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Sample records for acute sciatic nerve

  1. Common iliac artery aneurysm presenting as acute sciatic nerve compression.

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, S. R.; Grimley, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    Aneurysms of the iliac arteries usually remain silent, but when they rupture the consequences can be dramatic. They produce few clinical signs suggestive of their presence. However, such aneurysms have been found to be the cause of non-vascular clinical situations. Often they present with features of compression on adjacent viscera. We present a case in which a large common iliac artery aneurysm was found to be causing symptoms of acute sciatic nerve compression. PMID:3447118

  2. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Teodori, Rosana Macher; Betini, Joice; de Oliveira, Larissa Salgado; Sobral, Luciane Lobato; Takeda, Sibele Yoko Mattozo; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1), those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14), injured rats not submitted to swimming (C), and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S). After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P < 0.01). The diameter of axons and nerve fibers was larger in CS1 (P < 0.01) and CS14 (P < 0.05) than in C, and myelin sheath thickness was lower in all crushed groups (P < 0.05). There was no functional difference between CS1 and CS14 (P > 0.05). Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury. PMID:21876821

  3. Sciatic nerve injection injury.

    PubMed

    Jung Kim, Hyun; Hyun Park, Sang

    2014-06-11

    Nerve injury is a common complication following intramuscular injection and the sciatic nerve is the most frequently affected nerve, especially in children, the elderly and underweight patients. The neurological presentation may range from minor transient pain to severe sensory disturbance and motor loss with poor recovery. Management of nerve injection injury includes drug treatment of pain, physiotherapy, use of assistive devices and surgical exploration. Early recognition of nerve injection injury and appropriate management are crucial in order to reduce neurological deficit and to maximize recovery. Sciatic nerve injection injury is a preventable event. Total avoidance of intramuscular injection is recommended if other administration routes can be used. If the injection has to be administered into the gluteal muscle, the ventrogluteal region (gluteal triangle) has a more favourable safety profile than the dorsogluteal region (the upper outer quadrant of the buttock). PMID:24920643

  4. A comparison between acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve and acupressure: methodology, analgesia, and mechanism involved

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Danping; Wang, Xiaolin; He, Jiman

    2013-01-01

    Acupressure is an alternative medicine methodology that originated in ancient China. Treatment effects are achieved by stimulating acupuncture points using acute pressure. Acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve is a newly reported analgesic method based on a current neuroscience concept: stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold. Both methods use pressure as an intervention method. Herein, we compare the methodology and mechanism of these two methods, which exhibit several similarities and differences. Acupressure entails variation in the duration of manipulation, and the analgesic effect achieved can be short-or long-term. The acute effect attained with acupressure presents a scope that is very different from that of the chronic effect attained after long-term treatment. This acute effect appears to have some similarities to that achieved with acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve, both in methodology and mechanism. More evidence is needed to determine whether there is a relationship between the two methods. PMID:23983488

  5. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats. Results Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague–Dawley albino rats weighing 160–280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p < 0.001), from 31.2±2.3 Hz to 10.9±1.4 Hz (p < 0.001) when pressure was applied, and from 18.9±1.2 Hz to 7.6±1.1 Hz (p < 0.001) upon brushing. Thereafter, the mean firing rates gradually recovered. Conclusions Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain. PMID:23211003

  6. Long-Standing Motor and Sensory Recovery following Acute Fibrin Sealant Based Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Repair.

    PubMed

    Perussi Biscola, Natalia; Politti Cartarozzi, Luciana; Ferreira Junior, Rui Seabra; Barraviera, Benedito; Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study evaluated neuroprotection and regeneration after neonatal peripheral nerve coaptation with fibrin sealant. Thus, P2 neonatal Lewis rats were divided into three groups: AX: sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA) without treatment; AX+FS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom; AX+CFS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with commercial fibrin sealant. Results were analyzed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after lesion. Astrogliosis, microglial reaction, and synapse preservation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and ultrastructural changes at ventral spinal cord were also investigated. Sensory-motor recovery was behaviorally studied. Coaptation preserved synaptic covering on lesioned motoneurons and led to neuronal survival. Reactive gliosis and microglial reaction decreased in the same groups (AX+FS, AX+CFS) at 4 weeks. Regarding axonal regeneration, coaptation allowed recovery of greater number of myelinated fibers, with improved morphometric parameters. Preservation of inhibitory synaptic terminals was accompanied by significant improvement in the motor as well as in the nociceptive recovery. Overall, the present data suggest that acute repair of neonatal peripheral nerves with fibrin sealant results in neuroprotection and regeneration of motor and sensory axons. PMID:27446617

  7. Long-Standing Motor and Sensory Recovery following Acute Fibrin Sealant Based Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Junior, Rui Seabra

    2016-01-01

    Brachial plexus lesion results in loss of motor and sensory function, being more harmful in the neonate. Therefore, this study evaluated neuroprotection and regeneration after neonatal peripheral nerve coaptation with fibrin sealant. Thus, P2 neonatal Lewis rats were divided into three groups: AX: sciatic nerve axotomy (SNA) without treatment; AX+FS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom; AX+CFS: SNA followed by end-to-end coaptation with commercial fibrin sealant. Results were analyzed 4, 8, and 12 weeks after lesion. Astrogliosis, microglial reaction, and synapse preservation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal survival, axonal regeneration, and ultrastructural changes at ventral spinal cord were also investigated. Sensory-motor recovery was behaviorally studied. Coaptation preserved synaptic covering on lesioned motoneurons and led to neuronal survival. Reactive gliosis and microglial reaction decreased in the same groups (AX+FS, AX+CFS) at 4 weeks. Regarding axonal regeneration, coaptation allowed recovery of greater number of myelinated fibers, with improved morphometric parameters. Preservation of inhibitory synaptic terminals was accompanied by significant improvement in the motor as well as in the nociceptive recovery. Overall, the present data suggest that acute repair of neonatal peripheral nerves with fibrin sealant results in neuroprotection and regeneration of motor and sensory axons. PMID:27446617

  8. A Self-Administered Method of Acute Pressure Block of Sciatic Nerves for Short-Term Relief of Dental Pain: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wanghong; Wang, Ye; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Qiu; Yu, Juncai; Wu, Bin; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jie; He, Jiman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold, chronic pressure stimulation of the sciatic nerve is associated with sciatica. We recently found that acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve inhibits pain. Therefore, we propose that, the pain pathology-causing pressure is chronic, not acute. Here, we report a novel self-administered method: acute pressure block of the sciatic nerves is applied by the patients themselves for short-term relief of pain from dental diseases. Design This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting Hospital patients. Patients Patients aged 16–60 years with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis, or pericoronitis of the third molar of the mandible experiencing pain ≥3 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Interventions Three-minute pressure to sciatic nerves was applied by using the hands (hand pressure method) or by having the patients squat to force the thigh and shin as tightly as possible on the sandwiched sciatic nerve bundles (self-administered method). Outcomes The primary efficacy variable was the mean difference in pain scores from the baseline. Results One hundred seventy-two dental patients were randomized. The self-administered method produced significant relief from pain associated with dental diseases (P ≤ 0.001). The analgesic effect of the self-administered method was similar to that of the hand pressure method. Conclusions The self-administered method is easy to learn and can be applied at any time for pain relief. We believe that patients will benefit from this method. PMID:24400593

  9. Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Karin R.; Wilson, Dianne; Boland, Michael; Fee, Dominic B.

    2009-01-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009. PMID:20069041

  10. [Acute sciatic neuropathy--"post-Saturday palsy"].

    PubMed

    Manigoda, Miodrag; Dujmović-Basuroski, Irena; Trikić, Rajko; Drulović, Jelena

    2005-01-01

    This is a case report of 25-year old, unemployed male, admitted to hospital due to acute onset of the left foot drop, subsequent walking difficulty and numbness of the left calf and foot. Symptoms began after prolonged sleep with previous heroin abuse by sniffing. During neurological examination, mild weakness of knee flexors, moderate weakness of plantar flexors and paralysis of foot dorsiflexors, together with hypesthesia of the left calf, foot and fingers, predominantly in the innervation area of common peroneal nerve on the same side, were observed. The electrophysiologic examination revealed predominant involvement of peroneal division within the sciatic nerve, together with recorded conduction block indicating the compression as possible mechanism of nerve injury. The patient was administered corticosteroid therapy during two months, what resulted in almost complete recovery. The peculiarity of this case report is in the presence of the sciatic nerve "Saturday night palsy" with possible effect of former heroin abuse. PMID:16053177

  11. A rare cause of chronic sciatic pain: Schwannoma of the sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Rhanim, Abdelkarim; El Zanati, Rachid; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2013-01-01

    Schwannomas are common, benign tumors of the shelth of peripheral nerves. Sciatic schwannomas are rare. Their symptomatology usually mimics sciatic pain due to a herniated disc, which can delay the diagnosis. If there is no lumbar pain and lumbar MRI is normal, the sciatic nerve must be clinically and radiologically examined all along its course. We report a case of sciatic nerve schwannoma presenting with chronic sciatica which was diagnosed and monitored radiologically for several years before successful surgical resection. PMID:26403631

  12. Effects of Deep Electroacupuncture Stimulation at “Huantiao” (GB 30) on Expression of Apoptosis-Related Factors in Rats with Acute Sciatic Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lili; Han, Yanjing; Ma, Tieming; Liu, Yuli; Ren, Lu; Bai, Zenghua; Li, Ye

    2015-01-01

    SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, model, deep EA, and shallow EA groups. The model was established by mechanical clamping of the sciatic nerve stem. For deep and shallow EA, the needles were inserted into “Huantiao” (GB 30) by about 16 mm and 7 mm, respectively, once daily for 14 days. The results showed that, compared with the normal control group, the nerve-muscle excitability of rat's hip muscle decreased and the nerve conduction velocity of sciatic nerve slowed down in the model group; meanwhile, the number of apoptotic cells and the expression level of Bax protein in the injured nerve increased significantly, and the expression level of Bcl-2 protein and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax decreased considerably. Compared with the model group, the indices mentioned above were reversed in the two treatment groups, and the changes in the deep EA group were more significant than those in the shallow EA group. These results indicate that EA stimulation at GB 30 can improve the function of injured sciatic nerve, which is closely associated with its effects in upregulating the expression of apoptosis inhibitive factor Bcl-2 and downregulating apoptosis promotive factor Bax. Deep EA is relatively better. PMID:26167187

  13. Does glioblastoma cyst fluid promote sciatic nerve regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Özay, Rafet; Aktaş, Abit; Taşkapılıoğlu, Mevlüt Özgür; Gürer, Bora; Erdoğan, Bülent; Çağlar, Yusuf Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma cyst fluid contains growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins which are known as neurotrophic and neurite-promoting agents. Therefore, we hypothesized that glioblastoma cyst fluid can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. To validate this hypothesis, we transected rat sciatic nerve, performed epineural anastomosis, and wrapped the injured sciatic nerve with glioblastoma cyst fluid- or saline-soaked gelatin sponges. Neurological function and histomorphological examinations showed that compared with the rats receiving local saline treatment, those receiving local glioblastoma cyst fluid treatment had better sciatic nerve function, fewer scars, greater axon area, counts and diameter as well as fiber diameter. These findings suggest that glioblastoma cyst fluid can promote the regeneration of injured sciatic nerve and has the potential for future clinical application in patients with peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26692863

  14. A conduction block in sciatic nerves can be detected by magnetic motor root stimulation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Konoma, Yuko; Fujii, Kengo; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Terao, Yasuo; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-08-15

    Useful diagnostic techniques for the acute phase of sciatic nerve palsy, an entrapment neuropathy, are not well established. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the diagnostic utility of magnetic sacral motor root stimulation for sciatic nerve palsy. We analyzed the peripheral nerves innervating the abductor hallucis muscle using both electrical stimulations at the ankle and knee and magnetic stimulations at the neuro-foramina and conus medullaris levels in a patient with sciatic nerve palsy at the level of the piriformis muscle due to gluteal compression related to alcohol consumption. On the fourth day after onset, magnetic sacral motor root stimulation using a MATS coil (the MATS coil stimulation method) clearly revealed a conduction block between the knee and the sacral neuro-foramina. Two weeks after onset, needle electromyography supported the existence of the focal lesion. The MATS coil stimulation method clearly revealed a conduction block in the sciatic nerve and is therefore a useful diagnostic tool for the abnormal neurophysiological findings associated with sciatic nerve palsy even at the acute phase. PMID:23809191

  15. Correlative CT and anatomic study of the sciatic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Pech, P.; Haughton, V.

    1985-05-01

    Sciatica can be caused by numerous processes affecting the sciatic nerve or its components within the pelvis including tumors, infectious diseases, aneurysms, fractures, and endometriosis. The CT diagnosis of these causes of sciatica has not been emphasized. This study identified the course and appearance of the normal sciatic nerve in the pelvis by correlating CT and anatomic slices in cadavers. For purposes of discussion, the sciatic nerve complex is conveniently divided into three parts: presacral, muscular, and ischial. Each part is illustrated here by two cryosections with corresponding CT images.

  16. Effects of Alcohol Injection in Rat Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Mazoch, Mathew J.; Cheema, Gulraiz A.; Suva, Larry J.; Thomas, Ruth L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the injection of dehydrated alcohol has been successful for the treatment of Morton's neuroma in the foot. In this study, we determined the cellular effect of injection of alcohol into and around the sciatic nerve of rats, and measured the extent of cell necrosis and/or any associated histologic or inflammatory changes. Methods Twenty-two male (~375g) Wistar rats were randomized into two groups each receiving alcohol injections into or around the sciatic nerve after nerve exposure under sterile technique. Group 1 rats were injected with a 0.5ml solution of 0.5% Marcaine in the left sciatic nerve as a control group. In the right sciatic nerve a 0.5ml solution of 4% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine was injected. Group 2 rats received 0.5ml of 20%ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the left sciatic nerve and 0.5 ml of 30% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the right sciatic nerve. In each group, the rats were placed in 3 subgroups: intraneural, perineural, perimuscular injections. All rats were sacrificed and tissue harvested for histologic evaluation at day 10 post injection. Results No evidence of alcohol-associated cell necrosis, apoptosis or apparent inflammation was observed in histologic specimens of any injected nerves, perineural tissue, or muscles in controls or experimental groups regardless of concentration of ethanol injected on day 10. Conclusion We concluded that alcohol injection (≤30% ethanol) into and/or around the sciatic nerve or the adjacent muscle of rats has no histologic evidence of necrosis or inflammation to the nerve or surrounding tissue. There was no observable histological change in apoptosis, or cell number, in response to the alcohol injection. PMID:25097192

  17. Delayed Sciatic Nerve Injury Resulting From Myositis Ossificans Traumatica.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhe; Wilson, Thomas J; Jacobson, Jon A; Hollon, Todd C; Yang, Lynda J-S

    2016-05-01

    A motorcyclist sustained multiple-system trauma, including a left buttock hematoma requiring decompression and evacuation. Presentation for severe hip pain and lower extremity weakness was delayed. Imaging revealed myositis ossificans traumatica compressing the sciatic nerve in the buttock. The patient underwent sciatic nerve decompression with resection of heterotopic calcification, resulting in improvement in pain and left lower extremity function. This case illustrates the contrast in differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve injury immediately posttrauma and that occurring in a slow, delayed fashion posttrauma. Myositis ossificans may be an underrecognized complication of trauma but should be considered in cases of delayed peripheral nerve injury after trauma. PMID:26548968

  18. Immediate versus delayed primary nerve repair in the rabbit sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Piskin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zühal; Çitlak, Atilla; Sezgin, Hicabi; Yazιcι, Ozgür; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2013-12-25

    It is well known that peripheral nerve injury should be treated immediately in the clinic, but in some instances, repair can be delayed. This study investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed (3 days after injury) neurorrhaphy on repair of transected sciatic nerve in New Zealand rabbits using stereological, histomorphological and biomechanical methods. At 8 weeks after immediate and delayed neurorrhaphy, axon number and area in the sciatic nerve, myelin sheath and epineurium thickness, Schwann cell morphology, and the mechanical property of nerve fibers did not differ obviously. These results indicate that delayed neurorrhaphy do not produce any deleterious effect on sciatic nerve repair. PMID:25206663

  19. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xing-long; Wang, Pei; Sun, Bo; Liu, Shi-bo; Gao, Yun-feng; He, Xin-ze; Yu, Chang-yu

    2015-01-01

    Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery. PMID:26692866

  20. Function electrical stimulation signals generator circuits for the central nerve and the sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Wenyuan, Li; Zhenyu, Zhang; Zhi-Gong, Wang

    2005-01-01

    Circuits for the signal generation of the FES (functional electrical stimulation) of the central nerve and the sciatic nerve have been designed. The circuits were implemented by using discrete devices. The FES circuits consist of two or three operational amplifiers. The bandwidths of the circuits are more than 10 kHz and their gains are variable from 20 dB to 60 dB. To a load of several kilo-ohms, according to the microelectrode with the nerve, the circuit for stimulating central nerve can provide a current signal, and the signal value is more than 1mA. The circuit for stimulating sciatic nerve can provide a stimulating voltage signal of more than 10 Vs. The loads of the circuits are microelectrodes contacted with nerves. The circuits can be used with two kinds of microelectrodes: cuff microelectrodes which for stimulating sciatic nerve and shaft microelectrodes which for stimulating central nerve. PMID:17281443

  1. Limb immobilization alters functional electrophysiological parameters of sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Alves, J S M; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Santos-Júnior, F F U; Carlos, P S; Silva, R C; Lucci, C M; Báo, S N; Ceccatto, V M; Barbosa, R

    2013-08-01

    Immobilization, used in clinical practice to treat traumatologic problems, causes changes in muscle, but it is not known whether changes also occur in nerves. We investigated the effects of immobilization on excitability and compound action potential (CAP) and the ultrastructure of the rat sciatic nerve. Fourteen days after immobilization of the right leg of adult male Wistar rats (n=34), animals were killed and the right sciatic nerve was dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated at a baseline frequency of 0.2 Hz and tested for 2 min at 20, 50, and 100 Hz. Immobilization altered nerve excitability. Rheobase and chronaxy changed from 3.13 ± 0.05 V and 52.31 ± 1.95 µs (control group, n=13) to 2.84 ± 0.06 V and 59.71 ± 2.79 µs (immobilized group, n=15), respectively. Immobilization altered the amplitude of CAP waves and decreased the conduction velocity of the first CAP wave (from 93.63 ± 7.49 to 79.14 ± 5.59 m/s) but not of the second wave. Transmission electron microscopy showed fragmentation of the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve of immobilized limbs and degeneration of the axon. In conclusion, we demonstrated that long-lasting leg immobilization can induce alterations in nerve function. PMID:23969978

  2. Limb immobilization alters functional electrophysiological parameters of sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Alves, J.S.M.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.; Santos-Júnior, F.F.U.; Carlos, P.S.; Silva, R.C.; Lucci, C.M.; Báo, S.N.; Ceccatto, V.M.; Barbosa, R.

    2013-01-01

    Immobilization, used in clinical practice to treat traumatologic problems, causes changes in muscle, but it is not known whether changes also occur in nerves. We investigated the effects of immobilization on excitability and compound action potential (CAP) and the ultrastructure of the rat sciatic nerve. Fourteen days after immobilization of the right leg of adult male Wistar rats (n=34), animals were killed and the right sciatic nerve was dissected and mounted in a moist chamber. Nerves were stimulated at a baseline frequency of 0.2 Hz and tested for 2 min at 20, 50, and 100 Hz. Immobilization altered nerve excitability. Rheobase and chronaxy changed from 3.13±0.05 V and 52.31±1.95 µs (control group, n=13) to 2.84±0.06 V and 59.71±2.79 µs (immobilized group, n=15), respectively. Immobilization altered the amplitude of CAP waves and decreased the conduction velocity of the first CAP wave (from 93.63±7.49 to 79.14±5.59 m/s) but not of the second wave. Transmission electron microscopy showed fragmentation of the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve of immobilized limbs and degeneration of the axon. In conclusion, we demonstrated that long-lasting leg immobilization can induce alterations in nerve function. PMID:23969978

  3. Chronic sciatic nerve compression induces fibrosis in dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinwen; Chen, Jianghai; Chen, Yanhua; Cong, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhenbing

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, pathological alterations in neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were investigated in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression. The rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression was established by placing a 1 cm Silastic tube around the right sciatic nerve. Histological examination was performed via Masson's trichrome staining. DRG injury was assessed using Fluoro Ruby (FR) or Fluoro Gold (FG). The expression levels of target genes were examined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. At 3 weeks post‑compression, collagen fiber accumulation was observed in the ipsilateral area and, at 8 weeks, excessive collagen formation with muscle atrophy was observed. The collagen volume fraction gradually and significantly increased following sciatic nerve compression. In the model rats, the numbers of FR‑labeled DRG neurons were significantly higher, relative to the sham‑operated group, however, the numbers of FG‑labeled neurons were similar. In the ipsilateral DRG neurons of the model group, the levels of transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were elevated and, surrounding the neurons, the levels of collagen type I were increased, compared with those in the contralateral DRG. In the ipsilateral DRG, chronic nerve compression was associated with significantly higher levels of phosphorylated (p)‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2, and significantly lower levels of p‑c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase and p‑p38, compared with those in the contralateral DRGs. Chronic sciatic nerve compression likely induced DRG pathology by upregulating the expression levels of TGF‑β1, CTGF and collagen type I, with involvement of the mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling pathway. PMID:26820076

  4. Chronic sciatic nerve compression induces fibrosis in dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    LI, QINWEN; CHEN, JIANGHAI; CHEN, YANHUA; CONG, XIAOBIN; CHEN, ZHENBING

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, pathological alterations in neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were investigated in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression. The rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression was established by placing a 1 cm Silastic tube around the right sciatic nerve. Histological examination was performed via Masson's trichrome staining. DRG injury was assessed using Fluoro Ruby (FR) or Fluoro Gold (FG). The expression levels of target genes were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. At 3 weeks post-compression, collagen fiber accumulation was observed in the ipsilateral area and, at 8 weeks, excessive collagen formation with muscle atrophy was observed. The collagen volume fraction gradually and significantly increased following sciatic nerve compression. In the model rats, the numbers of FR-labeled DRG neurons were significantly higher, relative to the sham-operated group, however, the numbers of FG-labeled neurons were similar. In the ipsilateral DRG neurons of the model group, the levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were elevated and, surrounding the neurons, the levels of collagen type I were increased, compared with those in the contralateral DRG. In the ipsilateral DRG, chronic nerve compression was associated with significantly higher levels of phosphorylated (p)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and significantly lower levels of p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p-p38, compared with those in the contralateral DRGs. Chronic sciatic nerve compression likely induced DRG pathology by upregulating the expression levels of TGF-β1, CTGF and collagen type I, with involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. PMID:26820076

  5. Nanofibrous nerve conduits for repair of 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects

    PubMed Central

    Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Pouya, Majid; Rad, Hadi; Nava, Melody Omrani; Azarbakhsh, Mohammad; Hooshmand, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    It has been confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit can promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. However, its efficiency in repair of over 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects needs to be assessed. In this study, we used a nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit to bridge a 30-mm-long gap in the rat sciatic nerve. At 4 months after nerve conduit implantation, regenerated nerves were cally observed and histologically assessed. In the nanofibrous graft, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed by restoration of nerve continuity and formation of myelinated nerve fiber. There were Schwann cells and glial cells in the regenerated nerves. Masson's trichrome staining showed that there were no pathological changes in the size and structure of gastrocnemius muscle cells on the operated side of rats. These findings suggest that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit is suitable for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects. PMID:25206536

  6. Sciatic nerve enlargement in the Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meirer, Romed; Huemer, Georg M; Shafighi, Maziar; Kamelger, Florian S; Hussl, Heribert; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde

    2005-06-01

    The case of a 35-year-old woman with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) showing clinical symptoms of a peroneal nerve lesion is presented. An immense nerve enlargement along most of the sciatic, peroneal and tibial nerve was found to be due to a lipoma arising from the epi- and perineurium. Treatment consisted of extensive microsurgical neurolysis and excision of the tumor resulting in decompression of the affected nerves. Although rare, a perineural lipoma should be kept in mind in patients with KTWS showing neurological abnormalities. PMID:15897045

  7. Changes in contralateral protein metabolism following unilateral sciatic nerve section

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, J.A.; Cubas, S.C.

    1990-03-01

    Changes in nerve biochemistry, anatomy, and function following injuries to the contralateral nerve have been repeatedly reported, though their significance is unknown. The most likely mechanisms for their development are either substances carried by axoplasmic flow or electrically transmitted signals. This study analyzes which mechanism underlies the development of a contralateral change in protein metabolism. The incorporation of labelled amino acids (AA) into proteins of both sciatic nerves was assessed by liquid scintillation after an unilateral section. AA were offered locally for 30 min to the distal stump of the sectioned nerves and at homologous levels of the intact contralateral nerves. At various times, from 1 to 24 h, both sciatic nerves were removed and the proteins extracted with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). An increase in incorporation was found in both nerves 14-24 h after section. No difference existed between sectioned and intact nerves, which is consistent with the contralateral effect. Lidocaine, but not colchicine, when applied previously to the nerves midway between the sectioning site and the spinal cord, inhibited the contralateral increase in AA incorporation. It is concluded that electrical signals, crossing through the spinal cord, are responsible for the development of the contralateral effect. Both the nature of the proteins and the significance of the contralateral effect are matters for speculation.

  8. Sciatic nerve repair using adhesive bonding and a modified conduit

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiangdang; Cai, Hongfei; Hao, Yongyu; Sun, Geng; Song, Yaoyao; Chen, Wen

    2014-01-01

    When repairing nerves with adhesives, most researchers place glue directly on the nerve stumps, but this method does not fix the nerve ends well and allows glue to easily invade the nerve ends. In this study, we established a rat model of completely transected sciatic nerve injury and repaired it using a modified 1 cm-length conduit with inner diameter of 1.5 mm. Each end of the cylindrical conduit contains a short linear channel, while the enclosed central tube protects the nerve ends well. Nerves were repaired with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate and suture, which complement the function of the modified conduit. The results demonstrated that for the same conduit, the average operation time using the adhesive method was much shorter than with the suture method. No significant differences were found between the two groups in sciatic function index, motor evoked potential latency, motor evoked potential amplitude, muscular recovery rate, number of medullated nerve fibers, axon diameter, or medullary sheath thickness. Thus, the adhesive method for repairing nerves using a modified conduit is feasible and effective, and reduces the operation time while providing an equivalent repair effect. PMID:25206861

  9. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anastomosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone. PMID:25221592

  10. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-07-15

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anastomosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone. PMID:25221592

  11. Immune cell distribution and immunoglobulin levels change following sciatic nerve injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wei; Feng, Xinhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To investigate the systemic and local immune status of two surgical rat models of sciatic nerve injury, a crushed sciatic nerve, and a sciatic nerve transection Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group), sciatic nerve crush, and sciatic nerve transaction. Sciatic nerve surgery was performed. The percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ratio were determined by flow cytometry. Serum IgM and IgG levels were analyzed by ELISA. T-cells (CD3) and macrophages (CD68) in sciatic nerve tissue sections were identified through immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to sham-operated controls, in rats that underwent nerve injury, the percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood were significantly decreased 7 days after surgery, serum IgM levels were increased 14 days after surgery, and serum IgG levels were increased 21 days after surgery. There were a large number of CD3+ cells and a small number of CD68+ cells in sciatic nerve tissue sections 21 days after surgery, indicating T-cell and macrophage activation and infiltration. Local IgG deposition was also detected at the nerve injury site 21 days after surgery. Conclusion: Rat humoral and cellular immune status changed following sciatic nerve injury, particularly with regard to the cellular immune response at the nerve injury site.

  12. Efficacy of nanofibrous conduits in repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    PubMed Central

    Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Pouya, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have histomorphologically confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit can be used to repair 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects. However, the repair effects on rat behaviors remain poorly understood. In this study, we used nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit and autologous sciatic nerve to bridge 30-mm-long rat sciatic nerve gaps. Within 4 months after surgery, rat sciatic nerve functional recovery was evaluated per month by behavioral analyses, including toe out angle, toe spread analysis, walking track analysis, extensor postural thrust, swimming test, open-field analysis and nociceptive function. Results showed that rat sciatic nerve functional recovery was similar after nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit and autologous nerve grafting. These findings suggest that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) conduit is suitable in use for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects. PMID:25206560

  13. Piriformis Syndrome With Variant Sciatic Nerve Anatomy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Emily; Tenforde, Adam S; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Ratliff, John; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A 68-year-old male long distance runner presented with low back and left buttock pain, which eventually progressed to severe and debilitating pain, intermittently radiating to the posterior thigh and foot. A comprehensive workup ruled out possible spine or hip causes of his symptoms. A pelvic magnetic resonance imaging neurogram with complex oblique planes through the piriformis demonstrated variant anatomy of the left sciatic nerve consistent with the clinical diagnosis of piriformis syndrome. The patient ultimately underwent neurolysis with release of the sciatic nerve and partial resection of the piriformis muscle. After surgery the patient reported significant pain reduction and resumed running 3 months later. Piriformis syndrome is uncommon but should be considered in the differential diagnosis for buttock pain. Advanced imaging was essential to guide management. PMID:26377629

  14. Sciatic nerve palsy associated with total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, M S; Nagi, O N

    1992-01-01

    Six cases of clinically evident sciatic or peroneal nerve palsy occurred in a consecutive series of 380 total hip arthroplasties (THA). An additional eight cases of peroneal nerve palsy due to pressure from Thomas splint or tight bandages were seen. Factors apparently causing nerve palsy were significant lateralization and lengthening in four cases and dislocation of the hip in one case. The cases with neuroapraxia of the peroneal nerve were seen from the third to the fifth day of Thomas splint immobilization. EMG studies were conducted in all six group 1 patients; at the end of one year the results were good in two cases, fair in three cases, and poor in one case. The results suggest that limb lengthening should be limited to 4 cm to minimize this complication. It was also seen that patients with peroneal nerve palsy due to local compression do well, though some are bothered by mild residual dysesthesia over the dorsum of the foot. In contrast, patients with sciatic nerve palsy do not have such a good outlook. PMID:1345646

  15. A rare case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Trocchia, Aron; Reyes, Alma; Wilson, Jon; Les, Kimberly

    2010-05-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis (NF-5) is an extremely rare variant of neurofibromatosis involving a single extremity without pathologic features beyond the midline. A case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the sciatic nerve and its branches is presented with a detailed description of the patient's preoperative findings plus postoperative course through 1-year follow-up. Clinical, histologic, and genetic findings are given along with a brief review of the literature on segmental neurofibromatosis. Last, treatment options and postoperative care recommendations are provided. PMID:20567746

  16. Biomechanical and functional variation in rat sciatic nerve following cuff electrode implantation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nerve cuff electrodes are commonly and successfully used for stimulating peripheral nerves. On the other hand, they occasionally induce functional and morphological changes following chronic implantation, for reasons not always clear. We hypothesize that restriction of nerve mobility due to cuff implantation may alter nerve conduction. Methods We quantified acute changes in nerve-muscle electrophysiology, using electromyography, and nerve kinematics in anesthetized Sprague Dawley rat sciatic nerves during controlled hindlimb joint movement. We compared electrophysiological and biomechanical response in uncuffed nerves and those secured within a cuff electrode using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis. Results Tethering resulting from cuff implantation resulted in altered nerve strain and a complex biomechanical environment during joint movement. Coincident with biomechanical changes, electromyography revealed significantly increased variability in the response of conduction latency and amplitude in cuffed, but not free, nerves following joint movement. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the importance of the mechanical interface between peripheral nerves and their devices on neurophysiological performance. This work has implications for nerve device design, implantation, and prediction of long-term efficacy. PMID:24758405

  17. L-carnitine alleviates sciatic nerve crush injury in rats: functional and electron microscopy assessments

    PubMed Central

    Avsar, Ümmü Zeynep; Avsar, Umit; Aydin, Ali; Yayla, Muhammed; Ozturkkaragoz, Berna; Un, Harun; Saritemur, Murat; Mercantepe, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats with diabetes mellitus. It is hypothesized that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats. Rat sciatic nerve was crush injured by a forceps and exhibited degenerative changes. After intragastric administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg L-carnitine for 30 days, axon area, myelin sheath area, axon diameter, myelin sheath diameter, and numerical density of the myelinated axons of injured sciatic nerve were similar to normal, and the function of injured sciatic nerve also improved significantly. These findings suggest that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. PMID:25206754

  18. Sciatic Nerve Block in Tetanus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Beigmohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Tavakoli, Farhad; Safari, Saeid; Amiri, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Muscle rigidity and generalized spasm can cause severe pain in patients with tetanus. Administration of high dose sedative or narcotic agents can increase respiratory failure and prolong mechanical ventilation support. Case Presentation: In this report, ultrasound-guided sciatic nerve block was performed in a 25-year-old patient with tetanus to progress his respiratory drive which was decreased due to high dose sedative administration. This procedure accelerates the weaning process and extubation. Conclusions: Nerve blocks may be appropriate for the particular patient with tetanus to tolerate the pain, reduce depth of sedation, accelerate extubation and subsequently decrease complications of tetanus relating to long time intubation. PMID:26705523

  19. Osteoprotegerin ameliorates sciatic nerve crush induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Bateman, T A; Dunstan, C R; Lacey, D L; Ferguson, V L; Ayers, R A; Simske, S J

    2001-07-01

    This study examines the ability of osteoprotegerin (OPG) to prevent the local bone resorption caused by sciatic nerve damage. Sixty-five 18-week-old male mice were assigned to one of six groups (n = 10-11/group). A baseline control group was sacrificed on day zero of the 10-day study. The remaining groups were placebo sham operated, placebo nerve crush (Plac NC) operated, 0.1 mg/kg/day OPG + nerve crush (LOW), 0.3 mg/kg/day OPG + nerve crush (MED), and 1.0 mg/kg/day OPG + nerve crush (HI). Nerve crush or sham operations were performed on the right leg. The left leg served as a contralateral control to the nerve crushed (ipsilateral) leg. The difference in mass between the right and left femur and tibia was examined. Additionally, quantitative histomorphometry was performed on the right and left femur and tibia diaphyses. Nerve crush resulted in a significant loss of bone mass in the ipsilateral side compared to the contralateral side. Bone mass for the ipsilateral bones of the Plac NC group were significantly reduced by 3.8% in the femur and 3.5% in the tibia compared to the contralateral limb. The percent diminution was reduced for OPG treated mice compared to the Plac NC group for both the femur and tibia. In the femur, the percent reduction of ipsilateral bone mass was reduced to 1.0% (LOW), 1.3% (MED) and 1.6% (HI) compared to the contralateral limb. In the tibia, loss of bone mass in the ipsilateral limb was reduced to 1.4% (LOW), 1.4% (MED), and 2.4% (HI) compared to the contralateral. OPG also decreased the amount of tibial endocortical resorption compared to the Plac NC group. In summary, OPG mitigated bone loss caused by damage to the sciatic nerve. PMID:11518255

  20. The Sciatic Nerve Cuffing Model of Neuropathic Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Ipek; Megat, Salim; Barthas, Florent; Waltisperger, Elisabeth; Kremer, Mélanie; Salvat, Eric; Barrot, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or a disease affecting the somatosensory system. This syndrome results from maladaptive changes in injured sensory neurons and along the entire nociceptive pathway within the central nervous system. It is usually chronic and challenging to treat. In order to study neuropathic pain and its treatments, different models have been developed in rodents. These models derive from known etiologies, thus reproducing peripheral nerve injuries, central injuries, and metabolic-, infectious- or chemotherapy-related neuropathies. Murine models of peripheral nerve injury often target the sciatic nerve which is easy to access and allows nociceptive tests on the hind paw. These models rely on a compression and/or a section. Here, the detailed surgery procedure for the "cuff model" of neuropathic pain in mice is described. In this model, a cuff of PE-20 polyethylene tubing of standardized length (2 mm) is unilaterally implanted around the main branch of the sciatic nerve. It induces a long-lasting mechanical allodynia, i.e., a nociceptive response to a normally non-nociceptive stimulus that can be evaluated by using von Frey filaments. Besides the detailed surgery and testing procedures, the interest of this model for the study of neuropathic pain mechanism, for the study of neuropathic pain sensory and anxiodepressive aspects, and for the study of neuropathic pain treatments are also discussed. PMID:25078668

  1. The effect of ubiquinone on functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Z; Azizi, S; Hobbenaghi, R

    2014-01-01

    A common cause of peripheral nerve injury is trauma. The positive effect of antioxidants on the improvement of nerve regeneration has currently become a focus of attention. In this experiment, the effect of intraperitoneal administration of ubiquinone (CoQ10) on an acute experimentally sciatic nerve crush was studied in a rat model. Forty-five male Wistar rats, weighing between 160-180 g were used. The rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=20). Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each. Functional studies confirmed the faster recovery of regenerated axons in the treatment group compared to the un-treated group (P<0.05). Morphometric indices of the regenerated fibers showed the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers to be significantly higher in the treatment group than the un-treated group (P<0.05). Intraperitoneal administration of CoQ10 (10 mg/kg/day) in the early inflammatory stage of sciatic nerve crush was found to improve nerve regeneration. PMID:27175137

  2. Proteomics of the injured rat sciatic nerve reveals protein expression dynamics during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Connie R; Stam, Floor J; Li, Ka Wan; Gouwenberg, Yvonne; Hornshaw, Martin P; De Winter, Fred; Verhaagen, Joost; Smit, August B

    2005-02-01

    Using proteomics, we investigated the temporal expression profiles of proteins in rat sciatic nerve after experimental crush. Extracts of sciatic nerves collected at 5, 10, and 35 days after injury were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and quantitative image analysis. Of the approximately 1,500 protein spots resolved on each gel, 121 showed significant regulation during at least one time point. Using cluster analysis, these proteins were grouped into two expression profiles of down-regulation and four of up-regulation. These profiles mainly reflected differences in cellular origins in addition to different functional roles. Mass spectrometric analysis identified 82 proteins pertaining to several functional classes, i.e. acute-phase proteins, antioxidant proteins, and proteins involved in protein synthesis/maturation/degradation, cytoskeletal (re)organization, and in lipid metabolism. Several proteins not previously implicated in nerve regeneration were identified, e.g. translationally controlled tumor protein, annexin A9/31, vitamin D-binding protein, alpha-crystallin B, alpha-synuclein, dimethylargininases, and reticulocalbin. Real-time PCR analysis of selected genes showed which were expressed in the nerve versus the dorsal root ganglion neurons. In conclusion, this study highlights the complexity and temporal aspect of the molecular process underlying nerve regeneration and points to the importance of glial and inflammatory determinants. PMID:15509515

  3. Renaut bodies in the sciatic nerve of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Elcock, L E; Stuart, B P; Hoss, H E; Crabb, K; Millard, D M; Bopp BILL; Mueller, R E; Hastings, T F; Lake, S G

    2001-04-01

    182 control Beagle dogs from 23 historical studies (14 chronic, 9 subchronic) were reviewed histologically for the presence of Renaut bodies in the sciatic nerve. Renaut bodies were found in 36.1 percent of the subchronic-study dogs and in 46.4 percent of the chronic-study dogs. The Renaut bodies most often resided in the distal sections of the sciatic nerve, specifically in the tibial branch as it traversed the knee joint in situ. There was no sex predilection. Renaut bodies were located predominately in the endoneurium, in the center of the nerve sections. There was no associated axonal degeneration, reactive gliosis, or encapsulation. The Renaut bodies were characterized as large (20 to 500 microns diameter in cross section), well-demarcated elliptical structures with an onion-skin arrangement of loosely textured, filamentous strands intermixed with sparse numbers of dark spindle-shaped nuclei. Occasionally the core displayed a more dense, intensely eosinophilic arrangement of fibers. Histochemical results included: positive acidic alcian blue, Gomori's trichrome, and Verhoeff Van Gieson's; and negative Periodic-acid Schiff, Congo Red, and Luxol fast blue/cresyl violet. Immunohistochemical results included: positive vimentin and collagen (subtypes I, II, and VI); and negative NSE, S-100, GFAP, amyloid A component, desmin, alpha-sarcomeric actin, pancytokeratin, EMA, and von Willebrand factor. Transmission electron microscopy revealed loosely arrayed, circumferentially oriented collagen fibers intermixed with varying amounts of amorphous substance and finely fibrillar material. Most of the cells comprising the Renaut body were identified as fibroblasts. No nerve fibers entered or left the Renaut body, and nearby nerves appeared to be normal structurally. Based on this characterization of Renaut bodies and in conjunction with the past literature, Renaut bodies appear to have little or no pathological significance, but rather are suggestive of a physiological

  4. LOCALLY SYNTHESIZED PHOSPHATIDYCHOLINE, BUT NOT PROTEIN, UNDERGOES RAPID RETROGRADE AXONAL TRANSPORT IN THE RAT SCIATIC NERVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retrograde axonal transport of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the sciatic nerve has been demonstrated only after injection of lipid precursors into the cell body regions (Armstrong et al. 1985). icroinjection of [methyl-3H]choline into the sciatic nerve results in extensive incorpor...

  5. Diabetic neuropathy increases stimulation threshold during popliteal sciatic nerve block†

    PubMed Central

    Heschl, S.; Hallmann, B.; Zilke, T.; Gemes, G.; Schoerghuber, M.; Auer-Grumbach, M.; Quehenberger, F.; Lirk, P.; Hogan, Q.; Rigaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peripheral nerve stimulation is commonly used for nerve localization in regional anaesthesia, but recommended stimulation currents of 0.3–0.5 mA do not reliably produce motor activity in the absence of intraneural needle placement. As this may be particularly true in patients with diabetic neuropathy, we examined the stimulation threshold in patients with and without diabetes. Methods Preoperative evaluation included a neurological exam and electroneurography. During ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block, we measured the current required to produce motor activity for the tibial and common peroneal nerve in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Proximity to the nerve was evaluated post-hoc using ultrasound imaging. Results Average stimulation currents did not differ between diabetic (n=55) and non-diabetic patients (n=52). Although the planned number of patients was not reached, the power goal for the mean stimulation current was met. Subjects with diminished pressure perception showed increased thresholds for the common peroneal nerve (median 1.30 vs. 0.57 mA in subjects with normal perception, P=0.042), as did subjects with decreased pain sensation (1.60 vs. 0.50 mA in subjects with normal sensation, P=0.038). Slowed ulnar nerve conduction velocity predicted elevated mean stimulation current (r=−0.35, P=0.002). Finally, 15 diabetic patients required more than 0.5 mA to evoke a motor response, despite intraneural needle placement (n=4), or required currents ≥2 mA despite needle-nerve contact, vs three such patients (1 intraneural, 2 with ≥2 mA) among non-diabetic patients (P=0.003). Conclusions These findings suggest that stimulation thresholds of 0.3–0.5 mA may not reliably determine close needle-nerve contact during popliteal sciatic nerve block, particularly in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Clinical trial registration NCT01488474 PMID:26994231

  6. Bilateral traumatic hip dislocation with sciatic nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ka Yuk; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral hip dislocation is a rare condition. We report a case of traumatic bilateral hip dislocation and unilateral sciatic nerve palsy in a young woman with known idiopathic scoliosis. With prompt reduction of the dislocated hips, there was reasonable neurological recovery. There was no avascular necrosis of the femoral head or post-traumatic arthritis up to 3-year follow-up. The gender difference in incidence, as well as the predisposition of hip dislocation in scoliosis is discussed. In our case, the decreased femoral anteversion was the culprit. PMID:25809426

  7. Ultrasound Guided Obturator Versus Sciatic Nerve Block in Addition to Continuous Femoral Nerve Block for Analgesia After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Keita; Sai, Seijyu; Shirai, Naoto; Adachi, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Both obturator and sciatic nerve block in combination with femoral nerve block (FNB) have been suggested to be useful in relieving pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), compared with FNB alone. We compared their efficacy in this retrospective study. For six consecutive months, patients undergoing unilateral TKA under general anesthesia with continuous FNB plus obturator nerve block (n = 8) or continuous FNB plus sciatic nerve block (n = 8) were investigated. Knee pain was assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS) on the day of surgery and on postoperative days one to three. In addition, we also investigated intraoperative and postoperative morphine consumption. VAS scores and total morphine consumption were not different between the two groups, although patients in the FNB plus sciatic nerve block group were administered less morphine during surgery. Sciatic nerve block with continuous FNB may be superior to obturator nerve block with continuous FNB for analgesia during surgery for TKA. PMID:23885188

  8. Effect of Frankincense Extract on Nerve Recovery in the Rat Sciatic Nerve Damage Model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaowen; Ma, Jun; Wei, Qingwei; Feng, Xinxin; Qiao, Lu; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Binqing; Yu, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of frankincense extract on peripheral nerve regeneration in a crush injury rat model. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and frankincense extract low-, medium-, and high-dose groups. At days 7, 14, 21, and 28 following the surgery, nerve regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI), expression of GAP-43, and the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs) in vivo and in vitro. At day 7, the SFI in the frankincense extract high-dose group was significantly improved compared with the control group. After day 14, SFI was significantly improved in the medium- and high-dose groups. There was no significant difference in GAP-43 expression among the groups at day 7. However, after day 14, expression of GAP-43 in the high-dose group was higher than that in the control group. Histological evaluation showed that the injured nerve of frankincense extract high-dose group recovered better than the other groups 28 days after surgery. Further, S100 immunohistochemical staining, MTT colorimetry, and flow cytometry assays all showed that frankincense extract could promote the proliferation of SCs. In conclusion, frankincense extract is able to promote sciatic nerve regeneration and improve the function of a crushed sciatic nerve. This study provides a new direction for the repair of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:27143985

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Repair and Hindlimb Transplant Model

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Damon S.; Wimmers, Eric G.; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Grahammer, Johanna; Christensen, Joani M.; Brat, Gabriel A.; Wu, Lehao W.; Sarhane, Karim A.; Lopez, Joseph; Wallner, Christoph; Furtmüller, Georg J.; Yuan, Nance; Pang, John; Sarkar, Kakali; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of local and intravenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration to augment neuroregeneration in both a sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and rat hindlimb transplant model. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were harvested and purified from Brown-Norway (BN) rats. Sciatic nerve transections and repairs were performed in three groups of Lewis (LEW) rats: negative controls (n = 4), local MSCs (epineural) injection (n = 4), and systemic MSCs (intravenous) injection (n = 4). Syngeneic (LEW-LEW) (n = 4) and allogeneic (BN-LEW) (n = 4) hindlimb transplants were performed and assessed for neuroregeneration after local or systemic MSC treatment. Rats undergoing sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and treated with either local or systemic injection of MSCs had significant improvement in the speed of recovery of compound muscle action potential amplitudes and axon counts when compared with negative controls. Similarly, rats undergoing allogeneic hindlimb transplants treated with local injection of MSCs exhibited significantly increased axon counts. Similarly, systemic MSC treatment resulted in improved nerve regeneration following allogeneic hindlimb transplants. Systemic administration had a more pronounced effect on electromotor recovery while local injection was more effective at increasing fiber counts, suggesting different targets of action. Local and systemic MSC injections significantly improve the pace and degree of nerve regeneration after nerve injury and hindlimb transplantation. PMID:27510321

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Repair and Hindlimb Transplant Model.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Damon S; Wimmers, Eric G; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Grahammer, Johanna; Christensen, Joani M; Brat, Gabriel A; Wu, Lehao W; Sarhane, Karim A; Lopez, Joseph; Wallner, Christoph; Furtmüller, Georg J; Yuan, Nance; Pang, John; Sarkar, Kakali; Lee, W P Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of local and intravenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration to augment neuroregeneration in both a sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and rat hindlimb transplant model. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were harvested and purified from Brown-Norway (BN) rats. Sciatic nerve transections and repairs were performed in three groups of Lewis (LEW) rats: negative controls (n = 4), local MSCs (epineural) injection (n = 4), and systemic MSCs (intravenous) injection (n = 4). Syngeneic (LEW-LEW) (n = 4) and allogeneic (BN-LEW) (n = 4) hindlimb transplants were performed and assessed for neuroregeneration after local or systemic MSC treatment. Rats undergoing sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and treated with either local or systemic injection of MSCs had significant improvement in the speed of recovery of compound muscle action potential amplitudes and axon counts when compared with negative controls. Similarly, rats undergoing allogeneic hindlimb transplants treated with local injection of MSCs exhibited significantly increased axon counts. Similarly, systemic MSC treatment resulted in improved nerve regeneration following allogeneic hindlimb transplants. Systemic administration had a more pronounced effect on electromotor recovery while local injection was more effective at increasing fiber counts, suggesting different targets of action. Local and systemic MSC injections significantly improve the pace and degree of nerve regeneration after nerve injury and hindlimb transplantation. PMID:27510321

  11. Human distal sciatic nerve fascicular anatomy: implications for ankle control using nerve-cuff electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Kenneth J; Grinberg, Yanina; Joseph, Sheeba; Triolo, Ronald J

    2012-01-01

    The design of neural prostheses to restore standing balance, prevent foot drop, or provide active propulsion during ambulation requires detailed knowledge of the distal sciatic nerve anatomy. Three complete sciatic nerves and branches were dissected from the piriformis to each muscle entry point to characterize the branching patterns and diameters. Fascicle maps were created from serial sections of each distal terminus below the knee through the anastomosis of the tibial and common fibular nerves above the knee. Similar branching patterns and fascicle maps were observed across specimens. Fascicles innervating primary plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, invertors, and evertors were distinctly separate and functionally organized in the proximal tibial, common fibular, and distal sciatic nerves; however, fascicles from individual muscles were not apparent at these levels. The fascicular organization is conducive to selective stimulation for isolated and/or balanced dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, eversion, and inversion through a single multicontact nerve-cuff electrode. These neuroanatomical data are being used to design nerve-cuff electrodes for selective control of ankle movement and improve current lower-limb neural prostheses. PMID:22773531

  12. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  13. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of regeneration/degeneration after rat sciatic nerve injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sig Hwang, Min; Perrin, George; Muir, David; Mareci, Thomas

    2005-11-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging was performed to investigate myelination and demyelination spatiotemporally in cut or crushed excised rat sciatic nerves in a 17.6 T magnet with a solenoid RF coil. Orientation independent measures of water diffusion, fractional anisotropy (FA) and averaged diffusivity (), were examined as MR parameters for the quantification of the myelin within the major peripheral nerve. Crushed nerves initially demonstrated decreased FA, followed by increase to FA of normal nerve with time. At 14 days post injury, FA of the nerve is high, 0.85, at the site proximal to the injury then FA decreases in a proximodistal gradient because the nerve remains more demyelinated toward the distal area. Cut sciatic nerves displayed a prolonged decrease of FA with time after injury. Also FA correlates with in these nerves. Therefore FA or may be a good indicator of myelination and demyelination in rat sciatic nerves and FA appears to be a more sensitive indicator of myelin.

  14. Topography of Synchronization of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials Elicited by Stimulation of the Sciatic Nerve in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xuefeng; Yan, Jiaqing; Li, Xiaoli; Zhang, Peixun; Liu, Xianzeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, the topography of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) is generated based on amplitude and latency. However, this operation focuses on the physical morphology and field potential-power, so it suffers from difficulties in performing identification in an objective manner. In this study, measurement of the synchronization of SEPs is proposed as a method to explore brain functional networks as well as the plasticity after peripheral nerve injury. Method: SEPs elicited by unilateral sciatic nerve stimulation in twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in the normal group were compared with SEPs evoked after unilateral sciatic nerve hemisection in four peripheral nerve injured SD rats. The characterization of synchronized networks from SEPs was conducted using equal-time correlation, correlation matrix analysis, and comparison to randomized surrogate data. Eigenvalues of the correlation matrix were used to identify the clusters of functionally synchronized neuronal activity, and the participation index (PI) was calculated to indicate the involvement of each channel in the cluster. The PI value at the knee point of the PI histogram was used as a threshold to demarcate the cortical boundary. Results: Ten out of the twelve normal rats showed only one synchronized brain network. The remaining two normal rats showed one strong and one weak network. In the peripheral nerve injured group, only one synchronized brain network was found in each rat. In the normal group, all network shapes appear regular and the network is largely contained in the posterior cortex. In the injured group, the network shapes appear irregular, the network extends anteriorly and posteriorly, and the network area is significantly larger. There are considerable individual variations in the shape and location of the network after peripheral nerve injury. Conclusion: The proposed method can detect functional brain networks. Compared to the results of the traditional SEP

  15. Sciatic Nerve Injury Related to Hip Replacement Surgery: Imaging Detection by MR Neurography Despite Susceptibility Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Marcel; Bäumer, Philipp; Pedro, Maria; Dombert, Thomas; Staub, Frank; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Sciatic nerve palsy related to hip replacement surgery (HRS) is among the most common causes of sciatic neuropathies. The sciatic nerve may be injured by various different periprocedural mechanisms. The precise localization and extension of the nerve lesion, the determination of nerve continuity, lesion severity, and fascicular lesion distribution are essential for assessing the potential of spontaneous recovery and thereby avoiding delayed or inappropriate therapy. Adequate therapy is in many cases limited to conservative management, but in certain cases early surgical exploration and release of the nerve is indicated. Nerve-conduction-studies and electromyography are essential in the diagnosis of nerve injuries. In postsurgical nerve injuries, additional diagnostic imaging is important as well, in particular to detect or rule out direct mechanical compromise. Especially in the presence of metallic implants, commonly applied diagnostic imaging tests generally fail to adequately visualize nervous tissue. MRI has been deemed problematic due to implant-related artifacts after HRS. In this study, we describe for the first time the spectrum of imaging findings of Magnetic Resonance neurography (MRN) employing pulse sequences relatively insensitive to susceptibility artifacts (susceptibility insensitive MRN, siMRN) in a series of 9 patients with HRS procedure related sciatic nerve palsy. We were able to determine the localization and fascicular distribution of the sciatic nerve lesion in all 9 patients, which clearly showed on imaging predominant involvement of the peroneal more than the tibial division of the sciatic nerve. In 2 patients siMRN revealed direct mechanical compromise of the nerve by surgical material, and in one of these cases indication for surgical release of the sciatic nerve was based on siMRN. Thus, in selected cases of HRS related neuropathies, especially when surgical exploration of the nerve is considered, siMRN, with its potential to largely

  16. Differential temporal expression of matrix metalloproteinases following sciatic nerve crush

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jing; Zha, Guang-bin; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Hong-hong; Yi, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We previously performed transcriptome sequencing and found that genes for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such as MMP7 and 12, seem to be highly upregulated following peripheral nerve injury, and may be involved in nerve repair. In the present study, we systematically determined the expression levels of MMPs and their regulators at 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after sciatic nerve crush injury. The number of differentially expressed genes was elevated at 4 and 7 days after injury, but decreased at 14 days after injury. Among the differentially expressed genes, those most up-regulated showed fold changes of more than 214, while those most down-regulated exhibited fold changes of more than 2−10. Gene sequencing showed that, at all time points after injury, a variety of MMP genes in the “Inhibition of MMPs” pathway were up-regulated, and their inhibitor genes were down-regulated. Expression of key up- and down-regulated genes was verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and found to be consistent with transcriptome sequencing. These results suggest that MMP-related genes are strongly involved in the process of peripheral nerve regeneration.

  17. Myelin Abnormalities in the Optic and Sciatic Nerves in Mice With GM1-Gangliosidosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinecke, Karie A.; Luoma, Adrienne; d’Azzo, Alessandra; Kirschner, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis is a glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage disease involving accumulation of GM1 and its asialo form (GA1) primarily in the brain. Thin-layer chromatography and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the lipid content/composition and the myelin structure of the optic and sciatic nerves from 7- and 10-month old β-galactosidase (β-gal) +/? and β-gal −/− mice, a model of GM1gangliosidosis. Optic nerve weight was lower in the β-gal −/− mice than in unaffected β-gal +/? mice, but no difference was seen in sciatic nerve weight. The levels of GM1 and GA1 were significantly increased in both the optic nerve and sciatic nerve of the β-gal −/− mice. The content of myelin-enriched cerebrosides, sulfatides, and plasmalogen ethanolamines was significantly lower in optic nerve of β-gal −/− mice than in β-gal +/? mice; however, cholesteryl esters were enriched in the β-gal −/− mice. No major abnormalities in these lipids were detected in the sciatic nerve of the β-gal −/− mice. The abnormalities in GM1 and myelin lipids in optic nerve of β-gal −/− mice correlated with a reduction in the relative amount of myelin and periodicity in fresh nerve. By contrast, the relative amount of myelin and periodicity in the sciatic nerves from control and β-gal −/− mice were indistinguishable, suggesting minimal pathological involvement in sciatic nerve. Our results indicate that the greater neurochemical pathology observed in the optic nerve than in the sciatic nerve of β-gal −/− mice is likely due to the greater glycolipid storage in optic nerve. PMID:25694553

  18. Morphological changes in the sciatic nerve, skeletal muscle, heart and brain of rabbits receiving continuous sciatic nerve block with 0.2% ropivacaine

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yangning; He, Miao; Zou, Tianxiao; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the morphological changes in various tissues of rabbits receiving sciatic nerve block with 0.2% ropivacaine for 48 h. Methods: Twenty healthy were randomly assigned to normal saline group (N group) and ropivacaine group (R group). The right sciatic nerve was exposed, and a nerve-blocking trocar cannula embedded. Animals received an injection of 0.5% ropivacaine hydrochloride at a dose of 0.75 ml/kg. Rabbit was then connected to an infusion pump containing 50 ml of normal saline in N group, or to a infusion pump containing 0.2% ropivacaine hydrochloride in R group at 0.25 ml/kg•h-1. Results: In both R group and N group, a small number of nerve cells exhibited pyknotic degeneration. More nerve cells with pyknotic degeneration were found in R group than in N group (P<0.001). At 48 h after surgery, there was a significant correlation between the abnormality of right hind limb and the degree of edema in sciatic nerve (P<0.01). Conclusion: Pyknotic degeneration of sciatic nerve increased after an infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine hydrochloride for 48 h, suggesting the neurotoxicity of ropivacaine. An infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine hydrochloride for 48 h may cause necrosis of skeletal muscle cells. The sciatic nerve edema would greatly affect the hindlimb motor while both pyknotic degeneration of sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle have little influence on the hindlimb movement. After an infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine hydrochloride for 48 h, the morphology of right atrium and brain tissues around the ventriculus tertius and medulla oblongata remained unchanged. PMID:26823703

  19. Effect of a high-intensity static magnetic field on sciatic nerve regeneration in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cordeiro, P.G.; Seckel, B.R.; Miller, C.D.; Gross, P.T.; Wise, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    The effect of a high-intensity static magnetic field on peripheral nerve regeneration is evaluated in rat sciatic nerve. Forty-four rats underwent sciatic nerve repair using polyethylene nerve guides. Postoperatively, the animals were exposed to a 1-tesla magnetic field for 12 hours per day for 4 weeks with appropriate controls. Our results demonstrate that a 1-tesla static magnetic field has no statistically significant effect on nerve regeneration as determined by myelinated axon counts and electrophysiologic studies. Also, the specific orientation of the sciatic nerve with respect to the magnetic field has no influence on axonal growth or nerve conduction. Periods of restraint of 12 hours per day for 4 weeks significantly inhibit weight gain but have no effect on peripheral nerve regeneration.

  20. A silk sericin/silicone nerve guidance conduit promotes regeneration of a transected sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongjian; Yang, Wen; Chen, Jianghai; Zhang, Jinxiang; Lu, Xiaochen; Zhao, Xiaobo; Huang, Kun; Li, Huili; Chang, Panpan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2015-10-28

    Peripheral nerve gap defects lead to significant loss of sensory or motor function. Tissue engineering has become an important alternative to nerve repair. Sericin, a major component of silk, is a natural protein whose value in tissue engineering has just begun to be explored. Here, the first time use of sericin in vivo is reported as a long-term implant for peripheral nerve regeneration. A sericin nerve guidance conduit is designed and fabricated. This conduit is highly porous with mechanical strength matching peripheral nerve tissue. It supports Schwann cell proliferation and is capable of up-regulating the transcription of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in Schwann cells. The sericin conduit wrapped with a silicone conduit (sericin/silicone double conduits) is used for bridging repair of a 5 mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve transection model. The sericin/silicone double conduits achieve functional recovery comparable to that of autologous nerve grafting as evidenced by drastically improved nerve function and morphology. Importantly, this improvement is mainly attributed to the sericin conduit as the silicone conduit alone only produces marginal functional recovery. This sericin/silicone-double-conduit strategy offers an efficient and valuable alternative to autologous nerve grafting for repairing damaged peripheral nerve. PMID:26332703

  1. Sciatic Nerve Injury Caused by a Stretching Exercise in a Trained Dancer

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Ho Yong; Bae, Keun Hwan; Park, Seok Min; Lee, Ju Kang; Park, Ki Deok

    2013-01-01

    Sciatic nerve injury after stretching exercise is uncommon. We report a case of an 18-year-old female trained dancer who developed sciatic neuropathy primarily involving the tibial division after routine stretching exercise. The patient presented with dysesthesia and weakness of the right foot during dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The mechanism of sciatic nerve injury could be thought as hyperstretching alone, not caused by both hyperstretching and compression. Electrodiagnostic tests and magnetic resonance imaging revealed evidence of the right sciatic neuropathy from the gluteal fold to the distal tibial area, and partial tear of the left hamstring origin and fluid collection between the left hamstring and ischium without left sciatic nerve injury. Recovery of motor weakness was obtained by continuous rehabilitation therapy and some evidence of axonal regeneration was obtained by follow-up electrodiagnostic testing performed at 3, 5, and 12 months after injury. PMID:24466525

  2. Effects of sciatic nerve stimulation on the propagation of cortical spreading depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Yu, Zhidong; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Li, Pengcheng

    2008-02-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is an important pathological model of migraine and is related to other neural disorders, such as cerebral ischemia and epilepsy. It has been reported that brain stimulation is a quite effective way to treat neural diseases. However, direct stimulation could cause harm to brain. If peripheral nerve stimulation could have the same treatment, it would be essential to investigate the mechanisms of peripheral nerve and the study of sciatic nerve stimulation would have profound clinical meaning. In this paper, we used optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI) and extracellular electrophysiologic recording techniques to study the effects of sciatic nerve stimulation on the propagation of CSD. We found that: (1) continuous sciatic nerve stimulation on rats caused a decrease in light intensity on the whole cortex, which meant an increase in cerebral blood volume(CBV); (2) the spreading velocity of CSD declined from 3.63+/- 0.272 mm/min to 3.06+/-0.260 mm/min during sciatic nerve stimulation, compared with that without sciatic nerve stimulation. In summary, data suggests that sciatic nerve stimulation elicits a response of cortex and causes a slowdown in the propagation of CSD.

  3. Low-level laser irradiation improves functional recovery and nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve crush rat injury model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chau-Zen; Chen, Yi-Jen; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Yeh, Ming-Long; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Ho, Mei-Ling; Liang, Jen-I; Chen, Chia-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The development of noninvasive approaches to facilitate the regeneration of post-traumatic nerve injury is important for clinical rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the effective dose of noninvasive 808-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on sciatic nerve crush rat injury model. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 experimental groups: a normal group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 8 J/cm(2) and a sciatic nerve crush injury group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 3, 8 or 15 J/cm(2). Rats were given consecutive transcutaneous LLLT at the crush site and sacrificed 20 days after the crush injury. Functional assessments of nerve regeneration were analyzed using the sciatic functional index (SFI) and hindlimb range of motion (ROM). Nerve regeneration was investigated by measuring the myelin sheath thickness of the sciatic nerve using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by analyzing the expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) in sciatic nerve using western blot and immunofluorescence staining. We found that sciatic-injured rats that were irradiated with LLLT at both 3 and 8 J/cm(2) had significantly improved SFI but that a significant improvement of ROM was only found in rats with LLLT at 8 J/cm(2). Furthermore, the myelin sheath thickness and GAP43 expression levels were significantly enhanced in sciatic nerve-crushed rats receiving 808-nm LLLT at 3 and 8 J/cm(2). Taken together, these results suggest that 808-nm LLLT at a low energy density (3 J/cm(2) and 8 J/cm(2)) is capable of enhancing sciatic nerve regeneration following a crush injury. PMID:25119457

  4. Functional and morphological assessment of a standardized rat sciatic nerve crush injury with a non-serrated clamp.

    PubMed

    Varejão, Artur S P; Cabrita, António M; Meek, Marcel F; Bulas-Cruz, José; Melo-Pinto, Pedro; Raimondo, Stefania; Geuna, Stefano; Giacobini-Robecchi, Maria G

    2004-11-01

    Peripheral nerve researchers frequently use the rat sciatic nerve crush as a model for axonotmesis. Unfortunately, studies from various research groups report results from different crush techniques and by using a variety of evaluation tools, making comparisons between studies difficult. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the sequence of functional and morphologic changes after an acute sciatic nerve crush injury with a non-serrated clamp, giving a final standardized pressure of p = 9 MPa. Functional recovery was evaluated using the sciatic functional index (SFI), the extensor postural thrust (EPT) and the withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), before injury, and then at weekly intervals until week 8 postoperatively. The rats were also evaluated preoperatively and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 by ankle kinematics, toe out angle (TOA), and gait-stance duration. In addition, the motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and the gastrocnemius-soleus weight parameters were measured just before euthanasia. Finally, structural, ultrastructural and histomorphometric analyses were carried out on regenerated nerve fibers. At 8 weeks after the crush injury, a full functional recovery was predicted by SFI, EPT, TOA, and gait-stance duration, while all the other parameters were still recovering their original values. On the other hand, only two of the histomorphometric parameters of regenerated nerve fibers, namely myelin thickness/axon diameter ratio and fiber/axon diameter ratio, returned to normal values while all other parameters were significantly different from normal values. The employment of traditional methods of functional evaluation in conjunction with the modern techniques of computerized analysis of gait and histomorphometric analysis should thus be recommended for an overall assessment of recovery in the rat sciatic nerve crush model. PMID:15684656

  5. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) attenuates peripheral nerve degeneration in rat sciatic nerve crush injury.

    PubMed

    Renno, Waleed M; Al-Maghrebi, May; Alshammari, Ahmad; George, Preethi

    2013-02-01

    Recently, we have shown that green tea (GT) consumption improves both reflexes and sensation in unilateral chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve. Considering the substantial neuroprotective properties of GT polyphenols, we sought to investigate whether (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could protect the sciatic nerve and improve functional impairments induced by a crushing injury. We also examined whether neuronal cell apoptosis induced by the crushing injury is affected by EGCG treatment. Histological examination of sciatic nerves from EGCG-treated (50mg/kg; i.p.) showed that axonotmized rats had a remarkable axonal and myelin regeneration with significant decrease in the number of myelinated axonal fibers compared to vehicle-treated crush group. Similarly, ultrastructural evaluation of EGCG-treated nerves displayed normal unmyelinated and myelinated axons with regular myelin sheath thickness and normalized appearance of Schmidt-Lantermann clefts. Extracellular matrix displayed normal collagen fibers appearance with distinctively organized distribution similar to sham animals. Analysis of foot position and extensor postural thrust test showed a progressive and faster recovery in the EGCG-treated group compared to vehicle-treated animals. EGCG-treated rats showed significant increase in paw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical stimulation compared to vehicle-treated crush group. EGCG treatment also restored the mRNA expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and survivin but not that of p53 to sham levels on days 3 and 7 post-injury. Our results demonstrate that EGCG treatment enhanced functional recovery, advanced morphological nerve rescue and accelerated nerve regeneration following crush injury partly due to the down regulation of apoptosis related genes. PMID:23313191

  6. Sciatic Nerve Palsy Caused by Ruptured and Contracted Short External Rotator Muscles after Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Seok; Hong, Chang-Hwa; Soh, Jae-Wan; Nho, Jae-Hwi; Suh, You-Sung; Lee, Hwan-Woong

    2015-01-01

    Although the incidence of sciatic nerve palsy following total hip arthroplasty is low, this complication can cause devastating permanent nerve palsy. The authors experienced a case of sciatic nerve palsy caused by ruptured and contracted external rotator muscles following total hip arthroplasty in a patient suffering from osteonecrosis of the femoral head. We report this unusual case of sciatic nerve palsy with a review of the literature.

  7. Comparison of divided sciatic nerve growth within dermis, venous and nerve graft conduit in rat

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Foroutan, Kamal Seyed; Ashtiani, Abass Kazemi; Mansoori, Maryam Jafari; Vaghardoost, Reza; Pedram, Sepehr; Hosseinpolli, Aidin; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Considering the common origin of skin and peripheral nervous system, a tube of dermal layer of skin hypothetically can be an ideal conduit for nerve reconstruction. An experimental study performed to evaluate the nerve regeneration of efficacy into a dermal tube. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were used. A 10 mm gap was produced in right sciatic nerves. In group A the autogenous nerve grafts were used to bridge the defects. In group B vein conduit were use to reconstruct the gaps. In group C dermal tube were used to bridge the defects. Morphologic studies were carried out after 3 month. RESULTS: The density of nerve fibers was significantly higher in autogenous nerve graft group. The efficacy of nerve growth into the dermal tube group was significantly poor in comparison to other groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, dermis was used as the nerve conduit for the first time. This study indicates that the dermal tube is not a suitable conduit for nerve regeneration till further studies to resolve the problems before clinical application. PMID:21526083

  8. Presentation of Neurolytic Effect of 10% Lidocaine after Perineural Ultrasound Guided Injection of a Canine Sciatic Nerve: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Asma; Kataria, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Phenol and alcohol have been used to ablate nerves to treat pain but are not specific for nerves and can damage surrounding soft tissue. Lidocaine at concentrations > 8% injected intrathecal in the animal model has been shown to be neurotoxic. Tests the hypothesis that 10% lidocaine is neurolytic after a peri-neural blockade in an ex vivo experiment on the canine sciatic nerve. Methods Under ultrasound, one canine sciatic nerve was injected peri-neurally with 10 cc saline and another with 10 cc of 10% lidocaine. After 20 minutes, the sciatic nerve was dissected with gross inspection. A 3 cm segment was excised and preserved in 10% buffered formalin fixative solution. Both samples underwent progressive dehydration and infusion of paraffin after which they were placed on paraffin blocks. The sections were cut at 4 µm and stained with hemoxylin and eosin. Microscopic review was performed by a pathologist from Henry Ford Hospital who was blinded to which experimental group each sample was in. Results The lidocaine injected nerve demonstrated loss of gross architecture on visual inspection while the saline injected nerve did not. No gross changes were seen in the surrounding soft tissue seen in either group. The lidocaine injected sample showed basophilic degeneration with marked cytoplasmic vacuolation in the nerve fibers with separation of individual fibers and endoneurial edema. The saline injected sample showed normal neural tissue. Conclusions Ten percent lidocaine causes rapid neurolytic changes with ultrasound guided peri-neural injection. The study was limited by only a single nerve being tested with acute exposure. PMID:27413480

  9. Changes in the blood-nerve barrier after sciatic nerve cold injury: indications supporting early treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Jia, Jian-ping; Xu, Min; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3–5°C) for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed. From 3 to 5 days after the cold injury, the fluid was still present, but the tight junctions were open. Less tracer leakage was found from 3 to 5 days after the cold injury compared with 1 day after injury. The cold injury resulted in a breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier function, which caused endoneurial edema. However, during the early period, the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier did not include the opening of tight junctions, but was due to other factors. Excessive fluid volume produced a large increase in the endoneurial fluid pressure, prevented liquid penetration into the endoneurium from the microvasculature. These results suggest that drug treatment to patients with cold injuries should be administered during the early period after injury because it may be more difficult for the drug to reach the injury site through the microcirculation after the tissue fluid pressure becomes elevated. PMID:25878590

  10. Morphological and functional aspects of sciatic nerve regeneration after crush injury.

    PubMed

    Răducan, Andreea; Mirică, Silvia; Duicu, Oana; Răducan, S; Muntean, Danina; Fira-Mlădinescu, O; Lighezan, Rodica

    2013-01-01

    Experimental models for the investigation of nerve regeneration are critical in studying new strategies able to promote the repair process. The aim of the present work was to characterize morphological and functional aspects of sciatic nerve regeneration after mechanical crush injury in rodents. Morphological changes were assessed after a four minutes sciatic nerve injury induced by means of a standardized compression clip. Rat nerve samples were collected before injury and after 24 hours, four days, two weeks, and four weeks after injury, respectively. In an additional group with unilateral sciatic nerve injury, animals were evaluated for four weeks using walking track analysis and the sciatic static index (SSI) measured in both rearing and normal standing position. Histological study showed important axonal degeneration at four days and axonal regeneration at four weeks after injury. We observed no significant differences between SSI in rearing and normal standing stance and a strong correlation between SSI values measured in the two positions during the evaluation period. Positive correlations were also found for the footprint parameters. Our data provide a baseline characterization of the sciatic nerve crush injury that will further allow the investigation of peripheral nerve regeneration in the presence of potential neuroprotective agents in post-traumatic nerve repair. PMID:24322020

  11. Dexamethasone enhanced functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects. PMID:25839037

  12. Dexamethasone Enhanced Functional Recovery after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects. PMID:25839037

  13. Sciatica due to malignant nerve sheath tumour of sciatic nerve in the thigh.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R R; Pawar, S J; Mahapatra, A K; Doctor, M; Musa, M M

    2001-06-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the supportive non-neural component of the peripheral nerves. An unusual case of pain and weakness of the foot and calf muscles due to a giant MPNST of the sciatic nerve in the posterior compartment of the thigh is presented. The patient was already investigated as a case of sciatica due to a lumbar disc disease with a negative magnetic resonance imaging and then unsuccessfully operated elsewhere twice, with a misdiagnosis of tarsal tunnel syndrome. Neurosurgical referral prompted a diagnostic magnetic resonance study of the thigh, revealing the lesion, which was completely excised microsurgically with total relief in the pain and partial improvement in the weakness and sensations in the sole of the foot. PMID:11447444

  14. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediates non-freezing cold injury of rat sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Zhiwei; Tong, Xiaoyan; Jia, Hongjuan

    2015-01-01

    Non-freezing cold injury is an injury characterized by neuropathy, developing when patients expose to cold environments. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been shown as a contributing factor for the non-freezing cold nerve injury. However, the detailed connections between non-freezing cold nerve injury and ROS have not been described. In order to investigate the relationship between non-freezing cold nerve injury and reactive oxygen species, we study the effects of two cooling methods-the continuous cooling and the intermittent cooling with warming intervals-on rat sciatic nerves. Specifically, we assess the morphological changes and ROS production of the sciatic nerves underwent different cooling treatments. Our data shows both types of cooling methods cause nerve injury and ROS production. However, despite of identical cooling degree and duration, the sciatic nerves processed by intermittent cooling with warming intervals present more ROS production, severer reperfusion injury and pathological destructions than the sciatic nerves processed by continuous cooling. This result indicates reactive oxygen species, as a product of reperfusion, facilitates non-freezing cold nerve injury. PMID:26629065

  15. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres containing three neurotrophic factors promote sciatic nerve repair after injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Zhi-yue; Zhang, Ze-peng; Mo, Zhou-yun; Chen, Shi-jie; Xiang, Si-yu; Zhang, Qing-shan; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    A variety of neurotrophic factors have been shown to repair the damaged peripheral nerve. However, in clinical practice, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are all peptides or proteins that may be rapidly deactivated at the focal injury site; their local effective concentration time following a single medication cannot meet the required time for spinal axons to regenerate and cross the glial scar. In this study, we produced polymer sustained-release microspheres based on the polylactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer; the microspheres at 300-μm diameter contained nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Six microspheres were longitudinally implanted into the sciatic nerve at the anastomosis site, serving as the experimental group; while the sciatic nerve in the control group was subjected to the end-to-end anastomosis using 10/0 suture thread. At 6 weeks after implantation, the lower limb activity, weight of triceps surae muscle, sciatic nerve conduction velocity and the maximum amplitude were obviously better in the experimental group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, more regenerating nerve fibers were observed and distributed in a dense and ordered manner with thicker myelin sheaths in the experimental group. More angiogenesis was also visible. Experimental findings indicate that polylactic-co-glycolic acid composite microspheres containing nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor can promote the restoration of sciatic nerve in rats after injury. PMID:26604912

  16. Different dose-dependent effects of ebselen in -sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ozyigit, Filiz; Kucuk, Aysegul; Akcer, Sezer; Tosun, Murat; Kocak, Fatma Emel; Kocak, Cengiz; Kocak, Ahmet; Metineren, Hasan; Genc, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Ebselen is an organoselenium compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of ebselen pretreatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (N = 7 in each group). Before sciatic nerve I/R was induced, ebselen was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg. After a 2 h ischemia and a 3 h reperfusion period, sciatic nerve tissues were excised. Tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were measured. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically. The 15 mg/kg dose of ebselen reduced sciatic nerve damage and apoptosis (P < 0.01), levels of MDA, NO, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) positive cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively), and increased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively) compared with the I/R group that did not receive ebselen. Conversely, the 30 mg/kg dose of ebselen increased sciatic nerve damage, apoptosis, iNOS positive cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.001) and MDA and NO levels (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and decreased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (P < 0.05) compared with the sham group. The results of this study suggest that ebselen may cause different effects depending on the dose employed. Ebselen may be protective against sciatic nerve I/R injury via antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities at a 15 mg/kg dose, conversely higher doses may cause detrimental effects. PMID:26614850

  17. Polyethylene Glycol-Fused Allografts Produce Rapid Behavioral Recovery After Ablation of Sciatic Nerve Segments

    PubMed Central

    Riley, D.C.; Bittner, G.D.; Mikesh, M.A.; Cardwell, N.L.; Pollins, A.C.; Ghergherehchi, C.L.; Sunkesula, S.R. Bhupanapadu; Ha, T.N.; Hall, B.T.D.; Poon, A.D.; Pyarali, M.; Boyer, R.B.; Mazal, A.T.; Munoz, N.; Trevino, R.C.; Schallert, T.; Thayer, W.P.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of neuronal functions by outgrowths regenerating at ~1mm/d from the proximal stumps of severed peripheral nerves takes many weeks or months, if it occurs at all, especially after ablation of nerve segments. Distal segments of severed axons typically degenerate in 1–3 days. The purpose of this study was to show that Wallerian degeneration could be prevented or retarded and lost behavioral function restored following ablation of 0.5 – 1 cm segments of rat sciatic nerves in host animals. This is achieved using 0.8 – 1.1cm microsutured donor allografts treated with bioengineered solutions varying in ionic and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentrations (modified PEG-fusion procedure), being careful not to stretch any portion of donor or host sciatic nerves. Our data show that PEG-fusion permanently restores axonal continuity within minutes as initially assessed by action potential conduction and intracellular diffusion of dye. Behavioral functions mediated by the sciatic nerve are largely restored within 2 – 4 wk as measured by the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI). Increased restoration of sciatic behavioral functions after ablating 0.5 – 1 cm segments is associated with greater numbers of viable myelinated axons within, and distal to, PEG-fused allografts. Many such viable myelinated axons are almost-certainly spared from Wallerian degeneration by PEG-fusion. PEG-fusion of donor allografts may produce a paradigm-shift in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:25425242

  18. Polyethylene glycol-fused allografts produce rapid behavioral recovery after ablation of sciatic nerve segments.

    PubMed

    Riley, D C; Bittner, G D; Mikesh, M; Cardwell, N L; Pollins, A C; Ghergherehchi, C L; Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, S R; Ha, T N; Hall, B T D; Poon, A D; Pyarali, M; Boyer, R B; Mazal, A T; Munoz, N; Trevino, R C; Schallert, T; Thayer, W P

    2015-04-01

    Restoration of neuronal functions by outgrowths regenerating at ∼1 mm/day from the proximal stumps of severed peripheral nerves takes many weeks or months, if it occurs at all, especially after ablation of nerve segments. Distal segments of severed axons typically degenerate in 1-3 days. This study shows that Wallerian degeneration can be prevented or retarded, and lost behavioral function can be restored, following ablation of 0.5-1-cm segments of rat sciatic nerves in host animals. This is achieved by using 0.8-1.1-cm microsutured donor allografts treated with bioengineered solutions varying in ionic and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentrations (modified PEG-fusion procedure), being careful not to stretch any portion of donor or host sciatic nerves. The data show that PEG fusion permanently restores axonal continuity within minutes, as initially assessed by action potential conduction and intracellular diffusion of dye. Behavioral functions mediated by the sciatic nerve are largely restored within 2-4 weeks, as measured by the sciatic functional index. Increased restoration of sciatic behavioral functions after ablating 0.5-1-cm segments is associated with greater numbers of viable myelinated axons within and distal to PEG-fused allografts. Many such viable myelinated axons are almost certainly spared from Wallerian degeneration by PEG fusion. PEG fusion of donor allografts may produce a paradigm shift in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:25425242

  19. Delayed Presentation of Sciatic Nerve Injury after Total Hip Arthroplasty: Neurosurgical Considerations, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linda W.; Veeravagu, Anand; Azad, Tej D.; Harraher, Ciara; Ratliff, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background  Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an established treatment for end-stage arthritis, congenital deformity, and trauma with good long-term clinical and functional outcomes. Delayed sciatic nerve injury is a rare complication after THA that requires prompt diagnosis and management. Methods  We present a case of sciatic nerve motor and sensory deficit in a 52-year-old patient 2 years after index left THA. Electromyography (EMG) results and imaging with radiographs and CT of the affected hip demonstrated an aberrant acetabular cup screw in the posterior-inferior quadrant adjacent to the sciatic nerve. Case Description  The patient underwent surgical exploration that revealed injury to the peroneal division of the sciatic nerve due to direct injury from screw impingement. A literature review identified 11 patients with late-onset neuropathy after THA. Ten patients underwent surgical exploration and pain often resolved after surgery with 56% of patients recovering sensory function and 25% experiencing full recovery of motor function. Conclusions  Delayed neuropathy of the sciatic nerve is a rare complication after THA that is most often due to hardware irritation, component failure, or wear-related pseudotumor formation. Operative intervention is often pursued to explore and directly visualize the nerve with limited results in the literature showing modest relief of pain and sensory symptoms and poor restoration of motor function. PMID:27602309

  20. Neuroprotective effects of ultrasound-guided nerve growth factor injections after sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Fei; Wang, Yi-Ru; Huo, Hui-Ping; Wang, Yue-Xiang; Tang, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in promoting neuroregeneration after peripheral nerve injury. However, its effects are limited by its short half-life; it is therefore important to identify an effective mode of administration. High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) is increasingly used in the clinic for high-resolution visualization of tissues, and has been proposed as a method for identifying and evaluating peripheral nerve damage after injury. In addition, HFU is widely used for guiding needle placement when administering drugs to a specific site. We hypothesized that HFU guiding would optimize the neuroprotective effects of NGF on sciatic nerve injury in the rabbit. We performed behavioral, ultrasound, electrophysiological, histological, and immunohistochemical evaluation of HFU-guided NGF injections administered immediately after injury, or 14 days later, and compared this mode of administration with intramuscular NGF injections. Across all assessments, HFU-guided NGF injections gave consistently better outcomes than intramuscular NGF injections administered immediately or 14 days after injury, with immediate treatment also yielding better structural and functional results than when the treatment was delayed by 14 days. Our findings indicate that NGF should be administered as early as possible after peripheral nerve injury, and highlight the striking neuroprotective effects of HFU-guided NGF injections on peripheral nerve injury compared with intramuscular administration. PMID:26807123

  1. Effects of motor and sensory nerve transplants on amount and specificity of sciatic nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lago, Natalia; Rodríguez, Francisco J; Guzmán, Mónica S; Jaramillo, Jéssica; Navarro, Xavier

    2007-09-01

    Nerve regeneration after complete transection does not allow for adequate functional recovery mainly because of lack of selectivity of target reinnervation. We assessed if transplanting a nerve segment from either motor or sensory origin may improve specifically the accuracy of sensory and motor reinnervation. For this purpose, the rat sciatic nerve was transected and repaired with a silicone guide containing a predegenerated segment of ventral root (VR) or dorsal root (DR), compared to a silicone guide filled with saline. Nerve regeneration and reinnervation was assessed during 3 months by electrophysiologic and functional tests, and by nerve morphology and immunohistochemistry against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) for labeling motor axons. Functional tests showed that reinnervation was successful in all the rats. However, the two groups with a root allotransplant reached higher degrees of reinnervation in comparison with the control group. Group VR showed the highest reinnervation of muscle targets, whereas Group DR had higher levels of sensory reinnervation than VR and saline groups. The total number of regenerated myelinated fibers was similar in the three groups, but the number of ChAT+ fibers was slightly lower in the VR group in comparison with DR and saline groups. These results indicate that a predegenerated root nerve allotransplant enhances axonal regeneration, leading to faster and higher levels of functional recovery. Although there is not clear preferential reinnervation, regeneration of motor axons is promoted at early times by a motor graft, whereas reinnervation of sensory pathways is increased by a sensory graft. PMID:17455293

  2. Neuroprotective effects of ultrasound-guided nerve growth factor injections after sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-fei; Wang, Yi-ru; Huo, Hui-ping; Wang, Yue-xiang; Tang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in promoting neuroregeneration after peripheral nerve injury. However, its effects are limited by its short half-life; it is therefore important to identify an effective mode of administration. High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) is increasingly used in the clinic for high-resolution visualization of tissues, and has been proposed as a method for identifying and evaluating peripheral nerve damage after injury. In addition, HFU is widely used for guiding needle placement when administering drugs to a specific site. We hypothesized that HFU guiding would optimize the neuroprotective effects of NGF on sciatic nerve injury in the rabbit. We performed behavioral, ultrasound, electrophysiological, histological, and immunohistochemical evaluation of HFU-guided NGF injections administered immediately after injury, or 14 days later, and compared this mode of administration with intramuscular NGF injections. Across all assessments, HFU-guided NGF injections gave consistently better outcomes than intramuscular NGF injections administered immediately or 14 days after injury, with immediate treatment also yielding better structural and functional results than when the treatment was delayed by 14 days. Our findings indicate that NGF should be administered as early as possible after peripheral nerve injury, and highlight the striking neuroprotective effects of HFU-guided NGF injections on peripheral nerve injury compared with intramuscular administration. PMID:26807123

  3. Normative sciatic nerve excursion during a modified straight leg raise test.

    PubMed

    Ridehalgh, Colette; Moore, Ann; Hough, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Minimal data exists on how much sciatic nerve motion occurs during straight leg raise (SLR). The purpose of this study was to report preliminary normative ranges of sciatic nerve excursion using real time ultrasound during a modified SLR. The sciatic nerve was scanned in the posterior thigh in sixteen asymptomatic participants (age range 19-68 years). Nerve excursion was measured in transverse and longitudinal planes during knee extension from 90° to 0°, with the hip flexed to 30° and 60°. The ultrasound data was analysed off-line using cross correlation software. Results demonstrated that most nerves moved superficially during knee extension, a large proportion (10/16) moved laterally. Longitudinal excursion ranged from 6.4 to 14.7 mm (mean (SD) 9.92 mm (2.2)) in 30° hip flexion, and 5.1-20.2 mm (mean (SD) 12.4 mm (4.4)) in 60° hip flexion. Mean nerve excursion was significantly greater in 60° hip flexion (p = 0.02). There is a large between-subject variation in sciatic nerve excursion during this modified SLR in asymptomatic subjects. Mean nerve excursion was found to be higher with the hip pre-positioned in greater flexion, suggesting that pre-loading may not consistently reduce excursion. PMID:24034944

  4. An alternative video footprint analysis to assess functional loss following injury to the rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Bervar, M

    2002-01-01

    The rat sciatic nerve is a well-established animal model for the study of recovery from peripheral nerve injuries. Footprint analysis is the most widely used non-invasive method of measuring functional recovery after injury in this model. We describe a new, alternative video analysis of standing (or static footprint video analysis) to assess functional loss following injury to the rat sciatic nerve, while the animal is standing or at periodic rest on a flat transparent surface. We found that this alternative video analysis is technically easier to perform than the corresponding footprint video analysis while walking, but still preserves all advantages of video versus conventional ink track method: i.e. few non-measurable footprints, better repeatability, high accuracy and more precise quantification of the degree of functional loss after sciatic nerve injury in the rat. PMID:12514995

  5. Feasibility Study on MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Sciatic Nerve in a Swine Model: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, Elena A.; Gutta, Narendra Babu; Monette, Sebastien; Gulati, Amitabh Loh, Jeffrey; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Ezell, Paula C.; Erinjeri, Joseph P. Solomon, Stephen B. Maybody, Majid

    2015-08-15

    IntroductionSpastic patients often seek neurolysis, the permanent destruction of the sciatic nerve, for better pain management. MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) may serve as a noninvasive alternative to the prevailing, more intrusive techniques. This in vivo acute study is aimed at performing sciatic nerve neurolysis using a clinical MRgHIFU system.MethodsThe HIFU ablation of sciatic nerves was performed in swine (n = 5) using a HIFU system integrated with a 3 T MRI scanner. Acute lesions were confirmed using T1-weighted contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI and histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The animals were euthanized immediately following post-ablation imaging.ResultsReddening and mild thickening of the nerve and pallor of the adjacent muscle were seen in all animals. The HIFU-treated sections of the nerves displayed nuclear pyknosis of Schwann cells, vascular hyperemia, perineural edema, hyalinization of the collagenous stroma of the nerve, myelin sheet swelling, and loss of axons. Ablations were visible on CE MRI. Non-perfused volume of the lesions (5.8–64.6 cc) linearly correlated with estimated lethal thermal dose volume (4.7–34.2 cc). Skin burn adjacent to the largest ablated zone was observed in the first animal. Bilateral treatment time ranged from 55 to 138 min, and preparation time required 2 h on average.ConclusionThe acute pilot study in swine demonstrated the feasibility of a noninvasive neurolysis of the sciatic nerve using a clinical MRgHIFU system. Results revealed that acute HIFU nerve lesions were detectable on CE MRI, gross pathology, and histology.

  6. Acrylamide administration alters protein phosphorylation and phospholipid metabolism in rat sciatic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Berti-Mattera, L.N.; Eichberg, J.; Schrama, L.; LoPachin, R.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The effects of ACR on protein phosphorylation and phospholipid metabolism were assessed in rat sciatic nerve. After 5 days of ACR administration (50 mg/kg/day) an increase in the incorporation of 32P into phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, and phosphatidylcholine was detected in proximal sciatic nerve segments. In contrast, no changes in phospholipid metabolism were observed in distal segments. After 9 days of ACR treatment when neurotoxicological symptoms were clearly apparent, a generalized increase in radiolabel uptake into phospholipids was noted exclusively in proximal nerve regions. ACR-induced increases in phospholipid metabolism were toxicologically specific since comparable administration of MBA (108 mg/kg/day X 5 or 9 days) produced only minor changes. ACR intoxication was also associated with a rise in sciatic nerve protein phosphorylation. After 9 days of ACR treatment, phosphorylation of beta-tubulin, P0, and several unidentified proteins (38 and 180 kDa) was increased in distal segments. In contrast, chronic administration of MBA caused increases in phosphorylation of beta-tubulin and the major myelin proteins of proximal nerve segments. In cell free homogenates prepared from sciatic nerves of treated and control rats, MBA caused an increase in phosphorylation of major myelin proteins similar to its effect in intact proximal nerve segments. The most striking effect observed in nerve homogenates of ACR-treated rats was a marked decrease in phosphorylation of an 80-kDa protein. Addition of ACR (1 mM) to homogenates of normal nerve had no effect on protein phosphorylation. Our results indicate that changes in the phosphorylation of phospholipids and proteins in sciatic nerve might be a component of the neurotoxic mechanism of ACR.

  7. Alpha-lipoic acid loaded in chitosan conduit enhances sciatic nerve regeneration in rat

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Saeed; Heshmatian, Behnam; Amini, Keyvan; Raisi, Abbas; Azimzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): To investigate the effect of topical administration of alpha-lipoic acid into chitosan conduit on peripheral nerve regeneration using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Materials and Methods: Forty five Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups randomly. A 10-mm gap of sciatic nerve was bridged with a chitosan conduit following surgical preparation and anesthesia. In treatment group, the conduit was filled with 30 µl alpha-lipoic acid (10 mg/kg/bw).It was filled with 30 µl phosphate buffered saline solution in control group. In Sham group sciatic nerve was just exposed. Results: The recovery of nerve function was faster in treatment group than in control, at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery (P-value<0.05). Conduction velocity was better in treatment group than in control group at 4 and 12 weeks (P-value<0.05). Recovery index was higher in treatment group than the control group, 8 weeks after surgery (P-value <0.05). Greater nerve fiber diameter, axon diameter, and myelin sheath thickness were observed in treatment group compared to control group at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery (P-value<0.05). The immunoreactivity of regenerated axons and myelin sheath in treatment group were far more similar to sham group. Conclusion: Alpha-lipoic acid when loaded in a chitosan conduit could improve transected sciatic nerve regeneration in rat. PMID:25945234

  8. A new approach to assess function after sciatic nerve lesion in the mouse - adaptation of the sciatic static index.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; Gomes, Joyce Rios de Souza; Oliveira, Júlia Teixeria; Santos, Soraia Moreira Garzedim; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2007-04-15

    Among the numerous ways of assessing regeneration after peripheral nerve lesions, the analysis of gait is one of the most important, because it shows the recovery of function, which is the ultimate goal of the repair machinery. The sciatic function index was introduced as a method to assess reinnervation after an experimental sciatic nerve lesion, and was adapted to the mouse model. The sciatic static index (SSI), is more simple and practical to perform, and is not so influenced by gait's velocity, but this method has not yet been adapted to the mouse model of sciatic lesion. We used 63 male Swiss mice (Mus musculus) to develop a formula to the sciatic static index in mice (SSIm). The animals were divided on three groups (control, transection and crush). They were evaluated at the preoperative and 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days postoperative by the ink track method (SFI), and by the acquisition of photographs of the plantar aspects of the injured and uninjured hind paws. The parameters evaluated were the 1-5 toe spread (TS), the 2-4 toe spread (ITS) and the distance between the tip of the third toe and the most posterior aspect of the paw (PL), on both methods. After verifying the temporal pattern of function, correlation and reproducibility of the measurements, we performed a multiple regression analysis using SFI values as dependent variable, and the TS, ITS and PL measured with the photo method as independent variables, and found the formula of the SSI for mice (SSIm). The three groups (control, transection and crush) had a characteristic pattern of dysfunction. The parameters measured in the ink and photo method had variable but significant correlations between them (P<0.000), but photo method of measurement showed a better reproducibility. The correlation between SFI and SSIm showed a high correlation coefficient (r=0.892, P<0.000), and demonstrates that SSIm can be used as an alternative method to assess the functional status relative of sciatic

  9. Decompression of the Sciatic Nerve Entrapment Caused by Post-Inflammatory Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog-ryeong; Jeun, Sin Soo; Lee, Sang-won

    2015-01-01

    A rare case of chronic pain of entrapment neuropathy of the sciatic nerve successfully relieved by surgical decompression is presented. A 71-year-old male suffered a chronic right buttock pain of duration of 7 years which radiating to the right distal leg and foot. His pain developed gradually over one year after underwenting drainage for the gluteal abscess seven years ago. A cramping buttock and intermittently radiating pain to his right foot on sitting, walking, and voiding did not respond to conventional treatment. An MRI suggested a post-inflammatory adhesion encroaching the proximal course of the sciatic nerve beneath the piriformis as it emerges from the sciatic notch. Upon exploration of the sciatic nerve, a fibrotic tendinous scar beneath the piriformis was found and released proximally to the sciatic notch. His chronic intractable pain was completely relieved within days after the decompression. However, thigh weakness and hypesthesia of the foot did not improve. This case suggest a need for of more prompt investigation and decompression of the chronic sciatic entrapment neuropathy which does not improve clinically or electrically over several months. PMID:25733994

  10. Anthropometric Study of the Piriformis Muscle and Sciatic Nerve: A Morphological Analysis in a Polish Population

    PubMed Central

    Haładaj, Robert; Pingot, Mariusz; Polguj, Michał; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Topol, Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine relationships between piriformis muscle (PM) and sciatic nerve (SN) with reference to sex and anatomical variations. Material/Methods Deep dissection of the gluteal region was performed on 30 randomized, formalin-fixed human lower limbs of adults of both sexes of the Polish population. Anthropometric measurements were taken and then statistically analyzed. Results The conducted research revealed that, apart from the typical structure of the piriformis muscle, the most common variation was division of the piriformis muscle into two heads, with the common peroneal nerve running between them (20%). The group with anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course displayed greater diversity of morphometric measurement results. There was a statistically significant correlation between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter in the male specimens. On the other hand, in the female specimens, a statistically significant correlation was observed between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the ischial tuberosity. The shortest distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter measured at the level of the inferior edge of the piriformis was 21 mm, while the shortest distance to the ischial tuberosity was 63 mm. Such correlations should be taken into account during invasive medical procedures performed in the gluteal region. Conclusions It is possible to distinguish several anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course within the deep gluteal region. The statistically significant correlations between some anthropometric measurements were only present within particular groups of male and female limbs. PMID:26629744

  11. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Liang; Su, Jingjing; Jing, Lingyan; Huang, Ying; Di, Yu; Peng, Lichao; Liu, Jianren

    2014-01-01

    Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI) plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR) elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size) even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy. PMID:24778886

  12. The adductor part of the adductor magnus is innervated by both obturator and sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Megumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ito, Hajime; Fujimiya, Mineko; Uchiyama, Eiichi

    2014-07-01

    The hip adductor group, innervated predominantly by the obturator nerve, occupies a large volume of the lower limb. However, case reports of patients with obturator nerve palsy or denervation have described no more than minimal gait disturbance. Those facts are surprising, given the architectural characteristics of the hip adductors. Our aim was to investigate which regions of the adductor magnus are innervated by the obturator nerve and by which sciatic nerve and to consider the clinical implications. Twenty-one lower limbs were examined from 21 formalin-fixed cadavers, 18 males and 3 females. The adductor magnus was dissected and was divided into four parts (AM1-AM4) based on the locations of the perforating arteries and the adductor hiatus. AM1 was supplied solely by the obturator nerve. AM2, AM3, and AM4 received innervation from both the posterior branch of the obturator nerve and the tibial nerve portion of the sciatic nerve in 2 (9.5%), 20 (95.2%), and 6 (28.6%) of the cadavers, respectively. The double innervation in more than 90% of the AM3s is especially noteworthy. Generally, AM1-AM3 corresponds to the adductor part, traditionally characterized as innervated by the obturator nerve, and AM4 corresponds to the hamstrings part, innervated by the sciatic nerve. Here, we showed that the sciatic nerve supplies not only the hamstrings part but also the adductor part. These two nerves spread more widely than has generally been believed, which could have practical implications for the assessment and treatment of motor disability. PMID:23813615

  13. Sciatic Nerve Injection Palsy in Children, Electrophysiologic Pattern and Outcome: A Case Series Study.

    PubMed

    Toopchizadeh, Vahideh; Barzegar, Mohammad; Habibzadeh, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Sciatic nerve injury is one of the frequent mononeuropathies in children that occurs due to different causes such as nerve compression, trauma and stretch during surgery. Gluteal injection is an uncommon cause of sciatic injury in developed countries. Poor techniques and frequent injections are the common cause of injection palsy. Proneal division of the sciatic nerve is more prone to injury due to anatomic and structural characteristics. The diagnosis is based on electrophysiological studies and the recovery rate is poor. In this study, in a period of 2 years between 2012 and 2013, we report seven children under 6 years old (three females and four males) with abnormal gait and foot pain following gluteal injection in pediatric electrodiagnostic center. Five children had proneal component and two with tibial component injuries. Five children were followed for one year and only one showed good recovery. PMID:26401156

  14. Far-Infrared Therapy Promotes Nerve Repair following End-to-End Neurorrhaphy in Rat Models of Sciatic Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tai-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Chin; Sha, Ya-Na; Chou, Jiun-Rou

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a rat model of sciatic nerve injury to investigate the effects of postoperative low-power far-infrared (FIR) radiation therapy on nerve repair following end-to-end neurorrhaphy. The rat models were divided into the following 3 groups: (1) nerve injury without FIR biostimulation (NI/sham group); (2) nerve injury with FIR biostimulation (NI/FIR group); and (3) noninjured controls (normal group). Walking-track analysis results showed that the NI/FIR group exhibited significantly higher sciatic functional indices at 8 weeks after surgery (P < 0.05) compared with the NI/sham group. The decreased expression of CD4 and CD8 in the NI/FIR group indicated that FIR irradiation modulated the inflammatory process during recovery. Compared with the NI/sham group, the NI/FIR group exhibited a significant reduction in muscle atrophy (P < 0.05). Furthermore, histomorphometric assessment indicated that the nerves regenerated more rapidly in the NI/FIR group than in the NI/sham group; furthermore, the NI/FIR group regenerated neural tissue over a larger area, as well as nerve fibers of greater diameter and with thicker myelin sheaths. Functional recovery, inflammatory response, muscular reinnervation, and histomorphometric assessment all indicated that FIR radiation therapy can accelerate nerve repair following end-to-end neurorrhaphy of the sciatic nerve. PMID:25722734

  15. Restorative effect and mechanism of mecobalamin on sciatic nerve crush injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lin; Qian, Minquan; Shi, Keqin; Chen, Gang; Gu, Yanglin; Du, Wei; Zhu, Guoxing

    2014-11-15

    Mecobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 containing a central metal element (cobalt), is one of the most important mediators of nervous system function. In the clinic, it is often used to accelerate recovery of peripheral nerves, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we performed sciatic nerve crush injury in mice, followed by daily intraperitoneal administration of mecobalamin (65 μg/kg or 130 μg/kg) or saline (negative control). Walking track analysis, histomorphological examination, and quantitative real-time PCR showed that mecobalamin significantly improved functional recovery of the sciatic nerve, thickened the myelin sheath in myelinated nerve fibers, and increased the cross-sectional area of target muscle cells. Furthermore, mecobalamin upregulated mRNA expression of growth associated protein 43 in nerve tissue ipsilateral to the injury, and of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor, brain-derived nerve growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor) in the L4-6 dorsal root ganglia. Our findings indicate that the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of mecobalamin after sciatic nerve injury involves the upregulation of multiple neurotrophic factor genes. PMID:25598780

  16. Restorative effect and mechanism of mecobalamin on sciatic nerve crush injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lin; Qian, Minquan; Shi, Keqin; Chen, Gang; Gu, Yanglin; Du, Wei; Zhu, Guoxing

    2014-01-01

    Mecobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 containing a central metal element (cobalt), is one of the most important mediators of nervous system function. In the clinic, it is often used to accelerate recovery of peripheral nerves, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we performed sciatic nerve crush injury in mice, followed by daily intraperitoneal administration of mecobalamin (65 μg/kg or 130 μg/kg) or saline (negative control). Walking track analysis, histomorphological examination, and quantitative real-time PCR showed that mecobalamin significantly improved functional recovery of the sciatic nerve, thickened the myelin sheath in myelinated nerve fibers, and increased the cross-sectional area of target muscle cells. Furthermore, mecobalamin upregulated mRNA expression of growth associated protein 43 in nerve tissue ipsilateral to the injury, and of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor, brain-derived nerve growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor) in the L4–6 dorsal root ganglia. Our findings indicate that the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of mecobalamin after sciatic nerve injury involves the upregulation of multiple neurotrophic factor genes. PMID:25598780

  17. Periodical assessment of electrophysiological recovery following sciatic nerve crush via surface stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxian; Wang, Hongkui; Mi, Daguo; Gu, Xiaosong; Hu, Wen

    2015-03-01

    When evaluating peripheral nerve regeneration, electrophysiological test is recognized as an optimal assessment, which is a quantitative, objective, and direct evidence reflecting function as compared to morphological examinations. In murine models of nerve regeneration, however, it remains a challenge to record compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) periodically and non-invasively, i.e., with no insult to the nerve. In the present study, we recorded CMAPs in the gastrocnemius muscle weekly until 8 weeks after sciatic nerve crush by stimulating the nerve in a surface manner, and the electric stimuli were delivered to the skin between ischial tuberosity and major trochanter using bipolar hook electrodes. The CMAPs were reproducibly recorded in this way from 3 weeks post-injury, and both amplitude and latency were well correlated to post-operative time. Furthermore, a strong positive correlation was observed between CMAP amplitude and sciatic function index (SFI), a well-recognized assessment for sciatic nerve function. CMAP recordings by direct nerve stimulation at 8 weeks post-injury showed no significant difference in amplitude compared to surface stimulation, but the peak latency was relatively longer than the latter. This study indicated that non-invasive surface stimulation-based periodical recording of CMAPs was a practical electrophysiological approach to monitor the progression of peripheral nerve regeneration in murine models. PMID:25394740

  18. Expression and regulation of redoxins at nociceptive signaling sites after sciatic nerve injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Valek, Lucie; Kanngießer, Maike; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2015-01-01

    Injury of the sciatic nerve results in regulations of pro- and anti-oxidative enzymes at sites of nociceptive signaling including the injured nerve, dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), dorsal horn of the spinal cord, thalamus and somatosensory cortex (Valek et al., 2015) [1]. The present DiB paper shows immunohistochemistry of redoxins including peroxiredoxins (Prdx1–6), glutaredoxins (Glrx1, 2, 3, 5), thioredoxins (Txn1, 2) and thioredoxin reductases (Txnrd1, 2) in the DRGs, spinal cord and sciatic nerve and thalamus in naïve mice and 7 days after Spared sciatic Nerve Injury (SNI) in control mice (Hif1α-flfl) and in mice with a specific deletion of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (SNS-HIF1α−/−) in DRG neurons. The sciatic nerves were immunostained for the respective redoxins and counterstained with hematoxylin. The redoxin immunoreactivity was quantified with ImageJ. For the DRGs and spinal cord the data show the quantitative assessment of the intensity of redoxin immunoreactivity transformed to rainbow pseudocolors. In addition, some redoxin examples of the ipsi and contralateral dorsal and ventral horns of the lumbar spinal cord and some redoxin examples of the thalamus are presented. PMID:26693520

  19. Recovery from rat sciatic nerve injury in vivo through the use of differentiated MDSCs in vitro

    PubMed Central

    ZENG, XIANGYI; ZHANG, LI; SUN, LIANG; ZHANG, DAI; ZHAO, HENGWU; JIA, JUN; WANG, WEI

    2013-01-01

    In this study, muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) whose differentiation into neuron-like cells was induced by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and Salvia (Salvia miltiorrhiza) in vitro were used to repair rat sciatic nerve injuries in vivo, in order to investigate their multifunctional characteristics as pluripotent stem cells. The sciatic nerve in the right side of the lower limb was exposed under the anesthetized condition of 10% chloral hydrate (0.3 ml/100 g) injection into the abdominal cavity. The tissue which was 0.5 cm above the sciatic nerve bifurcation was broken using a hemostat. After induction, MDSCs were transferred in sodium hyaluronate gel and were placed into the damaged area. An untreated control group was also included in this study. The surgical area was sutured after washing with gentamycin sulfate solution. Sciatic nerve function index (SFI) was calculated, electrophysiological tests were performed and the recovery rate of gastrocnemius muscle wet weight was also calculated. Four weeks post-surgery, the SFI and the recovery rate of gastrocnemius muscle wet weight in the MDSC group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). MDSCs whose differentiation is induced by CNTF and Salvia play an active role in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:23251266

  20. Dynamic observation of biomechanic properties of sciatic nerve at the suture site in rats following repairing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Baoguo; Zhang, Peixun; Yan, Jiazhi; Zhang, Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    To observe the biomechanic properties of the sciatic nerve at the suture site following repairing in rats. The right sciatic nerves of 40 white Sprague-Dawley 300~350 gm rats were exposed, cut and then repaired with 10-0 nylon sutures with four stitches, laced in the epineurium 0, 1, 3, and 6 weeks after operation, the tensile strength of the sciatic nerves were measured, and the data analyzed statistically. The load elongation curves for both the normal unoperated and operated nerves had similar shape. There were significant differences between the tensile strength of the 0th and the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found among the 1st, 3rd, and 6th weeks. The tensile strength of the injured nerves recovered 48% of the normal nerve in the 1st week and 54% in 6 weeks after repairing. It may be concluded that the injured nerves can acquire mostly tensile strength stability in 1 week quickly and can maintain this relative tensile strength stability in 6 weeks. PMID:18293160

  1. CatWalk gait analysis in assessment of functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, A; Deumens, R; Scheffel, J; O'Dey, D M; Weis, J; Joosten, E A; Führmann, T; Brook, G A; Pallua, N

    2008-08-15

    Following peripheral nerve injury repair, improved behavioural outcome may be the most important evidence of functionality of axon regeneration after any repair strategy. A range of behavioural testing paradigms have been developed for peripheral nerve injury research. Complete injury of the adult rat sciatic nerve is frequently used in combination with walking track analysis. Despite its wide-spread use, these walking track analyses are unsuitable for the simultaneous assessment of both dynamic and static gait parameters. Conversely, a novel automated gait analysis system, i.e. CatWalk can simultaneously measure dynamic as well as static gait parameters and, importantly, it's easy to control for the speed of locomotion which can strongly affect gait parameters. In a previous study, CatWalk was already successfully used to examine deficits in both dynamic and static gait parameters using the sciatic nerve lesion model with a 1cm gap characterized by absence of recovery [Deumens R, Jaken RJ, Marcus MA, Joosten EA. The CatWalk gait analysis in assessment of both dynamic and static gait changes after adult rat sciatic nerve resection. J Neurosci Methods 2007;164:120-30]. Using the sciatic nerve crush injury model (validated with the static sciatic index) and a follow-up period of 12 weeks, we now show that CatWalk can also measure behavioural recovery. In particular dynamic gait parameters, coordination measures, and the intensity of paw prints are of interest in detecting recovery as far as these parameters completely return to pre-operative values after crush injury. We conclude that CatWalk can be used as a complementary approach to other behavioural testing paradigms to assess clinically relevant behavioural benefits, with a main advantage that CatWalk demonstrates both static and dynamic gait parameters at the same time. PMID:18577402

  2. Nanoparticles carrying neurotrophin-3-modified Schwann cells promote repair of sciatic nerve defects

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Haibin; Zhao, Hongxing; Zhao, Yilei; Jia, Jingling; Yang, Libin; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Yang; Dong, Yuzhen

    2013-01-01

    Schwann cells and neurotrophin-3 play an important role in neural regeneration, but the secretion of neurotrophin-3 from Schwann cells is limited, and exogenous neurotrophin-3 is inactived easily in vivo. In this study, we have transfected neurotrophin-3 into Schwann cells cultured in vitro using nanoparticle liposomes. Results showed that neurotrophin-3 was successfully transfected into Schwann cells, where it was expressed effectively and steadily. A composite of Schwann cells transfected with neurotrophin-3 and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) biodegradable conduits was transplanted into rats to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects. Transplantation of the composite scaffold could restore the myoelectricity and wave amplitude of the sciatic nerve by electrophysiological examination, promote nerve axonal and myelin regeneration, and delay apoptosis of spinal motor neurons. Experimental findings indicate that neurotrophin-3 transfected Schwann cells combined with bridge grafting can promote neural regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injury. PMID:25206420

  3. Extracting structural features of rat sciatic nerve using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. Shahidul; Oliveira, Michael C.; Wang, Yan; Henry, Francis P.; Randolph, Mark A.; Park, B. Hyle; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2012-05-01

    We present spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (SD PS-OCT) imaging of peripheral nerves. Structural and polarization-sensitive OCT imaging of uninjured rat sciatic nerves was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. OCT and its functional extension, PS-OCT, were used to image sciatic nerve structure with clear delineation of the nerve boundaries to muscle and adipose tissues. A long-known optical effect, bands of Fontana, was also observed. Postprocessing analysis of these images provided significant quantitative information, such as epineurium thickness, estimates of extinction coefficient and birefringence of nerve and muscle tissue, frequency of bands of Fontana at different stretch levels of nerve, and change in average birefringence of nerve under stretched condition. We demonstrate that PS-OCT combined with regular-intensity OCT (compared with OCT alone) allows for a clearer determination of the inner and outer boundaries of the epineurium and distinction of nerve and muscle based on their birefringence pattern. PS-OCT measurements on normal nerves show that the technique is promising for studies on peripheral nerve injury.

  4. DETERMINATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN RAT SERUM AND SCIATIC NERVE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTRON-CAPTURE DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modified method for the derivatization and analysis of acrylamide as 2-bromopropenamide by gas chromatography/electron capture detection was validated in serum and sciatic nerve from rats. he method was accurate and precise over the concentration range of 2240 to 74700 ppm (w/v...

  5. Atorvastatin is beneficial for muscle reinnervation after complete sciatic nerve section in rats.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Frédéric-Charles; Rouleau, Dominique M; Hébert-Davies, Jonah; Beaumont, Pierre H; Beaumont, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Nerve regeneration and functional recovery are often incomplete after peripheral neurotmetic lesion. Atorvastatin has been shown to be neuroprotective after transient ischaemia or traumatic injury. The aim of this study was to establish if systemic administration of Atorvastatin could improve functional muscle reinnervation after complete sciatic nerve section. Sixteen female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. After a complete right sciatic nerve section, end-to-end microsuture repair was performed and fibrin glue was added. Three groups were studied: (1) sutures (S) + fibrin glue (F) only + saline administration for 14 days; (2) S+F+Atorvastatin administration for 14 days; and (3) uninjured nerve. Five months later, the sciatic nerve and the gastrocnemius muscle were isolated to perform in vivo electrophysiological measurements. Better kinematics was observed in atorvastatin-treated rats 5 months after its administration. Indeed, a larger excursion of the hip-ankle-toe angle during walking was observed. This effect was associated with the preservation of electromyographic activity (2.91 mV vs 0.77 mV) and maximal muscle force (85.1 g vs 28.6 g) on stimulation of the proximal nerve section. Five months after a neurotmetic lesion, the recovery is incomplete when using suture and fibrin glue only. Furthermore, the systemic administration of Atorvastatin for 14 days after lesion was beneficial in improving locomotion capability associated with the re-establishment of muscle strength and EMG activity. PMID:23848426

  6. Androgen induced acceleration of functional recovery after rat sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Brown, Todd J.; Khan, Talat; Jones, Kathryn J.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Testosterone (T) treatment accelerates recovery from facial paralysis after facial nerve crush in hamsters. In this study, we extended those studies to another injury model and asked the following question: Will T treatment accelerate recovery from lower limb paralysis following sciatic nerve crush in the rat? METHODS: Castrated adult male rats received a right side sciatic nerve crush at the level of the sciatic notch, with the left side serving as control. Half the animals received a subcutaneous implant of a propionated form of T (TP), the others were sham-implanted. Weekly testing using the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI), a quantitative measure of locomotion, was done for 7 weeks postoperative (wpo). RESULTS: Between 3 and 5 weeks post-op, the average SFI score of the TP-treated group was higher than controls. This difference was significant at 4 wpo, indicating an accelerated degree of functional recovery. At these timepoints, the differences were attributable to the footprint or paw length and associated with calf muscle reinnervation rather than the toespreading component associated with intrinsic foot muscle rein-nervation. Beyond 5 wpo, there were no differences in the SFI scores. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that, as with facial nerve regeneration in the hamster, testosterone accelerates functional recovery from hind limb paralysis following sciatic nerve injury in the rat. While the responses of spinal motoneurons to injury can differ from those of cranial motoneurons, in this case it appears that they share a similar response to the trophic actions of androgen. This is important in the context of designing therapeutic strategies for dealing with direct trauma to motoneurons resulting from both peripheral and central nervous system trauma, such as spinal cord injury. PMID:12671219

  7. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Vein Conduit on Sciatic Nerve Repair in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Foroutan, Kamal; Khodarahmi, Ali; Alavi, Hootan; Pedram, Sepehr; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamad Reza; Bordbar, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peripheral nerve repair with sufficient functional recovery is an important issue in reconstructive surgery. Stem cells have attracted extensive research interest in recent years. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the vein conduit technique, with and without the addition of mesenchymal stem cells in gap-less nerve injury repair in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three groups: In the first group, nerve repair was performed with simple neurorrhaphy (control group), in the second group, nerve repair was done with vein conduit over site (vein conduit group) and in the third group, bone marrow stem cells were instilled into the vein conduit (stem cell group) after nerve repair with vein conduit over site. Six weeks after the intervention, the sciatic function index, electrophysiological study and histological examination were performed. Results: All animals tolerated the surgical procedures and survived well. The sciatic function index and latency were significantly improved in the vein conduit (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively) and stem cell group (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) compared with the control group. No significant difference was observed in sciatic function and latency between the vein conduit and stem-cell groups. Moreover, histological analysis showed no significant difference in regenerative density between these two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the meticulous microsurgical nerve repair, which was performed using the vein tubulization induced significantly better sciatic nerve regeneration. However, the addition of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell to vein conduit failed to promote any significant changes in regeneration outcome. PMID:25825699

  8. Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy and blood supply in the gluteal region: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kanawati, Andrew James

    2014-11-01

    Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy and blood supply are complex and largely not dealt with in common anatomy texts. Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy can be divided into the height of division of its branches, relation of the branches to the piriformis muscle, and its blood supply. These variations should be well known to any surgeon operating in this anatomical region. It is unknown whether these variations increase the risk of surgical injury and consequent morbidity. This paper will review the current knowledge regarding anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve and its blood supply. PMID:24842563

  9. The Spatial Relationship and Surface Projection of Canine Sciatic Nerve and Sacrotuberous Ligament: A Perineal Hernia Repair Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khatri-Chhetri, Nabin; Khatri-Chhetri, Rupak; Chung, Cheng-Shu; Chern, Rey-Shyong; Chien, Chi-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Sciatic nerve entrapment can occur as post-operative complication of perineal hernia repair when sacrotuberous ligament is incorporated during hernia deficit closure. This results in sciatic sensory loss and paralysis of the hind leg. This study investigated the spatial relationship of sciatic nerve and sacrotuberous ligament and their surface topographic projection of 68 cadavers (29 Beagles and 39 Taiwanese mongrels) with various heights (25–56 cm). By gross dissection, the sacrotuberous ligament and sciatic nerve were exposed and their distance in between was measured along four parts (A, B, C, D) of sacrotuberous ligament. The present study revealed that the C was the section of sacrotuberous ligament where the sciatic nerve and the sacrotuberous ligament are closest to each other. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between C and height of the dogs. From the present study, we found that the C in smaller dogs has the shortest distance between the sciatic nerve and the sacrotuberous ligament, and thus the most vulnerable to sciatic nerve entrapment, and needs to be avoided or approached cautiously during perineal hernia repair. PMID:27003911

  10. Reinnervation of the Tibialis Anterior Following Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury: A Confocal Microscopic Study in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Magill, Christina K.; Tong, Alice; Kawamura, David; Hayashi, Ayato; Hunter, Daniel A.; Parsadanian, Alexander; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Myckatyn, Terence M.

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic mice whose axons and Schwann cells express fluorescent chromophores enable new imaging techniques and augment concepts in developmental neurobiology. The utility of these tools in the study of traumatic nerve injury depends on employing nerve models that are amenable to microsurgical manipulation and gauging functional recovery. Motor recovery from sciatic nerve crush injury is studied here by evaluating motor endplates of the tibialis anterior muscle, which is innervated by the deep peroneal branch of the sciatic nerve. Following sciatic nerve crush, the deep surface of the tibialis anterior muscle is examined using whole mount confocal microscopy, and reinnervation is characterized by imaging fluorescent axons or Schwann cells (SCs). One week following sciatic crush injury, 100% of motor endplates are denervated with partial reinnervation at two weeks, hyperinnervation at three and four weeks, and restoration of a 1:1 axon to motor endplate relationship six weeks after injury. Walking track analysis reveals progressive recovery of sciatic nerve function by six weeks. SCs reveal reduced S100 expression within two weeks of denervation, correlating with regression to a more immature phenotype. Reinnervation of SCs restores S100 expression and a fully differentiated phenotype. Following denervation, there is altered morphology of circumscribed terminal Schwann cells demonstrating extensive process formation between adjacent motor endplates. The thin, uniformly innervated tibialis anterior muscle is well suited for studying motor reinnervation following sciatic nerve injury. Confocal microscopy may be performed coincident with other techniques of assessing nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PMID:17628540

  11. The Effect of Sildenafil on Recuperation from Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Mehmet Fatih; Parlakpınar, Hakan; Ceylan, Mehmet Fethi; Ediz, Levent; Şamdancı, Emine; Kekilli, Ersoy; Sağır, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Severe functional and anatomical defects can be detected after the peripheral nerve injury. Pharmacological approaches are preferred rather than surgical treatment in the treatment of nerve injuries. Aims: The aim of this study is to perform histopathological, functional and bone densitometry examinations of the effects of sildenafil on nerve regeneration in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: The study included a total of thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats that were divided into three groups of ten rats each. In all rats, a crush injury was created by clamping the right sciatic nerve for one minute. One day before the procedure, rats in group 1 were started on a 28-day treatment consisting of a daily dose of 20 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate given orally via a nasogastric tube, while the rats in group 2 were started on an every-other-day dose of 10 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate. Rats from group 3 were not administered any drugs. Forty-two days after the nerve damage was created, functional and histopathological examination of both sciatic nerves and bone densitometric evaluation of the extremities were conducted. Results: During the rotarod test, rats from group 3 spent the least amount of time on the rod compared to the drug treatment groups at speeds of 20 rpm, 30 rpm and 40 rpm. In addition, the duration for which each animal could stay on the rod throughout the accelerod test significantly reduced in rats from group 3 compared to rats from groups 1 and 2 in the 4-min test. For the hot-plate latency time, there were no differences among the groups in either the basal level or after sciatic nerve injury. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the static sciatic index (SSI) on the 42nd day (p=0.147). The amplitude was better evaluated in group 1 compared to the other two groups (p<0.05). Under microscopic evaluation, we observed the greatest amount of

  12. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Li, Zheng-wei; Luo, Min; Li, Ya-jun; Zhang, Ke-qiang

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better regeneration was

  13. Technique for injection into the sciatic nerve of the mouse for quantitative in vivo metabolic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Heape, A.M.; Boiron, F.; Cassagne, C.

    1986-05-15

    In this paper we describe a technique for intraneural injections, applicable to mouse peripheral nerves, which, compared with previous techniques, reduces trauma to the nerves and increases the level and reduces the variability of label recovery. Our technique employs glass needles (tip diameter, 50 micron) linked to a peristaltic pump by polyethylene tubing to inject small volumes (in the microliter range) of radiolabeled substrate solutions into mouse sciatic nerves, and allows the recovery of 20.9 +/- 1.9% (mean +/- standard deviation) and 30.5 +/- 4.8% of the injected radioactivity for 2 microliter (3H)acetate and 0.5 microliter of (3H)stearate, respectively.

  14. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a promising electrospun collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone) nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To cope with the limitations faced by autograft acquisitions particularly for multiple nerve injuries, artificial nerve conduit has been introduced by researchers as a substitute for autologous nerve graft for the easy specification and availability for mass production. In order to best mimic the structures and components of autologous nerve, great efforts have been made to improve the designation of nerve conduits either from materials or fabrication techniques. Electrospinning is an easy and versatile technique that has recently been used to fabricate fibrous tissue-engineered scaffolds which have great similarity to the extracellular matrix on fiber structure. Results In this study we fabricated a collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone) (collagen/PCL) fibrous scaffold by electrospinning and explored its application as nerve guide substrate or conduit in vitro and in vivo. Material characterizations showed this electrospun composite material which was made of submicron fibers possessed good hydrophilicity and flexibility. In vitro study indicated electrospun collagen/PCL fibrous meshes promoted Schwann cell adhesion, elongation and proliferation. In vivo test showed electrospun collagen/PCL porous nerve conduits successfully supported nerve regeneration through an 8 mm sciatic nerve gap in adult rats, achieving similar electrophysiological and muscle reinnervation results as autografts. Although regenerated nerve fibers were still in a pre-mature stage 4 months postoperatively, the implanted collagen/PCL nerve conduits facilitated more axons regenerating through the conduit lumen and gradually degraded which well matched the nerve regeneration rate. Conclusions All the results demonstrated this collagen/PCL nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate fabricated by electrospinning could be an efficient alternative to autograft for peripheral nerve regeneration research. Due to its advantage of high surface area for cell attachment, it is believed that this

  15. Dexamethasone prevents vascular damage in early-stage non-freezing cold injury of the sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Non-freezing cold injury is a prevalent cause of peripheral nerve damage, but its pathogenic mechanism is poorly understood, and treatment remains inadequate. Glucocorticoids have anti-inflammatory and lipid peroxidation-inhibiting properties. We therefore examined whether dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid compound, would alleviate early-stage non-freezing cold injury of the sciatic nerve. We established Wistar rat models of non-freezing cold injury by exposing the left sciatic nerve to cold (3–5°C) for 2 hours, then administered dexamethasone (3 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to half of the models. One day after injury, the concentration of Evans blue tracer in the injured sciatic nerve of rats that received dexamethasone was notably lower than that in the injured sciatic nerve of rats that did not receive dexamethasone; neither Evans blue dye nor capillary stenosis was observed in the endoneurium, but myelinated nerve fibers were markedly degenerated in the injured sciatic nerve of animals that received dexamethasone. After dexamethasone administration, however, endoneurial vasculopathy was markedly improved, although damage to the myelinated nerve fiber was not alleviated. These findings suggest that dexamethasone protects the blood-nerve barrier, but its benefit in non-freezing cold injury is limited to the vascular system. PMID:26981107

  16. Deciphering the Lipid Architecture of the Rat Sciatic Nerve Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Roberto; Carriel, Víctor; Lage, Sergio; Garate, Jone; Díez-García, Javier; Ochoa, Begoña; Castro, Begoña; Alaminos, Miguel; Fernández, José A

    2016-05-18

    Knowledge on the normal structure and molecular composition of the peripheral nerves is essential to understand their pathophysiology and to select the regeneration strategies after injury. However, the precise lipid composition of the normal peripheral nerve is still poorly known. Here, we present the first study of distribution of individual lipids in the mature sciatic nerve of rats by imaging mass spectrometry. Both positive and negative ion modes were used to detect, identify and in situ map 166 molecular species of mainly glycerophospholipids, sphingomyelins, sulfatides, and diacyl and triacylglycerols. In parallel, lipid extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS to verify and complement the identification of lipids directly from the whole tissue. Three anatomical regions were clearly identified by its differential lipid composition: the nerve fibers, the connective tissue and the adipose tissue that surrounds the nerve. Unexpectedly, very little variety of phosphatidylcholine (PC) species was found, being by far PC 34:1 the most abundant species. Also, a rich composition on sulfatides was detected in fibers, probably due to the important role they play in the myelin cover around axons, as well as an abundance of storage lipids in the adipose and connective tissues. The database of lipids here presented for each region and for the whole sciatic nerve is a first step toward understanding the variety of the peripheral nerves' lipidome and its changes associated with different diseases and mechanical injuries. PMID:27043994

  17. Oxaliplatin-induced hyperexcitation of rat sciatic nerve fibers: an intra-axonal study.

    PubMed

    Kagiava, Alexia; Kosmidis, Efstratios K; Theophilidis, George

    2013-02-01

    Oxaliplatin is an agent that is used extensively in gastrointestinal cancer chemotherapy. The agent's major dose-limiting toxicity is peripheral neuropathy that can manifest as a chronic or an acute syndrome. Oxaliplatin-induced acute neuropathy is purportedly caused by an alteration of the biophysical properties of voltage-gated sodium channels. However, sodium channel blockers have not been successful at preventing acute neuropathy in the clinical setting. We report intra-axonal recordings from the isolated rat sciatic nerve preparation under the effect of oxaliplatin. The depolarization phase of single action potentials remains intact with a duration of 0.52 ± 0.02 ms (n=68) before and 0.55 ± 0.01 ms (n=68) after 1-5 h of exposure to 150 μM oxaliplatin (unpaired t-test, P > 0.05) whereas there is a significant broadening of the repolarization phase (2.16 ± 0.10 ms, n=68, before and 5.90 ± 0.32 ms after, n=68, unpaired t-test, P < 0.05). Apart from changes in spike shape, oxaliplatin also had drastic concentration- and time-dependent effects on the firing responses of fibers to short stimuli. In the intra-axonal recordings, three groups of firing patterns were indentified. The first group shows bursting (internal frequency 90 - 130 Hz, n=88), the second shows a characteristic plateau (at -19.27�2.84 mV, n=31, with durations ranging from 45 - 140 ms depending on the exposure time), and the third combines a plateau and a bursting period. Our results implicate the voltage-gated potassium channels as additional oxaliplatin targets, opening up new perspectives for the pharmacological prevention of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:22721389

  18. Histopathological changes in the periphery of the sciatic nerve of rats after knee joint immobilization.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Taro; Kamijo, Akio; Araki, Yoshitaka; Sakamoto, Makoto; Moriyama, Shigenori; Hoso, Masahiro

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the histological changes that occur in the periphery of the sciatic nerve in rats undergoing knee immobilization. [Subjects and Methods] 29 male 9-week-old Wistar rats were divided randomly into a control group (C group, n = 7) and an immobilized group (I group, n = 22). The animals in the I group had the left knee joint immobilized in maximal flexion with plaster casts for two weeks. After the experimental period, we obtained cross-sections of tissues from the center of the left thigh, and the periphery of the sciatic nerve was observed under an optical microscope after hematoxylin-eosin staining. [Results] In contrast to the rats of C group, the rats in I group showed adherence between the bundle of nerve fibers and perineurium, as well as thickening of the perineurium. These histological changes were statistically significant. [Conclusions] Immobilization of the knee joints of rats resulted in characteristic histological changes in the connective tissue around the sciatic nerve. PMID:24259816

  19. The effect of chick embryo amniotic fluid on sciatic nerve regeneration of rats

    PubMed Central

    Farjah, Gh. H.; Fazli, F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of chicken amniotic fluid (AF) on a cross section of rat sciatic nerves. Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 275 to 300 g, were randomized into three groups treated with (1) amniotic fluid or AF (n=10), (2) normal saline or NS (n=10), and (3) sham surgery (n=10). The AF was aspirated from the amniotic cavity of incubating chick embryos at day 14. The sciatic nerve was exposed and sharply transected. Immediate epineurial repair was then performed. AF treated animals were given 2 ml/kg of the chick embryo AF subcutaneously, once daily, five times a week for up to 2 weeks. All animals were evaluated by sciatic functional index (SFI), electrophysiology, histology, and immunohistochemistry at days 28 and 56 after surgery. The SFI difference between AF and NS groups at days 21 and 28 after operation was statistically significant (P<0.05). The number of myelinated fibers in the AF group was significantly greater than that of the NS group at day 28 (P<0.05). At days 28 and 56 after operation, the nerve conduction velocity (NCV) mean of the AF group was faster than that of the NS group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that chick AF can enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27175170

  20. US-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Analgesia During Endovenous Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Saim Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Sindel, Timur

    2013-02-15

    Endovenous laser ablation may be associated with significant pain when performed under standard local tumescent anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for analgesia during endovenous ablation in patients with lower extremity venous insufficiency. During a 28-month period, ultrasound-guided femoral or sciatic nerve blocks were performed to provide analgesia during endovenous laser ablation in 506 legs and 307 patients. The femoral block (n = 402) was performed at the level of the inguinal ligament, and the sciatic block at the posterior midthigh (n = 124), by injecting a diluted lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance. After the blocks, endovenous laser ablations and other treatments (phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy) were performed in the standard fashion. After the procedures, a visual analogue pain scale (1-10) was used for pain assessment. After the blocks, pain scores were 0 or 1 (no pain) in 240 legs, 2 or 3 (uncomfortable) in 225 legs, and 4 or 5 (annoying) in 41 legs. Patients never experienced any pain higher than score 5. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the pain scores of the right leg versus the left leg (p = 0.321) and between the pain scores after the femoral versus sciatic block (p = 0.7). Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks may provide considerable reduction of pain during endovenous laser and other treatments, such as ambulatory phlebectomy and foam sclerotherapy. They may make these procedures more comfortable for the patient and easier for the operator.

  1. An inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma for repair of a short sciatic nerve defect in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Yeong; Jeon, Woo Joo; Kim, Dong Hwee; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kim, Young Hwan; Youn, Inchan; Park, Jong Woong

    2014-07-15

    Platelet-rich plasma containing various growth factors can promote nerve regeneration. An inside-out vein graft can substitute nerve autograft to repair short nerve defects. It is hypothesized that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma shows better effects in the repair of short sciatic nerve defects. In this study, an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was used to bridge a 10 mm-long sciatic nerve defect in rats. The sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was better improved than that of rats with a simple inside-out vein autograft. At 6 and 8 weeks, the sciatic nerve function of rats with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma was better than that of rats undergoing nerve autografting. Compared with the sciatic nerve repaired with a simple inside-out vein autograft, the number of myelinated axons was higher, axon diameter and myelin sheath were greater in the sciatic nerve repaired with an inside-out vein autograft filled with platelet-rich plasma and they were similar to those in the sciatic nerve repaired with nerve autograft. These findings suggest that an inside-out vein graft filled with platelet-rich plasma can substitute nerve autograft to repair short sciatic nerve defects. PMID:25221591

  2. Neurotoxicity of perineural vs intraneural-extrafascicular injection of liposomal bupivacaine in the porcine model of sciatic nerve block.

    PubMed

    Damjanovska, M; Cvetko, E; Hadzic, A; Seliskar, A; Plavec, T; Mis, K; Vuckovic Hasanbegovic, I; Stopar Pintaric, T

    2015-12-01

    Liposomal bupivacaine is a prolonged-release local anaesthetic, the neurotoxicity of which has not yet been determined. We used quantitative histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses to evaluate the neurotoxic effect of liposomal bupivacaine after perineural and intraneural (extrafascicular) injection of the sciatic nerve in pigs. In this double-blind prospective randomised trial, 4 ml liposomal bupivacaine 1.3% was injected either perineurally (n = 5) or intraneurally extrafascicularly (n = 5). Intraneural-extrafascicular injection of saline (n = 5) was used as a control. After emergence from anaesthesia, neurological examinations were conducted over two weeks. After harvesting the sciatic nerves, no changes in nerve fibre density or myelin width indicative of nerve injury were observed in any of the groups. Intraneural injections resulted in longer sensory blockade than perineural (p < 0.003) without persistent motor or sensory deficit. Sciatic nerve block with liposomal bupivacaine in pigs did not result in histological evidence of nerve injury. PMID:26338496

  3. Dynamic effects of TNF-α on synaptic transmission in mice over time following sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Haijun

    2013-01-01

    Nerve injury-induced central sensitization can manifest as an increase in excitatory synaptic transmission and/or as a decrease in inhibitory synaptic transmission in spinal dorsal horn neurons. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are induced in the spinal cord under various injury conditions and contribute to neuropathic pain. In this study we examined the effect of TNF-α in modulating excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input to spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons over time in mice following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Whole cell patch-clamp studies from SG neurons showed that TNF-α enhanced overall excitability of the spinal cord early in time following nerve injury 3 days after CCI compared with that in sham control mice. In contrast, the effects of TNF were blunted 14 days after CCI in nerve-injured mice compared with sham surgery mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the expression of TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) was increased at 3 days but decreased at 14 days following CCI in the ipsilateral vs. the contralateral spinal cord dorsal horn. These results suggest that TNF-α acting at TNFR1 is important in the development of neuropathic pain by facilitating excitatory synaptic signaling in the acute phases after nerve injury but has a reduced effect on spinal neuron signaling in the later phases of nerve injury-induced pain. Failure of the facilatory effects of TNF-α on excitatory synaptic signaling in the dorsal horn to resolve following nerve injury may be an important component in the transition between acute and chronic pain conditions. PMID:23864372

  4. [Histotopography and composition of the microcirculatory bed of the sciatic nerve in the rat].

    PubMed

    Gasymov, E K

    1989-11-01

    By means of macro-microscopical preparation methods, horseradish peroxidase injection, semithin sections, electron microscopy histotopography and composition of microvessels of the sciatic nerve have been studied in 20 mature male white rats. The perineural membrane has been stated to have no its own vascular network. In composition of the sciatic nerve and its large branches muscular venules are revealed; they run longitudinally along the whole length of the endoneural space and are tributaries of the epineural veins. A suggestion is made that presence of the contractile apparatus in the venular wall can play an important role in formation of the postcapillary resistance, regulating the hydrostatic pressure value in the lumen of endoneural capillaries ad intensity of liquor filtration into the interstitial space. PMID:2483607

  5. Berberine Ameliorates Allodynia Induced by Chronic Constriction Injury of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jee

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether berberine could ameliorate allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in rats. After inducement of CCI, significant increases in the number of paw lifts from a cold plate test (cold allodynia) and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in the von Frey hair stimulation test (mechanical allodynia) were observed. However, these cold and mechanical allodynia were markedly alleviated by berberine administration in a dose-dependent manner. Sciatic nerve myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde activities were also attenuated by berberine administration. Continuous injection for 7 days induced no development of tolerance. The antiallodynic effect of 20 mg/kg berberine was comparable to that of amitriptyline 10 mg/kg. This study demonstrated that berberine could mitigate allodynia induced by CCI, a neuropathic pain model, and it suggested that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of berberine contributed to the antiallodynic effect in the CCI model. PMID:25674823

  6. Purinergic signaling mediated by P2X7 receptors controls myelination in sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Faroni, A; Smith, R J P; Procacci, P; Castelnovo, L F; Puccianti, E; Reid, A J; Magnaghi, V; Verkhratsky, A

    2014-10-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate, the physiological ligand of P2X receptors, is an important factor in peripheral nerve development. P2X7 receptor is expressed in Schwann cells (SCs), but the specific effects of P2X7 purinergic signaling on peripheral nerve development, myelination, and function are largely unknown. In this study, sciatic nerves from P2X7 knockout mice were analyzed for altered expression of myelin-associated proteins and for alterations in nerve morphology. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that, in the wild-type peripheral nerves, the P2X7 receptor was localized mainly in myelinating SCs, with only a few immunopositive nonmyelinating SCs. Complete absence of P2X7 receptor protein was confirmed in the sciatic nerves of the knockout mice by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis revealed that expression levels of the myelin proteins protein zero and myelin-associated glycoprotein are reduced in P2X7 knockout nerves. In accordance with the molecular results, transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that P2X7 knockout nerves possess significantly more unmyelinated axons, contained in a higher number of Remak bundles. The myelinating/nonmyelinating SC ratio was also decreased in knockout mice, and we found a significantly increased number of irregular fibers compared with control nerves. Nevertheless, the myelin thickness in the knockout was unaltered, suggesting a stronger role for P2X7 in determining SC maturation than in myelin formation. In conclusion, we present morphological and molecular evidence of the importance of P2X7 signaling in peripheral nerve maturation and in determining SC commitment to a myelinating phenotype. PMID:24903685

  7. Effects of nerve impulses on threshold of frog sciatic nerve fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, S A

    1979-01-01

    1. The firing thresholds of single myelinated fibres of frog sciatic nerves were monitored as a function of impulse activity in the fibre. The threshold was given by the number of coulombs in current pulses that excited a particular fibre half the time when delivered to the whole nerve. Threshold was tracked by a device that incrementally decreased the number of coulombs in the current pulse whenever the fibre responded and increased the pulse if it did not respond. 2. There was a pattern to the after-oscillations of threshold following activity. The fibres were briefly refractory, transiently superexcitable for about 1-1.5 sec and then entered a phase of raised threshold or 'depression' that lasted for many minutes. 3. Activity produced little change in the threshold curve during the refractory period. Strong depressions following prolonged activity prevented the threshold from returning to the base-line level within the time associated with the refractory period for the same fibre at rest. 4. After an impulse, superexcitability reached a maximum within 7-20 msec. This peak was larger as the number of impulses in a preceding burst increased and as the intervals between the impulses became briefer. Each successive impulse of a burst contributed less to the growth of superexcitability, and after the burst had 6-10 impulses additional impulses contributed nothing. 5. The depression phase was marked by the interaction between build-up, which depended on the activity rate, and recovery, which required as long as an hour or more for the threshold to be completely restored to resting level. These two mechanisms, one causing build-up and the other recovery, led to formation of dynamic equilibria. The threshold level at equilibrium increased monotonically with the activity rate. 6. The processes associated with superexcitability interact with those producing depression. In active fibres showing raised thresholds, impulses are followed by a relative superexcitability that

  8. Synergistic effects of micropatterned biodegradable conduits and Schwann cells on sciatic nerve regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Gregory E.; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija; Mallapragada, Surya K.

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a novel biodegradable conduit that provides a combination of physical, chemical and biological cues at the cellular level to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration. The conduit consists of a porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) tubular support structure with a micropatterned inner lumen. Schwann cells were pre-seeded into the lumen to provide additional trophic support. Conduits with micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells (MS) were fabricated and compared with three types of conduits used as controls: M (conduits with micropatterned inner lumens without pre-seeded Schwann cells), NS (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells) and N (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens, without pre-seeded Schwann cells). The conduits were implanted in rats with 1 cm sciatic nerve transections and the regeneration and functional recovery were compared in the four different cases. The number or size of regenerated axons did not vary significantly among the different conduits. The time of recovery, and the sciatic function index, however, were significantly enhanced using the MS conduits, based on qualitative observations as well as quantitative measurements using walking track analysis. This demonstrates that biodegradable micropatterned conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells that provide a combination of physical, chemical and biological guidance cues for regenerating axons at the cellular level offer a better alternative for repairing sciatic nerve transactions than conventional biodegradable conduits.

  9. High voltage pulsed current stimulation of the sciatic nerve in rats: analysis by the SFI

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Anita Sofia Leite; Mazzer, Nilton; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus; Jatte, Fernanda Guadallini; Chereguini, Paulo Augusto Costa; Monte-Raso, Vanessa Vilela

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the efficiency of high voltage pulsed current (HVPC) with early application in three different sites, in the regeneration of the sciatic nerve in rats submitted to crush injury, the sciatic functional index (SFI) was used to assess the functional recovery. Methods After crushing of the nerve, 57 animals were submitted to cathodal HVPC at frequency of 50Hz and voltage of 100V, 20 minutes per day, 5 days per week. The rats were divided into five groups: control group; ganglion group; ganglion + muscle group; muscle group; and sham group. The SFI was determined weekly for seven weeks, from the preoperative period to the 6th postoperative week. Results Compared with the control group, the results showed a significantly better performance of group 2 for the first 3 weeks; group 3 showed significantly better performance in the third week; and group 4 showed a significantly negative performance during the 4th and 6th weeks. Conclusion Early application of HVPC had a positive effect in the treatment of the spinal cord region and the sciatic nerve root ganglion with a dispersive electrode on the contralateral lumbar region or on the gastrocnemius. However, HVPC had a negative effect in the treatment with an active electrode on the gastrocnemius and a dispersive electrode on the contralateral thigh. Level of evidence II, Prospective comparative study. PMID:24453588

  10. Effect of MSH/ACTH peptides on fast axonal transport in intact and regenerating sciatic nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Crescitelli, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Fast axonal transport was examined in intact rats treated with ACTH 4-10 or ACTH 4-9 (ORG 2766), hypophysectomized rats, adrenalectomized rats, and in ACTH 4-10 treated rats with crushed regenerating sciatic nerves by injecting /sup 3/H-leucine into the ventral horn region of the spinal cord. The distance traveled by the transported activity along the sciatic nerve and the rate of fast axonal transport were not significantly altered as a result of treatment with ACTH 4-10, ACTH 4-9 (ORG 2766), hypophysectomy, or adrenalectomy. Treatment with ACTH 4-9 (ORG 2766) at concentrations of 1 ..mu..g/Kg /day and 10 ..mu..g/Kg/day caused significant reductions (62% and 64% respectively) in the crest height of the fast axonal transport curve as compared to 0.9% saline treated control animals. No significant differences were found in comparing the distance, rate, slope, or crest height of ACTH 4-10 treated animals with crushed regenerating (7 or 14d) sciatic nerves to control animals. In the group of animals in days, the amount of radiolabeled activity was significantly increased in the ACTH 4-10 treated animals as compared to control animals. The results indicate that during regeneration the peptide acts to prolong the initially high levels of synthetic activity which occur in regenerating axons.

  11. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  12. Altered protein phosphorylation in sciatic nerve from rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Schrama, L.H.; Berti-Mattera, L.N.; Eichberg, J.

    1987-11-01

    The effect of experimental diabetes on the phosphorylation of proteins in the rat sciatic nerve was studied. Nerves from animals made diabetic with streptozocin were incubated in vitro with (/sup 32/P)orthophosphate and divided into segments from the proximal to the distal end, and proteins from each segment were then separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The principal labeled species were the major myelin proteins, P0, and the basic proteins. After 6 wk of diabetes, the incorporation of isotope into these proteins rose as a function of distance along the nerve in a proximal to distal direction and was significantly higher at the distal end compared with incorporation into nerves from age-matched controls. The overall level of isotope uptake was similar in nerves from diabetic animals and weight-matched controls. The distribution of /sup 32/P among proteins also differed in diabetic nerve compared with both control groups in that P0 and the small basic protein accounted for a greater proportion of total label incorporated along the entire length of nerve. In contrast to intact nerve, there was no significant difference in protein phosphorylation when homogenates from normal and diabetic nerve were incubated with (/sup 32/P)-gamma-ATP. The results suggest that abnormal protein phosphorylation, particularly of myelin proteins, is a feature of experimental diabetic neuropathy and that the changes are most pronounced in the distal portion of the nerve.

  13. Blockade of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 promotes regeneration after sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fei; Zhang, Hong; Qi, Chao; Gao, Mei-Ling; Wang, Hong; Li, Xia-Qing

    2015-08-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) provides the sensation of pain (nociception). However, it remains unknown whether TRPV1 is activated after peripheral nerve injury, or whether activation of TRPV1 affects neural regeneration. In the present study, we established rat models of unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury, with or without pretreatment with AMG517 (300 mg/kg), a TRPV1 antagonist, injected subcutaneously into the ipsilateral paw 60 minutes before injury. At 1 and 2 weeks after injury, we performed immunofluorescence staining of the sciatic nerve at the center of injury, at 0.3 cm proximal and distal to the injury site, and in the dorsal root ganglia. Our results showed that Wallerian degeneration occurred distal to the injury site, and neurite outgrowth and Schwann cell regeneration occurred proximal to the injury. The number of regenerating myelinated and unmyelinated nerve clusters was greater in the AMG517-pretreated rats than in the vehicle-treated group, most notably 2 weeks after injury. TRPV1 expression in the injured sciatic nerve and ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia was markedly greater than on the contralateral side. Pretreatment with AMG517 blocked this effect. These data indicate that TRPV1 is activated or overexpressed after sciatic nerve crush injury, and that blockade of TRPV1 may accelerate regeneration of the injured sciatic nerve. PMID:26487864

  14. Blockade of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 promotes regeneration after sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Fei; Zhang, Hong; Qi, Chao; Gao, Mei-ling; Wang, Hong; Li, Xia-qing

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) provides the sensation of pain (nociception). However, it remains unknown whether TRPV1 is activated after peripheral nerve injury, or whether activation of TRPV1 affects neural regeneration. In the present study, we established rat models of unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury, with or without pretreatment with AMG517 (300 mg/kg), a TRPV1 antagonist, injected subcutaneously into the ipsilateral paw 60 minutes before injury. At 1 and 2 weeks after injury, we performed immunofluorescence staining of the sciatic nerve at the center of injury, at 0.3 cm proximal and distal to the injury site, and in the dorsal root ganglia. Our results showed that Wallerian degeneration occurred distal to the injury site, and neurite outgrowth and Schwann cell regeneration occurred proximal to the injury. The number of regenerating myelinated and unmyelinated nerve clusters was greater in the AMG517-pretreated rats than in the vehicle-treated group, most notably 2 weeks after injury. TRPV1 expression in the injured sciatic nerve and ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia was markedly greater than on the contralateral side. Pretreatment with AMG517 blocked this effect. These data indicate that TRPV1 is activated or overexpressed after sciatic nerve crush injury, and that blockade of TRPV1 may accelerate regeneration of the injured sciatic nerve. PMID:26487864

  15. Local Effect of Heparin Binding Neurotrophic Factor Combined With Chitosan Entubulization on Sciatic Nerve Repair in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mehrshad, Ali; Seddighnia, Ashkan; Shadabi, Mohammadreza; Najafpour, Alireza; Mohammadi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of on sciatic nerve regeneration in animal model of rat. Methods: Seventy-five male Wistar rats were divided into five experimental groups randomly (each group containing 15 animals): Sham operation group (SHAM), autograft group (AUTO), transected control (TC), chitosan conduit (CHIT) and heparin binding neurotrophic factor treated group (CHIT/HBNF). In AUTO group a segment of sciatic nerve was transected and reimplanted reversely. In SHAM group sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In transected group left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in adjacent muscle (TC). In treatment group defect was bridged using a chitosan conduit (CHIT) filled with 10 µL HBNF (CHIT/HBNF). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and nerve fibers were studied in a 12-week period. Results: Behavioral, functional, biomechanical, electrophysiological and gastrocnemius muscle mass findings and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in treatment group than in CHIT group (P=0.001). Immunohistochemical reactions to S-100 in treatment group were more positive than that in CHIT group. Conclusion: Local administration of improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. It could be considered as an effective treatment for peripheral nerve repair in practice. PMID:27331064

  16. Detrimental effects of immobilization on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Sarikcioglu, Levent; Ozkan, Olcay; Gurer, Elif Inanc

    2005-07-01

    Peripheral-nerve trauma has been a challenge to surgeons, with significant advances in the surgery of repair. Immobilization of the injured limb after repair has been the traditional method of treatment. Although peripheral-nerve regeneration has been studied extensively, the correlation between functional recovery and the immobilization period has not been well-documented. In the present study, the authors studied the effects of immobilization on axonal regeneration after sciatic crush injury. They found a detrimental effect of immobilization on the functional recovery. PMID:15971165

  17. Water Diffusion, T2, and Compartmentation in Frog Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Sharon; Cory, David G.; Raymond, Stephen A.; Kirschner, Daniel A.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    2010-01-01

    A potential relationship between structural compartments in neural tissue and NMR parameters may increase the specificity of MRI in diagnosing diseases. Nevertheless, our understanding of MR of nerves and white matter is limited, particularly the influence of various water compartments on the MR signal is not known. In this study, components of the 1H transverse relaxation decay curve in frog peripheral nerve were correlated with the diffusion characteristics of the water in the nerve. Three T2 values were identified with nerve. Water mobility was found to be unrestricted on the timescale of 100 msec in the component of the signal with the intermediate T2 time, suggesting some contribution from the interstitial space to this T2 component. Restricted diffusion was observed in the component with the longest T2 time, supporting the assignment of at least part of the spins contributing to this component to an intracellular compartment. The observed nonexponential behavior of the diffusion attenuation curves was investigated and shown to be potentially caused by the wide range of axon sizes in the nerve. PMID:10542350

  18. The effect of loco-regional anaesthesia on motor activity induced by direct stimulation of the sciatic nerve in dogs.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, A P; Michou, J N

    2016-03-01

    A prospective, randomised, blinded, case-controlled clinical study was designed using client-owned dogs undergoing unilateral pelvic limb orthopaedic surgery, to determine the effect on induced motor activity by electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve distal to the site of local anaesthetic administration. Dogs were administered 0.5% bupivacaine either extradurally or via a femoral and transgluteal sciatic electrolocation-guided nerve block prior to pelvic limb surgery. Motor response to electrical stimulation of branches of the sciatic nerve was tested and the minimum current required to induce muscle twitch was recorded prior to bupivacaine administration. Provided sensory blockade had been deemed successful intraoperatively, testing was repeated postoperatively, with each dog acting as its own control. Paired t-tests were performed to compare pre- and postoperative minimum currents. Eleven dogs administered extradural and 11 dogs administered femoral and sciatic perineural bupivacaine were eligible for post-operative testing. All dogs displayed normal motor response to electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve at both sites tested before and after bupivacaine administration. There was no significant difference in the minimum current required to induce muscle twitch between pre- and post-operative testing (P = 0.31 sciatic site, P = 0.36 peroneal site), nor between the two groups using different loco-regional anaesthetic techniques (minimum P = 0.13). This study shows that stimulation of the sciatic nerve distal to the site of bupivacaine administration induces motor activity, despite adequate sensory blockade. This is relevant in surgical cases where mechanical stimulation of the sciatic nerve might be expected and needs to be recognised to avoid postoperative neurapraxia. PMID:26831173

  19. Acute and subacute effects of the ultrasonic blade and electrosurgery on nerve physiology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chaoyang; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Cavanaugh, John M.; Broughton, Duan; Clymer, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ultrasonic blades have been shown to cause less acute electrophysiological damage when applied near nerves than monopolar electrosurgery (ES). This study was performed to determine whether the acute nerve damage observed for ES, as well as the relative lack of damage observed for ultrasonic dissection, extends through a subacute timeframe. Muscle incisions were made in rat with the Harmonic® Blade (HB) and ES at a distance of 2 mm from the sciatic nerve. Sham surgery was also performed which consisted of similar exposure of the sciatic nerve without use of an energized device. Electrophysiological function was assessed acutely over a 3-h period, and subacutely after a 7-day survival, by monitoring the sciatic nerve compound action potential (CAP), conduction velocity (CV), von Frey hair (VFH) stimulation force, leukocyte infiltration, and impaired axonal transport via β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) immunocytochemistry. During the acute period, ES produced significantly lower CAP and CV, and higher levels of leukocytes and β-APP than sham, whereas the ultrasonic blade was not significantly different from sham, and had significantly lower VFH force than ES. After the subacute survival, ES continued to display significantly lower CAP and CV, and higher levels of leukocytes and β-APP than sham, whereas ultrasonic blade had higher CAP and CV than sham, and lower VFH than ES. This study confirms that incisions made with an ultrasonic blade cause less acute nerve damage than monopolar ES, and are comparable to sham surgery at a distance of 2 mm from the sciatic nerve. The negative effects of electrosurgery extend through at least a 7-day survival period, whereas subacute recovery after application of the ultrasonic blade was comparable to that of sham surgery. For surgical procedures in the vicinity of vital nerves, use of the ultrasonic blade represents a lower risk than ES for both acute and subacute neural trauma. PMID:25812024

  20. The neuroprotective effects of aspirin following crush injury to rat sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Li, Jun; Zhu, Yueliang; Tang, Hui; He, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yongqing

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin has been reported to be neuroprotective and produce some benefits for central nervous system diseases. However, the possibility of using aspirin as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve injuries has rarely been reported thus far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibly beneficial effects of aspirin on sciatic nerve crush injury therapy in rats. Crush injury animal model was prepared with Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were evenly divided into high-dose aspirin group, low-dose aspirin group, and vehicle group. Aspirin solution or normal saline were intraperitoneally injected once a day for 28 days after sciatic nerve crush injury. A sham-operative group was also added as normal control. The results from walking track analysis and electrophysiological assessment indicated that motor functional recovery in the aspirin groups were better than that in the vehicle group. Morphometric analysis of regenerated nerves and Fluoro-Gold retrograde tracing demonstrated that axonal regeneration in the aspirin groups was superior to that in the vehicle group. Our findings suggest that aspirin might be used as a neuroprotective agent for treating peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:26770418

  1. A Neurogenic Perspective of Sarcopenia: Time Course Study of Sciatic Nerves From Aging Mice.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vidya S; White, Zoe; McMahon, Chris D; Hodgetts, Stuart I; Fitzgerald, Melinda; Shavlakadze, Tea; Harvey, Alan R; Grounds, Miranda D

    2016-05-01

    To elucidate the neural basis for age-related sarcopenia, we quantified morphologic and molecular changes within sciatic nerves of aging male and female C57BL/6J mice aged between 3 and 27 months using immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Protein analyses by immunoblotting of nerves of male mice aged 4, 15, 18, 22, and 24 months showed increased levels of heavy chain SMI-32-positive neurofilaments, vimentin, tau5, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and p62 by 18-22 months. Similar protein increases were seen in 26-month-old compared with 3-month-old female mice. Immunostaining of longitudinal sections of old (27-month-old) male sciatic nerves revealed intense staining for tau5 and p62 that was increased compared with that at 3 months, but there were decreased numbers of axon profiles stained for ChAT or isolectin B4 (motor and sensory axons, respectively). Ultrastructural analysis revealed electron-dense aggregates within axons in peripheral nerves of old male mice; the proportion of axons that contained aggregates more than doubled between 15 and 27 months. Overall, the observed age-related accumulation of many proteins from about 18 months of age onward suggests impaired mechanisms for axonal transport and protein turnover. These peripheral nerve changes may contribute to the morphological and functional muscle deficits associated with sarcopenia. PMID:27030741

  2. Acetyl salicylic acid locally enhances functional recovery after sciatic nerve transection in rat.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Amini, Keyvan; Abdollahi-Pirbazari, Mehdi; Yousefi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Local effect of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) on peripheral nerve regeneration was studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Forty-five male healthy White Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: Sham-operation (SHAM), control (SIL), and ASA-treated (SIL/ASA) groups. In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and after homeostasis the muscle was sutured. In SIL group the left sciatic nerve was exposed the same way and transected proximal to tibio-peroneal bifurcation leaving a 10-mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone tube and filled with 10 μl phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/ASA group defect was bridged using a silicone tube filled with 10 μl acetyl salisylic acid (0.1 mg/ml). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and were studied 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. Data were analyzed statistically by factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni test for pair-wise comparisons. Functional study confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/ASA than in SIL group (p < 0.05). Gastrocnemius muscle mass in SIL/ASA was significantly more than in SIL group. Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed that the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in SIL/ASA were significantly higher than in control group. In immuohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/ASA was clearly more positive than in SIL group. Response to local treatment of ASA demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:24140781

  3. Low-Level Laser-Accelerated Peripheral Nerve Regeneration within a Reinforced Nerve Conduit across a Large Gap of the Transected Sciatic Nerve in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Yang, Yi-Chin; Huang, Tsung-Bin; Chan, Shiuh-Chuan; Liu, Bai-Shuan

    2013-01-01

    This study proposed a novel combination of neural regeneration techniques for the repair of damaged peripheral nerves. A biodegradable nerve conduit containing genipin-cross-linked gelatin was annexed using beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramic particles (genipin-gelatin-TCP, GGT) to bridge the transection of a 15 mm sciatic nerve in rats. Two trigger points were irradiated transcutaneously using 660 nm of gallium-aluminum arsenide phosphide (GaAlAsP) via laser diodes for 2 min daily over 10 consecutive days. Walking track analysis showed a significant improvement in sciatic functional index (SFI) (P < 0.01) and pronounced improvement in the toe spreading ability of rats undergoing laser stimulation. Electrophysiological measurements (peak amplitude and area) illustrated by compound muscle action potential (CMAP) curves demonstrated that laser stimulation significantly improved nerve function and reduced muscular atrophy. Histomorphometric assessments revealed that laser stimulation accelerated nerve regeneration over a larger area of neural tissue, resulting in axons of greater diameter and myelin sheaths of greater thickness than that observed in rats treated with nerve conduits alone. Motor function, electrophysiological reactions, muscular reinnervation, and histomorphometric assessments all demonstrate that the proposed therapy accelerated the repair of transected peripheral nerves bridged using a GGT nerve conduit. PMID:23737818

  4. Extra-osseous Ewing's sarcoma of sciatic nerve masquerading as an infected hemangioma: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Dhua, Anjan K; Bharathi, Ravindhra; Kiran, Chokka Mahesh; Lingam, Pappu Paramartha; Joshi, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Extra-osseous Ewing's Sarcoma (EES) arising from the peripheral nerve is rarely reported in children. Here, we report an instance of EES arising from the left sciatic nerve mimicking an infected hemangioma. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion and early histological diagnosis to avoid diagnostic delay. PMID:25336807

  5. TGF-β1 is critical for Wallerian degeneration after rat sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Zhang, P; Li, H; Zhu, Y; Cui, S; Yao, D

    2015-01-22

    Wallerian degeneration (WD) is a process of axonal degeneration distal to the injury site followed by a robust regenerative response. It involves degeneration and regeneration which can be directly induced by nerve injury and activated by transcription factors. Although WD has been studied extensively, the precise mechanisms of transcription factors regulating WD are still elusive. In this study, we reported the effect of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on WD after rat sciatic nerve injury. The data showed that TGF-β1 may express in injured rat sciatic nerve and cultured Schwann cells (SCs). Knock down of TGF-β1 expressions resulted in the reduction of SC proliferation and apoptosis, up regulation of cytokines and Smad2, 4. Enhanced expression of TGF-β1 could promote SC proliferation and apoptosis, down regulation of cytokines and Smad2, 4. Altered expressions of TGF-β1 may affect Smad and AKT but not c-Jun and extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathways. Our results revealed the role of TGF-β1 on WD and provided the basis for the molecular mechanisms of TGF-β1-regulated nerve degeneration and/or regeneration. PMID:25451291

  6. Non-invasive assessment of sciatic nerve stiffness during human ankle motion using ultrasound shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ricardo J; Nordez, Antoine; Hug, François; Ates, Filiz; Coppieters, Michel W; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Freitas, Sandro R

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral nerves are exposed to mechanical stress during movement. However the in vivo mechanical properties of nerves remain largely unexplored. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the effect of passive dorsiflexion on sciatic nerve shear wave velocity (an index of stiffness) when the knee was in 90° flexion (knee 90°) or extended (knee 180°). The secondary aim was to determine the effect of five repeated dorsiflexions on the nerve shear wave velocity. Nine healthy participants were tested. The repeatability of sciatic nerve shear wave velocity was good for both knee 90° and knee 180° (ICCs≥0.92, CVs≤8.1%). The shear wave velocity of the sciatic nerve significantly increased (p<0.0001) during dorsiflexion when the knee was extended (knee 180°), but no changes were observed when the knee was flexed (90°). The shear wave velocity-angle relationship displayed a hysteresis for knee 180°. Although there was a tendency for the nerve shear wave velocity to decrease throughout the repetition of the five ankle dorsiflexions, the level of significance was not reached (p=0.055). These results demonstrate that the sciatic nerve stiffness can be non-invasively assessed during passive movements. In addition, the results highlight the importance of considering both the knee and the ankle position for clinical and biomechanical assessment of the sciatic nerve. This non-invasive technique offers new perspectives to provide new insights into nerve mechanics in both healthy and clinical populations (e.g., specific peripheral neuropathies). PMID:26725218

  7. PRGD/PDLLA conduit potentiates rat sciatic nerve regeneration and the underlying molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Binbin; Qiu, Tong; Iyer, K Swaminathan; Yan, Qiongjiao; Yin, Yixia; Xie, Lijuan; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Shipu

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral nerve injury requires optimal conditions in both macro-environment and micro-environment for reestablishment. Though various strategies have been carried out to improve the macro-environment, the underlying molecular mechanism of axon regeneration in the micro-environment provided by nerve conduit remains unclear. In this study, the rat sciatic nerve of 10 mm defect was made and bridged by PRGD/PDLLA nerve conduit. We investigated the process of nerve regeneration using histological, functional and real time PCR analyses after implantation from 7 to 35 days. Our data demonstrated that the ciliary neurotrophic factor highly expressed and up-regulated the downstream signaling pathways, in the case of activated signals, the expressions of axon sprout relative proteins, such as tubulin and growth-associated protein-43, were strongly augmented. Taken together, these data suggest a possible mechanism of axon regeneration promoted by PRGD/PDLLA conduit, which created a micro-environment for enhancement of diffusion of neurotrophic factors secreted by the injured nerve stumps, and activation of molecular signal transduction involved in growth cone, to potentiate the nerve recovery. PMID:25934451

  8. Platelet-rich plasma gel in combination with Schwann cells for repair of sciatic nerve injury☆

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fagang; Li, Haiyan; Qiao, Guangxi; Chen, Feng; Tao, Hao; Ji, Aiyu; Hu, Yanling

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits, culture-expanded and differentiated into Schwann cell-like cells. Autologous platelet-rich plasma and Schwann cell-like cells were mixed in suspension at a density of 1 × 106 cells/mL, prior to introduction into a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit. Fabricated tissue-engineered nerves were implanted into rabbits to bridge 10 mm sciatic nerve defects (platelet-rich plasma group). Controls were established using fibrin as the seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells at identical density to construct tissue-engineered nerves (fibrin group). Twelve weeks after implantation, toluidine blue staining and scanning electron microscopy were used to demonstrate an increase in the number of regenerating nerve fibers and thickness of the myelin sheath in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group. Fluoro-gold retrograde labeling revealed that the number of Fluoro-gold-positive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and the spinal cord anterior horn was greater in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the fibrin group. Electrophysiological examination confirmed that compound muscle action potential and nerve conduction velocity were superior in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group. These results indicate that autologous platelet-rich plasma gel can effectively serve as a seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells to construct tissue-engineered nerves to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:25538751

  9. Targeted fascicular biopsy of the sciatic nerve and its major branches: rationale and operative technique.

    PubMed

    Capek, Stepan; Amrami, Kimberly K; Dyck, P James B; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    OBJECT Nerve biopsy is typically performed in distal, noncritical sensory nerves without using imaging to target the more involved regions. The yield of these procedures rarely achieves more than 50%. In selected cases where preoperative evaluation points toward a more localized (usually a more proximal) process, targeted biopsy would likely capture the disease. Synthesis of data obtained from clinical examination, electrophysiological testing, and MRI allows biopsy of a portion of the major mixed nerves safely and efficiently. Herein, experiences with the sciatic nerve are reported and a description of the operative technique is provided. METHODS All cases of sciatic nerve biopsy performed between 2000 and 2014 were reviewed. Only cases of fascicular nerve biopsy approached from the buttock or the posterior aspect of the thigh were included. Demographic data, clinical presentation, and the presence of percussion tenderness for each patient were recorded. Reviewed studies included electrodiagnostic tests and imaging. Previous nerve and muscle biopsies were noted. All details of the procedure, final pathology, and its treatment implications were recorded. The complication rate was carefully assessed for temporary as well as permanent complications. RESULTS One hundred twelve cases (63 men and 49 women) of sciatic nerve biopsy were performed. Mean patient age was 46.4 years. Seventy-seven (68.8%) patients presented with single lower-extremity symptoms, 16 (14.3%) with bilateral lower-extremity symptoms, and 19 (17%) with generalized symptoms. No patient had normal findings on physical examination. All patients underwent electrodiagnostic studies, the findings of which were abnormal in 110 (98.2%) patients. MRI was available for all patients and was read as pathological in 111 (99.1%). The overall diagnostic yield of biopsy was 84.8% (n = 95). The pathological diagnoses included inflammatory demyelination, perineurioma, nonspecific inflammatory changes

  10. Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Han-Yu; Jiang, Xin-Mei; Niu, Chun-Bo; Du, Lin; Feng, Jun-Yan; Jia, Fei-Yong

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Cerebrolysin on the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we first established a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by administering a high-glucose, high-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Mice defined as diabetic in this model were then treated with 1.80, 5.39 or 8.98 mL/kg of Cerebrolysin via intraperitoneal injections for 10 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that the number, diameter and area of myelinated nerve fibers increased in the sciatic nerves of these mice after administration of Cerebrolysin. The results of several behavioral tests showed that Cerebrolysin dose-dependently increased the slope angle in the inclined plane test (indicating an improved ability to maintain body position), prolonged tail-flick latency and foot-licking time (indicating enhanced sensitivity to thermal and chemical pain, respectively, and reduced pain thresholds), and increased an index of sciatic nerve function in diabetic mice compared with those behavioral results in untreated diabetic mice. Taken together, the anatomical and functional results suggest that Cerebrolysin ameliorated peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26981106

  11. Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Han-yu; Jiang, Xin-mei; Niu, Chun-bo; Du, Lin; Feng, Jun-yan; Jia, Fei-yong

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of Cerebrolysin on the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we first established a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by administering a high-glucose, high-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Mice defined as diabetic in this model were then treated with 1.80, 5.39 or 8.98 mL/kg of Cerebrolysin via intraperitoneal injections for 10 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that the number, diameter and area of myelinated nerve fibers increased in the sciatic nerves of these mice after administration of Cerebrolysin. The results of several behavioral tests showed that Cerebrolysin dose-dependently increased the slope angle in the inclined plane test (indicating an improved ability to maintain body position), prolonged tail-flick latency and foot-licking time (indicating enhanced sensitivity to thermal and chemical pain, respectively, and reduced pain thresholds), and increased an index of sciatic nerve function in diabetic mice compared with those behavioral results in untreated diabetic mice. Taken together, the anatomical and functional results suggest that Cerebrolysin ameliorated peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26981106

  12. Pre-differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in combination with a microstructured nerve guide supports peripheral nerve regeneration in the rat sciatic nerve model.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Arne Hendrik; van Neerven, Sabien Geraldine Antonia; Scheffel, Juliane; Tank, Julian; Altinova, Haktan; Seidensticker, Katrin; Deumens, Ronald; Tolba, Rene; Weis, Joachim; Brook, Gary Anthony; Pallua, Norbert; Bozkurt, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Many bioartificial nerve guides have been investigated pre-clinically for their nerve regeneration-supporting function, often in comparison to autologous nerve transplantation, which is still regarded as the current clinical gold standard. Enrichment of these scaffolds with cells intended to support axonal regeneration has been explored as a strategy to boost axonal regeneration across these nerve guides Ansselin et al. (1998). In the present study, 20 mm rat sciatic nerve defects were implanted with a cell-seeded microstructured collagen nerve guide (Perimaix) or an autologous nerve graft. Under the influence of seeded, pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells, axons regenerated well into the Perimaix nerve guide. Myelination-related parameters, like myelin sheath thickness, benefitted from an additional seeding with pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells. Furthermore, both the number of retrogradely labelled sensory neurons and the axon density within the implant were elevated in the cell-seeded scaffold group with pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells. However, a pre-differentiation had no influence on functional recovery. An additional cell seeding of the Perimaix nerve guide with mesenchymal stromal cells led to an extent of functional recovery, independent of the differentiation status, similar to autologous nerve transplantation. These findings encourage further investigations on pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells as a cellular support for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26296589

  13. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Danzi, Matt C.; Motti, Dario; Avison, Donna L.; Bixby, John L.; Lemmon, Vance P.

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model. PMID:26981104

  14. [Effect of stress on the development of deafferentation pain syndrome in rats after sciatic nerve transection].

    PubMed

    Osipov, A V; Kukushkin, M L

    1993-05-01

    Effect of immobilization and painful stress on the development of deafferentation pain syndrome, appeared after sciatic nerve section, has been studied in Wistar rats. It has been determined that both immobilization and painful stress favour the appearance of pain syndrome in rats without clinical signs of pain syndrome up to the moment of stress influence. There has been made a conclusion that both immobilization and painful stress favour the appearance of pathologic algic system, which is the basis of pain syndrome. The fact that stress can cause analgesia in normal animals in contrast to those with potential pain syndrome is explained to different mechanisms of physiological and pathological pain. PMID:8043822

  15. Epidermal laser stimulation of action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindra, Nichole M.; Goddard, Douglas; Imholte, Michelle; Thomas, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of laser-stimulated action potentials in the sciatic nerve of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) are made using two infrared lasers. The dorsal sides of the frog's hind limbs are exposed to short-pulsed 1540- and 1064-nm wavelengths at three separate spot sizes: 2, 3, and 4 mm. Energy density thresholds are determined for eliciting an action potential at each experimental condition. Results from these exposures show similar evoked potential thresholds for both wavelengths. The 2-mm-diam spot sizes yield action potentials at radiant exposure levels almost double that seen with larger beam sizes.

  16. Do Resin Cements Alter Action Potentials of Isolated Rat Sciatic Nerve?

    PubMed Central

    Ertan, Ahmet Atila; Beriat, Nilufer Celebi; Onur, Mehmet Ali; Tan, Gamze; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects dual-cure resin cements on nerve conduction. Methods: Panavia F, RelyX ARC, and Variolink II polymerized either by light-emitting diode (LED) or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) were used in the study (n=10). The conductance of sciatic nerves of 50 rats were measured before and after contact with the specimens for 1 h. Results: The time-dependent change in nerve conductance and the comparison of LED versus QTH showed that differences between groups are significant (P<.05). For both polymerization techniques, pair-wise comparisons of resin cements showed that the nerve conductance between groups is different (P<.05). RelyX ARC elicited irreversible inhibition of compound action potentials (more than 50% change) and Panavia F and Variolink II polymerized by LED and QTH did not alter nerve conduction beyond physiologic limits. Conclusions: Resin cements may alter nerve conductance and even lead to neurotoxic effects. PMID:21494389

  17. Repeatability of measuring sciatic nerve excursion during a modified passive straight leg raise test with ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Ridehalgh, Colette; Moore, Ann; Hough, Alan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability of a frame-by-frame cross correlation method of assessing longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion motion using real time ultrasound imaging during a modified passive straight leg raise (SLR) test. Eighteen asymptomatic participants (age range 19-68 years) lay on their sides on a purpose made jig and the sciatic nerve in the posterior thigh was imaged during knee extension at 30° and then 60° of hip flexion (HF). Participants were re-tested ≥48 h later. The ultrasound images were analysed off-line using cross correlation software. Results demonstrated excellent repeatability of in vivo sciatic nerve excursion during a modified SLR (HF30° ICC 0.92, CI 0.79-0.97, SEM 0.69; HF60° ICC 0.96, CI 0.89-0.99, SEM 0.87). The authors also identify points of good practise to ensure an accurate as possible measurement of nerve excursion using this method. These include breaking down larger movements into sub-components, visually tracking the moving nerve during the tracking procedure, and ensuring the optimal image is captured prior to analysis. The use of ultrasound imaging in lower limb nerve dysfunction will enhance the understanding of how nerves move in vivo during neurodynamic testing, as well as being able to identify possible alteration to nerve movements in patients with neuropathic pain states. PMID:22795391

  18. Effect of local administration of platelet-derived growth factor B on functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration: A sciatic nerve transection model

    PubMed Central

    Golzadeh, Atefeh; Mohammadi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effects of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) on peripheral nerve regeneration was studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Materials and Methods: Forty-five male, white Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: Normal control group (NC), silicon group (SIL), and PDGF-B treated group (SIL/PDGF). In NC group, left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and after homeostasis muscle was sutured. In the SIL group, the left sciatic nerve was exposed in the same way and transected proximal to tibio-peroneal bifurcation leaving a 10-mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone conduit and filled with 10 μL phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/PDGF group, the silicon conduit was filled with 10 μL PDGF-B (0.5 ng/mL). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five and were studied in 4, 8, 12 weeks after surgery. Results: Behavioral testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass, and histomorphometric studies showed earlier regeneration of axons in SIL/PDGF than in SIL group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Local administration of PDGF-B combined with silicon grafting could accelerate functional recovery and may have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after facial nerve transection. PMID:27274342

  19. Motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) and lead content in sciatic nerve of lead-exposed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Maehara, N.; Uchino, E.; Terayama, K.; Ohno, H.; Yamamura, K.

    1986-07-01

    There have been many pathological and electrophysiological studies of peripheral nerves in inorganic lead intoxication. Peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) has been used as an objective measure of the effects of lead on the peripheral nerve function and has been examined with blood lead content. There have been few reports on the changes in NCV related to lead content in the peripheral nerve tissue under lead poisoning. In the present study, the authors have examined motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) of the tail by a non-invasive method and lead content of the peripheral nerve in lead-exposed rats. Furthermore, they have attempted to assess the relationship between these two parameters.

  20. Crosstalk between p38, Hsp25 and Akt in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murashov, A. K.; Ul Haq, I.; Hill, C.; Park, E.; Smith, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Goldberg, D. J.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The p38 stress-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in regulation of phosphorylation of Hsp25, which in turn regulates actin filament dynamic in non-neuronal cells. We report that p38, Hsp25 and Akt signaling pathways were specifically activated in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve axotomy. The activation of the p38 kinase was required for induction of Hsp25 expression. Furthermore, Hsp25 formed a complex with Akt, a member of PI-3 kinase pathway that prevents neuronal cell death. Together, our observations implicate Hsp25 as a central player in a complex system of signaling that may both promote regeneration of nerve fibers and prevent neuronal cell death in the injured spinal cord.

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine in combined lumbar and sciatic nerve block

    PubMed Central

    Eljebari, Hanene; Jebabli, Nadia; Salouage, Issam; Gaies, Emna; Lakhal, Mohamed; Boussofara, Mehdi; Klouz, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to establish the population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model of bupivacaine after combined lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve blocks and secondary aim is to assess the effect of patient's characteristics including age, body weight and sex on pharmacokinetic parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 patients scheduled for elective lower extremity surgery with combined lumbar and sciatic nerve block using plain bupivacaine 0.5% were included. The total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were measured before injection and after two blocks placement and at selected time points. Monitoring of bupivacaine was made by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. Non-linear mixed effects modeling was used to analyze the PPK of bupivacaine. Results: One compartment model with first order absorption, two input compartments and a central elimination was selected. The Shapiro-Wilks test of normality for normalized prediction distribution errors for this model (P = 0.156) showed this as a valid model. The selected model predicts a population clearance of 930 ml/min (residual standard error [RSE] = 15.48%, IC 95% = 930 ± 282.24) with inter individual variability of 75.29%. The central volume of distribution was 134 l (RSE = 12.76%, IC = 134 ± 33.51 L) with inter individual variability of 63.40%. The absorption of bupivacaine in two sites Ka1 and Ka2 were 0.00462/min for the lumbar site and 0.292/min for the sciatic site. Age, body weight and sex have no effect on the bupivacaine pharmacokinetics in this studied population. Conclusion: The developed model helps us to assess the systemic absorption of bupivacaine at two injections sites. PMID:24741194

  2. Functional recovery from sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat correlates with individual differences in responses to chronic intermittent stress.

    PubMed

    van Meeteren, N L; Brakkee, J H; Helders, P J; Wiegant, V M; Gispen, W H

    1997-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the influence of chronic stress on functional recovery from a sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat. Male Wistar rats underwent standard unilateral sciatic nerve crush. Subsequently, chronic stress was induced during the recovery phase using a daily 30 min shock box session where rats received three electric footshocks each session (0.5 sec, 1 mA). Reduced body weight gain, adrenal gland hypertrophy, and thymus involution indicated that the stress rats were chronically stressed. Evaluation of sensorimotor function revealed significant differences in recovery between control and stress groups. Correlational analysis of individual stress rats indicated that recovery of the walking pattern was negatively correlated with adrenal gland and medulla enlargement, thymus involution, and plasma levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone 45 min following the final stress session. In control rats, the index of sciatic nerve function (SF index, expressed as the difference between the injured paw and the intact contralateral paw as a percentage) was significantly correlated with adrenal medulla weight only. The present study reveals that chronic intermittent footshock stress impedes sensorimotor recovery following a sciatic nerve crush lesion and that the consequences of chronic intermittent stress are individually determined. We suggest that the quality of functional locomotor recovery after nerve crush lesion is related to the adaptive capacity or coping style of the individual rat. PMID:9210522

  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine Tang-Luo-Ning Ameliorates Sciatic Nerve Injuries in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Da-Wei; Gao, Yan-Bin; Zhu, Zhi-Yao; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Tao-Jing; Li, Bu-Man; Wang, Jin-Yang; Li, Min-Zhou; Ma, Ming-Fei; Zhang, Na

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes associated with high disability rate and low quality of life. Tang-Luo-Ning (TLN) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of DPN. To illustrate the underlying neural protection mechanisms of TLN, the effect of TLN on electrophysiology and sciatic nerve morphology was investigated in a model of streptozotocin-induced DPN, as well as the underlying mechanism. Sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity and digital sensory nerve conduction velocity were reduced in DPN and were significantly improved by TLN or α-lipoic acid at 10 and 20 weeks after streptozotocin injection. It was demonstrated that TLN intervention for 20 weeks significantly alleviated pathological injury as well as increased the phosphorylation of ErbB2, Erk, Bad (Ser112), and the mRNA expression of neuregulin 1 (Nrg1), GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (Gab1), and mammalian target of rapamycin (Mtor) in injured sciatic nerve. These novel therapeutic properties of TLN to promote Schwann cell survival may offer a promising alternative medicine for the patients to delay the progression of DPN. The underlying mechanism may be that TLN exerts neural protection effect after sciatic nerve injury through Nrg1/ErbB2→Erk/Bad Schwann cell survival signaling pathway. PMID:24288572

  4. The influence of bacterial collagenase on regeneration of severed rat sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Wehling, P; Pak, M; Cleveland, S; Nieper, R

    1992-01-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerve fibers is impeded by the formation of scar tissue at the site of injury. The possible beneficial effect of collagenase on nerve regeneration was studied using clinical, neurophysiological (evoked potentials) and histological (nerve fiber counts) methods. The sciatic nerves of rats were transected and the severed ends abutted and sewn together. In one series, the area about the lesion was covered with fibrin adhesive and infused with either isotonic saline (controls) or collagenase (treatment group). In the other series, the severed ends of the nerve were inserted into a silicone tube and separated by a collagen plug, which was infused with either saline or collagenase. Compared to the controls, the treated animals showed a significant improvement of clinical and neurophysiological parameters. After 3 months of observation, the collagen content of the transection site was reduced, and in the silicone series, the total number of myelinated axons 5 mm distal to the site of transection was increased, while the fiber diameter distribution was unchanged. PMID:1336302

  5. An immunohistochemical study of the sciatic nerve in a rat knee immobilization model.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Taro; Hoso, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to immunohistochemically evaluate changes in the periphery of the sciatic nerve in a rat model of knee immobilization, and to assess the effects of range of motion exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one male rats were divided randomly into three groups: control (C), immobilized (I), and exercise (E group). Rats in the I and E groups had the right knee joint immobilized for 2 weeks. In the E group, range of motion exercise was also performed. After the experimental period, the periphery of the sciatic nerve was immunohistochemically observed. [Results] Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the myelin sheath and the perineurium in all groups were laminin positive. In the C and E groups, all rats showed normal staining. In contrast, 4 rats in the I group exhibited weak labeling. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that immobilization alters the perineurium at a molecular level and the range of motion exercise is essential for maintaining the environment of the perineurium. PMID:27190437

  6. An immunohistochemical study of the sciatic nerve in a rat knee immobilization model

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Taro; Hoso, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to immunohistochemically evaluate changes in the periphery of the sciatic nerve in a rat model of knee immobilization, and to assess the effects of range of motion exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one male rats were divided randomly into three groups: control (C), immobilized (I), and exercise (E group). Rats in the I and E groups had the right knee joint immobilized for 2 weeks. In the E group, range of motion exercise was also performed. After the experimental period, the periphery of the sciatic nerve was immunohistochemically observed. [Results] Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the myelin sheath and the perineurium in all groups were laminin positive. In the C and E groups, all rats showed normal staining. In contrast, 4 rats in the I group exhibited weak labeling. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that immobilization alters the perineurium at a molecular level and the range of motion exercise is essential for maintaining the environment of the perineurium. PMID:27190437

  7. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC{sub 50} values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC{sub 50} = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  8. Systemic administration of rhIGF-I enhanced regeneration after sciatic nerve crush in mice.

    PubMed

    Contreras, P C; Steffler, C; Yu, E; Callison, K; Stong, D; Vaught, J L

    1995-09-01

    Despite numerous reports suggesting that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) may be involved in the survival and regeneration of damaged neurons in vitro and after local administration in vivo, there have been few studies on the effect of IGF-I administered systemically on regeneration of damaged nerves in vivo and the functional consequences of enhanced regeneration. In an earlier study, recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) administered systemically enhanced the rate of regeneration after a sciatic crush as measured by the number of nerve fibers/muscle section. The purpose of this study was to follow up this finding by evaluating whether rhIGF-I administered peripherally enhances the rate of functional recovery. In this study following nerve injury, mice lost the ability to grip a wire screen with their hind paws and to walk normally as indicated by a decrease in toe spread, internal toe spread and an increase in the angle between hind feet. The ability of injured mice treated with rhIGF-I to grip an inverted screen returned to control levels significantly faster than that of vehicle-treated mice (day 12 vs. day 15, respectively). Similarly, rhIGF-I treatment of injured mice resulted in toe spread, internal toe spread and angle values that were significantly better than that of vehicle-treated mice and returned to control levels faster than vehicle-treated injured mice. There was a parallel loss of innervation after sciatic nerve crush as measured by a loss in choline acetyltransferase activity in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7562520

  9. Rat sciatic nerve reconstruction across a 30 mm defect bridged by an oriented porous PHBV tube with Schwann cell as artificial nerve graft.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mina; Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz; Doostmohamadpour, Jafar; Janfada, Alireza; Montazeri, Arash

    2014-01-01

    An oriented poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit has been used to evaluate its efficiency based on the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. The oriented porous micropatterned artificial nerve conduit was designed onto the micropatterned silicon wafers, and then their surfaces were modified with oxygen plasma to increase cell adhesion. The designed conduits were investigated by cell culture analyses with Schwann cells (SCs). The conduits were implanted into a 30 mm gap in sciatic nerves of rats. Four months after surgery, the regenerated nerves were monitored and evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology and behavioral analyses. Results of cellular analyses showed suitable properties of designed conduit for nerve regeneration. The results demonstrated that in the polymeric graft with SCs, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed with restoration of nerve continuity and formatted nerve fibers with myelination. Histological results demonstrated the presence of Schwann and glial cells in regenerated nerves. Functional recovery such as walking, swimming, and recovery of nociceptive function was illustrated for all the grafts especially conduits with SCs. This study proves the feasibility of the artificial nerve graft filled with SCs for peripheral nerve regeneration by bridging a longer defect in an animal model. PMID:24399063

  10. Rat Sciatic Nerve Reconstruction Across a 30 mm Defect Bridged by an Oriented Porous PHBV Tube With Schwann Cell as Artificial Nerve Graft

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An oriented poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit has been used to evaluate its efficiency based on the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. The oriented porous micropatterned artificial nerve conduit was designed onto the micropatterned silicon wafers, and then their surfaces were modified with oxygen plasma to increase cell adhesion. The designed conduits were investigated by cell culture analyses with Schwann cells (SCs). The conduits were implanted into a 30 mm gap in sciatic nerves of rats. Four months after surgery, the regenerated nerves were monitored and evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology and behavioral analyses. Results of cellular analyses showed suitable properties of designed conduit for nerve regeneration. The results demonstrated that in the polymeric graft with SCs, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed with restoration of nerve continuity and formatted nerve fibers with myelination. Histological results demonstrated the presence of Schwann and glial cells in regenerated nerves. Functional recovery such as walking, swimming, and recovery of nociceptive function was illustrated for all the grafts especially conduits with SCs. This study proves the feasibility of the artificial nerve graft filled with SCs for peripheral nerve regeneration by bridging a longer defect in an animal model. PMID:24399063

  11. Enhanced synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein E from sciatic nerves of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, S.; Yamada, N.; Oka, Y.; Shimano, H.; Mori, N.; Yoon, T.H.; Shimada, M.; Kanazawa, Y.; Akanuma, Y.; Murase, T.

    1988-08-30

    To elucidate the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy, synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein E (apo E) from sciatic nerves after injury was studied in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Seven, 14, 28, 45 and 59 days after making crush injury on sciatic nerves with concomitant administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight), the nerves were taken out and incubated with (/sup 35/S)methionine. The (/sup 35/S)labeled apo E was precipitated with specific antiserum. The amounts of apo E secreted into medium by nerves of diabetic rats were 7 times greater than those of non-diabetic rats 7 days after injury. This enhanced secretion of apo E was relatively selective for this protein, since the ratio of the immunoprecipitable apo E to the TCA preciptitable protein in the medium increased in diabetic rats. Intriguing possibility deduced from these results is that the secretion of apo E is involved in the development of diabetic neuropathy.

  12. Preparation of cross-linked carboxymethyl chitosan for repairing sciatic nerve injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gan; Lu, Guangyuan; Ao, Qiang; Gong, Yandao; Zhang, Xiufang

    2010-01-01

    A successful nerve regeneration process was achieved with nerve repair tubes made up of 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) cross-linked carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) with improved biodegradability. Chitosan has a very slow degradation rate, while the EDC cross-linked CM-chitosan tubes degraded to 30% of original weight during 8 weeks of incubation in lysozyme solution. In vitro cell culture indicated that the CM-chitosan films presented no cytotoxicity to Schwann cells. From in vivo studies using a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve defect model investigated by histomorphometry analysis, the average diameter of the fibers and the average thickness of myelin sheath in the CM-chitosan tubes were 3.7 +/- 0.33 and 0.33 +/- 0.04 mum, respectively, which demonstrated equivalence to nerve autografts (the current "gold" standard); furthermore, the average fiber density in the CM-chitosan tubes was 20.5 x 10(3)/mm(2), which was similar to that of autografts (21 x 10(3)/mm(2)) and significantly higher than that of common chitosan tubes (15.3 x 10(3)/mm(2)). PMID:19760120

  13. Expression pattern of myostatin in gastrocnemius muscle of rats after sciatic nerve crush injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Zhang, Donglei; Shao, Chenxin; Liu, Jie; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong

    2007-05-01

    Myostatin is a strong inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate myostatin expression profiles during denervation-induced muscle atrophy in order to understand the relationship between myostatin expression and muscle atrophy. We constructed a sciatic nerve crush model, undertook morphometric analyses of rat gastrocnemius muscle to evaluate the degree of muscle atrophy, and utilized a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis to measure myostatin mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively, in the gastrocnemius at different time-points after nerve injury. Muscle atrophy changed in a parabola-like manner from day 1 to day 28 after nerve injury, with a maximum value at day 14. During this time, myostatin expression changed in the reverse manner, with myostatin mRNA or protein expression gradually increasing from days 1-14, and then gradually declining to day 28, when the normal level was reached. Statistical analyses further provided evidence for a significant negative linear correlation between myostatin expression and muscle atrophy within a 28-day period after nerve injury. Our study thus describes the expression pattern of myostatin in response to a specific type of muscle atrophy and raises the possibility of developing myostatin as a therapeutic target for future clinical applications. PMID:17326119

  14. Transient Heat Hyperalgesia During Resolution of Ropivacaine Sciatic Nerve Block in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kolarczyk, Lavinia M.; Williams, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Preliminary studies using perineural sciatic ropivacaine in rat demonstrated unexpected heat hyperalgesia after block resolution. To better characterize the time course relative to mechanical anesthesia-analgesia, we tested the hypothesis that ropivacaine 0.5% leads to transient heat hyperalgesia in rat independent of mechanical nociception. We also evaluated functional toxicity (e.g., long-term hyperalgesia and/or tactile allodynia 2 weeks post-injection). Methods Under surgical exposure, left sciatic nerve block was performed in 2 groups of adult male rats – ropivacaine (200 μL, 5 mg/mL, n=14) versus vehicle (n=11). The efficacy and duration of block was assessed with serial heat, mechanical (Randall-Selitto testing), and tactile (von Frey-like monofilaments) tests; motor-proprioceptive (rotarod) and sedation tests were employed 1 hr and 7 hr post-injection. The presence of nerve injury was assessed by repeating the heat, tactile, and motor tests 12–14 days post-injection. Results Ropivacaine-induced anesthesia was fully manifest at 1 hr post-injection. At 3 hr post-injection, heat hypersensitivity was present in the setting of resolved mechanical analgesia. All behavioral measures returned to baseline by 2 wk post-injection. There was no evidence of (i) behavioral sedation, (ii) persistent changes in heat or mechanical sensitivity, or (iii) persistent changes in proprioceptive-motor function at 12–14 days post-injection. Conclusions Ropivacaine 0.5% induces transient heat hyperalgesia in the setting of resolved mechanical analgesia, further suggestive of modality and/or nociceptive fiber specificity. Whether this finding partially translates to “rebound pain” after patients’ nerve blocks wear off requires further study. PMID:21451438

  15. Conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor-transduced mesenchymal stem cells promote axon regeneration and functional recovery of injured sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Nie, Lin; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yuan-Qiang; Wang, Shuai-Shuai; Cheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease that often results in axonal degeneration and the loss of neurons, ultimately leading to limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Currently, there are no effective treatments for PNI. In the present study, we transduced conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in collagen tubes to investigate their regenerative effects on rat peripheral nerves in an in vivo transection model. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen tubes demonstrated their ability to be resorbed in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of the CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after application of CDNF-MSCs. Quantitative analysis of neurofilament 200 (NF200) and S100 immunohistochemistry showed significant enhancement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration in the group receiving CDNF-MSCs (CDNF-MSCs group) compared with the control groups. Myelination thickness, axon diameter and the axon-to fiber diameter ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the CDNF-MSCs group at 8 and 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. After surgery, the sciatic functional index, target muscle weight, wet weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing demonstrated functional recovery. Light and electron microscopy confirmed successful regeneration of the sciatic nerve. The greater numbers of HRP-labeled neuron cell bodies and increased sciatic nerve index values (SFI) in the CDNF-MSCs group suggest that CDNF exerts neuroprotective effects in vivo. We also observed higher target muscle weights and a significant improvement in muscle atrophism in the CDNF-MSCs group. Collectively, these findings indicate that CDNF gene therapy delivered by MSCs is capable of promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery, likely because of the significant neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of CDNF and the superior environment offered by MSCs and collagen tubes. PMID

  16. Conserved Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor-Transduced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Axon Regeneration and Functional Recovery of Injured Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Nie, Lin; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Yuan-Qiang; Wang, Shuai-Shuai; Cheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a common disease that often results in axonal degeneration and the loss of neurons, ultimately leading to limited nerve regeneration and severe functional impairment. Currently, there are no effective treatments for PNI. In the present study, we transduced conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in collagen tubes to investigate their regenerative effects on rat peripheral nerves in an in vivo transection model. Scanning electron microscopy of the collagen tubes demonstrated their ability to be resorbed in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of the CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after application of CDNF-MSCs. Quantitative analysis of neurofilament 200 (NF200) and S100 immunohistochemistry showed significant enhancement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration in the group receiving CDNF-MSCs (CDNF-MSCs group) compared with the control groups. Myelination thickness, axon diameter and the axon-to fiber diameter ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the CDNF-MSCs group at 8 and 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. After surgery, the sciatic functional index, target muscle weight, wet weight ratio of gastrocnemius muscle and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing demonstrated functional recovery. Light and electron microscopy confirmed successful regeneration of the sciatic nerve. The greater numbers of HRP-labeled neuron cell bodies and increased sciatic nerve index values (SFI) in the CDNF-MSCs group suggest that CDNF exerts neuroprotective effects in vivo. We also observed higher target muscle weights and a significant improvement in muscle atrophism in the CDNF-MSCs group. Collectively, these findings indicate that CDNF gene therapy delivered by MSCs is capable of promoting nerve regeneration and functional recovery, likely because of the significant neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of CDNF and the superior environment offered by MSCs and collagen tubes. PMID

  17. Effects of umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells (UCX®) on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after neurotmesis injuries

    PubMed Central

    Gärtner, A; Pereira, T; Armada-da-Silva, PAS; Amado, S; Veloso, AP; Amorim, I; Ribeiro, J; Santos, JD; Bárcia, RN; Cruz, P; Cruz, H; Luís, AL; Santos, JM; Geuna, S; Maurício, AC

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of the regeneration is often very poor. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) may play an important role in tissue regeneration through the secretion of soluble trophic factors that enhance and assist in repair by paracrine activation of surrounding cells. In the present study, the therapeutic value of a population of umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs, obtained by a proprietary method (UCX®), was evaluated on end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair. Furthermore, in order to promote both, end-to-end nerve fiber contacts and MSC cell-cell interaction, as well as reduce the flush away effect of the cells after administration, a commercially available haemostatic sealant, Floseal®, was used as vehicle. Both, functional and morphologic recoveries were evaluated along the healing period using extensor postural thrust (EPT), withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), ankle kinematics analysis, and either histological analysis or stereology, in the hyper-acute, acute and chronic phases of healing. The histological analysis of the hyper-acute and acute phase studies revealed that in the group treated with UCX® alone the Wallerian degeneration was improved for the subsequent process of regeneration, the fiber organization was higher, and the extent of fibrosis was lower. The chronic phase experimental groups revealed that treatment with UCX® induced an increased number of regenerated fibers and thickening of the myelin sheet. Kinematics analysis showed that the ankle joint angle determined for untreated animals was significantly different from any of the treated groups at the instant of initial contact (IC). At opposite toe off (OT) and heel rise (HR), differences were found between untreated animals and the groups treated with either uCx® alone or UCX® administered with Floseal®. Overall, the UCX® application presented positive effects in

  18. Behavioural pain-related disorders and contribution of the saphenous nerve in crush and chronic constriction injury of the rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Attal, N; Filliatreau, G; Perrot, S; Jazat, F; Di Giamberardino, L; Guilbaud, G

    1994-11-01

    This study evaluated the pain-related behaviours induced by 2 models of peripheral sciatic nerve injuries in the rat: transient nerve crush and chronic constriction injury (CCI). Various lesions of the saphenous nerve were performed in order to investigate the role of saphenous innervation in behavioural disorders induced by these nerve injuries. Behavioural testing included assessment of responses to phasic stimulation (mechanical and thermal) and observation of 'spontaneous' pain-related behaviour. Results confirmed that the model of CCI induces marked and prolonged phasic and spontaneous pain-related disorders (up to week 7). Rats with crush injury exhibited moderate and transient hyperalgesia and allodynia to mechanical and thermal stimulation on the lesioned side (with a maximum at day 3 and a recovery by week 1). Section plus ligation of the ipsilateral saphenous nerve on the day of surgery prevented nociceptive behaviours and induced persistent mechanical and thermal anaesthesia or hypoesthesia of the lesioned paw in both models (lasting up to 3-4 weeks). Section without ligation of the saphenous nerve induced comparable results in rats with sciatic crush, but did not significantly modify nociceptive behaviours in rats with CCI. These data emphasise the role of adjacent saphenous nerve in the mechanisms of pain-related disorders induced by these peripheral nerve lesions. On the contralateral paw, pain-related modifications were also observed in both models, suggesting that unilateral nerve lesions induce remote modifications extending beyond the site of the injured nerve. PMID:7892028

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 is downregulated in sciatic nerve by streptozotocin induced diabetes and/or treatment with minocycline: Implications for nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sumia; Driscoll, Heather E.; Newton, Victoria L.; Gardiner, Natalie J.

    2014-01-01

    Minocycline is an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and has been shown to have analgesic effects. Whilst increased expression of MMPs is associated with neuropathic pain, MMPs also play crucial roles in Wallerian degeneration and nerve regeneration. In this study we examined the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1/-2 in the sciatic nerve of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with either vehicle or minocycline by quantitative PCR and gelatin zymography. We assessed the effects of minocycline on nerve conduction velocity and intraepidermal nerve fibre (IENF) deficits in diabetic neuropathy and investigated the effects of minocycline or MMP-2 on neurite outgrowth from primary cultures of dissociated adult rat sensory neurons. We show that MMP-2 is expressed constitutively in the sciatic nerve in vivo and treatment with minocycline or diabetes leads to downregulation of MMP-2 expression and activity. The functional consequence of this is IENF deficits in minocycline-treated nondiabetic rats and an unsupportive microenvironment for regeneration in diabetes. Minocycline reduces levels of MMP-2 mRNA and nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, in vivo minocycline treatment reduces preconditioning-induced in vitro neurite outgrowth following a sciatic nerve crush. In contrast, the addition of active MMP-2 facilitates neurite outgrowth in the absence of neurotrophic support and pre-treatment of diabetic sciatic nerve substrata with active MMP-2 promotes a permissive environment for neurite outgrowth. In conclusion we suggest that MMP-2 downregulation may contribute to the regenerative deficits in diabetes. Minocycline treatment also downregulates MMP-2 activity and is associated with inhibitory effects on sensory neurons. Thus, caution should be exhibited with its use as the balance between beneficial and detrimental outcomes may be critical in assessing the benefits of using

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 is downregulated in sciatic nerve by streptozotocin induced diabetes and/or treatment with minocycline: Implications for nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sumia; Driscoll, Heather E; Newton, Victoria L; Gardiner, Natalie J

    2014-11-01

    Minocycline is an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and has been shown to have analgesic effects. Whilst increased expression of MMPs is associated with neuropathic pain, MMPs also play crucial roles in Wallerian degeneration and nerve regeneration. In this study we examined the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1/-2 in the sciatic nerve of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with either vehicle or minocycline by quantitative PCR and gelatin zymography. We assessed the effects of minocycline on nerve conduction velocity and intraepidermal nerve fibre (IENF) deficits in diabetic neuropathy and investigated the effects of minocycline or MMP-2 on neurite outgrowth from primary cultures of dissociated adult rat sensory neurons. We show that MMP-2 is expressed constitutively in the sciatic nerve in vivo and treatment with minocycline or diabetes leads to downregulation of MMP-2 expression and activity. The functional consequence of this is IENF deficits in minocycline-treated nondiabetic rats and an unsupportive microenvironment for regeneration in diabetes. Minocycline reduces levels of MMP-2 mRNA and nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, in vivo minocycline treatment reduces preconditioning-induced in vitro neurite outgrowth following a sciatic nerve crush. In contrast, the addition of active MMP-2 facilitates neurite outgrowth in the absence of neurotrophic support and pre-treatment of diabetic sciatic nerve substrata with active MMP-2 promotes a permissive environment for neurite outgrowth. In conclusion we suggest that MMP-2 downregulation may contribute to the regenerative deficits in diabetes. Minocycline treatment also downregulates MMP-2 activity and is associated with inhibitory effects on sensory neurons. Thus, caution should be exhibited with its use as the balance between beneficial and detrimental outcomes may be critical in assessing the benefits of using

  1. Long-term effect of ropivacaine nanoparticles for sciatic nerve block on postoperative pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi; Huang, Haizhen; Yang, Shaozhong; Huang, Shanshan; Guo, Jingxuan; Tang, Qi; Qi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The analgesic effect of ropivacaine (Rop) for nerve block lasts only ~3–6 hours for single use. The aim of this study was to develop long-acting regional anesthetic Rop nanoparticles and investigate the effects of sciatic nerve block on postoperative pain in rats. Materials and methods Rop nanoparticles were developed using polyethylene glycol-co-polylactic acid (PELA). One hundred and twenty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=30, each): Con (control group; 0.9% saline, 200 µL), PELA (PELA group; 10 mg), Rop (Rop group; 0.5%, 200 µL), and Rop-PELA (Rop-PELA group; 10%, 10 mg). Another 12 rats were used for the detection of Rop concentration in plasma. The mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were measured at 2 hours, 4 hours, 8 hours, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after incision. The expression of c-FOS was determined by immunohistochemistry at 2 hours, 8 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days. Nerve and organ toxicities were also evaluated at 7 days. Results The duration of Rop absorption in the plasma of the Rop-PELA group was longer (>8 hours) than that of the Rop group (4 hours). Mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency in the Rop-PELA group were higher than that in other groups (4 hours–3 days). c-FOS expression in the Rop-PELA group was lower than that in the control group at 2 hours, 8 hours, and 48 hours and lower than that in the Rop group at 8 hours and 48 hours after paw incision. Slight foreign body reactions were observed surrounding the sciatic nerve at 7 days. No obvious pathophysiological change was found in the major organs after Rop-PELA administration at 7 days. Conclusion Rop-PELA provides an effective analgesia for nerve block over 3 days after single administration, and the analgesic mechanism might be mediated by the regulation of spinal c-FOS expression. However, its potential long-term tissue toxicity needs to be further investigated. PMID:27274236

  2. Extracorporeal shock waves stimulate frog sciatic nerves indirectly via a cavitation-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Schelling, G.; Delius, M.; Gschwender, M.; Grafe, P.; Gambihler, S.

    1994-01-01

    Shock waves (SWs) are single pressure pulses with amplitudes up to over 100 MPa, a rise time of only a few nanoseconds, and a short duration of approximately 2 microseconds. Their clinical application for stone destruction causes pain, indicating nerve stimulation by SWs. To examine this phenomenon, sciatic nerves of frogs were exposed to SWs in an organ bath. The SWs were generated with an experimental Dornier lithotripter model XL1 at an operating voltage of 15 kV. The nerves were mounted in a chamber which allowed electrical nerve stimulation and the registration of electrically and SW-induced compound action potentials (SWCAPs). The chamber was filled with frog Ringer's solution. In a standardized protocol. The first experiment established that 95.0 +/- 4.7% of administered SWs induced action potentials which were lower in amplitude (1.45 +/- 1.14 versus 1.95 +/- 0.95 mV, p = 0.004) but similar in shape to electrically induced compound action potentials. In a second experiment, it was shown that the site of origin of the SWCAPs could be correctly determined by simultaneous recording of action potentials at both ends of the nerve. The mechanism of shock wave stimulation was examined by experiments 3 and 4. In experiment 3, in contrast to the previous experiments, SW exposure of the nerves was performed 6 cm outside the shock wave focus. This resulted in a mean probability of inducing a SWCAP of only 4%. After gas bubble administration, this probability increased to 86% for the first SW released immediately after bubble application and declined to 56% for the second, 21% for the third, to 0 for the 10th SW after fluid injection. This indicates that cavitation, the interaction between shock waves and gas bubbles in fluid or tissues, was involved in SWCAP generation. In experiment 4, nerves were again exposed in the focus, however, the Ringer's solution surrounding the nerve was replaced by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA is a solution with low cavitation activity

  3. Nerve Wrapping of the Sciatic Nerve With Acellular Dermal Matrix in Chronic Complete Proximal Hamstring Ruptures and Ischial Apophyseal Avulsion Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Haus, Brian M.; Arora, Danny; Upton, Joseph; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic injuries of the proximal hamstring can develop significant impairment because of weakness of the hamstring muscles, sciatic nerve compression from scar formation, or myositis ossificans. Purpose: To describe the surgical outcomes of patients with chronic injury of the proximal hamstrings who were treated with hamstring repair and sciatic neurolysis supplemented with nerve wrapping with acellular dermal matrix. Study Design: Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Fifteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of chronic complete proximal hamstring rupture or chronic ischial tuberosity apophyseal avulsion fracture (mean age, 39.67 years; range, 14-69 years) were treated with proximal hamstring repair and sciatic neurolysis supplemented with nerve wrapping with acellular dermal matrix. Nine patients had preoperative sciatica, and 6 did not. Retrospective chart review recorded clinical outcomes measured by the degree of pain relief, the rate of return to activities, and associated postoperative complications. Results: All 15 patients were followed in the postoperative period for an average of 16.6 months. Postoperatively, there were 4 cases of transient sciatic nerve neurapraxia. Four patients (26%) required postoperative betamethasone sodium phosphate (Celestone Soluspan) injectable suspension USP 6 mg/mL. Among the 9 patients with preoperative sciatica, 6 (66%) had a good or excellent outcome and were able to return to their respective activities/sports; 3 (33%) had persistent chronic pain. One of these had persistent sciatic neuropathy that required 2 surgical reexplorations and scar excision after development of recurrent extraneural scar formation. Among the 6 without preoperative sciatica, 100% had a good or excellent outcomes and 83% returned to their respective activities/sports. Better outcomes were observed in younger patients, as the 3 cases of persistent chronic sciatic pain were in patients older than 45

  4. Optical coherence tomography for detection of compound action potential in Xenopus Laevis sciatic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiani, Francesca; Nikolic, Konstantin; Constandinou, Timothy G.

    2016-03-01

    Due to optical coherence tomography (OCT) high spatial and temporal resolution, this technique could be used to observe the quick changes in the refractive index that accompany action potential. In this study we explore the use of time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (TD-OCT) for real time action potential detection in ex vivo Xenopus Laevis sciatic nerve. TD-OCT is the easiest and less expensive OCT technique and, if successful in detecting real time action potential, it could be used for low cost monitoring devices. A theoretical investigation into the order of magnitude of the signals detected by a TD-OCT setup is provided by this work. A linear dependence between the refractive index and the intensity changes is observed and the minimum SNR for which the setup could work is found to be SNR = 2 x 104.

  5. Respective pharmacological features of neuropathic-like pain evoked by intrathecal BDNF versus sciatic nerve ligation in rats.

    PubMed

    M'Dahoma, Saïd; Barthélemy, Sandrine; Tromilin, Claire; Jeanson, Tiffany; Viguier, Florent; Michot, Benoit; Pezet, Sophie; Hamon, Michel; Bourgoin, Sylvie

    2015-11-01

    Numerous reported data support the idea that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is critically involved in both depression and comorbid pain. The possible direct effect of BDNF on pain mechanisms was assessed here and compared with behavioral/neurobiological features of neuropathic pain caused by chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI-SN). Sprague-Dawley male rats were either injected intrathecally with BDNF (3.0 ng i.t.) or subjected to unilateral CCI-SN. Their respective responses to anti-hyperalgesic drugs were assessed using the Randall-Selitto test and both immunohistochemical and RT-qPCR approaches were used to investigate molecular/cellular mechanisms underlying hyperalgesia in both models. Long lasting hyperalgesia and allodynia were induced by i.t. BDNF in intact healthy rats like those found after CCI-SN. Acute treatment with the BDNF-TrkB receptor antagonist cyclotraxin B completely prevented i.t. BDNF-induced hyperalgesia and partially reversed this symptom in both BDNF-pretreated and CCI-SN lesioned rats. Acute administration of the anticonvulsant pregabalin, the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine, the opioid analgesics morphine and tapentadol or the antidepressant agomelatine also transiently reversed hyperalgesia in both i.t. BDNF injected- and CCI-SN lesioned-rats. Marked induction of microglia activation markers (OX42, Iba1, P-p38), proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, NMDA receptor subunit NR2B and BDNF was found in spinal cord and/or dorsal root ganglia of CCI-SN rats. A long lasting spinal BDNF overexpression was also observed in BDNF i.t. rats, indicating an autocrine self-induction, with downstream long lasting TrkB-mediated neuropathic-like pain. Accordingly, TrkB blockade appeared as a relevant approach to alleviate not only i.t. BDNF- but also nerve lesion-evoked neuropathic pain. PMID:26343858

  6. Ex Vivo Assay of Electrical Stimulation to Rat Sciatic Nerves: Cell Behaviors and Growth Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiyong; Bondarenko, Olexandr; Wang, Dingkun; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Zhang, Ze

    2016-06-01

    Neurite outgrowth and axon regeneration are known to benefit from electrical stimulation. However, how neuritis and their surroundings react to electrical field is difficult to replicate by monolayer cell culture. In this work freshly harvested rat sciatic nerves were cultured and exposed to two types of electrical field, after which time the nerve tissues were immunohistologically stained and the expression of neurotrophic factors and cytokines were evaluated. ELISA assay was used to confirm the production of specific proteins. All cell populations survived the 48 h culture with little necrosis. Electrical stimulation was found to accelerate Wallerian degeneration and help Schwann cells to switch into migratory phenotype. Inductive electrical stimulation was shown to upregulate the secretion of multiple neurotrophic factors. Cellular distribution in nerve tissue was altered upon the application of an electrical field. This work thus presents an ex vivo model to study denervated axon in well controlled electrical field, bridging monolayer cell culture and animal experiment. It also demonstrated the critical role of electrical field distribution in regulating cellular activities. PMID:26516696

  7. Effect of adjuvants on the action of local anesthetics in isolated rat sciatic nerves

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Eser; Gold, Michael S.; Hough, Karen A.; Gebhart, G.F.; Williams, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives There is increasing clinical use of adjuvant drugs to prolong the duration of local anesthetic-induced block of peripheral nerves. However, the mechanistic understanding regarding drug interactions between these compounds in the periphery is quite limited. Accordingly, we undertook this study to determine whether selected adjuvants are efficacious in blocking action potential propagation in peripheral nerves at concentrations used clinically, and whether these drugs influence peripheral nerve block produced by local anesthetics. Methods Isolated rat sciatic nerves were used to assess (1) the efficacy of buprenorphine, clonidine, dexamethasone, or midazolam, alone and in combination, on action potential propagation; and (2) their influence on the blocking actions of local anesthetics ropivacaine and lidocaine. Compound action potentials (CAPs) from A- and C-fibers were studied before and after drug application. Results At estimated clinical concentrations, neither buprenorphine nor dexamethasone affected either A- or C-waves of the CAP. Clonidine produced a small, but significant attenuation of the C-wave amplitude. Midazolam attenuated both A- and C-wave amplitudes, but with greater potency on the C-wave. The combination of clonidine, buprenorphine, and dexamethasone had no influence on the potency or duration of local anesthetic- or midazolam-induced block of A-and C-waves of the CAP. Conclusions These results suggest that the reported clinical efficacy of clonidine, buprenorphine, and dexamethasone influence the actions of local anesthetics via indirect mechanisms. Further identification of these indirect mechanisms may enable the development of novel approaches to achieve longer duration, modality-specific peripheral nerve block. PMID:22430023

  8. Dynamic Change and Target Prediction of Axon-Specific MicroRNAs in Regenerating Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Phay, Monichan; Kim, Hak Hee; Yoo, Soonmoon

    2015-01-01

    Injury to axons in the peripheral nervous system induces rapid and local regenerative responses to form a new growth cone, and to generate a retrogradely transporting injury signal. The evidence for essential roles of intra-axonal protein synthesis during regeneration is now compelling. MicroRNA (miRNA) has recently been recognized as a prominent player in post-transcriptional regulation of axonal protein synthesis. Here, we directly contrast temporal changes of miRNA levels in the sciatic nerve following injury, as compared to those in an uninjured nerve using deep sequencing. Small RNAs (<200 nucleotides in length) were fractionated from the proximal nerve stumps to improve the representation of differential miRNA levels. Of 141 axoplasmic miRNAs annotated, 63 rat miRNAs showed significantly differential levels at five time points following injury, compared to an uninjured nerve. The differential changes in miRNA levels responding to injury were processed for hierarchical clustering analyses, and used to predict target mRNAs by Targetscan and miRanda. By overlapping these predicted targets with 2,924 axonally localizing transcripts previously reported, the overlapping set of 214 transcripts was further analyzed by the Gene Ontology enrichment and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses. These results suggest the possibility that the potential targets for these miRNAs play key roles in numerous neurological functions involved in ER stress response, cytoskeleton dynamics, vesicle formation, and neuro-degeneration and-regeneration. Finally, our results suggest that miRNAs could play a direct role in regenerative response and may be manipulated to promote regenerative ability of injured nerves. PMID:26331719

  9. Cholera Toxin B Subunit Shows Transneuronal Tracing after Injection in an Injured Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Bi-Qin; Qiu, Xue-Chen; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Rong-Yi; Jin, Hui; Li, Ge; Shen, Hui-Yong; Wu, Jin-Lang; Ling, Eng-Ang; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has been extensively used in the past for monosynaptic mapping. For decades, it was thought to lack the ability of transneuronal tracing. In order to investigate whether biotin conjugates of CTB (b-CTB) would pass through transneurons in the rat spinal cord, it was injected into the crushed left sciatic nerve. For experimental control, the first order afferent neuronal projections were defined by retrograde transport of fluorogold (FG, a non-transneuronal labeling marker as an experimental control) injected into the crushed right sciatic nerve in the same rat. Neurons containing b-CTB or FG were observed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at the L4-L6 levels ipsilateral to the tracer injection. In the spinal cord, b-CTB labeled neurons were distributed in all laminae ipsilaterally between C7 and S1 segments, but labeling of neurons at the cervical segment was abolished when the T10 segment was transected completely. The interneurons, distributed in the intermediate gray matter and identified as gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic), were labeled by b-CTB. In contrast, FG labeling was confined to the ventral horn neurons at L4-L6 spinal segments ipsilateral to the injection. b-CTB immunoreactivity remained to be restricted to the soma of neurons and often appeared as irregular patches detected by light and electron microscopy. Detection of monosialoganglioside (GM1) in b-CTB labeled neurons suggests that GM1 ganglioside may specifically enhance the uptake and transneuronal passage of b-CTB, thus supporting the notion that it may be used as a novel transneuronal tracer. PMID:26640949

  10. Post-evaluation of the neurophaties treatment post-trauma with therapeutic laser. Model in sciatic nerve of frog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Antonio S.; Ocampo, Arcelia F. M.; Hernández, María G. H.; Jasso, José L. C.; Lira, Maricela O. F.; Flores, Mariana A.; Balderrama, Vicente L.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compound nerve action potential amplitude and latency measured to determine the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated in a model of stimulated frog sciatic nerve laser at 810 nm as perioperative treatment after injury. It used 30 bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to obtain 60 sciatic nerves forming four groups, groups 1 and 2 worked with nerves in vitro, were dissected in humid chambers for placing isolated organ, was recorded on compound nerve action potential, the second group laser was applied at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours and at the same time were placed in 10% formalin. Groups 3 and 4 are worked in vivo localizing the nerve and causing damage through compression, occurred over the compound nerve action potential to assess the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated, the group 4 was applied to 810 nm laser (500 Hz, 10 J, 200 mW) after injury, after 48 hours, three frogs were sacrificed by introducing the nerves in 10% formalin. The latency recorded by stimulating the sciatic nerve of frog to 0.5 mA and 100 ms in groups 1 and 2 show significant differences (p<0.001 and p<000) as in the amplitude (p<000 and p<000). Groups 3 and 4, which was stimulated at 100 mA and 100 ms latency showed no statistically significant difference (p>000), as to the extent, if any statistically significant difference. (p<0.001 and p<0.000). The laser produces a favorable response in the treatment of paresthesia (post-traumatic neuropathy).

  11. Post-evaluation of the neurophaties treatment post-trauma with therapeutic laser. Model in sciatic nerve of frog

    SciTech Connect

    Escobar, Antonio S.; Ocampo, Arcelia F. M.; Hernandez, Maria G. H.; Jasso, Jose L. C.

    2010-05-31

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compound nerve action potential amplitude and latency measured to determine the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated in a model of stimulated frog sciatic nerve laser at 810 nm as perioperative treatment after injury. It used 30 bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to obtain 60 sciatic nerves forming four groups, groups 1 and 2 worked with nerves in vitro, were dissected in humid chambers for placing isolated organ, was recorded on compound nerve action potential, the second group laser was applied at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours and at the same time were placed in 10% formalin. Groups 3 and 4 are worked in vivo localizing the nerve and causing damage through compression, occurred over the compound nerve action potential to assess the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated, the group 4 was applied to 810 nm laser (500 Hz, 10 J, 200 mW) after injury, after 48 hours, three frogs were sacrificed by introducing the nerves in 10% formalin. The latency recorded by stimulating the sciatic nerve of frog to 0.5 mA and 100 ms in groups 1 and 2 show significant differences (p<0.001 and p<000) as in the amplitude (p<000 and p<000). Groups 3 and 4, which was stimulated at 100 mA and 100 ms latency showed no statistically significant difference (p>000), as to the extent, if any statistically significant difference. (p<0.001 and p<0.000). The laser produces a favorable response in the treatment of paresthesia (post-traumatic neuropathy).

  12. Gallic acid and exercise training improve motor function, nerve conduction velocity but not pain sense reflex after experimental sciatic nerve crush in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hajimoradi, Maryam; Fazilati, Mohammad; Gharib-Naseri, Mohammad Kazem; Sarkaki, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA) for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush. Materials and Methods: Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1) Control (Cont), 2) Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh), 3-5) Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA) (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally), 6) Crushed + exercise (Cr+Exe), and 7) Crushed + exercise + effective dose of gallic acid (Cr+Exe +GA200) for 21 days. In order to establish an animal model of sciatic nerve crush, equivalent to 7 kg of force pressed on 2-3 mm of sciatic nerve for 30 s, three times with 30 s intervals. Pain sense reflex in hot plate, motor coordination in rotarod, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) in all groups were tested. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test and p<0.05 has assigned as the significant difference. Results: Pain threshold was increased significantly in untreated crushed rats while motor function and SNCV were decreased in all groups with nerve crush (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001 vs. control). Pain reflex latency was not changed in treated groups. Motor coordination and SNCV were improved in groups Cr+GA200 and Cr+Exe + GA200 (p<0.05, p<0.01 vs. Cr+Veh). Conclusion: GA, dose-dependently, may have therapeutic potential to improve the peripheral nerve degeneration, which is most likely related, at least in part, to its antioxidant and therapeutic properties. PMID:26445710

  13. Mice Lacking GD3 Synthase Display Morphological Abnormalities in the Sciatic Nerve and Neuronal Disturbances during Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Resende, Victor Túlio; Gomes, Tiago Araújo; de Lima, Silmara; Nascimento-Lima, Maiara; Bargas-Rega, Michele; Santiago, Marcelo Felipe; Reis, Ricardo Augusto de Melo; de Mello, Fernando Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. However, the biological roles of this ganglioside during the regenerative process are unclear. We used mice lacking GD3 synthase (Siat3a KO), an enzyme that converts GM3 to GD3, which can be further converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3. Morphological analyses of longitudinal and transverse sections of the sciatic nerve revealed significant differences in the transverse area and nerve thickness. The number of axons and the levels of myelin basic protein were significantly reduced in adult KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The G-ratio was increased in KO mice compared to WT mice based on quantification of thin transverse sections stained with toluidine blue. We found that neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced in the absence of GD3. However, addition of exogenous GD3 led to neurite growth after 3 days, similar to that in WT mice. To evaluate fiber regeneration after nerve lesioning, we compared the regenerated distance from the lesion site and found that this distance was one-fourth the length in KO mice compared to WT mice. KO mice in which GD3 was administered showed markedly improved regeneration compared to the control KO mice. In summary, we suggest that 9-O-acetyl GD3 plays biological roles in neuron-glia interactions, facilitating axonal growth and myelination induced by Schwann cells. Moreover, exogenous GD3 can be converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3 in mice lacking GD3 synthase, improving regeneration. PMID:25330147

  14. Mice lacking GD3 synthase display morphological abnormalities in the sciatic nerve and neuronal disturbances during peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Resende, Victor Túlio; Araújo Gomes, Tiago; de Lima, Silmara; Nascimento-Lima, Maiara; Bargas-Rega, Michele; Santiago, Marcelo Felipe; Reis, Ricardo Augusto de Melo; de Mello, Fernando Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. However, the biological roles of this ganglioside during the regenerative process are unclear. We used mice lacking GD3 synthase (Siat3a KO), an enzyme that converts GM3 to GD3, which can be further converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3. Morphological analyses of longitudinal and transverse sections of the sciatic nerve revealed significant differences in the transverse area and nerve thickness. The number of axons and the levels of myelin basic protein were significantly reduced in adult KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The G-ratio was increased in KO mice compared to WT mice based on quantification of thin transverse sections stained with toluidine blue. We found that neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced in the absence of GD3. However, addition of exogenous GD3 led to neurite growth after 3 days, similar to that in WT mice. To evaluate fiber regeneration after nerve lesioning, we compared the regenerated distance from the lesion site and found that this distance was one-fourth the length in KO mice compared to WT mice. KO mice in which GD3 was administered showed markedly improved regeneration compared to the control KO mice. In summary, we suggest that 9-O-acetyl GD3 plays biological roles in neuron-glia interactions, facilitating axonal growth and myelination induced by Schwann cells. Moreover, exogenous GD3 can be converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3 in mice lacking GD3 synthase, improving regeneration. PMID:25330147

  15. Stretching of the sciatic nerve; a means of relieving postoperative pain following removal of ruptured lumbar intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    ADAMS, J E; INMAN, V T

    1959-07-01

    Stretching the sciatic nerve for the relief of "sciatica" was frequently employed before 1900 and was subsequently abandoned, probably because it was done without sufficient scrutiny of the indications. The procedure has recently been employed in cases in which "sciatica" remains following the operative removal of ruptured intervertebral discs, and it has been instrumental in relieving postoperative "sciatica" when the cause was the formation of adhesions about the lumbar nerve roots. If the nerve root is compressed by recurrent disc protrusion or by adjacent bone, the manipulation usually increases the pain, a phenomenon that has been helpful from a diagnostic standpoint. PMID:13662862

  16. A Silk Fibroin/Collagen Nerve Scaffold Seeded with a Co-Culture of Schwann Cells and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Sciatic Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruixin; Li, Dong; Feng, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    As a promising alternative to autologous nerve grafts, tissue-engineered nerve grafts have been extensively studied as a way to bridge peripheral nerve defects and guide nerve regeneration. The main difference between autogenous nerve grafts and tissue-engineered nerve grafts is the regenerative microenvironment formed by the grafts. If an appropriate regenerative microenvironment is provided, the repair of a peripheral nerve is feasible. In this study, to mimic the body’s natural regenerative microenvironment closely, we co-cultured Schwann cells (SCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as seed cells and introduced them into a silk fibroin (SF)/collagen scaffold to construct a tissue-engineered nerve conduit (TENC). Twelve weeks after the three different grafts (plain SF/collagen scaffold, TENC, and autograft) were transplanted to bridge 1-cm long sciatic nerve defects in rats, a series of electrophysiological examinations and morphological analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of the tissue-engineered nerve grafts on peripheral nerve regeneration. The regenerative outcomes showed that the effect of treatment with TENCs was similar to that with autologous nerve grafts but superior to that with plain SF/collagen scaffolds. Meanwhile, no experimental animals had inflammation around the grafts. Based on this evidence, our findings suggest that the TENC we developed could improve the regenerative microenvironment and accelerate nerve regeneration compared to plain SF/collagen and may serve as a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair. PMID:26799619

  17. Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Emril, Dessy R; Wibowo, Samekto; Meliala, Lucas; Susilowati, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Methods Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold) were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT) tests were used to assess motoric function. Results The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17) compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005). The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001). However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35). The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18) and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume. Conclusion In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery, evaluated by EPT test, 4 weeks after sciatic nerve injury. PMID:27284264

  18. Affinity-based release of glial-derived neurotrophic factor from fibrin matrices enhances sciatic nerve regeneration†

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Matthew D.; Moore, Amy M.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Tuffaha, Sami; Borschel, Gregory H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E.

    2008-01-01

    Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes both sensory and motor neuron survival. The delivery of GDNF to the peripheral nervous system has been shown to enhance regeneration following injury. In this study we evaluated the effect of affinity-based delivery of GDNF from a fibrin matrix in a nerve guidance conduit on nerve regeneration in a 13 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Seven experimental groups were evaluated which received GDNF or nerve growth factor (NGF) with the delivery system within the conduit, control groups excluding one or more components of the delivery system, and nerve isografts. Nerves were harvested 6 weeks after treatment for analysis by histomorphometry and electron microscopy. The use of the delivery system (DS) with either GDNF or NGF resulted in a higher frequency of nerve regeneration vs. control groups, as evidenced by a neural structure spanning the 13 mm gap. The GDNF DS and NGF DS groups were also similar to the nerve isograft group in measures of nerve fiber density, percent neural tissue and myelinated area measurements, but not in terms of total fiber counts. In addition, both groups contained a significantly greater percentage of larger diameter fibers, with GDNF DS having the largest in comparison to all groups, suggesting more mature neural content. The delivery of GDNF via the affinity-based delivery system can enhance peripheral nerve regeneration through a silicone conduit across a critical nerve gap and offers insight into potential future alternatives to the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:19103514

  19. Nur77 Was Essential for Neurite Outgrowth and Involved in Schwann Cell Differentiation After Sciatic Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Zhu, Xudong; Liu, Yang; Chen, Minhao; Yan, Shixian; Mao, Xingxing; Liu, Zhongbing; Wu, Weijie; Chen, Chen; Xu, Xinbao; Wang, Youhua

    2015-09-01

    Nur77, together with Nurr1 and NOR-1, constitutes the NR4A subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors and plays critical roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Among them, Nur77 is universally well known to contribute to neurite outgrowth. However, information regarding its regulation and possible function in the peripheral nervous system is still limited. In this study, we performed a sciatic nerve injury model in adult rats and detected an increased expression of Nur77 in the sciatic nerve, which was similar to the expression of Oct-6. Immunofluorescence indicated that Nur77 was located in both axons and Schwann cells. In vitro, we observed enhanced expression of Nur77 during the process of both basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced Schwann cells differentiation and nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced PC12 cell neurite outgrowth. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that inhibiting the function of Nur77 by specific short hairpin RNA could depress Schwann cells myelinization and axons regeneration. Collectively, all these results suggested that upregulation of Nur77 might be involved in Schwann cells differentiation and neurite elongation following sciatic nerve crush. PMID:25957997

  20. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field and swimming exercise on rats with experimental sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Kavlak, Erdoğan; Belge, Ferda; Unsal, Cengiz; Uner, Aykut Göktürk; Cavlak, Uğur; Cömlekçi, Selçuk

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The current study aimed to reveal the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field and swimming exercises on rats with experimental sciatic nerve injury, which was induced with crush-type neuropathy model damage, using electrophysiological methods. [Subjects] In the current study, the sample consisted of 28 adult male Wistar albino rats. [Methods] The rats were randomized into four groups (n=7). Swimming exercise and PEMF (2 Hz and 0.3 MT) were applied one hour a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Electroneuromyographic (ENMG) measurements were taken on day 7. [Results] When the data were evaluated, it was found that the 4 weeks of PEMF and swimming exercises led to an increase in motor conduction rates and a decrease in latency values, but the changes were not significant in comparison with the control and injury groups. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) values of the left leg were lower in weeks 2, 3, and 4 in the swimming exercise group in comparison with the control group, although for the PEMF group, the CMAP values of the left leg reached the level observed in the control group beginning in week 3. [Conclusion] PEMF and swimming exercise made positive contributions to nerve regeneration after week 1, and regeneration was enhanced. PMID:25276015

  1. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field and Swimming Exercise on Rats with Experimental Sciatic Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kavlak, Erdoğan; Belge, Ferda; Ünsal, Cengiz; Üner, Aykut Göktürk; Cavlak, Uğur; Çömlekçi, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The current study aimed to reveal the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field and swimming exercises on rats with experimental sciatic nerve injury, which was induced with crush-type neuropathy model damage, using electrophysiological methods. [Subjects] In the current study, the sample consisted of 28 adult male Wistar albino rats. [Methods] The rats were randomized into four groups (n=7). Swimming exercise and PEMF (2 Hz and 0.3 MT) were applied one hour a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Electroneuromyographic (ENMG) measurements were taken on day 7. [Results] When the data were evaluated, it was found that the 4 weeks of PEMF and swimming exercises led to an increase in motor conduction rates and a decrease in latency values, but the changes were not significant in comparison with the control and injury groups. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) values of the left leg were lower in weeks 2, 3, and 4 in the swimming exercise group in comparison with the control group, although for the PEMF group, the CMAP values of the left leg reached the level observed in the control group beginning in week 3. [Conclusion] PEMF and swimming exercise made positive contributions to nerve regeneration after week 1, and regeneration was enhanced. PMID:25276015

  2. Synergistic effects of low-level laser and mesenchymal stem cells on functional recovery in rats with crushed sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-Chia; Wang, John; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2016-02-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been proposed to exert beneficial effects on peripheral nerve regeneration after a peripheral nerve injury, but the functional recovery in the denervated limb is still limited. In this study, we used low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct therapy for MSC transplantation on the functional recovery of crushed sciatic nerve in rats. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in 48 Sprague-Dawley rats by crushing the unilateral sciatic nerve, using a vessel clamp. The animals with crushed injury were randomly divided into four groups: control group, with no treatment; MSC group, treated with MSC alone; LLLT group, treated with LLLT alone; and MSCLLLT group, treated with a combination of MSC and LLLT. The sciatic function index (SFI), vertical activity of locomotion (VA) and ankle angle (AA) of rats were examined for functional assessments after treatment. Electrophysiological, morphological and S100 immunohistochemical studies were also conducted. The MSCLLLT group showed a greater recovery in SFI, VA and AA, with significant difference from MSC, LLLT and control groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, markedly enhanced electrophysiological function and expression of S100 immunoreactivity, as well as fewer inflammatory cells and less vacuole formation were also demonstrated after nerve crush injury in the MSCLLLT group when compared with the groups receiving a single treatment (p < 0.05). MSC transplantation combined with LLLT could achieve better results in functional recovery than a conventional treatment of MSC or LLLT alone. LLLT has a synergistic effect in providing greater functional recovery with MSC transplantation after nerve crush injury. PMID:23468370

  3. Efficient bridging of 20 mm rat sciatic nerve lesions with a longitudinally micro-structured collagen scaffold.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, A; Boecker, A; Tank, J; Altinova, H; Deumens, R; Dabhi, C; Tolba, R; Weis, J; Brook, G A; Pallua, N; van Neerven, S G A

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of biomaterial nerve guides has been developed that await direct comparative testing with the 'gold-standard' autologous nerve graft in functional repair of peripheral nerve defects. In the present study, 20 mm rat sciatic nerve defects were bridged with either a collagen-based micro-structured nerve guide (Perimaix) or an autologous nerve graft. Axons regenerated well into the Perimaix scaffold and, the majority of these axons grew across the 20 mm defect into the distal nerve segment. In fact, both the total axon number and the number of retrogradely traced somatosensory and motor neurons extending their axons across the implant was similar between Perimaix and autologous nerve graft groups. Implantation of Schwann cell-seeded Perimaix scaffolds provided only a beneficial effect on myelination within the scaffold. Functional recovery supported by the implanted, non-seeded Perimaix scaffold was as good as that observed after the autologous nerve graft, despite the presence of thinner myelin sheaths in the Perimaix implanted nerves. These findings support the potential of the Perimaix collagen scaffold as a future off-the-shelf device for clinical applications in selected cases of traumatic peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26496383

  4. An artery accompanying the sciatic nerve (arteria comitans nervi ischiadici) and the position of the hip joint: a comparative histological study using chick, mouse, and human foetal specimens.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, A; Hayashi, S; Nasu, H; Abe, H; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Murakami, G

    2013-02-01

    Birds and reptiles always carry a long and thick artery accompanying the sciatic nerve (i.e., the sciatic artery), whereas mammals do not. We attempted to demonstrate a difference in courses of the nerve and artery in fetuses in relation with the hip joint posture. Eight mid-term human fetuses (15-18 weeks), five mouse fetuses (E18) and five chick embryos (11 days after incubation) were examined histologically. Thin feeding arteries in the sciatic nerve were consistently observed in human fetuses in spite of the long, inferiorly curved course of the nerve around the ischium. The tissue around the human sciatic nerve was not so tight because of the medial and inferior shift of the nerve away from the hip joint. The fetal hip joint position differed among the species, being highly flexed in humans and almost at right angle flexion in mice and chicks. Because of deep adduction of the hip joint in the mouse, the knee was located near the midline of the body. The mouse sciatic nerve ran through the tight tissue along the head of the femur, whereas the chick nerve ran through the loose space even in the gluteal region. In birds, evolution of the pelvis including the hip joint without adduction seemed to make the arterial development possible. In mammals, highly flexed or adducted hip joint seemed to be one of the disturbing factors against development of the long and thick artery. A slight change in posture may cause significant arterial variation. PMID:23749710

  5. Management of a full-thickness burn to the foot following sciatic nerve palsy secondary to primary total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sciatic nerve palsy following total hip replacement is a rare but serious complication. The neurological sequelae that follow range from pure sensory loss to combined motor and sensory loss involving most of the lower limb. The loss of nociceptive feedback predisposes patients to accidental damage to the lower limb. We present the case of a lady with sciatic nerve palsy who sustained full-thickness burn injuries to her foot via a hot water bottle. The dilemma between debridement and grafting following a recent history of surgical trauma (ie, total hip replacement) versus secondary healing via dressings and regular review is discussed. Although grafting is the standard treatment in such burns, we recommend secondary healing over grafting provided the burns are not extensive. This enables potential recovery of sensation and reduces operative trauma to the limb which may retard resolution of the neuropraxia. PMID:23595171

  6. Surgical maneuvers placing the sciatic nerve at risk during total hip arthroplasty as assessed by somatosensory evoked potential monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pereles, T R; Stuchin, S A; Kastenbaum, D M; Beric, A; Lacagnino, G; Kabir, H

    1996-06-01

    The sciatic nerve in 52 hip arthroplasties was evaluated using intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs). Twenty-nine of these cases involved the lateral transtrochanteric approach, and 23 involved the posterior approach. A total of 11 incidents of SSEP changes occurred in eight patients. Six episodes occurred during lateral retraction of the proximal femur, and three occurred during anterior retraction of the proximal femur. Tracings returned to baseline with prompt cessation of femoral retraction in each case. One SSEP change occurred in a revision following reduction of the prosthetic components, and this resolved with shortening of the prosthetic neck to less than anatomic length. One change occurred during tightening of cables securing strut allografts to the femur and this resolved spontaneously. No correlation was found between frequency of SSEP changes and age, sex, limb lengthening, or preoperative range of motion. It is concluded that routine lateral or anterior retraction may place the sciatic nerve at risk. PMID:8792251

  7. [Effect of narcotic analgesics on the cortical control process of impulse transmission in the afferent pathways of the sciatic nerve].

    PubMed

    Churiukanov, V V; Bilibin, D P

    1976-01-01

    The effect produced by narcotic analgetics with their intravenous administration on the process of cortical control over the transmission of impulses along specific routes of the sciatic nerve was studied. The conditioning stimulation of the cortex was effected by using a monopolar electrode through single electric impulses. The interval between conditioning and test (on sciatic nerve) impulses was of 80-120 ms. Morphine (1-2 mg/kg), promedol (trimeperidin) (1-2 mg/kg) and phentanyl (100 gamma/kg) potentiated the inhibition of evoked potentials in the nucleus gracilis and in VPL, observed upon stimulation of the cortex of optic lobuses. The intensification of inhibitory corticifugal mechanisms occurring under the effect of narcotic analgetics takes place both on the level of the medulla oblongata and of the thalamic one. PMID:6310

  8. Biomechanical properties of the sciatic nerve following repair: effects of topical application of hyaluronic acid or tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Mekaj, Agon Y; Morina, Arsim A; Lajqi, Shpetim; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Kelmendi, Fatos M; Duci, Shkelzen B

    2015-01-01

    Recovery following nerve repair can be evaluated based on electrophysiological and morphological assessments of biomechanical properties. This study compared the effects of topical hyaluronic acid (HA), tacrolimus (FK-506) or saline administration on the biomechanical properties of the sciatic nerve at 12 weeks after nerve repair. Materials and Methods: Eighteen male European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (weight from 2.5 to 3 kg) were randomly assigned to one of the following experimental groups (six animals per group): Saline, HA, or FK-506. The non-transected left leg was used as a control group (eighteen sciatic nerves). Biomechanical assays were performed and statistically analyzed. Results: The average maximal load, elastic limit load, maximal stress, and elastic limit strain of the control group were significantly different (P<0.001) from those of all three experimental groups. Moreover, the other examined parameters (i.e., maximal displacement, elastic limit stress, and maximal strain) were significantly different between the control group and all three experimental groups (P<0.0001). However, no significant differences in any of the biomechanical parameters were observed between the experimental groups (P>0.05). At 12 weeks after nerve repair, Saline, HA, and FK-506 groups displayed average maximal stress values that were 72.6%, 77.38%, and 73.8% of those in the control group (100%), respectively. Conclusion: The biomechanical properties of the HA and FK-506 groups were similar to those of the saline group at 12 weeks after nerve repair. PMID:26884934

  9. Calpain 3 Expression Pattern during Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy and Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ronghua; Yan, Yingying; Yao, Jian; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Jianmei; Liu, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Calpain 3 (CAPN3), also known as p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family that is involved in muscular dystrophy; however, the roles of CAPN3 in muscular atrophy and regeneration are yet to be understood. In the present study, we attempted to explain the effect of CAPN3 in muscle atrophy by evaluating CAPN3 expression in rat gastrocnemius muscle following reversible sciatic nerve injury. After nerve injury, the wet weight ratio and cross sectional area (CSA) of gastrocnemius muscle were decreased gradually from 1–14 days and then recovery from 14–28 days. The active form of CAPN3 (~62 kDa) protein decreased slightly on day 3 and then increased from day 7 to 14 before a decrease from day 14 to 28. The result of linear correlation analysis showed that expression of the active CAPN3 protein level was negatively correlated with muscle wet weight ratio. CAPN3 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA) injection improved muscle recovery on days 7 and 14 after injury as compared to that observed with control siRNA treatment. Depletion of CAPN3 gene expression could promote myoblast differentiation in L6 cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that the expression pattern of the active CAPN3 protein is linked to muscle atrophy and regeneration following denervation: its upregulation during early stages may promote satellite cell renewal by inhibiting differentiation, whereas in later stages, CAPN3 expression may be downregulated to stimulate myogenic differentiation and enhance recovery. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the role of CAPN3 protein in muscle regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26569227

  10. Gamma Knife Irradiation of Injured Sciatic Nerve Induces Histological and Behavioral Improvement in the Rat Neuropathic Pain Model

    PubMed Central

    Yagasaki, Yuki; Hayashi, Motohiro; Tamura, Noriko; Kawakami, Yoriko

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of gamma knife (GK) irradiation on injured nerves using a rat partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL) model. GK irradiation was performed at one week after ligation and nerve preparations were made three weeks after ligation. GK irradiation is known to induce immune responses such as glial cell activation in the central nervous system. Thus, we determined the effects of GK irradiation on macrophages using immunoblot and histochemical analyses. Expression of Iba-1 protein, a macrophage marker, was further increased in GK-treated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. Immunohistochemical study of Iba-1 in GK-irradiated injured sciatic nerves demonstrated Iba-1 positive macrophage accumulation to be enhanced in areas distal to the ligation point. In the same area, myelin debris was also more efficiently removed by GK-irradiation. Myelin debris clearance by macrophages is thought to contribute to a permissive environment for axon growth. In the immunoblot study, GK irradiation significantly increased expressions of βIII-tubulin protein and myelin protein zero, which are markers of axon regeneration and re-myelination, respectively. Toluidine blue staining revealed the re-myelinated fiber diameter to be larger at proximal sites and that the re-myelinated fiber number was increased at distal sites in GK-irradiated injured nerves as compared with non-irradiated injured nerves. These results suggest that GK irradiation of injured nerves facilitates regeneration and re-myelination. In a behavior study, early alleviation of allodynia was observed with GK irradiation in PSL rats. When GK-induced alleviation of allodynia was initially detected, the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a potent analgesic factor, was significantly increased by GK irradiation. These results suggested that GK irradiation alleviates allodynia via increased GDNF. This study provides novel evidence that GK irradiation of

  11. Effects of histidine and n-acetylcysteine on experimental lesions induced by doxorubicin in sciatic nerve of rats.

    PubMed

    Farshid, Amir Abbas; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Najafi, Sima

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the effect of separate and combined intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of histidine and n-acetylcysteine were investigated on experimental damage induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in sciatic nerve of rats. DOX was i.p. injected at a dose of 4 mg/kg once weekly for four weeks. Histidine and n-acetylcysteine were i.p. injected at a same dose of 20 mg/kg. Cold and mechanical allodynia were recorded using acetone spray and von Frey filaments tests, respectively. The sciatic nerve damage was evaluated by light microscopy. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Histidine and especially n-acetylcysteine at a same dose of 20 mg/kg suppressed cold and mechanical allodynia, improved sciatic nerve lesions and reversed MDA and TAC levels in DOX-treated groups. Combination treatment with histidine and n-acetylcysteine showed better responses when compared with them used alone. The results of the present study showed peripheral neuroprotective effects for histidine and n-acetylcysteine. Reduction of free radical-induced toxic effects may have a role in neuroprotective properties of histidine and n-acetylcysteine. PMID:25427688

  12. FK506-loaded chitosan conduit promotes the regeneration of injured sciatic nerves in the rat through the upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Zheng, Xifu; Fu, Chongyang; Qu, Wei; Wei, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiguo

    2014-09-15

    FK506 has been shown to exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects, but its long-term application for nerve regeneration is limited. This study evaluated the potential application of a novel FK506-loaded chitosan conduit for peripheral nerve repair, and explored the underlying mechanism. A sciatic nerve injury model was created in male Wistar rats, which were then randomly divided into three treatment groups (n=40, each): chitosan-only, chitosan+FK506 injection, and FK506-loaded chitosan. We found significant recovery of normal morphology of sciatic nerves and higher density of myelinated nerve fibers in rats treated with FK506-loaded chitosan. Similarly, the total number of myelinated nerve fibers, myelin sheath thickness, and axon diameters were significantly higher in this group compared with the others, and the compound muscle action potentials and motor nerve conduction velocity values of sciatic nerves were significantly higher. BDNF and TrkB levels in motor neurons were highest in rats treated with FK506-loaded chitosan. In conclusion, FK506-loaded chitosan promoted peripheral nerve repair and regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. These effects are correlated with increased BDNF and TrkB expression in motor neurons. PMID:24954089

  13. Functional recovery from sciatic nerve crush injury is delayed because of increased distal atrophy in mice lacking the p75 receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jianguo; Wang, Xianjun; Bi, Jianzhong

    2016-08-17

    Peripheral nerve injuries are becoming more common, but without effective treatment, the outcome is often very poor. Recent research shows that p75 plays an important role in nerve regeneration, but its mechanisms of action during behavioral recovery and axon regrowth remain unclear. To investigate these mechanisms, we examined recovery from sciatic nerve crush injury in wild-type and p75 knockout mice. We found that sciatic nerve crush injury upregulates mRNA and protein expressions of p75 and p75 deficiency alters gene and protein expression of molecules associated with distal portion atrophy. However, p75 deletion did not alter gene and protein expression in the spinal cord of molecules related to neuronal intrinsic growth capacity. Behavioral testing showed that functional recovery was delayed in mice lacking p75. These results suggest that p75 regulates gene and protein expression that limits the distal atrophy after sciatic nerve injury, thereby regulating axonal growth and functional recovery. PMID:27348017

  14. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Juliana Sobral; Lovison, Keli; Karvat, Jhenifer; Peretti, Ana Luiza; Vieira, Lizyana; Higuchi, Guilherme Hideaki; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG-no injury), exercise group (EG-no injury with physical exercise), lesion group (LG-injury, but without exercise), and treated group (LEG-injury and physical exercise). LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after 22 days occurs the removal of a nerve fragment for morphological analysis. Results. Regarding allodynia, CG obtained values less than EG (p = 0.012) and larger than LG and LEG (p < 0.001). Histological results showed that CG and EG had normal appearance, as LG and LEG showed up with large amounts of inflammatory infiltration, degeneration and disruption of nerve fibers, and reduction of the myelin sheath; however LEG presented some regenerated fibers. From the morphometric data there were significant differences, for nerve fiber diameter, comparing CG with LG and LEG and comparing axon diameter and the thickness of the myelin of the CG to others. Conclusion. Climb stairs resistance exercise was not effective to speed up the regenerative process of axons. PMID:27594795

  15. Nociceptive and Neuronal Evaluation of the Sciatic Nerve of Wistar Rats Subjected to Compression Injury and Treated with Resistive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Juliana Sobral; Lovison, Keli; Karvat, Jhenifer; Peretti, Ana Luiza; Vieira, Lizyana; Higuchi, Guilherme Hideaki; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate the climb stairs resistance exercise on nociception and axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve of rats. Methods. 24 Wistar rats were divided: control group (CG—no injury), exercise group (EG—no injury with physical exercise), lesion group (LG—injury, but without exercise), and treated group (LEG—injury and physical exercise). LG and LEG were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with hemostat. From the 3rd day after injury began treatment with exercise, and after 22 days occurs the removal of a nerve fragment for morphological analysis. Results. Regarding allodynia, CG obtained values less than EG (p = 0.012) and larger than LG and LEG (p < 0.001). Histological results showed that CG and EG had normal appearance, as LG and LEG showed up with large amounts of inflammatory infiltration, degeneration and disruption of nerve fibers, and reduction of the myelin sheath; however LEG presented some regenerated fibers. From the morphometric data there were significant differences, for nerve fiber diameter, comparing CG with LG and LEG and comparing axon diameter and the thickness of the myelin of the CG to others. Conclusion. Climb stairs resistance exercise was not effective to speed up the regenerative process of axons. PMID:27594795

  16. Immediate electrical stimulation enhances regeneration and reinnervation and modulates spinal plastic changes after sciatic nerve injury and repair.

    PubMed

    Vivó, Meritxell; Puigdemasa, Antoni; Casals, Laura; Asensio, Elena; Udina, Esther; Navarro, Xavier

    2008-05-01

    We have studied whether electrical stimulation immediately after nerve injury may enhance axonal regeneration and modulate plastic changes at the spinal cord level underlying the appearance of hyperreflexia. Two groups of adult rats were subjected to sciatic nerve section followed by suture repair. One group (ES) received electrical stimulation (3 V, 0.1 ms at 20 Hz) for 1 h after injury. A second group served as control (C). Nerve conduction, H reflex, motor evoked potentials, and algesimetry tests were performed at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks after surgery, to assess muscle reinnervation and changes in excitability of spinal cord circuitry. The electrophysiological results showed higher levels of reinnervation, and histological results a significantly higher number of regenerated myelinated fibers in the distal tibial nerve in group ES in comparison with group C. The monosynaptic H reflex was facilitated in the injured limb, to a higher degree in group C than in group ES. The amplitudes of motor evoked potentials were similar in both groups, although the MEP/M ratio was increased in group C compared to group ES, indicating mild central motor hyperexcitability. Immunohistochemical labeling of sensory afferents in the spinal cord dorsal horn showed prevention of the reduction in expression of substance P at one month postlesion in group ES. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation applied after sciatic nerve injury promotes axonal regeneration over a long distance and reduces facilitation of spinal motor responses. PMID:18316076

  17. Schwann cells transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding Fgf-2 promote motor neuron regeneration following sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Allodi, Ilary; Mecollari, Vasil; González-Pérez, Francisco; Eggers, Ruben; Hoyng, Stefan; Verhaagen, Joost; Navarro, Xavier; Udina, Esther

    2014-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a trophic factor expressed by glial cells and different neuronal populations. Addition of FGF-2 to spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants demonstrated that FGF-2 specifically increases motor neuron axonal growth. To further explore the potential capability of FGF-2 to promote axon regeneration, we produced a lentiviral vector (LV) to overexpress FGF-2 (LV-FGF2) in the injured rat peripheral nerve. Cultured Schwann cells transduced with FGF-2 and added to collagen matrix embedding spinal cord or DRG explants significantly increased motor but not sensory neurite outgrowth. LV-FGF2 was as effective as direct addition of the trophic factor to promote motor axon growth in vitro. Direct injection of LV-FGF2 into the rat sciatic nerve resulted in increased expression of FGF-2, which was localized in the basal lamina of Schwann cells. To investigate the in vivo effect of FGF-2 overexpression on axonal regeneration after nerve injury, Schwann cells transduced with LV-FGF2 were grafted in a silicone tube used to repair the resected rat sciatic nerve. Electrophysiological tests conducted for up to 2 months after injury revealed accelerated and more marked reinnervation of hindlimb muscles in the animals treated with LV-FGF2, with an increase in the number of motor and sensory neurons that reached the distal tibial nerve at the end of follow-up. PMID:24989458

  18. Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats

    PubMed Central

    Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Léder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 7), sham (n = 25), and crush (n = 25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ΔT in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

  19. Morphometric analysis of the diameter and g-ratio of the myelinated nerve fibers of the human sciatic nerve during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Ugrenović, Sladjana; Jovanović, Ivan; Vasović, Ljiljana; Kundalić, Braca; Čukuranović, Rade; Stefanović, Vladisav

    2016-06-01

    Myelinated nerve fibers suffer from different degrees of atrophy with age. The success of subsequent regeneration varies. The aim of this research was to analyze myelinated fibers of the human sciatic nerve during the aging process. Morphometric analysis was performed on 17 cases with an age range from 9 to 93 years. The outer and inner diameter of 100 randomly selected nerve fibers was measured in each of the cases evaluated, and the g-ratio (axonal diameter/outer diameter of the whole nerve fiber) of each was calculated. Scatter plots of the diameters and g-ratios of the analyzed fibers were then analyzed. Nerve fibers of each case were classified into three groups according to the g-ratio values: group I (g-ratio lower than 0.6), group II (g-ratio from 0.6 to 0.7) and group III (g-ratio higher than 0.7). Afterwards, nerve fibers of group II were further classified into small and large subgroups. The percentages of each group of nerve fibers were computed for each case and these values were used for correlational and bivariate linear regression analysis. The percentage of myelinated nerve fibers with large diameter and optimal g-ratio of the sciatic nerve declines significantly with age. This is accompanied by a simultaneous significant increase in the percentage of small myelinated fibers with g-ratio values close to 1 that occupy the upper left quadrant of the scatter plot. It can be concluded that aging of the sciatic nerve is associated with significant atrophy of large myelinated fibers. Additionally, a significant increase in regenerated nerve fibers with thinner myelin sheath is observed with age, which, together with the large myelinated fiber atrophy, might be the cause of the age-related decline in conduction velocity. A better understanding of the changes in aging peripheral nerves might improve interpretation of their pathological changes, as well as comprehension of their regeneration in individuals of different age. PMID:25976073

  20. Dexamethasone as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine Prolongs the Duration of Thermal Antinociception and Prevents Bupivacaine-Induced Rebound Hyperalgesia via Regional Mechanism in a Mouse Sciatic Nerve Block Model

    PubMed Central

    An, Ke; Elkassabany, Nabil M.; Liu, Jiabin

    2015-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone has been studied as an effective adjuvant to prolong the analgesia duration of local anesthetics in peripheral nerve block. However, the route of action for dexamethasone and its potential neurotoxicity are still unclear. Methods A mouse sciatic nerve block model was used. The sciatic nerve was injected with 60ul of combinations of various medications, including dexamethasone and/or bupivacaine. Neurobehavioral changes were observed for 2 days prior to injection, and then continuously for up to 7 days after injection. In addition, the sciatic nerves were harvested at either 2 days or 7 days after injection. Toluidine blue dyeing and immunohistochemistry test were performed to study the short-term and long-term histopathological changes of the sciatic nerves. There were six study groups: normal saline control, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) only, dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg) only, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with low-dose (0.14mg/kg) dexamethasone, bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with high-dose (0.5mg/kg) dexamethasone, and bupivacaine (10mg/kg) combined with intramuscular dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg). Results High-dose perineural dexamethasone, but not systemic dexamethasone, combined with bupivacaine prolonged the duration of both sensory and motor block of mouse sciatic nerve. There was no significant difference on the onset time of the sciatic nerve block. There was “rebound hyperalgesia” to thermal stimulus after the resolution of plain bupivacaine sciatic nerve block. Interestingly, both low and high dose perineural dexamethasone prevented bupivacaine-induced hyperalgesia. There was an early phase of axon degeneration and Schwann cell response as represented by S-100 expression as well as the percentage of demyelinated axon and nucleus in the plain bupivacaine group compared with the bupivacaine plus dexamethasone groups on post-injection day 2, which resolved on post-injection day 7. Furthermore, we demonstrated that perineural dexamethasone

  1. Metabolic Dysfunction Is Restricted to the Sciatic Nerve in Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Oliver J; Unwin, Richard D; Dowsey, Andrew W; Begley, Paul; Ali, Sumia; Hollywood, Katherine A; Rustogi, Nitin; Petersen, Rasmus S; Dunn, Warwick B; Cooper, Garth J S; Gardiner, Natalie J

    2016-01-01

    High glucose levels in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy (DN). However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause the marked distal pathology is incomplete. We performed a comprehensive, system-wide analysis of the PNS of a rodent model of DN. We integrated proteomics and metabolomics from the sciatic nerve (SN), the lumbar 4/5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of streptozotocin-diabetic and healthy control rats. Even though all tissues showed a dramatic increase in glucose and polyol pathway intermediates in diabetes, a striking upregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and perturbation of lipid metabolism was found in the distal SN that was not present in the corresponding cell bodies of the DRG or the cranial TG. This finding suggests that the most severe molecular consequences of diabetes in the nervous system present in the SN, the region most affected by neuropathy. Such spatial metabolic dysfunction suggests a failure of energy homeostasis and/or oxidative stress, specifically in the distal axon/Schwann cell-rich SN. These data provide a detailed molecular description of the distinct compartmental effects of diabetes on the PNS that could underlie the distal-proximal distribution of pathology. PMID:26470786

  2. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (-)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve.

    PubMed

    Medeiros Venancio, Antonio; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; de Carvalho Pimentel, Hugo; Macêdo Lima, Matheus; Fraga de Santana, Michele; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Batista da Silva, Givanildo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Marchioro, Murilo

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(-)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (-)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (-)-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP). EOOb and (-)-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38 ± 0.2 and 0.17 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (-)-LIN, these values were 0.23 ± 0.0 and 0.13 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (-)-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (-)-LIN in the essential oil. PMID:27446227

  3. Microencapsulation improves inhibitory effects of transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells on pain after sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hao; Yang, Bao-lin; Liu, Zeng-xu; Yu, Qing; Zhang, Wen-jun; Yuan, Keng; Zeng, Hui-hong; Zhu, Gao-chun; Liu, De-ming; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory bulb tissue transplantation inhibits P2X2/3 receptor-mediated neuropathic pain. However, the olfactory bulb has a complex cellular composition, and the mechanism underlying the action of purified transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) remains unclear. In the present study, we microencapsulated OECs in alginic acid, and transplanted free and microencapsulated OECs into the region surrounding the injured sciatic nerve in rat models of chronic constriction injury. We assessed mechanical nociception in the rat models 7 and 14 days after surgery by measuring paw withdrawal threshold, and examined P2X2/3 receptor expression in L4–5 dorsal root ganglia using immunohistochemistry. Rats that received free and microencapsulated OEC transplants showed greater withdrawal thresholds than untreated model rats, and weaker P2X2/3 receptor immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia. At 14 days, paw withdrawal threshold was much higher in the microencapsulated OEC-treated animals. Our results confirm that microencapsulated OEC transplantation suppresses P2X2/3 receptor expression in L4–5 dorsal root ganglia in rat models of neuropathic pain and reduces allodynia, and also suggest that transplantation of microencapsulated OECs is more effective than transplantation of free OECs for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:26487865

  4. Effect of Dipsaci radix on hind limb muscle atrophy of sciatic nerve transected rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Noh, Chung-Ku; Ma, Sun-Ho; Hong, Eun Ki; Sohn, Nak-Won; Kim, Yoon-Bum; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Youngjoo

    2009-01-01

    It was reported that Dipsaci radix (DR) has a reinforcement effect on the bone-muscle dysfunction in the oriental medical classics and the experimental animal studies. The muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral transection of the sciatic nerve of the rats. Water-extract of DR was used as treatment once a day for 12 days. The muscle weights of the hind limb, atrophic changes, glycogen contents, compositions and cross-section areas of muscle fiber types in soleus and medial gastrocnemius were investigated. Muscle fiber type was classified to type-I and type-II with MHCf immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, Bax and Bcl-2 expressions were observed with immunohistochemiatry. DR treatment significantly increased muscle weights of soleus, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, and posterior tibialis of the damaged hind limb. DR treatment reduced apoptotic muscle nuclei and hyaline-degenerated muscle fibers in soleus and medial gastrocnemius of the damaged hind limb. DR treatment also significantly increased glycogen contents in medial gastrocnemius of the damaged hind limb. DR treatment significantly attenuated the slow-to-fast shift in soleus of the damaged hind limb but not in medial gastrocnemius. DR treatment significantly increased cross-section areas of type-I and type-II fibers in soleus and medial gastrocnemius of the damaged hind limb. In soleus and medial gastrocnemius, DR treatment significantly reduced Bax positive muscle nuclei in the damaged hind limb. These results suggest that DR treatment has an anti-atrophic effect and an anti-apoptotic effect against myonuclear apoptosis induced by the peripheral nerve damage. PMID:19938217

  5. Gene expression microarray analysis of the sciatic nerve of mice with diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Qu, Shen; Liang, Aibin; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Hao

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to explore novel target genes that regulate the development of diabetic neuropathy (DN) by analyzing gene expression profiles in the sciatic nerve of infected mice. The GSE11343 microarray dataset, which was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, included data on 4 control samples and 5 samples from mice with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ), 5 samples from normal mice treated with rosiglitazone (Rosi) and 5 samples from mice with diabetes induced by STZ and treated with Rosi. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the different groups were identified using the substitution augmentation modification redefinition (SAMR) model. The Gene Ontology (GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Regulatory and protein‑protein interaction networks were searched using BioCarta and STRING, respectively. The protein structures of potential regulatory genes were predicted using the SYBYL program. Compared with the controls, 1,384 DEGs were identified in the mice with STZ-induced diabetes and 7 DEGs were identified in the mice treated with Rosi. There were 518 DEGs identified between the mice in the STZ + Rosi and STZ groups. We identified 45 GO items, and the calmodulin nerve phosphatase and chemokine signaling pathways were identified as the main pathways. Three genes [myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (Marcks), GLI pathogenesis-related 2 (Glipr2) and centrosomal protein 170 kDa (Cep170)] were found to be co-regulated by both STZ and Rosi, the protein structure of which was predicted and certain binding activity to Rosi was docked. Our study demonstrates that the Marcks, Glipr2 and Cep170 genes may be underlying drug targets in the treatment of DN. PMID:25435094

  6. Popliteal sciatic nerve block versus spinal anesthesia in hallux valgus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Jong Nam; Bae, Jun-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Background We compared clinical properties and patient satisfaction between spinal anesthesia and popliteal sciatic nerve block (PSNB) for hallux valgus surgery. Methods Forty patients undergoing hallux valgus surgery were divided into spinal group (spinal anesthesia with 2.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine [n = 20]) and PSNB group (PSNB with 30 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine mixed with 10 ml of normal saline solution using a nerve stimulator [n = 20]). The PSNB group used a patient-controlled-analgesia (PCA) pump for postoperative pain control. The quality and side effects were compared between the two groups. A questionnaire was used to evaluate patient satisfaction with the use of anesthetic techniques and postoperative pain control in the PSNB group. This study was assessed 3 days postoperatively by a blinded observer. Results Procedure time and time from anesthesia until start of sugery were significantly shorter in the spinal group than those in the PSNB group (P < 0.01). Anesthesia-related complications such as hypotension, bradycardia, shivering, nausea/vomitting, post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) and urinary retension were observed in 15%, 10%, 5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of patients in the spinal group, respectively. PSNB was not associated with these complications. Patient satisfaction was slightly higher for PSNB than for spinal anesthesia. In the PSNB group, patient satisfaction with postoperative pain-control was 95% above ordinary satisfaction. Conclusions Despite the long duration of the procedure, PSNB is relatively safe, provides an adequate level of anesthesia, effectively controls postoperative pain and reduces side effects. Therefore, PSNB could be a potential anesthetic technique for hallux valgus surgery. PMID:23646241

  7. Neuroprotection and reduction of glial reaction by cannabidiol treatment after sciatic nerve transection in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Perez, Matheus; Benitez, Suzana U; Cartarozzi, Luciana P; Del Bel, Elaine; Guimarães, Francisco S; Oliveira, Alexandre L R

    2013-11-01

    In neonatal rats, the transection of a peripheral nerve leads to an intense retrograde degeneration of both motor and sensory neurons. Most of the axotomy-induced neuronal loss is a result of apoptotic processes. The clinical use of neurotrophic factors is difficult due to side effects and elevated costs, but other molecules might be effective and more easily obtained. Among them, some are derived from Cannabis sativa. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychotropic component found on the surface of such plant leaves. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective potential of CBD. Thus, 2-day-old Wistar rats were divided into the following experimental groups: sciatic nerve axotomy + CBD treatment (CBD group), axotomy + vehicle treatment (phosphate buffer group) and a control group (no-treatment group). The results were analysed by Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling at 5 days post-lesion. Neuronal counting revealed both motor and sensory neuron rescue following treatment with CBD (15 and 30 mg/kg). Immunohistochemical analysis (obtained by synaptophysin staining) revealed 30% greater synaptic preservation within the spinal cord in the CBD-treated group. CBD administration decreased the astroglial and microglial reaction by 30 and 27%, respectively, as seen by glial fibrillary acidic protein and ionised calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 immunolabeling quantification. In line with such results, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling reaction revealed a reduction of apoptotic cells, mostly located in the spinal cord intermediate zone, where interneurons promote sensory-motor integration. The present results show that CBD possesses neuroprotective characteristics that may, in turn, be promising for future clinical use. PMID:23981015

  8. Gene expression microarray analysis of the sciatic nerve of mice with diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LEI; QU, SHEN; LIANG, AIBIN; JIANG, HONG; WANG, HAO

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore novel target genes that regulate the development of diabetic neuropathy (DN) by analyzing gene expression profiles in the sciatic nerve of infected mice. The GSE11343 microarray dataset, which was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, included data on 4 control samples and 5 samples from mice with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ), 5 samples from normal mice treated with rosiglitazone (Rosi) and 5 samples from mice with diabetes induced by STZ and treated with Rosi. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the different groups were identified using the substitution augmentation modification redefinition (SAMR) model. The Gene Ontology (GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Regulatory and protein-protein interaction networks were searched using BioCarta and STRING, respectively. The protein structures of potential regulatory genes were predicted using the SYBYL program. Compared with the controls, 1,384 DEGs were identified in the mice with STZ-induced diabetes and 7 DEGs were identified in the mice treated with Rosi. There were 518 DEGs identified between the mice in the STZ + Rosi and STZ groups. We identified 45 GO items, and the calmodulin nerve phosphatase and chemokine signaling pathways were identified as the main pathways. Three genes [myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (Marcks), GLI pathogenesis-related 2 (Glipr2) and centrosomal protein 170 kDa (Cep170)] were found to be co-regulated by both STZ and Rosi, the protein structure of which was predicted and certain binding activity to Rosi was docked. Our study demonstrates that the Marcks, Glipr2 and Cep170 genes may be underlying drug targets in the treatment of DN. PMID:25435094

  9. Leg lengthening of more than 5 cm is a risk factor for sciatic nerve injury after total hip arthroplasty for adult hip dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with high hip dislocation is challenging and technically demanding. Nerve injury is a problem associated with leg lengthening after THA. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for sciatic nerve injury after THA in patients with high hip dislocation. Thirty-seven patients (41 THAs) with Crowe type IV hips were consecutively treated. The average leg lengthening (LL) was 3.2 cm. The average Harris hip score was improved from 57.5 points to 83.1 points at the final follow-up. The clinical outcomes after an average 6.4-years follow-up were satisfactory. Sciatic nerve injury was observed in two joints. LL in the two joints (two patients) with sciatic nerve injury was 5.2 cm and 6.7 cm, respectively. Leg lengthening of >5 cm was a risk factor for sciatic nerve injury. Therefore, leg lengthening of >5 cm should be avoided to prevent sciatic nerve injury. PMID:26412892

  10. The Use of Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds Cocultured with Schwann Cells and Vascular Endothelial Cells to Repair Rabbit Sciatic Nerve Defect with Vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongyang; You, Yang; Zhang, Guoping; Zhao, Feng; Sha, Ziyi; Shen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cultured with Schwann cells were set. The animals in both groups underwent electromyography to show the status of the neurological function recovery at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after the surgery. Sciatic nerve regeneration and myelination were observed under the light microscope and electron microscope. Myelin sheath thickness, axonal diameter, and number of myelinated nerve fiber were quantitatively analyzed using image analysis system. The recovery of foot ulcer, the velocity of nerve conduction, the number of regenerating nerve fiber, and the recovery of ultrastructure were increased in the experimental group than those in the control group. Prevascularized tissue engineered fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rabbits can effectively promote the recovery of neurological function. PMID:24490158

  11. The use of fiber-reinforced scaffolds cocultured with Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells to repair rabbit sciatic nerve defect with vascularization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongyang; You, Yang; Zhang, Guoping; Zhao, Feng; Sha, Ziyi; Shen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cultured with Schwann cells were set. The animals in both groups underwent electromyography to show the status of the neurological function recovery at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after the surgery. Sciatic nerve regeneration and myelination were observed under the light microscope and electron microscope. Myelin sheath thickness, axonal diameter, and number of myelinated nerve fiber were quantitatively analyzed using image analysis system. The recovery of foot ulcer, the velocity of nerve conduction, the number of regenerating nerve fiber, and the recovery of ultrastructure were increased in the experimental group than those in the control group. Prevascularized tissue engineered fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rabbits can effectively promote the recovery of neurological function. PMID:24490158

  12. Neurotropin attenuates local inflammatory response and inhibits demyelination induced by chronic constriction injury of the mouse sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Okada, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Michio; Fujisawa, Hiroki; Okada, Tomoyuki; Naiki, Mitsuru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2016-07-01

    Neuropathic pain caused by nerve damage in the central and/or peripheral nervous systems is a refractory disorder and the management of such chronic pain has become a major issue. Neurotropin is a drug widely used in Japan and China to treat chronic pain. Although Neurotropin has been demonstrated to suppress chronic pain through the descending pain inhibitory system, the mechanism of analgesic action in the peripheral nervous system remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the local effects of Neurotropin on peripheral nerve damage in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Neurotropin reduced mRNA expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the sciatic nerve 1 day after the injury. Activation of Erk was also inhibited locally in the Neurotropin treatment group. Since Erk activation results in demyelination along with dedifferentiation of Schwann cells, we investigated the expression level of myelin basic protein. Five days after the injury, Neurotropin attenuated the downregulation of myelin basic protein in the sciatic nerve in the CCI model. Local effects of Neurotropin around the injury site may result in discovery of new treatments for not only neuropathic pain but also demyelinating diseases and peripheral nervous system injury. PMID:27233579

  13. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a novel method to detect demyelination in rat sciatic nerve in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Senapati, Arun; Peng, Yuan Bo; Kashyap, Dheerendra; Liu, Hanli

    2005-04-01

    This study was done to use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to bring out differences in the anatomical substructures in the rat spinal cord and further to differentiate scattering between demyelinated and normal sciatic nerves in rat models, thereby exploring a new methodology to localize MS (multiple Sclerosis) lesions in vivo for animal studies. The experimental setup consisted of a tungsten light source, CCD array spectrometer, and bifurcated optical fibers for light delivery and detection of back scattered light from tissue. The measurement system was calibrated with reflectance standard. The spinal cord of 14 rats was exposed by laminectomy, and the measurements were taken on 8 points at intervals of 1 mm on the right and left lumbar-sacral regions and the central blood vessel. For measurements on the sciatic nerve, the spinal nerves of 84 rats were ligated according to the Chung Model. Measurements were taken on five points on both the ligated and the control nerve side after 1, 4, 7 and 14 days. The reduced scattering coefficient, μs', was found to be higher in the lumbar-sacral regions (34.17 +/- 2.05 cm-1) than that near the central blood vessel (19.9 +/- 3.8 cm-1). Statistically, there was significant difference in scattering between the control side and the ligated side on postoperative days 4, 7, and 14. This study shows a promising diagnostic value in the future for monitoring of demyelinated CNS (central nervous system) diseases, like Multiple Sclerosis.

  14. Palmitoylethanolamide, a neutraceutical, in nerve compression syndromes: efficacy and safety in sciatic pain and carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid modulator in animals and humans, and has been evaluated since the 1970s as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug in more than 30 clinical trials, in a total of ~6,000 patients. PEA is currently available worldwide as a nutraceutical in different formulations, with and without excipients. Here we describe the results of all clinical trials evaluating PEA’s efficacy and safety in nerve compression syndromes: sciatic pain and pain due to carpal tunnel syndrome, and review preclinical evidence in nerve impingement models. Both the pharmacological studies as well as the clinical trials supported PEA’s action as an analgesic compound. In total, eight clinical trials have been published in such entrapment syndromes, and 1,366 patients have been included in these trials. PEA proved to be effective and safe in nerve compression syndromes. In one pivotal, double blind, placebo controlled trial in 636 sciatic pain patients, the number needed to treat to reach 50% pain reduction compared to baseline was 1.5 after 3 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, no drug interactions or troublesome side effects have been described so far. Physicians are not always aware of PEA as a relevant and safe alternative to opioids and co-analgesics in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Especially since the often prescribed co-analgesic pregabaline has been proven to be ineffective in sciatic pain in a double blind enrichment trial, PEA should be considered as a new and safe treatment option for nerve compression syndromes. PMID:26604814

  15. Uncultured undifferentiated adipose-derived nucleated cell fractions combined with inside-out artery graft accelerate sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, R; Asadollahi, A; Amini, K

    2014-09-01

    Effects of transplantation of adipose-derived nucleated cell fractions (ADNCs) on sciatic nerve regeneration were studied. A 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using artery graft filled with ADNCs. In control group, artery graft was filled with saline alone. Regenerated nerve fibres were studied for 12 weeks. In sham-operated group, sciatic nerve was only exposed and manipulated. Behavioural and functional studies confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in ADNCs transplanted animals than in control group (P<0.05). At the end of study period, animals in ADNCs transplanted group achieved a sciatic functional index (SFI) value of -31.6 ± -3.14, whereas in control group a value of -42.5 ± -3.7 was found. Gastrocnemius muscle mass in ADNCs transplanted animals was found to be significantly higher than that in control group (P=0.001). Morphometric indices of regenerated fibres showed the number and diameter of myelinated fibres to be significantly higher in ADNCs transplanted animals than in control group (P=0.001). On immunohistochemistry, there was more positive staining of S100 in the ADNCs transplanted animals than in control group. ADNCs transplantation into an artery graft could be considered a readily accessible technique that improves functional recovery of sciatic nerve. PMID:24951175

  16. Gelsemine alleviates both neuropathic pain and sleep disturbance in partial sciatic nerve ligation mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-er; Li, Ya-dong; Luo, Yan-jia; Wang, Tian-xiao; Wang, Hui-jing; Chen, Shuo-nan; Qu, Wei-min; Huang, Zhi-li

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Gelsemine, an alkaloid from the Chinese herb Gelsemium elegans (Gardn & Champ) Benth., is effective in mitigating chronic pain in rats. In the present study we investigated whether the alkaloid improved sleep disturbance, the most common comorbid symptoms of chronic pain, in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. Methods: Mice were subjected to partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). After the mice were injected with gelsemine or pregabalin (the positive control) intraperitoneally, mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed, and electroencephalogram (EEG)/electromyogram (EMG) recording was performed. Motor performance of the mice was assessed using rota-rod test. c-Fos expression in the brain was analyzed with immunohistochemical staining. Results: In PSNL mice, gelsemine (2 and 4 mg/kg) increased the mechanical threshold for 4 h and prolonged the thermal latencies for 3 h. Furthermore, gelsemine (4 mg/kg, administered at 6:30 AM) increased non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep, decreased wakefulness, but did not affect REM sleep during the first 3 h in PSNL mice. Sleep architecture analysis showed that gelsemine decreased the mean duration of wakefulness and increased the total number of episodes of NREM sleep during the first 3 h after the dosing. Gelsemine (4 mg/kg) did not impair motor coordination in PSNL mice. Immunohistochemical study showed that PSNL increased c-Fos expression in the neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex, and gelsemine (4 mg/kg) decreased c-Fos expression by 58%. Gelsemine (4 mg/kg, administered at either 6:30 AM or 8:30 PM) did not produce hypnotic effect in normal mice. Pregabalin produced similar antinociceptive and hypnotic effects, but impaired motor coordination in PSNL mice. Conclusion: Gelsemine is an effective agent for treatment of both neuropathic pain and sleep disturbance in PSNL mice; anterior cingulate cortex might play a role in the hypnotic effects of gelsemine. PMID:26388157

  17. Effects of Perineural Administration of Dexmedetomidine in Combination with Levobupivacaine in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Block☆

    PubMed Central

    Ali Erdogan, Mehmet; Polat, Alaaddin; Yucel, Aytac; Aydogan, Mustafa Said; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Tekin, Suat; Durmus, Mahmut; Ozcan Ersoy, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess if perineural administration of dexmedetomidine combined with levobupivacaine increases the duration of the sensory and motor blockade of a sciatic peripheral nerve block in rats. Methods Forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups: Group 1, sham; Group 2, perineural levobupivacaine (0.2 mL of a 0.5% solution) and subcutaneous saline; Group 3, perineural levobupivacaine (0.2 mL of a 0.5% solution) plus dexmedetomidine (20 µg/kg dexmedetomidine) and subcutaneous saline; Group 4, perineural saline and subcutaneous dexmedetomidine; and Group 5, perineural saline and subcutaneous saline. Pain reflexes in response to a thermal stimulus were measured at 0 and 240 minutes after drug administration by using a hot-plate and tail-flick tests. Neurobehavioral status, including sensory and motor functions, was assessed by an investigator who was blinded to the experimental groups every 30 minutes until normal functioning resumed. Results The sensory and motor blockades of the rats did not increase in the treatment with dexmedetomidine plus levobupivacaine when compared with the treatment with levobupivacaine alone at all the time points (P > 0.05). Compared with rats in Group 2, those in Group 3 showed significantly higher latency times at 30 and 60 minutes in the hot plate test (P < 0.01). At 30 and 60 minutes, the latency times of the rats in Group 3 were longer than those in Group 2 in the tail-flick test (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the durations of the complete sensory and motor blockade were similar when treatment with levobupivacaine plus dexmedetomidine was compared with treatment with levobupivacaine alone. Conclusions A 20µg/kg dose of dexmedetomidine added to levobupivacaine did not increase the duration of the sensory and motor blockades in rats. However, treatment with dexmedetomidine plus levobupivacaine increased the quality of analgesia in rats. PMID:24385106

  18. Cordycepin Decreases Compound Action Potential Conduction of Frog Sciatic Nerve In Vitro Involving Ca (2+) -Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-Hua; Yu, Hui-Min; Xiong, Qiu-Ping; Sun, Wei; Xu, Yan-Liang; Meng, Wei; Li, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xin-Ping; Yuan, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Cordycepin has been widely used in oriental countries to maintain health and improve physical performance. Compound nerve action potential (CNAP), which is critical in signal conduction in the peripheral nervous system, is necessary to regulate physical performance, including motor system physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, regulatory effects of cordycepin on CNAP conduction should be elucidated. In this study, the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves was investigated. Results revealed that cordycepin significantly decreased CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. At 50 mg/L cordycepin, CNAP amplitude and conductive velocity decreased by 62.18 ± 8.06% and 57.34% ± 6.14% compared with the control amplitude and conductive velocity, respectively. However, the depressive action of cordycepin on amplitude and conductive velocity was not observed in Ca(2+)-free medium or in the presence of Ca(2+) channel blockers (CdCl2/LaCl3). Pretreatment with L-type Ca(2+) channel antagonist (nifedipine/deltiazem) also blocked cordycepin-induced responses; by contrast, T-type and P-type Ca(2+) channel antagonists (Ni(2+)) failed to block such responses. Therefore, cordycepin decreased the conduction ability of CNAP in isolated frog sciatic nerves via L-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent mechanism. PMID:26078886

  19. Functional and Physical Outcomes following Use of a Flexible CO2 Laser Fiber and Bipolar Electrocautery in Close Proximity to the Rat Sciatic Nerve with Correlation to an In Vitro Thermal Profile Model

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A. M.; Fishman, A. J.; Bendok, B. R.; Richter, C.-P.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared functional and physical collateral damage to a nerve when operating a Codman MALIS Bipolar Electrosurgical System CMC-III or a CO2 laser coupled to a laser, with correlation to an in vitro model of heating profiles created by the devices in thermochromic ink agarose. Functional damage of the rat sciatic nerve after operating the MALIS or CO2 laser at various power settings and proximities to the nerve was measured by electrically evoked nerve action potentials, and histology of the nerve was used to assess physical damage. Thermochromic ink dissolved in agarose was used to model the spatial and temporal profile of the collateral heating zone of the electrosurgical system and the laser ablation cone. We found that this laser can be operated at 2 W directly above the nerve with minimal damage, while power settings of 5 W and 10 W resulted in acute functional and physical nerve damage, correlating with the maximal heating cone in the thermochromic ink model. MALIS settings up to 40 (11 W) did not result in major functional or physical nerve damage until the nerve was between the forceps tips, correlating with the hottest zone, localized discretely between the tips. PMID:25699266

  20. Functional and physical outcomes following use of a flexible CO2 laser fiber and bipolar electrocautery in close proximity to the rat sciatic nerve with correlation to an in vitro thermal profile model.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A M; Fishman, A J; Bendok, B R; Richter, C-P

    2015-01-01

    This study compared functional and physical collateral damage to a nerve when operating a Codman MALIS Bipolar Electrosurgical System CMC-III or a CO2 laser coupled to a laser, with correlation to an in vitro model of heating profiles created by the devices in thermochromic ink agarose. Functional damage of the rat sciatic nerve after operating the MALIS or CO2 laser at various power settings and proximities to the nerve was measured by electrically evoked nerve action potentials, and histology of the nerve was used to assess physical damage. Thermochromic ink dissolved in agarose was used to model the spatial and temporal profile of the collateral heating zone of the electrosurgical system and the laser ablation cone. We found that this laser can be operated at 2 W directly above the nerve with minimal damage, while power settings of 5 W and 10 W resulted in acute functional and physical nerve damage, correlating with the maximal heating cone in the thermochromic ink model. MALIS settings up to 40 (11 W) did not result in major functional or physical nerve damage until the nerve was between the forceps tips, correlating with the hottest zone, localized discretely between the tips. PMID:25699266

  1. The effects of self-mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves on physical functions and health of low back pain patients with lower limb radiating pain

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ui-Cheol; Kim, Cheol-Yong; Park, Young-Han; Hwang-Bo, Gak; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of self-mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves on the quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain in the lower limbs accompanied by radiating pain. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were divided into two groups: a group receiving of lumbar segmental stabilization exercise training including sciatic nerve mobilization techniques, which included 8 males and 7 females, and a group receiving lumbar segmental stabilization exercise training, which included 8 males and 7 females. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in comparison of measurement results between the groups before and after the intervention. [Conclusion] Application of mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves may promote healing of the soft tissues by stimulating the functions of the nervous system to improve nervous system adaptability and decrease sensitivity, helping to alleviate the symptoms. PMID:26957726

  2. Gelatin-methacrylamide gel loaded with microspheres to deliver GDNF in bilayer collagen conduit promoting sciatic nerve growth.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hai; Bu, Shoushan; Hua, Lei; Darabi, Mohammad A; Cao, Xiaojian; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-loaded microspheres, then seeded the microspheres in gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogel, which was finally integrated with the commercial bilayer collagen membrane (Bio-Gide(®)). The novel composite of nerve conduit was employed to bridge a 10 mm long sciatic nerve defect in a rat. GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres had a smooth surface with an average diameter of 3.9±1.8 μm. Scanning electron microscopy showed that microspheres were uniformly distributed in both the GelMA gel and the layered structure. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in vitro release studies (pH 7.4) of GDNF from microspheres exhibited an initial burst release during the first 3 days (18.0%±1.3%), and then, a prolonged-release profile extended to 32 days. However, in an acidic condition (pH 2.5), the initial release percentage of GDNF was up to 91.2%±0.9% within 4 hours and the cumulative release percentage of GDNF was 99.2%±0.2% at 48 hours. Then the composite conduct was implanted in a 10 mm critical defect gap of sciatic nerve in a rat. We found that the nerve was regenerated in both conduit and autograft (AG) groups. A combination of electrophysiological assessment and histomorphometry analysis of regenerated nerves showed that axonal regeneration and functional recovery in collagen tube filled with GDNF-loaded microspheres (GM + CT) group were similar to AG group (P>0.05). Most myelinated nerves were matured and arranged densely with a uniform structure of myelin in a neat pattern along the long axis in the AG and GM + CT groups, however, regenerated nerve was absent in the BLANK group, left the 10 mm gap empty after resection, and the nerve fiber exhibited a disordered arrangement in the collagen tube group. These results indicated that the hybrid system of bilayer collagen conduit and GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres combined with gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogels could serve as a new biodegradable

  3. Gelatin-methacrylamide gel loaded with microspheres to deliver GDNF in bilayer collagen conduit promoting sciatic nerve growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Hai; Bu, Shoushan; Hua, Lei; Darabi, Mohammad A; Cao, Xiaojian; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-loaded microspheres, then seeded the microspheres in gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogel, which was finally integrated with the commercial bilayer collagen membrane (Bio-Gide®). The novel composite of nerve conduit was employed to bridge a 10 mm long sciatic nerve defect in a rat. GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres had a smooth surface with an average diameter of 3.9±1.8 μm. Scanning electron microscopy showed that microspheres were uniformly distributed in both the GelMA gel and the layered structure. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in vitro release studies (pH 7.4) of GDNF from microspheres exhibited an initial burst release during the first 3 days (18.0%±1.3%), and then, a prolonged-release profile extended to 32 days. However, in an acidic condition (pH 2.5), the initial release percentage of GDNF was up to 91.2%±0.9% within 4 hours and the cumulative release percentage of GDNF was 99.2%±0.2% at 48 hours. Then the composite conduct was implanted in a 10 mm critical defect gap of sciatic nerve in a rat. We found that the nerve was regenerated in both conduit and autograft (AG) groups. A combination of electrophysiological assessment and histomorphometry analysis of regenerated nerves showed that axonal regeneration and functional recovery in collagen tube filled with GDNF-loaded microspheres (GM + CT) group were similar to AG group (P>0.05). Most myelinated nerves were matured and arranged densely with a uniform structure of myelin in a neat pattern along the long axis in the AG and GM + CT groups, however, regenerated nerve was absent in the BLANK group, left the 10 mm gap empty after resection, and the nerve fiber exhibited a disordered arrangement in the collagen tube group. These results indicated that the hybrid system of bilayer collagen conduit and GDNF-loaded gelatin microspheres combined with gelatin-methacrylamide hydrogels could serve as a new biodegradable

  4. Release of somatostatin and its role in the mediation of the anti-inflammatory effect induced by antidromic stimulation of sensory fibres of rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Szolcsányi, J; Helyes, Z; Oroszi, G; Németh, J; Pintér, E

    1998-03-01

    1. The effect of antidromic stimulation of the sensory fibres of the sciatic nerve on inflammatory plasma extravasation in various tissues and on cutaneous vasodilatation elicited in distant parts of the body was investigated in rats pretreated with guanethidine (8 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and pipecuronium (200 microg kg(-1), i.v.). 2. Antidromic sciatic nerve stimulation with C-fibre strength (20 V, 0.5 ms) at 5 Hz for 5 min elicited neurogenic inflammation in the innervated area and inhibited by 50.3 +/- 4.67% the development of a subsequent plasma extravasation in response to similar stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve. Stimulation at 0.5 Hz for 1 h also evoked local plasma extravasation and inhibited the carrageenin-induced (1%, 100 microl s.c.) cutaneous inflammation by 38.5 +/- 10.0% in the contralateral paw. Excitation at 0.1 Hz for 4 h elicited no local plasma extravasation in the stimulated hindleg but still reduced the carrageenin-induced oedema by 52.1 +/- 9.7% in the paw on the contralateral side. 3. Plasma extravasation in the knee joint in response to carrageenin (2%, 200 microl intra-articular injection) was diminished by 46.1 +/- 12.69% and 40.9 +/- 4.93% when the sciatic nerve was stimulated in the contralateral leg at 0.5 Hz for 1 h or 0.1 Hz for 4 h, respectively. 4. Stimulation of the peripheral stump of the left vagal nerve (20 V, 1 ms, 8 Hz, 10 min) elicited plasma extravasation in the trachea, oesophagus and mediastinal connective tissue in rats pretreated with atropine (2 mg kg(-1), i.v.), guanethidine (8 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and pipecuronium (200 microg kg(-1), i.v.). These responses were inhibited by 37.8 +/- 5.1%, 49.7 +/- 9.9% and 37.6 +/- 4.2%, respectively by antidromic sciatic nerve excitation (5 Hz, 5 min) applied 5 min earlier. 5. Pretreatment with polyclonal somatostatin antiserum (0.5 ml/rat, i.v.) or the selective somatostatin depleting agent cysteamine (280 mg kg(-1), s.c.) prevented the anti-inflammatory effect of sciatic nerve

  5. Involvement of brain opioid receptors in the anti-allodynic effect of hyperbaric oxygen in rats with sciatic nerve crush-induced neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Carlee R.; Liu, Shulin; Zhang, Yangmiao; Sayre, Casey L.; Levitch, Briana; Moehlmann, Sarah; Shirachi, Donald Y.; Quock, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Earlier research has demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) can produce an antinociceptive effect in models of acute pain. Recent studies have revealed that HBO2 can produce pain relief in animal models of chronic pain as well. The purpose of the present investigation was to ascertain whether HBO2 treatment might suppress allodynia in rats with neuropathic pain and whether this effect might be blocked by the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX). Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a sciatic nerve crush under anesthesia and mechanical thresholds were assessed using an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer. The time course of the HBO2-induced anti-allodynic effect in different treatment groups was plotted, and the area-under-the-curve (AUC) was determined for each group. Seven days after the nerve crush procedure, rats were treated with HBO2 at 3.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 60 min and exhibited an anti-allodynic effect, compared to nerve crush-only control rats. Twenty-four hours before HBO2 treatment, another group of rats was implanted with Alzet® osmotic minipumps that continuously released NTX into the lateral cerebral ventricle for 7 days. These NTX-infused, HBO2-treated rats exhibited an allodynic response comparable to that exhibited by rats receiving nerve crush only. Analysis of the AUC data showed that HBO2 significantly reduced the nerve crush-induced allodynia; this anti-allodynic effect of HBO2 was reversed by NTX. These results implicate opioid receptors in the pain relief induced by HBO2. PMID:23998986

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells engrafted in a fibrin scaffold stimulate Schwann cell reactivity and axonal regeneration following sciatic nerve tubulization.

    PubMed

    Cartarozzi, Luciana P; Spejo, Aline B; Ferreira, Rui S; Barraviera, Benedito; Duek, Eliana; Carvalho, Juliana L; Góes, Alfredo M; Oliveira, Alexandre L R

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) associated with a fibrin scaffold (FS) for the peripheral regenerative process after nerve tubulization. Adult female Lewis rats received a unilateral sciatic nerve transection followed by repair with a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based tubular prosthesis. Sixty days after injury, the regenerated nerves were studied by immunohistochemistry. Anti-p75NTR immunostaining was used to investigate the reactivity of the MSCs. Basal labeling, which was upregulated during the regenerative process, was detected in uninjured nerves and was significantly greater in the MSC-treated group. The presence of GFP-positive MSCs was detected in the nerves, indicating the long term survival of such cells. Moreover, there was co-localization between MSCs and BNDF immunoreactivity, showing a possible mechanism by which MSCs improve the reactivity of SCs. Myelinated axon counting and morphometric analyses showed that MSC engrafting led to a higher degree of fiber compaction combined with a trend of increased myelin sheath thickness, when compared with other groups. The functional result of MSC engrafting was that the animals showed higher motor function recovery at the seventh and eighth week after lesion. The findings herein show that MSC+FS therapy improves the nerve regeneration process by positively modulating the reactivity of SCs. PMID:25602253

  7. Effect of Hyaluronic Acid-Carboxymethylcellulose Solution on Perineural Scar Formation after Sciatic Nerve Repair in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Sung; Han, Chung Soo; Chung, Duke Whan; Kim, Gou Young

    2011-01-01

    Background Scar tissue formation is the major cause of failure in peripheral nerve surgery. Use of a hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose (HA-CMC) membrane (Seprafilm) as a solid anti-adhesion barrier agent is one of the therapeutic approaches to reduce postoperative scar tissue formation. However, a solid membrane may not be suitable for repair of a weak peripheral nerve site. This study examined the effect of HA-CMC solution on perineural scar formation after peripheral nerve repair in rats. Methods The sciatic nerves of 40 rats were transected and then immediately repaired using 10-0 nylon. The nerves were divided randomly into two groups. Saline and HA-CMC solution were applied topically to the nerve repair sites in the control and experimental groups, respectively. Reoperation was performed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks to assess scar tissue formation. The assessment included the quality of wound healing, presence of perinueral adhesion, cellular components of the scar tissue, thickness of the scar tissue and histomorphological organization of the repair site. Results Topical application of the HA-CMC solution significantly decreased the macroscopic nerve adherence score and the numbers of the cellular components such as fibroblasts and inflammatory cells (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test). The scar tissue formation index was significantly lower in the experimental group at 12 weeks than that in the control group (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test). The grading scores of the histomorphological axonal organization at the repair site were significantly higher in the experimental group than those in the control group at 12 weeks (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test). No evidence of wound dehiscence or inflammatory reactions against the HA-CMC solution was noted. Conclusions Topical application of a HA-CMC solution is effective in reducing the perineural scar formation and adhesion after sciatic nerve repair in rats, and is effective in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration at

  8. Intact sciatic myelinated primary afferent terminals collaterally sprout in the adult rat dorsal horn following section of a neighbouring peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Doubell, T P; Mannion, R J; Woolf, C J

    1997-03-31

    Peripheral nerve section induces sprouting of the central terminals of axotomized myelinated primary afferents outside their normal dorsoventral termination zones in lamina I, III, and IV of the dorsal horn into lamina II, an area that normally only receives unmyelinated C-fiber input. This axotomy-induced regenerative sprouting is confined to the somatotopic boundaries of the injured nerve in the spinal cord. We examined whether intact myelinated sciatic afferents are able to sprout novel terminals into neighbouring areas of the dorsal horn in the adult rat following axotomy of two test nerves, either the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh or the saphenous nerve. These peripheral nerves have somatotopically organized terminal areas in the dorsal horn that overlap in some areas and are contiguous in others, with that of the sciatic central terminal field. Two weeks after cutting either the posterior cutaneous or the saphenous nerve, intact sciatic myelinated fibers labelled with the B fragment of cholera toxin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (B-HRP) sprouted into an area of lamina II normally only innervated by the adjacent injured test nerve. This collateral sprouting was strictly limited, however, to those particular areas of the dorsal horn where the A-fiber terminal field of the control sciatic and the C-fiber terminal field of the injured test nerve overlapped in the dorsoventral plane. No mediolateral sprouting was seen into those areas of neuropil solely innervated by the test nerve. We conclude that intact myelinated primary afferents do have the capacity to collaterally sprout, but that any resultant somatotopic reorganization of central projections is limited to the dorsoventral plane. These changes may contribute to sensory hypersensitivity at the edges of denervated skin. PMID:9073085

  9. A new, lateral, continuous, combined, femoral–sciatic nerve approach via a single skin puncture for postoperative analgesia in intramedullary tibial nail insertion

    PubMed Central

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo; Rava, Carlos; Gouveia, Marildo A

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of anterior knee pain following intramedullary tibial nail insertion is high. Continuous peripheral nerve blockade is an alternative method of pain control to opiods. This case illustrates the use of femoral nerve and sciatic nerve peripheral catheters with an elastomeric infusion pump for major intramedullary nailing surgery. Case report A 36-year-old male with fractures to the left leg bones presented for placement of an intramedullary nail under spinal anesthesia. At the end of the procedure, access to the lateral femoral and sciatic continuous nerve block was achieved by using a stimulator connected to a 110 mm 18G Tuohy needle. Postoperative analgesia was provided with a 40-hour infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine (400 mL) at a rate of 10 mL hour−1 with an elastomeric pump. Anesthetic dispersion and contrast were investigated. The analog scale remained with scores below 3 during the 40 hours after surgery, and boluses were not necessary. Conclusion The use of a femoral and sciatic nerve peripheral catheter offered an alternative to conventional pain control. Continuous femoral–sciatic peripheral blockade via a skin puncture with an infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine with elastomeric pumps is a safe and effective procedure in adults. PMID:23630433

  10. Comparison of two screening bioassays, based on the frog sciatic nerve and yeast cells, for the assessment of herbicide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Papaefthimiou, Chrisovalantis; Cabral, Maria de Guadalupe; Mixailidou, Christina; Viegas, Cristina A; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Theophilidis, George

    2004-05-01

    Two different test systems, one based on the isolated sciatic nerve of an amphibian and the other on a microbial eukaryote, were used for the assessment of herbicide toxicity. More specifically, we determined the deleterious effects of increasing concentrations of herbicides of different chemical classes (phenoxyacetic acids, triazines, and acetamides), and of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), a degradation product of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on electrophysiological parameters and the vitality of the axons of the isolated sciatic nerve of the frog (Rana ridibunda) and on the growth curve of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on microtiter plate susceptibility assays. The no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC), defined as the maximum concentration of the tested compound that has no effect on these biological parameters, was estimated. In spite of the different methodological approaches and biological systems compared, the NOEC values were identical and correlated with the lipophilicity of the tested compounds. The relative toxicity established here, 2,4-DCP > alachlor, metolachlor > metribuzin > 2,4-D, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), correlates with the toxicity indexes reported in the literature for freshwater organisms. Based on these results, we suggest that the relatively simple, rapid, and low-cost test systems examined here may be of interest as alternative or complementary tests for toxicological assessment of herbicides. PMID:15180372

  11. Inhibition of the NMDA receptor protects the rat sciatic nerve against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    KE, TIE; LI, RENBIN; CHEN, WENCHANG

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by MK-801 reduces ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the central nervous system. However, few previous studies have evaluated the neuroprotective effects of MK-801 against peripheral I/R injury. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of MK-801 pretreatment against I/R injury in the rat sciatic nerve (SN). Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a sham surgery (n=8) or to a 5-h ischemic insult by femoral artery clamping (I/R and I/R+MK-801 groups; n=48 per group). I/R+MK-801 rats were intraperitoneally injected with MK-801 (0.5 ml or 1 mg/kg) at 15 min prior to reperfusion. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 72 h, or 7 days following reperfusion. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, and SN inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression levels, were measured using colorimetry. In addition, the protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured using immunohistochemistry, and histological analyses of the rat SN were conducted using light and electron microscopy. Alterations in the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) in the rat SN were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In the I/R group, plasma concentrations of NO (175.3±4.2 µmol/l) and MDA (16.2±1.9 mmol/l), and the levels of iNOS (2.5±0.3) in the SN, peaked at 24 h post-reperfusion. At 24 h, pretreatment with MK-801 significantly reduced plasma NO (107.3±3.6 µmol/l) and MDA (11.8±1.6 mmol/l), and SN iNOS (1.65±0.2) levels (all P<0.01). The mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and TACE in the SN were significantly reduced in the I/R+MK-801 group, as compared with the I/R group (P<0.05). Furthermore, MK-801 pretreatment was shown to have alleviated histological signs of I/R injury, including immune cell infiltration and axon demyelination. The results of the present study suggested that pretreatment

  12. Methylcobalamin increases Erk1/2 and Akt activities through the methylation cycle and promotes nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve injury model.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Temporin, Ko; Okamoto, Michio; Kuroda, Yusuke; Moritomo, Hisao; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2010-04-01

    Methylcobalamin is a vitamin B12 analog and is necessary for the maintenance of the nervous system. Although some previous studies have referred to the effects of methylcobalamin on neurons, the precise mechanism of this effect remains obscure. Here we show that methylcobalamin at concentrations above 100 nM promotes neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival and that these effects are mediated by the methylation cycle, a metabolic pathway involving methylation reactions. We also demonstrate that methylcobalamin increases Erk1/2 and Akt activities through the methylation cycle. In a rat sciatic nerve injury model, continuous administration of high doses of methylcobalamin improves nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Therefore, methylcobalamin may provide the basis for better treatments of nervous disorders through effective systemic or local delivery of high doses of methylcobalamin to target organs. PMID:20045411

  13. Early co-administration of vitamin E acetate and methylcobalamin improves thermal hyperalgesia and motor nerve conduction velocity following sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Morani, Aashish S; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that early administration of vitamin E acetate (50 mg/kg, ip (VEA)) and methylcobalamin (500 microg/kg, ip (MCA)) for 30 days improved conduction velocity and neuropathic pain behavior. Here, we evaluated the effect of early co-administration of VEA and MCA (MVE) on thermal hyperlagesia (TH) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) in rats with sciatic nerve crush injury (SNCI). Fifteen days post-surgery, a reduction in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was observed in untreated (UNTR) rats. However, latency improved in MVE-treated animals, comparable to the placebo. On day 15, a decrease in MNCV was observed in the UNTR group of animals, and this effect was not observed for the MVE and placebo groups of animals. The results of this study indicate that early exposure to MVE attenuates the progression of TH and improves MNCV in rats with SNCI. PMID:20508297

  14. Accompanying artery of sciatic nerve as recipient vessel for free-flap transfer: a computed tomographic angiography study and case reports.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shimpei; Fukunaga, Yutaka; Fujiki, Masahide; Nakatni, Fumihiko; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Sakuraba, Minoru

    2015-05-01

    Suitable recipient vessels for free-flap transfer are hard to find in the posterior thigh. To investigate the versatility of accompanying artery of sciatic nerve as a recipient vessel in this region, we performed computed tomographic angiographic study of 20 consecutive healthy thighs in 10 patients. The presence and internal diameter of the accompanying artery were studied. The accompanying artery of the sciatic nerve was present in 11 thighs (55%) and the internal diameter of the artery at the mid-thigh level ranged from 2.1 to 3.2 mm. We used this artery as a recipient vessel for free flaps transferred to reconstruct extensive thigh defects in three patients with sarcomas. In all patients the flaps survived without vascular compromise. No sensory or motor dysfunction in the sciatic nerve distribution occurred in any patients. We believe that the accompanying artery of the sciatic nerve may be a recipient vessel for free-flap transfer in selected patients. PMID:25196891

  15. Dorsal root ganglion-derived Schwann cells combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Qu, Wei; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Hao; Jiang, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells, nerve regeneration promoters in peripheral nerve tissue engineering, can be used to repair both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, isolation and purification of Schwann cells are complicated by contamination with fibroblasts. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. In this study, we collected dorsal root ganglia from neonatal rats from which we obtained highly purified Schwann cells using serum-free melanocyte culture medium. The purity of Schwann cells (> 95%) using our method was higher than that using standard medium containing fetal bovine serum. The obtained Schwann cells were implanted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Results showed that axonal diameter and area were significantly increased and motor functions were obviously improved in the rat sciatic nerve tissue. Experimental findings suggest that serum-free melanocyte culture medium is conducive to purify Schwann cells and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan nerve conduits combined with Schwann cells contribute to restore sciatic nerve defects. PMID:25598778

  16. Optimal Effect of Phenol Block in the Sciatic Nerve of Rats: Standardization of Minimized Dosage and Duration of Application.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chuan-Chao; Chang, Chein-Wei; Tsai, Su-Ju

    2015-08-31

    The phenol nerve block has been widely used in clinical practice for spasticity reduction, but the correlation between the dosage of phenol and its effectiveness has seldom been discussed. The objective was to determine the optimal duration of phenol in contact with the nervous tissue and to investigate the dose-response relationship of 5% aqueous phenol solution by percutaneous nerve block in rats. Group I (n = 8) received sciatic nerve block by bathing the nerves in phenol solution, and group II (n = 40) by injecting phenol percutaneously. Group IIa to IId received different volumes (0.80, 0.16, 0.08 and 0.04 ml) and group IIe received normal saline. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was measured pre-injection and at 90 and 270 sec after injection and after surgical exposure of the nerves. The duration of CMAP reduced by 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% after phenol injection was also recorded. The mean latency for the evoked response to subside in direct phenol application (group I) and percutaneous nerve block (group IIa) were 73.5 ± 5.9 and 62.4 ± 7.6 sec, respectively. There was no statistical difference for the time periods in the blocking effect elicited by phenol solution between these two methods. Ninety sec was set as the optimal duration for phenol to produce complete conduction blockage. Higher volume of phenol produced more significant blocking effect at 90 and 270 sec after injection. Percutaneous injection with 0.16 ml of phenol solution had the same blocking effect as 0.8 ml. The continuous injection model for percutaneous phenol block indeed used significantly more phenol than actually needed. Clinically, the progressive injection model can be used to minimize injection volume. PMID:26211647

  17. Deregulated expression of cytoskeleton related genes in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve of presymptomatic SOD1G93A Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Maximino, Jessica R.; de Oliveira, Gabriela P.; Alves, Chrystian J.; Chadi, Gerson

    2014-01-01

    Early molecular events related to cytoskeleton are poorly described in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), especially in the Schwann cell (SC), which offers strong trophic support to motor neurons. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) tool identified cytoskeleton-related genes by employing the Cellular Component Ontology (CCO) in a large gene profiling of lumbar spinal cord and sciatic nerve of presymptomatic SOD1G93A mice. One and five CCO terms related to cytoskeleton were described from the spinal cord deregulated genes of 40 days (actin cytoskeleton) and 80 days (microtubule cytoskeleton, cytoskeleton part, actin cytoskeleton, neurofilament cytoskeleton, and cytoskeleton) old transgene mice, respectively. Also, four terms were depicted from the deregulated genes of sciatic nerve of 60 days old transgenes (actin cytoskeleton, cytoskeleton part, microtubule cytoskeleton and cytoskeleton). Kif1b was the unique deregulated gene in more than one studied region or presymptomatic age. The expression of Kif1b [quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)] elevated in the lumbar spinal cord (40 days old) and decreased in the sciatic nerve (60 days old) of presymptomatic ALS mice, results that were in line to microarray findings. Upregulation (24.8 fold) of Kif1b was seen in laser microdissected enriched immunolabeled motor neurons from the spinal cord of 40 days old presymptomatic SOD1G93A mice. Furthermore, Kif1b was dowregulated in the sciatic nerve Schwann cells of presymptomatic ALS mice (60 days old) that were enriched by means of cell microdissection (6.35 fold), cell sorting (3.53 fold), and primary culture (2.70 fold) technologies. The gene regulation of cytoskeleton molecules is an important occurrence in motor neurons and Schwann cells in presymptomatic stages of ALS and may be relevant in the dying back mechanisms of neuronal death. Furthermore, a differential regulation of Kif1b in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve cells

  18. MicroRNA-338 and microRNA-21 co-transfection for the treatment of rat sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyong; Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Zhang, Ming; Gong, Kai; Huang, Chuyi; Ji, Yuchen; Wei, Yujun; Ao, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to find if co-transfecting microRNA-338 and microRNA-21 into the neurons in the spinal cord can promote functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury in rats. Animals were divided into three groups: 20 animals in the GFP control vector group (group A), 20 animals in the GFP experimental vector group (group B) and ten animals in the normal control group. Right sciatic nerves of animals in groups A and B were transected and were bridged with collagen nerve conduits with 10 mm distance between the stumps. 3 µl GFP control vector or 3 µl lentiviral vectors encoding the sequence of microRNA-338 and microRNA-21 were injected in the conduit. 8 weeks after the surgery, the treatment effect was evaluated by functional analysis, electrophysiological analysis, immunohistochemical analysis as well as transmitting electronic microscope observations in all the rats. Animals treated with microRNA-338 and microRNA-21 showed significantly better recovery than GFP control group animals by means of functional analysis (Sciatic nerve index -47.7 ± 2.5 vs -59.4 ± 3.7), electrophysiological analysis (Conduction velocity 20.5 ± 2.8 vs 10.5 ± 1.4 m/s), ratio of wet weight of the gastrocnemius muscles (0.83 ± 0.03 vs 0.55 ± 0.06), axon diameter (5.0 ± 1.8 µm vs 4.0 ± 2.2), myelin sheath thickness (1.4 ± 0.43 vs 0.80 ± 0.31 µm) and G-ratio (0.80 ± 0.06 vs 0.75 ± 0.04). Lentiviral vectors encoding microRNA 338 and 21 might be explored in the future as potential therapeutic intervention to promote nerve regeneration. PMID:26909749

  19. Behavioral and cellular consequences of high-electrode count Utah Arrays chronically implanted in rat sciatic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, H. A. C.; Mathews, K. S.; Normann, R. A.; Fernandez, E.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Before peripheral nerve electrodes can be used for the restoration of sensory and motor functions in patients with neurological disorders, the behavioral and histological consequences of these devices must be investigated. These indices of biocompatibility can be defined in terms of desired functional outcomes; for example, a device may be considered for use as a therapeutic intervention if the implanted subject retains functional neurons post-implantation even in the presence of a foreign body response. The consequences of an indwelling device may remain localized to cellular responses at the device-tissue interface, such as fibrotic encapsulation of the device, or they may affect the animal more globally, such as impacting behavioral or sensorimotor functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall consequences of implantation of high-electrode count intrafascicular peripheral nerve arrays, High Density Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (HD-USEAs; 25 electrodes mm-2). Approach. HD-USEAs were implanted in rat sciatic nerves for one and two month periods. We monitored wheel running, noxious sensory paw withdrawal reflexes, footprints, nerve morphology and macrophage presence at the tissue-device interface. In addition, we used a novel approach to contain the arrays in actively behaving animals that consisted of an organic nerve wrap. A total of 500 electrodes were implanted across all ten animals. Main results. The results demonstrated that chronic implantation (⩽8 weeks) of HD-USEAs into peripheral nerves can evoke behavioral deficits that recover over time. Morphology of the nerve distal to the implantation site showed variable signs of nerve fiber degeneration and regeneration. Cytology adjacent to the device-tissue interface also showed a variable response, with some electrodes having many macrophages surrounding the electrodes, while other electrodes had few or no macrophages present. This variability was also seen along the length

  20. Acute unilateral facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Siew Swan; Tassone, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Mrs PS, 78 years of age, presented with acute left-sided otalgia, ear swelling and subsequent unilateral facial paralysis (Figure 1). She denied any otorrhoea or hearing loss. Past medical history relevant to the presenting complaint included: * Bell palsy diagnosed 20 years ago with no residual effect * biopsy confirmed benign parotid lump (diagnosed 3 years previously). Histopathology revealed a pleomorphic adenoma. Mrs PS declined surgical intervention at the time * chicken pox as a child * normal fasting blood glucose 1 month previously and no known immune compromise. Examination revealed yellow crusts and small vesicles on the external acoustic meatus (Figure 2). A 10 mm well defined firm and nontender nodule was palpable at the ramus of the mandible. PMID:21597548

  1. Long-term functional and morphological assessment of a standardized rat sciatic nerve crush injury with a non-serrated clamp.

    PubMed

    Luís, A L; Amado, S; Geuna, S; Rodrigues, J M; Simões, M J; Santos, J D; Fregnan, F; Raimondo, S; Veloso, A Prieto; Ferreira, A J A; Armada-da-Silva, P A S; Varejão, A S P; Maurício, A C

    2007-06-15

    We have recently described the sequence of functional and morphologic changes occurring after a standardized sciatic nerve crush injury. An 8-week post-injury time was used because this end point is the far most used. Unexpectedly, both functional and morphological data revealed that animals had still not recovered to normal pre-injury levels. Therefore, the present study was designed in order to prolong the observation up to 12 weeks. Functional recovery was evaluated using sciatic functional index (SFI), static sciatic index (SSI), extensor postural thrust (EPT), withdrawal reflex latency (WRL) and ankle kinematics. In addition, quantitative morphology was carried out on regenerated nerve fibers. A full functional recovery was predicted by SFI/SSI, EPT and WRL but not all ankle kinematics parameters. Moreover, only two morphological parameters (myelin thickness/axon diameter ratio and fiber/axon diameter ratio) returned to normal values. Data presented in this paper provide a baseline for selecting the adequate end-point and methods of recovery assessment for a rat sciatic nerve crush study and suggest that the combined use of functional and morphological analysis should be recommended in this experimental model. PMID:17397932

  2. MHC-I and PirB Upregulation in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System following Sciatic Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bombeiro, André Luis; Thomé, Rodolfo; Oliveira Nunes, Sérgio Luiz; Monteiro Moreira, Bárbara; Verinaud, Liana; de Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class one (MHC-I) antigen-presenting molecules participate in central nervous system (CNS) synaptic plasticity, as does the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), an MHC-I ligand that can inhibit immune-cells and bind to myelin axon growth inhibitors. Based on the dual roles of both molecules in the immune and nervous systems, we evaluated their expression in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) following sciatic nerve injury in mice. Increased PirB and MHC-I protein and gene expression is present in the spinal cord one week after nerve transection, PirB being mostly expressed in the neuropile region. In the crushed nerve, MHC-I protein levels increased 2 weeks after lesion (wal) and progressively decreased over the next eight weeks. The same kinetics were observed for infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) but not for PirB expression, which continuously increased. Both MHC-I and PirB were found in macrophages and Schwann cells but rarely in axons. Interestingly, at 8 wal, PirB was mainly restricted to the myelin sheath. Our findings reinforce the participation of MHC-I and PirB in CNS plasticity events. In contrast, opposing expression levels of these molecules were found in the PNS, so that MHC-I and PirB seem to be mostly implicated in antigen presentation to CTLs and axon myelination, respectively. PMID:27551751

  3. MHC-I and PirB Upregulation in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System following Sciatic Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Bombeiro, André Luis; Thomé, Rodolfo; Oliveira Nunes, Sérgio Luiz; Monteiro Moreira, Bárbara; Verinaud, Liana; Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class one (MHC-I) antigen-presenting molecules participate in central nervous system (CNS) synaptic plasticity, as does the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), an MHC-I ligand that can inhibit immune-cells and bind to myelin axon growth inhibitors. Based on the dual roles of both molecules in the immune and nervous systems, we evaluated their expression in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) following sciatic nerve injury in mice. Increased PirB and MHC-I protein and gene expression is present in the spinal cord one week after nerve transection, PirB being mostly expressed in the neuropile region. In the crushed nerve, MHC-I protein levels increased 2 weeks after lesion (wal) and progressively decreased over the next eight weeks. The same kinetics were observed for infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) but not for PirB expression, which continuously increased. Both MHC-I and PirB were found in macrophages and Schwann cells but rarely in axons. Interestingly, at 8 wal, PirB was mainly restricted to the myelin sheath. Our findings reinforce the participation of MHC-I and PirB in CNS plasticity events. In contrast, opposing expression levels of these molecules were found in the PNS, so that MHC-I and PirB seem to be mostly implicated in antigen presentation to CTLs and axon myelination, respectively. PMID:27551751

  4. Characteristics of sympathetic nerve activity in the rat sciatic nerve in response to microstimulation in a sympathetic fascicle in the contralateral side.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Shiwaku, Yutaka; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Shuntaro; Feng, Zhonggang; Kusunoki, Masataka; Nakamura, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Microneurography is used for the monitor of various peripheral nerve activities. We recently reported that the electrical stimulation of peripheral sympathetic nerve fascicle via the microelectrode, i.e., microstimulation, temporarily reduced the blood glucose level in rats in case that the stimulation intensity was set high enough to induce small muscle contraction. However, the nature of microstimulation has little been clarified yet. Therefore, in the present study, we first detected sympathetic nerve signal microneurographically in the bilateral sciatic nerves of rats, and one of the microelectrodes was used for the microstimulation (0.25 ms-width pulse train at a rate of 1 Hz) while sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) was recorded in the contralateral side as a parameter of systemic sympathetic effects. The SNA, expressed as action potential rate, was transiently increased 150 ms after each stimulation pulse in case that the stimulation intensity was set not less than -0.1 V from the contraction threshold (around 0.32 V). To confirm that the increase was not caused by the activation of low threshold, thick fibers such as motor nerves in the vicinity of the microelectrode tip, next, a bipolar hook electrode, instead of the microelectrode, was then used in the stimulation side. As a result, the above-mentioned, transient increase in SNA was not observed any more in the contralateral side. These results suggest that systemic SNA could be enhanced with lower stimulation intensity than that inducing muscle contraction, and that thicker fibers may little affect the increase in the contralateral SNA. PMID:24111188

  5. Hybrid electro-optical stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve induces force generation in the plantarflexor muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Austin R.; Peterson, Erik; Mackanos, Mark A.; Atkinson, James; Tyler, Dustin; Jansen, E. Duco

    2012-12-01

    Objective. Optical methods of neural activation are becoming important tools for the study and treatment of neurological disorders. Infrared nerve stimulation (INS) is an optical technique exhibiting spatially precise activation in the native neural system. While this technique shows great promise, the risk of thermal damage may limit some applications. Combining INS with traditional electrical stimulation, a method known as hybrid electro-optical stimulation, reduces the laser power requirements and mitigates the risk of thermal damage while maintaining spatial selectivity. Here we investigate the capability of inducing force generation in the rat hind limb through hybrid stimulation of the sciatic nerve. Approach. Hybrid stimulation was achieved by combining an optically transparent nerve cuff for electrical stimulation and a diode laser coupled to an optical fiber for infrared stimulation. Force generation in the rat plantarflexor muscles was measured in response to hybrid stimulation with 1 s bursts of pulses at 15 and 20 Hz and with a burst frequency of 0.5 Hz. Main results. Forces were found to increase with successive stimulus trains, ultimately reaching a plateau by the 20th train. Hybrid evoked forces decayed at a rate similar to the rate of thermal diffusion in tissue. Preconditioning the nerve with an optical stimulus resulted in an increase in the force response to both electrical and hybrid stimulation. Histological evaluation showed no signs of thermally induced morphological changes following hybrid stimulation. Our results indicate that an increase in baseline temperature is a likely contributor to hybrid force generation. Significance. Extraneural INS of peripheral nerves at physiologically relevant repetition rates is possible using hybrid electro-optical stimulation.

  6. Up-regulated uridine kinase gene identified by RLCS in the ventral horn after crush injury to rat sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Yuh, I; Yaoi, T; Watanabe, S; Okajima, S; Hirasawa, Y; Fushiki, S

    1999-12-01

    Rat sciatic nerve crush injury is one of the models commonly employed for studying the mechanisms of nerve regeneration. In this study, we analyzed the temporal change of gene expression after injury in this model, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in nerve regeneration. First, a cDNA analysis method, Restriction Landmark cDNA Scanning (RLCS), was applied to cells in the ventral horn of the spinal cord during a 7-day period after the crush injury. A total of 1991 cDNA species were detected as spots on gels, and 37 of these were shown to change after the injury. Temporally changed patterns were classified into three categories: the continuously up-regulated type (10 species), the transiently up-regulated type (22 species), and the down-regulated type (5 species). These complex patterns of gene expression demonstrated after the injury suggest that precise regulation in molecular pathways is required for accomplishing nerve regeneration. Secondly, the rat homologue of uridine kinase gene was identified as one of the up-regulated genes. Northern blot analysis on rat ventral horn tissue and brain revealed that the UK gene had three transcripts with different sizes (4.3, 1. 4, and 1.35 kb, respectively). All of the transcripts, especially the 4.3 kb one, were up-regulated mainly in a bimodal fashion during the 28-day period after the injury. The RLCS method that we employed in the present study shows promise as a means to fully analyze molecular changes in nerve regeneration in detail. PMID:10581173

  7. Injury-Dependent and Disability-Specific Lumbar Spinal Gene Regulation following Sciatic Nerve Injury in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Austin, Paul J; Bembrick, Alison L; Denyer, Gareth S; Keay, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    Allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain are cardinal sensory signs of neuropathic pain. Clinically, many neuropathic pain patients experience affective-motivational state changes, including reduced familial and social interactions, decreased motivation, anhedonia and depression which are severely debilitating. In earlier studies we have shown that sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) disrupts social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle and endocrine function in one third of rats, a subgroup reliably identified six days after injury. CCI consistently produces allodynia and hyperalgesia, the intensity of which was unrelated either to the altered social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle or endocrine changes. This decoupling of the sensory consequences of nerve injury from the affective-motivational changes is reported in both animal experiments and human clinical data. The sensory changes triggered by CCI are mediated primarily by functional changes in the lumbar dorsal horn, however, whether lumbar spinal changes may drive different affective-motivational states has never been considered. In these studies, we used microarrays to identify the unique transcriptomes of rats with altered social behaviours following sciatic CCI to determine whether specific patterns of lumbar spinal adaptations characterised this subgroup. Rats underwent CCI and on the basis of reductions in dominance behaviour in resident-intruder social interactions were categorised as having Pain & Disability, Pain & Transient Disability or Pain alone. We examined the lumbar spinal transcriptomes two and six days after CCI. Fifty-four 'disability-specific' genes were identified. Sixty-five percent were unique to Pain & Disability rats, two-thirds of which were associated with neurotransmission, inflammation and/or cellular stress. In contrast, 40% of genes differentially regulated in rats without disabilities were involved with more general homeostatic processes (cellular structure

  8. Injury-Dependent and Disability-Specific Lumbar Spinal Gene Regulation following Sciatic Nerve Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Denyer, Gareth S.; Keay, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain are cardinal sensory signs of neuropathic pain. Clinically, many neuropathic pain patients experience affective-motivational state changes, including reduced familial and social interactions, decreased motivation, anhedonia and depression which are severely debilitating. In earlier studies we have shown that sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) disrupts social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle and endocrine function in one third of rats, a subgroup reliably identified six days after injury. CCI consistently produces allodynia and hyperalgesia, the intensity of which was unrelated either to the altered social interactions, sleep-wake-cycle or endocrine changes. This decoupling of the sensory consequences of nerve injury from the affective-motivational changes is reported in both animal experiments and human clinical data. The sensory changes triggered by CCI are mediated primarily by functional changes in the lumbar dorsal horn, however, whether lumbar spinal changes may drive different affective-motivational states has never been considered. In these studies, we used microarrays to identify the unique transcriptomes of rats with altered social behaviours following sciatic CCI to determine whether specific patterns of lumbar spinal adaptations characterised this subgroup. Rats underwent CCI and on the basis of reductions in dominance behaviour in resident-intruder social interactions were categorised as having Pain & Disability, Pain & Transient Disability or Pain alone. We examined the lumbar spinal transcriptomes two and six days after CCI. Fifty-four ‘disability-specific’ genes were identified. Sixty-five percent were unique to Pain & Disability rats, two-thirds of which were associated with neurotransmission, inflammation and/or cellular stress. In contrast, 40% of genes differentially regulated in rats without disabilities were involved with more general homeostatic processes (cellular structure

  9. Spatiotemporal characteristics of cerebral blood volume changes in different microvascular compartments evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Luo, Weihua; Chen, Shanbin; Cheng, Haiying; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2003-07-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of changes in cerebral blood volume associated with neuronal activity were investigated in the hindlimb somatosensory cortex of α-chloralose/urethan anesthetized rats (n=10) with optical imaging at 570nm through a thinned skull. Activation of cortex was carried out by electrical stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve with 5Hz, 0.3V pulses (0.5ms) for duration of 2s. The stimulation evoked a monophasic optical reflectance decrease at cortical parenchyma and arteries sites rapidly after the onset of stimulation, whereas no similar response was observed at vein compartments. The optical signal changes reached 10% of the peak response 0.70+/-0.32s after stimulation onset and no significant time lag in this 10% start latency time was observed between the response at cortical parenchyma and arteries compartments. The evoked optical reflectance decrease reached the peak (0.25%+/-0.047%) 2.66+/-0.61s after the stimulus onset at parenchyma site, 0.40+/-0.20s earlier (P<0.05) than that at arteries site (0.50+/-0.068% 3.06+/-0.70s). Variable location within the cortical parenchyma and arteries compartment themselves didn"t affect the temporal characteristics of the evoked signal significantly. These results suggest that the sciatic nerve stimulation evokes a local blood volume increase at both capillaries (cortical parenchyma) and arterioles rapidly after the stimulus onset but the evoked blood volume increase in capillaries could not be entirely accounted for by the dilation of arterioles.

  10. Sciatic nerve regeneration induced by transplantation of in vitro bone marrow stromal cells into an inside-out artery graft in rat.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Vahabzadeh, Behnam; Amini, Keyvan

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic injury to peripheral nerves results in considerable motor and sensory disability. Several research groups have tried to improve the regeneration of traumatized nerves by invention of favorable microsurgery. Effect of undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) combined with artery graft on peripheral nerve regeneration was studied using a rat sciatic nerve regeneration model. A 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using an artery graft (IOAG) filled with undifferentiated BMSCs (2 × 10(7) cells/mL). In control group, the graft was filled with phosphated buffer saline alone. The regenerated fibers were studied 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. Assessment of nerve regeneration was based on behavioral, functional (Walking Track Analysis), electrophysiological, histomorphometric and immuohistochemical (Schwann cell detection by S-100 expression) criteria. The behavioral, functional and electrophysiological studies confirmed significant recovery of regenerated axons in IOAG/BMSC group (P < 0.05). Quantitative morphometric analyses of regenerated fibers showed the number and diameter of myelinated fibers in IOAG/BMSC group were significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). This demonstrates the potential of using undifferentiated BMSCs combined with artery graft in peripheral nerve regeneration without limitations of donor-site morbidity associated with isolation of Schwann cells. It is also cost saving due to reduction in interval from tissue collection until cell injection, simplicity of laboratory procedures compared to differentiated BMSCs and may have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after facial nerve transection. PMID:24942097

  11. The parameters of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation are critical to its regenerative effects when applied just after a sciatic crush lesion in mice.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante Miranda de Assis, Diana; Martins Lima, Êmyle; Teixeira Goes, Bruno; Zugaib Cavalcanti, João; Barbosa Paixão, Alaí; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of two frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied immediately after lesion on peripheral nerve regeneration after a mouse sciatic crush injury. The animals were anesthetized and subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve and then separated into three groups: nontreated, Low-TENS (4 Hz), and High-TENS (100 Hz). The animals of Low- and High-TENS groups were stimulated for 2 h immediately after the surgical procedure, while the nontreated group was only positioned for the same period. After five weeks the animals were euthanized, and the nerves dissected bilaterally for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological assessment by light and electron microscopy showed that High-TENS and nontreated nerves had a similar profile, with extensive signs of degeneration. Conversely, Low-TENS led to increased regeneration, displaying histological aspects similar to control nerves. High-TENS also led to decreased density of fibers in the range of 6-12 μm diameter and decreased fiber diameter and myelin area in the range of 0-2 μm diameter. These findings suggest that High-TENS applied just after a peripheral nerve crush may be deleterious for regeneration, whereas Low-TENS may increase nerve regeneration capacity. PMID:25147807

  12. Bortezomib Treatment Produces Nocifensive Behavior and Changes in the Expression of TRPV1, CGRP, and Substance P in the Rat DRG, Spinal Cord, and Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Quartu, M.; Carozzi, V. A.; Dorsey, S. G.; Serra, M. P.; Poddighe, L.; Picci, C.; Boi, M.; Melis, T.; Del Fiacco, M.; Meregalli, C.; Chiorazzi, A.; Renn, C. L.; Cavaletti, G.; Marmiroli, P.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate neurochemical changes associated with bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy (PN), we examined the effects of a single-dose intravenous administration of bortezomib and a well-established “chronic” schedule in a rat model of bortezomib-induced PN. The TRPV1 channel and sensory neuropeptides CGRP and substance P (SP) were studied in L4-L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), spinal cord, and sciatic nerve. Behavioral measures, performed at the end of the chronic bortezomib treatment, confirmed a reduction of mechanical nociceptive threshold, whereas no difference occurred in thermal withdrawal latency. Western blot analysis showed a relative increase of TRPV1 in DRG and spinal cord after both acute and chronic bortezomib administration. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed a decrease of TRPV1 and CGRP mRNA relative levels after chronic treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed that in the DRGs, TRPV1-, CGRP-, and SP-immunoreactive neurons were mostly small- and medium-sized and the proportion of TRPV1- and CGRP-labeled neurons increased after treatment. A bortezomib-induced increase in density of TRPV1- and CGRP-immunoreactive innervation in the dorsal horn was also observed. Our findings show that bortezomib-treatment selectively affects subsets of DRG neurons likely involved in the processing of nociceptive stimuli and that neurochemical changes may contribute to development and persistence of pain in bortezomib-induced PN. PMID:24877063

  13. Nociceptive responses and spinal plastic changes of afferent C-fibers in three neuropathic pain models induced by sciatic nerve injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Casals-Díaz, Laura; Vivó, Meritxell; Navarro, Xavier

    2009-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries induce plastic changes on primary afferent fibers and on the spinal circuitry, which are related to the emergence of neuropathic pain. In this study we compared three models of sciatic nerve injury in the rat with different degrees of damage and impact on regeneration capability: crush nerve injury, chronic constriction injury (CCI) and spared nerve injury (SNI). All three models were characterized by means of nerve histology, in order to describe the degenerative and regenerative process of injured axons. Nociceptive responses were evaluated by mechanical and thermal algesimetry tests. Crush animals displayed higher withdrawal thresholds on the ipsilateral paw compared to the contralateral during the time of denervation, while CCI and SNI animals showed mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Central plasticity was evaluated by immunohistochemical labeling of non-peptidergic (IB4-positive) and peptidergic (substance P-positive) nociceptive C-fibers on L4-L6 spinal cord sections. After crush nerve injury and SNI, we observed progressive and sustained reduction of IB4 and SP immunolabeling at the sciatic projection territory in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn, which affected only the tibial and peroneal nerves projection areas in the case of SNI. After CCI, changes on SP-immunoreactivity were not observed, and IB4-immunoreactive area decreased initially but recovered to normal levels on the second week post-injury. Thus, nociceptive responses depend on the type of injury, and the immunoreactivity pattern of afferent fibers at the spinal cord display changes less pronounced after partial than complete sciatic nerve injury. Although signs of neuropathic pain appear in all three lesion models, nociceptive responses and central plasticity patterns differ between them. PMID:19416675

  14. Calibration of the stereological estimation of the number of myelinated axons in the rat sciatic nerve: A multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, S.; Geuna, S.; Ronchi, G.; Ulkay, M.B.; von Bartheld, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Several sources of variability can affect stereological estimates. Here we measured the impact of potential sources of variability on numerical stereological estimates of myelinated axons in the adult rat sciatic nerve. Besides biological variation, parameters tested included two variations of stereological methods (unbiased counting frame versus 2D-disector), two sampling schemes (few large versus frequent small sampling boxes), and workstations with varying degrees of sophistication. All estimates were validated against exhaustive counts of the same nerve cross sections to obtain calibrated true numbers of myelinated axons (gold standard). In addition, we quantified errors in particle identification by comparing light microscopic and electron microscopic images of selected consecutive sections. Biological variation was 15.6%. There was no significant difference between the two stereological approaches or workstations used, but sampling schemes with few large samples yielded larger differences (20.7%±3.7% SEM) of estimates from true values, while frequent small samples showed significantly smaller differences (12.7%±1.9% SEM). Particle identification was accurate in 94% of cases (range: 89–98%). The most common identification error was due to profiles of Schwann cell nuclei mimicking profiles of small myelinated nerve fibers. We recommend sampling frequent small rather than few large areas, and conclude that workstations with basic stereological equipment are sufficient to obtain accurate estimates. Electron microscopic verification showed that particle misidentification had a surprisingly variable and large impact of up to 11%, corresponding to 2/3 of the biological variation (15.6%). Thus, errors in particle identification require further attention, and we provide a simple nerve fiber recognition test to assist investigators with self-testing and training. PMID:20064555

  15. Inhibition of the compound action potentials of frog sciatic nerves by aroma oil compounds having various chemical structures

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Matsushita, Akitomo; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived chemicals including aroma oil compounds have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction and modulate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Although applying aroma oils to the skin produces a local anesthetic effect, this has not been yet examined throughly. The aim of the present study was to know how nerve conduction inhibitions by aroma oil compounds are related to their chemical structures and whether these activities are mediated by TRP activation. Compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Citral (aldehyde), which activates various types of TRP channels, attenuated the peak amplitude of CAP with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.46 mmol/L. Another aldehyde (citronellal), alcohol (citronellol, geraniol, (±)-linalool, (−)-linalool, (+)-borneol, (−)-borneol, α-terpineol), ester (geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, bornyl acetate), and oxide (rose oxide) compounds also reduced CAP peak amplitudes (IC50: 0.50, 0.35, 0.53, 1.7, 2.0, 1.5, 2.3, 2.7, 0.51, 0.71, 0.44, and 2.6 mmol/L, respectively). On the other hand, the amplitudes were reduced by a small extent by hydrocarbons (myrcene and p-cymene) and ketone (camphor) at high concentrations (2–5 mmol/L). The activities of citral and other TRP agonists ((+)-borneol and camphor) were resistant to TRP antagonist ruthenium red. An efficacy sequence for the CAP inhibitions was generally aldehydes ≥ esters ≥ alcohols > oxides >> hydrocarbons. The CAP inhibition by the aroma oil compound was not related to its octanol–water partition coefficient. It is suggested that aroma oil compounds inhibit nerve conduction in a manner specific to their chemical structures without TRP activation. PMID:26038703

  16. Morphological and morphometric analyses of crushed sciatic nerves after application of a purified protein from natural latex and hyaluronic acid hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Barreiros, Vanessa Cristina Pereira; Dias, Fernando José; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim; de Sousa, Luiz Gustavo; Fazan, Valéria Paula Sassoli; Antunes, Ricardo de Souza; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2014-10-01

    Hyaluronic acid hydrogels (HAHs) have been used as a carrier of substances and factors in the repair of nervous tissue. Natural latex protein (Hevea brasiliensis, F1) has shown positive effects in treating various types of tissues, including peripheral nerves. This study evaluated the F1 associated with a HAH in a controlled crush injury (axonotmesis) of the sciatic nerve in Wistar rats. The samples were photomicrographed for morphometric and quantitative analyzes using ImageJ 1.47k software (NIH, Bethesda, MD). Morphological, quantitative (myelin area/nerve area ratio and capillary density) and morphometric (minimum nerve fiber diameter, G-Ratio) data revealed an improvement in the recovery of the sciatic nerve with the application of HAH and the combination of HAH and F1 after 4 and 8 weeks of nerve injury. The most efficacious results were observed with the combination of both substances, F1 and HAH, revealing the regenerative capacity of this new biomaterial, which was hardly tested on nerve tissue. PMID:25257251

  17. Adding dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block for amputation of lower limb in high-risk patient-a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Guang; Ding, Yan-Ling; Han, Ai-Ping; Hu, Chang-Qing; Hao, Shi; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Yong-Wang; Liu, Hu; Han, Zhe; Guo, De-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The ischemia necrosis of limb frequently requires surgery of amputation. Lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block is an ideal intra-operative anesthetic and post-operative antalgic technique for patients of amputation, especially for high-risk patients who have severe cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. However, the duration of analgesia of peripheral nerve block is hardly sufficient to avoid the postoperative pain and the usage of opioids. In this case, a 79-year-old man, with multiple cerebral infarcts, congestive heart failure, atrial flutter and syncope, was treated with an above knee amputation because of ischemia necrosis of his left lower limb. Dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg was added to 0.33% ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block in this case for intra-operative anesthesia and post-operative analgesia. The sensory function was blocked fully for surgery and the duration of analgesia maintained 26 hours with haemodynamic stability and moderate sedation. The patient did not complain pain and require any supplementary analgesics after surgery. This case showed that adding 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block may be a feasible and safe technique for high-risk patients for lower limb surgery of amputation. PMID:26550393

  18. Estimation of the neuromotor system functional state after sciatic nerve neurorrhaphy in experimental conditions of intravenous laser irradiation of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechipurenko, N. I.; Tanin, Leonid V.; Antonov, Ignatii P.; Vasilevskaya, Lyudmila A.; Vlasyuk, P. A.

    1996-12-01

    The speckle-optical methods and the methods of electroneuromyography were used to study the myotonus, the contractional activity of leg muscles and the neuromotor system functional state in intact rabbits and 3 months after the sciatic nerve (SN) neurorrhaphy in conditions of intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB). The blood of animals was exposed to laser radiation with the help of a quartz-polymeric light guide, which has been inserted into the earvein the next day after SN stitching. The radiation power at the light guide output was 2-2.5 mW. Two courses of treatment with a two-week interval have been conducted. It has been established from the speckle-optical study data that ILIB increases the contractional activity of skeletal muscles in animals. The ILIB-therapy after the SN neurorrhaphy normalizes the latent period of M-response and neural cation potential. A tendancy has been revealed to an increase in impulse conduction velocity in motor nerve fibers and in maximal amplitude of the neural action potential. Thus, the ILIB-therapy after SN trauma improves the neuromotor system functional state in experimental animals in the early reinnervation period.

  19. Real-time ultrasound-guided comparison of adductor canal block and psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block in laparoscopic knee surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Messeha, Medhat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar plexus block, combined with a sciatic nerve block, is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results outcome of the adductor canal block versus the psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block using real time ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients who were undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries were randomly allocated to receive a sciatic nerve block in addition to lumbar plexus block using either an adductor canal block (ACB) or a posterior psoas compartment approach (PCB) using 25 ml of bupivacine 0.5% with adrenaline 1:400,000 injection over 2-3 minutes while observing the distribution of the local anesthetic in real time. Successful nerve block was defined as a complete loss of pinprick sensation in the region that is supplied by the three nerves along with adequate motor block, 30 minutes after injection. The degree of motor block was evaluated 30 minutes after the block procedure. The results of the present study showed that the real time ultrasound guidance of PCB is more effective than ACB approach. Although the sensory blockade of the femoral nerve achieved equally by both techniques, the LFC and OBT nerves were faster and more effectively blocked with PCB technique. Also PCB group showed significant complete sensory block without need for general anesthesia, significant decrease in the post-operative VAS and significant increase time of first analgesic requirement as compared to the ACB group. Result and Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that blockade of lumber plexus by psoas compartment block is more effective in complete sensory block without general anesthesia supplementation in addition to decrease post-operative analgesic requirement than adductor canal block. PMID:27212766

  20. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Yang, Dar-Yu; Ho, Shu-Peng; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Chung-Jung; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Chang, Ming-Hong; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto) was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS) was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days); Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits. PMID:19698158

  1. Dysregulated expression of death, stress and mitochondrion related genes in the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic SOD1G93A mouse model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Chrystian J.; Maximino, Jessica R.; Chadi, Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells are the main source of paracrine support to motor neurons. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been correlated to motor neuron death in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Despite the involvement of Schwann cells in early neuromuscular disruption in ALS, detailed molecular events of a dying-back triggering are unknown. Sciatic nerves of presymptomatic (60-day-old) SOD1G93A mice were submitted to a high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis. DAVID demonstrated the deregulated genes related to death, stress and mitochondrion, which allowed the identification of Cell cycle, ErbB signaling, Tryptophan metabolism and Rig-I-like receptor signaling as the most representative KEGG pathways. The protein-protein interaction networks based upon deregulated genes have identified the top hubs (TRAF2, H2AFX, E2F1, FOXO3, MSH2, NGFR, TGFBR1) and bottlenecks (TRAF2, E2F1, CDKN1B, TWIST1, FOXO3). Schwann cells were enriched from the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic mice using flow cytometry cell sorting. qPCR showed the up regulated (Ngfr, Cdnkn1b, E2f1, Traf2 and Erbb3, H2afx, Cdkn1a, Hspa1, Prdx, Mapk10) and down-regulated (Foxo3, Mtor) genes in the enriched Schwann cells. In conclusion, molecular analyses in the presymptomatic sciatic nerve demonstrated the involvement of death, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial pathways in the Schwann cell non-autonomous mechanisms in the early stages of ALS. PMID:26339226

  2. Minimum effective local anesthetic volume for surgical anesthesia by subparaneural, ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block: A prospective dose-finding study.

    PubMed

    Bang, Seung Uk; Kim, Dong Ju; Bae, Jin Ho; Chung, Kyudon; Kim, Yeesuk

    2016-08-01

    Because of its rapid onset time, recent years have seen an increase in the use of ultrasound (US)-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block (PSNB) via subparaneural injection for induction of surgical anesthesia. Moreover, in below-knee surgery, combined blocks, as opposed to sciatic nerve block alone, have become more common. These combined blocks often require a large volume of local anesthetic (LA), thus increasing the risk of local-anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). Thus, to decrease the risk of LAST, it is important to know the minimum effective volume (MEV) required for an adequate block. We, therefore, aimed to determine the MEV of ropivacaine 0.75% for induction of surgical anesthesia by the method of US-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block via subparaneural injection.Thirty patients underwent a US-guided PSNB with ropivacaine 0.75% at a 20-mL starting volume. Using a step-up/step-down method, we determined injection volumes for consecutive patients from the preceding patient's outcome. When an effective block was achieved within 40 minutes after injection, the next patient's volume was decreased by 2 mL. If the block failed, the next patient's volume was increased by 2 mL. The sensory and motor blockade was graded according to a 4-point scale. The block was considered a success if a combination of anesthesia and paresis (a score of 3 for both the sensory and motor nerves) was achieved within 40 minutes. The primary outcome measure was the MEV resulting in a successful subparaneural block of the sciatic nerve in 50% of patients (MEV50). Additionally, the data were processed with a probit regression analysis to determine the volume required to produce a complete sciatic nerve block in 90% of subjects (ED90).The MEV50 of 0.75% ropivacaine is 6.14 mL (95% confidence interval, 4.33-7.94 mL). The ED90 by probit analysis for a subparaneural injection was 8.9 mL (95% CI, 7.09-21.75 mL).The 6.14-mL MEV50 of ropivacaine 0.75% represents a 71% reduction

  3. [Neurons with Different Neurotransmitters in Embryonic Neocortical Allografts in the Rat Sciatic Nerve].

    PubMed

    Petrova, E S

    2016-01-01

    Different subsets of interneurons in the Wistar rat neocortex and in neocortical transplants developing in a damaged nerve were identified by the following immunohistochemical markers: glutamate decarboxylase (GAD 67) for GABAergic nerve cells, NO-synthase (NOS) for NO-ergic neurons, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) for cholinergic cells, and tyrosine hydroxylase for catecholaminergic structures. Twenty-eight days after surgery, individual GAD 67-ir, NO-ir, ChAT-ir, and very rarely TH-ir cells were detected in the graft. It was shown that the number of GAD 67-ir neurons per unit area in the grafts was less than in the rat neocortex P20. PMID:27396173

  4. A New Preparation Method for Anisotropic Silk Fibroin Nerve Guidance Conduits and Its Evaluation In Vitro and in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Defect Model.

    PubMed

    Teuschl, Andreas Herbert; Schuh, Christina; Halbweis, Robert; Pajer, Krisztián; Márton, Gábor; Hopf, Rudolf; Mosia, Shorena; Rünzler, Dominik; Redl, Heinz; Nógrádi, Antal; Hausner, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, silk fibroin (SF) has been emergently used in peripheral nerve tissue engineering. Current approaches aiming at producing SF-based nerve guidance conduits (SF-NGCs) used dissolved silk based on either aqueous solutions or organic solvents. In this study, we describe a novel procedure to produce SF-NGCs: A braided tubular structure of raw Bombyx mori silk is subsequently processed with the ternary solvent CaCl2/H2O/ethanol, formic acid, and methanol to improve its mechanical and topographical characteristics. Topographically, the combination of the treatments results in a fusion of the outer single silk fibers to a closed layer with a thickness ranging from about 40 to 75 μm. In contrast to the outer wall, the inner lumen (not treated with processing solvents) still represents the braided structure of single fibers. Mechanical stability, elasticity, and kink characteristics were evaluated with a custom-made test system. The modification procedure described here drastically improved the elastic properties of our tubular raw scaffold, favoring its use as a NGC. A cell migration assay with NIH/3T3-fibroblasts revealed the impermeability of the SF-NGC wall for possible invading and scar-forming cells. Moreover, the potential of the SF-NGC to serve as a substratum for Schwann cells has been demonstrated by cytotoxicity tests and live-dead stainings of Schwann cells grown on the inner surface of the SF-NGC. In vivo, the SF-NGC was tested in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. In short-term in vivo studies, it was proved that SF-NGCs are not triggering host inflammatory reactions. After 12 weeks, we could demonstrate morphological and functional reinnervation of the distal targets. Filled with collagen, a higher number of axons could be found in the distal to the graft (1678±303), compared with the empty SF-NGC (1274±146). The novel SF-NGC presented here shows promising results for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. The modification of

  5. Spatiotemporal Expression of Poly(rC)-Binding Protein PCBP2 Modulates Schwann Cell Proliferation After Sciatic Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Weidong; Ni, Li; Wang, Genlin; Cao, Yi; Wu, Weijie; Sun, Chi; Yuan, Damin; Ni, Haidan; Wang, Youhua; Yang, Huilin

    2016-07-01

    Poly(C)-binding proteins (PCBPs), also known as RNA-binding proteins, interact in a sequence-specific fashion with single-stranded poly(C). It was reported that PCBP2 contributed to gastric cancer proliferation and survival through miR-34a, and knockdown of PCBP2 inhibited glioma proliferation through inhibition of cell cycle progression. In addition, PCBP2 might play a critical role in the regulation of cortical neurons apoptosis induced by hypoxia or ischemia. Because of the essential role of PCBP2 in nervous system and cell growth, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of PCBP2 in a rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model. We detected the upregulated expression of PCBP2 in Schwann cell after SNC. Besides, the peak expression of PCBP2 was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen. In vitro, we observed increased expression of PCBP2 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation. Specially, PCBP2-specific siRNA-transfected Schwann cell showed significantly decreased ability for proliferation. Together, all these data indicated that the change of PCBP2 protein expression was associated with Schwann cell proliferation after the trauma of the peripheral nervous system. PMID:26250704

  6. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros Venancio, Antonio; da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; de Carvalho Pimentel, Hugo; Macêdo Lima, Matheus; Fraga de Santana, Michele; Batista da Silva, Givanildo; Marchioro, Murilo

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−)-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP). EOOb and (−)-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38 ± 0.2 and 0.17 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (−)-LIN, these values were 0.23 ± 0.0 and 0.13 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (−)-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (−)-LIN in the essential oil. PMID:27446227

  7. Essential oil of Lippia alba and its main constituent citral block the excitability of rat sciatic nerves

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, D.G.; Sousa, S.D.G.; Silva, R.E.R.; Silva-Alves, K.S.; Ferreira-da-Silva, F.W.; Kerntopf, M.R.; Menezes, I.R.A.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.; Barbosa, R.

    2015-01-01

    Lippia alba is empirically used for infusions, teas, macerates, and hydroalcoholic extracts because of its antispasmodic, analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic effects. Citral is a mixture of trans-geranial and cis-neral and is the main constituent of L. alba essential oil and possesses analgesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects. The present study evaluated the effects of the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) and citral on compound action potentials (CAPs) in Wistar rat sciatic nerves. Both drugs inhibited CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. The calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of peak-to-peak amplitude were 53.2 µg/mL and 35.00 µg/mL (or 230 µM) for EOLa and citral, respectively. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the CAP was significantly reduced by 30 µg/mL EOLa and 10 µg/mL citral. EOLa and citral (at 60 and 30 µg/mL, values close to their respective IC50 for CAP blockade) significantly increased chronaxy and rheobase. The conduction velocity of the first and second CAP components was statistically reduced to ∼86% of control with 10 µg/mL EOLa and ∼90% of control with 3 µg/mL citral. This study showed that EOLa inhibited nerve excitability and this effect can be explained by the presence of citral in its composition. Both EOLa and citral showed inhibitory actions at lower concentrations compared with other essential oils and constituents with local anesthetic activity. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that EOLa and citral are promising agents in the development of new drugs with local anesthetic activity. PMID:26132093

  8. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Modulates Spinal Cord Neuronal Degeneration by Enhancing Growth-Associated Protein 43, B-Cell Lymphoma 2, and Decreasing B-Cell Lymphoma 2-Associated X Protein Expression after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maghrebi, May; Rao, Muddanna S.; Khraishah, Haitham

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our previous studies have established that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has both neuroprotective and -regenerative capacity after sciatic nerve injury. Moreover, this improvement was evident on the behavioral level. The aim of this study was to investigate the central effects of ECGC on spinal cord motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury. Our study showed that administering 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally i.p. of EGCG to sciatic nerve-injured rats improved their performance on different motor functions and mechanical hyperesthesia neurobehavioral tests. Histological analysis of spinal cords of EGCG-treated sciatic nerve-injured (CRUSH+ECGC) animals showed an increase in the number of neurons in the anterior horn, when compared to the naïve, sham, and saline-treated sciatic nerve-injured (CRUSH) control groups. Additionally, immunohistochemical study of spinal cord sections revealed that EGCG reduced the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and increased the expression of growth-associated protein 43, a marker of regenerating axons. Finally, EGCG reduced the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein/Bcl-2 and increased the expression of survivin gene. This study may shed some light on the future clinical use of EGCG and its constituents in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25025489

  9. Regeneration of putative sensory and sympathetic cutaneous nerve endings in the rat foot after sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, N; Johansson, O; Hildebrand, C

    1996-01-01

    The present study examines the occurrence of calcitonin gene-related peptide-, substance P- and tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive profiles in glabrous and hairy foot skin from normal and nerve-injured rats. After neurotomy/suture, glabrous skin samples contain few calcitonin gene-related peptide-, substance P- and tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive profies. The number of calcitonin gene-related peptide- and substance P-like immunoreacive profiles in the epidermis is significantly subnormal. Hairy skin from these rats does also contain few calcitonin gene-related peptide-, substance P- and tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive profiles. In addition, the presence of epidermal calcitonin gene-related peptide-like imunoreactive profiles in glabrous skin is subnormal on the contralateral side. After nerve crush injury, the occurrence of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like, but not substance P-like, immunoreactive profiles in th epidermis of the glabrous skin is significantly subnormal. The occurrence of tyrosine hylase-like immnunoreactive fibres in relation to the digital artery is also subnormal. The occurrence in hairy skin of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactive, substance P-like immunoreactive and tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive profiles is subnormal. In both skin types, the contralateral occurrence of such profiles is subjectively normal. These results show that the occurrence of calcitonin gene-related peptide-, substance P-, and tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive profiles in glabrous and hairy foot skin is clearly subnormal after neurotomy and suture and less abnormal after nerve crush. After neurotomy and suture the contralateral side is also affected. PMID:10970110

  10. Tetracycline-regulated expression of OLIG2 gene in human dental pulp stem cells lead to mouse sciatic nerve regeneration upon transplantation.

    PubMed

    Askari, N; Yaghoobi, M M; Shamsara, M; Esmaeili-Mahani, S

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have indicated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) potency to differentiate into several types of cell lineages. Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) plays an important role in the oligodendrogenic pathway. In this study, a tetracycline (Tet)-inducible system expressing OLIG2 gene was transfected into human DPSCs to direct their differentiation toward oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Following induction, the expression of stage-specific markers was studied by Reverse Transcription quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR), immunocytochemistry and western blotting. In the following, the cells were transplanted into the mouse model of local sciatic demyelination damage by lysolecithin. Recovery of lysolecithin-induced lesions in sciatic nerve was studied by treadmill exercise, von Frey filament test and hind paw withdrawal in response to a thermal stimulus. Improvement of behavioral symptoms was efficiently observed from the second week to the sixth week post-transplantation. Our findings showed that exogenous expression of the OLIG2 gene by a Tet-regulated system could be used as an efficient way to induce the differentiation of DPSCs into functional oligodendrocytes. Meanwhile, the DPSC-derived OPCs have relevant therapeutic potential in the animal model of sciatic nerve injury and therefore might represent a valuable tool for stem cell-based therapy in inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNSs). PMID:26254831

  11. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Yang, Sheng Bo

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA) treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI), decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb). The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis. PMID:27274754

  12. Effect of Electroacupuncture on the Expression of Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase and Ultrastructure Changes in Atrophied Rat Peroneus Longus Muscle Induced by Sciatic Nerve Injection Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Yang, Sheng Bo

    2016-01-01

    Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) is one of the key enzymes involved in protein synthesis. Its mutations have been reported to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease which demonstrates muscular atrophy in distal extremities, particularly manifested in peroneus muscles. In this situation, the dysfunctions of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) affect energy supply and excitation-contraction coupling of muscle fibers, therefore resulting in muscular atrophy. Although the treatment of muscular atrophy is a global urgent problem, it can be improved by electroacupuncture (EA) treatment. To investigate the mechanism underlying EA treatment improving muscular atrophy, we focused on the perspective of protein synthesis by establishing a penicillin injection-induced sciatic nerve injury model. In our model, injured rats without treatment showed decreased sciatic functional index (SFI), decreased peroneus longus muscle weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, aggregated mitochondria with vacuoles appearing, swollen SR, and downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of GlyRS and myosin heavy chain IIb (MHC-IIb). The injured rats with EA treatment showed significant recovery. These results indicated that EA stimulation can alleviate peroneus longus muscular atrophy induced by iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury through promoting the recovery of GlyRS and muscle ultrastructure and increasing muscle protein synthesis. PMID:27274754

  13. Repeatable and adjustable on-demand sciatic nerve block with phototriggerable liposomes.

    PubMed

    Rwei, Alina Y; Lee, Jung-Jae; Zhan, Changyou; Liu, Qian; Ok, Meryem T; Shankarappa, Sahadev A; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S

    2015-12-22

    Pain management would be greatly enhanced by a formulation that would provide local anesthesia at the time desired by patients and with the desired intensity and duration. To this end, we have developed near-infrared (NIR) light-triggered liposomes to provide on-demand adjustable local anesthesia. The liposomes contained tetrodotoxin (TTX), which has ultrapotent local anesthetic properties. They were made photo-labile by encapsulation of a NIR-triggerable photosensitizer; irradiation at 730 nm led to peroxidation of liposomal lipids, allowing drug release. In vitro, 5.6% of TTX was released upon NIR irradiation, which could be repeated a second time. The formulations were not cytotoxic in cell culture. In vivo, injection of liposomes containing TTX and the photosensitizer caused an initial nerve block lasting 13.5 ± 3.1 h. Additional periods of nerve block could be induced by irradiation at 730 nm. The timing, intensity, and duration of nerve blockade could be controlled by adjusting the timing, irradiance, and duration of irradiation. Tissue reaction to this formulation and the associated irradiation was benign. PMID:26644576

  14. Repeatable and adjustable on-demand sciatic nerve block with phototriggerable liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Rwei, Alina Y.; Lee, Jung-Jae; Zhan, Changyou; Liu, Qian; Ok, Meryem T.; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Pain management would be greatly enhanced by a formulation that would provide local anesthesia at the time desired by patients and with the desired intensity and duration. To this end, we have developed near-infrared (NIR) light-triggered liposomes to provide on-demand adjustable local anesthesia. The liposomes contained tetrodotoxin (TTX), which has ultrapotent local anesthetic properties. They were made photo-labile by encapsulation of a NIR-triggerable photosensitizer; irradiation at 730 nm led to peroxidation of liposomal lipids, allowing drug release. In vitro, 5.6% of TTX was released upon NIR irradiation, which could be repeated a second time. The formulations were not cytotoxic in cell culture. In vivo, injection of liposomes containing TTX and the photosensitizer caused an initial nerve block lasting 13.5 ± 3.1 h. Additional periods of nerve block could be induced by irradiation at 730 nm. The timing, intensity, and duration of nerve blockade could be controlled by adjusting the timing, irradiance, and duration of irradiation. Tissue reaction to this formulation and the associated irradiation was benign. PMID:26644576

  15. Evaluating the effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on pain-associated behaviors in a rat model following implantation near the sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Zanella, John M; Waleh, Nahid; Orduña, Juan; Montenegro, Jose; Paulin, Jaime; McKay, William F; Wilsey, Jared

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE It has been hypothesized that the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) amplification of the host inflammatory response interacts with nerves in the spine and contributes to the occurrence of new, postoperative complaints of radiculitis. This in vivo rat study was conducted to assess the capacity for rhBMP-2/ACS (rhBMP-2 applied to absorbable collagen sponge [ACS]) to stimulate pain-associated behaviors in the rat chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. METHODS Rats were randomly assigned to one of 14 treatment groups. Half of the animals underwent a sham procedure in which the left sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated but no ligature was placed (Sham cohort), while the remaining animals had chromic gut sutures tied around the sciatic nerve to induce CCI (CCI cohort). The following test articles were applied to the sciatic nerve in each cohort: saline alone, saline applied to ACS, 0.1 mg/ml rhBMP-2 applied to ACS, or 1.0 mg/ml rhBMP-2 applied to ACS. The ACS was either wrapped around the sciatic nerve or implanted adjacent to the nerve. Thermal withdrawal latency was assessed on Days 7, 14, 21, and 28 postoperatively. Isolated nerves from selected rats in each group were examined and assessed for histopathological changes on Days 3, 7, 14, and 28. RESULTS CCI produced a significant pain behavioral response for all treatment groups at all time points. In the Sham cohort, 0.1 mg/ml rhBMP-2/ACS wrapped around the nerve (WRP) decreased thermal withdrawal on Day 28, and 1.0 mg/ml rhBMP-2/ACS placed adjacent to the nerve (ADJ) decreased thermal withdrawal on Days 21 and 28. Conversely, in the CCI cohort, 0.1 mg/ml rhBMP-2/ACS ADJ increased thermal withdrawal latencies on Day 7; 1.0 mg/ml rhBMP-2/ACS ADJ increased thermal withdrawal latencies on Day 7; and 1.0 mg/ml rhBMP-2/ACS WRP increased thermal withdrawal on Days 7 and 14. Histologically, the effect of rhBMP-2 on nerve inflammation was unclear, as inflammatory cell infiltration was

  16. In vivo phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit in sciatic nerves of control and diabetic rats: effects of protein kinase modulators.

    PubMed Central

    Borghini, I; Geering, K; Gjinovci, A; Wollheim, C B; Pralong, W F

    1994-01-01

    The phosphorylation state of the Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit has been examined in 32P-labeled sciatic nerves of control and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Intact nerves were challenged with protein kinase (PK) modulators and alpha-subunit 32P labeling was analyzed after immunoprecipitation. In control nerves, the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had little effect on alpha-subunit 32P labeling. In contrast, staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, and extracellular calcium omission decreased it. In Ca(2+)-free conditions, PMA restored the labeling to basal levels. The cAMP-raising agent forskolin reduced the 32P labeling of the alpha subunit. The results suggest that nerve Na,K-ATPase is tonically phosphorylated by PKC in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and that PKA modulates the phosphorylation process. In nerves of diabetic rats, PMA increased 32P labeling of the alpha subunit. In contrast to staurosporine or extracellular calcium omission, the decreased state of phosphorylation seen with forskolin was no longer significant in diabetic nerves. No change in the level of alpha-subunit isoforms (alpha 1 or alpha 2) was detected by Western blot analysis in such nerves. In conclusion, the altered effect of PK activators on Na,K-ATPase phosphorylation state is consistent with the view that a defect in PKC activation exists in diabetic nerves. Images PMID:8016140

  17. A novel artificial nerve graft for repairing long-distance sciatic nerve defects: a self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianghai; Pan, Mengjie; Wen, Jinkun; Tang, Yinjuan; Hamilton, Audra D.; Li, Yuanyuan; Qian, Changhui; Liu, Zhongying; Wu, Wutian; Guo, Jiasong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel artificial nerve graft termed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS)-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) conduit (SPC) and used it to bridge a 10-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in the rat. Retrograde tracing, behavioral testing and histomorphometric analyses showed that compared with the empty PLGA conduit implantation group, the SPC implantation group had a larger number of growing and extending axons, a markedly increased diameter of regenerated axons and a greater thickness of the myelin sheath in the conduit. Furthermore, there was an increase in the size of the neuromuscular junction and myofiber diameter in the target muscle. These findings suggest that the novel artificial SPC nerve graft can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination in the transected peripheral nerve and can be used for repairing peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25657734

  18. A novel artificial nerve graft for repairing long-distance sciatic nerve defects: a self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianghai; Pan, Mengjie; Wen, Jinkun; Tang, Yinjuan; Hamilton, Audra D; Li, Yuanyuan; Qian, Changhui; Liu, Zhongying; Wu, Wutian; Guo, Jiasong

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we developed a novel artificial nerve graft termed self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS)-containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) conduit (SPC) and used it to bridge a 10-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in the rat. Retrograde tracing, behavioral testing and histomorphometric analyses showed that compared with the empty PLGA conduit implantation group, the SPC implantation group had a larger number of growing and extending axons, a markedly increased diameter of regenerated axons and a greater thickness of the myelin sheath in the conduit. Furthermore, there was an increase in the size of the neuromuscular junction and myofiber diameter in the target muscle. These findings suggest that the novel artificial SPC nerve graft can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination in the transected peripheral nerve and can be used for repairing peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25657734

  19. Axoplasmic transport of microtubule-associated proteins in the rat sciatic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Takenaka, T.; Inomata, K.

    1981-09-01

    /sup 32/P-ATP was injected into the L5 dorsal root ganglion and axoplasmic transport of the phosphorylate MA proteins 2, microtubule-associated proteins 2, was observed. After the injection of /sup 32/P-ATP, the nerve was dissected out at prescribed time intervals and sliced into 5-mm pieces. Each segment was electrophoresed on an SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel and subjected to autoradiography. A protein of 310,000 dalton was transported at a velocity of 6.6-10.6 mm/day in the axon with the electrophoretic mobility identical to that of MA proteins 2, one of the key components associated with the microtubules.

  20. Assessing the axonal translocation of CeO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles in the sciatic nerve fibers of the frog: an ex vivo electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Kastrinaki, Georgia; Samsouris, Christos; Kosmidis, Efstratios K; Papaioannou, Eleni; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Theophilidis, George

    2015-01-01

    The axonal translocation of two commonly used nanoparticles in medicine, namely CeO2 and SiO2, is investigated. The study was conducted on frog sciatic nerve fibers in an ex vivo preparation. Nanoparticles were applied at the proximal end of the excised nerve. A nerve stimulation protocol was followed for over 35 hours. Nerve vitality curve comparison between control and exposed nerves showed that CeO2 has no neurotoxic effect at the concentrations tested. After exposure, specimens were fixed and then screen scanned every 1 mm along their length for nanoparticle presence by means of Fourier transform infrared microscopy. We demonstrated that both nanoparticles translocate within the nerve by formation of narrow bands in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum. For the CeO2, we also demonstrated that the translocation depends on both axonal integrity and electrical activity. The speed of translocation for the two species was estimated in the range of 0.45–0.58 mm/h, close to slow axonal transportation rate. Transmission electron microscopy provided direct evidence for the presence of SiO2 in the treated nerves. PMID:26648718

  1. The use of laminin modified linear ordered collagen scaffolds loaded with laminin-binding ciliary neurotrophic factor for sciatic nerve regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiani; Sun, Changkai; Zhao, Hui; Xiao, Zhifeng; Chen, Bing; Gao, Jian; Zheng, Tiezheng; Wu, Wei; Wu, Shuang; Wang, Jingyu; Dai, Jianwu

    2011-06-01

    Nerve conduit provides a promising strategy for nerve injury repair in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, simply bridging the transected nerve with an empty conduit is hard to satisfy functional recovery. The regenerated axons may disperse during regeneration in the empty lumen, limiting the functional recovery. Our previous work had reported that linear ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) could be used as a nerve guidance material. Here we cross-linked LOCS fibers with laminin which was a major component of the extracellular matrix in nervous system. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) plays a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration. But the lack of efficient CNTF delivery approach limits its clinical applications. To retain CNTF on the scaffold, a laminin binding domain (LBD) was fused to the N-terminal of CNTF. Compared with NAT-CNTF, LBD-CNTF exhibited specific laminin-binding ability and comparable neurotrophic bioactivity. We combined LBD-CNTF with the laminin modified LOCS fibers to construct a double-functional bio-scaffold. The functional scaffold was filled in silicon conduit and tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Results showed that this functional biomaterial could guide the axon growth, retain more CNTF on the scaffolds and enhance the nerve regeneration as well as functional recovery. PMID:21397941

  2. Assessing the axonal translocation of CeO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles in the sciatic nerve fibers of the frog: an ex vivo electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Kastrinaki, Georgia; Samsouris, Christos; Kosmidis, Efstratios K; Papaioannou, Eleni; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Theophilidis, George

    2015-01-01

    The axonal translocation of two commonly used nanoparticles in medicine, namely CeO2 and SiO2, is investigated. The study was conducted on frog sciatic nerve fibers in an ex vivo preparation. Nanoparticles were applied at the proximal end of the excised nerve. A nerve stimulation protocol was followed for over 35 hours. Nerve vitality curve comparison between control and exposed nerves showed that CeO2 has no neurotoxic effect at the concentrations tested. After exposure, specimens were fixed and then screen scanned every 1 mm along their length for nanoparticle presence by means of Fourier transform infrared microscopy. We demonstrated that both nanoparticles translocate within the nerve by formation of narrow bands in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum. For the CeO2, we also demonstrated that the translocation depends on both axonal integrity and electrical activity. The speed of translocation for the two species was estimated in the range of 0.45-0.58 mm/h, close to slow axonal transportation rate. Transmission electron microscopy provided direct evidence for the presence of SiO2 in the treated nerves. PMID:26648718

  3. Effect of delayed intrathecal administration of capsaicin on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Ramamurthy, Somayaji; Prihoda, Thomas J; Eckmann, Maxim S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study was designed to examine the antinociceptive effect of intrathecally administered capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor agonist, in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury. Methods Male adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to six groups, and all rats underwent unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury. Two weeks after injury, five groups received intrathecal administration of either capsaicin in three different dosing regimens or equal volumes of vehicle. The other group received intrathecal capsaicin on the third day after nerve injury. The antinociceptive effect of capsaicin was assessed by measuring the capsaicin-induced change in thermal and mechanical response thresholds. Results Capsaicin (150–300 μg/100–200 μL), when administered by fast infusion or chronic infusions at 8 μL/hour or 1 μL/hour, attenuated thermal hyperalgesia as indicated by significantly prolonging paw withdrawal latency to noxious thermal stimulation. The antinociceptive effect of capsaicin was more profound in the injured limb compared to that in the uninjured limb. When capsaicin was administered on the third day after nerve injury, it failed to attenuate thermal hyperalgesia. No significant effect on the mechanical response threshold was observed with intrathecally administered capsaicin. Conclusion Our data suggest that intrathecal capsaicin could significantly attenuate thermal hyperalgesia, depending on the time when the drug is given after nerve injury, and that the antinociceptive efficacy of intrathecal capsaicin positively correlates with the previously reported dynamic profile of spinal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activity after nerve injury. PMID:25246806

  4. Changes in cardiovascular parameters and plasma norepinephrine level in rats after chronic constriction injury on the sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yu; Sato, Jun; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Omura, Sayaka; Funakubo, Megumi; Senoo, Shiori; Aoyama, Morihiko; Mizumura, Kazue

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate whether neuropathic pain affects autonomic nervous activities, we investigated daily change in cardiovascular parameters and plasma norepinephrine (NE) in free-moving rats after chronic constriction injury (CCI) on the sciatic nerve. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and the power spectrum of pulse interval variability were analyzed. Daily change in motor activity and nociceptive behavior was also measured from some CCI rats. In others, NE from daily blood samples was quantified and spontaneous pain was evaluated by daily monitoring of foot guarding behavior. We identified three stages in the daily change of cardiovascular parameters and plasma NE level over 3 weeks following CCI. The first stage (up to 3 days after the surgery) was characterized by increased MAP and HR, especially in the daytime, even though plasma NE was unchanged and motor activity decreased. The second stage (mid first to mid second postoperative weeks) was characterized by increased daytime MAP and HR, and the animals developed punctate hyperalgesia in the affected hindpaw. An NE surge that may have been related to spontaneous pain was present 3-5 days after CCI. The third stage, which appeared after the second postoperative week, was characterized by normalized MAP and decreased HR, and increased high-frequency (0.8-3.0Hz) power in pulse interval variability, which is an index of cardiac parasympathetic tone. These results demonstrated that cardiovascular function was kept high through sympathetic and non-sympathetic activity for 2 weeks after CCI, followed by a predominance of parasympathetic tone. PMID:17611035

  5. Localization and expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in postmortem sciatic nerve from patients with motor neuron disease and diabetic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.A.; Gross, L.; Wittrock, D.A.; Windebank, A.J.

    1996-08-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is thought to play an important role in the maintenance of the mature motor system. The factor is found most abundantly in myelinating Schwann cells in the adult sciatic nerve. Lack of neuronal growth factors has been proposed as one possible etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Growth factor replacement therapies are currently being evaluated as a treatment for motor neuron disease. In this report we determined whether the expression of CNTF in sciatic nerve differed in patients with motor neuron disease compared to controls or patients with another form of axonopathy. We identified 8 patients (7 with ALS and 1 with SMA) with motor neuron disease and 6 patients with diabetic motor neuropathy who had autopsy material available. Immunoperoxidase staining showed reduced CNTF expression in nerves of patients with motor neuron disease but not in patients with diabetic motor neuropathy. Decreased CNTF appears be associated with primary motor neuron disease rather than a generalized process of axon loss. This result supports suggestions that CNTF deficiency may be an important factor in the development of motor neuron disease. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. ProNGF derived from rat sciatic nerves downregulates neurite elongation and axon specification in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Trigos, Anna Sofía; Longart, Marines; García, Lisbeth; Castillo, Cecilia; Forsyth, Patricia; Medina, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Several reports have shown that a sciatic nerve conditioned media (CM) causes neuronal-like differentiation in PC12 cells. This differentiation is featured by neurite outgrowth, which are exclusively dendrites, without axon or sodium current induction. In previous studies, our group reported that the CM supplemented with a generic inhibitor for tyrosine kinase receptors (k252a) enhanced the CM-induced morphological differentiation upregulating neurite outgrowth, axonal formation and sodium current elicitation. Sodium currents were also induced by depletion of endogenous precursor of nerve growth factorr (proNGF) from the CM (pNGFd-CM). Given that sodium currents, neurite outgrowth and axon specification are important features of neuronal differentiation, in the current manuscript, first we investigated if proNGF was hindering the full PC12 cell neuronal-like differentiation. Second, we studied the effects of exogenous wild type (pNGFwt) and mutated (pNGFmut) proNGF isoforms over sodium currents and whether or not their addition to the pNGFd-CM would prevent sodium current elicitation. Third, we investigated if proNGF was exerting its negative regulation through the sortilin receptor, and for this, the proNGF action was blocked with neurotensin (NT), a factor known to compete with proNGF for sortilin. Thereby, here we show that pNGFd-CM enhanced cell differentiation, cell proportion with long neurites, total neurite length, induced axonal formation and sodium current elicitation. Interestingly, treatment of PC12 cells with wild type or mutated proNGF isoforms elicited sodium currents. Supplementing pNGFd-CM with pNGFmut reduced 35% the sodium currents. On the other hand, pNGFd-CM+pNGFwt induced larger sodium currents than pNGFd-CM. Finally, treatments with CM supplemented with NT showed that sortilin was mediating proNGF negative regulation, since its blocking induced similar effects than the pNGFd-CM treatment. Altogether, our results suggest that proNGF within the

  7. Expression and transport of Angiotensin II AT1 receptors in spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Pavel, Jaroslav; Tang, Hui; Brimijoin, Stephen; Moughamian, Armen; Nishioku, Tsuyoshi; Benicky, Julius; Saavedra, Juan M

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the role of Angiotensin II in the regulation of peripheral sensory and motor systems, we initiated a study of the expression, localization and transport of Angiotensin II receptor types in the rat sciatic nerve pathway, including L4–L5 spinal cord segments, the corresponding dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and the sciatic nerve. We used quantitative autoradiography for AT1 and AT2 receptors, and in situ hybridization to detect AT1A, AT1B and AT2 mRNAs. We found substantial expression and discrete localization of Angiotensin II AT1 receptors, with much higher numbers in the grey than in the white matter. A very high AT1 receptor expression was detected in the superficial dorsal horns and in neuronal clusters of the DRGs. Expression of AT1A mRNA was significantly higher than that of AT1B. AT1 receptor binding and AT1A and AT1B mRNAs were especially prominent in ventral horn motor neurons, and in the DRG neuronal cells. Unilateral dorsal rhizotomy significantly reduced AT1 receptor binding in the ipsilateral side of the superficial dorsal horn, indicating that a substantial number of dorsal horn AT1 receptors have their origin in the DRGs. After ligation of the sciatic nerve, there was a high accumulation of AT1 receptors proximal to the ligature, a demonstration of anterograde receptor transport. We found inconsistent levels of AT2 receptor binding and mRNA. Our results suggest multiple roles of Angiotensin II AT1 receptors in the regulation of sensory and motor functions. PMID:18976642

  8. Effects of extracellular calcium and surgical techniques on restoration of axonal continuity by polyethylene glycol fusion following complete cut or crush severance of rat sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Ghergherehchi, Cameron L; Bittner, George D; Hastings, Robert Louis; Mikesh, Michelle; Riley, D Colton; Trevino, Richard C; Schallert, Tim; Thayer, Wesley P; Sunkesula, Solomon Raju Bhupanapadu; Ha, Tu-Anh N; Munoz, Nicolas; Pyarali, Monika; Bansal, Aakarshita; Poon, Andrew D; Mazal, Alexander T; Smith, Tyler A; Wong, Nicole S; Dunne, Patrick J

    2016-03-01

    Complete crush or cut severance of sciatic nerve axons in rats and other mammals produces immediate loss of axonal continuity. Loss of locomotor functions subserved by those axons is restored only after months, if ever, by outgrowths regenerating at ∼1 mm/day from the proximal stumps of severed axonal segments. The distal stump of a severed axon typically begins to degenerate in 1-3 days. We recently developed a polyethylene glycol (PEG) fusion technology, consisting of sequential exposure of severed axonal ends to hypotonic Ca(2+) -free saline, methylene blue, PEG in distilled water, and finally Ca(2+) -containing isotonic saline. This study examines factors that affect the PEG fusion restoration of axonal continuity within minutes, as measured by conduction of action potentials and diffusion of an intracellular fluorescent dye across the lesion site of rat sciatic nerves completely cut or crush severed in the midthigh. Also examined are factors that affect the longer-term PEG fusion restoration of lost behavioral functions within days to weeks, as measured by the sciatic functional index. We report that exposure of cut-severed axonal ends to Ca(2+) -containing saline prior to PEG fusion and stretch/tension of proximal or distal axonal segments of cut-severed axons decrease PEG fusion success. Conversely, trimming cut-severed ends in Ca(2+) -free saline just prior to PEG fusion increases PEG fusion success. PEG fusion prevents or retards the Wallerian degeneration of cut-severed axons, as assessed by measures of axon diameter and G ratio. PEG fusion may produce a paradigm shift in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26728662

  9. Collateral sprouting of uninjured primary afferent A-fibers into the superficial dorsal horn of the adult rat spinal cord after topical capsaicin treatment to the sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Mannion, R J; Doubell, T P; Coggeshall, R E; Woolf, C J

    1996-08-15

    That terminals of uninjured primary sensory neurons terminating in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord can collaterally sprout was first suggested by Liu and Chambers (1958), but this has since been disputed. Recently, horseradish peroxidase conjugated to the B subunit of cholera toxin (B-HRP) and intracellular HRP injections have shown that sciatic nerve section or crush produces a long-lasting rearrangement in the organization of primary afferent central terminals, with A-fibers sprouting into lamina II, a region that normally receives only C-fiber input (Woolf et al., 1992). The mechanism of this A-fiber sprouting has been thought to involve injury-induced C-fiber transganglionic degeneration combined with myelinated A-fibers being conditioned into a regenerative growth state. In this study, we ask whether C-fiber degeneration and A-fiber conditioning are both necessary for the sprouting of A-fibers into lamina II. Local application of the C-fiber-specific neurotoxin capsaicin to the sciatic nerve has previously been shown to result in C-fiber damage and degenerative atrophy in lamina II. We have used B-HRP to transganglionically label A-fiber central terminals and have shown that 2 weeks after topical capsaicin treatment to the sciatic nerve, the pattern of B-HRP staining in the dorsal horn is indistinguishable from that seen after axotomy, with lamina II displaying novel staining in the identical region containing capsaicin-treated C-fiber central terminals. These results suggest that after C-fiber injury, uninjured A-fiber central terminals can collaterally sprout into lamina II of the dorsal horn. This phenomenon may help to explain the pain associated with C-fiber neuropathy. PMID:8756447

  10. Effect of low-level laser therapy (685 nm, 3 J/cm(2)) on functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats following crushing lesion.

    PubMed

    Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Yousefi, Kambiz; Allahverdi, Amin

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) promotes posttraumatic nerve regeneration. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficacy of 685-nm LLLT at the dosage of 3 J/cm(2) in the functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats following crushing injury. The left sciatic nerves of 20 male Wistar rats were subjected to controlled crush injury by a hemostatic tweezers, and the rats were randomly allocated into two experimental groups as follows: control group and laser group. Laser irradiation (685 nm wavelength; 15 mW, CW, 3 J/cm(2), spot of 0.028 cm(2)) was started on the postsurgical first day, above the site of injury, and was continued for 21 consecutive days. Functional recovery was evaluated at 3 weeks postoperatively by measuring the sciatic functional index (SFI) and sciatic static index (SSI) at weekly intervals. The treated rats showed improvement in motion pattern. The SFI and SSI results were significant when comparing two groups on the 14th and 21st postoperative days (p < 0.05). There were intra-group differences detected in laser group in different periods (p < 0.05). Low-level laser irradiation, with the parameters used in the present study, accelerated and improved sciatic nerve function in rats after crushing injury. PMID:25595127

  11. Functional recoveries of sciatic nerve regeneration by combining chitosan-coated conduit and neurosphere cells induced from adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ju; Huang, Tzu-Chieh; Fan, Shih-Chen; Wang, Duo-Hsiang; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Wu, Chia-Ching; Lin, Sheng-Che

    2014-02-01

    Suboptimal repair occurs in a peripheral nerve gap, which can be partially restored by bridging the gap with various biosynthetic conduits or cell-based therapy. In this study, we developed a combination of chitosan coating approach to induce neurosphere cells from human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on chitosan-coated plate and then applied these cells to the interior of a chitosan-coated silicone tube to bridge a 10-mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve. Myelin sheath degeneration and glial scar formation were discovered in the nerve bridged by the silicone conduit. By using a single treatment of chitosan-coated conduit or neurosphere cell therapy, the nerve gap was partially recovered after 6 weeks of surgery. Substantial improvements in nerve regeneration were achieved by combining neurosphere cells and chitosan-coated conduit based on the increase of myelinated axons density and myelin thickness, gastrocnemius muscle weight and muscle fiber diameter, and step and stride lengths from gait analysis. High expressions of interleukin-1β and leukotriene B4 receptor 1 in the intra-neural scarring caused by using silicone conduits revealed that the inflammatory mechanism can be inhibited when the conduit is coated with chitosan. This study demonstrated that the chitosan-coated surface performs multiple functions that can be used to induce neurosphere cells from ASCs and to facilitate nerve regeneration in combination with a cells-assisted coated conduit. PMID:24360575

  12. Differential motor and sensory functional recovery in male but not female adult rats is associated with remyelination rather than axon regeneration after sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ling-Ling; Ding, You-Quan; Jing, Hong-Bo; Li, Xuan-Yang; Qi, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral nerve functional recovery after injuries relies on both axon regeneration and remyelination. Both axon regeneration and remyelination require intimate interactions between regenerating neurons and their accompanying Schwann cells. Previous studies have shown that motor and sensory neurons are intrinsically different in their regeneration potentials. Moreover, denervated Schwann cells accompanying myelinated motor and sensory axons have distinct gene expression profiles for regeneration-associated growth factors. However, it is unknown whether differential motor and sensory functional recovery exists. If so, the particular one among axon regeneration and remyelination responsible for this difference remains unclear. Here, we aimed to establish an adult rat sciatic nerve crush model with the nonserrated microneedle holders and measured rat motor and sensory functions during regeneration. Furthermore, axon regeneration and remyelination was evaluated by morphometric analysis of electron microscopic images on the basis of nerve fiber classification. Our results showed that Aα fiber-mediated motor function was successfully recovered in both male and female rats. Aδ fiber-mediated sensory function was partially restored in male rats, but completely recovered in female littermates. For both male and female rats, the numbers of regenerated motor and sensory axons were quite comparable. However, remyelination was diverse among myelinated motor and sensory nerve fibers. In detail, Aβ and Aδ fibers incompletely remyelinated in male, but not female rats, whereas Aα fibers fully remyelinated in both sexes. Our result indicated that differential motor and sensory functional recovery in male but not female adult rats is associated with remyelination rather than axon regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. PMID:25830493

  13. Sciatic nerve regeneration in mice and rats: recovery of sensory innervation is followed by a slowly retreating neuropathic pain-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vogelaar, Christina F; Vrinten, Dorien H; Hoekman, Marco F M; Brakkee, Jan H; Burbach, J Peter H; Hamers, Frank P T

    2004-11-19

    Peripheral nerve regeneration has been studied extensively in the sciatic nerve crush model, at the level of both function and gene expression. The crush injury allows full recovery of sensory and motor function in about 3 weeks as assessed by the foot reflex withdrawal test and De Medinacelli walking patterns. We used the recently developed CatWalk paradigm to study walking patterns in more detail in mice and rats. We found that, following the recovery of sensory function, the animals developed a state of mechanical allodynia, which retreated slowly over time. The motor function, although fully recovered with the conventional methods, was revealed to be still impaired because the animals did not put weight on their previously injured paw. The development of neuropathic pain following successful sensory recovery has not been described before in crush-lesioned animals and may provide an important new parameter to assess full sensory recovery. PMID:15494158

  14. Evaluating Femoral-Sciatic Nerve Blocks, Epidural Analgesia, and No Use of Regional Analgesia in Dogs Undergoing Tibia-Plateau-Leveling-Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Boscan, Pedro; Wennogle, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective study evaluating femoral-sciatic nerve blocks (FSBs), epidural analgesia, and non-regional analgesia (NRA) in dogs undergoing tibia-plateau-leveling-osteotomy surgery. Thirty-five records met the criteria for each of the FSB and epidural analgesia groups. Seventeen anesthesia records met the criteria for the NRA or control group. The parameters reported were: isoflurane vaporizer setting, rescue analgesia/anesthesia drugs received, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and recovery quality (0-4, with 0 being poor and 4 being good). Rescue analgesia-anesthesia during surgery was performed with either fentanyl, ketamine, or propofol. A larger percentage of dogs in the NRA group required rescue analgesia during surgery. The FSB group had a higher recovery quality with median (95% confidence interval of four (±0.3) when compared to two (±0.8) in NRA (p < 0.01). No difference between groups was observed on any other parameter reported. As part of a multimodal analgesia approach for tibia-plateau-leveling-osteotomy surgery, the use of femoral and sciatic nerves blocks with bupivacaine appears to be an alternative technique to help with analgesia and anesthesia during surgery. PMID:26808436

  15. Ipsilateral common iliac artery plus femoral artery clamping for inducing sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: a reliable and simple method

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a practical model of sciatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury producing serious neurologic deficits and being technically feasible compared with the current time consuming or ineffective models. Thirty rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 5). Animal were anesthetized by using ketamine (50 mg/kg) and xylazine (4 mg/kg). Experimental groups included a sham-operated group and five I/R groups with different reperfusion time intervals (0 h, 3 h, 1 d, 4 d, 7 d). In I/R groups, the right common iliac artery and the right femoral artery were clamped for 3 hrs. Sham-operated animals underwent only laparotomy without induction of ischemia. Just before euthanasia, behavioral scores (based on gait, grasp, paw position, and pinch sensitivity) were obtained and then sciatic nerves were removed for light-microscopy studies (for ischemic fiber degeneration (IFD) and edema). Behavioral score deteriorated among the ischemic groups compared with the control group (p < 0.01), with maximal behavioral deficit occurring at 4 days of reperfusion. Axonal swelling and IFD were found to happen only after 4 and 7 days, respectively. Our observations led to an easy-to-use but strong enough method for inducing and studying I/R injury in peripheral nerves. PMID:19102739

  16. Sciatic neuropathy developed after injection during curettage.

    PubMed

    Altıntaş, Ayşe; Gündüz, Ayşegül; Kantarcı, Fatih; Gözübatık Çelik, Gökçen; Koçer, Naci; Kızıltan, Meral E

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular injections are likely the most common cause of sciatic nerve injury in developing countries. Less common causes include piriformis syndrome, primary tumors of the sciatic nerve, metastatic tumors invading or compressing the nerve, endometriosis, vascular malformations, and prolonged immobilization or positioning. While the most reliable diagnostic and prognostic methods include nerve conduction studies and electromyography, magnetic resonance imaging has been suggested as an alternative method of determining type of lesion, establishing location, and investigating level of nerve involvement. A case of sciatic neuropathy that developed after intramuscular injection, with patient in prolonged lithotomy position and under sedation, is described. PMID:27225613

  17. Acute anoxic changes in peripheral nerve: anatomic and physiologic correlations

    PubMed Central

    Punsoni, Michael; Drexler, Steven; Palaia, Thomas; Stevenson, Matthew; Stecker, Mark M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The response of the peripheral nerve to anoxia is modulated by many factors including glucose and temperature. The purposes of this article are to demonstrate the effects of these factors on the pathological changes induced by anoxia and to compare the electrophysiologic changes and pathological changes in the same nerves. Methods Sciatic nerves were harvested from rats and placed in a perfusion apparatus where neurophysiologic responses could be recorded continuously during a 16 h experiment. After the experiment, light microscopy and electron microscopy were performed. Results Light microscopic images showed mild changes from anoxia at normoglycemia. Hypoglycemic anoxia produced massive axonal swelling while hyperglycemic anoxia produced apparent changes in the myelin. Anoxic changes were not uniform in all axons. Electron microscopy showed only minor disruptions of the cytoskeleton with anoxia during normoglycemia. At the extremes of glucose concentration especially with hyperglycemia, there was a more severe disruption of intermediate filaments and loss of axonal structure with anoxia. Hypothermia protected axons from the effect of anoxia and produced peak axonal swelling in the 17–30°C range. Conclusions The combination of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia and anoxia produces extremely severe axonal disruption. Changes in axonal diameter are complex and are influenced by many factors. PMID:26221572

  18. Pseudoradial Nerve Palsy Caused by Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Hassan; Daruwalla, Vistasp; Meisel, Jeremy; Kodsi, Samir E

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoperipheral palsy has been used to characterize isolated monoparesis secondary to stroke. Isolated hand nerve palsy is a rare presentation for acute cerebral stroke. Our patient presented with clinical features of typical peripheral radial nerve palsy and a normal computed tomography scan of the head, which, without a detailed history and neurological examination, could have been easily misdiagnosed as a peripheral nerve lesion deferring further investigation for a stroke. We stress the importance of including cerebral infarction as a critical differential diagnosis in patients presenting with sensory-motor deficit in an isolated peripheral nerve pattern. A good history and physical exam can differentiate stroke from peripheral neuropathy as the cause of radial nerve palsy. PMID:27493976

  19. Pseudoradial Nerve Palsy Caused by Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Hassan; Daruwalla, Vistasp; Meisel, Jeremy; Kodsi, Samir E.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoperipheral palsy has been used to characterize isolated monoparesis secondary to stroke. Isolated hand nerve palsy is a rare presentation for acute cerebral stroke. Our patient presented with clinical features of typical peripheral radial nerve palsy and a normal computed tomography scan of the head, which, without a detailed history and neurological examination, could have been easily misdiagnosed as a peripheral nerve lesion deferring further investigation for a stroke. We stress the importance of including cerebral infarction as a critical differential diagnosis in patients presenting with sensory-motor deficit in an isolated peripheral nerve pattern. A good history and physical exam can differentiate stroke from peripheral neuropathy as the cause of radial nerve palsy. PMID:27493976

  20. Diisopropylphosphorofluoridate-induced depression of compound action potential of frog sciatic nerve in vitro is mediated through the inhibition of cholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, S B; Kumar, P; Sachan, A S; Dube, S N; Das Gupta, S

    1996-01-01

    Effect of diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP), an irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, on compound action potential (CAP) of sciatic nerve in vitro was examined. Further, the role of cholinesterase reactivator (1 acetyl-4-hydroxy imino methyl pyridinium bromide; SPK-3) in reversing DFP-induced changes was also evaluated. Diisopropylphosphorofluoridate produced a dose-dependent depression of the CAP. A concentration as low as 0.01 microM DFP produced a 5% depression (P < 0.05) and the maximal depression (30% of control) was observed with 1 microM. The SPK-3 (up to 10 microM) had no effect on the CAP; SPK-3 (10 microM) antagonized the DFP-induced depression of the CAP partially but not after 1 microM DFP. However, the inhibitory concentration of DFP to produce 50% of the maximal depression (IC50) was 0.38 +/- 0.025 microM in the presence of SPK-3 (10 microM; n = 4), against 0.15 +/- 0.05 microM for DFP alone (n = 7). These IC50 values were significantly different (P < 0.05, Student's t-test). The DFP decreased nerve ChE activity by 41% in the absence of SPK-3 and by 31% in the presence of SPK-3. Although SPK-3 could not completely reactivate the inhibited enzyme, it seems reasonable to conclude that the DFP-induced depression of the action potential of sciatic nerve was mediated by inhibiting the ChE activity. PMID:8956095

  1. Bilateral elevation of interleukin-6 protein and mRNA in both lumbar and cervical dorsal root ganglia following unilateral chronic compression injury of the sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current research implicates interleukin (IL)-6 as a key component of the nervous-system response to injury with various effects. Methods We used unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of rat sciatic nerve as a model for neuropathic pain. Immunofluorescence, ELISA, western blotting and in situ hybridization were used to investigate bilateral changes in IL-6 protein and mRNA in both lumbar (L4-L5) and cervical (C7-C8) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following CCI. The operated (CCI) and sham-operated (sham) rats were assessed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Withdrawal thresholds for mechanical hyperalgesia and latencies for thermal hyperalgesia were measured in both ipsilateral and contralateral hind and fore paws. Results The ipsilateral hind paws of all CCI rats displayed a decreased threshold of mechanical hyperalgesia and withdrawal latency of thermal hyperalgesia, while the contralateral hind and fore paws of both sides exhibited no significant changes in mechanical or thermal sensitivity. No significant behavioral changes were found in the hind and fore paws on either side of the sham rats, except for thermal hypersensitivity, which was present bilaterally at 3 days. Unilateral CCI of the sciatic nerve induced a bilateral increase in IL-6 immunostaining in the neuronal bodies and satellite glial cells (SGC) surrounding neurons of both lumbar and cervical DRG, compared with those of naive control rats. This bilateral increase in IL-6 protein levels was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. More intense staining for IL-6 mRNA was detected in lumbar and cervical DRG from both sides of rats following CCI. The DRG removed from sham rats displayed a similar pattern of staining for IL-6 protein and mRNA as found in naive DRG, but there was a higher staining intensity in SGC. Conclusions Bilateral elevation of IL-6 protein and mRNA is not limited to DRG homonymous to the injured nerve, but also extended to DRG that are heteronymous to the injured nerve. The

  2. Combination of Local Transplantation of In Vitro Bone-marrow Stromal Cells and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Accelerate Functional Recovery of Transected Sciatic Nerve Regeneration: A Novel Approach in Transected Nerve Repair.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Mahmoodzadeh, Sirvan

    2015-01-01

    Effect of combination of undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on transected sciatic nerve regeneration was assessed in rats. A 10 mm nerve segment was excised and a vein graft was used to bridge the gap. Twenty microliter undifferentiated BMSCs (2× 107 cells /mL) were administered into the graft inBMSC group with no exposure to PEMF. In BMSC/PEMF group the whole body was exposed to PEMF (0.3 mT, 2Hz) for 4h/day within 1-5 days. In PEMF group the transected nerve was bridged and phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft. In authograft group (AUTO), the transected nervesegments were reimplanted reversely and the whole body was exposed to PEMF. The regenerated nerve fibers were studied within 12 weeks after surgery. Behavioral, functional, electrophysiological, biomechanical, gastrocnemius muscle mass findings, morphometric indices and immuonohistochemical reactions confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in BMSC/PEMF group compared to those in the other groups (P<0.05). The use of undifferentiated BMSCs with whole body exposure to PEMF improved functional recovery. Combination of local transplantation of in vitro bone-marrow stromal cells and pulsed electromagnetic fields could be considered as an effective, safe and tolerable treatment for peripheral nerve repair in clinical practice. PMID:26044808

  3. Time Course of Immediate Early Gene Protein Expression in the Spinal Cord following Conditioning Stimulation of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bojovic, Ognjen; Panja, Debabrata; Bittins, Margarethe; Bramham, Clive R.; Tjølsen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Long-term potentiation induced by conditioning electrical stimulation of afferent fibers is a widely studied form of synaptic plasticity in the brain and the spinal cord. In the spinal cord dorsal horn, long-term potentiation is induced by a series of high-frequency trains applied to primary afferent fibers. Conditioning stimulation (CS) of sciatic nerve primary afferent fibers also induces expression of immediate early gene proteins in the lumbar spinal cord. However, the time course of immediate early gene expression and the rostral-caudal distribution of expression in the spinal cord have not been systematically studied. Here, we examined the effects of sciatic nerve conditioning stimulation (10 stimulus trains, 0.5 ms stimuli, 7.2 mA, 100 Hz, train duration 2 s, 8 s intervals between trains) on cellular expression of immediate early genes, Arc, c-Fos and Zif268, in anesthetized rats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on sagittal sections obtained from Th13- L5 segments of the spinal cord at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 h post-CS. Strikingly, all immediate early genes exhibited a monophasic increase in expression with peak increases detected in dorsal horn neurons at 2 hours post-CS. Regional analysis showed peak increases at the location between the L3 and L4 spinal segments. Both Arc, c-Fos and Zif268 remained significantly elevated at 2 hours, followed by a sharp decrease in immediate early gene expression between 2 and 3 hours post-CS. Colocalization analysis performed at 2 hours post-CS showed that all c-Fos and Zif268 neurons were positive for Arc, while 30% and 43% of Arc positive neurons were positive for c-Fos and Zif268, respectively. The present study identifies the spinal cord level and time course of immediate early gene (IEGP) expression of relevance for analysis of IEGPs function in neuronal plasticity and nociception. PMID:25860146

  4. Spatio-temporal characteristics of cerebral blood volume changes in different microvascular compartments evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Luo, Weihua; Chen, Shangbin; Chen, Haiying; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2003-10-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of changes in cerebral blood volume associated with neuronal activity were investigated in the hindlimb somatosensory cortex of α-chloralose/urethan anesthetized rats (n=10) with optical imaging at 570nm through a thinned skull. Activation of cortex was carried out by electrical stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve with 5Hz, 0.3V pulses (0.5ms) for duration of 2s. The stimulation evoked a monophasic optical reflectance decrease at cortical parenchyma and arteries sites rapidly after the onset of stimulation, whereas no similar response was observed at vein compartments. The optical signal changes reached 10% of the peak response 0.70+/-0.32s after stimulation onset and no significant time lag in this 10% start latency time was observed between the response at cortical parenchyma and arteries compartments. The evoked optical reflectance decrease reached the peak (0.25%+/-0.047%)2.66+/-0.61s after the stimulus onset at parenchyma site, 0.40+/-0.20s earlier (P<0.05) than that at arteries site (0.50%+/-0.068% 3.06+/-0.70s). Variable location within the cortical parenchyma and arteries compartment themselves didn"t affect the temporal characteristics of the evoked signal significantly. These results suggest that the sciatic nerve stimulation evokes a local blood volume increase at both capillaries (cortical parenchyma) and arterioles rapidly after the stimulus onset but the evoked blood volume increase in capillaries could not be entirely accounted for by the dilation of arterioles.

  5. A comparative study of red and blue light-emitting diodes and low-level laser in regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve after an end to end neurorrhaphy in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Sharifi, Davood

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effects of red and blue light-emitting diodes (LED) and low-level laser (LLL) on the regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve after an end-to-end neurorrhaphy in rabbits. Forty healthy mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into four experimental groups: control, LLL (680 nm), red LED (650 nm), and blue LED (450 nm). All animals underwent the right sciatic nerve neurotmesis injury under general anesthesia and end-to-end anastomosis. The phototherapy was initiated on the first postoperative day and lasted for 14 consecutive days at the same time of the day. On the 30th day post-surgery, the animals whose sciatic nerves were harvested for histopathological analysis were euthanized. The nerves were analyzed and quantified the following findings: Schwann cells, large myelinic axons, and neurons. In the LLL group, as compared to other groups, an increase in the number of all analyzed aspects was observed with significance level (P < 0.05). This finding suggests that postoperative LLL irradiation was able to accelerate and potentialize the peripheral nerve regeneration process in rabbits within 14 days of irradiation. PMID:26415928

  6. Morphometric and high resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of low-level laser therapy and latex protein (Hevea brasiliensis) administration following a crush injury of the sciatic nerve in rats.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando J; Issa, João Paulo M; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim; Fazan, Valéria P S; Sousa, Luiz Gustavo; Iyomasa, Mamie M; Papa, Paula C; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2015-02-15

    This study evaluated the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT; 15 J/cm(2)) and a latex protein (F1) on a crush injury of the sciatic (ischiadicus) nerve. Seventy-two rats (male, 250 g) were divided into 6 groups: CG, control; EG, exposed nerve; IG, injured nerve without treatment; LG, injured nerve with LLLT; HG, injured nerve with F1; and LHG, injured nerve with LLLT and F1. After 4 or 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized and samples of the sciatic nerve were collected for morphometric and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) analysis. After 4 weeks, the morphometry revealed improvements in the treated animals, and the HG appeared to be the most similar to the CG; after 8 weeks, the injured groups showed improvements compared to the previous period, and the results of the treatment groups were more similar to one another. At HRSEM after 4 weeks, the treated groups were similar and showed improvement compared to the IG; after 8 weeks, the LHG and HG had the best results. In conclusion, the treatments resulted in improvement after the nerve injury, and this recovery was time-dependent. In addition, the use of the F1 resulted in the best morphometric and ultrastructural findings. PMID:25619570

  7. The distribution of C-Fos protein immunolabeled cells in the spinal cord of the rat after electrical and noxious thermal stimulation following sciatic nerve crush, or transection and repair.

    PubMed

    Hongpaisan, J; Molander, C

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of stimulus evoked Fos protein-like immunoreactivity in spinal cord neurons was studied in adult rats at different survival times after sciatic nerve crush or transection and epineural repair. Fos protein-like immunoreactivity was induced either by electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve central to the injury, at C-fiber strength, at 21, 39, and 92 days post-lesion, or by noxious heat applied to the skin of the hind paw 92 days post-lesion. The contralateral uninjured side served as control. The results with electrical stimulation showed, with some exceptions, that the distribution of c-fos expressing cells in the spinal cord on the normal and on the previously injured side were similar after both crush and transection with repair. The main finding was an up-regulation of the number of Fos protein immunoreactive neurons in the inner portion of Rexed's lamina II. The results following heat stimulation 92 days post-lesion showed a decrease in the number of labeled neurons in most laminae after both types of injury. This was more pronounced in cases with sciatic nerve transection with repair compared to cases with crush. The results indicate time-dependent alterations in the distribution of stimulus evoked c-fos expression in spinal cord neurons during regeneration after nerve injury. Furthermore, the results from heat stimulation may indicate a slower and perhaps more incomplete restoration process after transection with repair than after crush. PMID:21551711

  8. Expression patterns of T-type Cav3.2 channel and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in dorsal root ganglion neurons of mice after sciatic nerve axotomy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Si-Fang; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Bing; Li, Cheng-Hui; Sun, Yan-Gang; Liu, Xing-Jun

    2016-10-19

    Substantial evidence indicates that T-type Cav3.2 channel and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) contribute to pain hypersensitivity within primary sensory nerves. A recent study suggested that activation of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) could increase Cav3.2 channel currents and further contribute to inflammatory pain sensitivity. However, the expression patterns of Cav3.2 and IGF-1R and their colocalization in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in chronic neuropathic pain condition remain unknown. In this study, we explored expression patterns of Cav3.2, IGF-1R and their colocalization, and whether phenotypic switch occurs in a subpopulation of Cav3.2 or IGF-1R neurons in mouse DRGs after sciatic nerve axotomy with immunofluorescence, real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and western blot assays. We found that expressions of Cav3.2 and IGF-1R, and their colocalization were not increased in DRGs of mice following axotomy. In addition, Cav3.2 or IGF-1R subpopulation neurons did not acquire significant switch in expression phenotype after sciatic nerve axotomy. Our findings argue for an upregulation of Cav3.2 and IGF-1R expression in lumbar DRGs post-sciatic nerve axotomy and provided an insight for understanding the functions of peripheral afferent Cav3.2 channel and IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:27571431

  9. Sciatica due to Schwannoma at the Sciatic Notch.

    PubMed

    Haspolat, Yavuz; Ozkan, Feyza Unlu; Turkmen, Ismail; Kemah, Bahattin; Turhan, Yalcin; Sarar, Serhan; Ozkan, Korhan

    2013-01-01

    Schwannomas are rarely seen on the sciatic nerve and can cause sciatica. In this case report we aimed to present an unusual location of schwannoma along sciatic nerve that causes sciatica. A 60-years-old-man was admitted to us with complaints of pain on his thigh and paresthesia on his foot. Radiography of the patient revealed a solitary lesion on the sciatic nerve. The lesion was excised and the symptoms resolved after surgery. PMID:23762699

  10. The biological activity of 3alpha-hydroxysteroid oxido-reductase in the spinal cord regulates thermal and mechanical pain thresholds after sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Laurence; Venard, Christine; Schaeffer, Véronique; Patte-Mensah, Christine; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe G

    2008-04-01

    Identification of cellular targets pertinent for the development of effective therapies against pathological pain constitutes a difficult challenge. We combined several approaches to show that 3alpha-hydroxysteroid oxido-reductase (3alpha-HSOR), abundantly expressed in the spinal cord (SC), is a key target, the modulation of which markedly affects nociception. 3alpha-HSOR catalyzes the biosynthesis and oxidation of 3alpha,5alpha-reduced neurosteroids as allopregnanolone (3alpha,5alpha-THP), which stimulates GABA(A) receptors. Intrathecal injection of Provera (pharmacological inhibitor of 3alpha-HSOR activity) in naive rat SC decreased thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds assessed with behavioral methods. In contrast, pain thresholds were dose-dependently increased by 3alpha,5alpha-THP. In animals subjected to sciatic nerve injury-evoked neuropathic pain, molecular and biochemical experiments revealed an up-regulation of 3alpha-HSOR reductive activity in the SC. Enhancement of 3alpha,5alpha-THP concentration in the SC induced analgesia in neuropathic rats while Provera exacerbated their pathological state. Possibilities are opened for chronic pain control with drugs modulating 3alpha-HSOR activity in nerve cells. PMID:18291663

  11. Pediatric sciatic neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, M.M.; Escolar, D.M.; Darras, B.; Jones, H.R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The incidence, cause, and prognosis of sciatic neuropathy in children is not well understood. We report our 30-year experience of 53 patients with pediatric sciatic neuropathies (SN). Methods: Prospective review of the history, physical examination, electrophysiologic findings, and clinical course of children with SN. Results: The etiology of SN injury was varied and included trauma (13), iatrogenic causes (13) (8 orthopedic surgeries and 5 miscellaneous surgeries), prolonged extrinsic compression and immobilization (6), tumors (7), vascular (5), idiopathic and progressive (4), infantile and nonprogressive (2), and unknown, presumed postviral (3). Electrophysiologic studies demonstrated abnormalities in motor conduction studies of the peroneal nerve in 44/53 (83%) or tibial nerve in 35/51 (67%). Sensory conduction studies were abnormal in sural nerve in 34 of 43 cases (79%), and superficial peroneal nerves in 15/25 (60%). Needle EMG was abnormal in peroneal innervated muscles in all subjects, in tibial nerve innervated muscles in 43/51 (84%), and in the hamstrings in 18/29 (62%). Prognosis for recovery was variable and depended on the etiology and the severity of the nerve injury. Conclusions: SN is an uncommon mononeuropathy in children. The causes of SN are varied in children compared to adults. Electrophysiologic studies in children may be limited by poor tolerance but play an important role in establishing the diagnosis. PMID:21403109

  12. Synthesis of myelin, particulate, and soluble protein subfractions of rat sciatic nerve during the early stage of Wallerian degeneration: a comparison of metabolic studies using double and single isotope methods and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.E.; Peterson, R.G.; Wiggins, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The recovery, electrophoretic composition and synthesis of the myelin, particulate protein and soluble protein subfractions of rat sciatic nerve were compared in normal, sham-operated, and degenerating rat sciatic nerve at one, three and five days after neurotomy. Both single and double isotope methods were used to measure changes in synthesis in vitro and double isotope methods were used in vivo. The wet weights of nerves undergoing Wallerian degeneration for 5 days increased by 40 percent compared to normal and sham-operated nerves. The recovery, specific radioactivity, and synthesis of the myelin was reduced. The effect on myelin protein synthesis was similar in vitro and in vivo. The myelin loss was relatively constant in amount (30-40 microgram) regardless of differences in nerve sizes of young and old rats, consequently the percentage of myelin loss was inversely proportional to nerve size. The recovery of particulate protein increased, its rate of synthesis remained unchanged, and accordingly the specific radioactivity was decreased. The recovery, specific radioactivity, and the rate of synthesis of the soluble protein fraction were all elevated. The protein composition of the three fractions, as analyzed qualitatively by polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis, remained essentially unchanged through five days of degeneration. With regard to comparisons of the single and double isotope methods, results shows that the latter are more ideally suited to measuring changes in synthesis during the non-steady state conditions that are characteristics of rapid degeneration.

  13. Acute Traumatic Ulnar Nerve Subluxation: A Case Report and Pathomechanism

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Sangeet; Shetty, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acute traumatic subluxation of the ulnar nerve at the cubital tunnel is rare or under-reported Case Report: A 31 year old Asian man presented with severe, radiating pain from the elbow to forearm, following a fall on his outstretched hand. He had swelling and severe tenderness at the posteromedial aspect of the elbow. Pain aggravated with elbow flexion beyond 80 degrees. There was no neurological deficit. Dynamic ultrasound demonstrated subluxation of ulnar nerve with elbow flexion. Broad arm sling immobilization was given for three weeks. At final follow up, he was asymptomatic with full range of pain free motion at the elbow. Conclusion: Our case report summarizes the presentation, management and pathomechanism of a rare clinical entity. PMID:27299098

  14. Caspase-2 Is Upregulated after Sciatic Nerve Transection and Its Inhibition Protects Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons from Apoptosis after Serum Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Berry, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sciatic nerve (SN) transection-induced apoptosis of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGN) is one factor determining the efficacy of peripheral axonal regeneration and the return of sensation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that caspase-2 (CASP2) orchestrates apoptosis of axotomised DRGN both in vivo and in vitro by disrupting the local neurotrophic supply to DRGN. We observed significantly elevated levels of cleaved CASP2 (C-CASP2), compared to cleaved caspase-3 (C-CASP3), within TUNEL+DRGN and DRG glia (satellite and Schwann cells) after SN transection. A serum withdrawal cell culture model, which induced 40% apoptotic death in DRGN and 60% in glia, was used to model DRGN loss after neurotrophic factor withdrawal. Elevated C-CASP2 and TUNEL were observed in both DRGN and DRG glia, with C-CASP2 localisation shifting from the cytosol to the nucleus, a required step for induction of direct CASP2-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated downregulation of CASP2 protected 50% of DRGN from apoptosis after serum withdrawal, while downregulation of CASP3 had no effect on DRGN or DRG glia survival. We conclude that CASP2 orchestrates the death of SN-axotomised DRGN directly and also indirectly through loss of DRG glia and their local neurotrophic factor support. Accordingly, inhibiting CASP2 expression is a potential therapy for improving both the SN regeneration response and peripheral sensory recovery. PMID:23451279

  15. μ-Conotoxins that differentially block sodium channels NaV1.1 through 1.8 identify those responsible for action potentials in sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael J.; Yoshikami, Doju; Azam, Layla; Gajewiak, Joanna; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Zhang, Min-Min

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are important for action potentials. There are seven major isoforms of the pore-forming and gate-bearing α-subunit (NaV1) of VGSCs in mammalian neurons, and a given neuron can express more than one isoform. Five of the neuronal isoforms, NaV1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.6, and 1.7, are exquisitely sensitive to tetrodotoxin (TTX), and a functional differentiation of these presents a serious challenge. Here, we examined a panel of 11 μ-conopeptides for their ability to block rodent NaV1.1 through 1.8 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Although none blocked NaV1.8, a TTX-resistant isoform, the resulting “activity matrix” revealed that the panel could readily discriminate between the members of all pair-wise combinations of the tested isoforms. To examine the identities of endogenous VGSCs, a subset of the panel was tested on A- and C-compound action potentials recorded from isolated preparations of rat sciatic nerve. The results show that the major subtypes in the corresponding A- and C-fibers were NaV1.6 and 1.7, respectively. Ruled out as major players in both fiber types were NaV1.1, 1.2, and 1.3. These results are consistent with immunohistochemical findings of others. To our awareness this is the first report describing a qualitative pharmacological survey of TTX-sensitive NaV1 isoforms responsible for propagating action potentials in peripheral nerve. The panel of μ-conopeptides should be useful in identifying the functional contributions of NaV1 isoforms in other preparations. PMID:21652775

  16. Perineural Dexmedetomidine Added to Ropivacaine for Sciatic Nerve Block in Rats Prolongs the Duration of Analgesia by Blocking the Hyperpolarization-activated Cation Current

    PubMed Central

    Brummett, Chad M.; Hong, Elizabeth K.; Janda, Allison M.; Amodeo, Francesco S.; Lydic, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the increased duration of analgesia caused by adding dexmedetomidine to local anesthetic results from blockade of the hyperpolarization-activated cation (Ih)current. Methods In this randomized, blinded, controlled study, the analgesic effects of peripheral nerve blocks using 0.5% ropivacaine alone or 0.5% ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine (34 μM or 6 μg/kg) were assessed with or without the pretreatment of α1- and α2-adrenoceptor antagonists (prazosin and idazoxan, respectively) and antagonists and agonists of the Ih current (ZD 7288 and forskolin, respectively). Sciatic nerve blocks were performed, and analgesia was measured by paw withdrawal latency to a thermal stimulus every 30 min for 300 min post-block. Results The analgesic effect of dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine was not reversed by either prazosin or idazoxan. There were no additive or attenuated effects from the pretreatment with ZD 7288 (Ih current) when compared with dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine. When forskolin was administered as a pretreatment to ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine, there were statistically significant reductions in duration of analgesia at time points 90–180 min (p < 0.0001 for each individual comparison). The duration of blockade for the forskolin (768 μM) followed by ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine group mirrored the pattern of the ropivacaine alone group, thereby implying a reversal effect. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine caused approximately a 175% increase in the duration of analgesia, which was reversed by pretreatment with an Ih current enhancer. The analgesic effect of dexmedetomidine was not reversed by an ∝2-adrenoceptor antagonist. PMID:21666435

  17. Effects of sciatic nerve transection on glucose uptake in the presence and absence of lactate in the frog dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Rigon, F; Horst, A; Kucharski, L C; Silva, R S M; Faccioni-Heuser, M C; Partata, W A

    2014-08-01

    Frogs have been used as an alternative model to study pain mechanisms because the simplicity of their nervous tissue and the phylogenetic aspect of this question. One of these models is the sciatic nerve transection (SNT), which mimics the clinical symptoms of "phantom limb", a condition that arises in humans after amputation or transverse spinal lesions. In mammals, the SNT increases glucose metabolism in the central nervous system, and the lactate generated appears to serve as an energy source for nerve cells. An answerable question is whether there is elevated glucose uptake in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after peripheral axotomy. As glucose is the major energy substrate for frog nervous tissue, and these animals accumulate lactic acid under some conditions, bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus were used to demonstrate the effect of SNT on DRG and spinal cord 1-[14C] 2-deoxy-D-glucose (14C-2-DG) uptake in the presence and absence of lactate. We also investigated the effect of this condition on the formation of 14CO2 from 14C-glucose and 14C-L-lactate, and plasmatic glucose and lactate levels. The 3-O-[14C] methyl-D-glucose (14C-3-OMG) uptake was used to demonstrate the steady-state tissue/medium glucose distribution ratio under these conditions. Three days after SNT, 14C-2-DG uptake increased, but 14C-3-OMG uptake remained steady. The increase in 14C-2-DG uptake was lower when lactate was added to the incubation medium. No change was found in glucose and lactate oxidation after SNT, but lactate and glucose levels in the blood were reduced. Thus, our results showed that SNT increased the glucose metabolism in the frog DRG and spinal cord. The effect of lactate on this uptake suggests that glucose is used in glycolytic pathways after SNT. PMID:25627385

  18. [REACTIVE CHANGES IN SPINAL CORD MOTONEURONS AFTER SCIATIC NERVE INJURY AFTER HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROSURGICAL INSTRUMENT APPLICATION].

    PubMed

    Korsak, A; Chaikovsky, Yu; Sokurenko, L; Likhodiievskyi, V; Neverovskyi, A

    2016-02-01

    A new experimental model for tissues connection at peripheral nerve injury site in form of tissues welding was designed. In current study we investigated motoneuron state 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks after peripheral nerve injury and surgical repair with high-frequency electrosurgical technology. Spinal cord sections was stained by Nissl method and observed with light microscopy. We found that postoperative period in animals from experimental groups characterized by qualitative changes in neurons from spinal motor centers that can be interpreted as compensatory processes as response to alteration. In animals from group with high-frequency electrosurgical technology usage stabilization processes passes more quickly comparatively to animals with epineural sutures. High-frequency electrosurgical technology usage provides less harmful effects on motoneurons than epineural suturing. PMID:27001790

  19. Dixdc1 targets CyclinD1 and p21 via PI3K pathway activation to promote Schwann cell proliferation after sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weijie; Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Yuxi; Yu, Zhaohui; Wang, Youhua

    2016-09-16

    Dixdc1 (DIX domain containing-1), the mammalian homolog of Ccd1 (Coiled-coil-Dishevelled-Axin1), is a protein containing a coiled-coil domain and a Dishevelled-Axin (DIX) domain. As a novel component of the Wnt pathway, Dixdc1 has been reported to be able to promote neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. But there still remains something unknown about Dixdc1 distribution and functions in the lesion and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), so we tried to investigate dynamic changes of Dixdc1 expression in a rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model in this study. First of all, we detected SNC-induced increased levels of Dixdc1 in Schwann cells and interestingly identified parallel expression of PCNA (proliferation cell nuclear antigen) with Dixdc1. Besides, we observed up-regulated Dixdc1 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation. Also, we discovered that Dixdc1 could promote G1-S phase transition accompanied with the up-regulation of CyclinD1 and down-regulation of p21. More importantly, enhanced effects of Dixdc1 on cell proliferation were confirmed to be associated with PI3K activation. Not only blocking of the PI3K but Dixdc1 knockdown led to significantly decreased ability for proliferation, as well as down-regulation of CyclinD1 and up-regulation of p21. In summary, these data demonstrated that Dixdc1 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation by targeting CyclinD1 and p21 at least partially through the PI3K/AKT activation. PMID:27521891

  20. Methylcobalamin promotes the differentiation of Schwann cells and remyelination in lysophosphatidylcholine-induced demyelination of the rat sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Michio; Okada, Kiyoshi; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are constituents of the peripheral nervous system. The differentiation of SCs in injured peripheral nerves is critical for regeneration after injury. Methylcobalamin (MeCbl) is a vitamin B12 analog that is necessary for the maintenance of the peripheral nervous system. In this study, we estimated the effect of MeCbl on SCs. We showed that MeCbl downregulated the activity of Erk1/2 and promoted the expression of the myelin basic protein in SCs. In a dorsal root ganglion neuron–SC coculture system, myelination was promoted by MeCbl. In a focal demyelination rat model, MeCbl promoted remyelination and motor and sensory functional regeneration. MeCbl promoted the in vitro differentiation of SCs and in vivo myelination in a rat demyelination model and may be a novel therapy for several types of nervous disorders. PMID:26300733

  1. Endoscopic Sciatic Neurolysis

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Joshua S.; McConkey, Mark O.; Brick, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite remaining a controversial diagnosis, piriformis syndrome continues to affect patients' quality of life with pain, sitting discomfort, and exercise intolerance. Open sciatic neurolysis has been noted by the senior author to often only bring temporary relief of the symptoms, with the recurrence presumably due to postoperative scar tissue. Minimally invasive techniques used to decompress the nerve have met with mixed results. This article describes a step-by-step surgical technique designed to maximize patient safety, as well as surgeon orientation, and achieve a thorough neurolysis. Preoperative findings suggestive of piriformis syndrome are described and include retro-trochanteric pain, sciatica-like leg pain, and paresthesias, as well as a positive response to computed tomography–guided injection of dilute ropivacaine hydrochloride and 40 mg of triamcinolone. The operation is performed with the patient in the lateral decubitus position through 2 portals 6 to 8 cm apart, allowing for good triangulation. Dissection is undertaken with a combination of radiofrequency and a laparoscopic peanut, with the assistance of a vascular sling to control the sciatic nerve. Encouraging results have been achieved, and with increasing interest in this procedure, a step-by-step technical description with an accompanying video may prove useful for other experienced hip arthroscopists. Pearls and pitfalls are discussed. PMID:26759776

  2. Vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 levels after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Altun, Idiris; Kurutaş, Ergül Belge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 were altered after crush-induced peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomized into one control (n = 8) and six study groups (1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3, and 7 days after experimental nerve injury; n = 12 for each group). Crush-induced peripheral nerve injury was performed on the sciatic nerves of rats in six study groups. Tissue samples from the sites of peripheral nerve injury were obtained at 1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after experimental nerve injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve were significantly greater at 1 and 12 hours after experimental nerve injury, while they were significantly lower at 7 days than in control group. Tissue level of vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve was significantly lower at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours than in the control group. These results suggest that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 vary with progression of crush-induced peripheral nerve injury, and supplementation of these vitamins in the acute period may be beneficial for acceleration of nerve regeneration. PMID:27335572

  3. Acute traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocation complicated by axillary nerve damage: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    1998-01-01

    An elite soccer player presented with a classic acute anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint complicated by axillary nerve damage. The incidence, mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, conservative treatment and rehabilitation of the anterior glenohumeral joint dislocation and associated axillary nerve damage are discussed in this paper. ImagesFigure 3

  4. Effect of oblique nerve grafting on peripheral nerve regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Kotulska, Katarzyna; Marcol, Wiesław; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Tendera, Zofia; Malinowska-Kołodziej, Izabela; Slusarczyk, Wojciech; Jedrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Current methods of peripheral nerve repair are to rejoin cut nerve stumps directly or to bridge large gaps with autologous nerve grafts. In both cases the surface of nerve stump endings is typically cut perpendicularly to the long axis of the nerve. The outcome of such operations, however, is still not satisfactory. In this study, we examine the effect of oblique nerve cutting and grafting on morphological as well as functional features of regeneration. In adult rats, sciatic nerve was cut and rejoined either directly or using an autologous graft, at 90 degrees or 30 degrees angle. Functional regeneration was assessed by walking track analysis during 12-week follow-up. Afterwards muscle weight was measured and histological studies were performed. The latter included nerve fibers and Schwann cells counting, as well as visualization of scar formation and epineural fibrosis. Nerves cut obliquely and rejoined showed better functional recovery than perpendicularly transected. Similar effect was observed after oblique grafting when compared to perpendicular one. Numbers of nerve fibers growing into the distal stump of the nerve as well as the number of Schwann cells were significantly higher in obliquely than in perpendicularly operated nerves. Moreover, growing axons were arranged more regularly following oblique treatment. These data indicate that joining or grafting the nerve stumps at acute angle is a more profitable method of nerve repair than the standard procedure performed at right angle. PMID:17066410

  5. Methylprednisolone microsphere sustained-release membrane inhibits scar formation at the site of peripheral nerve lesion.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Li, Teng; Cao, Xiang-Chang; Luo, De-Qing; Lian, Ke-Jian

    2016-05-01

    Corticosteroids are widely used for the treatment of acute central nervous system injury. However, their bioactivity is limited by their short half-life. Sustained release of glucocorticoids can prolong their efficacy and inhibit scar formation at the site of nerve injury. In the present study, we wrapped the anastomotic ends of the rat sciatic nerve with a methylprednisolone sustained-release membrane. Compared with methylprednisone alone or methylprednisone microspheres, the methylprednisolone microsphere sustained-release membrane reduced tissue adhesion and inhibited scar tissue formation at the site of anastomosis. It also increased sciatic nerve function index and the thickness of the myelin sheath. Our findings show that the methylprednisolone microsphere sustained-release membrane effectively inhibits scar formation at the site of anastomosis of the peripheral nerve, thereby promoting nerve regeneration. PMID:27335571

  6. Methylprednisolone microsphere sustained-release membrane inhibits scar formation at the site of peripheral nerve lesion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Li, Teng; Cao, Xiang-chang; Luo, De-qing; Lian, Ke-jian

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids are widely used for the treatment of acute central nervous system injury. However, their bioactivity is limited by their short half-life. Sustained release of glucocorticoids can prolong their efficacy and inhibit scar formation at the site of nerve injury. In the present study, we wrapped the anastomotic ends of the rat sciatic nerve with a methylprednisolone sustained-release membrane. Compared with methylprednisone alone or methylprednisone microspheres, the methylprednisolone microsphere sustained-release membrane reduced tissue adhesion and inhibited scar tissue formation at the site of anastomosis. It also increased sciatic nerve function index and the thickness of the myelin sheath. Our findings show that the methylprednisolone microsphere sustained-release membrane effectively inhibits scar formation at the site of anastomosis of the peripheral nerve, thereby promoting nerve regeneration. PMID:27335571

  7. Characterization of high capacitance electrodes for the application of direct current electrical nerve block.

    PubMed

    Vrabec, Tina; Bhadra, Niloy; Wainright, Jesse; Bhadra, Narendra; Franke, Manfred; Kilgore, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Direct current (DC) can briefly produce a reversible nerve conduction block in acute experiments. However, irreversible reactions at the electrode-tissue interface have prevented its use in both acute and chronic settings. A high capacitance material (platinum black) using a charge-balanced waveform was evaluated to determine whether brief DC block (13 s) could be achieved repeatedly (>100 cycles) without causing acute irreversible reduction in nerve conduction. Electrochemical techniques were used to characterize the electrodes to determine appropriate waveform parameters. In vivo experiments on DC motor conduction block of the rat sciatic nerve were performed to characterize the acute neural response to this novel nerve block system. Complete nerve motor conduction block of the rat sciatic nerve was possible in all experiments, with the block threshold ranging from -0.15 to -3.0 mA. DC pulses were applied for 100 cycles with no nerve conduction reduction in four of the six platinum black electrodes tested. However, two of the six electrodes exhibited irreversible conduction degradation despite charge delivery that was within the initial Q (capacitance) value of the electrode. Degradation of material properties occurred in all experiments, pointing to a possible cause of the reduction in nerve conduction in some platinum black experiments . PMID:26358242

  8. Design, fabrication and evaluation of a conforming circumpolar peripheral nerve cuff electrode for acute experimental use

    PubMed Central

    Foldes, Emily L.; Ackermann, D. Michael; Bhadra, Niloy; Kilgore, Kevin L.; Bhadra, Narendra

    2011-01-01

    Nerve cuff electrodes are a principle tool of basic and applied electro-neurophysiology studies and are championed for their ability to achieve good nerve recruitment with low thresholds. We describe the design and method of fabrication for a novel circumpolar peripheral nerve electrode for acute experimental use. This cylindrical cuff-style electrode provides approximately 270 degrees of radial electrode contact with a nerve for each of an arbitrary number of contacts, has a profile that allows for simple placement and removal in an acute nerve preparation, and is designed for adjustment of the cylindrical diameter to ensure a close fit on the nerve. For each electrode, the electrical contacts were cut from 25 µm platinum foil as an array so as to maintain their positions relative to each other within the cuff. Lead wires were welded to each intended contact. The structure was then molded in silicone elastomer, after which the individual contacts were electrically isolated. The final electrode was curved into a cylindrical shape with an inner diameter corresponding to that of the intended target nerve. The positions of these contacts were well maintained during the molding and shaping process and failure rates during fabrication due to contact displacements were very low. Established electrochemical measurements were made on one electrode to confirm expected behavior for a platinum electrode and to measure the electrode impedance to applied voltages at different frequencies. These electrodes have been successfully used for nerve stimulation, recording, and conduction block in a number of different acute animal experiments by several investigators. PMID:21187115

  9. Acute optic nerve sheath fenestration with the free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jin-Hui; Casagrande, Vivien A.; Joos, Karen M.; Shetlar, Debra J.; Robinson, Richard D.; Head, William S.; Mavity-Hudson, Julia A.; Nunnally, Amy H.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: To determine if the free electron laser (FEL) energy can be delivered to a small space to perform optic nerve sheath fenestration with minimal acute nerve damage. Methods: A 530 mm hollow waveguide probe was designed. Optic nerve sheath fenestration (1.0 mm diameter) was performed in 8 rabbits using either the FEL (4 eyes, 6.45mm, 10 Hz, 2 mJ) or a knife (4 eyes). Within 2 hours following surgery, the animals were perfused with aldehyde fixative. The integrity of the optic nerve and glial response at the site of fenestration were evaluated on tissue selections with H&E, and antibodies to S100β or GFAP. Results: Surgery using the FEL probe was found to be technically superior to the knife. The glial reaction was limited to a zone adjacent to the fenestration and was similar in both the FEL and knife incisions. Conclusions: The FEL appears capable of efficiently performing an optic nerve sheath fenestration in a small space with minimal acute damage. Both the FEL and knife incisions result in a rapid glial response at the site of fenestration even when optic nerve integrity is not compromised.

  10. Intravenous Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to Enhance Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Matthes, Stella M.; Reimers, Kerstin; Janssen, Insa; Kocsis, Jeffery D.; Vogt, Peter M.; Radtke, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common and devastating complication after trauma and can cause irreversible impairment or even complete functional loss of the affected limb. While peripheral nerve repair results in some axonal regeneration and functional recovery, the clinical outcome is not optimal and research continues to optimize functional recovery after nerve repair. Cell transplantation approaches are being used experimentally to enhance regeneration. Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into spinal cord injury and stroke was shown to improve functional outcome. However, the repair potential of intravenously transplanted MSCs in peripheral nerve injury has not been addressed yet. Here we describe the impact of intravenously infused MSCs on functional outcome in a peripheral nerve injury model. Rat sciatic nerves were transected followed, by intravenous MSCs transplantation. Footprint analysis was carried out and 21 days after transplantation, the nerves were removed for histology. Labelled MSCs were found in the sciatic nerve lesion site after intravenous injection and regeneration was improved. Intravenously infused MSCs after acute peripheral nerve target the lesion site and survive within the nerve and the MSC treated group showed greater functional improvement. The results of study suggest that nerve repair with cell transplantation could lead to greater functional outcome. PMID:24459671

  11. Isolated sciatic neuropathy as an initial manifestation of a high grade B-cell lymphoma: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    He, Wenzhuan; Wang, Weizhen; Gustas, Cristy; Malysz, Jozef; Kaur, Divpreet

    2016-10-01

    Sciatic nerve neuropathy due to infiltrating of a high grade B-cell lymphoma is a very rare situation and has not often been reported. We report a case with a previous history of indolent lymphoma who presented with isolated sciatic nerve neuropathy and was found to have diffuse large B cell lymphoma involving the sciatic nerve. Although the current case is not a primary sciatic nerve lymphoma given the systematic involvement shown on MRI and PET/CT scan, the case represents a neurolymphomatosis of the sciatic nerve given the direct invasion of the lymphoma cells into the sciatic nerve. Due to the rarity of this condition, we subsequently reviewed related literatures. PMID:27540756

  12. Right Median Nerve Electrical Stimulation for Acute Traumatic Coma Patients.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jin; Wang, Lei; Gao, Guoyi; Cooper, Edwin; Jiang, Jiyao

    2015-10-15

    The right median nerve as a peripheral portal to the central nervous system can be electrically stimulated to help coma arousal after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study set out to examine the efficacy and safety of right median nerve electrical stimulation (RMNS) in a cohort of 437 comatose patients after severe TBI from August 2005 to December 2011. The patients were enrolled 2 weeks after their injury and assigned to the RMNS group (n=221) receiving electrical stimulation for 2 weeks or the control group (n = 216) treated by standard management according to the date of birth in the month. The baseline data were similar. After the 2-week treatment, the RMNS-treated patients demonstrated a more rapid increase of the mean Glasgow Coma Score, although statistical significance was not reached (8.43 ± 4.98 vs. 7.47 ± 5.37, p = 0.0532). The follow-up data at 6-month post-injury showed a significantly higher proportion of patients who regained consciousness (59.8% vs. 46.2%, p = 0.0073). There was a lower proportion of vegetative persons in the RMNS group than in the control group (17.6% vs. 22.0%, p = 0.0012). For persons regaining consciousness, the functional independence measurement (FIM) score was higher among the RMNS group patients (91.45 ± 8.65 vs. 76.23 ± 11.02, p < 0.001). There were no unique complications associated with the RMNS treatment. The current study, although with some limitations, showed that RMNS may serve as an easy, effective, and noninvasive technique to promote the recovery of traumatic coma in the early phase. PMID:25664378

  13. Ultrasound-guided femoro-sciatic nerve block for post-operative analgesia after below knee orthopaedic surgeries under subarachnoid block: Comparison between clonidine and dexmedetomidine as adjuvants to levobupivacaine

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Sudarshan Kumar; Verma, Ravinder Kumar; Rana, Shelly; Singh, Jai; Gupta, Bhanu; Singh, Yuvraj

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The advent of ultrasonographic-guided techniques has led to increased interest in femoro-sciatic nerve block (FSNB) for lower limb surgeries. α2-agonists have been used recently as adjuvants to local anaesthetics in nerve blocks. We aimed to compare equal doses of clonidine or dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to levobupivacaine in FSNB for post-operative analgesia. Methods: Ninety patients scheduled to undergo below knee orthopaedic surgeries under subarachnoid block were divided into three groups: Group LL (n = 30) patients received 38 mL of 0.125% levobupivacaine with 2 mL normal saline, Group LD (n = 30) patients received 38 mL of 0.125% levobupivacaine with 0.5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine and Group LC (n = 30) received 38 mL of 0.125% levobupivacaine with 0.5 μg/kg clonidine in saline to make total drug volume of 40 mL. The primary and secondary outcome variables were duration of analgesia and rescue analgesic requirement, verbal rating score respectively. Continuous variables were analysed with analysis of variance or the Kruskal–Wallis test on the basis of data distribution. Categorical variables were analysed with the contingency table analysis and the Fisher's exact test. Results: Duration of analgesia was prolonged with dexmedetomidine (10.17 ± 2.40 h) and clonidine (7.31 ± 1.76 h) as compared to control (4.16 ± 1.04 h, P = 0.00). Significantly lower pain scores were observed in dexmedetomidine group as compared to clonidine up to 8 h post-operatively. Conclusion: Equal doses of clonidine or dexmedetomidine added to levobupivacaine prolonged the duration of analgesia, decreased requirement of rescue analgesia. Dexmedetomidine delays the requirement of rescue analgesics with better pain scores as compared to clonidine. PMID:27512164

  14. A wakeboarding injury presented as acute carpal syndrome and median nerve contusion after wrist strangulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We present a case of combined median nerve contusion with immediate loss of sensation after the strangulation with a wakeboarding rope and prolonged referral to our department 72 hours after the injury accompanied by an acute carpal tunnel syndrome with immediate relief of numbness of a significant proportion of the median nerve following surgical decompression. Case presentation The palmar branch of the median nerve was surrounded by a significant haematoma in addition to the strangulation damage caused by its more superficial location in contrast to the median nerve. Conclusion In case of acute median neuropathy, urgent surgical intervention with exploration, decompression of both, the median nerve and the superficial branch of the median nerve, accompanied by compartment measurements of the forearm should be performed to regain or re-establish neurological integrity. PMID:19178709

  15. Adenoviral-Mediated Glial Cell Line–Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Transfer Has a Protective Effect on Sciatic Nerve Following Constriction-Induced Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chou, An-Kuo; Yang, Ming-Chang; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tai, Ming-Hong; Kwan, Aij-Li; Hong, Yi-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury may be associated with abnormal central nerve activity. Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can help attenuate neuropathic pain in different animal models of nerve injury. However, whether GDNF can ameliorate neuropathic pain in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in constriction-induced peripheral nerve injury remains unknown. We investigated the therapeutic effects of adenoviral-mediated GDNF on neuropathic pain behaviors, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and programmed cell death in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) nerve injury animal model. In this study, neuropathic pain was produced by CCI on the ipsilateral SCDH. Mechanical allodynia was examined with von Frey filaments and thermal sensitivity was tested using a plantar test apparatus post-operatively. Target proteins GDNF-1, GDNFRa-1, MMP2, MMP9, p38, phospho-p38, ED1, IL6, IL1β, AIF, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, SPECTRIN, cleaved SPECTRIN, Beclin-1, PKCσ, PKCγ, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS were detected. Microglial activity was measured by observing changes in immunoreactivity with OX-42. NeuN and TUNEL staining were used to reveal whether apoptosis was attenuated by GDNF. Results showed that administrating GDNF began to attenuate both allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at day 7. CCI-rats were found to have lower GDNF and GDNFRa-1 expression compared to controls, and GDNF re-activated their expression. Also, GDNF significantly down-regulated CCI-induced protein expression except for MMP2, eNOS and nNOS, indicating that the protective action of GDNF might be associated with anti-inflammation and prohibition of microglia activation. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that GDNF reduced CCI-induced neuronal apoptosis. In sum, GDNF enhanced the neurotrophic effect by inhibiting microglia activation and cytokine production via p38 and PKC signaling. GDNF could be a good

  16. Reversible acute axonal polyneuropathy associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: impaired physiological nerve conduction due to thiamine deficiency?

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, S; Yokota, T; Shiojiri, T; Matunaga, T; Tanaka, H; Nishina, K; Hirota, H; Inaba, A; Yamada, M; Kanda, T; Mizusawa, H

    2003-05-01

    Acute axonal polyneuropathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy developed simultaneously in three patients. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) detected markedly decreased compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) with minimal conduction slowing; sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) were also notably decreased. Sural nerve biopsies showed only mild axonal degeneration with scattered myelin ovoid formation. The symptoms of neuropathy lessened within two weeks after an intravenous thiamine infusion. CMAPs, SNAPs, and SSRs also increased considerably. We suggest that this is a new type of peripheral nerve impairment: physiological conduction failure with minimal conduction delay due to thiamine deficiency. PMID:12700319

  17. Neuropathological and neuroprotective features of vitamin B12 on the dorsal spinal ganglion of rats after the experimental crush of sciatic nerve: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinal motoneuron neuroprotection by vitaminB12 was previously reported; the present study was carried out to evaluate neuroprotectivity in the dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron. Methods In present study thirty-six Wister-Albino rats (aged 8–9 weeks and weighing 200–250 g) were tested. The animals were randomly divided into 6 groups which every group contained 6 rats. Group A: received normal saline (for 42 days); Group B: vitamin B12 was administered (0.5 mg/kg/day for 21 days); Group C: received vitamin B12 (1 mg/kg/day for 21days); Group D: received vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/kg/day for 42 days); Group E; received vitamin B12 (1 mg/kg/day for 42 days); Group F; received no treatment. The L5 Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons count compared to the number of left and right neurons .Furthermore, DRG sensory neurons for regeneration were evaluated 21 or 42 days after injury (each group was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA test). Results (1): The comparison of left crushed neurons (LCN) number with right non-crushed neurons in all experimental groups (B, C, D and C), indicating a significant decline in their neurons enumeration (p<0/05). (2): The comparison of test group’s LCN with the control group’s LCN revealed a significant rise in the number of experimental group neurons (p<0/05). (3): Moreover, comparing the number of right neurons in experimental groups with the number of neurons in crushed neurons indicated that the average number of right neurons showed a significant increase in experimental groups (p<0/05). Conclusion Consequently, the probability of nerve regeneration will be increased by the increment of the administered drug dosage and duration. On the other hand, the regeneration and healing in Dorsal Spinal Ganglion will be improved by increase of administration time and vitamin B12 dose, indicating that such vitamin was able to progress recovery process of peripheral nerves damage in experimental rats. Finally, our results have important

  18. Successful treatment of Raynaud’s syndrome in a lupus patient with continuous bilateral popliteal sciatic nerve blocks: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Thuan; Amaro-Driedger, David; Mehta, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    Raynaud’s syndrome has been treated medically and invasively, sometimes with regional anesthesia leading up to sympathectomy. We demonstrate that regional anesthesia was in this case a useful technique that can allow some patients to find temporary but significant relief from symptoms of Raynaud’s syndrome exacerbation. We present a 43-year-old woman with Raynaud’s syndrome secondary to lupus who was treated with bilateral popliteal nerve block catheters for ischemic pain and necrosis of her feet; this led to almost immediate resolution of her pain and return of color and function of her feet. While medical management should continue to be a front-line treatment for Raynaud’s syndrome, regional anesthesia can be useful in providing rapid dissipation of symptoms and may thus serve as a viable option for short-term management of this syndrome. PMID:27366104

  19. Oxygen saturation changes in the optic nerve head during acute intraocular pressure elevation in monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoobehi, Bahram; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Ning, Jinfeng; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Rice, David A.; Khan, Fareeha; Thompson, Hilary W.; Beach, James M.

    2009-02-01

    Background and Objective: To evaluate the effect of an acute elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) on oxygen saturation of structures of the optic nerve head. Study Design/Materials and Methods: In the cynomolgus monkey eye, IOP was set to 10 mm Hg, and then raised to 30, 45, and 55 mm Hg. The ONH and overlying vessels were imaged using a fundus camera attached to a hyperspectral imaging system (HSI) at 10 and 30 minutes after IOP elevation. Results: Raising IOP from 10 to 30 mm Hg did not significantly (P < 0.0001) change saturation in vessels or ONH tissue structures but at 55 mm Hg, all structures showed significant reduction. Conclusions: Quantitative assay of the blood oxygen saturation in structures on the surface and overlying the optic nerve head is possible using hyperspectral imaging techniques.

  20. Microglia and monocytes synergistically promote the transition from acute to chronic pain after nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jiyun; Gu, Nan; Zhou, Lijun; B Eyo, Ukpong; Murugan, Madhuvika; Gan, Wen-Biao; Wu, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microglia and peripheral monocytes contribute to hypersensitivity in rodent models of neuropathic pain. However, the precise respective function of microglia and peripheral monocytes has not been investigated in these models. To address this question, here we combined transgenic mice and pharmacological tools to specifically and temporally control the depletion of microglia and monocytes in a mouse model of spinal nerve transection (SNT). We found that although microglia and monocytes are required during the initiation of mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesia, these cells may not be as important for the maintenance of hypersensitivity. Moreover, we demonstrated that either resident microglia or peripheral monocytes are sufficient in gating neuropathic pain after SNT. We propose that resident microglia and peripheral monocytes act synergistically to initiate hypersensitivity and promote the transition from acute to chronic pain after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:27349690

  1. Remote acute demyelination after focal proton radiation therapy for optic nerve meningioma.

    PubMed

    Redjal, Navid; Agarwalla, Pankaj K; Dietrich, Jorg; Dinevski, Nikolaj; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Nahed, Brian V; Loeffler, Jay S

    2015-08-01

    We present a unique patient with delayed onset, acute demyelination that occurred distant to the effective field of radiation after proton beam radiotherapy for an optic nerve sheath meningioma. The use of stereotactic radiotherapy as an effective treatment modality for some brain tumors is increasing, given technological advances which allow for improved targeting precision. Proton beam radiotherapy improves the precision further by reducing unnecessary radiation to surrounding tissues. A 42-year-old woman was diagnosed with an optic nerve sheath meningioma after initially presenting with vision loss. After biopsy of the lesion to establish diagnosis, the patient underwent stereotactic proton beam radiotherapy to a small area localized to the tumor. Subsequently, the patient developed a large enhancing mass-like lesion with edema in a region outside of the effective radiation field in the ipsilateral frontal lobe. Given imaging features suggestive of possible primary malignant brain tumor, biopsy of this new lesion was performed and revealed an acute demyelinating process. This patient illustrates the importance of considering delayed onset acute demyelination in the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions in patients previously treated with radiation. PMID:25937571

  2. Peripheral nerve injuries in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, J H; Nadler, S F; Krivickas, L S

    1997-12-01

    outcome. Proximal nerve injuries have a poorer prognosis for neurological recovery. The most common peripheral nerve injury in the athlete is the burner syndrome. Though primarily a football injury, burners have been reported in wrestling, hockey, basketball and weight-lifting as a result of acute head, neck and/or shoulder trauma. Most burners are self-limiting, but they occasionally produce permanent neurological deficits. The axillary nerve is commonly injured with shoulder dislocations but is also susceptible to injury by direct compression. The sciatic and common peroneal nerves can be injured by trauma. The suprascapular, musculocutaneous, ulnar, median and tibial nerves are susceptible to entrapment. The long thoracic and femoral nerves can be injured by severe traction. PMID:9421863

  3. Demonstrating Electrical Activity in Nerve and Muscle. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the construction of an amplifier and force transducer that can be used to demonstrate electrical activity in nerve and muscle using the gastrocnemius muscle and sciatic nerve of the frog. (MLH)

  4. Comprehensive Evaluation of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in the Acute Healing Phase Using Tissue Clearing and Optical Microscopy in a Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Cameron P.; Senthil-Kumar, Prabhu; Zhao, Jie; Randolph, Mark A.; Winograd, Jonathan M.; Evans, Conor L.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI), a common injury in both the civilian and military arenas, is usually associated with high healthcare costs and with patients enduring slow recovery times, diminished quality of life, and potential long-term disability. Patients with PNI typically undergo complex interventions but the factors that govern optimal response are not fully characterized. A fundamental understanding of the cellular and tissue-level events in the immediate postoperative period is essential for improving treatment and optimizing repair. Here, we demonstrate a comprehensive imaging approach to evaluate peripheral nerve axonal regeneration in a rodent PNI model using a tissue clearing method to improve depth penetration while preserving neural architecture. Sciatic nerve transaction and end-to-end repair were performed in both wild type and thy-1 GFP rats. The nerves were harvested at time points after repair before undergoing whole mount immunofluorescence staining and tissue clearing. By increasing the optic depth penetration, tissue clearing allowed the visualization and evaluation of Wallerian degeneration and nerve regrowth throughout entire sciatic nerves with subcellular resolution. The tissue clearing protocol did not affect immunofluorescence labeling and no observable decrease in the fluorescence signal was observed. Large-area, high-resolution tissue volumes could be quantified to provide structural and connectivity information not available from current gold-standard approaches for evaluating axonal regeneration following PNI. The results are suggestive of observed behavioral recovery in vivo after neurorrhaphy, providing a method of evaluating axonal regeneration following repair that can serve as an adjunct to current standard outcomes measurements. This study demonstrates that tissue clearing following whole mount immunofluorescence staining enables the complete visualization and quantitative evaluation of axons throughout nerves in a PNI model

  5. Effects of acute selective pudendal nerve electrical stimulation after simulated childbirth injury

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Bradley C.; Dissaranan, Charuspong; Zutshi, Massarat; Balog, Brian M.; Lin, Danli; Damaser, Margot S.

    2013-01-01

    During childbirth, a combinatorial injury occurs and can result in stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Simulated childbirth injury, consisting of vaginal distension (VD) and pudendal nerve crush (PNC), results in slowed recovery of continence, as well as decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a regenerative cytokine. Electrical stimulation has been shown to upregulate BDNF in motor neurons and facilitate axon regrowth through the increase of βII-tubulin expression after injury. In this study, female rats underwent selective pudendal nerve motor branch (PNMB) stimulation after simulated childbirth injury or sham injury to determine whether such stimulation affects bladder and anal function after injury and whether the stimulation increases BDNF expression in Onuf's nucleus after injury. Rats received 4 h of VD followed by bilateral PNC and 1 h of subthreshold electrical stimulation of the left PNMB and sham stimulation of the right PNMB. Rats underwent filling cystometry and anal pressure recording before, during, and after the stimulation. Bladder and anal contractile function were partially disrupted after injury. PNMB stimulation temporarily inhibited bladder contraction after injury. Two days and 1 wk after injury, BDNF expression in Onuf's nucleus of the stimulated side was significantly increased compared with the sham-stimulated side, whereas βII-tubulin expression in Onuf's nucleus of the stimulated side was significantly increased only 1 wk after injury. Acute electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve proximal to the crush site upregulates BDNF and βII-tubulin in Onuf's nucleus after simulated childbirth injury, which could be a potential preventive option for SUI after childbirth injury. PMID:23152293

  6. Acute effects of neural mobilization and infrared on the mechanics of the median nerve

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Monara Kedma; Fontenele dos Santos, Gabrielly; Martins e Silva, Diandra Caroline; Mota de Freitas, Ana Cláudia; Henriques, Isadora Ferreira; Andrade, Peterson Marco; Machado, Dionis de Castro; Teixeira, Silmar; Neves, Marco Orsini; Dias, Gildário; Silva-Júnior, Fernando; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the acute effects of infrared and neural mobilization on the median nerve on the range of elbow extension of the dominant limb. [Subjects and Methods] Forty participants from university, neurologically asymptomatic, 12 males and 28 females (22.8 ± 1.9 years), were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (control) rested for 25 minutes in the supine position; Group 2 received the specific neural mobilization for the median nerve; Group 3 received an application of infrared for 15 minutes on the forearm; Group 4 received the same application of infrared followed by neural mobilization. The goniometric parameters of elbow extension were evaluated after the intervention. [Results] Significant differences of extension value were observed between Group 1 and Group 3 (15.75 degrees), and between Group 1 and Group 4 (14.60 degrees), and the average higher in Group 3 (26.35 degrees). [Conclusion] This research provides new experimental evidence that NM in relation to superficial heat produces an immediate effect on elbow range of motion versus NM isolated. PMID:27390402

  7. The role of intercostal nerve preservation in acute pain control after thoracotomy*

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti-Filho, Marco Aurélio; Leão, Luiz Eduardo Villaça; Costa-Junior, Altair da Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the acute pain experienced during in-hospital recovery from thoracotomy can be effectively reduced by the use of intraoperative measures (dissection of the neurovascular bundle prior to the positioning of the Finochietto retractor and preservation of the intercostal nerve during closure). METHODS: We selected 40 patients who were candidates for elective thoracotomy in the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Federal University of São Paulo/Paulista School of Medicine, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The patients were randomized into two groups: conventional thoracotomy (CT, n = 20) and neurovascular bundle preservation (NBP, n = 20). All of the patients underwent thoracic epidural anesthesia and muscle-sparing thoracotomy. Pain intensity was assessed with a visual analog scale on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5, as well as by monitoring patient requests for/consumption of analgesics. RESULTS: On postoperative day 5, the self-reported pain intensity was significantly lower in the NBP group than in the CT group (visual analog scale score, 1.50 vs. 3.29; p = 0.04). No significant differences were found between the groups regarding the number of requests for/consumption of analgesics. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing thoracotomy, protecting the neurovascular bundle prior to positioning the retractor and preserving the intercostal nerve during closure can minimize pain during in-hospital recovery. PMID:24831401

  8. Angiotensin and thromboxane in the enhanced renal adrenergic nerve sensitivity of acute renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Robinette, J B; Conger, J D

    1990-01-01

    The roles of intrarenal angiotensin (A) and thromboxane (TX) in the vascular hypersensitivity to renal nerve stimulation (RNS) and paradoxical vasoconstriction to renal perfusion pressure (RPP) reduction in the autoregulatory range in 1 wk norepinephrine (NE)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats were investigated. Renal blood flow (RBF) responses were determined before and during intrarenal infusion of an AII and TXA2 antagonist. Saralasin or SQ29548 alone partially corrected the slopes of RBF to RNS and RPP reduction in NE-ARF rats (P less than 0.02). Saralasin + SQ29548 normalized the RBF response to RNS. While combined saralasin + SQ29548 eliminated the vasoconstriction to RPP reduction, similar to the effect of renal denervation, appropriate vasodilatation was not restored. Renal vein norepinephrine efflux during RNS was disproportionately increased in NE-ARF (P less than 0.001) and was suppressed by saralasin + SQ29548 infusion (P less than 0.005). It is concluded that the enhanced sensitivity to RNS and paradoxical vasoconstriction to RPP reduction in 1 wk NE-ARF kidneys are the result of intrarenal TX and AII acceleration of neurotransmitter release to adrenergic nerve activity. PMID:2243129

  9. Acute effects of neural mobilization and infrared on the mechanics of the median nerve.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Monara Kedma; Fontenele Dos Santos, Gabrielly; Martins E Silva, Diandra Caroline; Mota de Freitas, Ana Cláudia; Henriques, Isadora Ferreira; Andrade, Peterson Marco; Machado, Dionis de Castro; Teixeira, Silmar; Neves, Marco Orsini; Dias, Gildário; Silva-Júnior, Fernando; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the acute effects of infrared and neural mobilization on the median nerve on the range of elbow extension of the dominant limb. [Subjects and Methods] Forty participants from university, neurologically asymptomatic, 12 males and 28 females (22.8 ± 1.9 years), were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (control) rested for 25 minutes in the supine position; Group 2 received the specific neural mobilization for the median nerve; Group 3 received an application of infrared for 15 minutes on the forearm; Group 4 received the same application of infrared followed by neural mobilization. The goniometric parameters of elbow extension were evaluated after the intervention. [Results] Significant differences of extension value were observed between Group 1 and Group 3 (15.75 degrees), and between Group 1 and Group 4 (14.60 degrees), and the average higher in Group 3 (26.35 degrees). [Conclusion] This research provides new experimental evidence that NM in relation to superficial heat produces an immediate effect on elbow range of motion versus NM isolated. PMID:27390402

  10. Acute temperature sensitivity in optic nerve axons explained by an electrogenic membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Coates, Tom A; Woolnough, Oscar; Masters, Joseph M; Asadova, Gulsum; Chandrakumar, Charmilie; Baker, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Classical work in squid axon reports resting membrane potential is independent of temperature, but our findings suggest that this is not the case for axons in mammalian optic nerve. Refractory period duration changes over 10 times between 37 °C and room temperature, and afterpotential polarity is also acutely temperature sensitive, inconsistent with changes in temperature impacting nerve function only through altered rates of ion channel gating kinetics. Our evidence suggests that the membrane potential is enhanced by warming, an effect reduced by exposure to ouabain. The temperature dependence can be explained if axonal Na(+)/K(+) ATPase continuously expels Na(+) ions that enter axons largely electroneutrally, thereby adding a substantial electrogenic component to the membrane potential. Block of the Na(+) transporter NKCC1 with bumetanide increases refractoriness, like depolarization, indicating that this is a probable route by which Na(+) enters, raising the expectation that the rate of electroneutral Na(+) influx increases with temperature and suggesting a temperature-dependent transmembrane Na(+) cycle that contributes to membrane potential. PMID:25724933

  11. Nerve stimulation with a multi-contact cuff electrode: validation of model predictions.

    PubMed

    Deurloo, K E; Holsheimer, J; Bergveld, P

    2000-10-01

    The recruitment characteristics of muscle selective nerve stimulation by a multi-contact nerve cuff electrode, as predicted by computer modeling, have been investigated in acute experiments on rabbits. A nerve cuff containing five or six dot electrodes was placed around the sciatic nerve in five rabbits. M-waves were recorded with wire electrodes from the lateral gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, and extensor digitorum longus muscles. The muscle recruitment performances of three contact configurations (monopole, transverse bipole, transverse tripole) were compared. The selectivity was quantified by the recruitment of two muscles (one extensor and one flexor) in response to a particular stimulus. The results showed that only in a few cases, transverse bi- and tripolar stimulation provided a better selectivity than monopolar stimulation. Neither of the two extensors, nor of the two flexors could be stimulated separately. In accordance with the results of the modeling studies, bi- and tripolar stimulation required higher stimulus currents than monopolar stimulation, whereas maximum recruitment and slopes of recruitment curves were lower. The rabbit sciatic nerve appears to be a less suitable preparation for reproducible selectivity experiments, due to the variability in the number and size of the fascicles and their position in this nerve. PMID:11094386

  12. Arterial baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity during acute hypotension: effect of fitness.

    PubMed

    Fadel, P J; Stromstad, M; Hansen, J; Sander, M; Horn, K; Ogoh, S; Smith, M L; Secher, N H; Raven, P B

    2001-06-01

    We examined arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during abrupt decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and evaluated whether endurance training alters baroreflex function. Acute hypotension was induced nonpharmacologically in 14 healthy subjects, of which 7 were of high fitness (HF) and 7 were of average fitness (AF), by releasing a unilateral arterial thigh cuff after 9 min of resting ischemia under two conditions: control, which used aortic and carotid baroreflex (ABR and CBR, respectively) deactivation; and suction, which used ABR deactivation alone. The application of neck suction to counteract changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure during cuff release significantly attenuated the MSNA response (which increased 134 +/- 32 U/14 s) compared with control (which increased 195 +/- 43 U/14 s) and caused a greater decrease in MAP (19 +/- 2 vs. 15 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). Furthermore, during both trials, the HF subjects exhibited a greater decrease in MAP compared with AF subjects despite an augmented baroreflex control of MSNA. These data indicate that the CBR contributes importantly to the MSNA response during acute systemic hypotension. Additionally, we suggest that an impaired control of vascular reactivity hinders blood pressure regulation in HF subjects. PMID:11356607

  13. Arterial baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity during acute hypotension: effect of fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadel, P. J.; Stromstad, M.; Hansen, J.; Sander, M.; Horn, K.; Ogoh, S.; Smith, M. L.; Secher, N. H.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    We examined arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during abrupt decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and evaluated whether endurance training alters baroreflex function. Acute hypotension was induced nonpharmacologically in 14 healthy subjects, of which 7 were of high fitness (HF) and 7 were of average fitness (AF), by releasing a unilateral arterial thigh cuff after 9 min of resting ischemia under two conditions: control, which used aortic and carotid baroreflex (ABR and CBR, respectively) deactivation; and suction, which used ABR deactivation alone. The application of neck suction to counteract changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure during cuff release significantly attenuated the MSNA response (which increased 134 +/- 32 U/14 s) compared with control (which increased 195 +/- 43 U/14 s) and caused a greater decrease in MAP (19 +/- 2 vs. 15 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). Furthermore, during both trials, the HF subjects exhibited a greater decrease in MAP compared with AF subjects despite an augmented baroreflex control of MSNA. These data indicate that the CBR contributes importantly to the MSNA response during acute systemic hypotension. Additionally, we suggest that an impaired control of vascular reactivity hinders blood pressure regulation in HF subjects.

  14. Optical coherence tomography of the optic nerve head detects acute changes in intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Anand, Aashish; Pass, Anastas; Urfy, Mian Z; Tang, Rosa; Cajavilca, Christian; Calvillo, Eusebia; Suarez, Jose I; Venkatasubba Rao, Chethan P; Bershad, Eric M

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to determine if there are measurable objective changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) immediately after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in a prospective case-series of five patients undergoing a clinically indicated lumbar puncture (LP) for diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. A Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography machine (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) was used to acquire images in the lateral decubitus position. Optic disc cube and high-definition line raster scans centered on the ONH were obtained immediately before and after draining CSF, while the patient maintained the lateral decubitus position. Measured parameters included retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, peripapillary retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch's membrane (RPE/BM) angulation, transverse neural canal diameter (NCD) and the highest vertical point of the internal limiting membrane from the transverse diameter (papillary height). The mean (±standard deviation) opening and closing CSF pressures were 34.3±11.8 and 11.6±3.3cmH2O, respectively. Mean RNFL thickness (pre LP: 196±105μm; post LP: 164±77μm, p=0.1) and transverse NCD (pre LP: 1985±559μm; post LP: 1590±228μm, p=2.0) decreased in all subjects, but with non-significant trends. The RPE/BM angle (mean change: 5.8±2.0degrees, p=0.003) decreased in all subjects. A decrease in papillary height was seen in three of five subjects (mean: pre LP: 976±275μm; post LP: 938±300μm, p=0.9). Our results show a measurable, objective change in the ONH after acute lowering of the lumbar CSF pressure, suggesting a direct link between the lumbar subarachnoid space and ONH regions, and its potential as a non-invasive method for monitoring intracranial pressures. PMID:26898579

  15. Vasopressin, renin, and cortisol responses to hemorrhage during acute blockade of cardiac nerves in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, C. P.; Keil, L. C.; Thrasher, T. N.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of acute cardiac nerve blockade (CNB) on the increases in plasma renin activity (PRA), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and cortisol in response to a 30 ml/kg hemorrhage was determined in conscious dogs (n = 9). Procaine was infused into the pericardial space to produce acute reversible CNB, or saline was infused in the control hemorrhage. Blood was removed from the inferior vena cava at a rate of 1 ml.kg-1.min-1. In the control hemorrhage, plasma AVP increased from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 219 +/- 66 pg/ml, PRA increased from 0.63 +/- 0.20 to 3.08 +/- 0.91 ng angiotensin I (ANG I).ml-1.3 h-1, and cortisol increased from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 4.0 +/- 0.7 micrograms/dl. When the hemorrhage was repeated during acute CNB, plasma AVP increased from 2.8 +/- 1.6 to 185 +/- 59 pg/ml, PRA increased from 0.44 +/- 0.14 to 2.24 +/- 0.27 ng ANG I.ml-1.3 h-1, and cortisol increased from 1.9 +/- 0.3 to 5.4 +/- 0.6 micrograms/dl, and none of the increases differed significantly from the responses during the control hemorrhage. Left atrial pressure fell significantly after removal of 6 ml/kg of blood, but mean arterial pressure was maintained at control levels until blood loss reached 20 ml/kg during pericardial infusion of either saline or procaine. The declines in MAP at the 30 ml/kg level of hemorrhage in both treatments were similar. These results demonstrate that acutely blocking input from cardiac receptors does not reduce the increases in plasma AVP, cortisol, and PRA in response to a 30 ml/kg hemorrhage. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that input from cardiac receptors is required for a normal AVP response to hemorrhage and suggest that other receptors, presumably arterial baroreceptors, can stimulate AVP and cortisol secretion in the absence of signals from the heart.

  16. Muscarinic contribution to the acute cortical effects of vagus nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Justin A.

    2011-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve (VNS) has been used to treat more than 60,000 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and is under investigation as a treatment for several other neurological disorders and conditions. Among these, VNS increases memory performance and enhances recovery of motor and cognitive function in animal models of traumatic brain injury. Recent research indicates that pairing brief VNS with tones multiple-times a day for several weeks induces long-term, input specific cortical plasticity, which can be used to re-normalize the pathological cortical reorganization and eliminate a behavioral correlate of chronic tinnitus in noise exposed rats. Despite the therapeutic potential, the mechanisms of action of VNS remain speculative. In chapter 2 of this dissertation, the acute effects of VNS on cortical synchrony, excitability, and temporal processing are examined. In anesthetized rats implanted with multi-electrode arrays, VNS increased and decorrelated spontaneous multi-unit activity, and suppressed entrainment to repetitive noise burst stimulation at 6 to 8 Hz, but not after systemic administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Chapter 3 focuses on VNS-tone pairing induced cortical plasticity. Pairing VNS with a tone one hundred times in anesthetized rats resulted in frequency specific plasticity in 31% of the auditory cortex sites. Half of these sites exhibited a frequency specific increase in firing rate and half exhibited a frequency specific decrease. Muscarinic receptor blockade with scopolamine almost entirely prevented the frequency specific increases, but not decreases. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate the capacity for VNS to not only acutely influence cortical synchrony, and excitability, but to also influence temporal and spectral tuning via muscarinic receptor activation. These results strengthen the hypothesis that acetylcholine and muscarinic receptors are involved in the mechanisms of action of VNS and

  17. Sodium- and energy-dependent uptake of myo-inositol by rabbit peripheral nerve. Competitive inhibition by glucose and lack of an insulin effect.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, D A; Lattimer, S A

    1982-01-01

    Experimental diabetes consistently reduces the concentration of free myo-inositol in peripheral nerve, which usually exceeds that of plasma by 90-100-fold. This phenomenon has been explicitly linked to the impairment of nerve conduction in the acutely diabetic streptozocin-treated rat. However, the mechanism by which acute experimental diabetes lowers nerve myo-inositol content and presumably alters nerve myo-inositol content and presumably alters nerve myo-inositol metabolism is unknown. Therefore, the effects of insulin and elevated medium glucose concentration of 2-[3H]myo-inositol uptake were studied in a metabolically-defined in vitro peripheral nerve tissue preparation derived from rabbit sciatic nerve, whose free myo-inositol content is reduced by experimental diabetes. The results demonstrate that myo-inositol uptake occurs by at least two distinct transport systems in the normal endoneurial preparation. A sodium- and energy-dependent saturable transport system is responsible for at least 94% of the measured uptake at medium myo-inositol concentrations approximating that present in plasma. This carrier-mediated transport system has a high affinity for myo-inositol (Kt = 63 microM), and is not influenced acutely by physiological concentrations of insulin; it is, however, inhibited by hyperglycemic concentrations of glucose added to the incubation medium in a primarily competitive fashion. Thus, competitive inhibition of peripheral nerve myo-inositol uptake by glucose may constitute a mechanism by which diabetes produces physiologically significant alterations in peripheral nerve myo-inositol metabolism. PMID:6813354

  18. The effect of aging on the density of the sensory nerve fiber innervation of bone and acute skeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M.; Mantyh, William G.; Bloom, Aaron P.; Freeman, Katie T.; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2010-01-01

    As humans age there is a decline in most sensory systems including vision, hearing, taste, smell, and tactile acuity. In contrast, the frequency and severity of musculoskeletal pain generally increases with age. To determine whether the density of sensory nerve fibers that transduce skeletal pain changes with age, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200) sensory nerve fibers that innervate the femur were examined in the femurs of young (4 month old), middle-aged (13 month) and old (36 month) male F344/BNF1 rats. Whereas the bone quality showed a significant age-related decline, the density of CGRP+ and NF200+ nerve fibers that innervate the bone remained remarkably unchanged as well as the severity of acute skeletal fracture pain. Thus, while bone mass, quality and strength undergo a significant decline with age, the density of sensory nerve fibers that transduce noxious stimuli remain largely intact. These data may in part explain why musculoskeletal pain increases with age. PMID:20947214

  19. Using Eggshell Membrane as Nerve Guide Channels in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Farjah, Gholam Hossein; Heshmatian, Behnam; Karimipour, Mojtaba; Saberi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to evaluate the final outcome of nerve regeneration across the eggsell membrane (ESM) tube conduit in comparison with autograft. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male rats (250-300 g) were randomized into (1) ESM conduit, (2) autograft, and (3) sham surgery groups. The eggs submerged in 5% acetic acid. The decalcifying membranes were cut into four pieces, rotated over the teflon mandrel and dried at 37°C. The left sciatic nerve was surgically cut. A 10-mm nerve segment was cut and removed. In the ESM group, the proximal and distal cut ends of the sciatic nerve were telescoped into the nerve guides. In the autograft group, the 10 mm nerve segment was reversed and used as an autologous nerve graft. All animals were evaluated by sciatic functional index (SFI) and electrophysiology testing. Results: The improvement in SFI from the first to the last evalution in ESM and autograft groups were evaluated. On days 49 and 60 post-operation, the mean SFI of ESM group was significantly greater than the autograft group (P< 0.05). On day 90, the mean nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of ESM group was greater than autograft group, although the difference was not statistically significant (P> 0.05). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that ESM effectively enhances nerve regeneration and promotes functional recovery in injured sciatic nerve of rat. PMID:24106593

  20. Postpartum septic sacroiliitis misdiagnosed as sciatic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Qing; Li, Fang-Cai; Wang, Jia-Wei; Wang, Shuang

    2010-03-01

    Early diagnosis of septic sacroiliitis is difficult because symptoms are nonspecific, especially during pregnancy and the postpartum period. We describe a female patient with left buttock pain radiating down the thigh after an uncomplicated induction delivery. She was afebrile and had no apparent abnormality on pelvic x-ray or computed tomography scan. A sensory deficit in the lateral portion of her left lower limb was found, and electromyography showed neurogenic abnormalities in the left lower limb. She was initially misdiagnosed as sciatic neuropathy. As her symptoms worsened, septic sacroiliitis is considered. Bone scintigraphy showed increased Tc-methylene diphosphonate uptake in the left sacroiliac joint, and magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a signal abnormality in the left sacroiliac joint. The diagnosis of septic sacroiliitis was then confirmed by the rapid efficacy of antibiotic therapy. This report suggests that irritation and injury of spinal nerves can be the presenting signs in septic sacroiliitis. PMID:20090512

  1. Sciatic neuropathy secondary to a uterine fibroid: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bodack, M P; Cole, J C; Nagler, W

    1999-01-01

    Lesions of the sciatic nerve outside the pelvis have been well described. Lesions within the pelvis, however, are far less common. We report the case of a 55-yr-old woman with a history of chronic low back pain who presented with progressive right buttock and posterolateral right lower limb pain associated with right foot numbness and tingling. She denied any associated low back or left lower limb pain. The patient was initially treated for a probable right lumbosacral radiculopathy, without improvement. A subsequent magnetic resonance image of the lumbosacral spine revealed multilevel disc degeneration at L3-4 through L5-S1, without disc herniation or canal stenosis. A magnetic resonance image of the pelvis revealed a markedly enlarged uterus, with a large pedunculated myoma impinging on the right sciatic foramen. The patient underwent a subtotal abdominal hysterectomy, with resolution of her right lower limb pain. This case illustrates the importance of considering intrapelvic causes of sciatic neuropathy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of sciatic neuropathy secondary to a uterine fibroid. PMID:10088591

  2. Effects of subacute pretreatment with carbamate together with acute adjunct pretreatment against nerve agent exposure. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Harris, L.W.; Lennox, W.J.; Solana, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    Acute carbamate pretreatment, in conjunction with atropine pretreatment or followed by atropine and oxime therapy has been shown to protect rabbits, rats, guinea pigs and monkeys against multiple lethal doses of soman. In those experiments, pretreated animals were usually challenged with soman at the time of peak whole blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by the carbamate or when the concentration of carbamate in the blood was expected to be rapidly diminishing. However, soldiers in a chemical environment, having taken carbamate orally might well be exposed to nerve agent shortly thereafter. Thus, both active carbamate and nerve agent would be entering the blood simultaneously. In a recent study it was reported that subacute administration of physostigmine (Phy), via subcutaneously implanted 28 day osmotic minipump, afforded protection against an iv challenge of soman on the 27th day.

  3. Solitary ischial osteochondroma: an unusual cause of sciatic pain: case report☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; Silva, Paulo; do Amaral, Rogério Andrade; Ramos, Frederico Faleiro; Silva, Rômulo Orlando; de Freitas, Diogo Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to report on a rare case of osteochondroma of the left ischium, which evolved with compression of the sciatic nerve, thus causing sciatic pain in the homolateral lower limb. The patient was female and presented sciatic pain that was treated clinically for one year. However, the pain evolved with increasing intensity and worsened with hip movement. This was associated with diminished motor force and paresthesia of the homolateral lower limb. Radiological investigation of the region showed a bone lesion in the external portion of the left ischium, in the path of the sciatic nerve. Tomographic reconstruction showed cortical continuity with the bone of origin, i.e., a pattern characteristic of osteochondroma. En-bloc resection of the lesion was performed using the Kocher-Langerbeck route, and the anatomopathological analysis proved that it was an osteochondroma. The patient's neurological symptoms improved and, after two months of follow-up, she remained asymptomatic and without any signs of recurrence. Since osteochondroma is the commonest benign bone tumor, it should be taken into consideration in the diagnostic investigation of compressive tumor lesions that could affect the sciatic nerve. PMID:26229819

  4. T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia presenting with sudden onset right oculomotor nerve palsy with normal neuroradiography and cerebrospinal fluid studies

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; Naqi, Muniba; Bartaula, Rajiv; Murukutla, Srujitha; Misra, Sulagna; Popalzai, Muhammad; Paramanathan, Kavitha; Dai, Qun

    2012-01-01

    Leptomeningeal disease presenting with neurological dysfunction is not uncommon in leukaemia. However, it is often accompanied by abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies and/or neuroradiography. Here, the authors describe a case of a young patient presenting with sudden onset right oculomotor nerve palsy with normal neuroradiography and CSF studies, who was subsequently diagnosed to have T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). This case highlights that neurological manifestations can be the initial presenting feature of T-ALL and can occur suddenly despite normal neuroradiography and initial CSF studies. PMID:22605802

  5. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies presenting with sciatic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Topakian, Raffi; Wimmer, Sibylle; Pischinger, Barbara; Pichler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal-dominant disorder associated with recurrent mononeuropathies following compression or trivial trauma. Reports on sciatic neuropathy as the presenting manifestation of HNPP are very scarce. We report on a 21-year-old previously healthy man who was admitted with sensorimotor deficits in his left leg. He had no history of preceding transient episodes of weakness or sensory loss. Clinical and electrophysiological examinations were consistent with sciatic neuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid investigation and MRI of the nerve roots, plexus, and sciatic nerve did not indicate the underlying aetiology. When extended electrophysiological tests revealed multiple subclinical compression neuropathies in the upper limbs, HNPP was contemplated and eventually confirmed by genetic testing. PMID:25326571

  6. Pediatric sciatic neuropathy presenting as painful leg: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Manish; Babiker, Mohamed; Rao, Ganesh; Rittey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Mononeuropathies, in general, are very uncommon in childhood. Sciatic neuropathy (SN) is probably underappreciated in childhood and likely to represent nearly one quarter of childhood mononeuropathies. Materials and Methods: We present a 7-year-old girl who presented with painful right lower limb and abnormal gait. Detailed investigation revealed transient eosinophilia, abnormal neurophysiology, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggestive of isolated sciatic neuropathy. Results: She has responded very well to physiotherapy and has made a complete motor recovery, although she is left with an area of abnormal sensation affecting the lateral border of her right leg and the dorsum of her foot. Discussion: Differential diagnoses for pediatric SN have been discussed including compressive neuropathies in children and various hyper-eosinophilia syndromes. Compressive neuropathies in childhood are very rare and compression of the sciatic nerve is the second most common group after peroneal nerve lesion. PMID:24082941

  7. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve: A cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a three-year-old child: A case report and comprehensive literature review

    PubMed Central

    Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Classen, Dale; Bruce, Garth; Kanthan, Rani

    2014-01-01

    A three-year-old boy was investigated for inexplicable incessant crying. On examination, his left wrist was mildly swollen (three to four months) and sensitive. Exploration and carpal tunnel decompression of the left wrist with incisional biopsy was performed for the presence of a fusiform swelling intimately associated with the median nerve. Histopathology revealed the presence of enlarged nerve bundles admixed with mature fat cells and diffuse fibroblastic proliferation. Three months later, he underwent urgent contralateral carpal tunnel decompression for a similar presentation. The final diagnosis was bilateral fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) of the median nerves causing acute bilateral compression neuropathy. FLH of the median nerve is an extremely unusual cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a young child presenting with ‘incessant crying’. A comprehensive review of FLH including epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, imaging, pathology, treatment and prognosis is discussed. PMID:25332651

  8. Edaravone promotes functional recovery after mechanical peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Li, Zhengwei; Dong, Jianli; Nan, Feng; Li, Tao; Yu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone has been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced peripheral nerve injury. However, the therapeutic effect of edaravone on peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors is unknown. In the present study, we established a peripheral nerve injury model by crushing the sciatic nerve using hemostatic forceps, and then administered edaravone 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The sciatic functional index and superoxide dismutase activity of the sciatic nerve were increased, and the malondialdehyde level was decreased in animals in the edaravone group compared with those in the model group. Bcl-2 expression was increased, but Bax expression was decreased in anterior horn cells of the L4-6 spinal cord segments. These results indicated that edaravone has a neuroprotective effect following peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors through alleviating free radical damage to cells and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, as well as regulating apoptosis-related protein expression. PMID:25374594

  9. Magnetic stimulation of peripheral nerves in dogs: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Soens, Iris Van; Polis, Ingeborgh E; Nijs, Jozef X; Struys, Michel M; Bhatti, Sofie F; Ham, Luc M Van

    2008-11-01

    A model for magnetic stimulation of the radial and sciatic nerves in dogs was evaluated. Onset-latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes of magnetic and electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve were compared, and the effect of the direction of the current in the magnetic coil on onset-latencies and peak-to-peak amplitude of the magnetic motor evoked potential was studied in both nerves. The results demonstrate that magnetic stimulation is a feasible method for stimulating the radial and sciatic nerves in dogs. No significant differences were observed in onset-latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes during magnetic and electrical stimulation, indicating conformity between the techniques. Orthodromic or antidromic magnetic nerve stimulation resulted in no significant differences. This pilot study demonstrates the potential of magnetic stimulation of nerves in dogs. PMID:17869140

  10. Temporal Analysis of Gene Expression in the Murine Schwann Cell Lineage and the Acutely Injured Postnatal Nerve.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Anjali; Stykel, Morgan G; Touahri, Yacine; Stratton, Jo Anne; Biernaskie, Jeff; Schuurmans, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) arise from neural crest cells (NCCs) that first give rise to SC precursors (SCPs), followed by immature SCs, pro-myelinating SCs, and finally, non-myelinating or myelinating SCs. After nerve injury, mature SCs 'de-differentiate', downregulating their myelination program while transiently re-activating early glial lineage genes. To better understand molecular parallels between developing and de-differentiated SCs, we characterized the expression profiles of a panel of 12 transcription factors from the onset of NCC migration through postnatal stages, as well as after acute nerve injury. Using Sox10 as a pan-glial marker in co-expression studies, the earliest transcription factors expressed in E9.0 Sox10+ NCCs were Sox9, Pax3, AP2α and Nfatc4. E10.5 Sox10+ NCCs coalescing in the dorsal root ganglia differed slightly, expressing Sox9, Pax3, AP2α and Etv5. E12.5 SCPs continued to express Sox10, Sox9, AP2α and Pax3, as well as initiating Sox2 and Egr1 expression. E14.5 immature SCs were similar to SCPs, except that they lost Pax3 expression. By E18.5, AP2α, Sox2 and Egr1 expression was turned off in the nerve, while Jun, Oct6 and Yy1 expression was initiated in pro-myelinating Sox9+/Sox10+ SCs. Early postnatal and adult SCs continued to express Sox9, Jun, Oct6 and Yy1 and initiated Nfatc4 and Egr2 expression. Notably, at all stages, expression of each marker was observed only in a subset of Sox10+ SCs, highlighting the heterogeneity of the SC pool. Following acute nerve injury, Egr1, Jun, Oct6, and Sox2 expression was upregulated, Egr2 expression was downregulated, while Sox9, Yy1, and Nfatc4 expression was maintained at similar frequencies. Notably, de-differentiated SCs in the injured nerve did not display a transcription factor profile corresponding to a specific stage in the SC lineage. Taken together, we demonstrate that uninjured and injured SCs are heterogeneous and distinct from one another, and de-differentiation recapitulates

  11. Temporal Analysis of Gene Expression in the Murine Schwann Cell Lineage and the Acutely Injured Postnatal Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Touahri, Yacine; Stratton, Jo Anne; Biernaskie, Jeff; Schuurmans, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) arise from neural crest cells (NCCs) that first give rise to SC precursors (SCPs), followed by immature SCs, pro-myelinating SCs, and finally, non-myelinating or myelinating SCs. After nerve injury, mature SCs ‘de-differentiate’, downregulating their myelination program while transiently re-activating early glial lineage genes. To better understand molecular parallels between developing and de-differentiated SCs, we characterized the expression profiles of a panel of 12 transcription factors from the onset of NCC migration through postnatal stages, as well as after acute nerve injury. Using Sox10 as a pan-glial marker in co-expression studies, the earliest transcription factors expressed in E9.0 Sox10+ NCCs were Sox9, Pax3, AP2α and Nfatc4. E10.5 Sox10+ NCCs coalescing in the dorsal root ganglia differed slightly, expressing Sox9, Pax3, AP2α and Etv5. E12.5 SCPs continued to express Sox10, Sox9, AP2α and Pax3, as well as initiating Sox2 and Egr1 expression. E14.5 immature SCs were similar to SCPs, except that they lost Pax3 expression. By E18.5, AP2α, Sox2 and Egr1 expression was turned off in the nerve, while Jun, Oct6 and Yy1 expression was initiated in pro-myelinating Sox9+/Sox10+ SCs. Early postnatal and adult SCs continued to express Sox9, Jun, Oct6 and Yy1 and initiated Nfatc4 and Egr2 expression. Notably, at all stages, expression of each marker was observed only in a subset of Sox10+ SCs, highlighting the heterogeneity of the SC pool. Following acute nerve injury, Egr1, Jun, Oct6, and Sox2 expression was upregulated, Egr2 expression was downregulated, while Sox9, Yy1, and Nfatc4 expression was maintained at similar frequencies. Notably, de-differentiated SCs in the injured nerve did not display a transcription factor profile corresponding to a specific stage in the SC lineage. Taken together, we demonstrate that uninjured and injured SCs are heterogeneous and distinct from one another, and de-differentiation recapitulates

  12. Workup and Management of Persistent Neuralgia following Nerve Block

    PubMed Central

    Weyker, Paul David; Webb, Christopher Allen-John; Pham, Thoha M.

    2016-01-01

    Neurological injuries following peripheral nerve blocks are a relatively rare yet potentially devastating complication depending on the type of lesion, affected extremity, and duration of symptoms. Medical management continues to be the treatment modality of choice with multimodal nonopioid analgesics as the cornerstone of this therapy. We report the case of a 28-year-old man who developed a clinical common peroneal and lateral sural cutaneous neuropathy following an uncomplicated popliteal sciatic nerve block. Workup with electrodiagnostic studies and magnetic resonance neurography revealed injury to both the femoral and sciatic nerves. Diagnostic studies and potential mechanisms for nerve injury are discussed. PMID:26904304

  13. Total Hip Arthroplasty Complicated by a Gluteal Hematoma Resulting in Acute Foot Drop.

    PubMed

    Khattar, Nicolas K; Parry, Phillip V; Agarwal, Nitin; George, Hope K; Kretz, Eric S; Larkin, Timothy M; Gruen, Gary S; Abla, Adnan A

    2016-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is a prevalent orthopedic intervention in the United States. Massive postoperative hematomas are a rare albeit serious complication of the procedure. Sequelae of these hematomas can include lower extremity paralysis from compression of the sciatic nerve. A 66-year-old woman taking aspirin and clopidogrel for coronary stents presented with a complete foot drop, paresthesias, and lower extremity pain 10 days after a total hip arthroplasty. The patient was initially seen by a neurology service at another hospital and thought to have lateral recess stenosis. At the authors' center, magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine failed to show lateral recess stenosis. Urgent pelvic computed tomography showed a large hematoma and raised suspicion of sciatic nerve compression. Hip magnetic resonance imaging showed a right gluteal hematoma compressing the sciatic nerve. The patient was then taken to the operating room for the clot to be evacuated and was later referred for rehabilitation. Massive hematomas after total hip arthroplasty are an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of nontraumatic acute foot drop. Prompt diagnosis may correlate with improved neurological outcome and help reduce overall morbidity. PMID:26966944

  14. Acute necrosis after Gamma Knife surgery in vestibular schwannoma leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies.

    PubMed

    Kapitza, Sandra; Pangalu, Athina; Horstmann, Gerhard A; van Eck, Albert T; Regli, Luca; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2016-08-01

    We discuss a rare acute complication after Gamma Knife therapy (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) in a single patient. A 52-year-old woman presented with vertigo, facial weakness and hearing loss emerging 48hours following Gamma Knife radiosurgery for a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Neurological examination 6days after symptom onset showed right-sided facial palsy, spontaneous left-beating nystagmus and pathologic head-impulse testing to the right. Pure-tone audiogram revealed right-sided sensorineural hearing loss. A diagnosis of acute vestibulocochlear and facial neuropathy was made. Brain MRI demonstrated focal contrast sparing within the schwannoma, likely related to acute radiation necrosis. Acute multiple cranial neuropathies of the cerebellopontine angle after Gamma Knife treatment should raise suspicion of acute tissue damage within the schwannoma and should result in urgent MRI. Treatment with steroids may be considered based on accompanying swelling and edema. PMID:26947104

  15. Arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming or repair under nerve blocks: Which nerves should be blocked?

    PubMed Central

    Taha, AM; Abd-Elmaksoud, AM

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the role of the sciatic and obturator nerve blocks (in addition to femoral block) in providing painless arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming/repair. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with medial meniscus tear, who had been scheduled to knee arthroscopy, were planned to be included in this controlled prospective double-blind study. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups; FSO, FS, and FO. The femoral, sciatic, and obturator nerves were blocked in FSO groups. The femoral and sciatic nerves were blocked in FS group, while the femoral and obturator nerves were blocked in FO group. Intraoperative pain and its causative surgical maneuver were recorded. Results: All the patients (n = 7, 100%) in FO group had intraoperative pain. The research was terminated in this group but completed in FS and FSO groups (40 patients each). During valgus positioning of the knee for surgical management of the medial meniscus tear, the patients in FS group experienced pain more frequently than those in FSO group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Adding a sciatic nerve block to the femoral nerve block is important for painless knee arthroscopy. Further adding of an obturator nerve block may be needed when a valgus knee position is required to manage the medial meniscus tear. PMID:27375382

  16. Selective control of muscle activation with a multipolar nerve cuff electrode.

    PubMed

    Veraart, C; Grill, W M; Mortimer, J T

    1993-07-01

    Acute experiments were performed on adult cats to study selective activation of medial gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, and extensor digitorum longus with a cuff electrode. A spiral nerve cuff containing twelve "dot" electrodes was implanted around the sciatic nerve and evoked muscle twitch forces were recorded in six experiments. Spatially isolated "dot" electrodes in four geometries: monopolar, longitudinal tripolar, tripolar with four common anodes, and two parallel tripoles, were combined with transverse field steering current(s) from an anode(s) located 180 degrees around from the cathode(s) to activate different regions of the nerve trunk. To quantify the degree of selectivity, a selectivity index was defined as the ratio of the force in one muscle to the force in all four muscles in response to a particular stimulus. The selectivity index was used to construct recruitment curves for a muscle with the optimal degree of selectivity. Physiological responses were correlated with the anatomical structure of the sciatic nerve by identifying the nerve fascicles innervating the four muscles, and by determining the relative positions of the electrodes and the nerve fascicles. The results indicated that the use of transverse field steering current improved selectivity. We also found that tripoles with individual dot anodes were more selective than tripoles with four common dot anodes. Stimulation with two parallel tripoles was effective in activating selectively fascicles that could not be activated selectively with only a single tripole. The multipolar cuff proved an effective method to control selectively and progressively the force in muscles innervated by fascicles that were well defined at the level of the cuff. PMID:8244425

  17. High sensitivity recording of afferent nerve activity using ultra-compliant microchannel electrodes: an acute in vivo validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minev, Ivan R.; Chew, Daniel J.; Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Fawcett, James W.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2012-04-01

    Neuroprostheses interfaced with transected peripheral nerves are technological routes to control robotic limbs as well as convey sensory feedback to patients suffering from traumatic neural injuries or degenerative diseases. To maximize the wealth of data obtained in recordings, interfacing devices are required to have intrafascicular resolution and provide high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) recordings. In this paper, we focus on a possible building block of a three-dimensional regenerative implant: a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel electrode capable of highly sensitive recordings in vivo. The PDMS 'micro-cuff' consists of a 3.5 mm long (100 µm × 70 µm cross section) microfluidic channel equipped with five evaporated Ti/Au/Ti electrodes of sub-100 nm thickness. Individual electrodes have average impedance of 640 ± 30 kΩ with a phase angle of -58 ± 1 degrees at 1 kHz and survive demanding mechanical handling such as twisting and bending. In proof-of-principle acute implantation experiments in rats, surgically teased afferent nerve strands from the L5 dorsal root were threaded through the microchannel. Tactile stimulation of the skin was reliably monitored with the three inner electrodes in the device, simultaneously recording signal amplitudes of up to 50 µV under saline immersion. The overall SNR was approximately 4. A small but consistent time lag between the signals arriving at the three electrodes was observed and yields a fibre conduction velocity of 30 m s-1. The fidelity of the recordings was verified by placing the same nerve strand in oil and recording activity with hook electrodes. Our results show that PDMS microchannel electrodes open a promising technological path to 3D regenerative interfaces.

  18. High sensitivity recording of afferent nerve activity using ultra-compliant microchannel electrodes: an acute in vivo validation.

    PubMed

    Minev, Ivan R; Chew, Daniel J; Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Fawcett, James W; Lacour, Stéphanie P

    2012-04-01

    Neuroprostheses interfaced with transected peripheral nerves are technological routes to control robotic limbs as well as convey sensory feedback to patients suffering from traumatic neural injuries or degenerative diseases. To maximize the wealth of data obtained in recordings, interfacing devices are required to have intrafascicular resolution and provide high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) recordings. In this paper, we focus on a possible building block of a three-dimensional regenerative implant: a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel electrode capable of highly sensitive recordings in vivo. The PDMS 'micro-cuff' consists of a 3.5 mm long (100 µm × 70 µm cross section) microfluidic channel equipped with five evaporated Ti/Au/Ti electrodes of sub-100 nm thickness. Individual electrodes have average impedance of 640 ± 30 kΩ with a phase angle of -58 ± 1 degrees at 1 kHz and survive demanding mechanical handling such as twisting and bending. In proof-of-principle acute implantation experiments in rats, surgically teased afferent nerve strands from the L5 dorsal root were threaded through the microchannel. Tactile stimulation of the skin was reliably monitored with the three inner electrodes in the device, simultaneously recording signal amplitudes of up to 50 µV under saline immersion. The overall SNR was approximately 4. A small but consistent time lag between the signals arriving at the three electrodes was observed and yields a fibre conduction velocity of 30 m s(-1). The fidelity of the recordings was verified by placing the same nerve strand in oil and recording activity with hook electrodes. Our results show that PDMS microchannel electrodes open a promising technological path to 3D regenerative interfaces. PMID:22328617

  19. Differential diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome in a patient with acute paresis of the abducens and oculomotor nerves.

    PubMed

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Roos, Justus E; Portocarrero-Fäh, Bettina; Reischauer, Carolin; Claas, Lulian; Gassmann, Karin; Hergan, Klaus; Kos, Sebastian; Rodic, Biliana; Winkler, Kerstin; Karrer, Urs; Sartoretti-Schefer, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is characterized by anaerobic septicemia, internal jugular vein thrombosis, and septic emboli associated with infections of the head and neck. We describe an unusual and clinically confusing case of a young woman with an acute paresis of the abducens nerve and partial paresis of the right oculomotor nerve. After an extensive imaging diagnostic procedure, we also documented a peritonsillar abscess and various types of thromboses in intracranial and extracranial veins. Furthermore, we found brain and lung abscesses, which led us to establish the diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome. Despite intensive anti-coagulation and antibiotic therapy, the patient developed a mycotic aneurysm in the right internal carotid artery directly adjacent to the previously thrombosed cavernous sinus. In summary, we were able to confirm that Lemierre's syndrome may occur in conjunction with uncharacteristic symptoms. Due to the sometimes confusing clinical symptoms as well as clinical and radiological specialties, we had to work on an interdisciplinary basis to minimize the delay prior to establishing the diagnosis and therapy. PMID:23730118

  20. Differential Diagnosis of Lemierre's Syndrome in a Patient with Acute Paresis of the Abducens and Oculomotor Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Justus E.; Portocarrero-Fäh, Bettina; Reischauer, Carolin; Claas, Lulian; Gassmann, Karin; Hergan, Klaus; Kos, Sebastian; Rodic, Biliana; Winkler, Kerstin; Karrer, Urs; Sartoretti-Schefer, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is characterized by anaerobic septicemia, internal jugular vein thrombosis, and septic emboli associated with infections of the head and neck. We describe an unusual and clinically confusing case of a young woman with an acute paresis of the abducens nerve and partial paresis of the right oculomotor nerve. After an extensive imaging diagnostic procedure, we also documented a peritonsillar abscess and various types of thromboses in intracranial and extracranial veins. Furthermore, we found brain and lung abscesses, which led us to establish the diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome. Despite intensive anti-coagulation and antibiotic therapy, the patient developed a mycotic aneurysm in the right internal carotid artery directly adjacent to the previously thrombosed cavernous sinus. In summary, we were able to confirm that Lemierre's syndrome may occur in conjunction with uncharacteristic symptoms. Due to the sometimes confusing clinical symptoms as well as clinical and radiological specialties, we had to work on an interdisciplinary basis to minimize the delay prior to establishing the diagnosis and therapy. PMID:23730118

  1. In vivo integration of poly(ε-caprolactone)/gelatin nanofibrous nerve guide seeded with teeth derived stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Mohammad-Hossein; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Karbalaie, Khadijeh; Azadeh, Hamid; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad-Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Artificial nanofiber nerve guides have gained huge interest in bridging nerve gaps and associated peripheral nerve regeneration due to its high surface area, flexibility and porous structure. In this study, electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone)/gelatin (PCL/Gel) nanofibrous mats were fabricated, rolled around a copper wire and fixed by medical grade adhesive to obtain a tubular shaped bio-graft, to bridge 10 mm sciatic nerve gap in in vivo rat models. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth (SHED) were transplanted to the site of nerve injury through the nanofibrous nerve guides. In vivo experiments were performed in animal models after creating a sciatic nerve gap, such that the nerve gap was grafted using (i) nanofiber nerve guide (ii) nanofiber nerve guide seeded with SHED (iii) suturing, while an untreated nerve gap remained as the negative control. In vitro cell culture study was carried out for primary investigation of SHED-nanofiber interaction and its viability within the nerve guides after 2 and 16 weeks of implantation time. Walking track analysis, plantar test, electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate functional recovery during nerve regeneration. Vascularization was also investigated by hematoxilin/eosine (H&E) staining. Overall results showed that the SHED seeded on nanofibrous nerve guide could survive and promote axonal regeneration in rat sciatic nerves, whereby the biocompatible PCL/Gel nerve guide with cells can support axonal regeneration and could be a promising tissue engineered graft for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:24677613

  2. Preventive Effects of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Prescription Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities on Sciatic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengsong; Bian, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hong; Jia, Aiming

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia and hypoxia are important physiological changes in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Chinese herbal medicine prescription Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities (TDFE) is useful for increasing blood flow. To help determine whether TDFE could protect the peripheral nerves of diabetic patients from the degeneration caused by high blood glucose, TDFE was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 6 or 12 weeks. Plantar thermal stimulation reaction time thresholds, sciatic nerve conduction velocities, and the levels of HIF-1α mRNA, HIF-1α protein, VEGF protein, and the endothelial marker vWF in sciatic nerves were measured at the end of the sixth and twelfth weeks. The thermal thresholds and sciatic nerve conduction velocities of the rats differed after 12 weeks, and the sciatic nerves of the diabetic rats that were given TDFE displayed higher levels of HIF-1α protein, VEGF protein, and HIF-1α mRNA than those of the diabetic model rats. The results at 6 weeks differed from those at 12 weeks. These results suggest that the early preventive application of TDFE effectively delayed the development of DPN and that TDFE increased HIF-1α mRNA levels in the sciatic nerves of diabetic rats through 12 weeks of treatment. PMID:27057201

  3. Effect of acute high-intensity resistance exercise on optic nerve sheath diameter and ophthalmic artery blood flow pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Lefferts, W K; Hughes, W E; Heffernan, K S

    2015-12-01

    Exertional hypertension associated with acute high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) increases both intravascular and intracranial pressure (ICP), maintaining cerebrovascular transmural pressure. Carotid intravascular pressure pulsatility remains elevated after RE. Whether ICP also remains elevated after acute RE in an attempt to maintain the vessel wall transmural pressure is unknown. Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), a valid proxy of ICP, was measured in 20 participants (6 female; 24 ± 4 yr, 24.2 ± 3.9 kg m(-)(2)) at rest (baseline), following a time-control condition, and following RE (5 sets, 5 repetition maximum bench press, 5 sets 10 repetition maximum biceps curls) using ultrasound. Additionally, intracranial hemodynamic pulsatility index (PI) was assessed in the ophthalmic artery (OA) by using Doppler. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was obtained from synthesized aortic pressure waveforms obtained via a brachial oscillometric cuff and carotid pulse pressure was measured by using applanation tonometry. Aortic PWV (5.2 ± 0.5-6.0 ± 0.7 m s(-1), P < 0.05) and carotid pulse pressure (45 ± 17-59 ± 19 mm Hg, P < 0.05) were significantly elevated post RE compared with baseline. There were no significant changes in ONSD (5.09 ± 0.7-5.09 ± 0.7 mm, P > 0.05) or OA flow PI (1.35 ± 0.2-1.38 ± 0.3, P > 0.05) following acute RE. In conclusion, during recovery from acute high-intensity RE, there are increases in aortic stiffness and extracranial pressure pulsatility in the absence of changes in ICP and flow pulsatility. These findings may have implications for alterations in cerebral transmural pressure and cerebral aneurysmal wall stress following RE. PMID:25739332

  4. Stem cell salvage of injured peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Grimoldi, Nadia; Colleoni, Federica; Tiberio, Francesca; Vetrano, Ignazio G; Cappellari, Alberto; Costa, Antonella; Belicchi, Marzia; Razini, Paola; Giordano, Rosaria; Spagnoli, Diego; Pluderi, Mauro; Gatti, Stefano; Morbin, Michela; Gaini, Sergio M; Rebulla, Paolo; Bresolin, Nereo; Torrente, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    We previously developed a collagen tube filled with autologous skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) for bridging long rat sciatic nerve gaps. Here we present a case report describing a compassionate use of this graft for repairing the polyinjured motor and sensory nerves of the upper arms of a patient. Preclinical assessment was performed with collagen/SDSC implantation in rats after sectioning the sciatic nerve. For the patient, during the 3-year follow-up period, functional recovery of injured median and ulnar nerves was assessed by pinch gauge test and static two-point discrimination and touch test with monofilaments, along with electrophysiological and MRI examinations. Preclinical experiments in rats revealed rescue of sciatic nerve and no side effects of patient-derived SDSC transplantation (30 and 180 days of treatment). In the patient treatment, motor and sensory functions of the median nerve demonstrated ongoing recovery postimplantation during the follow-up period. The results indicate that the collagen/SDSC artificial nerve graft could be used for surgical repair of larger defects in major lesions of peripheral nerves, increasing patient quality of life by saving the upper arms from amputation. PMID:24268028

  5. Progress of Flexible Electronics in Neural Interfacing - A Self-Adaptive Non-Invasive Neural Ribbon Electrode for Small Nerves Recording.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhuolin; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Sheshadri, Swathi; Wang, Jiahui; Lee, Sanghoon; Liu, Yu-Hang; Liao, Lun-De; Thakor, Nitish V; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-06-01

    A novel flexible neural ribbon electrode with a self-adaptive feature is successfully implemented for various small nerves recording. As a neural interface, the selective recording capability is characterized by having reliable signal acquisitions from the sciatic nerve and its branches such as the peroneal nerve, the tibial nerve, and the sural nerve. PMID:26568483

  6. Use new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nerve conduits provide a promising strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. However, the efficiency of nerve conduits to enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery is often inferior to that of autografts. Nerve conduits require additional factors such as cell adhesion molecules and neurotrophic factors to provide a more conducive microenvironment for nerve regeneration. Methods In the present study, poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]} (PLGL) was modified by grafting Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Gly (RGD peptide) and nerve growth factor (NGF) for fabricating new PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits to promote nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits were tested in the rat sciatic nerve transection model. Rat sciatic nerves were cut off to form a 10 mm defect and repaired with the nerve conduits. All of the 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group PLGL-RGD-NGF, group PLGL-RGD, group PLGL and group autograft. At 3 months after surgery, the regenerated rat sciatic nerve was evaluated by footprint analysis, electrophysiology, and histologic assessment. Experimental data were processed using the statistical software SPSS 10.0. Results The sciatic function index value of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft was significantly higher than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The nerve conduction velocities of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were significantly faster than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. The regenerated nerves of groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft were more mature than those of groups PLGL-RGD and PLGL. There was no significant difference between groups PLGL-RGD-NGF and autograft. Conclusions PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits are more effective in regenerating nerves than both PLGL-RGD nerve conduits and PLGL nerve conduits. The effect is as good as that of an autograft. This work established the platform for further development of the use of PLGL-RGD-NGF nerve conduits for clinical nerve repair

  7. Successful Reconstruction of Nerve Defects Using Distraction Neurogenesis with a New Experimental Device

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Mohamed Abdelhamid Ali; Dionigi, Paolo; Marconi, Stefania; Calligaro, Alberto; Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Alfonsi, Enrico; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Repair of peripheral nerve injuries is an intensive area of challenge and research in modern reconstructive microsurgery. Intensive research is being carried out to develop effective alternatives to the standard nerve autografting, avoiding its drawbacks. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly designed mechanical device for the reconstruction of the sciatic nerve in rats in comparison to nerve autografting and to assess the pain during the period of distraction neurogenesis. Methods: Fourteen Sprague Dawley rats were used and randomly assigned into 2 groups with 7 rats in each group; group A (Nerve Autografting group) in which a 10-mm segment of the sciatic nerve was resected and rotated 180 degrees, then primary end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed in the reverse direction; group B (Nerve Lengthening group) in which the mechanical device was inserted after surgical resection of 10 mm of the sciatic nerve, then secondary end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed after completing the nerve lengthening. Thirteen weeks later, assessment of the functional sciatic nerve recovery using static sciatic index (SSI) was performed. Furthermore, fourteen weeks after the nerve resection, assessment of the nerve regeneration with electrophysiological study and histological analysis were performed. Also, gastrocnemius wet weight was measured. For pain assessment in group B, Rat Grimace Scale (RGS) score was used. Results: Significantly better functional recovery rate (using the SSI) was reported in the nerve lengthening group in comparison to autografting group. Also, a statistically significant higher nerve conduction velocity was detected in the nerve lengthening group. On histological analysis of the distal nerve section at 3 mm distal to the nerve repair site, significant myelin sheath thickness was detected in the nerve lengthening group. Discussion: Distraction neurogenesis with the new experimental device is a reliable therapeutic

  8. A refined technique for sciatic denervation in a golden-mantled ground squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis) model of disuse atrophy.

    PubMed

    Sarukhanov, Valeri; Van Andel, Roger; Treat, Michael D; Utz, Jenifer C; van Breukelen, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Disuse atrophy of both muscle and bone can occur rapidly during periods of inactivity. In several rodent models developed for the study of disuse atrophy, immobilization is induced by prolonged cage restraint, hind limb unloading, tenotomy, sciatic nerve block or sciatic denervation. In less tractable species such as wild-caught hibernating rodents, the sciatic denervation model is superior in terms of both animal welfare and applicability to the characteristics of natural cases of disuse atrophy. The authors describe a refined surgical approach to sciatic denervation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), a hibernating species, that improves animal welfare and reduces the incidence of post-operative complications such as autotomy. PMID:24845006

  9. Effect of acute and chronic administration of L-tyrosine on nerve growth factor levels in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Jeremias, Isabela C; Scaini, Giselli; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Furlanetto, Camila B; Morais, Meline O; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-08-01

    Most inborn errors of tyrosine catabolism produce hypertyrosinemia. Neurological manifestations are variable and some patients are developmentally normal, while others show different degrees of developmental retardation. Considering that current data do not eliminate the possibility that elevated levels of tyrosine and/or its derivatives may have noxious effects on central nervous system development in some patients, the present study evaluated nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in hippocampus, striatum and posterior cortex of young rats. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed 1 h after a single intraperitoneal administration of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old); the rats were killed 12 h after the last injection. NGF levels were then evaluated. Our findings showed that acute administration of L-tyrosine decreased NGF levels in striatum of 10-day-old rats. In the 30-day-old rats, NGF levels were decreased in hippocampus and posterior cortex. On the other hand, chronic administration of L-tyrosine increased NGF levels in posterior cortex. Decreased NGF may impair growth, differentiation, survival and maintenance of neurons. PMID:23690230

  10. Distribution of sodium channels during nerve elongation in rat peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Harumitsu; Shiga, Takashi; Abe, Ichiro; Hara, Yuki; Terui, Naoto; Tsujino, Akihito; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated electrophysiological and morphological changes of peripheral nerves during gradual elongation. There has been, however, no report on the distribution of sodium channels at Ranvier's nodes during peripheral nerve elongation. We investigated peripheral nerve injury after the gradual elongation of rat sciatic nerves. Indirect nerve elongation was induced by leg lengthening at a rate of 3 mm/day by 15 or 30 mm. At 7 days after the leg lengthening, the electrophysiological properties of sciatic nerves, the ultrastructures of the Ranvier's nodes and axons, and the distribution of voltage-dependent sodium channels were examined. In the control nerves, most sodium channels were localized at Ranvier's nodes in myelinated axons, providing the physiological basis of saltatory conduction. In the elongated nerves, both the amplitude and conduction velocity of compound nerve action potential decreased following leg lengthening. The elongated nerves also showed paranodal demyelination in Ranvier's nodes longer than those in the control group. In addition, the distribution of sodium channels became diffuse or disappeared at Ranvier's nodes of elongated nerves. The diffuse distribution and/or disappearance of sodium channels may underlie the electrophysiological changes in compound nerve action potential induced by nerve elongation. PMID:15815871

  11. HINDBRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVE DYSMORPHOGENESIS RESULT FROM ACUTE MATERNAL ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute exposure of mouse embryos to ethanol during stages of hindbrain segmentation results in excessive cell death in specific cell populations. This study details the ethanol-induced cell loss and defines the subsequent effects of this early insult on rhombomere and cranial ner...

  12. Acute and chronic administration of the branched-chain amino acids decreases nerve growth factor in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Mello-Santos, Lis Mairá; Furlanetto, Camila B; Jeremias, Isabela C; Mina, Francielle; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Kist, Luiza W; Pereira, Talita C B; Bogo, Maurício R; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-12-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency of the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme complex branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding branched-chain α-keto acids. In this study, we examined the effects of acute and chronic administration of BCAA on protein levels and mRNA expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) considering that patients with MSUD present neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Considering previous observations, it is suggested that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of the neurological dysfunction of MSUD. We also investigated the influence of antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine) in order to verify the influence of oxidative stress in the modulation of NGF levels. Our results demonstrated decreased protein levels of NGF in the hippocampus after acute and chronic administration of BCAA. In addition, we showed a significant decrease in the expression of ngf in the hippocampus only following acute administration in 10-day-old rats. Interestingly, antioxidant treatment was able to prevent the decrease in NGF levels by increasing ngf expression. In conclusion, the results suggest that BCAA is involved in the regulation of NGF in the developing rat. Thus, it is possible that alteration of neurotrophin levels during brain maturation could be of pivotal importance in the impairment of cognition provoked by BCAA. Moreover, the decrease in NGF levels was prevented by antioxidant treatment, reinforcing that the hypothesis of oxidative stress can be an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying the brain damage observed in MSUD. PMID:23559405

  13. Damage patterns of retinal nerve fiber layer in acute and chronic intraocular pressure elevation in primary angle closure glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Li, Mei; Zhong, Yi-Min; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Jing-Jing; Kong, Xiang-Yun

    2010-01-01

    AIM To observe the differences of damage patterns of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) between acute and chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS Twenty-four patients (48 eyes) with unilateral acute PACG (APACG) attack in the 6 months after admission and 36 patients (64 eyes) with chronic PACG (CPACG) were included in this prospective study. For all cases, IOP has been controlled under 21mmHg after treatment. Using stratus OCT, the RNFL thickness was assessed in eyes with PACG within 3 days, 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 6 months after IOP was controlled. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the changes of RNFL thickness at different time after IOP being controlled in both acute attack eyes and unaffected fellow eyes of APACG and eyes with CPACG. RESULTS The mean RNFL thickness for the APACG-attacked eyes increased significantly within 3 days (121.49±23.84)µm after acute onset and then became thinner along with time [(107.22±24.72)µm at 2 weeks,(93.58±18.37)µm at 1 month, (84.10±19.89)µm at 3 months and (78.98±19.17)µm at 6 months]. In APACG-attacked eyes, there were significant differences of average RNFL thickness at 5 different times after IOP was controlled (P<0.001). In the APACG unaffected fellow eyes and CPACG eyes, there were no significant differences in mean RNFL thickness at 5 different times(F=0.450, P=0.104 in APACG unaffected fellow eyes and F=1.558, P=0.200 in CPACG eyes). There was significant difference for interaction between time periods and groups (F=1.912, P=0.003). CONCLUSION RNFL damage patterns are different under different IOP elevated courses. In APACG, RNFL was found to be swollen and thickening right after acute attack and then becomes thinning and atrophy along with the time, while RNFL was found to be diffused thinness in CPACG. PMID:22553541

  14. Sensory nerve function and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various gap lengths with nerve guides and autologous nerve grafts.

    PubMed

    den Dunnen, W F; Meek, M F

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory nerve recovery and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various lengths of nerve gaps in the sciatic nerve of the rat, using different techniques. Group 4, in which the longest nerve gap (15 mm) was reconstructed with a thin-walled p(DL-lactide-gamma-caprolactone) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue, showed the best results in the electro-stimulation tests and signs of severe auto-mutilation were not observed. Even in the control group, in which a 10 mm nerve gap was left open, in two of the five rats improvement of the sensory nerve function was observed, which was caused by re-innervation of the sciatic nerve and not by expansion of the neighboring saphenous nerve. It is hypothesized that a better quality of nerve reconstruction/guidance channel/support results in faster regeneration and hence re-innervation, thereby, preventing auto-mutilation. A thin red glabrous skin, anhydrosis (dryness of the skin), short nails and edema were interpreted as signs of autonomic dysfunction. PMID:11352096

  15. Complement components of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid influence the microenvironment of nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang-shuai; Li, Qing-feng; Dong, Ming-min; Zan, Tao; Ding, Shuang; Liu, Lin-bo

    2016-01-01

    Nerve regeneration conditioned fluid is secreted by nerve stumps inside a nerve regeneration chamber. A better understanding of the proteinogram of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid can provide evidence for studying the role of the microenvironment in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, we used cylindrical silicone tubes as the nerve regeneration chamber model for the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics technology and western blot analysis confirmed that there were more than 10 complement components (complement factor I, C1q-A, C1q-B, C2, C3, C4, C5, C7, C8β and complement factor D) in the nerve regeneration conditioned fluid and each varied at different time points. These findings suggest that all these complement components have a functional role in nerve regeneration. PMID:27212935

  16. NRF2 promotes neuronal survival in neurodegeneration and acute nerve damage

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wenjun; MacColl Garfinkel, Alexandra E.; Li, Yiqing; Benowitz, Larry I.; Cepko, Constance L.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the loss of neurons in many disease conditions as well as during normal aging; however, small-molecule agents that reduce oxidation have not been successful in preventing neurodegeneration. Moreover, even if an efficacious systemic reduction of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS/NOS) could be achieved, detrimental side effects are likely, as these molecules regulate normal physiological processes. A more effective and targeted approach might be to augment the endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism only in the cells that suffer from oxidation. Here, we created several adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to deliver genes that combat oxidation. These vectors encode the transcription factors NRF2 and/or PGC1a, which regulate hundreds of genes that combat oxidation and other forms of stress, or enzymes such as superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase, which directly detoxify ROS. We tested the effectiveness of this approach in 3 models of photoreceptor degeneration and in a nerve crush model. AAV-mediated delivery of NRF2 was more effective than SOD2 and catalase, while expression of PGC1a accelerated photoreceptor death. Since the NRF2-mediated neuroprotective effects extended to photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells, which are 2 very different types of neurons, these results suggest that this targeted approach may be broadly applicable to many diseases in which cells suffer from oxidative damage. PMID:25798616

  17. Does antidromic activation of nociceptors play a role in sciatic radicular pain?

    PubMed

    Xavier, A V; Farrell, C E; McDanal, J; Kissin, I

    1990-01-01

    We describe a case where transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the right sciatic nerve in a patient with right L5 radiculopathy reproduced the patient's pathological pain in the leg. Following a right ankle block with 0.5% bupivacaine, the sciatic nerve stimulation induced pain in the thigh and the calf but not in the foot. Despite an increase in the magnitude of stimulation by 50% (compared with the stimulation before the block) the pain was not perceived below the level of blockade. We suggest that in this case the electrical stimulation generated impulses propagated antidromically into the leg and activated nociceptors in it. The bupivacaine blockade prevented antidromic propagation of impulses into the foot, therefore pain in this region was not perceived. PMID:2339019

  18. Comparison of acute non-visual bright light responses in patients with optic nerve disease, glaucoma and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Münch, M.; Léon, L.; Collomb, S.; Kawasaki, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of optic nerve disease, hence retinal ganglion cell loss, on non-visual functions related to melanopsin signalling. Test subjects were patients with bilateral visual loss and optic atrophy from either hereditary optic neuropathy (n = 11) or glaucoma (n = 11). We measured melatonin suppression, subjective sleepiness and cognitive functions in response to bright light exposure in the evening. We also quantified the post-illumination pupil response to a blue light stimulus. All results were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22). Both groups of patients showed similar melatonin suppression when compared to their controls. Greater melatonin suppression was intra-individually correlated to larger post-illumination pupil response in patients and controls. Only the glaucoma patients demonstrated a relative attenuation of their pupil response. In addition, they were sleepier with slower reaction times during nocturnal light exposure. In conclusion, glaucomatous, but not hereditary, optic neuropathy is associated with reduced acute light effects. At mild to moderate stages of disease, this is detected only in the pupil function and not in responses conveyed via the retinohypothalamic tract such as melatonin suppression. PMID:26478261

  19. Comparison of acute non-visual bright light responses in patients with optic nerve disease, glaucoma and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Münch, M; Léon, L; Collomb, S; Kawasaki, A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of optic nerve disease, hence retinal ganglion cell loss, on non-visual functions related to melanopsin signalling. Test subjects were patients with bilateral visual loss and optic atrophy from either hereditary optic neuropathy (n = 11) or glaucoma (n = 11). We measured melatonin suppression, subjective sleepiness and cognitive functions in response to bright light exposure in the evening. We also quantified the post-illumination pupil response to a blue light stimulus. All results were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22). Both groups of patients showed similar melatonin suppression when compared to their controls. Greater melatonin suppression was intra-individually correlated to larger post-illumination pupil response in patients and controls. Only the glaucoma patients demonstrated a relative attenuation of their pupil response. In addition, they were sleepier with slower reaction times during nocturnal light exposure. In conclusion, glaucomatous, but not hereditary, optic neuropathy is associated with reduced acute light effects. At mild to moderate stages of disease, this is detected only in the pupil function and not in responses conveyed via the retinohypothalamic tract such as melatonin suppression. PMID:26478261

  20. N-11C-Methyl-Dopamine PET Imaging of Sympathetic Nerve Injury in a Swine Model of Acute Myocardial Ischemia: A Comparison with 13N-Ammonia PET

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weina; Wang, Xiangcheng; He, Yulin; Nie, Yongzhen; Zhang, Guojian; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Chunmei; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Using a swine model of acute myocardial ischemia, we sought to validate N-11C-methyl-dopamine (11C-MDA) as an agent capable of imaging cardiac sympathetic nerve injury. Methods. Acute myocardial ischemia was surgically generated in Chinese minipigs. ECG and serum enzyme levels were used to detect the presence of myocardial ischemia. Paired 11C-MDA PET and 13N-ammonia PET scans were performed at baseline, 1 day, and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery to relate cardiac sympathetic nerve injury to blood perfusion. Results. Seven survived the surgical procedure. The ECG-ST segment was depressed, and levels of the serum enzymes increased. Cardiac uptake of tracer was quantified as the defect volume. Both before and immediately after surgery, the images obtained with 11C-MDA and 13N-ammonia were similar. At 1 to 6 months after surgery, however, 11C-MDA postsurgical left ventricular myocardial defect volume was significantly greater compared to 13N-ammonia. Conclusions. In the Chinese minipig model of acute myocardial ischemia, the extent of the myocardial defect as visualized by 11C-MDA is much greater than would be suggested by blood perfusion images, and the recovery from myocardial sympathetic nerve injury is much slower than the restoration of blood perfusion. 11C-MDA PET may provide additional biological information during recovery from ischemic heart disease. PMID:27034950

  1. A novel bioactive nerve conduit for the repair of peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin-bin; Yin, Yi-xia; Yan, Qiong-jiao; Wang, Xin-yu; Li, Shi-pu

    2016-01-01

    The use of a nerve conduit provides an opportunity to regulate cytokines, growth factors and neurotrophins in peripheral nerve regeneration and avoid autograft defects. We constructed a poly-D-L-lactide (PDLLA)-based nerve conduit that was modified using poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]} and β-tricalcium phosphate. The effectiveness of this bioactive PDLLA-based nerve conduit was compared to that of PDLLA-only conduit in the nerve regeneration following a 10-mm sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed the nerve morphology in the early period of regeneration, 35 days post injury, using hematoxylin-eosin and methylene blue staining. Compared with the PDLLA conduit, the nerve fibers in the PDLLA-based bioactive nerve conduit were thicker and more regular in size. Muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had greater diameters in the PDLLA bioactive group than in the PDLLA only group. The PDLLA-based bioactive nerve conduit is a promising strategy for repair after sciatic nerve injury. PMID:26981105

  2. Time responses of cancellous and cortical bones to sciatic neurectomy in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q Q; Jee, W S; Bigornia, A E; King, J G; D'Souza, S M; Li, X J; Ma, Y F; Wechter, W J

    1996-07-01

    Effects of unilateral sciatic neurectomy on the responses of both cancellous and cortical bones were studied in growing female rats at 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after operation. Using double-fluorescent labeling techniques, histomorphometric analyses were performed on longitudinal sections of proximal tibial metaphyseal secondary spongiosa (PTM) and on cross sections of tibial shaft (TX). In PTM, sciatic neurectomy not only inhibited the age-related bone gain, but also reduced the trabecular bone mass by 46%, which was accompanied by decreases in trabecular number, thickness, and node to node density, and an increase in trabecular separation and free end to free end density. The bone loss occurred mainly between 1 and 4 weeks after operation. A sharp increase in bone formation indices was observed during the first week after nerve section. However, these endpoints quickly dropped to levels lower than those of sham-operated controls at 4 weeks, and were not different from the control levels at 8 weeks after operation. Eroded surface increased progressively after sciatic neurectomy during the 12 weeks experimental period. In TX, sciatic neurectomy inhibited the age-related increase in total tissue area that maintained it at the basal control level. However, the cortical bone area in neurectomized legs was lower than that in sham-operated controls. Sciatic neurectomy also stimulated the bone formation indices on both periosteal and endocortical surfaces during the first week after operation. These endpoints declined sharply between 1 and 4 weeks and then maintained at control levels between 8 and 12 weeks post surgery. Endocortical eroded surface increased 1 week after neurectomy, reached the peak at 8 weeks, and then decreased thereafter. These findings suggest that (1) sciatic neurectomy not only inhibited age-related bone gain but also induced marked bone loss in cancellous bone site and inhibited age-related bone gain in cortical bone site, which mainly resulted

  3. Assessing nerves in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Garbino, José Antonio; Heise, Carlos Otto; Marques, Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy neuropathy is dependent on the patient's immune response and expresses itself as a focal or multifocal neuropathy with asymmetric involvement. Leprosy neuropathy evolves chronically but recurrently develops periods of exacerbation during type 1 or type 2 reactions, leading to acute neuropathy. Nerve enlargement leading to entrapment syndromes is also a common manifestation. Pain may be either of inflammatory or neuropathic origin. A thorough and detailed evaluation is mandatory for adequate patient follow-up, including nerve palpation, pain assessment, graded sensory mapping, muscle power testing, and autonomic evaluation. Nerve conduction studies are a sensitive tool for nerve dysfunction, including new lesions during reaction periods or development of entrapment syndromes. Nerve ultrasonography is also a very promising method for nerve evaluation in leprosy. The authors propose a composite nerve clinical score for nerve function assessment that can be useful for longitudinal evaluation. PMID:26773623

  4. Erythropoietin promotes peripheral nerve regeneration in rats by upregulating expression of insulin-like growth factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Dongsheng; Li, Qing; Wang, Lei; Bai, Guang; Yang, Tao; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Zhitu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to have beneficial effects on peripheral nerve damage, but its mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. In this study we hypothesized that EPO promotes peripheral nerve repair via neurotrophic factor upregulation. Material and methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats were employed to establish a sciatic nerve injury model. They were then randomly divided into two groups to be subjected to different treatment: 0.9% saline (group A) and 5000 U/kg EPO (group B). The walking behavior of rats was evaluated by footprint analysis, and the nerve regeneration was assessed by electron microscopy. The expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the injured sciatic nerves was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. Results Compared to saline treatment, EPO treatment led to the growth of myelin sheath, the recovery of normal morphology of axons and Schwann cells, and higher density of myelinated nerve fibers. Erythropoietin treatment promoted the recovery of SFI in the injured sciatic nerves. In addition, EPO treatment led to increased IGF-1 expression in the injured sciatic nerves. Conclusions Erythropoietin may promote peripheral nerve repair in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through the upregulation of IGF-1 expression. These findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying the neurotrophic effects of EPO. PMID:25995763

  5. Effect of Artificial Nerve Conduit Vascularization on Peripheral Nerve in a Necrotic Bed

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Yuki; Murayama, Akira; Takeshita, Katsushi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several types of artificial nerve conduit have been used for bridging peripheral nerve gaps as an alternative to autologous nerves. However, their efficacy in repairing nerve injuries accompanied by surrounding tissue damage remains unclear. We fabricated a novel nerve conduit vascularized by superficial inferior epigastric (SIE) vessels and evaluated whether it could promote axonal regeneration in a necrotic bed. Methods: A 15-mm nerve conduit was implanted beneath the SIE vessels in the groin of a rat to supply it with blood vessels 2 weeks before nerve reconstruction. We removed a 13-mm segment of the sciatic nerve and then pressed a heated iron against the dorsal thigh muscle to produce a burn. The defects were immediately repaired with an autograft (n = 10), nerve conduit graft (n = 8), or vascularized nerve conduit graft (n = 8). Recovery of motor function was examined for 18 weeks after surgery. The regenerated nerves were electrophysiologically and histologically evaluated. Results: The vascularity of the nerve conduit implanted beneath the SIE vessels was confirmed histologically 2 weeks after implantation. Between 14 and 18 weeks after surgery, motor function of the vascularized conduit group was significantly better than that of the nonvascularized conduit group. Electrophysiological and histological evaluations revealed that although the improvement did not reach the level of reinnervation achieved by an autograft, the vascularized nerve conduit improved axonal regeneration more than did the conduit alone. Conclusion: Vascularization of artificial nerve conduits accelerated peripheral nerve regeneration, but further research is required to improve the quality of nerve regeneration. PMID:27257595

  6. Clinical and electrodiagnostic features of sciatic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Distad, B Jane; Weiss, Michael D

    2013-02-01

    Sciatic neuropathy is the second most common neuropathy of the lower extremity and a common cause of foot drop. This article reviews the anatomy, clinical features, pathophysiology, and electrodiagnostic assessment of sciatic neuropathies. There are multiple potential sites of pathology, determined in part by the mechanism of insult, including trauma, compression, masses, inflammation, and vascular lesions. Diagnosis is augmented by careful electrodiagnostic studies and imaging to help distinguish sciatic neuropathy from other sources of pathology. Electrodiagnostic studies may also help in assessing for early recovery and in determining prognosis. PMID:23177034

  7. Effectiveness of donepezil, rivastigmine, and (+/-)huperzine A in counteracting the acute toxicity of organophosphorus nerve agents: comparison with galantamine.

    PubMed

    Aracava, Yasco; Pereira, Edna F R; Akkerman, Miriam; Adler, Michael; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2009-12-01

    Galantamine, a centrally acting cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor and a nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is an effective and safe antidote against poisoning with nerve agents, including soman. Here, the effectiveness of galantamine was compared with that of the centrally active ChE inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine, and (+/-)huperzine A as a pre- and/or post-treatment to counteract the acute toxicity of soman. In the first set of experiments, male prepubertal guinea pigs were treated intramuscularly with one of the test drugs and 30 min later challenged with 1.5 x LD(50) soman (42 microg/kg s.c.). All animals that were pretreated with galantamine (6-8 mg/kg), 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (+/-)huperzine A survived the soman challenge, provided that they were also post-treated with atropine (10 mg/kg i.m.). However, only galantamine was well tolerated. In subsequent experiments, the effectiveness of specific treatment regimens using 8 mg/kg galantamine, 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (+/-)huperzine A was compared in guinea pigs challenged with soman. In the absence of atropine, only galantamine worked as an effective and safe pretreatment in animals challenged with 1.0 x LD(50) soman. Galantamine was also the only drug to afford significant protection when given to guinea pigs after 1.0 x LD(50) soman. Finally, all test drugs except galantamine reduced the survival of the animals when administered 1 or 3 h after the challenge with 0.6 or 0.7 x LD(50) soman. Thus, galantamine emerges as a superior antidotal therapy against the toxicity of soman. PMID:19741148

  8. Injection nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kakati, Arindhom; Bhat, Dhananjaya; Devi, Bhagavathula Indira; Shukla, Dhaval

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical profile and outcome of surgery for injection nerve palsies. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with INP who were treated at our institute during May 2000 to May 2009. Clinical, electroneuromyography (ENMG), and operative findings were noted. Intraoperative nerve action potential monitoring was not used in any case. Outcome of patients who were followed was reviewed. Results: INP comprised 92 (11%) of 837 nerve injury patients. Seventy one patients were children less than 16 years. The nerves involved were sciatic in 80 patients, radial in 8, and others in four. Fifty seven patients had power, grade 0/5. ENMG studies revealed absent compound muscle action potential in 64 and absent sensory nerve action potential in 67 patients. Thirty nine (42.3%) of 92 patients underwent surgery. The mean duration since injury in these patients was 5.2 months (3 months to 11 months). All underwent neurolysis. Only 18 patients who underwent surgery had a follow up of more than 3 months. Ten (55.5%) patients had good or fair outcome after surgery. Except for grade of motor deficit prior to surgery, none of the variables were found to significantly affect the outcome. Conclusion: The outcome of INP is generally good and many patients recover spontaneously. The outcome of surgery is dependent on preoperative motor power. PMID:23546341

  9. The ErbB2 inhibitor Herceptin (Trastuzumab) promotes axonal outgrowth four weeks after acute nerve transection and repair.

    PubMed

    Placheta, Eva; Hendry, J Michael; Wood, Matthew D; Lafontaine, Christine W; Liu, Edward H; Cecilia Alvarez Veronesi, M; Frey, Manfred; Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H

    2014-10-17

    Accumulating evidence suggests that neuregulin, a potent Schwann cell mitogen, and its receptor, ErbB2, have an important role in regulating peripheral nerve regeneration. We hypothesized that Herceptin (Trastuzumab), a monoclonal antibody that binds ErbB2, would disrupt ErbB2 signaling, allowing us to evaluate ErbB2's importance in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, the extent of peripheral motor and sensory nerve regeneration and distal axonal outgrowth was analyzed two and four weeks after common peroneal (CP) nerve injury in rats. Outcomes analyzed included neuron counts after retrograde labeling, histomorphometry, and protein analysis. The data analysis revealed that there was no impact of Herceptin administration on either the numbers of motor or sensory neurons that regenerated their axons but histomorphometry revealed that Herceptin significantly increased the number of regenerated axons in the distal repaired nerve after 4 weeks. Protein analysis with Western blotting revealed no difference in either expression levels of ErbB2 or the amount of activated, phosphorylated ErbB2 in injured nerves. In conclusion, administration of the ErbB2 receptor inhibitor after nerve transection and surgical repair did not alter the number of regenerating neurons but markedly increased the number of regenerated axons per neuron in the distal nerve stump. Enhanced axon outgrowth in the presence of this ErbB2 inhibitor indicates that ErbB2 signaling may limit the numbers of axons that are emitted from each regenerating neuron. PMID:25220708

  10. Adrenergic vasoconstriction in peripheral nerves of the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Selander, D.; Mansson, L.G.; Karlsson, L.; Svanvik, J.

    1985-01-01

    The blood flow in the sciatic nerve of the rabbit was estimated from the wash out of intraneurally injected /sup 133/Xe. To avoid diffusion of the tracer into the surrounding muscular tissue, the nerve was covered by a gas-tight plastic film. Using this technique, the basal blood flow in the sciatic nerve was estimated to 35 ml X min-1 X 100 g-1. It was found that intraarterial norepinephrine and electrical stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic chain strongly reduced the wash out of /sup 133/Xe, which only can be explained by a pronounced reduction of the blood flow in the nerve itself. The blood flow again increased within 4 min of stopping the infusion of norepinephrine or the sympathetic stimulation. The prolonged effect and higher neurotoxicity of local anesthetics containing adrenaline may be explained by an alpha receptor-mediated vasoconstriction of the microvessels of peripheral nerves.

  11. Let-7 microRNAs Regenerate Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Targeting Nerve Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiying; Wang, Xinghui; Gu, Yun; Chen, Chu; Wang, Yaxian; Liu, Jie; Hu, Wen; Yu, Bin; Wang, Yongjun; Ding, Fei; Liu, Yan; Gu, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common clinical problem. Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes peripheral nerve regeneration, but its clinical applications are limited by several constraints. In this study, we found that the time-dependent expression profiles of eight let-7 family members in the injured nerve after sciatic nerve injury were roughly similar to each other. Let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs) significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration of primary Schwann cells (SCs) by directly targeting NGF and suppressing its protein translation. Following sciatic nerve injury, the temporal change in let-7 miRNA expression was negatively correlated with that in NGF expression. Inhibition of let-7 miRNAs increased NGF secretion by primary cultured SCs and enhanced axonal outgrowth from a coculture of primary SCs and dorsal root gangalion neurons. In vivo tests indicated that let-7 inhibition promoted SCs migration and axon outgrowth within a regenerative microenvironment. In addition, the inhibitory effect of let-7 miRNAs on SCs apoptosis might serve as an early stress response to nerve injury, but this effect seemed to be not mediated through a NGF-dependent pathway. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into let-7 miRNA regulation of peripheral nerve regeneration and suggest a potential therapy for repair of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25394845

  12. Swim therapy reduces mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction nerve injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun; Fox, Lyle E.; Cheng, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Neuropathic pain is common and often difficult to treat because it generally does not respond well to the currently available pain medications or nerve blocks. Recent studies in both humans and animals have suggested that exercise may induce a transient analgesia and reduce acute pain in normal healthy individuals. We examined whether swim therapy could alleviate neuropathic pain in rats. Design Rats were trained to swim over a two week period in warm water. After the rats were trained, neuropathic pain was induced by constricting the right sciatic nerve and regular swimming was resumed. The sensitivity of each hind paw was monitored using the Hargreaves test and von Frey test to evaluate the withdrawal response thresholds to heat and touch. Results The paw ipsilateral to the nerve ligation expressed pain-like behaviors including thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Regular swim therapy sessions significantly reduced the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Swim therapy had little effect on the withdrawal thresholds for the contralateral paw. In addition, swim therapy alone did not alter the thermal or mechanical thresholds of normal rats. Conclusions The results suggest that regular exercise, including swim therapy, may be an effective treatment for neuropathic pain caused by nerve injuries. This study, showing that swim therapy reduces neuropathic pain behavior in rats, provides a scientific rationale for clinicians to test the efficacy of exercise in the management of neuropathic pain. It may prove to be a safe and cost-effective therapy in a variety of neuropathic pain states. PMID:23438327

  13. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wei-ling; Qiu, Long-hai; Lian, Jia-yan; Li, Jia-chun; Hu, Jun; Liu, Xiao-lin

    2016-01-01

    Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group) alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group). As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves. PMID:27127495

  14. Calcium regulation in frog peripheral nerve by the blood-nerve barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Wadhwani, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: (a) to investigate the characteristics of calcium transport across the perineurium and the endoneurial capillaries, and (b) to gain a better understanding of the extent of calcium homeostasis in the endoneurial space. To study the nature of calcium transport across the perineurium, the flux of radiotracer /sup 45/Ca was measured through the perineurial cylinder, isolated from the frog sciatic nerve, and through the perineurium into the nerve in situ. To study the nature of calcium transport across the endoneurial capillaries, the permeability-surface area product (PA) of /sup 45/Ca was determined as a function of the calcium concentration in the blood. To study calcium homeostasis, the calcium content of the frog sciatic nerve was determined as a function of chronic changes in plasma (Ca).

  15. 0.5% levobupivacaine versus 0.5% ropivacaine: Are they different in ultrasound-guided sciatic block?

    PubMed Central

    Pham Dang, Charles; Langlois, Cécile; Lambert, Chantal; Nguyen, Jean-Michel; Asehnoune, Karim; Lejus, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Context and Aims: Little is known about onset and duration of sciatic block after 0.5% levobupivacaine (Levo) versus 0.5% ropivacaine (Ropi) for ultrasound-guided technique. We assessed these parameters in the ultrasound-guided block, to know for the practice. Setting and Design: A comparative randomized double-blind study was conducted in the University Hospital. Materials and Methods: Were included 35 adults of ASA I-II, scheduled for foot surgery, presenting clear imaging of their sciatic nerve at mid-thigh. A volume of 20 mL of either 0.5% Levo or 0.5% Ropi were injected around the sciatic nerve at mid-thigh using ultrasound guidance (out of the plane) followed by placement of a catheter to use, if necessary, for perioperative analgesia. A femoral single shot block was systematically performed to block the saphenous nerve. The onset times until complete foot block (primary outcome) and the sensory and motor block duration (secondary outcome) were assessed using Wilcoxon test. Values were expressed as medians (1st-3rd quartile). Results: Except for two delayed sciatic blocks in each group, the onset time otherwise was 35 min (20-60) in Ropi versus 40 min (30-60) in Levo, P = 0.5. Sensory block lasted longer in Levo, 17 h (14-27) compared with 15 h (10-17) in Ropi, P = 0.04. No significant between-group difference was found with motor block durations, 15 h (12-18) in Levo and 15 h (12-16) in Ropi, P = 0.3. Conclusion: No difference of onset times was found in ultrasound-guided sciatic block whether using Levo or Ropi. Levo induced a longer-lasting sensory block. PMID:25558190

  16. Coordinated, multi-joint, fatigue-resistant feline stance produced with intrafascicular hind limb nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normann, R. A.; Dowden, B. R.; Frankel, M. A.; Wilder, A. M.; Hiatt, S. D.; Ledbetter, N. M.; Warren, D. A.; Clark, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The production of graceful skeletal movements requires coordinated activation of multiple muscles that produce torques around multiple joints. The work described herein is focused on one such movement, stance, that requires coordinated activation of extensor muscles acting around the hip, knee and ankle joints. The forces evoked in these muscles by external stimulation all have a complex dependence on muscle length and shortening velocities, and some of these muscles are biarticular. In order to recreate sit-to-stand maneuvers in the anesthetized feline, we excited the hind limb musculature using intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation (IFMS) of the muscular branch of the sciatic nerve, the femoral nerve and the main branch of the sciatic nerve. Stimulation was achieved with either acutely or chronically implanted Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) via subsets of electrodes (1) that activated motor units in the extensor muscles of the hip, knee and ankle joints, (2) that were able to evoke large extension forces and (3) that manifested minimal coactivation of the targeted motor units. Three hind limb force-generation strategies were investigated, including sequential activation of independent motor units to increase force, and interleaved or simultaneous IFMS of three sets of six or more USEA electrodes that excited the hip, knee and ankle extensors. All force-generation strategies evoked stance, but the interleaved IFMS strategy also reduced muscle fatigue produced by repeated sit-to-stand maneuvers compared with fatigue produced by simultaneous activation of different motor neuron pools. These results demonstrate the use of interleaved IFMS as a means to recreate coordinated, fatigue-resistant multi-joint muscle forces in the unilateral hind limb. This muscle activation paradigm could provide a promising neuroprosthetic approach for the restoration of sit-to-stand transitions in individuals who are paralyzed by spinal cord injury, stroke or disease.

  17. Effects of acute vagal nerve stimulation on the early passive electrical changes induced by myocardial ischaemia in dogs: heart rate-mediated attenuation.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Carlos L; Dawson, Tom A; Clymer, Bradley D; Paterson, David J; Billman, George E

    2008-08-01

    Parasympathetic activity during acute coronary artery occlusion (CAO) can protect against ischaemia-induced malignant arrhythmias; nonetheless, the mechanism mediating this protection remains unclear. During CAO, myocardial electrotonic uncoupling is associated with autonomically mediated immediate (i.e. type 1A) arrhythmias and can modulate pro-arrhythmic dispersion of repolarization. Therefore, the effects of acutely enhanced or decreased cardiac parasympathetic activity on early electrotonic coupling during CAO, as measured by myocardial electrical impedance (MEI), were investigated. Anaesthetized dogs were instrumented for MEI measurements, and left circumflex coronary arterial occlusions were performed in intact (CTRL) and vagotomized (VAG) animals. The CAO was followed by either vagotomy (CTRL) or vagal nerve stimulation (VNS, 10 Hz, 10 V) in the VAG dogs. Vagal nerve stimulation was studied in two additional sets of animals. In one set heart rate (HR) was maintained by pacing (220 beats min(-1)), while in the other set bilateral stellectomy preceded CAO. The MEI increased after CAO in all animals. A larger MEI increase was observed in vagotomized animals (+85 +/- 9 Omega, from 611 +/- 24 Omega, n = 16) when compared with intact control dogs (+43 +/- 5 Omega, from 620 +/- 20 Omega, n = 7). Acute vagotomy during ischaemia abruptly increased HR (from 155 +/- 11 to 193 +/- 15 beats min(-1)) and MEI (+12 +/- 1.1 Omega, from 663 +/- 18 Omega). In contrast, VNS during ischaemia (n = 11) abruptly reduced HR (from 206 +/- 6 to 73 +/- 9 beats min(-1)) and MEI (-16 +/- 2 Omega, from 700 +/- 44 Omega). These effects of VNS were eliminated by pacing but not by bilateral stellectomy. Vagal nerve stimulation during CAO also attenuated ECG-derived indices of ischaemia (e.g. ST segment, 0.22 +/- 0.03 versus 0.15 +/- 0.03 mV) and of rate-corrected repolarization dispersion [terminal portion of T wave (TPEc), 84.5 +/- 4.2 versus 65.8 +/- 5.9 ms; QTc, 340 +/- 8 versus 254

  18. Effects of lead acetate on guinea pig - cochear microphonics, action potential, and motor nerve conduction velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, K.; Maehara, N.; Terayama, K.; Ueno, N.; Kohyama, A.; Sawada, Y.; Kishi, R.

    1987-04-01

    Segmental demyelination and axonal degeneration of motor nerves induced by lead exposure is well known in man, and animals. The effect of lead acetate exposure to man may involve the cranial nerves, since vertigo and sensory neuronal deafness have been reported among lead workers. However, there are few reports concerning the dose-effects of lead acetate both to the peripheral nerve and the cranial VII nerve with measurement of blood lead concentration. The authors investigated the effects of lead acetate to the cochlea and the VIII nerve using CM (cochlear microphonics) and AP (action potential) of the guinea pigs. The effects of lead acetate to the sciatic nerve were measured by MCV of the sciatic nerve with measurement of blood lead concentration.

  19. ACUTE LESION OF THE MOTOR BRANCH OF THE ULNAR NERVE IN THE WRIST AFTER TUG-OF-WAR TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    Seguti, Vladimir Ferreira; Bonavides, Aloísio Fernandes; Flores, Leandro Pretto; Ferreira, Lisiane Seguti

    2015-01-01

    Papers correlating clinical and electrophysiological findings relating to ulnar nerve lesions in the wrist are uncommon in the literature, if compared with elbow injuries. We present the case of a patient with atrophy of the intrinsic musculature of the hand, secondary to injury only of the motor branch of the ulnar nerve, which is located in Guyon's canal close to the hamate hook. We review the anatomical, clinical and neurophysiological aspects of distal ulnar nerve injuries and we emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary approaches. Specifically in relation to the mechanism of injury of this patient (tug-of-war), we did not find any similar cases in the literature. We issue an alert regarding the risks during military physical training. PMID:27047837

  20. Peripheral nerve morphogenesis induced by scaffold micropatterning

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Danish; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Madaghiele, Marta; Brambilla, Paola; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Taveggia, Carla; Riva, Nilo; Trimarco, Amelia; Lopez, Ignazio D.; Comi, Giancarlo; Pluchino, Stefano; Martino, Gianvito; Sannino, Alessandro; Quattrini, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Several bioengineering approaches have been proposed for peripheral nervous system repair, with limited results and still open questions about the underlying molecular mechanisms. We assessed the biological processes that occur after the implantation of collagen scaffold with a peculiar porous microstructure of the wall in a rat sciatic nerve transection model compared to commercial collagen conduits and nerve crush injury using functional, histological and genome wide analyses. We demonstrated that within 60 days, our conduit had been completely substituted by a normal nerve. Gene expression analysis documented a precise sequential regulation of known genes involved in angiogenesis, Schwann cells/axons interactions and myelination, together with a selective modulation of key biological pathways for nerve morphogenesis induced by porous matrices. These data suggest that the scaffold’s microstructure profoundly influences cell behaviors and creates an instructive micro-environment to enhance nerve morphogenesis that can be exploited to improve recovery and understand the molecular differences between repair and regeneration. PMID:24559639

  1. Experimental study of vein subvolution combined with neural stem cells to repair sciatic neurologic defects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Jiang, Yan; Jiang, Dianming

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of vein subvolution combined with neural stem cells on nerve regeneration. Animal model of sciatic nerve defects was established with SD rats. A total of 63 SD rats were divided into control group, vein subvolution group (treatment 1 group) and vein subvolution combined with neural stem cells group (treatment 2 group). The recovery of neurological function after 12 weeks was evaluated by nerve electrophysiological technique, histological observation and other methods. The recovery degree of sciatic nerve defect in treatment 2 group was better than that of other groups; The SFI values significantly decreased in treatment 2 group after 8 weeks; the regenerative nerve fiber numbers in treatment 2 group were significant higher than that of other groups; the recovery rates of treatment 1 and 2 groups were significant higher than that of control group. The effects of vein subvolution combined with neural stem cells on repairing peripheral nerve defects were better than that of vein subvolution method. PMID:26617811

  2. Nerve Transfers for the Restoration of Wrist, Finger, and Thumb Extension After High Radial Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Pet, Mitchell A; Lipira, Angelo B; Ko, Jason H

    2016-05-01

    High radial nerve injury is a common pattern of peripheral nerve injury most often associated with orthopedic trauma. Nerve transfers to the wrist and finger extensors, often from the median nerve, offer several advantages when compared to nerve repair or grafting and tendon transfer. In this article, we discuss the forearm anatomy pertinent to performing these nerve transfers and review the literature surrounding nerve transfers for wrist, finger, and thumb extension. A suggested algorithm for management of acute traumatic high radial nerve palsy is offered, and our preferred surgical technique for treatment of high radial nerve palsy is provided. PMID:27094891

  3. Hyperalgesia due to nerve injury: role of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Perkins, N M; Tracey, D J

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis that the early inflammatory cell, the neutrophil, contributes to the hyperalgesia resulting from peripheral nerve injury was tested in rats in which the sciatic nerve was partially transected on one side. The extent and time-course of neutrophilic infiltration of the sciatic nerve and innervated paw skin after partial nerve damage was characterized using immunocytochemistry. The number of endoneurial neutrophils was significantly elevated in sections of operated nerve compared to sections of sham-operated nerve for the entire period studied, i.e. up to seven days post-surgery. This considerable elevation in endoneurial neutrophil numbers was only observed at the site of nerve injury. Depletion of circulating neutrophils at the time of nerve injury significantly attenuated the induction of hyperalgesia. However, depletion of circulating neutrophils at day 8 post-injury did not alleviate hyperalgesia after its normal induction. It is concluded that endoneurial accumulation of neutrophils at the site of peripheral nerve injury is important in the early genesis of the resultant hyperalgesia. The findings support the notion that a neuroimmune interaction occurs as a result of peripheral nerve injury and is important in the subsequent development of neuropathic pain. PMID:11113323

  4. Sural nerve defects after nerve biopsy or nerve transfer as a sensory regeneration model for peripheral nerve conduit implantation.

    PubMed

    Radtke, C; Kocsis, J D; Reimers, K; A