genes.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of high-protein diet with resveratrol supplementation on radiation-induced acute-phase inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ok; Park, HyunJin; Chun, Mison; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesized that a high-protein diet and/or resveratrol supplementation will improve acute inflammatory responses in rats after receiving experimental abdominal radiation treatment (ART). Based on our previous study, the period of 10 days after ART was used as an acute inflammation model. Rats were exposed to a radiation dose of 17.5 Gy and were supplied with a control (C), 30% high-protein diet (HP), resveratrol supplementation (RES), or HP with RES diet ([HP+RES]). At day 10 after ART, we measured profiles of lipids, proteins, and immune cells in blood. The levels of clusters of differentiating 4(+) (CD4(+)) cells and regulatory T cells, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine were also measured. ART caused significant disturbances of lipid profiles by increasing triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The proinflammatroy cytokine levels were also increased by ART. All the experimental diets (HP, RES, and [HP+RES]) significantly decreased levels of TG, monocytes, proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-OHdG, whereas the platelet counts were increased. In addition, the HP and [HP+RES] diets decreased the concentrations of plasma LDL-C and total cholesterol. Also, the HP and RES diets decreased regulatory T cells compared with those of the control diet in ART group. Further, the HP diet led to a significant recovery of white blood cell counts, as well as increased percentages of lymphocyte and decreased percentages of neutrophils. In summary, RES appeared to be significantly effective in minimizing radiation-induced damage to lipid metabolism and immune responses. Our study also demonstrated the importance of dietary protein intake in recovering from acute inflammation by radiation.

  4. Blood pressure lowering in acute phase of stroke: latest evidence and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Patarroyo, Sully Xiomara Fuentes

    2012-01-01

    Persistent controversy exists as to whether there are worthwhile beneficial effects of early, rapid lowering of elevated blood pressure (BP) in acute stroke. Elevated BP or ‘hypertension’ (i.e. systolic >140 mmHg) is common in stroke, especially in patients with pre-existing hypertension and large strokes, due to variable ‘autonomic stress’ and raised intracranial pressure. While positive associations between BP levels and poor outcomes are evident across a range of studies, very low BP levels and large reductions in BP have also been shown to predict death and dependence, more so for ischaemic stroke (IS) than intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Accumulating evidence indicates that early BP lowering can reduce haematoma expansion in ICH, but there is uncertainty over whether this translates into improved clinical outcomes, particularly since such an effect was not evident from haemostatic therapy in clinical trials. Guidelines generally recommend control of high systolic BP (>180 mmHg), but recent evidence indicates that even more modest elevation (>140 mmHg) increases risks of cerebral oedema and haemorrhagic transformation following thrombolysis in IS. Thus, any potential benefits of rapid BP lowering in acute stroke, particularly in IS, must be balanced against the potential risks of worsening cerebral ischaemia from altered autoregulation/perfusion. This paper explores current knowledge regarding the management of hypertension in acute stroke and introduces ongoing clinical trials aimed at resolving such a critical issue in the care of patients with acute stroke. PMID:23342232

  5. Ion temperature intensification in southern convection flow channels during the 1 October 2001 geomagnetic storm recovery phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate Southern Hemisphere flow channel (FC) events and their underlying thermal and drift variations during the 1 October 2001 storm recovery phase. We adopt FC classification introduced by previous studies for specifying FCs, ranging from FC-0 to FC-4, according to the stages of convection cycle they are related to. Our investigation includes also the subauroral FC known as the subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) and the localized FC underlying plasma density increases crossing the polar cap. For tracking FCs, we utilize multi-instrument data from the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Since our focus is on the region of magnetic South Pole, we utilize DMSP passes that crossed the magnetic pole. We present various scenarios with polar cross sections, constructed with ion density (Ni), electron and ion temperature (Te; Ti), and zonal and vertical drift (VY; VZ) data, where the location of magnetic pole is marked. Our results show (1) the occurrence of FC-2 in the central polar cap, (2) the propagation of localized FC from the dayside to the nightside across the polar cap implying dayside-nightside coupling across the polar cap, and (3) the structuring of SAPS FC. These scenarios reveal the local intensification of Ti and/or VZ in FCs (a) ranging from FC-0 to FC-3 and (b) specified as SAPS FC and localized FC passing over the magnetic pole. We conclude that strong upward drift, reaching sometimes 1000 m/s, could enhance localized thermospheric impact caused by elevated Ti in FCs.

  6. Serum acute phase proteins in control and Theileria annulata infected water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    El-Deeb, Wael M; Iacob, Olimpia C

    2012-11-23

    This study was carried out to ascertain the changes in acute phase proteins (APPs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Theileria annulata infected water buffalo. Thirty infected water buffaloes and 20 parasitologically free were used. In the present study there was significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), ceruloplasmin, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and fibrinogen levels (2.18 ± 0.29 g/l, 156.58 ± 3.48 mg/l, 31.23 ± 1.25mg/dl, 370.23 ± 33.21 mg/l and 16.17 ± 1.18 g/l, respectively) in T. annulata infected water buffaloes when compared to healthy ones (0.13 ± 0.01 g/l, 23.9 ± 0.56 mg/l, 21.23 ± 1.21 mg/dl, 240.53 ± 22.45 mg/l and 4.2 ± 0.1 6g/l, respectively). Moreover, there was significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the levels of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β and IFN-γ (2.55 ± 0.12 ng/ml, 98.32 ± 4.21 pg/ml, 152.32 ± 5.62 pg/ml, 26.44 ± 1.43 ng/ml, 240.33 ± 20.45 pg/ml and 123.65 ± 5.67 pg/ml, respectively) in T. annulata infected water buffaloes when compared to healthy ones (0.42 ± 0.04 ng/ml, 55.32 ± 3.21 pg/ml, 88.23 ± 3.21 pg/ml, 7.45 ± 0.67 ng/ml, 98.33 ± 3.45 pg/ml and 34.76 ± 1.56 pg/ml, respectively). There was also significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in the Hb content, PCV%, RBCs and WBCs counts in the diseased water buffaloes compared to the control ones. Neutropenia, eosinopenia, lymphopenia, monocytopenia and thrombocytopenia were also recorded. The biochemical changes revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05) elevation in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, LDL-c, VLDL-c, BHBA and NEFA, with significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in the levels of total proteins, albumin, globulins, cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, G6PD, calcium and phosphorus in T. annulata infected water buffaloes when compared to healthy ones. It could be concluded that APPs and pro-inflammatory cytokines could be used as a valuable biomarkers in T. annulata infected water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

  7. An observational study on electrolyte disorders in the acute phase of ischemic stroke and their prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Fofi, Luisa; Dall'armi, Valentina; Durastanti, Laura; Valenza, Alessandro; Lorenzano, Svetlana; Prencipe, Massimiliano; Toni, Danilo

    2012-04-01

    Data on electrolyte disorders in neurological conditions and in acute stroke are somewhat scanty and not easily compared. In our Stroke Unit we studied patients hospitalized within six hours of the onset of an acute ischemic stroke and recorded their demographic and clinical data. Blood test results were recorded before any pharmacological therapy. A total of 475 individuals (256 M, 219 F; range: 14-96 years) treated over a period of 18 consecutive months, were selected. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, the baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (odds ratio [OR]=1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.44) and natremia alterations (OR=6.89; 95% CI=1.94-24.40) were associated with higher odds of death. Based on the ordinal logistic regression analysis, the baseline NIHSS score (OR=1.07; 95% CI=1.03-1.10) and baseline hypernatremia (OR=9.69; 95% CI=1.55-60.69) were related to early neurological worsening. Our work suggests an association between serum sodium alterations and mortality, and between high sodium levels and neurological clinical impairment, in the acute phase of an ischemic stroke.

  8. Moderate acute exercise (70% VO2 peak) induces TGF-β, α-amylase and IgA in saliva during recovery.

    PubMed

    Rosa, L; Teixeira, Aas; Lira, Fs; Tufik, S; Mello, Mt; Santos, Rvt

    2014-03-01

    Strenuous exercise promotes changes in salivary IgA and can be associated with a high incidence of upper respiratory tract Infections. However, moderate exercise enhances immune function. The effect of exercise on salivary IgA has been well studied, but its effect on other immunological parameters is poorly studied. Thus, this study determined the effect of moderate acute exercise on immunological salivary parameters, such as the levels of cytokines (TGF-β and IL-5), IgA, α-amylase and total protein, over 24 h. Ten male adult subjects exercised for 60 min at an intensity of 70% VO2 peak. Saliva samples were collected before ('basal') and 0, 12 and 24 h after an exercise session. The total salivary protein was lower after 12 and 24 h than immediately after exercise, whereas α-amylase increased at 12 and 24 h after exercise compared with basal levels. The IgA concentration was increased at 24 h after exercise relative to immediately after exercise, and there was no difference in the IL-5 while TGF-β concentration increased in recovery. In conclusion, 70% VO2 peak exercise does not induce changes immediately after exercise, but after 24 h, it produces an increase in salivary TGF-β without changing IL-5.

  9. Quantitative measurements of relative fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensities in acute stroke for the prediction of time from symptom onset

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bastian; Brinkmann, Mathias; Forkert, Nils D; Treszl, Andras; Ebinger, Martin; Köhrmann, Martin; Wu, Ona; Kang, Dong-Wha; Liebeskind, David S; Tourdias, Thomas; Singer, Oliver C; Christensen, Soren; Luby, Marie; Warach, Steven; Fiehler, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2013-01-01

    In acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging, a ‘mismatch' between visibility of an ischemic lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and missing corresponding parenchymal hyperintensities on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) data sets was shown to identify patients with time from symptom onset ≤4.5 hours with high specificity. However, moderate sensitivity and suboptimal interpreter agreement are limitations of a visual rating of FLAIR lesion visibility. We tested refined image analysis methods in patients included in the previously published PREFLAIR study using refined visual analysis and quantitative measurements of relative FLAIR signal intensity (rSI) from a three-dimensional, segmented stroke lesion volume. A total of 399 patients were included. The rSI of FLAIR lesions showed a moderate correlation with time from symptom onset (r=0.382, P<0.001). A FLAIR rSI threshold of <1.0721 predicted symptom onset ≤4.5 hours with slightly increased specificity (0.85 versus 0.78) but also slightly decreased sensitivity (0.47 versus 0.58) as compared with visual analysis. Refined visual analysis differentiating between ‘subtle' and ‘obvious' FLAIR hyperintensities and classification and regression tree algorithms combining information from visual and quantitative analysis also did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Our results raise doubts whether the prediction of stroke onset time by visual image judgment can be improved by quantitative rSI measurements. PMID:23047272

  10. Acute effects of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) on hemorheological parameters in female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Kilic-Toprak, Emine; Yapici, Ayşegül; Kilic-Erkek, Ozgen; Koklu, Yusuf; Tekin, Volkan; Alemdaroglu, Utku; Bor-Kucukatay, Melek

    2015-07-16

    In the present study, we investigated possible alterations in red blood cell (RBC) deformability, plasma and whole blood viscosities (WBV) and hematological parameters in response to Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) which is currently used to assess endurance performance, in female volleyball players. Eight volleyball player volunteers from Pamukkale University (mean age19,9 ± 2,2 years; mean body height 177.5 ± 1.99 cm; mean body mass index 21.66 ± 0.64 kg/m2) participated to the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after test. Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined by ektacytometer, plasma and whole blood viscosities (WBV) by a cone-plate rotational viscometer. Hematological parameters were determined using an electronic hematology analyzer. The Yo-YoIR1 applied, induced acute increments in WBV at native hematocrit (Hct) measured at a shear rate of 150 s-1 and 375 s-1, RBC deformability and WBC count. The results of the current study indicate that, the Yo-Yo IR1 test used to determine physical capacity of the player, by resulting in increments in RBC deformability contributes blood flow and thus, athletic performance of the individual.

  11. Translational MR Neuroimaging of Stroke and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, Emiri T; Ayata, Cenk; Zheng, Yi; Mandeville, Joseph B

    2017-02-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a critical clinical tool for diagnosing focal ischemic stroke severity, staging treatment, and predicting outcome. Imaging during the acute phase focuses on tissue viability in the stroke vicinity, while imaging during recovery requires the evaluation of distributed structural and functional connectivity. Preclinical MRI of experimental stroke models provides validation of non-invasive biomarkers in terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms, while also providing a translational platform for evaluation of prospective therapies. This brief review of translational stroke imaging discusses the acute to chronic imaging transition, the principles underlying common MRI methods employed in stroke research, and the experimental results obtained by clinical and preclinical imaging to determine tissue viability, vascular remodeling, structural connectivity of major white matter tracts, and functional connectivity using task-based and resting-state fMRI during the stroke recovery process.

  12. Modifying the acute phase response of Jersey calves by supplementing milk replacer with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil.

    PubMed

    Ballou, M A; Cruz, G D; Pittroff, W; Keisler, D H; DePeters, E J

    2008-09-01

    Fifty-one Jersey bull calves (5 +/- 1 d old) were assigned to 1 of 3 milk replacers to determine the effects of increasing doses of n-3 fatty acids from fish oil on the acute phase response after an endotoxin challenge. All calves were fed a 22.5% crude protein and 18% lipid milk replacer (Calva Products, Acampo, CA) supplemented with an additional 2% fatty acids. Treatments differed only in the supplemental lipid source and included a 3:1 mix of corn and canola oils, a 1:1 blend of fish oil (Omega Proteins, Houston, TX) and the 3:1 mix of corn and canola oils, and fish oil only. On d 23, each calf was injected subcutaneously with 4 microg/kg of body weight of Salmonella Typhimurium endotoxin. Clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24, and 72 h post endotoxin challenge. Endotoxin caused a dramatic rise in respiratory rate; feeding fish oil significantly attenuated the increase. Heart rate and rectal temperature were not affected by treatment. Feeding fish oil attenuated the change in serum iron concentration over time. Endotoxin caused severe hypoglycemia, reaching a nadir at 4 h. Calves supplemented with fish oil had reduced concentrations of serum glucose for 8 to 24 h. Furthermore, calves supplemented with fish oil alone had reduced serum insulin at 12, 28, and 24 h. In contrast, endotoxin caused an acute increase in blood urea nitrogen and nonesterified fatty acids; there were significant linear effects of fish oil on both blood urea nitrogen and nonesterified fatty acids. Serum triglycerides were elevated beginning at 12 h after the endotoxin challenge and returned to baseline values within 72 h. Fish oil suppressed the rise in triglycerides during this period, and the effect was linear with increasing fish oil. Serum concentrations of leptin decreased after the endotoxin challenge; however, the treatment did not influence the response. There was no treatment effect on serum aspartate

  13. Phase I and Pharmacologic Trial of Cytosine Arabinoside with the Selective Checkpoint 1 Inhibitor Sch 900776 in Refractory Acute Leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Judith E.; Thomas, Brian M.; Greer, Jacqueline M.; Sorge, Christopher; Gore, Steven D.; Pratz, Keith W.; Smith, B. Douglas; Flatten, Karen S.; Peterson, Kevin; Schneider, Paula; Mackey, Karen; Freshwater, Tomoko; Levis, Mark J.; McDevitt, Michael A.; Carraway, Hetty E.; Gladstone, Douglas E.; Showel, Margaret M.; Loechner, Sabine; Parry, David A.; Horowitz, Jo Ann; Isaacs, Randi; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Incorporation of cytarabine into DNA activates checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), which stabilizes stalled replication forks, induces S-phase slowing, and diminishes cytarabine cytotoxicity. The selective Chk1 inhibitor SCH 900776 abrogates cytarabine-induced S-phase arrest and enhances cytarabine cytotoxicity in acute leukemia cell lines and leukemic blasts in vitro. To extend these findings to the clinical setting, we have conducted a phase I study of cytarabine and SCH 900776. Experimental Design Twenty-four adults with relapsed and refractory acute leukemias received timed sequential, continuous infusion cytarabine 2 g/m2 over 72 hours (667 mg/m2/24 hours) beginning on day 1 and again on day 10. SCH 900776 was administered as a 15- to 30-minute infusion on days 2, 3, 11, and 12. The starting dose of SCH 900776 was 10 mg/m2/dose. Results Dose-limiting toxicities consisting of corrected QT interval prolongation and grade 3 palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia occurred at 140 mg flat dosing (dose level 5, equivalent to 80 mg/m2). Complete remissions occurred in 8 of 24 (33%) patients, with 7 of 8 at 40 mg/m2 or higher. SCH 900776 did not accumulate at any dose level. Marrow blasts obtained pretreatment and during therapy showed increased phosphorylation of H2Ax after SCH 900776 beginning at 40 mg/m2, consistent with unrepaired DNA damage. Conclusions These data support a randomized phase II trial of cytarabine +/− SCH 900776 at a recommended flat dose of 100 mg (equivalent to 56 mg/m2) for adults with poor-risk leukemias. The trial (SP P05247) was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT #00907517. PMID:23092873

  14. Is the serum amyloid A protein in acute phase plasma high density lipoprotein the precursor of AA amyloid fibrils?

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, M L; Rowe, I F; Caspi, D; Turnell, W G; Pepys, M B

    1986-01-01

    Serum amyloid A protein (SAA), an apolipoprotein of high density lipoprotein (HDL), is generally considered to be the precursor of AA protein, which forms the fibrils in reactive systemic amyloidosis in man and animals. This view is based on amino acid sequence identity between AA and the amino-terminal portion of SAA. However, in extensive and well-controlled studies of experimentally induced murine AA amyloidosis, we were unable to demonstrate a direct precursor-product relationship between SAA, in SAA-rich HDL preparations from acute phase or amyloidotic mouse or human serum, and AA protein in the amyloid deposits. This raises the possibility that SAA in its usual form, as an apolipoprotein of HDL synthesized during the acute phase response, may not be the major precursor of AA fibrils. The amyloidogenic forms of circulating SAA molecules may not be isolated during the preparation of HDL. Alternatively, particularly in the light of recent evidence that SAA mRNA is expressed in many different tissues throughout the body of appropriately stimulated animals, amyloidogenic SAA may be derived from sources other than the liver cells in which SAA-rich HDL is synthesized. PMID:3105937

  15. Glutamate excitoxicity is the key molecular mechanism which is influenced by body temperature during the acute phase of brain stroke.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco; Pérez-Mato, María; Agulla, Jesús; Blanco, Miguel; Barral, David; Almeida, Angeles; Brea, David; Waeber, Christian; Castillo, José; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate excitotoxicity, metabolic rate and inflammatory response have been associated to the deleterious effects of temperature during the acute phase of stroke. So far, the association of temperature with these mechanisms has been studied individually. However, the simultaneous study of the influence of temperature on these mechanisms is necessary to clarify their contributions to temperature-mediated ischemic damage. We used non-invasive Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to simultaneously measure temperature, glutamate excitotoxicity and metabolic rate in the brain in animal models of ischemia. The immune response to ischemia was measured through molecular serum markers in peripheral blood. We submitted groups of animals to different experimental conditions (hypothermia at 33°C, normothermia at 37°C and hyperthermia at 39°C), and combined these conditions with pharmacological modulation of glutamate levels in the brain through systemic injections of glutamate and oxaloacetate. We show that pharmacological modulation of glutamate levels can neutralize the deleterious effects of hyperthermia and the beneficial effects of hypothermia, however the analysis of the inflammatory response and metabolic rate, demonstrated that their effects on ischemic damage are less critical than glutamate excitotoxity. We conclude that glutamate excitotoxicity is the key molecular mechanism which is influenced by body temperature during the acute phase of brain stroke.

  16. Latex-protein complexes from an acute phase recombinant antigen of Toxoplasma gondii for the diagnosis of recently acquired toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Peretti, Leandro E; Gonzalez, Verónica D G; Marcipar, Iván S; Gugliotta, Luis M

    2014-08-01

    The synthesis and characterization of latex-protein complexes (LPC), from the acute phase recombinant antigen P35 (P35Ag) of Toxoplasma gondii and "core-shell" carboxylated or polystyrene (PS) latexes (of different sizes and charge densities) are considered, with the aim of producing immunoagglutination reagents able to detect recently acquired toxoplasmosis. Physical adsorption (PA) and chemical coupling (CC) of P35Ag onto latex particles at different pH were investigated. Greater amounts of adsorbed protein were obtained on PS latexes than on carboxylated latexes, indicating that hydrophobic forces govern the interactions between the protein and the particle surface. In the CC experiments, the highest amount of bound protein was obtained at pH 6, near the isoelectric point of the protein (IP=6.27). At this pH, it decreased both the repulsion between particle surface and protein, and the repulsion between neighboring molecules. The LPC were characterized and the antigenicity of the P35Ag protein coupled on the particles surface was evaluated by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Results from ELISA showed that the P35Ag coupled to the latex particles surface was not affected during the particles sensitization by PA and CC and the produced LPC were able to recognize specific anti-P35Ag antibodies present in the acute phase of the disease.

  17. Acute phase protein response during subclinical infection of pigs with H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-12

    In the present study acute phase proteins (APPs) responses in pigs after subclinical infection with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) were evaluated. Fourteen 5 weeks old, seronegative piglets, both sexes were used. Ten of them were infected intranasally with SwH1N1. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No significant clinical signs were observed in any of the infected pigs, however, all infected animals developed specific antibodies against SwH1N1 and viral shedding was observed from 2 to 5 dpi. Only concentrations of Hp and SAA were significantly induced after infection, with mean maximum levels from days 1 to 2 post infection (dpi). The concentrations of CRP and Pig-MAP remained generally unchanged, however in half of infected pigs the concentration of CRP tended to increase at 1 dpi (but without statistical significance). The results of our study confirmed that monitoring of APPs may be useful for detection of subclinically infected pigs. The use of SAA or Hp and Pig-MAP may be a valuable in combination [i.e. Hp (increased concentration) and Pig-MAP (unchanged concentration)] to detect subclinically SIV infected pigs, or to identify pigs actually producing a large amount of virus. Additional studies need to be done in order to confirm these findings.

  18. Effect of the consumption of ethanol on the microcirculation of the human optic nerve head in the acute phase

    PubMed

    Kojima; Sugiyama; Kojima; Azuma; Ito

    2000-05-01

    Purpose: The effect of the consumption of ethanol on the circulation of the optic nerve head (ONH) in the human eye in the acute phase and its mechanism were studied.Methods: Eleven volunteers drank a bottle of beer (633 mL) with or without ethanol (29.5 g). Normalized blur (NB), a quantitative index of blood flow velocity, was measured in the temporal site of the ONH. NB, blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate (PR) were measured before, immediately after, and every 15 minutes for 90 minutes after consumption. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and plasma ethanol concentration were measured before, and 30 and 90 minutes after consumption. Genotyping of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 gene was also performed.Results: NB in the ONH increased significantly from 15 to 45 minutes after consumption of ethanol and the maximum increase was 14% at 15 minutes. IOP was lowered at 90 minutes after consumption, but it was not significant. Mean BP was lowered significantly after 60 minutes. PR and ocular perfusion pressure did not change. A significant correlation was found between plasma ethanol concentration at 30 minutes and maximum NB. NB in the ALDH 2-deficient group was significantly larger from 15 to 45 minutes after consumption than in the proficient group.Conclusions: It appeared that the consumption of ethanol can increase the blood flow in the human ONH in the acute phase through decreased resistance in blood vessels induced by acetaldehyde, a metabolite of ethanol.

  19. [Cerebroprotective effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives in acute phase of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    The effects of original domestic derivatives of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid (emoxipine, reamberin, and mexidol) on cellular composition of cortical and diencephalic structures in rat brain were studied in parallel with monitoring of behavioral, conditional learning, and metabolic disorders in acute phase of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The efficiency of 3-oxypyridine derivatives was compared to the results of alpha-lipoic acid administration. Single administration of emoxipine, reamberin, and mexidol in optimal doses prevented lipofuscin deposition in CA1 field neurocytes in hippocampus and/or increased the amount of terminally differentiated cells ofneuroectodermal lineage (oligodendrocytes, pyramid and basket cells) in this zone ofpaleocortex. Concurrently conditional learning capacity in morbid animals was restored. The cerebroprotective and nootropic effects of emoxipine and reamberin were associated with increased exploration motivation in the open field and were independent of their effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism dysfunction. On the contrary, the neuroprotective and nootropic effects of mexidol were associated with additional inhibition of morbid rat activity in the open field and a decrease in the level of circulating products of lipid peroxidation. It is established that 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives significantly exceed alpha-lipoic acid in terms of neuroprotective effects but exhibit significantly lower hypolipdemic activity in acute phase of alloxan diabetes.

  20. Effects of glutamine supplementation on gut barrier, glutathione content and acute phase response in malnourished rats during inflammatory shock

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Liliana; Coëffier, Moïse; Pessot, Florence Le; Miralles-Barrachina, Olga; Hiron, Martine; Leplingard, Antony; Lemeland, Jean-François; Hecketsweiler, Bernadette; Daveau, Maryvonne; Ducrotté, Philippe; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of glutamine on intestinal mucosa integrity, glutathione stores and acute phase response in protein-depleted rats during an inflammatory shock. METHODS: Plasma acute phase proteins (APP), jejunal APP mRNA levels, liver and jejunal glutathione concentrations were measured before and one, three and seven days after turpentine injection in 4 groups of control, protein-restricted, protein-restricted rats supplemented with glutamine or protein powder. Bacterial translocation in mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal morphology were also assessed. RESULTS: Protein deprivation and turpentine injection significantly reduced jejunal villus height, and crypt depths. Mucosal glutathione concentration significantly decreased in protein-restricted rats. Before turpentine oil, glutamine supplementation restored villus heights and glutathione concentration (3.24 ± 1.05 vs 1.72 ± 0.46 μmol/g tissue, P < 0.05) in the jejunum, whereas in the liver glutathione remained low. Glutamine markedly increased jejunal α1-acid glycoprotein mRNA level after turpentine oil but did not affect its plasma concentration. Bacterial translocation in protein-restricted rats was not prevented by glutamine or protein powder supplementation. CONCLUSION: Glutamine restored gut glutathione stores and villus heights in malnourished rats but had no preventive effect on bacterial translocation in our model. PMID:17569119

  1. The acute phase of mild traumatic brain injury is characterized by a distance-dependent neuronal hypoactivity.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Victoria P A; Shultz, Sandy R; Yan, Edwin B; O'Brien, Terence J; Rajan, Ramesh

    2014-11-15

    The consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) on neuronal functionality are only now being elucidated. We have now examined the changes in sensory encoding in the whisker-recipient barrel cortex and the brain tissue damage in the acute phase (24 h) after induction of TBI (n=9), with sham controls receiving surgery only (n=5). Injury was induced using the lateral fluid percussion injury method, which causes a mixture of focal and diffuse brain injury. Both population and single cell neuronal responses evoked by both simple and complex whisker stimuli revealed a suppression of activity that decreased with distance from the locus of injury both within a hemisphere and across hemispheres, with a greater extent of hypoactivity in ipsilateral barrel cortex compared with contralateral cortex. This was coupled with an increase in spontaneous output in Layer 5a, but only ipsilateral to the injury site. There was also disruption of axonal integrity in various regions in the ipsilateral but not contralateral hemisphere. These results complement our previous findings after mild diffuse-only TBI induced by the weight-drop impact acceleration method where, in the same acute post-injury phase, we found a similar depth-dependent hypoactivity in sensory cortex. This suggests a common sequelae of events in both diffuse TBI and mixed focal/diffuse TBI in the immediate post-injury period that then evolve over time to produce different long-term functional outcomes.

  2. The Acute Phase of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Is Characterized by a Distance-Dependent Neuronal Hypoactivity

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Victoria P.A.; Shultz, Sandy R.; Yan, Edwin B.; O'Brien, Terence J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) on neuronal functionality are only now being elucidated. We have now examined the changes in sensory encoding in the whisker-recipient barrel cortex and the brain tissue damage in the acute phase (24 h) after induction of TBI (n=9), with sham controls receiving surgery only (n=5). Injury was induced using the lateral fluid percussion injury method, which causes a mixture of focal and diffuse brain injury. Both population and single cell neuronal responses evoked by both simple and complex whisker stimuli revealed a suppression of activity that decreased with distance from the locus of injury both within a hemisphere and across hemispheres, with a greater extent of hypoactivity in ipsilateral barrel cortex compared with contralateral cortex. This was coupled with an increase in spontaneous output in Layer 5a, but only ipsilateral to the injury site. There was also disruption of axonal integrity in various regions in the ipsilateral but not contralateral hemisphere. These results complement our previous findings after mild diffuse-only TBI induced by the weight-drop impact acceleration method where, in the same acute post-injury phase, we found a similar depth-dependent hypoactivity in sensory cortex. This suggests a common sequelae of events in both diffuse TBI and mixed focal/diffuse TBI in the immediate post-injury period that then evolve over time to produce different long-term functional outcomes. PMID:24927383

  3. Serum acute phase proteins as biomarkers of pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation in slaughter-aged pigs.

    PubMed

    Saco, Yolanda; Fraile, Lorenzo; Giménez, Mercè; Alegre, Ana; López-Jimenez, Rosa; Cortey, Martí; Segalés, Joaquim; Bassols, Anna

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the existence of lung lesions in pigs at slaughter and the concentration of the serum acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp), pig-major acute protein (Pig-MAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A total of 24 pig farms were selected out of a larger farm database previously screened to study risk factors associated with pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC) lesions at slaughter-aged pigs in Spain. The farms were classified as "pleuritis negative (P-) or positive (P+)" and as "CVPC negative (M-) or positive (M+)" and divided into four groups according to a 2X2 factorial design (P-M-, P-M+, P+M-, P+M+). Also at slaughter, blood from 20 randomly selected pigs from each farm was collected. Obtained serum samples were used to measure acute phase proteins. All APP concentrations were significantly higher for M+ farms than for M- ones. However, only Hp and Pig-MAP showed significantly higher concentrations for P+ farms than for P- ones. Pig-MAP was the most sensitive biomarker since it was able to clearly discriminate between P-/P+ and M-/M+ groups (p<0.001 in both cases). Hp was an excellent marker for pleuritis and good for CVPC lesions. CRP was able to discriminate for CVPC lesions but not for pleuritis. The present results indicate that Pig-MAP and, possibly Hp, may be used as potential markers to characterise and discriminate respiratory lesions in swine herds at slaughter.

  4. Status Update on the NCRP Scientific Committee SC 5-1 Report: Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Incidents - 13450